Sample records for bonding

  1. Bond Issues. (United States)

    Pollack, Rachel H.


    Notes trends toward increased borrowing by colleges and universities and offers guidelines for institutions that are considering issuing bonds to raise money for capital projects. Discussion covers advantages of using bond financing, how use of bonds impacts on traditional fund raising, other cautions and concerns, and some troubling aspects of…

  2. Parental Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Paul de Cock


    Full Text Available Estimating the early parent–child bonding relationship can be valuable in research and practice. Retrospective dimensional measures of parental bonding provide a means for assessing the experience of the early parent–child relationship. However, combinations of dimensional scores may provide information that is not readily captured with a dimensional approach. This study was designed to assess the presence of homogeneous groups in the population with similar profiles on parental bonding dimensions. Using a short version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI, three parental bonding dimensions (care, authoritarianism, and overprotection were used to assess the presence of unobserved groups in the population using latent profile analysis. The class solutions were regressed on 23 covariates (demographics, parental psychopathology, loss events, and childhood contextual factors to assess the validity of the class solution. The results indicated four distinct profiles of parental bonding for fathers as well as mothers. Parental bonding profiles were significantly associated with a broad range of covariates. This person-centered approach to parental bonding has broad utility in future research which takes into account the effect of parent–child bonding, especially with regard to “affectionless control” style parenting.

  3. Bond Boom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Ministry of Finance recently kick-started a pilot program allowing local governments of Shanghai and Shenzhen,and Zhejiang and Guangdong provinces to issue bonds for the first time.How will the new policy affect fiscal capacities of local governments and the broader economy? What else should the country do to build a healthy bond market? Economists and experts discussed these issues in an interview with the Shanghai Securities Journal.Edited excerpts follow.

  4. Bond Boom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Ministry of Finance recently kick-started a pilot program allowing local governments of Shanghai and Shenzhen, and Zhejiang and Guangdong provinces to issue bonds for the first time. How will the new policy affect fiscal capacities of local governments and the broader economy? What else should the country do to build a healthy bond market? Economists and experts discussed these issues in an interview with the ShanghaiSecuritiesJournal. Edited excerpts follow:

  5. Cross Shear Roll Bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Bjerregaard, Henrik; Petersen, Søren. B;


    The present paper describes an investigation of roll bonding an AlZn alloy to mild steel. Application of cross shear roll bonding, where the two equal sized rolls run with different peripheral speed, is shown to give better bond strength than conventional roll bonding. Improvements of up to 20......-23% in bond strength are found and full bond strength is obtained at a reduction of 50% whereas 65% is required in case of conventional roll bonding. Pseudo cross shear roll bonding, where the cross shear effect is obtained by running two equal sized rolls with different speed, gives the same results....

  6. Wire bonding in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, George G


    Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. Coverage includes: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extreme-temperature wire bo...

  7. Bonding with Your Baby (United States)

    ... in infant massage in your area. Breastfeeding and bottle-feeding are both natural times for bonding. Infants respond ... activities include: participating together in labor and delivery feeding ( breast or bottle ); sometimes dad forms a special bond with baby ...

  8. Acrylic mechanical bond tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouters, J.M.; Doe, P.J.


    The tensile strength of bonded acrylic is tested as a function of bond joint thickness. 0.125 in. thick bond joints were found to posses the maximum strength while the acceptable range of joints varied from 0.063 in. to almost 0.25 in. Such joints are used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

  9. Bond percolation in films (United States)

    Korneta, W.; Pytel, Z.


    Bond percolation in films with simple cubic structure is considered. It is assumed that the probability of a bond being present between nearest-neighbor sites depends on the distances to surfaces. Based on the relation between the Potts model and the bond percolation model, and using the mean-field approximation, the phase diagram and profiles of the percolation probability have been obtained.

  10. Chemical bond fundamental aspects of chemical bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Frenking, Gernot


    This is the perfect complement to ""Chemical Bonding - Across the Periodic Table"" by the same editors, who are two of the top scientists working on this topic, each with extensive experience and important connections within the community. The resulting book is a unique overview of the different approaches used for describing a chemical bond, including molecular-orbital based, valence-bond based, ELF, AIM and density-functional based methods. It takes into account the many developments that have taken place in the field over the past few decades due to the rapid advances in quantum chemica

  11. Equilibrium CO bond lengths (United States)

    Demaison, Jean; Császár, Attila G.


    Based on a sample of 38 molecules, 47 accurate equilibrium CO bond lengths have been collected and analyzed. These ultimate experimental (reEX), semiexperimental (reSE), and Born-Oppenheimer (reBO) equilibrium structures are compared to reBO estimates from two lower-level techniques of electronic structure theory, MP2(FC)/cc-pVQZ and B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2pd). A linear relationship is found between the best equilibrium bond lengths and their MP2 or B3LYP estimates. These (and similar) linear relationships permit to estimate the CO bond length with an accuracy of 0.002 Å within the full range of 1.10-1.43 Å, corresponding to single, double, and triple CO bonds, for a large number of molecules. The variation of the CO bond length is qualitatively explained using the Atoms in Molecules method. In particular, a nice correlation is found between the CO bond length and the bond critical point density and it appears that the CO bond is at the same time covalent and ionic. Conditions which permit the computation of an accurate ab initio Born-Oppenheimer equilibrium structure are discussed. In particular, the core-core and core-valence correlation is investigated and it is shown to roughly increase with the bond length.

  12. Copper wire bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G


    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  13. Comparison of Gold Bonding with Mercury Bonding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraka, Elfi; Filatov, Michael; Cremer, Dieter


    Nine AuX molecules (X = H, O, S, Se, Te, F, Cl, Br, I), their isoelectronic HgX(+) analogues, and the corresponding neutral HgX diatomics have been investigated using NESC (Normalized Elimination of the Small Component) and B3LYP theory to determine relativistic effects for bond dissociation energie

  14. The dissociative bond. (United States)

    Gordon, Nirit


    Dissociation leaves a psychic void and a lingering sense of psychic absence. How do 2 people bond while they are both suffering from dissociation? The author explores the notion of a dissociative bond that occurs in the aftermath of trauma--a bond that holds at its core an understanding and shared detachment from the self. Such a bond is confined to unspoken terms that are established in the relational unconscious. The author proposes understanding the dissociative bond as a transitional space that may not lead to full integration of dissociated knowledge yet offers some healing. This is exemplified by R. Prince's (2009) clinical case study. A relational perspective is adopted, focusing on the intersubjective aspects of a dyadic relationship. In the dissociative bond, recognition of the need to experience mutual dissociation can accommodate a psychic state that yearns for relationship when the psyche cannot fully confront past wounds. Such a bond speaks to the need to reestablish a sense of human relatedness and connection when both parties in the relationship suffer from disconnection. This bond is bound to a silence that becomes both a means of protection against the horror of traumatic memory and a way to convey unspoken gestures toward the other.

  15. The samurai bond market



    Issuance in the samurai bond market has more than tripled over the past several years. Some observers have attributed this growth to a systematic underestimation of credit risk in the market. A detailed review of credit quality, ratings differences, and initial issue pricing in the samurai bond market, however, turns up little evidence to support this concern.

  16. Effect of ultrasonic power and bonding force on the bonding strength of copper ball bonds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Copper wire, serving as a cost-saving alternative to gold wire, has been used in many high-end thermosonic ball bonding applications. In this paper, the bond shear force, bond shear strength, and the ball bond diameter are adopted to evaluate the bonding quality. It is concluded that the efficient ultrasonic power is needed to soften the ball to form the copper bonds with high bonding strength. However, excessive ultrasonic power would serve as a fatigue loading to weaken the bonding. Excessive or less bonding force would cause cratering in the silicon.

  17. Transversely Compressed Bonded Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Stang, Henrik


    The load capacity of bonded joints can be increased if transverse pressure is applied at the interface. The transverse pressure is assumed to introduce a Coulomb-friction contribution to the cohesive law for the interface. Response and load capacity for a bonded single-lap joint was derived using...... non-linear fracture mechanics. The results indicated a good correlation between theory and tests. Furthermore, the model is suggested as theoretical base for determining load capacity of bonded anchorages with transverse pressure, in externally reinforced concrete structures....

  18. Handbook of wafer bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Ramm, Peter; Taklo, Maaike M V


    Written by an author and editor team from microsystems companies and industry-near research organizations, this handbook and reference presents dependable, first-hand information on bonding technologies.In the first part, researchers from companies and institutions around the world discuss the most reliable and reproducible technologies for the production of bonded wafers. The second part is devoted to current and emerging applications, including microresonators, biosensors and precise measuring devices.

  19. Fundamentals of fiber bonding in thermally point-bonded nonwovens (United States)

    Chidambaram, Aparna

    Thermal point bonding (TPB) uses heat and pressure to bond a web of fibers at discrete points imparting strength to the manufactured fabric. This process significantly reduces the strength and elongation of the bridging fibers between bond points while strengthening the web. Single fiber experiments were performed with four structurally different polypropylene fibers to analyze the inter-relationships between fiber structure, fiber properties and bonding process. Two fiber types had a low birefringence sheath or surface layer while the remaining had uniform birefringence profiles through their thickness. Bonds were formed between isolated pairs of fibers by subjecting the fibers to a calendering process and simulating TPB process conditions. The dependence of bond strength on bonding temperature and on the type of fiber used was evaluated. Fiber strengths before and after bonding were measured and compared to understand the effect of bonding on fiber strength. Additionally, bonded fiber strength was compared to the strength of single fibers which had experienced the same process conditions as the bonded pairs. This comparison estimated the effect of mechanical damage from pressing fibers together with steel rolls while creating bonds in TPB. Interfiber bond strength increased with bonding temperature for all fiber types. Fiber strength decreased with increasing bonding temperature for all fiber types except for one type of low birefringent sheath fibers. Fiber strength degradation was unavoidable at temperatures required for successful bonding. Mechanical damage from compression of fibers between rolls was an insignificant factor in this strength loss. Thermal damage during bonding was the sole significant contributor to fiber strength degradation. Fibers with low birefringence skins formed strong bonds with minimal fiber strength loss and were superior to fibers without such surface layers in TPB performance. A simple model to predict the behavior of a two-bond

  20. Modelling longevity bonds: Analysing the Swiss Re Kortis bond



    A key contribution to the development of the traded market for longevity risk was the issuance of the Kortis bond, the world's first longevity trend bond, by Swiss Re in 2010. We analyse the design of the Kortis bond, develop suitable mortality models to analyse its payoff and discuss the key risk factors for the bond. We also investigate how the design of the Kortis bond can be adapted and extended to further develop the market for longevity risk.

  1. Romanian government bond market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia POP


    Full Text Available The present paper aims to present the level of development reached by Romanian government bond market segment, as part of the country financial market. The analysis will be descriptive (the data series available for Romania are short, based on the secondary data offered by the official bodies involved in the process of issuing and trading the Romanian government bonds (Romanian Ministry of Public Finance, Romanian National Bank and Bucharest Stock Exchange, and also on secondary data provided by the Federation of European Stock Exchanges.To enhance the market credibility as a benchmark, a various combination of measures is necessary; among these measures are mentioned: the extension of the yield curve; the issuance calendars in order to improve transparency; increasing the disclosure of information on public debt issuance and statistics; holding regular meetings with dealers, institutional investors and rating agencies; introducing a system of primary dealers; establishing a repurchase (repo market in the government bond market. These measures will be discussed based on the evolution presented inside the paper.The paper conclude with the fact that, until now, the Romanian government bond market did not provide a benchmark for the domestic financial market and that further efforts are needed in order to increase the government bond market transparency and liquidity.

  2. Safe and Liquid Mortgage Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Gyntelberg, Jacob; Lund, Jesper

    This paper shows that strict match pass-through funding of covered bonds provides safe and liquid mortgage bonds. Despite a 30% drop in house prices during the 2008 global crisis Danish mortgage bonds remained as liquid as most European government bonds. The Danish pass-through system effectively...... eliminates credit risk from the investor's perspective. Similar to other safe bonds, funding liquidity becomes the main driver of mortgage bond liquidity and this creates commonality in liquidity across markets and countries. These findings have implications for how to design a robust mortgage bond system...

  3. Corporate Bonds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tell, Michael


    Corporate financing is the choice between capital generated by the corporation and capital from external investors. However, since the financial crisis shook the markets in 2007–2008, financing opportunities through the classical means of financing have decreased. As a result, corporations have...... markets. However, NASDAQ OMX has introduced the First North Bond Market in December 2012 and new regulatory framework came into place in 2014, which may contribute to a Danish based corporate bond market. The purpose of this article is to present the regulatory changes in Denmark in relation to corporate...

  4. The Trouble With Bonds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ In early June,global financial markets gyrated downwards in the wake of central banks'tough language on inflation.At one point bond prices reflected expectations of four rate hikes by the US Federal Reserve (Fed) in the next 12 months.As a result,the dollar firmed,oil prices stabilized,and yield curves flattened around the world.If all these inflation-fighting measures are real,the situation bodes well for bonds.But,I think otherwise.

  5. Cooperativity in beryllium bonds. (United States)

    Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José; Yáñez, Manuel; Mó, Otilia


    A theoretical study of the beryllium bonded clusters of the (iminomethyl)beryllium hydride and (iminomethyl)beryllium fluoride [HC(BeX)=NH, X = H, F] molecules has been carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,2p) level of theory. Linear and cyclic clusters have been characterized up to the decamer. The geometric, energetic, electronic and NMR properties of the clusters clearly indicate positive cooperativity. The evolution of the molecular properties, as the size of the cluster increases, is similar to those reported in polymers held together by hydrogen bonds.

  6. Hydrogen bond and halogen bond inside the carbon nanotube (United States)

    Wang, Weizhou; Wang, Donglai; Zhang, Yu; Ji, Baoming; Tian, Anmin


    The hydrogen bond and halogen bond inside the open-ended single-walled carbon nanotubes have been investigated theoretically employing the newly developed density functional M06 with the suitable basis set and the natural bond orbital analysis. Comparing with the hydrogen or halogen bond in the gas phase, we find that the strength of the hydrogen or halogen bond inside the carbon nanotube will become weaker if there is a larger intramolecular electron-density transfer from the electron-rich region of the hydrogen or halogen atom donor to the antibonding orbital of the X-H or X-Hal bond involved in the formation of the hydrogen or halogen bond and will become stronger if there is a larger intermolecular electron-density transfer from the electron-rich region of the hydrogen or halogen atom acceptor to the antibonding orbital of the X-H or X-Hal bond. According to the analysis of the molecular electrostatic potential of the carbon nanotube, the driving force for the electron-density transfer is found to be the negative electric field formed in the carbon nanotube inner phase. Our results also show that the X-H bond involved in the formation of the hydrogen bond and the X-Hal bond involved in the formation of the halogen bond are all elongated when encapsulating the hydrogen bond and halogen bond within the carbon nanotube, so the carbon nanotube confinement may change the blue-shifting hydrogen bond and the blue-shifting halogen bond into the red-shifting hydrogen bond and the red-shifting halogen bond. The possibility to replace the all electron nanotube-confined calculation by the simple polarizable continuum model is also evaluated.

  7. Photochemical tissue bonding (United States)

    Redmond, Robert W.; Kochevar, Irene E.


    Photochemical tissue bonding methods include the application of a photosensitizer to a tissue and/or tissue graft, followed by irradiation with electromagnetic energy to produce a tissue seal. The methods are useful for tissue adhesion, such as in wound closure, tissue grafting, skin grafting, musculoskeletal tissue repair, ligament or tendon repair and corneal repair.

  8. Bonding in cementitious composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mindess, S. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)) Shah, S.P. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (USA))


    These proceedings discuss the papers presented at the symposium on the subject of high performance cement composites. Some of the topics discussed were; calcium hydroxides treated ceramics microspheres and mechanical properties of high temperature light weight cements; microstructure and chemical variations of class F fly ash; microstructure and bond strength of cement and crack propagation as detected by laser holography and acoustic emission.

  9. Thermal Bond System. (United States)


    a twill weave, a crowfoot weave, a satin weave (FIG. 2), and a leno weave. Descriptions of the various weave types can be found in " Composite ...together to define a fabric mesh having first and second opposing woven surfaces. An adhesive bond that is flowable prior to drying is used to wet and

  10. Trading in Treasury Bond Futures Contracts and Bonds in Australia


    Belinda Cheung


    Treasury bond futures are a key financial product in Australia, with turnover in Treasury bond futures contracts significantly larger than turnover in the market for Commonwealth Government securities (CGS). Treasury bond futures contracts provide a wide variety of market participants with the ability to hedge against, or gain exposure to, interest rate risk. This article discusses some of the features of the Treasury bond futures contract, and how the contract is used to facilitate hedging a...

  11. Indirect bonding technique in orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kübra Yıldırım


    Full Text Available ‘Direct Bonding Technique’ which allows the fixed orthodontic appliances to be directly bonded to teeth without using bands decreased the clinic time for bracket bonding and increased esthetics and oral hygiene during orthodontic treatment. However, mistakes in bracket positioning were observed due to decreased direct visual sight and access to posterior teeth. ‘Indirect Bonding Technique’ was developed for eliminating these problems. Initially, decreased bond strength, higher bond failure rate, periodontal tissue irritation, compromised oral hygiene and increased laboratory time were the main disadvantages of this technique when compared to direct bonding. The newly developed materials and modified techniques help to eliminate these negative consequences. Today, the brackets bonded with indirect technique have similar bond strength with brackets bonded directly. Moreover, indirect and direct bonding techniques have similar effects on periodontal tissues. However, indirect bonding technique requires more attention and precision in laboratory and clinical stage, and has higher cost. Orthodontist's preference between these two bonding techniques may differ according to time spent in laboratory and clinic, cost, patient comfort and personal opinion.

  12. China-Russia Bond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Zhiye; Ma Zongshi


    @@ Thanks to China's successful launching of the Year of Russia, 2006 will surely go down as a milestone in the history of the China-Russia bond. Furthermore, a still-warmer climate will continue to prevail in 2007 when Moscow, in its turn, hosts the Year of China, trying to outshine its next-door neighbor in this regard, as Russian President Vladimir Putin promised in the exchange of new year greetings with his Chinese counterpart, President Hu Jintao.

  13. Direct bonded space maintainers. (United States)

    Santos, V L; Almeida, M A; Mello, H S; Keith, O


    The aim of this study was to evaluate clinically a bonded space maintainer, which would reduce chair-side time and cost. Sixty appliances were fabricated from 0.7 mm stainless steel round wire and bonded using light-cured composite to the two teeth adjacent to the site of extraction of a posterior primary tooth. Twenty males and sixteen females (age range 5-9-years-old) were selected from the Pedodontic clinic of the State University of Rio de Janeiro. The sixty space maintainers were divided into two groups according to the site in which they were placed: a) absent first primary molar and b) absent second primary molar. Impressions and study models were obtained prior to and 6 months after bonding the appliances. During this period only 8.3% of failures were observed, most of them from occlusal or facial trauma. Student t-test did not show statistically significant alterations in the sizes of the maintained spaces during the trial period.

  14. Optimal Investment in Structured Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille; Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    The paper examines the role of structured bonds in the optimal portfolio of a small retail investor. We consider the typical structured bond essentially repacking an exotic option and a zero coupon bond, i.e. an investment with portfolio insurance. The optimal portfolio is found when the investment...

  15. Coulombic Models in Chemical Bonding. (United States)

    Sacks, Lawrence J.


    Compares the coulumbic point charge model for hydrogen chloride with the valence bond model. It is not possible to assign either a nonpolar or ionic canonical form of the valence bond model, while the covalent-ionic bond distribution does conform to the point charge model. (JM)

  16. The chemical bond in inorganic chemistry the bond valence model

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, I David


    The bond valence model is a version of the ionic model in which the chemical constraints are expressed in terms of localized chemical bonds formed by the valence charge of the atoms. Theorems derived from the properties of the electrostatic flux predict the rules obeyed by both ionic and covalent bonds. They make quantitative predictions of coordination number, crystal structure, bond lengths and bond angles. Bond stability depends on the matching of the bonding strengths of the atoms, while the conflicting requirements of chemistry and space lead to the structural instabilities responsible for the unusual physical properties displayed by some materials. The model has applications in many fields ranging from mineralogy to molecular biology.

  17. Additional disulfide bonds in insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Tine N; Pettersson, Ingrid; Huus, Kasper


    -chain is flexible and can adapt multiple conformations. We examined how well disulfide bond predictions algorithms could identify disulfide bonds in this region of insulin. In order to identify stable insulin analogues with additional disulfide bonds, which could be expressed, the Cβ cut-off distance had...... in comparison to analogues with additional disulfide bonds that were more difficult to predict. In contrast, addition of the fourth disulfide bond rendered all analogues resistant to fibrillation under stress conditions and all stable analogues bound to the insulin receptor with picomolar affinities. Thus...

  18. Bond strength of direct and indirect bonded brackets after thermocycling. (United States)

    Daub, Jacob; Berzins, David W; Linn, Brandon James; Bradley, Thomas Gerard


    Thermocycling simulates the temperature dynamics in the oral environment. With direct bonding, thermocycling reduces the bond strength of orthodontic adhesives to tooth structure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strengths (SBS) of one direct and two indirect bonding methods/adhesives after thermocycling. Sixty human premolars were divided into three groups. Teeth in group 1 were bonded directly with Transbond XT. Teeth in group 2 were indirect bonded with Transbond XT/Sondhi Rapid Set, which is chemically cured. Teeth in group 3 were indirect bonded with Enlight LV/Orthosolo and light cured. Each sample was thermocycled between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C for 500 cycles. Mean SBS in groups 1, 2, and 3 were not statistically significantly different (13.6 +/- 2.9, 12.3 +/- 3.0, and 11.6 +/- 3.2 MPa, respectively; P > .05). However, when these values were compared with the results of a previous study using the same protocol, but without thermocycling, the SBS was reduced significantly (P = .001). Weibull analysis further showed that group 3 had the lowest bonding survival rate at the minimum clinically acceptable bond-strength range. The Adhesive Remnant Index was also determined, and group 2 had a significantly (P bond failures at the resin/enamel interface.

  19. Comparison of Bond in Roll-bonded and Adhesively Bonded Aluminums (United States)

    Schwensfeir, R. J., Jr.; Trenkler, G.; Delagi, R. G.; Forster, J. A.


    Lap-shear and peel test measurements of bond strength have been carried out as part of an investigation of roll bonding of 2024 and 7075 aluminum alloys. Shear strengths of the bonded material in the F temper are in the range of 14 to 16 ksi. Corresponding peel strengths are 120 to 130 lb/inch. These values, which are three to five times those reported in the literature for adhesively bonded 2024 and 7075, are a result of the true metallurgical bond achieved. The effects of heat-treating the bonded material are described and the improvements in bond strength discussed relative to the shear strength of the parent material. The significance of the findings for aerospace applications is discussed.

  20. 27 CFR 28.66 - Strengthening bonds. (United States)


    ... bonds. In all cases where the penal sum of any bond becomes insufficient, the principal shall either give a strengthening bond with the same surety to attain a sufficient penal sum, or give a new bond to... of any bond to less than its full penal sum. Strengthening bonds shall show the current date...

  1. Wafer bonding applications and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Gösele, Ulrich


    During the past decade direct wafer bonding has developed into a mature materials integration technology. This book presents state-of-the-art reviews of the most important applications of wafer bonding written by experts from industry and academia. The topics include bonding-based fabrication methods of silicon-on-insulator, photonic crystals, VCSELs, SiGe-based FETs, MEMS together with hybrid integration and laser lift-off. The non-specialist will learn about the basics of wafer bonding and its various application areas, while the researcher in the field will find up-to-date information about this fast-moving area, including relevant patent information.

  2. Photoinduced hydrogen-bonding dynamics. (United States)

    Chu, Tian-Shu; Xu, Jinmei


    Hydrogen bonding dynamics has received extensive research attention in recent years due to the significant advances in femtolaser spectroscopy experiments and quantum chemistry calculations. Usually, photoexcitation would cause changes in the hydrogen bonding formed through the interaction between hydrogen donor and acceptor molecules on their ground electronic states, and such transient strengthening or weakening of hydrogen bonding could be crucial for the photophysical transformations and the subsequent photochemical reactions that occurred on a time scale from tens of femtosecond to a few nanoseconds. In this article, we review the combined experimental and theoretical studies focusing on the ultrafast electronic and vibrational hydrogen bonding dynamics. Through these studies, new mechanisms and proposals and common rules have been put forward to advance our understanding of the hydrogen bondings dynamics in a variety of important photoinduced phenomena like photosynthesis, dual fluorescence emission, rotational reorientation, excited-state proton transfer and charge transfer processes, chemosensor fluorescence sensing, rearrangements of the hydrogen-bond network including forming and breaking hydrogen bond in water. Graphical Abstract We review the recent advances on exploring the photoinduced hydrogen bonding dynamics in solutions through a joint approach of laser spectroscopy and theoretical calculation. The reviewed studies have put forward a new mechanism, new proposal, and new rule for a variety of photoinduced phenomena such as photosynthesis, dual fluorescence emission, rotational reorientation, excited-state proton transfer and charge transfer, chemosensor fluorescence sensing, and rearrangements of the hydrogen-bond network in water.

  3. Bond Growth under Temperature Gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Satyawali


    Full Text Available Grain and bond growth for dry snow are determined by the distribution of temperature andtemperature gradient in the snow matrix. From the standpoint of particle approach and based oncubic packing structure, a bond growth model has been developed for TG metamorphism. The paper.highlights the importance of bond formation and its effect on snow viscosity and finally on the rateof settlement. This is very important for developing a numerical snow pack model if microstructureis considered to be a basic parameter. A few experiments have been carried out to validate bond formation under temperature gradient.

  4. A simplified indirect bonding technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Katiyar


    Full Text Available With the advent of lingual orthodontics, indirect bonding technique has become an integral part of practice. It involves placement of brackets initially on the models and then their transfer to teeth with the help of transfer trays. Problems encountered with current indirect bonding techniques used are (1 the possibility of adhesive flash remaining around the base of the brackets which requires removal (2 longer time required for the adhesive to gain enough bond strength for secure tray removal. The new simplified indirect bonding technique presented here overcomes both these problems.

  5. Reactive Bonding Film for Bonding Carbon Foam Through Metal Extrusion

    CERN Document Server

    Chertok, Maxwell; Irving, Michael; Neher, Christian; Tripathi, Mani; Wang, Ruby; Zheng, Gayle


    Future tracking detectors, such as those under development for the High Luminosity LHC, will require mechanical structures employing novel materials to reduce mass while providing excellent strength, thermal conductivity, and radiation tolerance. Adhesion methods for such materials are under study at present. This paper demonstrates the use of reactive bonding film as an adhesion method for bonding carbon foam.

  6. Digital Control of Bonding Force for Gold Wire Bonding Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochu Wang


    Full Text Available In order to digitally control the bonding force of a wire bonder precisely, this paper uses a DC solenoid as a force source, and by controlling the solenoid’s current, which causes the electromagnetic force, we can control the bonding force that capillary applies. The bonding force control system in this paper is composed of PC (Personal Computer and hypogyny MCU (Micro Controller Unit, which communicate using a RS485 interface. The digital value of a given bonding force is given by the PC to the MCU. By comparing the sampling current of the solenoid, and through PID regulation, D/A converter of the digital potentiometer and the solenoid driver circuit, the half-closed loop control system of bonding force is accomplished. Tuning of the PID parameters is accomplished with fuzzy adaptive control theory and simulated by Matlab simulink. The control system is tested by comparing the desired bonding force and the force actually applied and examming the relationship between bonding quality and bonding force.

  7. 29 CFR 2580.412-19 - Term of the bond, discovery period, other bond clauses. (United States)


    ... SECURITY ACT OF 1974 TEMPORARY BONDING RULES General Bond Rules § 2580.412-19 Term of the bond, discovery... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Term of the bond, discovery period, other bond clauses... new bond must be obtained each year. There is nothing in the Act that prohibits a bond for a...

  8. Pauling bond strength, bond length and electron density distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Gerald V.; Ross, Nancy L.; Cox, David F.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Iversen, Bo B.; Spackman, M. A.


    A power law regression equation, = 1.46(<ρ(rc)>/r)-0.19, connecting the average experimental bond lengths, , with the average accumulation of the electron density at the bond critical point, <ρ(rc)>, between bonded metal M and oxygen atoms, determined at ambient conditions for oxide crystals, where r is the row number of the M atom, is similar to the regression equation R(M-O) = 1.39(ρ(rc)/r)-0.21 determined for three perovskite crystals for pressures as high as 80 GPa. The two equations are also comparable with those, = 1.43(/r)-0.21, determined for a large number of oxide crystals at ambient conditions and = 1.39(/r)-0.22, determined for geometry optimized hydroxyacid molecules, that connect the bond lengths to the average Pauling electrostatic bond strength, , for the M-O bonded interactions. On the basis of the correspondence between the two sets of equations connecting ρ(rc) and the Pauling bond strength s with bond length, it appears that Pauling’s simple definition of bond strength closely mimics the accumulation of the electron density between bonded pairs of atoms. The similarity of the expressions for the crystals and molecules is compelling evidence that the M-O bonded interactions for the crystals and molecules 2 containing the same bonded interactions are comparable. Similar expressions, connecting bond lengths and bond strength, have also been found to hold for fluoride, nitride and sulfide molecules and crystals. The Brown-Shannon bond valence, σ, power law expression σ = [R1/(R(M-O)]N that has found wide use in crystal chemistry, is shown to be connected to a more universal expression determined for oxides and the perovskites, <ρ(rc)> = r[(1.41)/]4.76, demonstrating that the bond valence for a bonded interaction is likewise closely connected to the accumulation of the electron density between the bonded atoms. Unlike the Brown-Shannon expression, it is universal in that it holds for the M

  9. Optimal Investment in Structured Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille; Jørgensen, Peter Løchte


    of the article is to provide possible explanations for the puzzle of why small retail investors hold structured bonds. The investment universe consists of a stock index, a risk-free bank account, and a structured bond containing an option written on another index. We apply expected utility maximization...

  10. Computational Chemistry of Adhesive Bonds (United States)

    Phillips, Donald H.


    This investigation is intended to determine the electrical mechanical, and chemical properties of adhesive bonds at the molecular level. The initial determinations will be followed by investigations of the effects of environmental effects on the chemistry and properties of the bond layer.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eLieberwirth


    Full Text Available Affiliative social relationships (e.g., among spouses, family members, and friends play an essential role in human society. These relationships affect psychological, physiological, and behavioral functions. As positive and enduring bonds are critical for the overall well-being of humans, it is not surprising that considerable effort has been made to study the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie social bonding behaviors. The present review details the involvement of the nonapeptides, oxytocin (OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP, in the regulation of social bonding in mammals including humans. In particular, we will discuss the role of OT and AVP in the formation of social bonds between partners of a mating pair as well as between parents and their offspring. Furthermore, the role of OT and AVP in the formation of interpersonal bonding involving trust is also discussed.

  12. Dentin-bonding agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Gomes


    Full Text Available New dental restorative materials have been developed to meet not only the functional demands, but esthetics as well, and in the last few years an enormous range of new materials has appeared for use in dentistry. Among them, several adhesive systems, and different operative techniques for each group materials. Therefore, is indispensable for the professional to know about the properties, characteristics, and association of these materials with the dental structures, in order to select and use them correctly. Should conventional self-etching adhesive systems be used? This question encouraged this literature review to be conducted, with the aim of comparing the conventional adhesive systems with the self-etching systems and to look for scientific data that would help professionals to choose which adhesive system to use. When compared to conventional systems, it was noted that the self-etching systems show less sensitivity to technique, especially as regards errors the operator could commit. The self-etching systems, particularly the 2-step type, have shown equivalent values of bond strength, marginal microleakage and performance, therefore, will be an option for direct composite resin restorations in posterior teeth.

  13. 27 CFR 24.153 - Strengthening bonds. (United States)


    ... Strengthening bonds. In any instance where the penal sum of the bond on file becomes insufficient, the principal shall either give a strengthening bond with the same surety to attain a sufficient penal sum or give a... limiting the amount of either bond to less than its full penal sum. Strengthening bonds will show...

  14. 27 CFR 19.246 - Strengthening bonds. (United States)


    ... Strengthening bonds. In all cases when the penal sum of any bond becomes insufficient, the principal shall either give a strengthening bond with the same surety to attain a sufficient penal sum, or give a new... amount of any bond to less than its full penal sum. Strengthening bonds shall show the current date...

  15. Why are Hydrogen Bonds Directional?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    The recent IUPAC recommendation on the definition of hydrogen bonding points out that directionality is a defining characteristic of a hydrogen bond and the angle ∠X-H-Y is generally linear or 180◦. It also suggests that the X-H· · ·Y angle be greater than 110◦ for an interaction to be characterized as a hydrogenbond but does not provide any rationale for the same. This article reports a rationale for limiting the angle, based on the electron density topology using the quantum theory of atoms in molecules. Electron density topology for common hydrogen bond donors HF, HCl, HBr, HNC, HCN and HCCH are reported in this work. These calculations lead to an interesting observation that the atomic basins of H atom in all these donor molecules are limited justifying the restriction of hydrogen bond angle. Moreover, similar analysis on some hydrogen bonded complexes confirms that beyond this angle the acceptor atom Y starts interacting with the atomic basin on X. However, conclusions based on bond lengths and angles have to be treated with care and as the IUPAC recommendation points out that independent ‘evidence for bond formation’ in every case is important.

  16. Physical Nature of Hydrogen Bond

    CERN Document Server

    Zhyganiuk, I V


    The physical nature and the correct definition of hydrogen bond (H-bond) are considered.\\,\\,The influence of H-bonds on the thermodynamic, kinetic, and spectroscopic properties of water is analyzed.\\,\\,The conventional model of H-bonds as sharply directed and saturated bridges between water molecules is incompatible with the behavior of the specific volume, evaporation heat, and self-diffusion and kinematic shear viscosity coefficients of water. On the other hand, it is shown that the variation of the dipole moment of a water molecule and the frequency shift of valence vibrations of a hydroxyl group can be totally explained in the framework of the electrostatic model of H-bond.\\,\\,At the same time, the temperature dependences of the heat capacity of water in the liquid and vapor states clearly testify to the existence of weak H-bonds.\\,\\,The analysis of a water dimer shows that the contribution of weak H-bonds to its ground state energy is approximately 4--5 times lower in comparison with the energy of electr...

  17. The chemisorptive bond basic concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Alfred


    The Chemisorptive Bond: Basic Concepts describes the basic concepts of the chemisorptive bond on solid surfaces from the simple analogies with ordinary chemical bonds to the quantum-mechanical approaches.This book is composed of 10 chapters and begins with discussions of simple formulas for correlating measurable quantities in chemisorptions and catalysis. The succeeding chapters deal with theories based on quantum-mechanical principles that describe the mutual interactions of atoms of the solid and foreign atoms on the surface. The remaining chapters consider the possible arrangements


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JianZhihong; LiChulin


    In this paper a generalized defaultable bond pricing formula is derived by assuming that there exists a defaultable forward rate term structure and that firms in the economy interact when default occurs. Generally,The risk-neutral default intensity χQ is not equal to the empirical or actual default intensity λ,. This paper proves that multiple default intensities are invari-ant under equivalent martingale transformation,given a well-diversified portfolio corresponding to the defaultable bond. Thus one can directly apply default intensities and fractional losses empirically estimated to the evaluation of defaultable bonds or contingent claims.

  19. Direct Bonded Pontic (Laporan Kasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhandi Sidjaja


    Full Text Available Advanced science and technology in dentistry enable dental practitioners to modified she bonding techniques in tooth replacement. A pontic made of composite resin bonded to etched enamel of the adjacent teeth can be used in the replacement of one missing anterior tooth with a virgin or sowed adpicent tooth. The advantages of this technique include a one visit treatment, cow cost, good esthetics, less side effects and easy repair or rebounding. Clinical evaluation showed a high success rate therefore with a proper diagnosis and a perfect skill of the direct bonded technique this treatment can be used as an alternative restoration.

  20. Roll bonding of strained aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun, Jakob M.


    This report investigates roll bonding of pre-strained (å ~ 4) aluminium sheets to produce high strain material from high purity aluminium (99.996%) and commercial pure aluminium (99.6%). The degree of bonding is investigated by optical microscopy and ultrasonic scanning. Under the right...... of the cross rolled volume fraction is found. To further asses this effect, and the anisotropy, it is necessary to acquire knowledge about both texture and microstructure, e.g. by TEM. Roll bonding of pre-strained aluminium is found to be a possible alternative to ARB in the quest for ultra-fine grained...

  1. Integration of European Bond Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte


    I investigate the time variation in the integration of EU government bond markets. The integration is measured by the explanatory power of European factor portfolios for the individual bond markets for each year. The integration of the government bond markets is stronger for EMU than non-EMU memb......-EMU members and stronger for old than new EU members. For EMU countries, the integration is weaker the lower the credit rating is. During the recent crisis periods, the integration is weaker, particularly for EMU countries....

  2. 27 CFR 19.245 - Bonds and penal sums of bonds. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bonds and penal sums of... Bonds and penal sums of bonds. The bonds, and the penal sums thereof, required by this subpart, are as follows: Penal Sum Type of bond Basis Minimum Maximum (a) Operations bond: (1) One plant bond—...

  3. 27 CFR 25.94 - Strengthening bonds. (United States)


    ...) Requirement. When the penal sum of the brewer's bond (calculated as provided in § 25.93) in effect is not... strengthening bond in sufficient penal sum if the surety is the same as on the bond in effect. If the surety is... bond may not in any way release a former bond or limit a bond to less than the full penal sum. (c)...

  4. Weld bonding of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, I. O.; Zhang, Wenqi; Goncalves, V.M.


    This paper presents a comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation of the weld bonding process with the purpose of evaluating its relative performance in case of joining stainless steel parts, against alternative solutions based on structural adhesives or conventional spot...

  5. Hydrogen bonding in tight environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirrotta, Alessandro; Solomon, Gemma C.; Franco, Ignacio


    The single-molecule force spectroscopy of a prototypical class of hydrogen-bonded complexes is computationally investigated. The complexes consist of derivatives of a barbituric acid and a Hamilton receptor that can form up to six simultaneous hydrogen bonds. The force-extension (F-L) isotherms...... of the host-guest complexes are simulated using classical molecular dynamics and the MM3 force field, for which a refined set of hydrogen bond parameters was developed from MP2 ab initio computations. The F-L curves exhibit peaks that signal conformational changes during elongation, the most prominent...... of which is in the 60-180 pN range and corresponds to the force required to break the hydrogen bonds. These peaks in the F-L curves are shown to be sensitive to relatively small changes in the chemical structure of the host molecule. Thermodynamic insights into the supramolecular assembly were obtained...

  6. Modified bonded bridge space maintainer. (United States)

    Liegeois, F; Limme, M


    The premature loss of primary teeth can create the need for space maintenance and restoration of function. This article presents a fixed bonded space maintainer, which allows space to be maintained with economy of dental tissues.

  7. Adhesives for orthodontic bracket bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déborah Daniella Diniz Fonseca


    Full Text Available The advent of acid etching, introduced by Buonocore in 1955, brought the possibility of bonding between the bracket base and enamel, contributing to more esthetic and conservative orthodontics. This direct bracket bonding technique has brought benefits such as reduced cost and time in performing the treatment, as well as making it easier to perform oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of published studies on orthodontic bracket bonding to dental enamel. It was verified that resin composites and glass ionomer are the most studied and researched materials for this purpose. Resin-modified glass ionomer, with its biocompatibility, capacity of releasing fluoride and no need for acid etching on the tooth structure, has become increasingly popular among dentists. However, due to the esthetic and mechanical properties of light polymerizable resin composite, it continues to be one of the adhesives of choice in the bracket bonding technique and its use is widely disseminated.

  8. LAMMPS Framework for Directional Dynamic Bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    and bond types. When breaking bonds, all angular and dihedral interactions involving broken bonds are removed. The framework allows chemical reactions to be modeled, and use it to simulate a simplistic, coarse-grained DNA model. The resulting DNA dynamics illustrates the power of the present framework.......We have extended the Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS) to support directional bonds and dynamic bonding. The framework supports stochastic formation of new bonds, breakage of existing bonds, and conversion between bond types. Bond formation can be controlled...... to limit the maximal functionality of a bead with respect to various bond types. Concomitant with the bond dynamics, angular and dihedral interactions are dynamically introduced between newly connected triplets and quartets of beads, where the interaction type is determined from the local pattern of bead...

  9. Halogen bonds in crystal engineering: like hydrogen bonds yet different. (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arijit; Tothadi, Srinu; Desiraju, Gautam R


    The halogen bond is an attractive interaction in which an electrophilic halogen atom approaches a negatively polarized species. Short halogen atom contacts in crystals have been known for around 50 years. Such contacts are found in two varieties: type I, which is symmetrical, and type II, which is bent. Both are influenced by geometric and chemical considerations. Our research group has been using halogen atom interactions as design elements in crystal engineering, for nearly 30 years. These interactions include halogen···halogen interactions (X···X) and halogen···heteroatom interactions (X···B). Many X···X and almost all X···B contacts can be classified as halogen bonds. In this Account, we illustrate examples of crystal engineering where one can build up from previous knowledge with a focus that is provided by the modern definition of the halogen bond. We also comment on the similarities and differences between halogen bonds and hydrogen bonds. These interactions are similar because the protagonist atoms-halogen and hydrogen-are both electrophilic in nature. The interactions are distinctive because the size of a halogen atom is of consequence when compared with the atomic sizes of, for example, C, N, and O, unlike that of a hydrogen atom. Conclusions may be drawn pertaining to the nature of X···X interactions from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD). There is a clear geometric and chemical distinction between type I and type II, with only type II being halogen bonds. Cl/Br isostructurality is explained based on a geometric model. In parallel, experimental studies on 3,4-dichlorophenol and its congeners shed light on the nature of halogen···halogen interactions and reveal the chemical difference between Cl and Br. Variable temperature studies also show differences between type I and type II contacts. In terms of crystal design, halogen bonds offer a unique opportunity in the strength, atom size and interaction gradation; this may be

  10. Reduced form models of bond portfolios


    Matti Koivu; Teemu Pennanen


    We derive simple return models for several classes of bond portfolios. With only one or two risk factors our models are able to explain most of the return variations in portfolios of fixed rate government bonds, inflation linked government bonds and investment grade corporate bonds. The underlying risk factors have natural interpretations which make the models well suited for risk management and portfolio design.

  11. 27 CFR 24.146 - Bonds. (United States)


    .... (c) Wine vinegar plant bond. The proprietor of a wine vinegar plant who withdraws wine from a bonded wine premises without payment of tax for use in the manufacture of vinegar shall file a bond on TTB F 5510.2, Bond Covering Removal to and Use of Wine at Vinegar Plant, to ensure the payment of the tax...

  12. 27 CFR 26.69 - Strengthening bonds. (United States)


    ... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Bonds § 26.69 Strengthening bonds. In all cases where the penal sum of... surety to attain a sufficient penal sum, or give a new bond to cover the entire liability. Strengthening... penal sum. Strengthening bonds shall show the current date of execution and the effective date....

  13. Halogen Bonding in Organic Synthesis and Organocatalysis. (United States)

    Bulfield, David; Huber, Stefan M


    Halogen bonding is a noncovalent interaction similar to hydrogen bonding, which is based on electrophilic halogen substituents. Hydrogen-bonding-based organocatalysis is a well-established strategy which has found numerous applications in recent years. In light of this, halogen bonding has recently been introduced as a key interaction for the design of activators or organocatalysts that is complementary to hydrogen bonding. This Concept features a discussion on the history and electronic origin of halogen bonding, summarizes all relevant examples of its application in organocatalysis, and provides an overview on the use of cationic or polyfluorinated halogen-bond donors in halide abstraction reactions or in the activation of neutral organic substrates.

  14. Three methods to measure RH bond energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Ellison, G.B. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Gutman, D. [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry


    In this paper the authors compare and contrast three powerful methods for experimentally measuring bond energies in polyatomic molecules. The methods are: radical kinetics; gas phase acidity cycles; and photoionization mass spectroscopy. The knowledge of the values of bond energies are a basic piece of information to a chemist. Chemical reactions involve the making and breaking of chemical bonds. It has been shown that comparable bonds in polyatomic molecules, compared to the same bonds in radicals, can be significantly different. These bond energies can be measured in terms of bond dissociation energies.

  15. Two Comments on Bond Angles (United States)

    Glaister, P.


    Tetrahedral Bond Angle from Elementary Trigonometry The alternative approach of using the scalar (or dot) product of vectors enables the determination of the bond angle in a tetrahedral molecule in a simple way. There is, of course, an even more straightforward derivation suitable for students who are unfamiliar with vectors, or products thereof, but who do know some elementary trigonometry. The starting point is the figure showing triangle OAB. The point O is the center of a cube, and A and B are at opposite corners of a face of that cube in which fits a regular tetrahedron. The required bond angle alpha = AÔB; and using Pythagoras' theorem, AB = 2(square root 2) is the diagonal of a face of the cube. Hence from right-angled triangle OEB, tan(alpha/2) = (square root 2) and therefore alpha = 2tan-1(square root 2) is approx. 109° 28' (see Fig. 1).

  16. Bond percolation on multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hackett, A; Gómez, S; Arenas, A; Gleeson, J P


    We present an analytical approach for bond percolation on multiplex networks and use it to determine the expected size of the giant connected component and the value of the critical bond occupation probability in these networks. We advocate the relevance of these tools to the modeling of multilayer robustness and contribute to the debate on whether any benefit is to be yielded from studying a full multiplex structure as opposed to its monoplex projection, especially in the seemingly irrelevant case of a bond occupation probability that does not depend on the layer. Although we find that in many cases the predictions of our theory for multiplex networks coincide with previously derived results for monoplex networks, we also uncover the remarkable result that for a certain class of multiplex networks, well described by our theory, new critical phenomena occur as multiple percolation phase transitions are present. We provide an instance of this phenomenon in a multipex network constructed from London rail and Eu...

  17. Performance bond: conditional or unconditional


    Supardi, Azizan; Yaakob, Jamaluddin; Adnan, Hamimah


    In construction contracts, a 'performance bond' is a bond taken out by the contractor, usually with a bank or insurance company (in return for payment of a premium), for the benefit of and at the request of the employer, in a stipulated maximum sum of liability and enforceable by the employer in the event of the contractor's default, repudiation or insolvency, as stated by Nigel M Robinson et. al. in his book, Construction Law in Singapore and Malaysia. He further added that there are two typ...



    Revesz, A.


    From the analysis of optical properties of noncrystalline (nc) and the corresponding crystalline solids with predominantly covalent bonds a bonding order parameter, F, is derived. This parameter reveals differences between nc solids which are characterized by similar degree of short-range-order as, e.g., amorphous Si (F ≤ 0.8) and vitreous SiO2 (F ≈ 1). Both the optical and electrical properties indicate that, in contrast to amorphous solids, the electronic states in vitreous solids may remai...

  19. On double bonds in fullerenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepenshchikov D. G.


    Full Text Available Various distributions of double carbon bonds in the fullerenes have been considered in the paper from the point that they are absent in the pentagonal rings. The appropriate classification of the fullerenes has been built. The results may be used when modeling the fullerenes of a given topology and calculating their physical-chemical properties

  20. Essays on European bond markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, Y.C.


    This dissertation focused on a number of issues that are of importance in the current European bond market. In the past years, the fiscal policy of the Eurozone members, advances in the technology of trading platforms and the introduction of a single currency have reshaped the fixed income markets i

  1. Effect of moisture, saliva, and blood contamination on the shear bond strength of brackets bonded with a conventional bonding system and self-etched bonding system (United States)

    Prasad, Mandava; Mohamed, Shamil; Nayak, Krishna; Shetty, Sharath Kumar; Talapaneni, Ashok Kumar


    Background: The success of bonding brackets to enamel with resin bonding systems is negatively affected by contamination with oral fluids such as blood and saliva. The new self-etch primer systems combine conditioning and priming agents into a single application, making the procedure more cost effective. Objective: The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of moisture, saliva and blood contamination on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with conventional bonding system and self-etch bonding system. Materials and Methods: Each system was examined under four enamel surface conditions (dry, water, saliva, and blood), and 80 human teeth were divided into two groups with four subgroups each of 10 according to enamel surface condition. Group 1 used conventional bonding system and Group 2 used self-etched bonding system. Subgroups 1a and 2a under dry enamel surface conditions; Subgroups 1b and 2b under moist enamel surface condition; Subgroups 3a and 3b under saliva enamel surface condition and Subgroup 4a and 4b under blood enamel surface condition. Brackets were bonded, and all the samples were then submitted to a shear bond test with a universal testing machine with a cross head speed of 1mm/sec. Results: The results showed that the contamination reduced the shear bond strength of all groups. In self-etch bonding system water and saliva had significantly higher bond strength when compared to other groups. Conclusion: It was concluded that the blood contamination showed lowest bond strength from both bonding systems. Self-etch bonding system resulted in higher bond strength than conventional bonding system under all conditions except the dry enamel surface. PMID:24678210

  2. Optimising hydrogen bonding in solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang


    The chemical bonds of wood are both covalent bonds within the wood polymers and hydrogen bonds within and between the polymers. Both types of bonds are responsible for the coherence, strength and stiffness of the material. The hydrogen bonds are more easily modified by changes in load, moisture...... and temperature. The distribution of bond lengths was examined using infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) both prior to treatments and after. The results show that the absorbance bands of the spectra related to the hydroxyl and carboxyl stretching vibrations were changed by the treatments. Apparently, the first...

  3. Method for fusion bonding thermoplastic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benatar, A.; Gutowski, T.G.


    Bonding of thermoplastic composites is a critical step in the manufacture of aerospace structures. The objective of this project is to investigate different methods for fusion bonding thermoplastic composites quickly, with a good bond strength, and without warping and deconsolidation. This is best accomplished by heating and melting the thermoplastic on the bond surface only, and then pressing the parts together for a fusion bond. For this purpose, a variety of surface heating techniques were examined for bonding of PEEK and J Polymer composites. These included: resistance heating, infrared heating, induction heating, dielectric/microwave heating, and ultrasonic welding. 20 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  4. Strength of Bond Covenants and Bond Assessment Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Yahanpath


    Full Text Available We examine bond covenants of 29 New Zealand bond issues between 2001 and 2007.Results from the study indicate that protection provided for bondholders is weak and limited.On average, only 2-3 types of covenants are embedded with the issues and only 27% of thesecovenants provide full protection to the bondholders. However, bondholders are not compensated for taking the additional risk. We propose an alternative assessment framework that directly assesses the level of protection offered to bondholders. We calculate thecovenant quality score for the issues and classify them into four levels of protection: very high protection, moderate, low and very low. Recent legislative changes will go some way towards improving investor protection and confidence, but the effect is yet to be seen. This proposed scoring framework can be used by potential investors to complement the traditional credit ratings when making their investment decisions.

  5. Shear bond strength of two resin cements to human root dentin using three dentin bonding agents. (United States)

    Gogos, C; Stavrianos, C; Kolokouris, I; Economides, N; Papadoyannis, I


    This study compared the bond strength of two resin cements to human root dentin when used with three bonding agents. The materials used were Rely X ARC and Perma Cem, two one-bottle bonding agents (Single Bond, Bond-1) and one self-etching bonding agent (Clearfil SE Bond). The dentin was obtained from single rooted human teeth, and the specimens were treated with either 15% EDTA or 37% phosphoric acid to remove the smear layer, except in groups where the self-etching bonding agent was used. The resin cements were placed on dentin surfaces with the use of bonding agents. Shear bond strength (SBS) was tested using a single plane shear test assembly. The dentin specimens were divided into 10 groups. Eight groups were pre-treated with EDTA or phosphoric acid to remove the smear layer, followed by a bonding agent (Bond-1 or Single Bond) and resin cement (Rely X or Perma Cem). In the two remaining groups, the smear layer was left intact, and the two resins cements were used in combination with the self-etching bonding agent (Clearfil SE Bond). No statistically significant differences were observed among the eight groups treated with one-bottle bonding agents. The mean bond strengths of the two groups treated with the self-etching bonding agent did not differ significantly from each other but were both significantly greater than the bond strengths of all the other groups. The results of this study also showed that EDTA can be used as an alternative to phosphoric acid in bonding procedures for resin cements. However, the bond strengths of resin cements, in combination with a self-etching bonding agent, were significantly greater than those of the same cements when used with one-bottle bonding agents.

  6. Cooperativity in Surface Bonding and Hydrogen Bonding of Water and Hydroxyl at Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiros, T.; Ogasawara, H.; Naslund, L. A.;


    of the mixed phase at metal surfaces. The surface bonding can be considered to be similar to accepting a hydrogen bond, and we can thereby apply general cooperativity rules developed for hydrogen-bonded systems. This provides a simple understanding of why water molecules become more strongly bonded...... to the surface upon hydrogen bonding to OH and why the OH surface bonding is instead weakened through hydrogen bonding to water. We extend the application of this simple model to other observed cooperativity effects for pure water adsorption systems and H3O+ on metal surfaces.......We examine the balance of surface bonding and hydrogen bonding in the mixed OH + H2O overlayer on Pt(111), Cu(111), and Cu(110) via density functional theory calculations. We find that there is a cooperativity effect between surface bonding and hydrogen bonding that underlies the stability...

  7. Valence-Bond Theory and Chemical Structure. (United States)

    Klein, Douglas J.; Trinajstic, Nenad


    Discussed is the importance of valence bond theory on the quantum-mechanical theory of chemical structure and the nature of the chemical bond. Described briefly are early VB theory, development of VB theory, modern versions, solid-state applications, models, treatment in textbooks, and flaws in criticisms of valence bond theory. (KR)

  8. 25 CFR 214.4 - Bonds. (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bonds. 214.4 Section 214.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR... reserved to change the amount of the bond in any particular case, or to require a new bond in...

  9. 27 CFR 19.516 - Bond account. (United States)


    ... maximum penal sum, he shall maintain an account of his bond and he shall charge the bond with the amount... return. Where a bond in less than the maximum penal sum has been allocated among two or more plants, as... the penal sum allocated to that plant. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1356, as amended (26...

  10. 27 CFR 19.244 - Unit bond. (United States)


    ... sum which represents the penal sum (computed in accordance with § 19.245) for operations at and withdrawals from each plant. If the penal sum of the bond covering a plant, or the penal sum allocated to any... reflected by the penal sum in the bond for such plant. The unit bond shall be conditioned that the...

  11. 27 CFR 19.243 - Withdrawal bond. (United States)


    ... to each plant covered by the bond the part of the total sum which represents the penal sum (computed in accordance with § 19.245) for each such plant. If the penal sum of the bond covering a plant, or the penal sum allocated to any plant (where the bond covers more than one plant), is in an amount...

  12. 77 FR 72999 - Small Brewers Bond Reduction (United States)


    ... publishing a temporary rule that for a period of three years modifies the penal sum for a brewer's bond where... calendar year. Under the temporary rule, for the next three years, the penal sum of the required bond is $1... proposes to adopt the $1,000 penal sum amount for the brewer's bond for such brewers as a...

  13. Implicit Hamiltonian formulation of bond graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golo, G.; Schaft, A.J. van der; Breedveld, P.C.; Maschke, B.M.


    This paper deals with mathematical formulation of bond graphs. It is proven that the power continuous part of bond graphs, the junction structure, can be associated with a Dirac structure and that equations describing a bond graph model correspond to an implicit port-controlled Hamiltonian system wi

  14. Hydroxide catalysis bonding of silicon carbide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veggel, A.A. van; Ende, D.A. van den; Bogenstahl, J.; Rowan, S.; Cunningham, W.; Gubbels, G.H.M.; Nijmeijer, H.


    For bonding silicon carbide optics, which require extreme stability, hydroxide catalysis bonding is considered [Rowan, S., Hough, J. and Elliffe, E., Silicon carbide bonding. UK Patent 040 7953.9, 2004. Please contact Mr. D. Whiteford for further information:]. This techn

  15. Low temperature anodic bonding to silicon nitride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weichel, Steen; Reus, Roger De; Bouaidat, Salim;


    Low-temperature anodic bonding to stoichiometric silicon nitride surfaces has been performed in the temperature range from 3508C to 4008C. It is shown that the bonding is improved considerably if the nitride surfaces are either oxidized or exposed to an oxygen plasma prior to the bonding. Both bulk...

  16. Heat Bonding of Irradiated Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (United States)

    Slack, D. H.


    Reliable method now available for joining parts of this difficult-tobond material. Heating fixture encircles ethylene vinyl acetate multiplesocket part, providing heat to it and to tubes inserted in it. Fixtures specially designed to match parts to be bonded. Tube-and-socket bonds made with this technique subjected to tensile tests. Bond strengths of 50 percent that of base material obtained consistently.

  17. 36 CFR 9.48 - Performance bond. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance bond. 9.48... MINERALS MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.48 Performance bond. (a) Prior to approval of a plan of operations, the operator shall be required to file a suitable performance bond with...

  18. 43 CFR 23.9 - Performance bond. (United States)


    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance bond. 23.9 Section 23.9 Public... LANDS § 23.9 Performance bond. (a)(1) Upon approval of an exploration plan or mining plan, the operator shall be required to file a suitable performance bond of not less than $2,000 with satisfactory...

  19. 36 CFR 9.13 - Performance bond. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance bond. 9.13... MINERALS MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.13 Performance bond. (a) Upon approval of a plan of operations the operator shall be required to file a suitable performance bond with satisfactory...

  20. 25 CFR 216.8 - Performance bond. (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Performance bond. 216.8 Section 216.8 Indians BUREAU OF... RECLAMATION OF LANDS General Provisions § 216.8 Performance bond. (a) Upon approval of an exploration plan or mining plan, the operator shall be required to file a suitable performance bond of not less than...



  2. 19 CFR 125.32 - Merchandise delivered to a bonded store or bonded warehouse. (United States)


    ... warehouse. 125.32 Section 125.32 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Merchandise delivered to a bonded store or bonded warehouse. When merchandise is carried, carted or lightered to and received in a bonded store or bonded warehouse, the proprietor or his representative...

  3. Improving orthodontic bonding to silver amalgam. (United States)

    Zachrisson, B U; Büyükyilmaz, T; Zachrisson, Y O


    Flat rectangular tabs (n = 84) prepared from lathe-cut amalgam (ANA 2000) were subjected to aluminum oxide sandblasting or roughening with a diamond bur. Mandibular incisor edgewise brackets were bonded to these tabs using: Concise (Bis-GMA resin); one of three metal-bonding adhesives, viz., Superbond C&B (4-META resin), Panavia Ex (10-MDP Bis-GMA resin) or Geristore (composite base); and Concise after application of the intermediate resins All-Bond 2 Primers A+B, or the Scotch-Bond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) system. All specimens were stored in water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours before tensile bond strength testing. Alignment and uniform loading during testing were secured by engaging a hook in a circular ring soldered onto the bracket slot before bonding. Similar control brackets (n = 12) were bonded with Concise to extracted caries-free mandibular incisors. Bond failure sites were classified by a modified ARI system. Mean tensile bond strengths in the experimental group ranged from 3.4 to 6.4 MPa--significantly weaker than the control sample (13.2 MPa). Bond failure generally occurred at the amalgam/adhesive interface. Superbond C&B created the strongest bonds to amalgam; according to ANOVA and Duncan's Multiple-Range test, they were significantly stronger than the bonds with Panavia Ex and Concise, with Geristore in between. However, the bond strength of Concise to sandblasted amalgam was comparable to the Superbond C&B bonds when coupled with an intermediate application of All-Bond 2 Primers A+B. The SBMP, on the other hand, was less effective.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Effect of diamond bur cutting efficacy on dentin bond strengths of different bonding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirani F.


    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: As composite-dentin bond strength is affected by cavity preparation and the bond strength of composite resin to new and used bur prepared dentin has not yet been evaluated, this study evaluated the effects of cutting dentin with different cutting efficacy (new and used of burs on composite-dentin shear bond strength using self-etching primer bonding system and total etching bonding system. "nMaterials and Methods: Sixty caries free human 3rd molar were sectioned in occlosal surface to expose dentin, then polished with silicon carbide paper and randomly divided into four groups. Each group was prepared in a depth of 0.5mm of dentin, using new diamond bur, or used diamond bur. To change into a used bur, each new rough diamond bur had to work on bovine enamel for 30 minutes, under a load of 150g. Then, each group was bonded, using a total etch adhesive (single Bond or a self etch adhesive (clearfil SE Bond So there were 4 groups : 1-SE Bond, New bur; 2-SE Bond , used bur; 3-Single Bond , New bur ; 4-Single Bond, used bur. Similar composite capsules(Filtek Z250 were bonded to dentin surface and cured. specimens were stored in physiologic saline for 48h at 370 c , then put under shearing load to define composite - dentin shear bond strength. Results were interpreted via statistical analysis (T-test & two - way variance. "nResults: Shear bond strength of each group was as follows: 1-(27.3Mpa, 2-(33.5Mpa, 3-(16.9Mpa 4-(19.3Mpa. Statistical analysis proved that shear bond strength of used diamond bur prepared groups (2,4 was more than new diamond bur prepared ones (1,3. This statistical difference, specially, was seen between SE Bond groups (1,2 but not between single Bond groups (3,4. Also, shear bond strength of (SE Bond bonded groups (1,2 were more significantly than (single Bond bonded ones (3,4. "nConclusion: This study show that Bur cutting efficiency influences composite - dentin shear bond strength especially when the

  5. Hydrogen Bonding to Alkanes: Computational Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, Steen; Olesen, Solveig Gaarn


    The structural, vibrational, and energetic properties of adducts of alkanes and strong cationic proton donors were studied with composite ab initio calculations. Hydrogen bonding in [D-H+ H-alkyl] adducts contributes to a significant degree to the interactions between the two components, which...... is substantiated by NBO and AIM results. The hydrogen bonds manifest themselves in the same manner as conventional hydrogen bonds, D-H bond elongation, D-H vibrational stretching frequency red shift and intensity increase, and adduct stabilization. The alkane adducts also exhibit elongation of the C-H bonds...

  6. Diffusion bonding of copper to niobium (United States)

    Wagner, Adrian R.

    Processes used to join metal to ceramic at low temperatures have proven to be inefficient because multiple brazing cycles with different brazing temperatures and braze filler metals are required. Even though this is reproducible and robust, it is not ideal due to the manufacturing time and cost associated with multiple brazing cycles. A more efficient and cost effective process is to utilize the diffusion bonding technique to join different metallic layers prior to joining the entire ceramic assembly in one brazing cycle. In this study, the diffusion bonding of copper to niobium was examined. To the author's knowledge, the diffusion bonding of Cu to Nb has not been researched, and the diffusion of Cu into Nb or Nb into Cu has not been observed. A series of diffusion bonding experiments were conducted to determine the optimal bonding time, temperature, and pressure for the Cu-Nb system. The diffusion bonded samples were evaluated using mechanical testing and microscopy. Results from characterization indicate that diffusion of Nb into Cu occurs, and a robust bond with no interfacial voids is formed using different combinations of bonding parameters. The diffusion of Nb into Cu and with failure occurring outside the diffusion bonded region during all mechanical testing indicate that Cu can be bonded to Nb via the diffusion bonding technique.

  7. Bonding PMMA microfluidics using commercial microwave ovens (United States)

    Toossi, A.; Moghadas, H.; Daneshmand, M.; Sameoto, D.


    In this paper, a novel low-cost, rapid substrate-bonding technique is successfully applied to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) microfluidics bonding for the first time. This technique uses a thin intermediate metallic microwave susceptor layer at the interface of the bonding site (microchannels) which produces localized heating required for bonding during microwave irradiation. The metallic susceptor pattern is designed using a multiphysics simulation model developed in ANSYS Multiphysics software (high-frequency structural simulation (HFSS) coupled with ANSYS-Thermal). In our experiments, the required microwave energy for bonding is delivered using a relatively inexpensive, widely accessible commercial microwave oven. Using this technique, simple PMMA microfluidics prototypes are successfully bonded and sealed in less than 35 seconds with a minimum measured bond strength of 1.375 MPa.

  8. Liquidity in Government versus Covered Bond Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Gyntelberg, Jacob; Sangill, Thomas

    We present findings on the secondary market liquidity of government and covered bonds in Denmark before, during and after the 2008 financial crisis. The analysis focuses on wholesale trading in the two markets and is based on a complete transaction level dataset covering November 2007 until end...... 2011. Overall, our findings suggest that Danish benchmark covered bonds by and large are as liquid as Danish government bonds - including in periods of market stress. Before the financial crisis of 2008, government bonds were slightly more liquid than covered bonds. During the crisis, trading continued...... in both markets but the government bond market experienced a brief but pronounced decline in market liquidity while liquidity in the covered bond market was more robust - partly reflective of a number of events as well as policy measures introduced in the autumn of 2008. After the crisis, liquidity...

  9. Bump bonding of pixel systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, M. E-mail:; Cabruja, E.; Collado, A.; Santander, J.; Ullan, M


    A pixel detector consists of an array of radiation sensing elements which is connected to an electronic read-out unit. Many different ways of making this connection between these two different devices are currently being used or considered to be used in the next future. Bonding techniques such as flip chip technology can present real advantages because they allow very fine pitch and a high number of I/Os. This paper presents a review of the different flip chip technologies available and their suitability for manufacturing pixel detectors. The particular problems concerning testing of pixel detectors and thermal issues related to them are pointed out.

  10. Bonded and Stitched Composite Structure (United States)

    Zalewski, Bart F. (Inventor); Dial, William B. (Inventor)


    A method of forming a composite structure can include providing a plurality of composite panels of material, each composite panel having a plurality of holes extending through the panel. An adhesive layer is applied to each composite panel and a adjoining layer is applied over the adhesive layer. The method also includes stitching the composite panels, adhesive layer, and adjoining layer together by passing a length of a flexible connecting element into the plurality of holes in the composite panels of material. At least the adhesive layer is cured to bond the composite panels together and thereby form the composite structure.

  11. Bump bonding of pixel systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lozano, M; Collado, A; Santander, J; Ullán, M


    A pixel detector consists of an array of radiation sensing elements which is connected to an electronic read-out unit. Many different ways of making this connection between these two different devices are currently being used or considered to be used in the next future. Bonding techniques such as flip chip technology can present real advantages because they allow very fine pitch and a high number of I/Os. This paper presents a review of the different flip chip technologies available and their suitability for manufacturing pixel detectors. The particular problems concerning testing of pixel detectors and thermal issues related to them are pointed out.

  12. Bonds and bands in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Jim


    This classic work on the basic chemistry and solid state physics of semiconducting materials is now updated and improved with new chapters on crystalline and amorphous semiconductors. Written by two of the world's pioneering materials scientists in the development of semiconductors, this work offers in a single-volume an authoritative treatment for the learning and understanding of what makes perhaps the world's most important engineered materials actually work. Readers will find: --' The essential principles of chemical bonding, electron energy bands and their relationship to conductive and s

  13. Actor bonds after relationship dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne


    Most of the presented papers at the 1st NoRD Workshop can be classified as belonging to the business marketing approach to relationship dissolution. Two papers were conceptual, and the remaining six were empirical studies. The first conceptual study by Skaates (2000) focuses on the nature...... of the actor bonds that remain after a business relationship has ended. The study suggests that an interdisciplinary approach would provide a richer understanding of the phenomenon; this could be achieved by using e.g. Bourdieu's sociological concepts in dissolution research....

  14. 27 CFR 19.956 - Amount of bond. (United States)


    ... of bond. The penal sum of the bond is based on the total quantity of distilled spirits to be produced... increased, and the bond is not in the maximum penal sum, a new or strengthening bond shall be obtained....

  15. Density Functionals of Chemical Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai V. Putz


    Full Text Available The behavior of electrons in general many-electronic systems throughout the density functionals of energy is reviewed. The basic physico-chemical concepts of density functional theory are employed to highlight the energy role in chemical structure while its extended influence in electronic localization function helps in chemical bonding understanding. In this context the energy functionals accompanied by electronic localization functions may provide a comprehensive description of the global-local levels electronic structures in general and of chemical bonds in special. Becke-Edgecombe and author’s Markovian electronic localization functions are discussed at atomic, molecular and solid state levels. Then, the analytical survey of the main workable kinetic, exchange, and correlation density functionals within local and gradient density approximations is undertaken. The hierarchy of various energy functionals is formulated by employing both the parabolic and statistical correlation degree of them with the electronegativity and chemical hardness indices by means of quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR analysis for basic atomic and molecular systems.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Junhui; Han Lei; Zhong Jue


    Lift-off and section characteristics at the interface of thermosonic bond are observed by using scanning electron microscope (KYKY2800) with EDS-test. Results show that the peeling underdeveloped bonds simulate a torus (or doughnut) with an unbonded central region and ridged peripheral region is bonded hardly. Inside roundness at flip chip bonding center are discovered. Bond strength is located between the severely ridged periphery and the non-adhering central area of the bond. For constant force and time, the ridged area of the bond pattern increases when more power is applied. For constant force and power, the ridged location of the bonded region moves closer to the bond center with time. Results of EDS-tests at Au-Al and Au-Ag interfaces show that Kirkendall diffusibility at Au-Ag interface occur and the diffusing speed of Au-atomic is faster than that of Ag,and that intermetallic compounds at Au-A1 interface is generated possibly. And these would be helpful for further research about thermosonic bonding.

  17. Progress in cold roll bonding of metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Long; Nagai, Kotobu; Yin Fuxing [Innovative Materials Engineering Laboratory, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)], E-mail:


    Layered composite materials have become an increasingly interesting topic in industrial development. Cold roll bonding (CRB), as a solid phase method of bonding same or different metals by rolling at room temperature, has been widely used in manufacturing large layered composite sheets and foils. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of a technology using layered composite materials produced by CRB and discuss the suitability of this technology in the fabrication of layered composite materials. The effects of process parameters on bonding, mainly including process and surface preparation conditions, have been analyzed. Bonding between two sheets can be realized when deformation reduction reaches a threshold value. However, it is essential to remove surface contamination layers to produce a satisfactory bond in CRB. It has been suggested that the degreasing and then scratch brushing of surfaces create a strong bonding between the layers. Bonding mechanisms, in which the film theory is expressed as the major mechanism in CRB, as well as bonding theoretical models, have also been reviewed. It has also been showed that it is easy for fcc structure metals to bond compared with bcc and hcp structure metals. In addition, hardness on bonding same metals plays an important part in CRB. Applications of composites produced by CRB in industrial fields are briefly reviewed and possible developments of CRB in the future are also described. Corrections were made to the abstract and conclusion of this article on 18 June 2008. The corrected electronic version is identical to the print version. (topical review)

  18. Silver- and gold-mediated nucleobase bonding. (United States)

    Acioli, Paulo H; Srinivas, Sudha


    We report the results of a density functional theory investigation of the bonding of nucleobases mediated by silver and gold atoms in the gas phase. Our calculations use the Becke exchange and Perdew-Wang correlation functional (BPW91) combined with the Stuttgart effective core potentials to represent the valence electrons of gold, silver, and platinum, and the all-electron DGTZVP basis set for C, H, N, and O. This combination was chosen based on tests on the metal atoms and tautomers of adenine, cytosine, and guanine. To establish a benchmark to understand the metal-mediated bonding, we calculated the binding energy of each of the base pairs in their canonical forms. Our calculations show rather strong bonds between the Watson-Crick base pairs when compared with typical values for N-H-N and N-H-O hydrogen bonds. The neutral metal atoms tend to bond near the nitrogen atoms. The effect of the metal atoms on the bonding of nucleobases differs depending on whether or not the metal atoms bond to one of the hydrogen-bonding sites. When the silver or gold atoms bond to a non-hydrogen-bonding site, the effect is a slight enhancement of the cytosine-guanine bonding, but there is almost no effect on the adenine-thymine pairing. The metal atoms can block one of the hydrogen-bonding sites, thus preventing the normal cytosine-guanine and adenine-thymine pairings. We also find that both silver and gold can bond to consecutive guanines in a similar fashion to platinum, albeit with a significantly lower binding energy.

  19. Shear bond strength of ceramic and metallic orthodontic brackets bonded with self-etching primer and conventional bonding adhesives (United States)

    Arash, Valiollah; Naghipour, Fatemeh; Ravadgar, Mehdi; Karkhah, Ahmad; Barati, Mohammad Saleh


    Introduction Adult patients typically require high-quality orthodontic treatment for ceramic brackets, but some clinicians remain concerned about the bond strength of these brackets. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the shear bond strength and de-bonding characteristics of metallic and ceramic brackets bonded with two types of bonding agents. Methods In an experimental study done in 2013 in Babol, Iran, 120 extracted human maxillary premolar teeth were randomly divided into four groups as follows: HM group: metallic bracket/conventional bonding agent; SM group: metallic bracket/Transbond self-etching primer; HC group: ceramic bracket/conventional bonding agent; SC group: ceramic bracket/Transbond self-etching primer. Twenty-four hours after thermocycling (1000 cycle, 5 °C–55 °C), the shear bond strength values were measured. The amount of resin remaining on the tooth surface (adhesive remnant index: ARI) was determined under a stereomicroscope. Enamel detachment index was evaluated under a scanning electron microscope. To perform statistical analysis, ANOVA, Kruskal–Wallis, and Tukey post-hoc tests were applied. The level of significance was set at p ceramic brackets. In addition, self-etching primer was able to produce fewer bonds compared with the conventional technique. Many samples showed the bracket-adhesive interface failure or failure inside the adhesive. PMID:28243410

  20. The Nature of the Hydrogen Bond Outline of a Comprehensive Hydrogen Bond Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gilli, Gastone


    Hydrogen bond (H-bond) effects are known: it makes sea water liquid, joins cellulose microfibrils in trees, shapes DNA into genes and polypeptide chains into wool, hair, muscles or enzymes. Its true nature is less known and we may still wonder why O-H...O bond energies range from less than 1 to more than 30 kcal/mol without apparent reason. This H-bond puzzle is re-examined here from its very beginning and presented as an inclusive compilation of experimental H-bond energies andgeometries.New concepts emerge from this analysis: new classes of systematically strong H-bonds (CAHBs and RAHBs: cha

  1. Nondestructive Characterization of Quantitative Bonding Strength at a Bonded Solid-Solid Interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-Jun; ZHANG De; MAO Yi-Wei; CHENG Jian-Chun


    @@ We propose a nondestructive method to characterize the quantitative bonding strength at a bonded solid-solid interface by a contact acoustic nonlinearity (CAN)microscope.The principle of the CAN microscope is briefly described.The vibration amplitude of the incident focusing wave at the bonded interface is calculated, the standard bonding strength with a complete bonding state is established by the tension test, and the CAN parameter is calibrated.The quantitative contour of bonding strength at the interface could be obtained.The experimental contours of two samples are also presented.

  2. Temperature effect in thermosonic wire bonding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yun-xin; LONG Zhi-li; HAN Lei; ZHONG Jue


    The temperature effect on bonding strength and ultrasonic transmission in a PZT transducer system was investigated. The results show that, the temperature change influences the material features of the bonding interface, such as elastic modulus, tensile strength of gold ball and Ag substrate, which results in different bonding strengths. Moreover, the temperature change also influences the impedance and dissipative ultrasonic energy in the PZT system. The current signal of PZT transducer was analyzed by join time-frequency analysis, which can reveal the current change in a bonding process more clearly and completely. The analysis shows that the bonding parameters influence mutually. These results can help build some criteria for parameter match and optimization in wire bonding processes.

  3. Thermal Conductance through Sapphire-Sapphire Bonding (United States)

    Suzuki, T.; Tomaru, T.; Haruyama, T.; Shintomi, T.; Uchinyama, T.; Miyoki, S.; Ohashi, M.; Kuroda, K.


    Thermal conductance on sapphire-sapphire bonded interface has been investigated. Two pieces of single crystal sapphire bar with square cross section were bonded together by adhesion free bonding. In two sections of the bar, thermal conductivity was measured between 5 K to 300K. One section contains a bonded interface and the other section measured a thermal conductivity of the sapphire as a reference. No significant thermal resistance due to bonded interface was found from this measurement. Obtained thermal conductivity reaches κ 1 × 104 [W/m·K] in temperature range of T = 20 ˜ 30 K which is a planned operating temperature of a cryogenic mirror of the Large scale Cryogenic Gravitational wave telescope. It looks promising for sapphire bonding technique to improve a heat transfer from a large cryogenic mirror to susp ension wires.

  4. Decomposing European bond and equity volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    The paper investigates volatility spillover from US and aggregate European asset markets into European national asset markets. A main contribution is that bond and equity volatilities are analyzed simultaneously. A new model belonging to the "volatilityspillover" family is suggested......: The conditional variance of e.g. the unexpected German stock return is divided into separate effects from the contemporaneous idiosyncratic variance of US bonds, US stocks, European bonds, European stocks, German bonds, and German stocks. Significant volatility-spillover effects are found. The national bond...... (stock) volatilities are mainly influenced by bond (stock) effects. Global, regional, and local volatility effects are all important. The introduction of the euro is associated with a structural break....

  5. Imaging Hydrogen Bond in Real Space

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiu; Liu, Lacheng; Liu, Xiaoqing; Cai, Yingxing; Liu, Nianhua; Wang, Li


    Hydrogen bond is often assumed to be a purely electrostatic interaction between a electron-deficient hydrogen atom and a region of high electron density. Here, for the first time, we directly image hydrogen bond in real space by room-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) with the assistance of resonant tunneling effect in double barrier mode. STM observations demonstrate that the C=O:HO hydrogen bonds lifted several angstrom meters above metal surfaces appear shuttle-like features with a significant contrast along the direction connected the oxygen and hydrogen atoms of a single hydrogen bond. The off-center location of the summit and the variance of the appearance height for the hydrogen bond with scanning bias reveal that there are certain hybridizations between the electron orbitals of the involved oxygen and hydrogen atoms in the C=O:HO hydrogen bond.

  6. Explosively Bonded Gun Tube Liner Development (United States)


    FOR OFFICIAL USE ONYLFGFF ARL-CR-0771 ● APR 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Explosively Bonded Gun Tube Liner Development...return it to the originator. ARL-CR-0771 ● APR 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Explosively Bonded Gun Tube Liner Development...COVERED (From - To) 12 January 2014–1 January 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Explosively Bonded Gun Tube Liner Development 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER ORISE 1120

  7. Bond percolation on isoradial graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Grimmett, Geoffrey


    In an investigation of percolation on isoradial graphs, we prove the criticality of canonical bond percolation on isoradial embeddings of planar graphs, thus extending celebrated earlier results for homogeneous and inhomogeneous square, triangular, and other lattices. This is achieved via the star-triangle transformation, by transporting the box-crossing property across the family of isoradial graphs. As a consequence, we obtain the universality of these models at the critical point, in the sense that the one-arm and 2j-alternating-arm critical exponents (and therefore also the connectivity and volume exponents) are constant across the family of such percolation processes. The isoradial graphs in question are those that satisfy certain weak conditions on their embedding and on their track system. This class of graphs includes, for example, isoradial embeddings of periodic graphs, and graphs derived from rhombic Penrose tilings.

  8. Financial Assets [share, bonds] & Ancylia (United States)

    Maksoed, Wh-


    Instead Elaine Scarry: "Thermonuclear monarchy" reinvent Carry Nation since Aug 17, 1965 the Republic of Indonesia's President speech: "Reach to the Star", for "cancellation" usually found in External Debt herewith retrieved from "the Window of theWorld": Ancylia, feast in March, a month named after Mars, the god of war. "On March 19 they used to put on their biggest performance of gymnastics in order to "bribe" their god for another good year", further we have vacancy & "vacuum tube"- Bulat Air karena Pembuluh, Bulat Kata karena Mufakat" proverb from Minangkabau, West Sumatra. Follows March 19, 1984 are first prototype flight of IAI Astra Jet as well as March 19, 2012 invoice accompanies Electric car Kujang-193, Fainancial Assets [share, bonds] are the answer for "infrastructure" & state owned enterprises assets to be hedged first initial debt per capita accordances. Heartfelt gratitudes to HE. Mr. Ir. Sarwono Kusumaatmadja/PT. Smartfren INDONESIA.

  9. Coherent Control of Bond Making

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Liat; Rybak, Leonid; Kosloff, Ronnie; Koch, Christiane P; Amitay, Zohar


    We demonstrate for the first time coherent control of bond making, a milestone on the way to coherent control of photo-induced bimolecular chemical reactions. In strong-field multiphoton femtosecond photoassociation experiments, we find the yield of detected magnesium dimer molecules to be enhanced for positively chirped pulses and suppressed for negatively chirped pulses. Our ab initio model shows that control is achieved by purification via Franck-Condon filtering combined with chirp-dependent Raman transitions. Experimental closed-loop phase optimization using a learning algorithm yields an improved pulse that utilizes vibrational coherent dynamics in addition to chirp-dependent Raman transitions. Our results show that coherent control of binary photo-reactions is feasible even under thermal conditions.

  10. Fusion bonding of silicon nitride surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Kasper; Østergaard, Christian; Thomsen, Erik Vilain


    While silicon nitride surfaces are widely used in many micro electrical mechanical system devices, e.g. for chemical passivation, electrical isolation or environmental protection, studies on fusion bonding of two silicon nitride surfaces (Si3N4–Si3N4 bonding) are very few and highly application...... specific. Often fusion bonding of silicon nitride surfaces to silicon or silicon dioxide to silicon surfaces is preferred, though Si3N4–Si3N4 bonding is indeed possible and practical for many devices as will be shown in this paper. We present an overview of existing knowledge on Si3N4–Si3N4 bonding and new...... results on bonding of thin and thick Si3N4 layers. The new results include high temperature bonding without any pretreatment, along with improved bonding ability achieved by thermal oxidation and chemical pretreatment. The bonded wafers include both unprocessed and processed wafers with a total silicon...

  11. Cold pressure welding - the mechanisms governing bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels


    Investigations of the bonding surface in scanning electron microscope after fracture confirm the mechanisms of bond formation in cold pressure welding to be: fracture of work-hardened surface layer, surface expansion increasing the area of virgin surface, extrusion of virgin material through cracks...... of the original surface layer, and establishment of real contact and bonding between virgin material. This implies that normal pressure as well as surface expansion are basic parameters governing the bond strength. Experimental investigations of pressure welding Al-Al under plane strain compression in a specially...

  12. DICOR surface treatments for enhanced bonding. (United States)

    Bailey, L F; Bennett, R J


    Treatments for preparing castable ceramic surfaces for enhanced bonding to specially formulated resin-based cements were examined. An ammonium bifluoride etch combined with gamma-methacryloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane produced shear bond strengths higher than when an ammonium bifluoride treatment was used alone. The method of curing the silane was highly significant in the contribution to the cement/substrate bond strength, with the heat-cure producing the highest values. Long-term water storage tests indicated that the cement bond with etch plus silane-treated castable ceramic surfaces (whether heat or chemically cured silane was used) demonstrated no significant decrease in strength after a one-year period.

  13. Evaluation of shear bond strength of porcelain bonded to laser welded titanium surface and determination of mode of bond failure. (United States)

    Patil, Narendra P; Dandekar, Minal; Nadiger, Ramesh K; Guttal, Satyabodh S


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of porcelain to laser welded titanium surface and to determine the mode of bond failure through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrophotometry (EDS). Forty five cast rectangular titanium specimens with the dimension of 10 mm x 8 mm x 1 mm were tested. Thirty specimens had a perforation of 2 mm diameter in the centre. These were randomly divided into Group A and B. The perforations in the Group B specimens were repaired by laser welding using Cp Grade II titanium wire. The remaining 15 specimens were taken as control group. All the test specimens were layered with low fusing porcelain and tested for shear bond strength. The debonded specimens were subjected to SEM and EDS. Data were analysed with 1-way analysis of variance and Student's t-test for comparison among the different groups. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed no statistically significant difference in shear bond strength values at a 5% level of confidence. The mean shear bond strength values for control group, Group A and B was 8.4 +/- 0.5 Mpa, 8.1 +/- 0.4 Mpa and 8.3 +/- 0.3 Mpa respectively. SEM/EDS analysis of the specimens showed mixed and cohesive type of bond failure. Within the limitations of the study laser welding did not have any effect on the shear bond strength of porcelain bonded to titanium.

  14. Are Bonding Agents being Effective on the Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Bonded to the Composite?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Farzanegan


    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the clinical problems in orthodontics is the bonding of brackets tocomposite restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bondstrength of brackets bonded to composite restorations using Excite. Methods:Forty brackets were bonded to composite surfaces, which were embedded inacrylic resin. One of the following four protocols was employed for surfacepreparation of the composite: group 1 37% phosphoric acid for 60 seconds, group2 roughening with a diamond bur plus 37% phosphoric acid for 60 seconds, group3 37% phosphoric acid for 60 seconds and the applying Excite®, group4 roughening with diamond bur plus 37% phosphoric acid for 60 seconds andapplying Excite®. Maxillary central brackets were bonded onto thecomposite prepared samples with Transbond XT. Shear Bond Strength (SBS wasmeasured by a universal testing machine. The ANOVA and Tukey test was utilizedfor data analysis. Results: There was a significant difference betweenthe four groups (P

  15. Using beryllium bonds to change halogen bonds from traditional to chlorine-shared to ion-pair bonds. (United States)

    Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José; Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel; Del Bene, Janet E


    Ab initio MP2/aug'-cc-pVTZ calculations have been carried out to investigate the structures, binding energies, and bonding characteristics of binary complexes HFBe:FCl, R2Be:FCl, and FCl:N-base, and of ternary complexes HFBe:FCl:N-base and R2Be:FCl:N-base for R = H, F, Cl; N-base = NH3, NHCH2, NCH. Dramatic synergistic cooperative effects have been found between the Be···F beryllium bonds and the Cl···N halogen bonds in ternary complexes. The Cl···N traditional halogen bonds and the Be···F beryllium bonds in binary complexes become significantly stronger in ternary complexes, while the F-Cl bond weakens. Charge-transfer from F to the empty p(σ) orbital of Be leads to a bending of the XYBe molecule and a change in the hybridization of Be, which in the limit becomes sp(2). As a function of the intrinsic basicity of the nitrogen base and the intrinsic acidity of the Be derivative, the halogen-bond type evolves from traditional to chlorine-shared to ion-pair bonds. The mechanism by which an ion-pair complex is formed is similar to that involved in the dissociative proton attachment process. EOM-CCSD spin-spin coupling constants (1X)J(Cl-N) across the halogen bond in these complexes also provide evidence of the same evolution of the halogen-bond type.

  16. Valence-Bond Concepts in Coordination Chemistry and the Nature of Metal-Metal Bonds. (United States)

    Pauling, Linus; Herman, Zelek S.


    Discusses the valence-bond method, applying it to some coordination compounds of metals, especially those involving metal-metal bonds. Suggests that transition metals can form as many as nine covalent bonds, permitting valence-theory to be extended to transition metal compounds in a more effective way than has been possible before. (JN)

  17. Comparison of Shear Bond Strengths of three resin systems for a Base Metal Alloy bonded to

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jlali H


    Full Text Available Resin-bonded fixed partial dentures (F.P.D can be used for conservative treatment of partially edentulous"npatients. There are numerous studies regarding the strength of resin composite bond to base meta! alloys. Shear bond"nstrength of three resin systems were invistigated. In this study these systems consisted of: Panavia Ex, Mirage FLC and"nMarathon V. Thirty base metal specimens were prepared from rexillium III alloy and divided into three groups. Then each"ngroup was bonded to enamel of human extracted molar teeth with these systems. All of specimens were stored in water at"n37ac for 48 hours. A shear force was applied to each specimen by the instron universal testing machine. A statistical"nevaluation of the data using one-way analysis of variance showed that there was highly significant difference (P<0.01"nbetween the bond strengths of these three groups."nThe base metal specimens bonded with panavia Ex luting agent, exhibited the highest mean bond strength. Shear bond"nstrength of the specimens bonded to enamel with Mirage F1C showed lower bond strenght than panavia EX. However, the"nlowest bond strength was obtained by the specimens bonded with Marathon V.

  18. Comprehensive analysis of individual pulp fiber bonds quantifies the mechanisms of fiber bonding in paper (United States)

    Hirn, Ulrich; Schennach, Robert


    The process of papermaking requires substantial amounts of energy and wood consumption, which contributes to larger environmental costs. In order to optimize the production of papermaking to suit its many applications in material science and engineering, a quantitative understanding of bonding forces between the individual pulp fibers is of importance. Here we show the first approach to quantify the bonding energies contributed by the individual bonding mechanisms. We calculated the impact of the following mechanisms necessary for paper formation: mechanical interlocking, interdiffusion, capillary bridges, hydrogen bonding, Van der Waals forces, and Coulomb forces on the bonding energy. Experimental results quantify the area in molecular contact necessary for bonding. Atomic force microscopy experiments derive the impact of mechanical interlocking. Capillary bridges also contribute to the bond. A model based on the crystal structure of cellulose leads to values for the chemical bonds. In contrast to general believe which favors hydrogen bonding Van der Waals bonds play the most important role according to our model. Comparison with experimentally derived bond energies support the presented model. This study characterizes bond formation between pulp fibers leading to insight that could be potentially used to optimize the papermaking process, while reducing energy and wood consumption.

  19. 77 FR 553 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Termination; Western Bonding Company (United States)


    ... Supplement No. 4 to the Treasury Department Circular 570; 2011 Revision, published July 1, 2011, at 76 FR... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Termination; Western Bonding Company AGENCY... Company (NAIC 13191) under 31 U.S.C. 9305 to qualify as an acceptable surety on Federal bonds...

  20. Strength Optimization of Thermally Bonded Spunbond Nonwovens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Fedorova, Ph.D


    Full Text Available Recent research on all aspects of thermally point bonded nonwovens has led to considerable improvements in the understanding of material requirements for these nonwovens, the changes that occur during bonding and the resultant deterioration of the mechanical properties of the nonwoven materials. This paper addresses how one may use a bicomponent fiber technology to overcome the shortcomings of the thermal bonding and obtain high strength spunbond fabrics. In particular, we present the utility of islands-in-the-sea (I/S bicomponent fibers for optimizing the strength of thermally bonded fabrics. To examine the role of various bonding temperatures on the fabric performance, pre-consolidated webs were formed and subsequently, thermally bonded. Thus, any influence introduced by potential variations in the structure was minimized. Point-bonded bicomponent samples made up of nylon-6 (N6 as the islands and low density polyethylene (PE as the sea showed great promise with respect to their mechanical properties, suggesting that the use of bicomponent fibers can be beneficial for strength optimization of thermally bonded spunbond nonwovens.

  1. Keeping U.S. Bonds in Hand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    U.S. bonds still comprise a major share of Chinese foreign reserves People are becoming increasingly uneasy about reports saying China is reducing its holdings of U.S.bonds. Currently, China is the sec-ond largest holder of U.S.

  2. Hydrogen bond dynamics in bulk alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinokita, Keisuke; Cunha, Ana V.; Jansen, Thomas L. C.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S., E-mail: [Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)


    Hydrogen-bonded liquids play a significant role in numerous chemical and biological phenomena. In the past decade, impressive developments in multidimensional vibrational spectroscopy and combined molecular dynamics–quantum mechanical simulation have established many intriguing features of hydrogen bond dynamics in one of the fundamental solvents in nature, water. The next class of a hydrogen-bonded liquid—alcohols—has attracted much less attention. This is surprising given such important differences between water and alcohols as the imbalance between the number of hydrogen bonds, each molecule can accept (two) and donate (one) and the very presence of the hydrophobic group in alcohols. Here, we use polarization-resolved pump-probe and 2D infrared spectroscopy supported by extensive theoretical modeling to investigate hydrogen bond dynamics in methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol employing the OH stretching mode as a reporter. The sub-ps dynamics in alcohols are similar to those in water as they are determined by similar librational and hydrogen-bond stretch motions. However, lower density of hydrogen bond acceptors and donors in alcohols leads to the appearance of slow diffusion-controlled hydrogen bond exchange dynamics, which are essentially absent in water. We anticipate that the findings herein would have a potential impact on fundamental chemistry and biology as many processes in nature involve the interplay of hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups.

  3. 25 CFR 225.30 - Bonds. (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS... Circular No. 570). (b) An operator may file a $75,000 bond for all geothermal, mining, or oil and gas... operator may file a $150,000 bond for full nationwide coverage to cover all geothermal or oil and...

  4. 40 CFR 280.98 - Surety bond. (United States)


    ... company issuing the bond must be among those listed as acceptable sureties on federal bonds in the latest... jointly and severally only for the purpose of allowing a joint action or actions against any or all of us... laws, statutes, rules, and regulations and agrees that no such amendment shall in any way alleviate...

  5. 78 FR 36029 - CDFI Bond Guarantee Program (United States)


    ... financed on a corporate finance basis (i.e., through a Credit Enhancement), any downgrade in the credit.... Bonds will be used to finance Bond Loans to Eligible CDFIs for Eligible Purposes for a period not to... financial strength, stability, durability and liquidity as reflected in its corporate credit ratings...

  6. 27 CFR 25.274 - Bond. (United States)


    ... is in effect. (b) Penal sum. The penal sum of a bond covering the premises of a pilot brewing plant... barrels by the rate of tax in 26 U.S.C. 5051. The penal sum of the bond (or total penal sum if...

  7. 25 CFR 226.6 - Bonds. (United States)


    ... the penal sum or not less than $50,000 may be filed on Form G covering all oil, gas and combination... of the bonds required under paragraph (a) of this section, a bond in the penal sum of $150,000 may...

  8. Traumatic Bonding: Clinical Implications in Incest. (United States)

    deYoung, Mary; Lowry, Judith A.


    "Traumatic bonding" is defined as "the evolution of emotional dependency between...a child and an adult [in] a relationship characterized by periodic sexual abuse." Maintains that the concept holds promise for explaining confusing dynamics of incest. Demonstrates ways in which traumatic bonding can be applied to cases of incest and discusses…

  9. Graphene composites containing chemically bonded metal oxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Pramoda; S Suresh; H S S Ramakrishna Matte; A Govindaraj


    Composites of graphene involving chemically bonded nano films of metal oxides have been prepared by reacting graphene containing surface oxygen functionalities with metal halide vapours followed by exposure to water vapour. The composites have been characterized by electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and other techniques. Magnetite particles chemically bonded to graphene dispersible in various solvents have been prepared and they exhibit fairly high magnetization.

  10. Hydrogen bonds in PC61BM solids (United States)

    Sheng, Chun-Qi; Li, Wen-Jie; Du, Ying-Ying; Chen, Guang-Hua; Chen, Zheng; Li, Hai-Yang; Li, Hong-Nian


    We have studied the hydrogen bonds in PC61BM solids. Inter-molecular interaction is analyzed theoretically for the well-defined monoclinic (P21/n) structure. The results indicate that PC61BM combines into C-H⋯Od bonded molecular chains, where Od denotes the doubly-bonded O atom of PC61BM. The molecular chains are linked together by C-H⋯Os bonds, where Os denotes the singly-bonded O atom of PC61BM. To reveal the consequences of hydrogen bond formation on the structural properties of PC61BM solids (not limited to the monoclinic structure), we design and perform some experiments for annealed samples with the monoclinic (P21/n) PC61BM as starting material. The experiments include differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and infrared absorption measurements. Structural phase transitions are observed below the melting point. The C-H⋯Od bonds seem persisting in the altered structures. The inter-molecular hydrogen bonds can help to understand the phase separation in polymer/PC61BM blends and may be responsible for the existence of liquid PC61BM.

  11. Bonds Issued to Bail Local Governments out

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen


    @@ First local bonds sold A total of RMB 3 billion (US$441.2 million) of bonds of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region government were successfully sold to underwriters through bidding,said the Chinese Ministry of Finance (MOF) on March 27.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bunyk


    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of the bond issue for the Diaspora as a source of financing of the national economy and a factor of development. We reveal the following factors driving demand in the diaspora bond market: targeting at a project, channels, audience and marketing. The paper shows international experience to attract migrants’ savings and use them to issue bonds. Investors consider diaspora bonds because: firstly, people who have disposable income, who can commit that income or that excess income to a long term investment should look at diaspora bonds: secondly, people who really want to participate in transforming the home country should look at diaspora bond specifically diaspora bonds related to projects: and last but not least, if there are incentives around diaspora bonds for example whether there’s tax incentive and other kinds of incentive, that also should be taken into account. Also we disclosed the possibility of using this type of securities in Ukraine and its expedience.

  13. Index Driven Price Pressure in Corporate Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens

    Inclusion and exclusion of bonds from major indices are information-free, monthly events. At these events, liquidity providers get a significant abnormal return by trading against index trackers. The return is highest for bonds that are excluded because of a recent downgrade with a one-day return...

  14. Measuring of bond. A comparative experimental research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluijm, R. van der


    In the framework of European test methods for masonry a simple test method for bond has to be established. The described research, carried out at Eindhoven University of Technology, tried to contribute to the development of such a test method. In this perspective, the research was focused on bond wr

  15. The Effect of Temperature on Shear Bond Strength of Clearfil SE Bond and Adper Single Bond Adhesive Systems to Dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Nouri


    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Monomer viscosity and solvent evaporation can be affected by the adhesive system temperature. Higher temperature can elevate the vapor pressure in solution and penetration of adhesive in smear layer. Bonding mechanism may be influenced by the adhesive temperature. Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of pre-heating on shear bond strength of etch-and-rinse and self-etching adhesives to ground bovine dentin surfaces, at temperatures of 4˚C, 25˚C and 40˚C. Materials and Method: In this experimental study, 60 maxillary bovine incisors were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=10. The central part of labial dentin surfaces was exposed with a diamond bur and standardized smear layer was creat-ed by using silicon carbide paper (600 grit under water-coolant while the specimens were mounted in acrylic resin. Two adhesive systems, an etch-and-rinse (Adper single bond and a self-etch (Clearfil SE Bond were stored at temperatures of 4˚C, 25˚C and 40˚C for 30 minutes and were then applied on the prepared labial surface according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The composite resin (Z350 was packed in Teflon mold (5 mm in diameter on this surface and was cured. The shear bond strength (MPa was evaluated by universal testing machine (Zwick/Roell Z020, Germany at cross head speed of 1mm/min. The results were statistically analyzed by using ANOVA and Tukey tests (p< 0.05. Results: No significant difference was found between the shear bond strength of Clearfil SE Bond adhesive in different temperature and single Bond adhesive sys-tem at 25 ̊C and 40 ̊C. However, there were significant differences between 4 ̊C of Adper single bond in comparison with 25˚C and 40˚C (p= 0.0001. Conclusion: Pre-heating did not affect the shear bond strength of SE Bond, but could promote the shear bond strength of Adper Single Bond.

  16. Bond diluted anisotropic quantum Heisenberg model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akıncı, Ümit, E-mail:


    Effects of the bond dilution on the critical temperatures, phase diagrams and the magnetization behaviors of the isotropic and anisotropic quantum Heisenberg model have been investigated in detail. For the isotropic case, bond percolation threshold values have been determined for several numbers of two (2D) and three (3D) dimensional lattices. In order to investigate the effect of the anisotropy in the exchange interaction on the results obtained for the isotropic model, a detailed investigation has been made on a honeycomb lattice. Some interesting results, such as second order reentrant phenomena in the phase diagrams have been found. - Highlights: • Anisotropic quantum Heisenberg model with bond dilution investigated. • Bond percolation threshold values given for 2D and 3D lattices in isotropic case. • Phase diagrams and ground state magnetizations investigated in detail. • Variation of the bond percolation threshold values with anisotropy determined.

  17. 1 mil gold bond wire study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne


    In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

  18. Hydrogen Bonds in Excited State Proton Transfer (United States)

    Horke, D. A.; Watts, H. M.; Smith, A. D.; Jager, E.; Springate, E.; Alexander, O.; Cacho, C.; Chapman, R. T.; Minns, R. S.


    Hydrogen bonding interactions between biological chromophores and their surrounding protein and solvent environment significantly affect the photochemical pathways of the chromophore and its biological function. A common first step in the dynamics of these systems is excited state proton transfer between the noncovalently bound molecules, which stabilizes the system against dissociation and principally alters relaxation pathways. Despite such fundamental importance, studying excited state proton transfer across a hydrogen bond has proven difficult, leaving uncertainties about the mechanism. Through time-resolved photoelectron imaging measurements, we demonstrate how the addition of a single hydrogen bond and the opening of an excited state proton transfer channel dramatically changes the outcome of a photochemical reaction, from rapid dissociation in the isolated chromophore to efficient stabilization and ground state recovery in the hydrogen bonded case, and uncover the mechanism of excited state proton transfer at a hydrogen bond, which follows sequential hydrogen and charge transfer processes.

  19. Atomic diffusion properties in wire bonding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun-hui; WANG Fu-liang; HAN Lei; DUAN Ji-an; ZHONG Jue


    The lift-off characteristics at the interface of thermosonic bond were observed by using scanning electron microscope (JSM-6360LV). The vertical section of bonding point was produced by punching, grinding and ion-sputter thinning, and was tested by using transmission electron microscope (F30). The results show that the atomic diffusion at the bonded interface appears. The thickness of Au/Al interface characterized by atomic diffusion is about 500 nm under ultrasonic and thermal energy. The fracture morphology of lift-off interface is dimples. The tensile fracture appears by pull-test not in bonded interface but in basis material, and the bonded strength at interface is enhanced by diffused atom from the other side.

  20. Halogen bonding origin properties and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobza, Pavel [Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 166 10 Prague (Czech Republic); Regional Center of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Physical Chemistry, Palacky University, 77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic)


    σ-hole bonding represents an unusual and novel type of noncovalent interactions in which atom with σ- hole interacts with Lewis base such as an electronegative atom (oxygen, nitrogen, …) or aromatic systems. This bonding is of electrostatic nature since the σ-hole bears a positive charge. Dispersion energy forms equally important energy term what is due to the fact that two heavy atoms (e.g. halogen and oxygen) having high polarizability lie close together (the respective distance is typically shorter than the sum of van der Waals radii). Among different types of σ-hole bondings the halogen bonding is by far the most known but chalcogen and pnictogen bondings are important as well.

  1. Effectiveness of simplified dentin bonding systems. (United States)

    Imai, T; Itoh, K; Tani, C; Manabe, A; Yamashita, T; Hisamitsu, H; Wakumoto, S


    The effectiveness of newly developed commercial dentin bonding systems (SB, MB II and KB) was evaluated by measuring the contraction gap width of a resin composite restored into a cylindrical dentin cavity prepared in an extracted human molar and by measuring the tensile bond strength to the flat dentin surface. In addition, calcium loss during dentin conditioning was analyzed using electron microanalyses. An experimental dentin bonding system composed of EDTA conditioning, GM solution priming and a bonding agent containing 10-MDP was employed as a control in which it was presumed that contraction gap formation was prevented completely. However, gap formation was observed using the three commercial simplified dentin bonding systems. SEM observation showed that the gap was formed between the resin composite and the top surface of the dentin cavity wall indicating that the fracture occurred at the adhesive interface, but never inside the dentin nor inside the resin composite.

  2. Redox-controlled hydrogen bonding: turning a superbase into a strong hydrogen-bond donor. (United States)

    Wild, Ute; Neuhäuser, Christiane; Wiesner, Sven; Kaifer, Elisabeth; Wadepohl, Hubert; Himmel, Hans-Jörg


    Herein the synthesis, structures and properties of hydrogen-bonded aggregates involving redox-active guanidine superbases are reported. Reversible hydrogen bonding is switched on by oxidation of the hydrogen-donor unit, and leads to formation of aggregates in which the hydrogen-bond donor unit is sandwiched by two hydrogen-bond acceptor units. Further oxidation (of the acceptor units) leads again to deaggregation. Aggregate formation is associated with a distinct color change, and the electronic situation could be described as a frozen stage on the way to hydrogen transfer. A further increase in the basicity of the hydrogen-bond acceptor leads to deprotonation reactions.

  3. PMMA to Polystyrene bonding for polymer based microfluidic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang


    A thermal bonding technique for Poly (methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) to Polystyrene (PS) is presented in this paper. The PMMA to PS bonding was achieved using a thermocompression method, and the bonding strength was carefully characterized. The bonding temperature ranged from 110 to 125 C with a varying compression force, from 700 to 1,000 N (0.36-0.51 MPa). After the bonding process, two kinds of adhesion quantification methods were used to measure the bonding strength: the double cantilever beam method and the tensile stress method. The results show that the bonding strength increases with a rising bonding temperature and bonding force. The results also indicate that the bonding strength is independent of bonding time. A deep-UV surface treatment method was also provided in this paper to lower the bonding temperature and compression force. Finally, a PMMA to PS bonded microfluidic device was fabricated successfully. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  4. Fundamental aspects of recoupled pair bonds. I. Recoupled pair bonds in carbon and sulfur monofluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, Thom H., E-mail:; Xu, Lu T.; Takeshita, Tyler Y. [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)


    The number of singly occupied orbitals in the ground-state atomic configuration of an element defines its nominal valence. For carbon and sulfur, with two singly occupied orbitals in their {sup 3}P ground states, the nominal valence is two. However, in both cases, it is possible to form more bonds than indicated by the nominal valence—up to four bonds for carbon and six bonds for sulfur. In carbon, the electrons in the 2s lone pair can participate in bonding, and in sulfur the electrons in both the 3p and 3s lone pairs can participate. Carbon 2s and sulfur 3p recoupled pair bonds are the basis for the tetravalence of carbon and sulfur, and 3s recoupled pair bonds enable sulfur to be hexavalent. In this paper, we report generalized valence bond as well as more accurate calculations on the a{sup 4}Σ{sup −} states of CF and SF, which are archetypal examples of molecules that possess recoupled pair bonds. These calculations provide insights into the fundamental nature of recoupled pair bonds and illustrate the key differences between recoupled pair bonds formed with the 2s lone pair of carbon, as a representative of the early p-block elements, and recoupled pair bonds formed with the 3p lone pair of sulfur, as a representative of the late p-block elements.

  5. Gap measurement and bond strength of five selected adhesive systems bonded to tooth structure. (United States)

    Arbabzadeh, F; Gage, J P; Young, W G; Shahabi, S; Swenson, S M


    The ability of a restorative material to bond and seal the interface with tooth structure is perhaps the most significant factor in determining resistance to marginal caries. Thus, the quality and durability of marginal seal and bond strength are major considerations in the selection of restorative materials. The purpose of this study was to compare the bond strength and marginal discrepancies of five adhesive systems: All-Bond 2, Clearfil Liner Bond, KB 200, ProBond and AELITE Bond. Twenty-five buccal and 25 lingual cavities were prepared in 25 caries-free extracted molar teeth, giving 10 cavities for each of the 5 adhesive systems. All teeth were restored with the resin composite Pertac Hybrid, or PRISMA Total Performance Hybrid with their appropriate adhesive systems. After restoration, the teeth were thermocycled, were stained with a 1.5% aqueous solution of a procion dye (reactive orange 14) and sectioned coronally with a saw microtome. Three sections of 200 microns thickness were prepared from each restoration which were then examined microscopically to measure marginal gap widths using a confocal tandem microscope. Shear bond strength measurements were carried out on the dentine bond using a universal testing machine. The All-Bond 2 adhesive system was found to have higher shear bond strength and to have the least gap width at the cementodentinal margin.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUMancai; SHIZuoqing; 等


    After a concise introduction of hydrogen bonding effects in solute-solute and solute-solvent bonding,the design of polymeric adsorbents based on hydrogen bonding ,selectivity in adsorption through hydrogen bonding,and characterization of hydrogen bonding in adsorption and separation were reviewed with 28 references.

  7. 31 CFR 316.6 - Purchase of bonds. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purchase of bonds. 316.6 Section 316....6 Purchase of bonds. Series E bonds were purchased, as follows: (a) Over-the-counter for cash—(1... purchase Series E bonds at banks or other financial institutions authorized to issue such bonds. Stamps...

  8. 31 CFR 346.3 - Purchase of bonds. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purchase of bonds. 346.3 Section 346... RETIREMENT BONDS § 346.3 Purchase of bonds. (a) Agencies. Individual Retirement Bonds may be purchased over... be able to arrange for the purchase of the bonds through such institutions, but only the...

  9. 48 CFR 28.105-2 - Patent infringement bonds. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent infringement bonds... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Bonds and Other Financial Protections 28.105-2 Patent infringement bonds. (a) Contracts providing for patent indemnity may require these bonds only if— (1)...

  10. 49 CFR 587.16 - Adhesive bonding procedure. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adhesive bonding procedure. 587.16 Section 587.16... Adhesive bonding procedure. Immediately before bonding, aluminum sheet surfaces to be bonded are thoroughly... the abrading process are removed, as these can adversely affect bonding. The adhesive is applied...

  11. The Effect of Post-Bond Heat Treatment on Tensile Property of Diffusion Bonded Austenitic Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sunghoon; Kim, Sung Kwan; Jang, Changheui [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sah, Injin [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Diffusion bonding is the key manufacturing process for the micro-channel type heat exchangers. In this study, austenitic alloys such as Alloy 800HT, Alloy 690, and Alloy 600, were diffusion bonded at various temperatures and the tensile properties were measured up to 650 ℃. Tensile ductility of diffusion bonded Alloy 800HT was significantly lower than that of base metal at all test temperatures. While, for Alloy 690 and Alloy 600, tensile ductility of diffusion bonded specimens was comparable to that of base metals up to 500 ℃, above which the ductility became lower. The poor ductility of diffusion bonded specimen could have caused by the incomplete grain boundary migration and precipitates along the bond-line. Application of post-bond heat treatment (PBHT) improved the ductility close to that of base metals up to 550 ℃. Changes in tensile properties were discussed in view of the microstructure in the diffusionbonded area.

  12. Bonding mechanism of ultrasonic wedge bonding of copper wire on Au/Ni/Cu substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yan-hong; WANG Chun-qing; Y. Norman ZHOU


    The ultrasonic wedge bonding with d25 μm copper wire was achieved on Au/Ni plated Cu substrate at ambient temperature. Ultrasonic wedge bonding mechanism was investigated by using SEM/EDX, pull test, shear test and microhardness test. The results show that the thinning of the Au layer occurs directly below the center of the bonding tool with the bonding power increasing. The interdiffusion between copper wire and Au metallization during the wedge bonding is assumed negligible, and the wedge bonding is achieved by wear action induced by ultrasonic vibration. The ultrasonic power contributes to enhance the deformation of copper wire due to ultrasonic softening effect which is then followed by the strain hardening of the copper wedge bonding.

  13. Bond strength of composite resin to pulp capping biomaterials after application of three different bonding systems. (United States)

    Jaberi-Ansari, Zahra; Mahdilou, Maryam; Ahmadyar, Maryam; Asgary, Saeed


    Background and aims. Bonding of composite resin filling materials to pulp protecting agents produces an adhesive joint which is important for the quality of filling as well as success of restoration. We aimed to assess the bond strength of composite resin to three pulp capping biomaterials: Pro Root mineral trioxide aggregate (PMTA), Root MTA (RMTA) and calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement, using three bonding systems [a total-etch (Single Bond) and two self-etch systems (Protect bond and SE Bond)]. Materials and methods. Ninety acrylic molds, each containing a 6×2-mm hole, were divided into 3 groups and filled with PMTA, RMTA and CEM cements. The samples in each experimental group were then randomly divided into 3 sub-groups; Single Bond, Protect Bond and SE Bond bonding systems were applied to the tested materials. Cylindrical forms of composite resin (Z100, 2×2 mm) were placed onto the samples and cured. Shear bond strength values were measured for 9 subgroups using a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA. Results. The average shear bond strengths of Z100 composite resin after application of Single Bond, Protect Bond and SE Bond systems were as follows; PMTA: 5.1±2.42, 4.56±1.96 and 4.52±1.7; RMTA: 4.71±1.77, 4.31±0.56 and 4.79±1.88; and CEM cement: 4.75±1.1, 4.54±1.59 and 4.64±1.78 MPa, respectively. The type of pulp capping material, bonding system and their interacting effects did not have a significant effect on the bond strengths of composite resin to pulp capping biomaterials. Conclusion. Within the limitations of this in vitrostudy, bond strength of composite resin to two types of MTA as well as CEM cement were similar following application of the total-etch or self-etch bonding systems.

  14. Bond strength of repaired amalgam restorations. (United States)

    Rey, Rosalia; Mondragon, Eduardo; Shen, Chiayi


    This in vitro study investigated the interfacial flexural strength (FS) of amalgam repairs and the optimal combination of repair materials and mechanical retention required for a consistent and durable repair bond. Amalgam bricks were created, each with 1 end roughened to expose a fresh surface before repair. Four groups followed separate repair protocols: group 1, bonding agent with amalgam; group 2, bonding agent with composite resin; group 3, mechanical retention (slot) with amalgam; and group 4, slot with bonding agent and amalgam. Repaired specimens were stored in artificial saliva for 1, 10, 30, 120, or 360 days before being loaded to failure in a 3-point bending test. Statistical analysis showed significant changes in median FS over time in groups 2 and 4. The effect of the repair method on the FS values after each storage period was significant for most groups except the 30-day storage groups. Amalgam-amalgam repair with adequate condensation yielded the most consistent and durable bond. An amalgam bonding agent could be beneficial when firm condensation on the repair surface cannot be achieved or when tooth structure is involved. Composite resin can be a viable option for amalgam repair in an esthetically demanding region, but proper mechanical modification of the amalgam surface and selection of the proper bonding system are essential.

  15. Protection of MOS capacitors during anodic bonding (United States)

    Schjølberg-Henriksen, K.; Plaza, J. A.; Rafí, J. M.; Esteve, J.; Campabadal, F.; Santander, J.; Jensen, G. U.; Hanneborg, A.


    We have investigated the electrical damage by anodic bonding on CMOS-quality gate oxide and methods to prevent this damage. n-type and p-type MOS capacitors were characterized by quasi-static and high-frequency CV-curves before and after anodic bonding. Capacitors that were bonded to a Pyrex wafer with 10 μm deep cavities enclosing the capacitors exhibited increased leakage current and interface trap density after bonding. Two different methods were successful in protecting the capacitors from such damage. Our first approach was to increase the cavity depth from 10 μm to 50 μm, thus reducing the electric field across the gate oxide during bonding from approximately 2 × 105 V cm-1 to 4 × 104 V cm-1. The second protection method was to coat the inside of a 10 μm deep Pyrex glass cavity with aluminium, forming a Faraday cage that removed the electric field across the cavity during anodic bonding. Both methods resulted in capacitors with decreased interface trap density and unchanged leakage current after bonding. No change in effective oxide charge or mobile ion contamination was observed on any of the capacitors in the study.

  16. Destination bonding: Hybrid cognition using Instagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup Kumar Baksi


    Full Text Available Empirical research has identified the phenomenon of destination bonding as a result of summated physical and emotional values associated with the destination. Physical values, namely natural landscape & other physical settings and emotional values, namely the enculturation processes, have a significant role to play in portraying visitors’ cognitive framework for destination preference. The physical values seemed to be the stimulator for bonding that embodies action or behavior tendencies in imagery. The emotional values were the conditions that lead to affective bonding and are reflected in attitudes for a place which were evident in text narratives. Social networking on virtual platforms offers the scope for hybrid cognitive expression using imagery and text to the visitors. Instagram has emerged as an application-window to capture these hybrid cognitions of visitors. This study focuses on assessing the relationship between hybrid cognition of visitors expressed via Instagram and their bond with the destination. Further to this, the study attempts to examine the impact of hybrid cognition of visitors on the behavioral pattern of prospective visitors to the destination. The study revealed that sharing of visual imageries and related text by the visitors is an expression of the physico-emotional bonding with the destination. It was further established that hybrid cognition strongly asserts destination bonding and has been also found to have moderating impact on the link between destination bonding and electronic-word-of-mouth.

  17. Rapid bonding of Pyrex glass microchips. (United States)

    Akiyama, Yoshitake; Morishima, Keisuke; Kogi, Atsuna; Kikutani, Yoshikuni; Tokeshi, Manabu; Kitamori, Takehiko


    A newly developed vacuum hot press system has been specially designed for the thermal bonding of glass substrates in the fabrication process of Pyrex glass microchemical chips. This system includes a vacuum chamber equipped with a high-pressure piston cylinder and carbon plate heaters. A temperature of up to 900 degrees C and a force of as much as 9800 N could be applied to the substrates in a vacuum atmosphere. The Pyrex substrates bonded with this system under different temperatures, pressures, and heating times were evaluated by tensile strength tests, by measurements of thickness, and by observations of the cross-sectional shapes of the microchannels. The optimal bonding conditions of the Pyrex glass substrates were 570 degrees C for 10 min under 4.7 N/mm(2) of applied pressure. Whereas more than 16 h is required for thermal bonding with a conventional furnace, the new system could complete the whole bonding processes within just 79 min, including heating and cooling periods. Such improvements should considerably enhance the production rate of Pyrex glass microchemical chips. Whereas flat and dust-free surfaces are required for conventional thermal bonding, especially without long and repeated heating periods, our hot press system could press a fine dust into glass substrates so that even the areas around the dust were bonded. Using this capability, we were able to successfully integrate Pt/Ti thin film electrodes into a Pyrex glass microchip.

  18. Atomically Bonded Transparent Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aytug, Tolga [ORNL


    Maintaining clarity and avoiding the accumulation of water and dirt on optically transparent surfaces such as US military vehicle windshields, viewports, periscope optical head windows, and electronic equipment cover glasses are critical to providing a high level of visibility, improved survivability, and much-needed safety for warfighters in the field. Through a combination of physical vapor deposition techniques and the exploitation of metastable phase separation in low-alkali borosilicate, a novel technology was developed for the fabrication of optically transparent, porous nanostructured silica thin film coatings that are strongly bonded to glass platforms. The nanotextured films, initially structurally superhydrophilic, exhibit superior superhydrophobicity, hence antisoiling ability, following a simple but robust modification in surface chemistry. The surfaces yield water droplet contact angles as high as 172°. Moreover, the nanostructured nature of these coatings provides increased light scattering in the UV regime and reduced reflectivity (i.e., enhanced transmission) over a broad range of the visible spectrum. In addition to these functionalities, the coatings exhibit superior mechanical resistance to abrasion and are thermally stable to temperatures approaching 500°C. The overall process technology relies on industry standard equipment and inherently scalable manufacturing processes and demands only nontoxic, naturally abundant, and inexpensive base materials. Such coatings, applied to the optical components of current and future combat equipment and military vehicles will provide a significant strategic advantage for warfighters. The inherent self-cleaning properties of such superhydrophobic coatings will also mitigate biofouling of optical windows exposed to high-humidity conditions and can help decrease repair/replacement costs, reduce maintenance, and increase readiness by limiting equipment downtime.

  19. Does fluorine participate in halogen bonding? (United States)

    Eskandari, Kiamars; Lesani, Mina


    When R is sufficiently electron withdrawing, the fluorine in the R-F molecules could interact with electron donors (e.g., ammonia) and form a noncovalent bond (F⋅⋅⋅N). Although these interactions are usually categorized as halogen bonding, our studies show that there are fundamental differences between these interactions and halogen bonds. Although the anisotropic distribution of electronic charge around a halogen is responsible for halogen bond formations, the electronic charge around the fluorine in these molecules is spherical. According to source function analysis, F is the sink of electron density at the F⋅⋅⋅N BCP, whereas other halogens are the source. In contrast to halogen bonds, the F⋅⋅⋅N interactions cannot be regarded as lump-hole interactions; there is no hole in the valence shell charge concentration (VSCC) of fluorine. Although the quadruple moment of Cl and Br is mainly responsible for the existence of σ-holes, it is negligibly small in the fluorine. Here, the atomic dipole moment of F plays a stabilizing role in the formation of F⋅⋅⋅N bonds. Interacting quantum atoms (IQA) analysis indicates that the interaction between halogen and nitrogen in the halogen bonds is attractive, whereas it is repulsive in the F⋅⋅⋅N interactions. Virial-based atomic energies show that the fluorine, in contrast to Cl and Br, stabilize upon complex formation. According to these differences, it seems that the F⋅⋅⋅N interactions should be referred to as "fluorine bond" instead of halogen bond.

  20. Expected Business Conditions and Bond Risk Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jonas Nygaard


    This paper studies the predictability of bond risk premia by means of expectations to future business conditions using survey forecasts from the Survey of Professional Forecasters. We show that expected business conditions consistently affect excess bond returns and that the inclusion of expected...... business conditions in standard predictive regressions improve forecast performance relative to models using information derived from the current term structure or macroeconomic variables. The results are confirmed in a real-time out-of-sample exercise, where the models predictive accuracy are evaluated...... both statistically and from the perspective of a mean-variance investor that trades in the bond market....

  1. Expected Business Conditions and Bond Risk Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jonas Nygaard

    This paper studies the predictability of bond risk premia by means of expectations to future business conditions using survey forecasts from the Survey of Professional Forecasters. We show that expected business conditions consistently affect excess bond returns and that the inclusion of expected...... business conditions in standard predictive regressions improve forecast performance relative to models using information derived from the current term structure or macroeconomic variables. The results are confirmed in a real-time out-of-sample exercise, where the predictive accuracy of the models...... is evaluated both statistically and from the perspective of a mean-variance investor that trades in the bond market....

  2. Mechatronic modeling and simulation using bond graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Shuvra


    Bond graphs are especially well-suited for mechatronic systems, as engineering system modeling is best handled using a multidisciplinary approach. Bond graphing permits one to see the separate components of an engineering system as a unified whole, and allows these components to be categorized under a few generalized elements, even when they come from different disciplines. In addition to those advantages, the bond graph offers a visual representation of a system from which derivation of the governing equations is algorithmic. This makes the design process accessible to beginning readers, prov

  3. Solitons on H bonds in proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d'Ovidio, F.; Bohr, H.G.; Lindgård, Per-Anker


    system shows that the solitons are spontaneously created and are stable and moving along the helix axis. A perturbation on one of the three H-bond lines forms solitons on the other H bonds as well. The robust solitary wave may explain very long-lived modes in the frequency range of 100 cm(-1) which...... are found in recent x-ray laser experiments. The dynamics parameters of the Toda lattice are in accordance with the usual Lennard-Jones parameters used for realistic H-bond potentials in proteins....

  4. 76 FR 12364 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Bonded Warehouse Regulations (United States)


    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Bonded Warehouse... Bonded Warehouse Regulations. This request for comment is being made pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction... concerning the following information collection: Title: Bonded Warehouse Regulations. OMB Number:...

  5. Composite Bonding to Stainless Steel Crowns Using a New Universal Bonding and Single-Bottle Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Hattan


    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study is to evaluate the shear bond strength of nanocomposite to stainless steel crowns using a new universal bonding system. Material and Methods. Eighty (80 stainless steel crowns (SSCs were divided into four groups (20 each. Packable nanocomposite was bonded to the lingual surface of the crowns in the following methods: Group A without adhesive (control group, Group B using a new universal adhesive system (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive, 3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany, and Group C and Group D using two different brands of single-bottle adhesive systems. Shear bond strengths were calculated and the types of failure also were recorded. Results. The shear strength of Group B was significantly greater than that of other groups. No significant differences were found between the shear bond strengths of Groups C and D. The control group had significantly lower shear bond strength ( to composite than the groups that utilized bonding agents. Conclusion. Composites bonding to stainless steel crowns using the new universal bonding agent (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive, 3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany show significantly greater shear bond strengths and fewer adhesive failures when compared to traditional single-bottle systems.

  6. Fatigue de-bond growth in adhesively bonded single lap joints

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Sahoo; B Dattaguru; C M Manjunatha; C R L Murthy


    The fatigue de-bond growth studies have been conducted on adhesively bonded lap joint specimens between aluminium and aluminium with Redux-319A adhesive with a pre-defined crack of 3 mm at the bond end. The correlations between fracture parameters and the de-bond growth data are established using both numerical and experimental techniques. In the numerical method, geometrically non-linear finite element analyses were carried out on adhesively bonded joint specimen for various de-bond lengths measured from the lap end along the mid-bond line of the adhesive. The finite element results were post processed to estimate the SERR components $G_I$ and $G_{II}$ using the Modified Virtual Crack Closure Integral (MVCCI) procedure. In experimental work, specimens were fabricated and fatigue de-bond growth tests were conducted at a stress ratio $R = −1$. The results obtained from both numerical analyses and testing have been used to generate de-bond growth curve and establish de-bond growth law in the Paris regime for such joints. The de-bond growth rate is primarily function of mode-I SERR component $G_I$ since the rate of growth in shear mode is relatively small. The value of Paris exponent is found to be 6.55. The high value of de-bond growth exponent in Paris regime is expected, since the adhesive is less ductile than conventional metallic materials. This study is important for estimating the life of adhesively bonded joints under both constant and variable amplitude fatigue loads.

  7. Shear bond strength of partial coverage restorations to dentin


    Román Rodríguez, Juan Luis; Agustín Panadero, Rubén; Alonso Pérez Barquero, Jorge; Fons Font, Antonio; Solá Ruiz, María Fernanda


    Background When partial coverage restorations (veneers, inlays, onlays…) must be cemented to dentin, bond strength may not reach the same predictable values as to enamel. The purpose of this study was: 1. To compare, with a shear bond test, the bond strength to dentin of a total-etch and a self-etching bonding agent. 2. To determine whether creating microretention improves the bond strength to dentin. Material and Methods Two bonding agents were assayed, Optibond FL® (Kerr), two-bottle adhesi...

  8. Hydrogen bond dynamics in bulk alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shinokita, Keisuke; Cunha, Ana V.; Jansen, Thomas L. C.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.


    Hydrogen-bonded liquids play a significant role in numerous chemical and biological phenomena. In the past decade, impressive developments in multidimensional vibrational spectroscopy and combined molecular dynamics-quantum mechanical simulation have established many intriguing features of hydrogen

  9. The correlation theory of the chemical bond

    CERN Document Server

    Szalay, Szilárd; Szilvási, Tibor; Veis, Libor; Legeza, Örs


    The notion of chemical bond is a very useful concept in chemistry. It originated at the beginning of chemistry, it is expressive for the classically thinking mind, and the errors arising from the approximative nature of the concept can often be ignored. In the first half of the twentieth century, however, we learned that the proper description of the microworld is given by quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics gives more accurate results for chemical systems than any preceding model, however, it is very inexpressive for the classically thinking mind. The quantum mechanical description of the chemical bond is given in terms of delocalized bonding orbitals, or, alternatively, in terms of correlations of occupations of localized orbitals. However, in the latter case, multiorbital correlations were treated only in terms of two-orbital correlations, although the structure of multiorbital correlations is far richer; and, in the case of bonds established by more than two electrons, multiorbital correlations represent...

  10. Ultrasonic Characterization of Interfaces in Composite Bonds (United States)

    Wang, N.; Lobkis, O. I.; Rokhlin, S. I.; Cantrell, J. H.


    The inverse determination of imperfect interfaces from reflection spectra of normal and oblique incident ultrasonic waves in adhesive bonds of multidirectional composites is investigated. The oblique measurements are complicated by the highly dispersed nature of oblique wave spectra at frequencies above 3MHz. Different strategies for bond property reconstruction, including a modulation method, are discussed. The relation of measured interfacial spring density to the physico-chemical model of a composite interface described by polymer molecular bonds to emulate loss of molecular strength on an adhesive composite interface is discussed. This potentially relates the interfacial (adhesion) strength (number of bonds at the adhesive substrate interface) to the spring constant (stiffness) area density (flux), which is an ultrasonically measurable parameter.

  11. Handbook of adhesive bonded structural repair

    CERN Document Server

    Wegman, Raymond F


    Provides repair methods for adhesive bonded and composite structures; identifies suitable materials and equipment for repairs; describes damage evaluation criteria and techniques, and methods of inspection before and after repair.

  12. Hydrolyzable polyureas bearing hindered urea bonds. (United States)

    Ying, Hanze; Cheng, Jianjun


    Hydrolyzable polymers are widely used materials that have found numerous applications in biomedical, agricultural, plastic, and packaging industrials. They usually contain ester and other hydrolyzable bonds, such as anhydride, acetal, ketal, or imine, in their backbone structures. Here, we report the first design of hydrolyzable polyureas bearing dynamic hindered urea bonds (HUBs) that can reversibly dissociate to bulky amines and isocyanates, the latter of which can be further hydrolyzed by water, driving the equilibrium to facilitate the degradation of polyureas. Polyureas bearing 1-tert-butyl-1-ethylurea bonds that show high dynamicity (high bond dissociation rate), in the form of either linear polymers or cross-linked gels, can be completely degraded by water under mild conditions. Given the simplicity and low cost for the production of polyureas by simply mixing multifunctional bulky amines and isocyanates, the versatility of the structures, and the tunability of the degradation profiles of HUB-bearing polyureas, these materials are potentially of very broad applications.

  13. Water, Hydrogen Bonding and the Microwave Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.


    Full Text Available n this work, the properties of the water are briefly revisited. Though liquid water has a fleeting structure, it displays an astonishingly stable network of hydrogen bonds. Thus, even as a liquid, water possesses a local lattice with short range order. The presence of hydroxyl (O-H and hydrogen (H....OH2 bonds within water, indicate that it can simultaneously maintain two separate energy systems. These can be viewed as two very different temperatures. The analysis presented uses results from vibrational spec- troscopy, extracting the force constant for the hydrogen bonded dimer. By idealizing this species as a simple diatomic structure, it is shown that hydrogen bonds within wa- ter should be able to produce thermal spectra in the far infrared and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. This simple analysis reveals that the oceans have a physical mechanism at their disposal, which is capable of generating the microwave background.

  14. On the photostability of the disulfide bond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephansen, Anne Boutrup; Larsen, Martin Alex Bjørn; Klein, Liv Bærenholdt;


    Photostability is an essential property of molecular building blocks of nature. Disulfides are central in the structure determination of proteins, which is in striking contradiction to the result that the S-S bond is a photochemically labile structural entity that cleaves to form free radicals upon...... on a sub 50 fs timescale without further ado. In a cyclic motif resembling the cysteine-disulfide bond in proteins, light can perturb the S-S bond to generate short-lived diradicaloid species, but the sulfur atoms are conformationally restricted by the ring that prevents the sulfur atoms from flying apart...... the photostability of disulfide-bonds must be ascribed a cyclic structural arrangement....

  15. Definition and Application of Topological Index Based on Bond Connectivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhen-dong; YANG Feng; YANG Hai-lang; LUO Ming-dao; QU Song-sheng


    Bond connectivity topological index Si based on chemical bonds was defined by using a matrix method.And Si is formed by atomic parameters such as the number of valence electrons,the number of the highest main quantum of atoms and the bonding electrons and bond parameters such as the length of bonds,the electronegativity difference of bonding atoms.The molecular bond connectivity topological index S is composed of Si.The thermodynamic properties of saturated hydrocarbons,unsaturated hydrocarbons,oxygen organic,methane halide and transitional element compounds and the molecular bond connectivity topological index S have an optimal correlative relationship.

  16. Direct bonding applied to space maintenance. (United States)

    Swaine, T J; Wright, G Z


    Based on the conditions of this study, the following conclusions were reached: A success rate of 70 percent seems to justify further investigation into direct bonded space maintainers. A space maintainer directly bonded to the buccal surfaces seems to be efficient in maintaining single tooth spaces. Primary-to-primary appliances were more successful than the primary-to-permanent appliances, which suggests that incomplete first permanent molar eruption and a posterior location affect appliance durability.

  17. Bond diluted Ising model in 2D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouamrane Rachid


    Full Text Available The bond diluted Ising model is studied by Monte Carlo method. The simulation is carried out on a two dimensional square lattice with missing bonds and free boundary conditions. The aim of this work is to investigate the thermodynamical properties of this model for different disorder degree parameter σ. The critical temperature is determined from the Binder cumulant and is shown to decreases as the disorder parameter σ increases linearly.

  18. Cure Monitoring Techniques for Adhesive Bonding Techniques. (United States)


    Dissipation Factor 21 Derived From Audrey and Phasemeter Data for PH-73 Ad- hesive. Filled symbols represent positive values of tanq .; hollow symbols...bonded joint. Since the absorption of water is a slow diffusion controlled process, it was decided to test the idea by iomursing a siulated bondline in... water . A series of probed bonds (probe 1/4" x 2ŕ) were fabricated between aluminum adherends with a layer of FE? film adjacent to each adherend. This

  19. Central bank purchases of government bonds


    Huber, Samuel; Kim, Jaehong


    We develop a microfounded model, where agents have the possibility to trade money for government bonds in an over-the-counter market. It allows us to address important open questions about the effects of central bank purchases of government bonds, these being: under what conditions these purchases can be welfare-improving, what incentive problems they mitigate, and how large these effects are. Our main finding is that this policy measure can be welfare-improving, by correcting a pecuniary ext...

  20. Why Local Bonds Failed to Sell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Central Government is allowing all provincial governments to issue local bonds to help finance the construction of public welfare facilities. But so far investors haven’t shown much interest in the bonds-the first of their kind to be issued in China. Ni Xiaolin, a senior commentator at Xinhua News Agency, discusses why in the following article she wrote for Beijing Review.

  1. A valence bond study of three-center four-electron pi bonding: electronegativity vs electroneutrality. (United States)

    DeBlase, Andrew; Licata, Megan; Galbraith, John Morrison


    Three-center four-electron (3c4e) pi bonding systems analogous to that of the ozone molecule have been studied using modern valence bond theory. Molecules studied herein consist of combinations of first row atoms C, N, and O with the addition of H atoms where appropriate in order to preserve the 3c4e pi system. Breathing orbital valence bond (BOVB) calculations were preformed at the B3LYP/6-31G**-optimized geometries in order to determine structural weights, pi charge distributions, resonance energies, and pi bond energies. It is found that the most weighted VB structure depends on atomic electronegativity and charge distribution, with electronegativity as the dominant factor. By nature, these systems are delocalized, and therefore, resonance energy is the main contributor to pi bond energies. Molecules with a single dominant VB structure have low resonance energies and therefore low pi bond energies.

  2. Molecular model with quantum mechanical bonding information. (United States)

    Bohórquez, Hugo J; Boyd, Russell J; Matta, Chérif F


    The molecular structure can be defined quantum mechanically thanks to the theory of atoms in molecules. Here, we report a new molecular model that reflects quantum mechanical properties of the chemical bonds. This graphical representation of molecules is based on the topology of the electron density at the critical points. The eigenvalues of the Hessian are used for depicting the critical points three-dimensionally. The bond path linking two atoms has a thickness that is proportional to the electron density at the bond critical point. The nuclei are represented according to the experimentally determined atomic radii. The resulting molecular structures are similar to the traditional ball and stick ones, with the difference that in this model each object included in the plot provides topological information about the atoms and bonding interactions. As a result, the character and intensity of any given interatomic interaction can be identified by visual inspection, including the noncovalent ones. Because similar bonding interactions have similar plots, this tool permits the visualization of chemical bond transferability, revealing the presence of functional groups in large molecules.

  3. Dilemmas in zirconia bonding: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović-Đuričić Kosovka


    Full Text Available This article presents a literature review on the resin bond to zirconia ceramic. Modern esthetic dentistry has highly recognized zirconia, among other ceramic materials. Biocompatibility of zirconia, chemical and dimensional stability, excellent mechanical properties, all together could guarantee optimal therapeutical results in complex prosthodontic reconstruction. On the other hand, low thermal degradation, aging of zirconia as well as problematic bonding of zirconia framework to dental luting cements and tooth structures, opened the room for discussion concerning their clinical durability. The well known methods of mechanical and chemical bonding used on glass-ceramics are not applicable for use with zirconia. Therefore, under critical clinical situations, selection of the bonding mechanism should be focused on two important points: high initial bond strength value and long term bond strength between zirconia-resin interface. Also, this paper emphases the use of phosphate monomer luting cements on freshly air-abraded zirconia as the simplest and most effective way for zirconia cementation procedure today.

  4. Failure of dissimilar material bonded joints (United States)

    Konstantakopoulou, M.; Deligianni, A.; Kotsikos, G.


    Joining of materials in structural design has always been a challenge for engineers. Bolting and riveting has been used for many years, until the emergence of fusion welding which revolutionised construction in areas such as shipbuilding, automotive, infrastructure and consumer goods. Extensive research in the past 50 years has resulted in better understanding of the process and minimised the occurrence of failures associated with fusion welding such as, residual stress cracking, stress corrosion and corrosion fatigue cracking, localised reduction in mechanical properties due to microstructural changes (heat affected zone) etc. Bonding has been a technique that has been proposed as an alternative because it eliminates several of the problems associated with fusion welding. But, despite some applications it has not seen wide use. There is however a renewed interest in adhesively bonded joints, as designers look for ever more efficient structures which inevitably leads to the use and consequently joining of combinations of lightweight materials, often with fundamentally different mechanical and physical properties. This chapter provides a review of adhesively bonded joints and reports on improvements to bonded joint strength through the introduction of carbon nanotubes at the bond interface. Results from various workers in the field are reported as well as the findings of the authors in this area of research. It is obvious that there are several challenges that need to be addressed to further enhance the strength of bonded joints and worldwide research is currently underway to address those shortcomings and build confidence in the implementation of these new techniques.

  5. Correlation of Fe2+ isomer shifts with bond lengths and bond strengths in neso- and sorosilicates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李哲; E.DeGrave


    An evaluation of Mbssbauer isomer shift and quadrupole splitting data of Fe2+ in a number of structurally well characterized neso- and sorosilicates is presented. It is found that the nearly linear correlations exist both between the isomer shift and the bond length and between the isomer shift and the bond strength. These correlations are discussed on the basis of the variation of the s-electron density at the Fe2+ nuclei with the chemical bond characteristics.

  6. The Influence of Carbon Nanotube and Roll Bonding Parameters on the Bond Strength of Al Sheets (United States)

    Samadzadeh, Mahmoud; Toroghinejad, Mohammad Reza


    This study investigates the bond strength of aluminum sheets subjected to the roll bonding process in the presence of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The effects of MWCNTs dispersion, thickness reduction, weight fraction of MWCNTs at the interface, and rolling temperature on the bond strength of the commercial pure aluminum sheets are studied. The peeling test is used to evaluate the bond strength of aluminum sheets. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy are also used to evaluate the surface conditions of the peeled surfaces. Results indicate that, compared to the spread method, using the solution dispersion method to disperse MWCNTs reduces aluminum sheet's bond strength. Also, the presence of MWCNTs reduces the sheet's bond strength compared to aluminum sheets at a constant thickness reduction. However, bond strength is increased with higher thickness reductions in the presence or absence of MWCNTs. It is also shown that increasing the entry temperature improves bond strength, but that bond strength enhancement is lower in aluminum-MWCNTs sheets than in aluminum-aluminum sheets.

  7. Bond strength, bond stress and spallation mechanisms of thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gell, M.; Krishnakumar, V.; McCarron, K.; Barber, B.; Sohn, Y.-H. [Connecticut Univ., Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Metall. and Mater. Eng.; Eric, J. [Connecticut Univ., Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Tolpygo, V.K.


    Five production thermal barrier coatings were thermally cycled between room temperature and 1121 C (2050 F) to determine relative spallation life. Bond strength measurements were made using a modified ASTM direct pull-test. Bond stress measurements were made in the thermally grown oxide using a laser photoluminescence technique. Bond strength and bond stress measurements were conducted on two electron beam physical vapor deposition coatings as a function of thermal cycling. Each coating showed characteristic values of as-coated strength and stress and changes in strength and stress with thermal cycling. These variations in strength and stress with thermal cycling are related to oxidation and micro-debonding effects. (orig.)

  8. Microtensile Bond Strength of Single Bond and Adper Prompt-L-Pop Adhesives to Dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Alizadeh Oskoee


    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength to sound and caries-affected dentin using Single Bond and Adper Prompt-L-Pop adhesives.Materials and Methods: Sixteen extracted human molars with carious lesions extended halfway through dentin were ground to expose the caries affected and the surrounding normal dentin. The samples were divided into two groups of eight samples each, including Single Bond (two-step etch and rinse and Adper Prompt-L-Pop (one step self-etch. Z-100 (3M was used for composite build-ups. The teeth were then sectioned and prepared for micro tensile bond strength test, at cross head speed of 1.5 mm/min. Data were ana-lyzed by 1- and 2-way ANOVA.Results: Bond strengths of Single Bond and Adper Prompt-L-Pop adhesives to sound den-tin were significantly higher than to the caries-affected one (P<0.001, besides, bond strength of Single Bond to dentin was generally found to be higher than Adper Prompt-L-Pop adhesive (P<0.001.The interaction effect was not significant (P=0.116Conclusion: Bond strength to caries-affected dentin was compromised when one and two step adhesives were used.

  9. Modern ab initio valence bond theory calculations reveal charge shift bonding in protic ionic liquids. (United States)

    Patil, Amol Baliram; Bhanage, Bhalchandra Mahadeo


    The nature of bonding interactions between the cation and the anion of an ionic liquid is at the heart of understanding ionic liquid properties. A particularly interesting case is a special class of ionic liquids known as protic ionic liquids. The extent of proton transfer in protic ionic liquids has been observed to vary according to the interacting species. Back proton transfer renders protic ionic liquids volatile and to be considered as inferior ionic liquids. We try to address this issue by employing modern ab initio valence bond theory calculations. The results indicate that the bonding in the cation and the anion of a prototypical ionic liquid, ethylammonium nitrate, is fundamentally different. It is neither characteristic of covalent/polar covalent bonding nor ionic bonding but rather charge shift bonding as a resonance hybrid of two competing ionic molecular electronic structure configurations. An investigation of other analogous protic ionic liquids reveals that this charge shift bonding seems to be a typical characteristic of protic ionic liquids while the ionic solid analogue compound ammonium nitrate has less charge shift bonding character as compared to protic ionic liquids. Further the extent of charge shift bonding character has been found to be congruent with the trends in many physicochemical properties such as melting point, conductivity, viscosity, and ionicity of the studied ionic liquids indicating that percentage charge shift character may serve as a key descriptor for large scale computational screening of ionic liquids with desired properties.

  10. Bonding to a porcelain surface: Factors affecting the shear bond strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishir Singh


    Full Text Available Objectives: Bonding to porcelain veneers, crowns or restorations is a major challenge for an orthodontist. A study was undertaken wherein, the shear bond strengths of metal and ceramic brackets on porcelain were compared and the effects of debonding on the debonded surfaces were evaluated. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 acrylic duplicate samples were fabricated from a therapeutically extracted maxillary first premolar, duly prepared for metal crown with porcelain facing. The samples were divided into two equal groups for bonding of metal and ceramic brackets. The shear bond strength of the samples was measured with a universal testing machine. Results: The metal brackets showed shear bond strengths with a mean of 12.21 ± 1.4 MPa, whereas the ceramic brackets displayed shear bond strengths with a mean of 17.45 ± 2.36 MPa. Visual and scanning electron microscope examination revealed multiple failure patterns with more of porcelain fractures in the ceramic brackets group. Conclusion: Bonding of metal and ceramic brackets to porcelain can be achieved with bond strengths comparable to that when bonded to enamel surface. Porcelain fractures are more commonly associated with debonding of ceramic brackets.

  11. Numerical simulation on influence of bonding temperature in transient liquid phase bonding (United States)

    Hynes, N. Rajesh Jesudoss; Raja, M. Karthick


    In this article, numerical simulation of transient liquid phase bonding of ceramic/metal joint has been carried out by using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software. To increase the wettability, aluminium sheet was used as an interlayer. Hence, numerical simulation of TLP bonding process is done by varying the bonding temperature. Transient thermal analysis had been carried out for each cases and temperature distribution was predicted by the developed numerical model. From the simulation studies, it is found that the decrease in bonding temperature enhances favourable temperature distribution and eventually improves the joint efficiency of graphite/copper joints.

  12. The pnicogen bond: its relation to hydrogen, halogen, and other noncovalent bonds. (United States)

    Scheiner, Steve


    Among a wide range of noncovalent interactions, hydrogen (H) bonds are well known for their specific roles in various chemical and biological phenomena. When describing conventional hydrogen bonding, researchers use the notation AH···D (where A refers to the electron acceptor and D to the donor). However, the AH molecule engaged in a AH···D H-bond can also be pivoted around by roughly 180°, resulting in a HA···D arrangement. Even without the H atom in a bridging position, this arrangement can be attractive, as explained in this Account. The electron density donated by D transfers into a AH σ* antibonding orbital in either case: the lobe of the σ* orbital near the H atom in the H-bonding AH···D geometry, or the lobe proximate to the A atom in the HA···D case. A favorable electrostatic interaction energy between the two molecules supplements this charge transfer. When A belongs to the pnictide family of elements, which include phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, and bismuth, this type of interaction is called a pnicogen bond. This bonding interaction is somewhat analogous to the chalcogen and halogen bonds that arise when A is an element in group 16 or 17, respectively, of the periodic table. Electronegative substitutions, such as a F for a H atom opposite the electron donor atom, strengthen the pnicogen bond. For example, the binding energy in FH(2)P···NH(3) greatly exceeds that of the paradigmatic H-bonding water dimer. Surprisingly, di- or tri-halogenation does not produce any additional stabilization, in marked contrast to H-bonds. Chalcogen and halogen bonds show similar strength to the pnicogen bond for a given electron-withdrawing substituent. This insensitivity to the electron-acceptor atom distinguishes these interactions from H-bonds, in which energy depends strongly upon the identity of the proton-donor atom. As with H-bonds, pnicogen bonds can extract electron density from the lone pairs of atoms on the partner molecule, such as N, O, and

  13. Crack growth monitoring at CFRP bond lines (United States)

    Rahammer, M.; Adebahr, W.; Sachse, R.; Gröninger, S.; Kreutzbruck, M.


    With the growing need for lightweight technologies in aerospace and automotive industries, fibre-reinforced plastics, especially carbon-fibre (CFRP), are used with a continuously increasing annual growth rate. A promising joining technique for composites is adhesive bonding. While rivet holes destroy the fibres and cause stress concentration, adhesive bond lines distribute the load evenly. Today bonding is only used in secondary structures due to a lack of knowledge with regard to long-term predictability. In all industries, numerical simulation plays a critical part in the development process of new materials and structures, while it plays a vital role when it comes to CFRP adhesive bondings conducing the predictability of life time and damage tolerance. The critical issue with adhesive bondings is crack growth. In a dynamic tensile stress testing machine we dynamically load bonded CFRP coupon specimen and measure the growth rate of an artificially started crack in order to feed the models with the results. We also investigate the effect of mechanical crack stopping features. For observation of the bond line, we apply two non-contact NDT techniques: Air-coupled ultrasound in slanted transmission mode and active lockin-thermography evaluated at load frequencies. Both methods give promising results for detecting the current crack front location. While the ultrasonic technique provides a slightly higher accuracy, thermography has the advantage of true online monitoring, because the measurements are made while the cyclic load is being applied. The NDT methods are compared to visual inspection of the crack front at the specimen flanks and show high congruence. Furthermore, the effect of crack stopping features within the specimen on the crack growth is investigated. The results show, that not all crack fronts are perfectly horizontal, but all of them eventually come to a halt in the crack stopping feature vicinity.

  14. Mechanochemistry: One Bond at a Time (United States)

    Liang, Jian; Fernández, Julio M.


    Single-molecule force clamp spectroscopy offers a novel platform for mechanically denaturing proteins by applying a constant force to a polyprotein. A powerful emerging application of the technique is that, by introducing a disulfide bond in each protein module, the chemical kinetics of disulfide bond cleavage under different stretching forces can be probed at the single-bond level. Even at forces much lower than that can rupture the chemical bond, the breaking of the S-S bond at the presence of various chemical reducing agents is significantly accelerated. Our previous work demonstrated that the rate of thiol/disulfide exchange reaction is force-dependent, and well described by an Arrhenius term of the form: r = A(exp((FΔxr-Ea)/kBT)[nucleophile]). From Arrhenius fits to the force dependency of the reduction rate we measured the bond elongation parameter, Δxr, along the reaction coordinate to the transition state of the SN2 reaction cleaved by different nucleophiles and enzymes, never before observed by any other technique. For S-S cleavage by various reducing agents, obtaining the Δxr value can help depicting the energy landscapes and elucidating the mechanisms of the reactions at the single-molecule level. Small nucleophiles, such as 1, 4-DL-dithiothreitol (DTT), tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) and L-cysteine, react with the S-S bond with monotonically increasing rates under the applied force; while thioredoxin enzymes exhibit both stretching-favored and —resistant reaction-rate regimes. These measurements demonstrate the power of single-molecule force clamp spectroscopy approach in providing unprecedented access to chemical reactions. PMID:19572737

  15. Mean bond-length variation in crystal structures: a bond-valence approach. (United States)

    Bosi, Ferdinando


    The distortion theorem of the bond-valence theory predicts that the mean bond length 〈D〉 increases with increasing deviation of the individual bond lengths from their mean value according to the equation 〈D〉 = (D' + ΔD), where D' is the length found in a polyhedron having equivalent bonds and ΔD is the bond distortion. For a given atom, D' is expected to be similar from one structure to another, whereas 〈D〉 should vary as a function of ΔD. However, in several crystal structures 〈D〉 significantly varies without any relevant contribution from ΔD. In accordance with bond-valence theory, 〈D〉 variation is described here by a new equation: 〈D〉 = (DRU + ΔDtop + ΔDiso + ΔDaniso + ΔDelec), where DRU is a constant related to the type of cation and coordination environment, ΔDtop is the topological distortion related to the way the atoms are linked, ΔDiso is an isotropic effect of compression (or stretching) in the bonds produced by steric strain and represents the same increase (or decrease) in all the bond lengths in the coordination sphere, ΔDaniso is the distortion produced by compression and stretching of bonds in the same coordination sphere, ΔDelec is the distortion produced by electronic effects. If present, ΔDelec can be combined with ΔDaniso because they lead to the same kind of distortions in line with the distortion theorem. Each D-index, in the new equation, corresponds to an algebraic expression containing experimental and theoretical bond valences. On the basis of this study, the ΔD index defined in bond valence theory is a result of both the bond topology and the distortion theorem (ΔD = ΔDtop + ΔDaniso + ΔDelec), and D' is a result of the compression, or stretching, of bonds (D' = DRU + ΔDiso). The deficiencies present in the bond-valence theory in explaining mean bond-length variations can therefore be overcome, and the observed variations of 〈D〉 in crystal structures can be

  16. Bond-length distributions for ions bonded to oxygen: alkali and alkaline-earth metals. (United States)

    Gagné, Olivier Charles; Hawthorne, Frank Christopher


    Bond-length distributions have been examined for 55 configurations of alkali-metal ions and 29 configurations of alkaline-earth-metal ions bonded to oxygen, for 4859 coordination polyhedra and 38 594 bond distances (alkali metals), and for 3038 coordination polyhedra and 24 487 bond distances (alkaline-earth metals). Bond lengths generally show a positively skewed Gaussian distribution that originates from the variation in Born repulsion and Coulomb attraction as a function of interatomic distance. The skewness and kurtosis of these distributions generally decrease with increasing coordination number of the central cation, a result of decreasing Born repulsion with increasing coordination number. We confirm the following minimum coordination numbers: ([3])Li(+), ([3])Na(+), ([4])K(+), ([4])Rb(+), ([6])Cs(+), ([3])Be(2+), ([4])Mg(2+), ([6])Ca(2+), ([6])Sr(2+) and ([6])Ba(2+), but note that some reported examples are the result of extensive dynamic and/or positional short-range disorder and are not ordered arrangements. Some distributions of bond lengths are distinctly multi-modal. This is commonly due to the occurrence of large numbers of structure refinements of a particular structure type in which a particular cation is always present, leading to an over-representation of a specific range of bond lengths. Outliers in the distributions of mean bond lengths are often associated with anomalous values of atomic displacement of the constituent cations and/or anions. For a sample of ([6])Na(+), the ratio Ueq(Na)/Ueq(bonded anions) is partially correlated with 〈([6])Na(+)-O(2-)〉 (R(2) = 0.57), suggesting that the mean bond length is correlated with vibrational/displacement characteristics of the constituent ions for a fixed coordination number. Mean bond lengths also show a weak correlation with bond-length distortion from the mean value in general, although some coordination numbers show the widest variation in mean bond length for zero distortion, e.g. Li(+) in

  17. The fluid-compensated cement bond log

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayfeh, T.H.; Leslie, H.D.; Wheelis, W.B.


    An experimental and numerical wave mechanics study of cement bond logs demonstrated that wellsite computer processing can now segregate wellbore fluid effects from the sonic signal response to changing cement strength. Traditionally, cement logs have been interpreted as if water were in the wellbore, without consideration of wellbore fluid effects. These effects were assumed to be negligible. However, with the increasing number of logs being run in completion fluids such as CaCl/sub 2/, ZnBr/sub 2/, and CaBr/sub 2/, large variations in cement bond logs became apparent. A Schlumberger internal paper showing that bond log amplitude is related to the acoustic impedance of the fluid in which the tool is run led to a comprehensive study of wellbore fluid effects. Numerical and experimental models were developed simulating wellbore geometry. Measurements were conducted in 5-, 7-, and 95/8-in. casings by varying the wellbore fluid densities, viscosities, and fluid types (acoustic impedance). Parallel numerical modeling was undertaken using similar parameters. The results showed that the bond log amplitude varied dramatically with the wellbore fluid's acoustic impedance; for example, there was a 70 percent increase in the signal amplitude for 11.5-lb/ gal CaCl/sub 2/ over the signal amplitude in water. This led to the development of a Fluid-Compensated Bond log that corrects the amplitude for acoustic impedance of varying wellbore fluids, thereby making the measurements more directly related to the cement quality.

  18. Photochemical tissue bonding with chitosan adhesive films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piller Sabine C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photochemical tissue bonding (PTB is a promising sutureless technique for tissue repair. PTB is often achieved by applying a solution of rose bengal (RB between two tissue edges, which are irradiated by a green laser to crosslink collagen fibers with minimal heat production. In this study, RB has been incorporated in chitosan films to create a novel tissue adhesive that is laser-activated. Methods Adhesive films, based on chitosan and containing ~0.1 wt% RB were manufactured and bonded to calf intestine by a solid state laser (λ = 532 nm, Fluence~110 J/cm2, spot size~0.5 cm. A single-column tensiometer, interfaced with a personal computer, tested the bonding strength. K-type thermocouples recorded the temperature (T at the adhesive-tissue interface during laser irradiation. Human fibroblasts were also seeded on the adhesive and cultured for 48 hours to assess cell growth. Results The RB-chitosan adhesive bonded firmly to the intestine with adhesion strength of 15 ± 2 kPa, (n = 31. The adhesion strength dropped to 0.5 ± 0.1 (n = 8 kPa when the laser was not applied to the adhesive. The average temperature of the adhesive increased from 26°C to 32°C during laser exposure. Fibroblasts grew confluent on the adhesive without morphological changes. Conclusion A new biocompatible chitosan adhesive has been developed that bonds photochemically to tissue with minimal temperature increase.

  19. Chitosan Adhesive Films for Photochemical Tissue Bonding (United States)

    Lauto, Antonio; Mawad, Damia; Barton, Matthew; Piller, Sabine C.; Longo, Leonardo


    Photochemical tissue bonding (PTB) is a promising sutureless technique for tissue repair. PTB is often achieved by applying a solution of rose bengal (RB) between two tissue edges, which are irradiated by a green laser to crosslink collagen fibers with minimal heat production. In this study, RB has been incorporated in chitosan films to create a novel tissue adhesive that is laser-activated. Materials and Methods. Adhesive films, based on chitosan and containing ˜0.1wt% RB were manufactured and bonded to calf intestine by a solid state laser (wavelength = 532 nm, Fluence ˜110 J/cm2, spot size ˜5 mm). A single-column tensiometer, interfaced with a personal computer, tested the bonding strength. K-type thermocouples recorded the temperature (T) at the adhesive-tissue interface during laser irradiation. Human fibroblasts were also seeded on the adhesive and cultured for 48 hours to assess cell growth. Results and Conclusion. The RB-chitosan adhesive bonded firmly to the intestine (15±2 kPa, n = 31). The adhesion strength dropped to 0.5±0.1 kPa (n = 8) when the laser was not applied to the adhesive. The average temperature of the adhesive increased from 26 °C to 32 °C during laser exposure. Fibroblasts grew confluent on the adhesive without morphological changes. A new biocompatible chitosan adhesive has been developed that bonds photochemically to tissue with minimal temperature increase.

  20. Evaluation of zirconia bonding to veneering porcelain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Mijoska


    Full Text Available Zirconium dioxide as core ceramic material for dental crowns and bridges, possess high strength, chemical stability and superior aesthetics after veneering. Veneering ceramic is considered to be the weakest part of all-ceramic restorations. The adhesion between the core and veneering porcelain is based on the manner in which the connection occurs in metal-ceramic structures. Standard procedures for connecting zirconia to hard dental tissues and veneering materials do not achieve the required strength of bonding. The aim of the paper is to investigate different surface treatments of the zirconium dioxide ceramic core and find the best, for achieving highest adhesive bonding values to veneering porcelain. The study was primarily designed to investigate the bonding strength of the veneering porcelain to zirconia with in vitro Macro shear bond strength test. The specimens with different surface treatment of the zirconia were divided in five groups of twelve according to the treatment of zirconium surface and results showed highest bonding values for specimens treated with Rocatec system.

  1. On the nature of blueshifting hydrogen bonds. (United States)

    Mo, Yirong; Wang, Changwei; Guan, Liangyu; Braïda, Benoît; Hiberty, Philippe C; Wu, Wei


    The block-localized wave function (BLW) method can derive the energetic, geometrical, and spectral changes with the deactivation of electron delocalization, and thus provide a unique way to elucidate the origin of improper, blueshifting hydrogen bonds versus proper, redshifting hydrogen bonds. A detailed analysis of the interactions of F(3)CH with NH(3) and OH(2) shows that blueshifting is a long-range phenomenon. Since among the various energy components contributing to hydrogen bonds, only the electrostatic interaction has long-range characteristics, we conclude that the contraction and blueshifting of a hydrogen bond is largely caused by electrostatic interactions. On the other hand, lengthening and redshifting is primarily due to the short-range n(Y)→σ*(X-H) hyperconjugation. The competition between these two opposing factors determines the final frequency change direction, for example, redshifting in F(3)CH⋅⋅⋅NH(3) and blueshifting in F(3)CH⋅⋅⋅OH(2). This mechanism works well in the series F(n)Cl(3)-n CH⋅⋅⋅Y (n=0-3, Y=NH(3), OH(2), SH(2)) and other systems. One exception is the complex of water and benzene. We observe the lengthening and redshifting of the O-H bond of water even with the electron transfer between benzene and water completely quenched. A distance-dependent analysis for this system reveals that the long-range electrostatic interaction is again responsible for the initial lengthening and redshifting.

  2. Chlorhexidine preserves dentin bond in vitro. (United States)

    Carrilho, M R O; Carvalho, R M; de Goes, M F; di Hipólito, V; Geraldeli, S; Tay, F R; Pashley, D H; Tjäderhane, L


    Loss of hybrid layer integrity compromises resin-dentin bond stability. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may be partially responsible for hybrid layer degradation. Since chlorhexidine inhibits MMPs, we hypothesized that chlorhexidine would decelerate the loss of resin-dentin bonds. Class I preparations in extracted third molars were sectioned into two halves. One half was customarily restored (etch-and-rinse adhesive/resin composite), and the other was treated with 2% chlorhexidine after being acid-etched before restoration. Specimens were stored in artificial saliva with/without protease inhibitors. Microtensile bond strengths and failure mode distribution under SEM were analyzed immediately after specimens' preparation and 6 months later. With chlorhexidine, significantly better preservation of bond strength was observed after 6 months; protease inhibitors in the storage medium had no effect. Failure analysis showed significantly less failure in the hybrid layer with chlorhexidine, compared with controls after 6 months. In conclusion, this in vitro study suggests that chlorhexidine might be useful for the preservation of dentin bond strength.

  3. Halogen Bonding in (Z-2-Iodocinnamaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Rossi


    Full Text Available Based on the bulkiness of the iodine atom, a non-planar conformation was expected for the title compound. Instead, its molecular structure is planar, as experimentally determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction, and confirmed theoretically by DFT calculations on the single molecule and the halogen pair paired molecules, therefore ruling out crystal packing forces as a principal factor leading to planarity. Indeed, planarity is ascribed to the carbonyl double bond, as when this bond is saturated on forming the related alcohol derivative, the molecule loses planarity. The X-ray molecular structure shows an intermolecular separation between the iodine and the oxygen of the carbonyl shorter than the corresponding van der Waals distance suggesting a weak halogen bond interaction. DFT minimization of this 2-molecule arrangement shows the iodine--oxygen distance much shorter than that observed in the crystal interaction and confirming its stronger halogen bond nature. A trend between increasing I•••O(carbonyl separation and decreasing C-I•••O(carbonyl angle is demonstrated, further confirming the existence of a halogen bond.

  4. Mirror Surface Grinding of Steel Bonded Carbides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The steel bonded carbide, a composite material, is very difficult to be machined to a fine finish mirror surface. In this paper, an electrolytic in-process dressing (ELID) grinding with metallic bond super-hard abrasive wheel was developed for grinding steel bonded carbide GT35. Factors affecting ELID grinding performance were analyzed by an atomic force microscope (AFM). Based on the analysis of AFM topography of the fine ground mirror surface of the steel bonded carbide, a schematic diagram of the mechanism of micro-removal of the ground surface was described. The AFM topography also shows that the hard brittle carbide particles, on the surface of steel bonded carbide, were machined out by ductile cutting. Since the grinding cracks in the ground surface are due to temperature gradient, temperature distribution in the grinding area was analyzed by finite element method (FEM). Experimental results indicate that a good mirror surface with Ra<0.02pm can be obtained by the developed ELID grinding system.

  5. Electronic structure and bonding in crystalline peroxides (United States)

    Königstein, Markus; Sokol, Alexei A.; Catlow, C. Richard A.


    Hartree-Fock and density-functional PW91 theories as realized in the CRYSTAL95 code have been applied to investigate the structural and electronic properties of Ba, Sr, and Ca peroxide materials with the calcium carbide crystal structure, results for which are compared with those for the corresponding oxides. Special attention is paid to the stabilization of the peroxide molecular ion O2-2 in the ionic environment provided by the lattice, and to chemical bonding effects. In order to describe the covalent bonding within the O2-2 ion and the polarization of the O- ion in the crystal electrostatic field, it is essential to include an account of the effects of electron correlation. The PW91 density functional has allowed us to reproduce the crystallographic parameters within a 3% error. The chemical bonding within the peroxide molecular ion has a complex nature with a balance between the weak covalent bond of σz type and the strong electrostatic repulsion of the closed-shell electron groups occupying O 2s and O 2px and 2py states. Compression of the peroxide ion in the ionic crystals gives rise to an excessive overlap of the O 2s closed shells of the two O- ions of a peroxide molecular ion O2-2, which in turn determines the antibonding character of the interaction and chemical bonding in the O2-2 molecular ion.

  6. Diffusion-bonded beryllium aluminum optical structures (United States)

    Grapes, Thomas F.


    Beryllium aluminum material can present significant advantages for optical support structures. A likely advantage of beryllium aluminum compared to aluminum or titanium for such structures is its higher specific stiffness. However, beryllium aluminum material is significantly more expensive than most competing materials. The cost problem with beryllium aluminum is exacerbated if fabrication methods that result in near net shape parts are not used. Near net shape methods result in the least amount of material "thrown away" in the fabrication process. Casting is a primary example of near net shape manufacturing that is appropriate for some optical support structures. Casting aluminum, and other materials as well, is common. Casting of beryllium aluminum is very difficult, however, and has not had significant success. Diffusion bonding - a different approach for achieving near net shape beryllium aluminum optical support structures, was pursued and accomplished. Diffusion bonding is a term used to describe the joining of solid metal pieces under high temperature and pressure, but without melting. Three different optical support structures were designed and built of beryllium aluminum using diffusion bonding. Relatively small solid beryllium aluminum pieces were arranged together and then joined under hot isostatic pressure conditions. The resulting relatively large pressure bonded part was then machined to achieve the final product. Significant cost savings as compared to machining the part from a solid block were realized. Difficulties achieving diffusion bonds in complex joints were experienced and addressed.

  7. Characteristics of beryllium bonds; a QTAIM study. (United States)

    Eskandari, K


    The nature of beryllium bonds formed between BeX2 (X is H, F and Cl) and some Lewis bases have been investigated. The distribution of the Laplacian of electron density shows that there is a region of charge depletion around the Be atom, which, according to Laplacian complementary principal, can interact with a region of charge concentration of an atom in the base and form a beryllium bond. The molecular graphs of the investigated complexes indicate that beryllium in BeH2 and BeF2 can form “beryllium bonds” with O, N and P atoms but not with halogens. In addition, eight criteria based on QTAIM properties, including the values of electron density and its Laplacian at the BCP, penetration of beryllium and acceptor atom, charge, energy, volume and first atomic moment of beryllium atom, have been considered and compared with the corresponding ones in conventional hydrogen bonds. These bonds share many common features with very strong hydrogen bonds, however,some differences have also been observed.

  8. 27 CFR 28.285 - Receipt in manufacturing bonded warehouse. (United States)


    ... bonded warehouse. 28.285 Section 28.285 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Export Receipt in Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.285 Receipt in manufacturing bonded warehouse. On..., as amended, 1380, as amended (26 U.S.C. 5214, 5362)) Receipt in Customs Bonded Warehouse...

  9. Effect of panel alignment and surface finish on bond strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouters, J.M.; Doe, P.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Baker, W.E. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The flexural strength of bonded acrylic is tested as a function of panel alignment and bond surface finish. Bond strength was shown to be highly dependent on both parameters with only a narrow range of values yielding a high strength bond. This study was performed for the heavy water-containing acrylic vessel for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory detector.

  10. 27 CFR 26.68 - Bond, Form 2898-Beer. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bond, Form 2898-Beer. 26... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Bonds § 26.68 Bond, Form 2898—Beer. Where a brewer intends to withdraw, for purpose of shipment to the United States, beer of Puerto Rican manufacture from bonded storage...

  11. 27 CFR 24.148 - Penal sums of bonds. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penal sums of bonds. 24.148 Section 24.148 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Penal sums of bonds. The penal sums of bonds prescribed in this part are as follows: Bond Basis...

  12. FE modeling of Cu wire bond process and reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, C.A.; Weltevreden, E.R.; Akker, P. van den; Kregting, R.; Vreugd, J. de; Zhang, G.Q.


    Copper based wire bonding technology is widely accepted by electronic packaging industry due to the world-wide cost reduction actions (compared to gold wire bond). However, the mechanical characterization of copper wire differs from the gold wire; hence the new wire bond process setting and new bond

  13. 26 CFR 1.405-1 - Qualified bond purchase plans. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualified bond purchase plans. 1.405-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.405-1 Qualified bond purchase... are funded through the purchase of United States retirement plan bonds. Such bonds may be...

  14. 31 CFR 341.3 - Purchase of bonds. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purchase of bonds. 341.3 Section 341... BONDS § 341.3 Purchase of bonds. (a) Agencies. Retirement Plan Bonds may be purchased over-the-counter... 20226. Customers of commercial banks and trust companies may be able to arrange for the purchase of...

  15. Bonding polycarbonate brackets to ceramic: : Effects of substrate treatment on bond strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan, Mutlu; Vallittu, Pekka K.; Peltomäki, Timo; Huysmans, Marie-Charlotte; Kalk, Warner


    This study evaluated the effects of 5 different surface conditioning methods on the bond strength of polycarbonate brackets bonded to ceramic surfaces with resin based cement. Six disc-shaped ceramic specimens (feldspathic porcelain) with glazed surfaces were used for each group. The specimens were

  16. Bonding polycarbonate brackets to ceramic : Effects of substrate treatment on bond strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan, Mutlu; Vallittu, Pekka K.; Peltomäki, Timo; Huysmans, Marie-Charlotte; Kalk, Warner


    This study evaluated the effects of 5 different surface conditioning methods on the bond strength of polycarbonate brackets bonded to ceramic surfaces with resin based cement. Six disc-shaped ceramic specimens (feldspathic porcelain) with glazed surfaces were used for each group. The specimens were

  17. Composite bonding to stainless steel crowns using a new universal bonding and single-bottle systems. (United States)

    Hattan, Mohammad Ali; Pani, Sharat Chandra; Alomari, Mohammad


    Aim. The aim of this study is to evaluate the shear bond strength of nanocomposite to stainless steel crowns using a new universal bonding system. Material and Methods. Eighty (80) stainless steel crowns (SSCs) were divided into four groups (20 each). Packable nanocomposite was bonded to the lingual surface of the crowns in the following methods: Group A without adhesive (control group), Group B using a new universal adhesive system (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive, 3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany), and Group C and Group D using two different brands of single-bottle adhesive systems. Shear bond strengths were calculated and the types of failure also were recorded. Results. The shear strength of Group B was significantly greater than that of other groups. No significant differences were found between the shear bond strengths of Groups C and D. The control group had significantly lower shear bond strength (P steel crowns using the new universal bonding agent (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive, 3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany) show significantly greater shear bond strengths and fewer adhesive failures when compared to traditional single-bottle systems.

  18. The legal conditionality of performance bond in Malaysian construction contract


    Supardi, Azizan; Adnan, Hamimah; Yaakob, Jamaluddin


    In construction contracts, a 'performance bond' is a bond taken out by the contractor, usually with a bank or insurance company (in return for payment of a premium), for the benefit of and at the request of the employer, in a stipulated maximum sum of liability and enforceable by the employer in the event of the contractor's default, repudiation or insolvency. There are two types of performance bonds: Conditional bond or default bond; and Unconditional bond or on-demand bond. However, in Mala...

  19. Factors affecting in vitro bond strength of bonding agents to human dentin. (United States)

    Powers, John M; O'Keefe, Kathy L; Pinzon, Lilliam M


    Four generations of total-etch (fourth, fifth) and self-etching (sixth, seventh) bonding agents for use with resin composites are commercially available in the United States. Innovations in bonding agents include: filled systems, release of fluoride and other agents, unit dose, self-cured catalyst, option of etching with either phosphoric acid or self-etching primer, and pH indicators. Factors that can affect in vitro bond strength to human dentin include substrate (superficial dentin, deep dentin; permanent versus primary teeth; artificial carious dentin), phosphoric acid versus acidic primers, preparation by air abrasion and laser, moisture, contaminants, desensitizing agents, astringents, and self-cured restorative materials. This article reviews studies conducted at the Houston Biomaterials Research Center from 1993 to 2003. Results show that in vitro bond strengths can be reduced by more than 50% when bonding conditions are not ideal.

  20. Hybrid layer difference between sixth and seventh generation bonding agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Syavira Suryabrata


    Full Text Available Since etching is completed at the same stage as priming and bonding, when applying the sixth and seventh generation bonding, the exposed smear layers are constantly surrounded by primer and bonding and cannot collapse. The smear layer and the depth of penetration of resin bonding in dentinal tubules are completely integrated into hybrid layer. The purpose of this laboratory research was to study the penetration depth of two self etching adhesive. Fourteen samples of human extracted teeth were divided into two groups. Each groups consisted of seven samples, each of them was treated with sixth generation bonding agent and the other was treated with seventh generation bonding agent. The results disclosed that the penetration into dentinal tubules of seventh generation bonding agent was deeper than sixth generation bonding agent. Conclusion: bond strength will improve due to the increasing of penetration depth of resin bonding in dentinal tubules.

  1. Investigation of ball bond integrity for 0.8 mil (20 microns) diameter gold bonding wire on low k die in wire bonding technology (United States)

    Kudtarkar, Santosh Anil

    Microelectronics technology has been undergoing continuous scaling to accommodate customer driven demand for smaller, faster and cheaper products. This demand has been satisfied by using novel materials, design techniques and processes. This results in challenges for the chip connection technology and also the package technology. The focus of this research endeavor was restricted to wire bond interconnect technology using gold bonding wires. Wire bond technology is often regarded as a simple first level interconnection technique. In reality, however, this is a complex process that requires a thorough understanding of the interactions between the design, material and process variables, and their impact on the reliability of the bond formed during this process. This research endeavor primarily focused on low diameter, 0.8 mil thick (20 mum) diameter gold bonding wire. Within the scope of this research, the integrity of the ball bond formed by 1.0 mil (25 mum) and 0.8 mil (20 mum) diameter wires was compared. This was followed by the evaluation of bonds formed on bond pads having doped SiO2 (low k) as underlying structures. In addition, the effect of varying the percentage of the wire dopant, palladium and bonding process parameters (bonding force, bond time, ultrasonic energy) for 0.8 mil (20 mum) bonding wire was also evaluated. Finally, a degradation empirical model was developed to understand the decrease in the wire strength. This research effort helped to develop a fundamental understanding of the various factors affecting the reliability of a ball bond from a design (low diameter bonding wire), material (low k and bonding wire dopants), and process (wire bonding process parameters) perspective for a first level interconnection technique, namely wire bonding. The significance of this research endeavor was the systematic investigation of the ball bonds formed using 0.8 mil (20 microm) gold bonding wire within the wire bonding arena. This research addressed low k

  2. Bonding theory for metals and alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Frederick E


    Bonding Theory for Metals and Alloys exhorts the potential existence of covalent bonding in metals and alloys. Through the recognition of the covalent bond in coexistence with the 'free' electron band, the book describes and demonstrates how the many experimental observations on metals and alloys can all be reconciled. Subsequently, it shows how the individual view of metals and alloys by physicists, chemists and metallurgists can be unified. The physical phenomena of metals and alloys covered in this book are: Miscibility Gap between two liquid metals; Phase Equilibrium Diagrams; Phenomenon of Melting. Superconductivity; Nitinol; A Metal-Alloy with Memory; Mechanical Properties; Liquid Metal Embrittlement; Superplasticity; Corrosion; The author introduces a new theory based on 'Covalon' conduction, which forms the basis for a new approach to the theory of superconductivity. This new approach not only explains the many observations made on the phenomenon of superconductivity but also makes predictions that ha...

  3. A space solar cell bonding robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Zhuang; ZHAO Yan-zheng; LIU Ren-qiang; DONG Zhi


    A space solar cell bonding robot system which consists of a three-axis Cartesian coordinate's robot,coating device,bonding device,orientation plate,and control subsystem was studied.A method,which can control the thickness of adhesive layer on the solar cell,was put forward and the mechanism was designed.Another method which can achieve the auto-bonding between thin coverglass and the space solar cell was studied and realized.It produced no air bubble in the adhesives layer under the condition of no vacuum environment,and ensures the assembly dislocation ≤0.1 mm.Compared to the conventional method,it has advantages such as no fragment exists,and no adhesives outflow onto the cover-glass and solar cells.

  4. Stock vs. Bond Yields, and Demographic Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gozluklu, Arie; Morin, Annaïg

    that the slow-evolving time-series covariation due to changing population age structure accounts for the equilibrium relation between stock and bond markets. As a result, by exploiting the demographic information into distant future, the forecasting performance of evaluation models improves. Finally, using...... a cross-country panel, we document the cross-sectional variation of the demographic effect and explain the cross-country differences in comovement between stock and bond markets.......This paper analyzes the strong comovement between real stock and nominal bond yields at generational (low) frequencies. Life-cycle patterns in savings behavior in an overlapping generations model with cash-in-advance constraints explain this persistent comovement between financial yields. We argue...

  5. Process Of Bonding Copper And Tungsten (United States)

    Slattery, Kevin T.; Driemeyer, Daniel E.


    Process for bonding a copper substrate to a tungsten substrate by providing a thin metallic adhesion promoting film bonded to a tungsten substrate and a functionally graded material (FGM) interlayer bonding the thin metallic adhesion promoting film to the copper substrate. The FGM interlayer is formed by thermal plasma spraying mixtures of copper powder and tungsten powder in a varied blending ratio such that the blending ratio of the copper powder and the tungsten powder that is fed to a plasma torch is intermittently adjusted to provide progressively higher copper content/tungsten content, by volume, ratio values in the interlayer in a lineal direction extending from the tungsten substrate towards the copper substrate. The resulting copper to tungsten joint well accommodates the difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the materials.

  6. Deformation and Failure of Polymer Bonded Explosives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏万; 黄风雷; 丁雁生


    The deformation and failure of pressed polymer bonded explosives under different types of loads including tension, compression and low velocity impact are presented. Brazilian test is used to study the tensile properties. The microstructure of polymer bonded explosives and its evolution are studied by use of scanning electronic microscopy and polarized light microscopy. Polishing techniques have been developed to prepare samples for microscopic examination. The failure mechanisms of polymer bonded explosives under different loads are analyzed. The results show that interfacial debonding is the predominant failure mode in quasi-static tension, while extensive crystal fractures are induced in compression. With the increase of strain rate, more crystal fractures occur. Low velocity impact also induces extensive crystal fractures.

  7. Bonding as a Positive Youth Development Construct: A Conceptual Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tak Yan Lee


    Full Text Available The concept of bonding as a positive youth development construct is reviewed in this paper. The goals are fourfold. First, theoretical perspectives of bonding are delineated. Secondly, the relationships among bonding to caregivers, friends, romantic partners, as well as teachers, and adolescents’ positive developmental outcomes are reviewed. Thirdly, with theoretical and empirical support, a discussion on how to promote bonding among adolescents is offered. Finally, a critical review on the cultural issues of bonding is provided.



    Vesna Bogičević


    In this paper, emphasis is placedon bonds that during 2009 and 2010 became anabsolute hit on the Banja Luka Stock Exchange.These are types of bonds whose issuer is theRepublic of Srpska, designated as bonds of wardamage and bonds for the payment of old foreigncurrency savings. The paper elaborates the reasonsfor issuing the bonds, due to their influence on thecapital market development in the Republic ofSrpska.

  9. Effect of clearfil protect bond and transbond plus self-etch primer on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Hamid Raji


    Conclusion: The shear bond strength of clearfil protect bond and transbond plus self-etch primer was enough for bonding the orthodontic brackets. The mode of failure of bonded brackets with these two self-etch primers is safe for enamel.

  10. Picosecond laser bonding of highly dissimilar materials (United States)

    Carter, Richard M.; Troughton, Michael; Chen, Jianyong; Elder, Ian; Thomson, Robert R.; Lamb, Robert A.; Esser, M. J. Daniel; Hand, Duncan P.


    We report on recent progress in developing an industrially relevant, robust technique to bond dissimilar materials through ultra-fast microwelding. This technique is based on the use of a 5.9ps, 400kHz Trumpf laser operating at 1030nm. Tight focusing of the laser radiation at, or around, the interface between two materials allows for simultaneous absorption in both. This absorption rapidly, and locally, heats the material forming plasma from both materials. With suitable surface preparation this plasma can be confined to the interface region where it mixes, cools and forms a weld between the two materials. The use of ps pulses results in a short interaction time. This enables a bond to form whilst limiting the heat affected zone (HAZ) to a region of only a few hundred micrometres across. This small scale allows for the bonding of materials with highly dissimilar thermal properties, and in particular coefficients of thermal expansion e.g. glass-metal bonding. We report on our results for a range of material combinations including, Al-Bk7, Al-SiO2 and Nd:YAG-AlSi. Emphasis will be laid on the technical requirements for bonding including the required surface preparation of the two materials and on the laser parameters required. The quality of the resultant bonds are characterized through shear force measurements (where strengths equal to and exceeding equivalent adhesives will be presented). The lifetime of the welds is also discussed, paying particular attention to the results of thermal cycling tests.

  11. Nanosilica coating for bonding improvements to zirconia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen C


    Full Text Available Chen Chen, Gang Chen, Haifeng Xie, Wenyong Dai, Feimin Zhang Institute of Stomatology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China Abstract: Resin bonding to zirconia cannot be established from standard methods that are currently utilized in conventional silica-based dental ceramics. The solution–gelatin (sol–gel process is a well developed silica-coating technique used to modify the surface of nonsilica-based ceramics. Here, we use this technique to improve resin bonding to zirconia, which we compared to zirconia surfaces treated with alumina sandblasting and tribochemical silica coating. We used the shear bond strength test to examine the effect of the various coatings on the short-term resin bonding of zirconia. Furthermore, we employed field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to characterize the zirconia surfaces. Water–mist spraying was used to evaluate the durability of the coatings. To evaluate the biological safety of the experimental sol–gel silica coating, we conducted an in vitro Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay (Ames mutagenicity test, cytotoxicity tests, and in vivo oral mucous membrane irritation tests. When compared to the conventional tribochemical silica coating, the experimental sol–gel silica coating provided the same shear bond strength, higher silicon contents, and better durability. Moreover, we observed no apparent mutagenicity, cytotoxicity, or irritation in this study. Therefore, the sol–gel technique represents a promising method for producing silica coatings on zirconia. Keywords: zirconia, bond, silica coating, tribochemical silica coating, biocompatibility

  12. Bonding charge density from atomic perturbations. (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Wang, William Yi; Chen, Long-Qing; Liu, Zi-Kui


    Charge transfer among individual atoms is the key concept in modern electronic theory of chemical bonding. In this work, we present a first-principles approach to calculating the charge transfer. Based on the effects of perturbations of an individual atom or a group of atoms on the electron charge density, we determine unambiguously the amount of electron charge associated with a particular atom or a group of atoms. We computed the topological electron loss versus gain using ethylene, graphene, MgO, and SrTiO3 as examples. Our results verify the nature of chemical bonds in these materials at the atomic level.

  13. Symmetry in bonding and spectra an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Douglas, Bodie E


    Many courses dealing with the material in this text are called ""Applications of Group Theory."" Emphasizing the central role and primary importance of symmetry in the applications, Symmetry in Bonding and Spectra enables students to handle applications, particularly applications to chemical bonding and spectroscopy. It contains the essential background in vectors and matrices for the applications, along with concise reviews of simple molecular orbital theory, ligand field theory, and treatments of molecular shapes, as well as some quantum mechanics. Solved examples in the text illustra

  14. Managing bond proceeds improves financial performance. (United States)

    Mates, W J


    Healthcare organizations must actively manage tax-exempt bond proceeds after they are initially invested at the time of financing or refinancing. The Tax Reform Act of 1986 imposes serious penalties on issuers who fail to comply with its complex requirements. An active program of bond proceeds management enables organizations to avoid this pitfall and take advantage of legal investment opportunities. Such a program must start with a set of clear guidelines on permitted investments, target rates of return, acceptable levels of risk, and liquidity requirements.

  15. Microwave Induced Ethanol Bath Bonding for PMMA Microfluidic Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuicui Zhuang


    High bonding strength, low deformation and convenient procedure are all very important aspects in the microfluidic device fabrication process. In this paper, an improved microwave induced bonding technology is proposed to fabricate microfluidic device based on methyl methacrylate (PMMA). This method employs pure ethanol as the bonding assisted solvent. The ethanol not only acts as the microwave absorbing material, but also works as the organic solvent in bath. The presented research work has shown that the bonding process can be completed in less than 45 s. Furthermore, the convenient bonding only applies microwave oven, beakers and binder clips. Then, we discuss effects of microwave power, bonding time on bonding strength and deformation of microstructures on PMMA microfluidic device. Finally, a 4 layers micro⁃mixer has been fabricated using the proposed bonding technique which includes 15 trapezoid micro⁃channels, 9 T⁃type mix units and an X⁃type mix unit. Experimental results show that the proposed bonding method have some advantages compared with several traditional bonding technologies, such as hot pressing bonding, ultrasonic bonding and solvent assisted bonding methods in respect of bonding strength, deformation and bonding process. The presented work would be helpful for low coat mass production of multilayer polymer microfluidic devices in lab.

  16. Microstructure and properties of hot roll bonding layer of dissimilar metals. 2. Bonding interface microstructure of Zr/stainless steel by hot roll bonding and its controlling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuyama, Masanori; Ogawa, Kazuhiro; Taka, Takao; Nakasuji, Kazuyuki [Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Nakao, Yoshikuni; Nishimoto, Kazutoshi


    The hot roll bonding of zirconium and stainless steel inserted with tantalium was investigated using the newly developed rolling mill. The effect of hot rolling temperatures of zirconium/stainless steel joints on bonding interface structure was evaluated. Intermetallic compound layer containing cracks was observed at the bonding interface between stainless steel and tantalium when the rolling temperature was above 1373K. The hardness of the bonding layer of zirconium and tantalium bonded above 1273K was higher than tantalium or zirconium base metal in spite of absence of intermetallic compound. The growth of reaction layer at the stainless steel and tantalium interface and at the tantalium and zirconium interface was conforming a parabolic low when that was isothermally heated after hot roll bonding, and the growth rate was almost same as that of static diffusion bonding without using hot roll bonding process. It is estimated that the strain caused by hot roll bonding gives no effect on the growth of reaction layer. It was confirmed that the dissimilar joint of zirconium and stainless steel with insert of tantalium having the sound bonding interface were obtained at the suitable bonding temperature of 1173K by the usage of the newly developed hot roll bonding process. (author)

  17. Unusual H-Bond Topology and Bifurcated H-bonds in the 2-Fluoroethanol Trimer. (United States)

    Thomas, Javix; Liu, Xunchen; Jäger, Wolfgang; Xu, Yunjie


    By using a combination of rotational spectroscopy and ab initio calculations, an unusual H-bond topology was revealed for the 2-fluoroethanol trimer. The trimer exhibits a strong heterochiral preference and adopts an open OH⋅⋅⋅OH H-bond topology while utilizing two types of bifurcated H-bonds involving organic fluorine. This is in stark contrast to the cyclic OH⋅⋅⋅OH H-bond topology adopted by trimers of water and other simple alcohols. The strengths of different H-bonds in the trimer were analyzed by using the quantum theory of atoms in molecules. The study showcases a remarkable example of a chirality-induced switch in H-bond topology in a simple transient chiral fluoroalcohol. It provides important insight into the H-bond topologies of small fluoroalcohol aggregates, which are proposed to play a key role in protein folding and in enantioselective reactions and separations where fluoroalcohols serve as a (co)solvent.

  18. Tensile Bond Strength of Metal Bracket Bonding to Glazed Ceramic Surfaces With Different Surface Conditionings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Imani


    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the tensile bond strength of metal brackets bonding to glazed ceramic surfaces using three various surface treatments.Materials and Methods: Forty two glazed ceramic disks were assigned to three groups. In the first and second groups the specimens were etched with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid (HFA. Subsequently in first group, ceramic primer and adhesive were applied, but in second group a bonding agent alone was used. In third group, specimens were treated with 35% phosphoric acid followed by ceramic primerand adhesive application. Brackets were bonded with light cure composites. The specimens were stored in distilled water in the room temperature for 24 hours and thermocycled 500 times between 5°C and 55°C. The universal testing machine was used to test the tensile bond strength and the adhesive remenant index scores between three groups was evaluated. The data were subjected to one-way ANOVA, Tukey and Kruskal-Wallis tests respectively.Results: The tensile bond strength was 3.69±0.52 MPa forfirst group, 2.69±0.91 MPa for second group and 3.60±0.41 MPa for third group. Group II specimens showed tensile strength values significantly different from other groups (P<0.01.Conclusion: In spite of limitations in laboratory studies it may be concluded that in application of Scotch bond multipurpose plus adhesive, phosphoric acid can be used instead of HFA for bonding brackets to the glazed ceramic restorations with enough tensile bond strength.

  19. Modeling the Hydrogen Bond within Molecular Dynamics (United States)

    Lykos, Peter


    The structure of a hydrogen bond is elucidated within the framework of molecular dynamics based on the model of Rahman and Stillinger (R-S) liquid water treatment. Thus, undergraduates are exposed to the powerful but simple use of classical mechanics to solid objects from a molecular viewpoint.

  20. Resilient Parenting: Overcoming Poor Parental Bonding (United States)

    Travis, Wendy J.; Combs-Orme, Terri


    This study identified groups of mothers with varying patterns of adaptive functioning and bonds with their own parents. These patterns were related to mothers' parenting of their own children to understand how some mothers avoid repeating the cycle of poor parenting. Data from 210 new mothers were analyzed before hospital discharge about bonding…

  1. 30 CFR 800.21 - Collateral bonds. (United States)


    ... appraisal conducted by a certified appraiser; and (iii) Proof of possession and title to the real property.... (a) Collateral bonds, except for letters of credit, cash accounts, and real property, shall be... by a bank organized or authorized to do business in the United States; (2) Letters of credit shall...

  2. Silicon waveguides produced by wafer bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette; Jensen, Flemming; Bunk, Oliver


    X-ray waveguides are successfully produced employing standard silicon technology of UV photolithography and wafer bonding. Contrary to theoretical expectations for similar systems even 100 mu m broad guides of less than 80 nm height do not collapse and can be used as one dimensional waveguides...

  3. Comparing possible proxies of corporate bond liquidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Houweling (Patrick); A.A. Mentink; A.C.F. Vorst (Ton)


    textabstractWe consider eight different proxies (issued amount, coupon, listed, age, missing prices, yield volatility, number of contributors and yield dispersion) to measure corporate bond liquidity and use a five-variable model to control for interest rate risk, credit risk, maturity, rating and c

  4. How to measure Corporate Bond Liquidity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Houweling (Patrick); A.A. Mentink; A.C.F. Vorst (Ton)


    textabstractWe consider eight different measures (issued amount, coupon, listed, age, missing prices, price volatility, number of contributors and yield dispersion) to approximate corporate bond liquidity and use a five-variable model to control for maturity, credit and currency differences between

  5. Unexpected complications of bonded mandibular lingual retainers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katsaros, C.; Livas, C.; Renkema, A.M.


    INTRODUCTION: The flexible spiral wire (FSW) retainer is the most frequently used type of fixed retainer bonded on all 6 anterior teeth. Our aim in this article was to demonstrate unexpected posttreatment changes in the labiolingual position of the mandibular anterior teeth associated with the use o

  6. Shedding light on disulfide bond formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, H; Henriksen, A; Hansen, F G;


    in the intrinsic fluorescence. Inter conversion between the two redox states could thus be followed in vitro as well as in vivo by non-invasive fluorimetric measurements. The 1.5 A crystal structure of the oxidized protein revealed a disulfide bond-induced distortion of the beta-barrel, as well as a structural...

  7. 77 FR 72939 - Small Brewers Bond Reduction (United States)


    ...: The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) amends its regulation that sets forth the penal sum... taxes in the preceding calendar year. For a period of three years, the penal sum of the required bond... such reasonable penal sum'' as prescribed by the Secretary in regulations ``as necessary to protect...

  8. Wax-bonding 3D microfluidic chips

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Xiuqing


    We report a simple, low-cost and detachable microfluidic chip incorporating easily accessible paper, glass slides or other polymer films as the chip materials along with adhesive wax as the recycling bonding material. We use a laser to cut through the paper or film to form patterns and then sandwich the paper and film between glass sheets or polymer membranes . The hot-melt adhesive wax can realize bridge bonding between various materials, for example, paper, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) film, glass sheets, or metal plate. The bonding process is reversible and the wax is reusable through a melting and cooling process. With this process, a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip is achievable by vacuating and venting the chip in a hot-water bath. To study the biocompatibility and applicability of the wax-based microfluidic chip, we tested the PCR compatibility with the chip materials first. Then we applied the wax-paper based microfluidic chip to HeLa cell electroporation (EP ). Subsequently, a prototype of a 5-layer 3D chip was fabricated by multilayer wax bonding. To check the sealing ability and the durability of the chip, green fluorescence protein (GFP) recombinant Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria were cultured, with which the chemotaxis of E. coli was studied in order to determine the influence of antibiotic ciprofloxacin concentration on the E. coli migration.


    McCuaig, F.D.; Misch, R.D.


    A brazing alloy can be used for bonding zirconium and its alloys to other metals, ceramics, and cermets, and consists of 6 to 9 wt.% Ni, 6 to 9 wn~.% Cr, Mo, or W, 0 to 7.5 wt.% Fe, and the balance Zr.

  10. The chemical bond of stibium. Technological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashcheulov A. A.


    Full Text Available Thin structure of the chemical bond of the hexagonal and rhombohedral modifications of stibium was investigated. The boundaries of their polymorphism were identified, which opens new technological possibilities of creating optical, photoelectric, thermoelectric, and other materials for electronic equipment components.

  11. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding in medicinal chemistry. (United States)

    Kuhn, Bernd; Mohr, Peter; Stahl, Martin


    The formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds has a very pronounced effect on molecular structure and properties. We study both aspects in detail with the aim of enabling a more rational use of this class of interactions in medicinal chemistry. On the basis of exhaustive searches in crystal structure databases, we derive propensities for intramolecular hydrogen bond formation of five- to eight-membered ring systems of relevance in drug discovery. A number of motifs, several of which are clearly underutilized in drug discovery, are analyzed in more detail by comparing small molecule and protein-ligand X-ray structures. To investigate effects on physicochemical properties, sets of closely related structures with and without the ability to form intramolecular hydrogen bonds were designed, synthesized, and characterized with respect to membrane permeability, water solubility, and lipophilicity. We find that changes in these properties depend on a subtle balance between the strength of the hydrogen bond interaction, geometry of the newly formed ring system, and the relative energies of the open and closed conformations in polar and unpolar environments. A number of general guidelines for medicinal chemists emerge from this study.

  12. Uus Bond on blond / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo


    Uus Bond on briti näitleja Daniel Craig, kes mängib 21. Bondi-filmis "Casino Royale", režissöör Martin Campbell. Lisatud eelmiste Bondide nimekiri koos nende filmide loeteluga ning näidiseid esemetest, mis Bondi filmides ümbritsevad

  13. On the directionality of halogen bonding. (United States)

    Huber, Stefan M; Scanlon, Joseph D; Jimenez-Izal, Elisa; Ugalde, Jesus M; Infante, Ivan


    The origin of the high directionality of halogen bonding was investigated quantum chemically by a detailed comparison of typical adducts in two different orientations: linear (most stable) and perpendicular. Energy decomposition analyses revealed that the synergy between charge-transfer interactions and Pauli repulsion are the driving forces for the directionality, while electrostatic contributions are more favourable in the less-stable, perpendicular orientation.

  14. Study on Compound Effect of Bonded Magnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Ying; Ma Nuo; Yu xiaojun; Li Wei; Liu Changsheng; Lian Fazeng


    The compound effect of Nd2Fe14B/Fe3B-Ferrite bonded magnets was studied.The result shows that the value ofβjHC obviously decreases with the ferrite content increasing.In addition, a functional relation between magnetic properties and ferrite content was clearly revealed by the physical relation in the magnetic powders.

  15. The Cost of Immediacy for Corporate Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Marco, Rossi

    Liquidity provision in the corporate bond market has become significantly more expensive after the 2008 credit crisis. Using index exclusions as a natural experiment during which uninformed index trackers request immediacy, we find that the price of immediacy has doubled for short-term investment...

  16. Bond additivity corrections for quantum chemistry methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. F. Melius; M. D. Allendorf


    In the 1980's, the authors developed a bond-additivity correction procedure for quantum chemical calculations called BAC-MP4, which has proven reliable in calculating the thermochemical properties of molecular species, including radicals as well as stable closed-shell species. New Bond Additivity Correction (BAC) methods have been developed for the G2 method, BAC-G2, as well as for a hybrid DFT/MP2 method, BAC-Hybrid. These BAC methods use a new form of BAC corrections, involving atomic, molecular, and bond-wise additive terms. These terms enable one to treat positive and negative ions as well as neutrals. The BAC-G2 method reduces errors in the G2 method due to nearest-neighbor bonds. The parameters within the BAC-G2 method only depend on atom types. Thus the BAC-G2 method can be used to determine the parameters needed by BAC methods involving lower levels of theory, such as BAC-Hybrid and BAC-MP4. The BAC-Hybrid method should scale well for large molecules. The BAC-Hybrid method uses the differences between the DFT and MP2 as an indicator of the method's accuracy, while the BAC-G2 method uses its internal methods (G1 and G2MP2) to provide an indicator of its accuracy. Indications of the average error as well as worst cases are provided for each of the BAC methods.

  17. Cigarette smoke affects bonding to dentin. (United States)

    Almeida e Silva, Junio S; de Araujo, Edson Medeiro; Araujo, Elito


    This in vitro study evaluated the microtensile bond strength (muTBS) of composite resin bonded to dentin that had been contaminated by cigarette smoke. Ten extracted unerupted human third molars were used: Six molars were prepared for muTBS testing, while the other four molars were assigned to pre- and post-etching scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis. The 20 specimens obtained from the 10 coronal portions were distributed into two experimental groups so that each tooth served as its own control. Group 1 underwent a daily toothbrushing simulation and exposure to a smoking simulation chamber, while Group 2 received only a daily simulated toothbrushing. Student's t-test demonstrated that Group 1 samples demonstrated significantly lower bond strength (49.58 MPa) than Group 2 samples (58.48 MPa). Pre and postetching SEM analysis revealed the presence of contaminants on the dentinal surfaces of the Group 1 specimens. It was concluded that contamination by cigarette smoke decreases the bond strength between dentin and composite resin.

  18. Microtensile Bond Strength of Single Bond and Adper Prompt-L-Pop Adhesives to Dentin


    P. Alizadeh Oskoee; AA. Ajami; S. Savadi Oskoee; F. Pournaghi-Azar


    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength to sound and caries-affected dentin using Single Bond and Adper Prompt-L-Pop adhesives.Materials and Methods: Sixteen extracted human molars with carious lesions extended halfway through dentin were ground to expose the caries affected and the surrounding normal dentin. The samples were divided into two groups of eight samples each, including Single Bond (two-step etch and rinse) and Adper Prompt-L-Pop (one step s...

  19. Homolytic Bond Dissociation Enthalpies of C C and C-H Bonds in Highly Crowded Alkanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Chen; RUI Lei; FU Yao


    The homolytic C-C and C--H bond dissociation enthalpyies (BDE) of highly crowded alkanes were calcu- lated by using an ONIOM-G3B3 method. Geometric parameters such as bond length, bond angle and molecular volume were carefully investigated, as most of the acyclic alkanes in this study were not yet synthesized. These pa-rameters reflect the influence of steric effect on BDE. Good correlations were found between the rapid decrease of BDE and the increase of molecular volumes. The correlations can be applied to the prediction of the possible exis-tence of many highly strained compounds.

  20. Using Diffusion Bonding in Making Piezoelectric Actuators (United States)

    Sager, Frank E.


    A technique for the fabrication of piezoelectric actuators that generate acceptably large forces and deflections at relatively low applied voltages involves the stacking and diffusion bonding of multiple thin piezoelectric layers coated with film electrodes. The present technique stands in contrast to an older technique in which the layers are bonded chemically, by use of urethane or epoxy agents. The older chemical-bonding technique entails several disadvantages, including the following: It is difficult to apply the bonding agents to the piezoelectric layers. It is difficult to position the layers accurately and without making mistakes. There is a problem of disposal of hazardous urethane and epoxy wastes. The urethane and epoxy agents are nonpiezoelectric materials. As such, they contribute to the thickness of a piezoelectric laminate without contributing to its performance; conversely, for a given total thickness, the performance of the laminate is below that of a unitary piezoelectric plate of the same thickness. The figure depicts some aspects of the fabrication of a laminated piezoelectric actuator by the present diffusion- bonding technique. First, stock sheets of the piezoelectric material are inspected and tested. Next, the hole pattern shown in the figure is punched into the sheets. Alternatively, if the piezoelectric material is not a polymer, then the holes are punched in thermoplastic films. Then both faces of each punched piezoelectric sheet or thermoplastic film are coated with a silver-ink electrode material by use of a silkscreen printer. The electrode and hole patterns are designed for minimal complexity and minimal waste of material. After a final electrical test, all the coated piezoelectric layers (or piezoelectric layers and coated thermoplastic films) are stacked in an alignment jig, which, in turn, is placed in a curved press for the diffusion-bonding process. In this process, the stack is pressed and heated at a specified curing temperature

  1. The electrostatic-alloy bonding technique used in MEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; CHEN Wei-ping


    Electrostatic-alloy bonding of silicon wafer with glass deposited by Au to form Si/Au-glass water,and bonding of Si/Au-glass with silicon wafer were researched during fabrication of pressure sensors.The silicon wafer and glass wafer with an Au film resistor were bonded by electrostatic bonding,and then Si-Au alloy bonding was formed by annealing at 400℃ for 2 h.The air sealability of the cavity after bonding was finally tested using the N2 filling method.The results indicate that large bond strength was obtained at the bonding interface.This process was used in fabricating a pressure sensor with a sandwich structure.The results indicate that the sensor presented better performances and that the bonding techniques can be used in MEMS packaging.

  2. Alternative adhesive strategies to optimize bonding to radicular dentin. (United States)

    Bouillaguet, Serge; Bertossa, Bruno; Krejci, Ivo; Wataha, John C; Tay, Franklin R; Pashley, David H


    This study tested the hypothesis that bond strengths of filling materials to radicular dentin might be optimized by using an indirect dentin bonding procedure with an acrylic core material. Roots of human teeth were endodontically prepared and obturated with EndoREZ, Epiphany, or the bonding of an acrylic point with SE Bond by using a direct or an indirect bonding technique. Bond strengths of endodontic sealers to radicular dentin were measured with a thin slice push-out test. Push-out strengths of EndoREZ and Epiphany to radicular dentin were less than 5 megapascals (MPa). The direct bonding technique with acrylic points and the self-etching adhesive had push-out strengths of 10 MPa, increasing to 18 MPa with the indirect technique. The use of the indirect bonding protocol with an acrylic point to compensate for polymerization stresses appears to be a viable means for optimizing bond strengths of endodontic filling materials to radicular dentin.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazali Syamni


    Full Text Available Bond markets have not been well developed in emerging countries. Realizing its important role, especially after the 1997 crises and the islamic economics development, emerging countries have started to develop such markets. This research examines the effect of interest rates and currencies on Islamic and conventional bonds in Bursa Malaysia. The analysis on Islamic bonds shows that interest rates and currencies do not influence Islamic bonds, which supports the prohibition of interest in Islam. The analysis on conventional bonds finds evidence that both interest rates and currencies affect conventional bond. It also finds evidence of a negative association between interest rates and a conventional bond. Keywords: Interest rate, currency, conventional bond, Islamic bond JEL classification numbers: G11, G12, G15

  4. Comparison of the microtensile bond strength of different composite core materials and bonding systems to a fiber post (DT Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelya Sadighpour


    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Retention and stability of the post and core system is the key factor for success of final restoration . The aim of this study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength of the different composite core materials and bonding systems to a fiber post.   Materials and Methods: To evaluate the bond strength of the composite resins to a fiber post ( DT light post 60 posts were divided into six groups : group A: Heliomolar Flow + Seal Bond, group B: Heliomolar Flow + SE Bond , group C: Valux Plus + Seal Bond , group D: Valux Plus + SE Bond , group E: Corecem + Seal Bond, group F: Corecem + SE Bond. All samples were thermocycled for 5000 cycles (5-55 0C and cut into four bars for the microtensile bond strength test. Failure modes were identified using a stereomicroscope. Data were analysed using One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD post hoc test (P<0.05.   Results: The interaction between composite resin materials and bonding systems were positive. The conventional hybrid composite (Valux Plus had significantly higher bond strength compared with the core specific flowable composite (Corecem when Seal Bond was applied as bonding agent (P<0.05. However, when SE Bond was utilized hybrid composite demonstrated significantly lower bond strength than that of other two groups (P<0.05.   Conclusion: The performance of a particular composite is affected by the bonding system that is applied. A single composite resin may have different bond strength when combined with different bonding system.

  5. Characterization of dentin-bonding-amalgam interfaces. (United States)

    Geiger, S B; Mazor, Y; Klein, E; Judes, H


    Applying a bonding agent and a resinous adhesive layer before amalgam condensation has become a common clinical procedure. However, interactions between the different interfaces formed, and the extent of sealing obtained, have not been extensively studied. This study characterized the interfaces formed in the bonded amalgam restoration. Specifically, the individual contributions of the bonding agent (One-Step) and the adhesive resin (Resinomer) were examined, along with their mode of application on the prevention of microleakage and the formation of a tight, continuous adhesion to amalgam. To this end, a dye penetration assay and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used, including high resolution elemental analysis, for the characterization of the sealing properties and the interface structure obtained following various procedures of applying amalgam adhesives. Results indicated that placing bonding material under the amalgam restoration is essential to preventing microleakage. When condensed against uncured or cured adhesive material, the adhesive resinous glass layer creates a thick interface with protrusions and inclusions in the amalgam, though microleakage studies indicate that condensation over the uncured adhesive results in a better seal than that of the cured adhesive. SEM combined with elemental analysis indicates that the adhesion between amalgam and adhesive material is mainly of mechanical character and is formed by interdigitations of the adhesive material protruding into the amalgam. Gaps formed at the various interfaces in the different modalities could be localized. In addition, resinous glass composite alone, without bonding, was found to provide an unacceptable degree of sealing between the tooth and amalgam. The clinical significance of these findings is further discussed.

  6. Understanding acoustic methods for cement bond logging. (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Tao, Guo; Shang, Xuefeng


    Well cementation is important for oil/gas production, underground gas storage, and CO2 storage, since it isolates the reservoir layers from aquifers to increase well integrity and reduce environmental footprint. This paper analyzes wave modes of different sonic/ultrasonic methods for cement bonding evaluation. A Two dimensional finite difference method is then used to simulate the wavefield for the ultrasonic methods in the cased-hole models. Waveforms of pulse-echo method from different interfaces in a good bonded well are analyzed. Wavefield of the pitch-catch method for free casing, partial or full bonded models with ultra-low density cement are studied. Based on the studies, the modes in different methods are considered as follows: the zero-order symmetric Leaky-Lamb mode (S0) for sonic method, the first-order symmetric Leaky-Lamb mode (S1) for the pulse-echo method, and the zero-order anti-symmetric Leaky-Lamb mode (A0) for the pitch-catch method. For the sonic method, a directional transmitter in both the azimuth and axial directions can generate energy with a large incidence angle and azimuth resolution, which can effectively generate S0 and break out the azimuth limitation of the conventional sonic method. Although combination of pulse-echo and pitch-catch methods can determine the bonding condition of the third interface for the ultra-low density cement case, the pitch-catch cannot tell the fluid annulus thickness behind casing for the partial bonded cased-hole.

  7. Dynamic force spectroscopy on multiple bonds: experiments and model

    CERN Document Server

    Erdmann, T; Nassoy, P; Schwarz, U S


    We probe the dynamic strength of multiple biotin-streptavidin adhesion bonds under linear loading using the biomembrane force probe setup for dynamic force spectroscopy. Measured rupture force histograms are compared to results from a master equation model for the stochastic dynamics of bond rupture under load. This allows us to extract the distribution of the number of initially closed bonds. We also extract the molecular parameters of the adhesion bonds, in good agreement with earlier results from single bond experiments. Our analysis shows that the peaks in the measured histograms are not simple multiples of the single bond values, but follow from a superposition procedure which generates different peak positions.

  8. Prediction of allosteric sites and mediating interactions through bond-to-bond propensities

    CERN Document Server

    Amor, Benjamin R C; Yaliraki, Sophia N; Barahona, Mauricio


    Allosteric regulation is central to many biochemical processes. Allosteric sites provide a target to fine-tune protein activity, yet we lack computational methods to predict them. Here, we present an efficient graph-theoretical approach for identifying allosteric sites and the mediating interactions that connect them to the active site. Using an atomistic graph with edges weighted by covalent and non-covalent bond energies, we obtain a bond-to-bond propensity that quantifies the effect of instantaneous bond fluctuations propagating through the protein. We use this propensity to detect the sites and communication pathways most strongly linked to the active site, assessing their significance through quantile regression and comparison against a reference set of 100 generic proteins. We exemplify our method in detail with three well-studied allosteric proteins: caspase-1, CheY, and h-Ras, correctly predicting the location of the allosteric site and identifying key allosteric interactions. Consistent prediction of...

  9. Bayesian field theoretic reconstruction of bond potential and bond mobility in single molecule force spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Joshua C; Chou, Tom


    Quantifying the forces between and within macromolecules is a necessary first step in understanding the mechanics of molecular structure, protein folding, and enzyme function and performance. In such macromolecular settings, dynamic single-molecule force spectroscopy (DFS) has been used to distort bonds. The resulting responses, in the form of rupture forces, work applied, and trajectories of displacements, have been used to reconstruct bond potentials. Such approaches often rely on simple parameterizations of one-dimensional bond potentials, assumptions on equilibrium starting states, and/or large amounts of trajectory data. Parametric approaches typically fail at inferring complex-shaped bond potentials with multiple minima, while piecewise estimation may not guarantee smooth results with the appropriate behavior at large distances. Existing techniques, particularly those based on work theorems, also do not address spatial variations in the diffusivity that may arise from spatially inhomogeneous coupling to...

  10. Limitations in Bonding to Dentin and Experimental Strategies to Prevent Bond Degradation


    Liu, Y.; Tjäderhane, L.; Breschi, L; A. Mazzoni; Li, N; J. Mao; Pashley, D.H.; Tay, F.R.


    The limited durability of resin-dentin bonds severely compromises the lifetime of tooth-colored restorations. Bond degradation occurs via hydrolysis of suboptimally polymerized hydrophilic resin components and degradation of water-rich, resin-sparse collagen matrices by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins. This review examined data generated over the past three years on five experimental strategies developed by different research groups for extending the longevity of resi...

  11. Comparison of shear bond strength of amalgam bonded to primary and permanent dentin


    Mahdi S; Bahman S; Arghavan A; Fatemeh M


    Amalgam′s non-adhesive characteristics necessitate cavity preparations incorporating retentive features, which often require the removal of non-carious tooth structure. Use of adhesives beneath amalgam restorations, would be helpful to overcome this disadvantage. This study was undertaken to compare the mean shear bond strength of amalgam bonded to primary and permanent dentin, to evaluate the efficacy of amalgam adhesives in pediatric dentistry.27 primary and 28 permanent posterior te...

  12. Comparison of Shear Bond Strength between Composite Resin and Porcelain Using Different Bonding Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Ceramics as in ceramo-metallic and all ceramic tooth restorations have grown popular owing to their high tissue compatibility and esthetic advantages. Such restorations have the capability to deliver valuable services over a long period of time; however, failures under intraoral conditions are not unanticipated.Purpose: The purpose of this in-vitro study was to investigate the shear bond strength of composite resin to porcelain using different bonding system materials.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study forty porcelain blocks were prepared and randomly divided into four equal groups. The porcelain surfaces were then etched with HF for 2 minutes, washed with water for 2 minutes and treated with a silane layer. The silane treated porcelain surfaces were left for one minute and then the specimens were bonded to composite resin as follow:Group 1 (control group, hybrid composite Z100 was applied and light cured from four directions for 20 seconds. Group 2, flowable composite was applied and light cured for 20 seconds. Group 3, unfilled resin was used and photo cured for 20 seconds. Group 4,(Dentin bonding agent adhesive resin was used followed by 20 seconds photo curing.Hybrid composite resin Z100 was subsequently applied on all porcelain surfaces of groups 2, 3 and 4, and light cured for 20 seconds from four directions. Specimens were then subjected to thermocycling 1000 times. Shear bond strength was determined by a Universal testing machine. The data obtained was subjected to a one-way ANOVA test.Results: The results indicate that there is a statistically significant difference between adhesive group and the other three groups of hybrid, flowable and unfilled resin (P<0.05.Conclusion: The results from this study showed that the shear bond strength of composite resin to porcelain was significantly higher for porcelain bonded surfaces using a dentin bonding agent than that of other materials tested.

  13. Cooperative effects between tetrel bond and other σ-hole bond interactions: a comparative investigation (United States)

    Esrafili, Mehdi D.; Nurazar, Roghaye; Mohammadian-Sabet, Fariba


    Covalently bonded atoms of Groups IV-VII tend to have anisotropic charge distributions, the electronic densities being less on the extensions of the bonds (σ-holes) than in the intervening regions. These σ-holes often give rise to positive electrostatic potentials through which the atom can interact attractively and highly directionally with negative sites. In this work, cooperative effects between tetrel bond and halogen/chalcogen/pnicogen bond interactions are studied in multi-component YH3M...NCX...NH3 complexes, where Y = F, CN; M = C, Si and X = Cl, SH and PH2. These effects are analysed in detail in terms of the structural, energetic, charge-transfer and electron density properties of the complexes. The nature of the σ-hole bonds is unveiled by quantum theory of atoms in molecules and natural bond orbital theory. A favourable cooperativity is found with values that range between -0.34 and -1.15 kcal/mol. Many-body decomposition of interaction energies indicate that two-body energy term is the most important source of the attraction, which its contribution accounts for 87%-96% of the total interaction energy.

  14. Comparison of shear bond strength of amalgam bonded to primary and permanent dentin. (United States)

    Mahdi, S; Bahman, S; Arghavan, A B; Fatemeh, M


    Amalgam's non-adhesive characteristics necessitate cavity preparations incorporating retentive features, which often require the removal of non-carious tooth structure. Use of adhesives beneath amalgam restorations, would be helpful to overcome this disadvantage. This study was undertaken to compare the mean shear bond strength of amalgam bonded to primary and permanent dentin, to evaluate the efficacy of amalgam adhesives in pediatric dentistry.27 primary and 28 permanent posterior teeth with intact buccal or lingual surfaces were grounded to expose dentin and wet-polished with 400-grit silicone carbide paper. Scotchbond Multi Purpose Plus adhesive system was applied to the dentin surfaces and light cured. Amalgam was condensed onto the treated dentin through a plastic mold.shear bond strength testing was done using an Instron Universal testing machine, at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min.The data were analyzed by independent samples t-test The difference among the two groups was not statistically significant (p>0.05) Bonded amalgam showed the same level of bond strength to primary and permanent dentin; so, application of amalgam bonding agents in pediatric dentistry can be recommended.

  15. Comparison of shear bond strength of amalgam bonded to primary and permanent dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi S


    Full Text Available Amalgam′s non-adhesive characteristics necessitate cavity preparations incorporating retentive features, which often require the removal of non-carious tooth structure. Use of adhesives beneath amalgam restorations, would be helpful to overcome this disadvantage. This study was undertaken to compare the mean shear bond strength of amalgam bonded to primary and permanent dentin, to evaluate the efficacy of amalgam adhesives in pediatric dentistry.27 primary and 28 permanent posterior teeth with intact buccal or lingual surfaces were grounded to expose dentin and wet-polished with 400-grit silicone carbide paper. Scotchbond Multi Purpose Plus adhesive system was applied to the dentin surfaces and light cured. Amalgam was condensed onto the treated dentin through a plastic mold.shear bond strength testing was done using an Instron Universal testing machine, at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min.The data were analyzed by independent samples t-test The difference among the two groups was not statistically significant (p>0.05 Bonded amalgam showed the same level of bond strength to primary and permanent dentin; so, application of amalgam bonding agents in pediatric dentistry can be recommended.

  16. The bond length and bond energy of gaseous CrW. (United States)

    Matthew, Daniel J; Oh, Sang Hoon; Sevy, Andrew; Morse, Michael D


    Supersonically cooled CrW was studied using resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy. The vibronically resolved spectrum was recorded over the region 21 100 to 23 400 cm(-1), showing a very large number of bands. Seventeen of these bands, across three different isotopologues, were rotationally resolved and analyzed. All were found to arise from the ground (1)Σ(+) state of the molecule and to terminate on states with Ω' = 0. The average r0 bond length across the three isotopic forms was determined to be 1.8814(4) Å. A predissociation threshold was observed in this dense manifold of vibronic states at 23 127(10) cm(-1), indicating a bond dissociation energy of D0(CrW) = 2.867(1) eV. Using the multiple bonding radius determined for atomic Cr in previous work, the multiple bonding radius for tungsten was calculated to be 1.037 Å. Comparisons are made between CrW and the previously investigated group 6 diatomic metals, Cr2, CrMo, and Mo2, and to previous computational studies of this molecule. It is also found that the accurately known bond dissociation energies of group 5/6 metal diatomics Cr2, V2, CrW, NbCr, VNb, Mo2, and Nb2 display a qualitative linear dependence on the sum of the d-orbital radial expectation values, r; this relationship allows the bond dissociation energies of other molecules of this type to be estimated.

  17. Shear Bond Strength of Three Orthodontic Bonding Systems on Enamel and Restorative Materials (United States)

    Ebeling, Jennifer; Schauseil, Michael; Stein, Steffen; Roggendorf, Matthias; Korbmacher-Steiner, Heike


    Objective. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the shear bond strength (SBS) and adhesive remnant index (ARI) score of two self-etching no-mix adhesives (iBond™ and Scotchbond™) on different prosthetic surfaces and enamel, in comparison with the commonly used total etch system Transbond XT™. Materials and Methods. A total of 270 surfaces (1 enamel and 8 restorative surfaces, n = 30) were randomly divided into three adhesive groups. In group 1 (control) brackets were bonded with Transbond XT primer. In the experimental groups iBond adhesive (group 2) and Scotchbond Universal adhesive (group 3) were used. The SBS was measured using a Zwicki 1120™ testing machine. The ARI and SBS were compared statistically using the Kruskal–Wallis test (P ≤ 0.05). Results. Significant differences in SBS and ARI were found between the control group and experimental groups. Conclusions. Transbond XT showed the highest SBS on human enamel. Scotchbond Universal on average provides the best bonding on all other types of surface (metal, composite, and porcelain), with no need for additional primers. It might therefore be helpful for simplifying bonding in orthodontic procedures on restorative materials in patients. If metal brackets have to be bonded to a metal surface, the use of a dual-curing resin is recommended.

  18. Body of Knowledge (BOK) for Copper Wire Bonds (United States)

    Rutkowski, E.; Sampson, M. J.


    Copper wire bonds have replaced gold wire bonds in the majority of commercial semiconductor devices for the latest technology nodes. Although economics has been the driving mechanism to lower semiconductor packaging costs for a savings of about 20% by replacing gold wire bonds with copper, copper also has materials property advantages over gold. When compared to gold, copper has approximately: 25% lower electrical resistivity, 30% higher thermal conductivity, 75% higher tensile strength and 45% higher modulus of elasticity. Copper wire bonds on aluminum bond pads are also more mechanically robust over time and elevated temperature due to the slower intermetallic formation rate - approximately 1/100th that of the gold to aluminum intermetallic formation rate. However, there are significant tradeoffs with copper wire bonding - copper has twice the hardness of gold which results in a narrower bonding manufacturing process window and requires that the semiconductor companies design more mechanically rigid bonding pads to prevent cratering to both the bond pad and underlying chip structure. Furthermore, copper is significantly more prone to corrosion issues. The semiconductor packaging industry has responded to this corrosion concern by creating a palladium coated copper bonding wire, which is more corrosion resistant than pure copper bonding wire. Also, the selection of the device molding compound is critical because use of environmentally friendly green compounds can result in internal CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion) mismatches with the copper wire bonds that can eventually lead to device failures during thermal cycling. Despite the difficult problems associated with the changeover to copper bonding wire, there are billions of copper wire bonded devices delivered annually to customers. It is noteworthy that Texas Instruments announced in October of 2014 that they are shipping microcircuits containing copper wire bonds for safety critical automotive applications

  19. Statistical theory for hydrogen bonding fluid system of AaDd type (Ⅱ): Properties of hydrogen bonding networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HaiJun; HONG XiaoZhong; GU Fang; BA XinWu


    Making use of the invariant property of the equilibrium size distribution of the hydrogen bonding clusters formed in hydrogen bonding system of AaDd type, the analytical expressions of the free energy in pregel and postgel regimes are obtained. Then the gel free energy and the scaling behavior of the number of hydrogen bonds in gel phase near the critical point are investigated to give the corresponding scaling exponents and scaling law. Meanwhile, some properties of intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen bonds in the system, sol and gel phases are discussed. As a result, the explicit relationship between the number of intramolecular hydrogen bonds and hydrogen bonding degree is obtained.

  20. Non-linear Ultrasonic Bond-Strength Monitor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To date, bond strength is considered one of the ?holy grails? for NDE. Preliminary data indicates that the Luna Nonlinear Ultrasonic Bond Strength (NUBS) monitor...

  1. Adhesive bonding of composite aircraft structures: Challenges and recent developments (United States)

    Pantelakis, Sp.; Tserpes, K. I.


    In this review paper, the challenges and some recent developments of adhesive bonding technology in composite aircraft structures are discussed. The durability of bonded joints is defined and presented for parameters that may influence bonding quality. Presented is also, a numerical design approach for composite joining profiles used to realize adhesive bonding. It is shown that environmental ageing and pre-bond contamination of bonding surfaces may degrade significantly fracture toughness of bonded joints. Moreover, it is obvious that additional research is needed in order to design joining profiles that will enable load transfer through shearing of the bondline. These findings, together with the limited capabilities of existing non-destructive testing techniques, can partially explain the confined use of adhesive bonding in primary composite aircraft structural parts.

  2. Catch bond mechanism in Dynein motor driven collective transport

    CERN Document Server

    Nair, Anil; Mitra, Mithun K; Muhuri, Sudipto; Chaudhuri, Abhishek


    Recent experiments have demonstrated that dynein motor exhibits catch bonding behaviour, in which the unbinding rate of a single dynein decreases with increasing force, for a certain range of force. Motivated by these experiments, we propose a model for catch bonding in dynein using a threshold force bond deformation (TFBD) model wherein catch bonding sets in beyond a critical applied load force. We study the effect of catch bonding on unidirectional transport properties of cellular cargo carried by multiple dynein motors within the framework of this model. We find catch bonding can result in dramatic changes in the transport properties, which are in sharp contrast to kinesin driven unidirectional transport, where catch bonding is absent. We predict that, under certain conditions, the average velocity of the cellular cargo can actually increase as applied load is increased. We characterize the transport properties in terms of a velocity profile phase plot in the parameter space of the catch bond strength and ...

  3. In vitro shear bond strength of the Amalgambond Plus system. (United States)

    van der Vyver, P J; de Wet, F A; Dearlove, W R


    The bonding of composite resins to dentine by means of dentine bonding agents is common practice. Although amalgam has been used for many years, no attempt had been made to bond it chemically to tooth structure. Amalgambond Plus (ABP) was developed to bond amalgam (as well as composite) to various substrates. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ABP system for its ability to bond amalgam, as well as composite, to dentine, and also to assess the strength of the product when bonding composite to set amalgam. The following values (MPa) were obtained for the different ABP variations: Amalgam to Dentine (with HPA): 5.20; Amalgam to Dentine (without HPA): 3.26; Composite to Dentine (without HPA): 17.57; Composite to Amalgam (without HPA): 12.00. It can be concluded that Amalgambond Plus gives varying bond strengths to different substrates, with the highest value obtained when used to bond Composite to Dentine.

  4. Article coated with flash bonded superhydrophobic particles (United States)

    Simpson, John T [Clinton, TN; Blue, Craig A [Knoxville, TN; Kiggans, Jr., James O [Oak Ridge, TN


    A method of making article having a superhydrophobic surface includes: providing a solid body defining at least one surface; applying to the surface a plurality of diatomaceous earth particles and/or particles characterized by particle sizes ranging from at least 100 nm to about 10 .mu.m, the particles being further characterized by a plurality of nanopores, wherein at least some of the nanopores provide flow through porosity, the particles being further characterized by a plurality of spaced apart nanostructured features that include a contiguous, protrusive material; flash bonding the particles to the surface so that the particles are adherently bonded to the surface; and applying a hydrophobic coating layer to the surface and the particles so that the hydrophobic coating layer conforms to the nanostructured features.

  5. Bond return predictability in expansions and recessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Møller, Stig Vinther; Jensen, Magnus David Sander

    We document that over the period 1953-2011 US bond returns are predictable in expansionary periods but unpredictable during recessions. This result holds in both in-sample and out-of-sample analyses and using both univariate regressions and combination forecasting techniques. A simulation study...... shows that our tests have power to reject unpredictability in both expansions and recessions. To judge the economic significance of the results we compute utility gains for a meanvariance investor who takes the predictability patterns into account and show that utility gains are positive in expansions...... but negative in recessions. The results are also consistent with tests showing that the expectations hypothesis of the term structure holds in recessions but not in expansions. However, the results for bonds are in sharp contrast to results for stocks showing that stock returns are predictable in recessions...

  6. Atomic bonding between metal and graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hongtao


    To understand structural and chemical properties of metal-graphene composites, it is crucial to unveil the chemical bonding along the interface. We provide direct experimental evidence of atomic bonding between typical metal nano structures and graphene, agreeing well with density functional theory studies. Single Cr atoms are located in the valleys of a zigzag edge, and few-atom ensembles preferentially form atomic chains by self-assembly. Low migration barriers lead to rich dynamics of metal atoms and clusters under electron irradiation. We demonstrate no electron-instigated interaction between Cr clusters and pristine graphene, though Cr has been reported to be highly reactive to graphene. The metal-mediated etching is a dynamic effect between metal clusters and pre-existing defects. The resolved atomic configurations of typical nano metal structures on graphene offer insight into modeling and simulations on properties of metal-decorated graphene for both catalysis and future carbon-based electronics. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  7. Electronic bond tuning with heterocyclic carbenes

    KAUST Repository

    Falivene, Laura


    We discuss the impact of the nature of the heterocyclic carbene ring, when used as a complex forming ligand, on the relative stability of key intermediates in three typical Ru, Pd and Au promoted reactions. Results show that P-heterocyclic carbenes have a propensity to increase the bonding of the labile ligand and of the substrate in Ru-promoted olefin metathesis, whereas negligible impact is expected on the stability of the ruthenacycle intermediate. In the case of Pd cross-coupling reactions, dissociation of a P-heterocyclic carbene is easier than dissociation of the N-heterocyclic analogue. In the case of the Au-OH synthon, the Au-OH bond is weakened with the P-heterocyclic carbene ligands. A detailed energy decomposition analysis is performed to rationalize these results. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. Expectations, Bond Yields and Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chun, Albert Lee


    expectations about inflation, output growth, and the anticipated path of monetary policy actions contain important information for explaining movements in bond yields. Estimates from a forward-looking monetary policy rule suggest that the central bank exhibits a preemptive response to inflationary expectations...... while accommodating output growth and monetary policy expectations. Forecasted GDP growth plays a significant role in explaining time variation in the market prices of risk. The sensitivity of long yields is linked to the persistence of expected inflation under the risk-neutral measure. Models...... of this type may provide traders and policymakers with a new set of tools for formally assessing the reaction of bond yields to shifts in market expectations...

  9. Water lubricates hydrogen-bonded molecular machines (United States)

    Panman, Matthijs R.; Bakker, Bert H.; den Uyl, David; Kay, Euan R.; Leigh, David A.; Buma, Wybren Jan; Brouwer, Albert M.; Geenevasen, Jan A. J.; Woutersen, Sander


    The mechanical behaviour of molecular machines differs greatly from that of their macroscopic counterparts. This applies particularly when considering concepts such as friction and lubrication, which are key to optimizing the operation of macroscopic machinery. Here, using time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy and NMR-lineshape analysis, we show that for molecular machinery consisting of hydrogen-bonded components the relative motion of the components is accelerated strongly by adding small amounts of water. The translation of a macrocycle along a thread and the rotation of a molecular wheel around an axle both accelerate significantly on the addition of water, whereas other protic liquids have much weaker or opposite effects. We tentatively assign the superior accelerating effect of water to its ability to form a three-dimensional hydrogen-bond network between the moving parts of the molecular machine. These results may indicate a more general phenomenon that helps explain the function of water as the ‘lubricant of life’.

  10. Bonding in the Superionic Phase of Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, N; Fried, L E; Kuo, I W; Mundy, C J


    The predicted superionic phase of water is investigated via ab initio molecular dynamics at densities of 2.0-3.0 g/cc (34-115 GPa) along the 2000K isotherm. They find that extremely rapid (superionic) diffusion of protons occurs in a fluid phase at pressures between 34 and 58 GPa. A transition to a stable body-centered cubic (bcc) O lattice with superionic proton conductivity is observed between 70 and 75 GPa, a much higher pressure than suggested in prior work. They find that all molecular species at pressures greater than 75 GPa are too short lived to be classified as bound states. Up to 95 GPa, they find a solid superionic phase characterization by covalent O-H bonding. Above 95 GPa, a transient network phase is found characterized by symmetric O-H hydrogen bonding with nearly 50% covalent character. In addition, they describe a new metastable superionic phase with quenched O disorder.

  11. Durability of Structural Adhesively Bonded System. (United States)


    boundary zone at a time interval of At = 60 minutes (i.e. non-linear with strain rate effect solution). Fig. 8.1 Sequence of environmental history cycle...8.2 Sequence of environmental history cycle Nos. 11 and Il, for investigation of hygrothermal behavior of CFRP and adhesiv specimens, representing the... environmental history on the ’eformational behavior of an FRP adherend as part of a bonded structured more information is needed on the HEC and CTE

  12. Chiral benzimidazoles as hydrogen bonding organocatalysts


    Nájera Domingo, Carmen; Yus Astiz, Miguel


    Several bifunctional organocatalysts bearing the benzimidazole unit have been designed in order to act as bifunctional systems by hydrogen bonding. Chiral 2-aminobenzimidazoles are conformational rigid guanidines able to catalyze enantioselectively Michael reaction, direct SN1 of alcohols, and aldol reactions. Some of these organocatalysts can be easily recovered by simple isolation methods and reused without loss of catalytic activity. Related (2-aminoalkyl)benzimidazoles have been used as c...

  13. In-Situ Adhesive Bond Assessment (United States)


    2008, Irvine , CA, August 27-29, 2008. [7] Srivastava, A. and Lanza di Scalea, F., "Quantitative Detection of Bond Defects in Composite Aircraft...Zagrai, S. Buckley, J. Ganley, and J. S. Welsh , "Structural Health Monitoring: An Enabler for Responsive Satellites," Proc. SPIE Smart Structures/NDE 6935...Arritt, L. M. Robertson, A. D. Williams, B. K. Henderson, S. Buckley, J. Ganley, J. S. Welsh , L. Ouyang, S. Beard, E. Clayton, M. D. Todd, D. Doyle, and

  14. Bonded-cell model for particle fracture


    Nguyen, Duc-Hanh; Azéma, Émilien; Sornay, Philippe; Radjaï, Farhang


    International audience; Particle degradation and fracture play an important role in natural granular flows and in many applications of granular materials. We analyze the fracture properties of two-dimensional disklike particles modeled as aggregates of rigid cells bonded along their sides by a cohesive Mohr-Coulomb law and simulated by the contact dynamics method. We show that the compressive strength scales with tensile strength between cells but depends also on the friction coefficient and ...

  15. Thermochemistry and bond dissociation energies of ketones. (United States)

    Hudzik, Jason M; Bozzelli, Joseph W


    Ketones are a major class of organic chemicals and solvents, which contribute to hydrocarbon sources in the atmosphere, and are important intermediates in the oxidation and combustion of hydrocarbons and biofuels. Their stability, thermochemical properties, and chemical kinetics are important to understanding their reaction paths and their role as intermediates in combustion processes and in atmospheric chemistry. In this study, enthalpies (ΔH°(f 298)), entropies (S°(T)), heat capacities (C(p)°(T)), and internal rotor potentials are reported for 2-butanone, 3-pentanone, 2-pentanone, 3-methyl-2-butanone, and 2-methyl-3-pentanone, and their radicals corresponding to loss of hydrogen atoms. A detailed evaluation of the carbon-hydrogen bond dissociation energies (C-H BDEs) is also performed for the parent ketones for the first time. Standard enthalpies of formation and bond energies are calculated at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p), B3LYP/6-311G(2d,2p), CBS-QB3, and G3MP2B3 levels of theory using isodesmic reactions to minimize calculation errors. Structures, moments of inertia, vibrational frequencies, and internal rotor potentials are calculated at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) density functional level and are used to determine the entropies and heat capacities. The recommended ideal gas-phase ΔH°(f 298), from the average of the CBS-QB3 and G3MP2B3 levels of theory, as well as the calculated values for entropy and heat capacity are shown to compare well with the available experimental data for the parent ketones. Bond energies for primary, secondary, and tertiary radicals are determined; here, we find the C-H BDEs on carbons in the α position to the ketone group decrease significantly with increasing substitution on these α carbons. Group additivity and hydrogen-bond increment values for these ketone radicals are also determined.

  16. The Female Bonding in The Color Purple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper aims at a survey of the female bonding in The Color Purple,which plays an important role in the heroine's finding her voice and sense of self.By examining the black women's struggle to explore their identity and claim their selves under sexual and racial oppressions,Alice Walker,the author,shows her understanding of the process that black women must undergo to achieve their vision.

  17. Mode Initialization when Simulating Switched Bond Graphs


    Edström, Krister


    When simulating hybrid systems using switched bond graphs, the initialization of new modes is made by using a generalization of the principle of momentum conservation. Here it is shown how to use causality propagation to get an efficient initialization algorithm. By looking at causal paths, set of variables that have to be initialized simultaneously are found. Furthermore, it is shown how impulses due to structural changes in the system can be found with a correct initialization and with a co...

  18. Measurement of bonding energy in an anhydrous nitrogen atmosphere and its application to silicon direct bonding technology (United States)

    Fournel, F.; Continni, L.; Morales, C.; Da Fonseca, J.; Moriceau, H.; Rieutord, F.; Barthelemy, A.; Radu, I.


    Bonding energy represents an important parameter for direct bonding applications as well as for the elaboration of physical mechanisms at bonding interfaces. Measurement of bonding energy using double cantilever beam (DCB) under prescribed displacement is the most used technique thanks to its simplicity. The measurements are typically done in standard atmosphere with relative humidity above 30%. Therefore, the obtained bonding energies are strongly impacted by the water stress corrosion at the bonding interfaces. This paper presents measurements of bonding energies of directly bonded silicon wafers under anhydrous nitrogen conditions in order to prevent the water stress corrosion effect. It is shown that the measurements under anhydrous nitrogen conditions (less than 0.2 ppm of water in nitrogen) lead to high stable debonding lengths under static load and to higher bonding energies compared to the values measured under standard ambient conditions. Moreover, the bonding energies of Si/SiO2 or SiO2/SiO2 bonding interfaces are measured overall the classical post bond annealing temperature range. These new results allow to revisit the reported bonding mechanisms and to highlight physical and chemical phenomena in the absence of stress corrosion effect.

  19. Shear bond strength evaluation of resin composite bonded to glass-ionomer cement using self-etching bonding agents with different pH: In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deivanayagam Kandaswamy


    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the bonding ability of composite to unset glass-ionomer cement (GIC using different self-etching bonding systems. Materials and Methods: One hundred samples of composite bonded to unset GIC were prepared and were divided into four groups. In Group A, composite was bonded to unset GIC employing a strong (pH 1 self-etch primer was used. In Group B, intermediary strong (pH 1.4 self-etch primer was employed. In Group C and D, mild (pH 2 and (pH 2.2 self-etch primer was employed. Shear bond strength analysis was performed at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min. Results: Statistical analysis performed with one way analysis of variance and Tukey′s test showed that the bond strength of composite to unset GIC was significantly higher for the mild self-etch primer group. In addition, energy dispersive x-ray (EDX analysis was used to determine the composition of various structural phases identified by FE-SEM along the GIC-bonding agent interfaces. Conclusion: Hence this present study concludes that clinically the use of mild self-etching bonding agent over unset GIC has improved bond strength compared to the use of strong and intermediate self-etching bonding agent.

  20. Study of New Way about Si/Si Bonding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new set of technique was adopted in bonding Si-Si by using Ge (Ⅳ element),which is used as the substitute for the common hydrophilic method. The bond layer has no holes, and the edge bond-rate amounts to above 98%, and the bond strength is above 2156 Pa. By doping the same kind of dopant with low-resistance in Ge, the stress compensation was realized.

  1. PbCNN: A molecule containing Pb≡C bonding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In order to predict potential molecules with Pb≡C bonding, we investigated the potential energy sur-face of a tetra-atomic system [PbCN2] at the CCSD(T)//B3LYP level. We found that the linear isomer PbCNN possesses good thermodynamic and kinetic stability. The combined molecular orbital analysis, hydrogenation heat, bond energy and bond dissociation energy all proved that PbCNN is composed of Pb≡ C triple bonding.

  2. Analysis of Adhesively Bonded Ceramics Using an Asymmetric Wedge Test (United States)


    moisture durability of adhesive bonding of ceramics is dental applications (12–14). The adhesive bonding of ceramic orthodontic inserts presents unique...sample sets. Environmental exposure is often limited to mechanical testing on the millimeter scale of bonded ceramic blocks or extracted human...Dressler, K. B.; Grenadier, M. R. Direct Bonding of Orthodontic Brackets to Esthetic Restorative Materials Using a Silane. Am. J. Orthodontics and

  3. Exchange Rate Policy and Sovereign Bond Spreads in Developing Countries



    We test the hypothesis of a link between exchange rate policy and sovereign bonds. We analyze the effect of exchange rate policies on supply and credit spreads of sovereign bonds issued by developing countries. An exchange rate policy is captured by the de facto exchange rate regime and the real exchange rate misalignment. The main findings are: (1) real exchange rate overvaluation significantly increases sovereign bond issue probability and raises bond spreads; (2) spreads and the likelihood...

  4. PbCNN: A molecule containing Pb≡C bonding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen-Bin; SHI Guo-Sheng; DING Yi-Hong; SUN Chia-Chung


    In order to predict potential molecules with Pb≡C bonding, we investigated the potential energy sur-face of a tetra-atomic system [PbCN2] at the CCSD(T)//B3LYP level. We found that the linear isomer PbCNN possesses good thermodynamic and kinetic stability. The combined molecular orbital analysis, hydrogenation heat, bond energy and bond dissociation energy all proved that PbCNN is composed of Pb≡C triple bonding.

  5. 27 CFR 25.93 - Penal sum of bond. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penal sum of bond. 25.93... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Bonds and Consents of Surety § 25.93 Penal sum of bond. (a)(1) Brewers....164(c)(2), the penal sum of the brewers bond must be equal to 10 percent of the maximum amount of...

  6. [The application of universal adhesives in dental bonding]. (United States)

    Guo, Jingmei; Lei, Wenlong; Yang, Hongye; Huang, Cui


    The bonding restoration has become an important clinical technique for the development of dental bonding technology. Because of its easy operation and the maximum preservation of tooth tissues, bonding repair is widely used in dental restoration. The recent multi-mode universal adhesives have brought new progress in dental bonding restoration. In this article the universal adhesives were reviewed according to its definition, development, improvement, application features and possible problems.

  7. Shear bond strength of partial coverage restorations to dentin (United States)

    Agustín-Panadero, Rubén; Alonso-Pérez-Barquero, Jorge; Fons-Font, Antonio; Solá-Ruíz, María-Fernanda


    Background When partial coverage restorations (veneers, inlays, onlays…) must be cemented to dentin, bond strength may not reach the same predictable values as to enamel. The purpose of this study was: 1. To compare, with a shear bond test, the bond strength to dentin of a total-etch and a self-etching bonding agent. 2. To determine whether creating microretention improves the bond strength to dentin. Material and Methods Two bonding agents were assayed, Optibond FL® (Kerr), two-bottle adhesive requiring acid etching, and Clearfil SE Bond® (Kuraray), two-bottle self-etching adhesive. The vestibular, lingual, distal and mesial surfaces of ten molars (n=10) were ground to remove all enamel and 40 ceramic samples were cemented with Variolink II® (Ivoclar Vivadent). Half the molar surfaces were treated to create round microretention (pits) to determine whether these could influence bond strength to dentin. The 40 molar surfaces were divided into four groups (n=10): Optibond FL (O); Clearfil SE (C); Optibond FL + microretention (OM); Clearfil SE + micro retention (CM). A shear bond test was performed and the bond failures provoked examined under an optical microscope. Results O=35.27±8.02 MPa; C=36.23±11.23 MPa; OM=28.61±6.27 MPa; CM=27.01±7.57 MPa. No statistically significant differences were found between the adhesives. Optibond FL showed less statistical dispersion than Clearfil SE. The presence of microretentions reduced bond strength values regardless of the adhesive used. Conclusions 1. Clearfil SE self-etching adhesive and Optibond FL acid-etch showed adequate bond strengths and can be recommended for bonding ceramic restorations to dentin. 2. The creation of round microretention pits compromises these adhesives’ bond strength to dentin. Key words:Adhesion to dentin, bonding agent, Optibond FL, Clearfil SE, microretention, shear bond test. PMID:26330937

  8. A Corpuscular Picture of Electrons in Chemical Bond

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Koji


    We introduce a theory of chemical bond with a corpuscular picture of electrons. It employs a minimal set of localized electron wave packets with 'floating and breathing' degrees of freedom and the spin-coupling of non-orthogonal valence-bond theory. It accurately describes chemical bonds in ground and excited states of spin singlet and triplet, in a distinct manner from conventional theories, indicating potential for establishing a dynamical theory of electrons in chemical bonds.

  9. The fluid-compensated cement bond log

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayfeh, T.H.; Wheelis, W.B. Jr.; Leslie, H.D.


    Simulations of cement bond logging (CBL) have shown that wellbore fluid effects can be segregated from sonic-signal response to changing cement strengths. Traditionally, the effects have been considered negligible and the CBL's have been interpreted as if water were in the wellbore. However, large variations in CBL's have become apparent with the increasing number of logs run in completion fluids, such as CaCl/sub 2/, ZnBr/sub 2/, and CaBr/sub 2/. To study wellbore fluid effects, physical and numerical models were developed that simulated the wellbore geometry. Measurements were conducted in 5-, 7-, and 9 5/8-in. casings for a range of wellbore fluid types and for both densities and viscosities. Parallel numerical modeling used similar parameters. Results show that bond-log amplitudes varied dramatically with the wellbore fluid acoustic impedance-i.e., there was a 70% increase in signal amplitudes for 11.5 lbm/gal (1370-kg/m/sup 3/) CaCl/sub 2/ over the signal amplitude in water. This led to the development of a fluid-compensated bond log that corrects the amplitude for acoustic impedance of various wellbore fluids, thereby making the measurements more directly related to the cement quality.

  10. Hydrogen Bonding in Hydrogenated Amorphous Germanium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.S.Abo-Ghazala; S. Al Hazmy


    Thin films of hydrogenated amorphous germanium (a-Ge:H) were prepared by radio frequency glow discharge deposition at various substrate temperatures. The hydrogen distribution and bonding structure in a-Ge:H were discussed based on infrared absorption data. The correlation between infrared absorption spectra and hydrogen effusion measurements was used to determine the proportionality constant for each vibration mode of the Ge-H bonds. The results reveal that the bending mode appearing at 835 cm?1 is associated with the Ge-H2 (dihydride) groups on the internal surfaces of voids. While 1880 cm?1 is assigned to vibrations of Ge-H (monohydride) groups in the bulk, the 2000 cm?1 stretching mode is attributed to Ge-H and Ge-H2 bonds located on the surfaces of voids. For films associated with bending modes in the infrared spectra, the proportionality constant values of the stretching modes near 1880 and 2000 cm?1 are found to be lower than those of films which had no corresponding bending modes.

  11. Microchannel cooling of face down bonded chips (United States)

    Bernhardt, Anthony F.


    Microchannel cooling is applied to flip-chip bonded integrated circuits, in a manner which maintains the advantages of flip-chip bonds, while overcoming the difficulties encountered in cooling the chips. The technique is suited to either multichip integrated circuit boards in a plane, or to stacks of circuit boards in a three dimensional interconnect structure. Integrated circuit chips are mounted on a circuit board using flip-chip or control collapse bonds. A microchannel structure is essentially permanently coupled with the back of the chip. A coolant delivery manifold delivers coolant to the microchannel structure, and a seal consisting of a compressible elastomer is provided between the coolant delivery manifold and the microchannel structure. The integrated circuit chip and microchannel structure are connected together to form a replaceable integrated circuit module which can be easily decoupled from the coolant delivery manifold and the circuit board. The coolant supply manifolds may be disposed between the circuit boards in a stack and coupled to supplies of coolant through a side of the stack.

  12. Progressive Damage Analysis of Bonded Composite Joints (United States)

    Leone, Frank A., Jr.; Girolamo, Donato; Davila, Carlos G.


    The present work is related to the development and application of progressive damage modeling techniques to bonded joint technology. The joint designs studied in this work include a conventional composite splice joint and a NASA-patented durable redundant joint. Both designs involve honeycomb sandwich structures with carbon/epoxy facesheets joined using adhesively bonded doublers.Progressive damage modeling allows for the prediction of the initiation and evolution of damage within a structure. For structures that include multiple material systems, such as the joint designs under consideration, the number of potential failure mechanisms that must be accounted for drastically increases the complexity of the analyses. Potential failure mechanisms include fiber fracture, intraply matrix cracking, delamination, core crushing, adhesive failure, and their interactions. The bonded joints were modeled using highly parametric, explicitly solved finite element models, with damage modeling implemented via custom user-written subroutines. Each ply was discretely meshed using three-dimensional solid elements. Layers of cohesive elements were included between each ply to account for the possibility of delaminations and were used to model the adhesive layers forming the joint. Good correlation with experimental results was achieved both in terms of load-displacement history and the predicted failure mechanism(s).

  13. Biocompatible silicon wafer bonding for biomedical microdevices (United States)

    Hansford, Derek; Desai, Tejal A.; Tu, Jay K.; Ferrari, Mauro


    In this paper,several candidate bonding materials are reviewed for use in biomedical microdevices. These include poly propylmethacrylate (PPMA), poly methylmethacrylate (PMMA), a copolymer of poly methacrylate and two types of silicone gels. They were evaluated based on their cytotoxicity and bond strength, as well as several other qualitative assessments. The cytotoxicity was determined through a cell growth assay protocol in which cells were grown on the various substrate and their growth was compared to cells grown on control substrate. The adhesive strength was assessed by using a pressurized plate test in which the adhesive interface was pressurized to failure. All of the substrate were found to be non-cytotoxic in an inert manner except for the industrial silicone adhesive gel. The adhesive strengths of the various materials are compared to each other and to previously published adhesive strengths. All of the materials were found to have a sufficient bonding strength for biomedical applications, but several other factors were determined that limit the use of each material.

  14. Effect of dentin surface roughness on the shear bond strength of resin bonded restorations (United States)

    Koodaryan, Roodabeh; Poursoltan, Sajjad


    PURPOSE This study aimed to investigate whether dentin surface preparation with diamond rotary instruments of different grit sizes affects the shear bond strength of resin-bonded restorations. MATERIALS AND METHODS The buccal enamel of 60 maxillary central incisors was removed with a low speed diamond saw and wet ground with silicon carbide papers. The polished surfaces of the teeth were prepared with four groups of rotary diamond burs with super-coarse (SC), coarse (C), medium (M), and fine (F) grit sizes. Following surface preparation, 60 restorations were casted with nickel-chromium alloy and bonded with Panavia cement. To assess the shear bond strength, the samples were mounted on a universal testing machine and an axial load was applied along the cement-restoration interface at the crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The acquired data was analyzed with one way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test (α=.05). RESULTS The mean ± SD shear bond strengths (in MPa) of the study groups were 17.75 ± 1.41 for SC, 13.82 ± 1.13 for C, 10.40 ± 1.45 for M, and 7.13 ± 1.18 for F. Statistical analysis revealed the significant difference among the study groups such that the value for group SC was significantly higher than that for group F (P<.001). CONCLUSION Dentin surface roughness created by diamond burs of different grit sizes considerably influences the shear bond strength of resin bonded restorations. PMID:27350858

  15. Bond strength of composite resin to enamel: assessment of two ethanol wet-bonding techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khoroushi


    Full Text Available Ethanol wet-bonding (EWB technique has been stated to decrease degradation of resin-dentin bond. This study evaluated the effect of two EWB techniques on composite resin-to-enamel bond strength.Silicon carbide papers were used to produce flat enamel surfaces on the buccal faces of forty-five molars. OptiBond FL (OFL adhesive was applied on enamel surfaces in three groups of 15 namely: Enamel surface and OFL (control;Protocol 1 of the EWB technique: absolute ethanol was applied to water-saturated acid-etched enamel surfaces for 1 minute before the application of ethanol-solvated hydrophobic adhesive resin of OFL 3 times;Protocol 2: progressive ethanol replacement; water was gradually removed from the enamel matrix using ascending ethanol concentrations before OFL application. Composite build-ups were made and the specimens were stored for 24 hours at 37°C and 100% relative humidity. Shear bond strength test was performed using a universal testing machine at 1 mm/min crosshead speed. Fracture patterns were evaluated microscopically. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Fisher's exact test (α=0.05.There were no significant differences in bond strength between the groups (P=0.73. However, regarding failure patterns, the highest cohesive enamel fractures were recorded in groups 2 and 3.In this study, although both methods of EWB did not influence immediate bond strength of composite resin to enamel, the majority of failure patterns occurred cohesively in enamel.

  16. Bond Strength of Composite Resin to Enamel: Assessment of Two Ethanol Wet-Bonding Techniques (United States)

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Rafizadeh, Mojgan; Samimi, Pouran


    Objective Ethanol wet-bonding (EWB) technique has been stated to decrease degradation of resin-dentin bond. This study evaluated the effect of two EWB techniques on composite resin-to-enamel bond strength. Materials and Methods: Silicon carbide papers were used to produce flat enamel surfaces on the buccal faces of forty-five molars. OptiBond FL (OFL) adhesive was applied on enamel surfaces in three groups of 15 namely: Enamel surface and OFL (control);Protocol 1 of the EWB technique: absolute ethanol was applied to water-saturated acid-etched enamel surfaces for 1 minute before the application of ethanol-solvated hydrophobic adhesive resin of OFL 3 times;Protocol 2: progressive ethanol replacement; water was gradually removed from the enamel matrix using ascending ethanol concentrations before OFL application. Composite build-ups were made and the specimens were stored for 24 hours at 37°C and 100% relative humidity. Shear bond strength test was performed using a universal testing machine at 1 mm/min crosshead speed. Fracture patterns were evaluated microscopically. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Fisher’s exact test (α=0.05). Results: There were no significant differences in bond strength between the groups (P=0.73). However, regarding failure patterns, the highest cohesive enamel fractures were recorded in groups 2 and 3. Conclusion: In this study, although both methods of EWB did not influence immediate bond strength of composite resin to enamel, the majority of failure patterns occurred cohesively in enamel. PMID:24910690

  17. 8 CFR 280.6 - Bond to obtain clearance; form. (United States)


    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bond to obtain clearance; form. 280.6 Section 280.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 280.6 Bond to obtain clearance; form. A bond to obtain clearance of a...

  18. 8 CFR 1280.6 - Bond to obtain clearance; form. (United States)


    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bond to obtain clearance; form. 1280.6... IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 1280.6 Bond to obtain clearance; form. A bond to obtain clearance of a vessel or aircraft under section 231, 237, 239, 243, 251, 253, 254, 255, 256,...

  19. 7 CFR 1780.83 - Bond transcript documents. (United States)


    ... Bonds and Bond Transcript Documents for Public Body Applicants § 1780.83 Bond transcript documents. Any... of the governing body at which action was taken in connection with the authorizing and issuing of the... or validity of the obligation. It is permissible for such opinion to contain language referring...

  20. Students' Perceptions of Parental Bonding Styles and Their Academic Burnout (United States)

    Shin, Hyojung; Lee, Jayoung; Kim, Boyoung; Lee, Sang Min


    This study investigated how parental bonding style affects academic burnout in Korean adolescents. Participants were 447 middle school students, who completed the Parental Bonding Instrument and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey. MANCOVA results confirmed that adolescents reporting the optimal bonding parental style, for both mother and…

  1. An analysis of hot die size fuel bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurwell, W.E.


    A critical analysis of the Al-Ni-U bond and the hot die size bonding technique is given as the result of a literature search. Metallurgical aspects of the bond and the technique of hot die sizing are commented upon in particular.

  2. 27 CFR 24.141 - Bonded wine warehouse. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bonded wine warehouse. 24... § 24.141 Bonded wine warehouse. Where all operations at a bonded wine warehouse are to be permanently discontinued, the warehouse proprietor shall file with the appropriate TTB officer a notice in letter form...

  3. 27 CFR 28.244 - Shipment to manufacturing bonded warehouse. (United States)


    ... bonded warehouse. 28.244 Section 28.244 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Export Consignment § 28.244 Shipment to manufacturing bonded warehouse. Distilled spirits and wines withdrawn for shipment to a manufacturing bonded warehouse shall be consigned to the proprietor of...

  4. 76 FR 28801 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Bonded Warehouse Regulations (United States)


    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Bonded Warehouse... approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Bonded Warehouse Regulations. This is a proposed..., mechanical, or other technological techniques or other forms of information. Title: Bonded...

  5. 27 CFR 24.108 - Bonded wine warehouse application. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bonded wine warehouse... wine warehouse application. A warehouse company or other person desiring to establish a bonded wine warehouse on bonded wine premises for storing wine or allied products for credit purposes shall file...

  6. 19 CFR 113.55 - Cancellation of export bonds. (United States)


    ... export bonds. (a) Manner of cancellation. A bond to assure exportation as defined in § 101.1 of this chapter may be cancelled: (1) Upon exportation. Upon the listing of the merchandise on the outward... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cancellation of export bonds. 113.55 Section...

  7. Valuing Euro rating-triggered step-up telecom bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Houweling (Patrick); A.A. Mentink; A.C.F. Vorst (Ton)


    textabstractWe value rating-triggered step-up bonds with three methods: (i) the Jarrow, Lando and Turnbull (1997, JLT) framework, (ii) a similar framework using historical probabilities and (iii) as plain vanilla bonds. We find that the market seems to value single step-up bonds according to the JLT

  8. Valuing Euro Rating-Triggered Step-Up Telecom Bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Houweling (Patrick); A.A. Mentink; A.C.F. Vorst (Ton)


    textabstractWe value rating-triggered step-up bonds with three methods: (i) the Jarrow, Lando and Turnbull (1997, JLT) framework, (ii) a similar framework using historical probabilities and (iii) as plain vanilla bonds. We find that the market seems to value single step-up bonds according to the JLT

  9. 27 CFR 28.286 - Receipt in customs bonded warehouse. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Receipt in customs bonded... in Customs Bonded Warehouse § 28.286 Receipt in customs bonded warehouse. On receipt of the distilled spirits or wine and the related TTB Form 5100.11 or 5110.30 as the case may be, the customs officer...

  10. 27 CFR 40.133 - Amount of individual bond. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount of individual bond. 40.133 Section 40.133 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU..., AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Bonds and Extensions of Coverage of Bonds § 40.133 Amount of individual...

  11. Impact of Cohort Bonds on Student Satisfaction and Engagement (United States)

    Martin, Kimberly A.; Goldwasser, Molly M.; Galentino, Richard


    This study examines differences in student satisfaction and engagement in cohort programs versus traditional, non-cohort educational programs by studying the impact of close bonds between students. The authors measure and compare "close bonds" within an educational cohort to a traditional program and measure the impact of close bonds on…

  12. 27 CFR 28.64 - Bond, Form 2737. (United States)


    ... provided in § 28.51, a continuing bond on Form 2737 (5110.67). The bond shall be executed in a penal sum... wines which may remain unaccounted for at any one time: Provided, That the maximum penal sum of such bond shall not exceed $200,000, but in no case shall the penal sum be less than $1,000....

  13. C-H fluorination: U can fluorinate unactivated bonds (United States)

    Neumann, Constanze N.; Ritter, Tobias


    Introducing C-F bonds into organic molecules is a challenging task, particularly through C-H activation methods. Now, a uranium-based photocatalyst turns traditional selectivity rules on their heads and fluorinates unfunctionalized alkane Csp3-H bonds, even in the presence of C-H bonds that are typically more reactive.

  14. Bond Mechanisms in Fiber Reinforced Cement-Based Composites (United States)


    Symposium on "Cement Based Composites: Bonding in Cementitious Composites," S. Mindess and S. Shah, Editors. 44. Nilson, A. H., "Bond Stress-Slip...Society Symposium on "Cement Based Composites: Bonding in Cementitious Composites," held in Boston, December 2 to 4, 1987, S. Mindess and S. Shah, 0

  15. Development finance via diaspora bonds track record and potential


    Ketkar, Suhas L.; Ratha, Dilip


    A diaspora bond is a debt instrument issued by a country - or potentially, a sub-sovereign entity or a private corporation - to raise financing from its overseas diaspora. Israel and India have raised $35-40 billion using these bonds. Drawing on their experiences, this paper discusses the rationale, methodology, and factors affecting the issuance of diaspora bonds for raising external deve...

  16. 7 CFR 1427.1083 - Bonding requirements for net worth. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bonding requirements for net worth. 1427.1083 Section 1427.1083 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT... Warehouses for Cotton and Cotton Linters § 1427.1083 Bonding requirements for net worth. A bond furnished...

  17. 31 CFR 332.6 - Purchase of bonds. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purchase of bonds. 332.6 Section 332....6 Purchase of bonds. (a) Issuing agents. Only Federal Reserve Banks and Branches, as fiscal agents.... However, financial institutions were permitted to forward applications for purchase of the bonds to...

  18. Bond valence at mixed occupancy sites. I. Regular polyhedra. (United States)

    Bosi, Ferdinando


    Bond valence sum calculations at mixed occupancy sites show the occurrence of systematic errors leading to apparent violations of the Valence Sum Rule (bond valence theory) in regular and unstrained bonding environments. The systematic deviation of the bond valence from the expected value is observed in the long-range structure, and is discussed from geometric and algebraic viewpoints. In the valence-length diagram, such a deviation arises from discrepancies between the intersection points of the long-range bond valences and the theoretical bond valences with the valence-length curves of involved cations. Three factors cause systematic errors in the bond valences: difference in atomic valences, bond valence parameters Ri (the length of a bond of unit valence) and bond valence parameters bi (the bond softness) between the involved cations over the same crystallographic site. One important consequence strictly related to the systematic errors is that they lead to erroneous bond strain values for mixed occupancy sites indicating underbonding or overbonding that actually does not exist.

  19. Continuing relationships with the deceased : disentangling bonds and grief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, Henk A W; Stroebe, Margaret S; Boelen, Paul A; Zijerveld, Annemieke M


    Some studies of the relationship between continuing bonds and grief intensity have claimed that continuing bonds lead to poor adaptation to bereavement. However, operationalizations of continuing bonds and grief intensity appear to overlap conceptually. Thus, it is still unclear what character the c

  20. 26 CFR 1.149(g)-1 - Hedge bonds. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hedge bonds. 1.149(g)-1 Section 1.149(g)-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax Exemption Requirements for State and Local Bonds § 1.149(g)-1 Hedge bonds... of replacement proceeds (other than amounts in a bona fide debt service fund or a reasonably...

  1. 27 CFR 26.67 - Bond, Form 2897-Wine. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bond, Form 2897-Wine. 26... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Bonds § 26.67 Bond, Form 2897—Wine. Where a proprietor intends to withdraw, for purpose of shipment to the United States, wine of Puerto Rican manufacture from...

  2. Porcelain laminate veneer restorations bonded with a three-liquid silane bonding agent and a dual-activated luting composite. (United States)

    Matsumura, Hideo; Aida, Yukiko; Ishikawa, Yumi; Tanoue, Naomi


    This clinical report describes the fabrication and bonding of porcelain laminate veneer restorations in a patient with anterior open spaces. Laminate veneer restorations made of feldspathic porcelain were etched with 5% hydrofluoric acid, rinsed under tap water, ultrasonically cleaned with methanol, and primed with a chemically activated three-liquid silane bonding agent (Clearfil Porcelain Bond). The enamel surfaces were etched with 40% phosphoric acid, rinsed with water, and primed with a two-liquid bonding agent (Clearfil New Bond) that contained a hydrophobic phosphate (10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate; MDP). The restorations were bonded with a dual-activated luting composite (Clapearl DC). The veneers have been functioning satisfactorily for an observation period of one year. Combined use of the Clearfil bonding agents and Clapearl DC luting composite is an alternative to conventional materials for seating porcelain laminate veneer restorations, although the system is inapplicable to dentin bonding.

  3. Bond Alternation in Halogen Substituted Polyacetylene ---Possibility of C-F Bond Length Alternation in (CF)x--- (United States)

    Abdelaty, S. M.; Sasai, M.; Fukutome, H.


    Using the Hückel model, we study the π electronic and lattice structures of the ground state of halogen substituted polyacetylene (CX)x where X is F, Cl, Br or I. The halogen substitution always makes the C-C bond length alternation in the main chain and the corresponding band gap smaller than those in unsubstituted polyacetylene (CH)x. (CCl)x, (CBr)x and (CI)x have only the bond alternation in the main chain. (CF)x may take one of the three lattice structures depending on the value of the C-F σ bond force constant; the structure with the bond alternation in the main chain, the one with the bond length alternation in the C-F bonds and the one with coexistence of the two kinds of bond alternation. The structure with the C-F bond length alternation is ferroelectric.

  4. AAA-DDD triple hydrogen bond complexes. (United States)

    Blight, Barry A; Camara-Campos, Amaya; Djurdjevic, Smilja; Kaller, Martin; Leigh, David A; McMillan, Fiona M; McNab, Hamish; Slawin, Alexandra M Z


    Experiment and theory both suggest that the AAA-DDD pattern of hydrogen bond acceptors (A) and donors (D) is the arrangement of three contiguous hydrogen bonding centers that results in the strongest association between two species. Murray and Zimmerman prepared the first example of such a system (complex 3*2) and determined the lower limit of its association constant (K(a)) in CDCl(3) to be 10(5) M(-1) by (1)H NMR spectroscopy (Murray, T. J. and Zimmerman, S. C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1992, 114, 4010-4011). The first cationic AAA-DDD pair (3*4(+)) was described by Bell and Anslyn (Bell, D. A. and Anslyn, E. A. Tetrahedron 1995, 51, 7161-7172), with a K(a) > 5 x 10(5) M(-1) in CH(2)Cl(2) as determined by UV-vis spectroscopy. We were recently able to quantify the strength of a neutral AAA-DDD arrangement using a more chemically stable AAA-DDD system, 6*2, which has an association constant of 2 x 10(7) M(-1) in CH(2)Cl(2) (Djurdjevic, S., Leigh, D. A., McNab, H., Parsons, S., Teobaldi, G. and Zerbetto, F. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 476-477). Here we report on further AA(A) and DDD partners, together with the first precise measurement of the association constant of a cationic AAA-DDD species. Complex 6*10(+)[B(3,5-(CF(3))(2)C(6)H(3))(4)(-)] has a K(a) = 3 x 10(10) M(-1) at RT in CH(2)Cl(2), by far the most strongly bound triple hydrogen bonded system measured to date. The X-ray crystal structure of 6*10(+) with a BPh(4)(-) counteranion shows a planar array of three short (NH...N distances 1.95-2.15 A), parallel (but staggered rather than strictly linear; N-H...N angles 165.4-168.8 degrees), primary hydrogen bonds. These are apparently reinforced, as theory predicts, by close electrostatic interactions (NH-*-N distances 2.78-3.29 A) between each proton and the acceptor atoms of the adjacent primary hydrogen bonds.

  5. Bond strength and durability of glass ionomer cements used as bonding agents in the placement of orthodontic brackets. (United States)

    Klockowski, R; Davis, E L; Joynt, R B; Wieczkowski, G; MacDonald, A


    One potential risk of orthodontic treatment is the development of surface decalcification in association with use of brackets and bands. A bonding agent that could render tooth structure more resistant to the caries process clearly would reduce the negative iatrogenic outcomes of orthodontic therapy and thereby benefit the patient. Glass ionomer cement (GIC) bonds chemically to both enamel and dentin. In addition its high fluoride content makes enamel more resistant to caries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond strength and durability of GIC when used as a bonding agent in the placement of orthodontic brackets. The materials tested were three GICs (Ketac-Fil, Ketac-Cem, and Chelon) and a standard bonding agent currently in widespread use (Rely-A-Bond). Brackets were attached to the facial surface of 96 premolar specimens and half the specimens for each bonding agent were thermocycled. Bond shear strength was determined with an Instron testing device by applying a load to the occlusal margin of each bracket to the point of failure. A two-way ANOVA indicated a significant bonding agent by thermocycling interaction (F = 4.78, p less than 0.01). Thermocycling decreased bond strength significantly for all materials, but had the greatest impact on Rely-A-Bond. However, Rely-A-Bond provided the strongest bond with and without thermocycling. Although bond strength for the standard orthodontic bonding agent deteriorates significantly under thermal stress, these results suggest that it is still greater than the bond strength provided by GIC materials.

  6. The effect of repeated bonding on the shear bond strength of different resin cements to enamel and dentin (United States)

    Atsü, Saadet Sağlam


    PURPOSE Cementation failures of restorations are frequently observed in clinical practice. The purpose of this study is to compare the effect of initial and repeated bonding on the bond strengths of different resin cements to enamel and dentin. MATERIALS AND METHODS Ninety human maxillary central incisors were bisected longitudinally. The 180 tooth halves were divided into 2 groups (n = 90) for enamel and dentin bonding. The enamel and dentin groups were further divided into 3 groups (n = 30) for different resin cement types. Composite resin (Filtek Ultimate) cylinders (3 × 3 mm) were prepared and luted to enamel and dentin using Variolink II (Group V), RelyX ARC (Group R), or Panavia F 2.0 (Group P) resin cement. After 24 hours, initial shear bond strengths of the resin cements to enamel and dentin were measured. Using new cylinders, the specimens were de-bonded and re-bonded twice to measure the first and the second bond strengths to enamel and dentin. Failure modes and bonding interfaces were examined. Data were statistically analyzed. RESULTS Initial and repeated bond strengths to enamel were similar for all the groups. The first (15.3 ± 2.2 MPa) and second (10.4 ± 2.2 MPa) bond strengths to dentin were significantly higher in Group V (P<.0001). Second bond strengths of dentin groups were significantly lower than initial and first bond strengths to dentin (P<.0001). CONCLUSION All resin cements have similar initial and repeated bond strengths to enamel. Variolink II has the highest first and second bond strength to dentin. Bond strength to dentin decreases after the first re-bonding for all resin cements. PMID:28243393

  7. Shear Bond Strength of Resin Bonded to Bleached Enamel Using Different Modified 35% Hydrogen Peroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosavi H


    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Bleaching systems with different concentrations and applications are widely used to improve the visual appearance of the teeth, but one of the complications of these materials is reduction of bond strength for immediately bonding to the bleached enamel. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of using different modified hydrogen peroxide bleaching agents on the shear bond strength of composite resin bonded to the bleached enamel. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight sound extracted premolar teeth were collected, sectioned 1 mm below the CEJ to detach the root. The proximal surfaces of the teeth were flattened using diamond disks and silicon carbide papers to achieve flat homogeneous enamel surfaces without exposure to the dentin. The teeth were randomly divided into four groups as follows (n = 12: group 1: bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide gel; group 2: bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide gel contained (casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP; group 3: bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide gel combined with fluoride; and group 4: bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide applying one week before resin restoration placement. Composite resin, Clearfil AP-X (Kuraray, Tokyo, Japan, was bonded on each tooth in the mould (4 mm diameter × 3 mm height using Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray, Tokyo, Japan. After 24 hours of storage and 1000 cycles of thermocycling, the shear bond strength of the specimens at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min was measured in MPa. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test. Results: The minimum and maximum mean shear bond strength values were observed in groups 2 (15.82 ± 4.41 and 4 (21.00 ± 3.90, respectively. Multiple comparisons of groups revealed no significant differences among the groups except between group 4 and all the other groups. The most common type of failure was adhesive. Conclusions: Using modified bleaching agents decreased the bond

  8. Effect of SiC Nanoparticles on Bond Strength of Cold Roll Bonded IF Steel (United States)

    Jamaati, Roohollah; Toroghinejad, Mohammad Reza; Edris, Hossein


    In this study, cold roll bonding process characteristics of IF steel strips, such as bond strength, threshold deformation, undulation of peeling force, and peeled surface, in the presence of SiC nanoparticles were examined and compared to those of an IF steel strip without nanoparticles. The bond strength was evaluated by the peeling test and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that when the thickness reduction was increased, the peeling force of IF steel strips improved. The results also indicated that the presence of silicon carbide nanoparticles decreased the bond strength of IF steel strips when compared to the strips without nanoparticles for the same thickness reduction. When the thickness reduction was increased, the undulation of average peeling force values increased at a constant nanoparticle content. Also, the strips without nanoparticles had a lower undulation value as compared to the strips with SiC nanoparticles. In addition, in the presence of silicon carbide, when the nanoparticles' content was increased, the undulation of average peeling force values decreased at a constant thickness reduction. Finally, it was found that the bond strength of IF steel strips was less than that of aluminum and copper strips. This was attributed to their crystal structure.

  9. Limitations in bonding to dentin and experimental strategies to prevent bond degradation. (United States)

    Liu, Y; Tjäderhane, L; Breschi, L; Mazzoni, A; Li, N; Mao, J; Pashley, D H; Tay, F R


    The limited durability of resin-dentin bonds severely compromises the lifetime of tooth-colored restorations. Bond degradation occurs via hydrolysis of suboptimally polymerized hydrophilic resin components and degradation of water-rich, resin-sparse collagen matrices by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins. This review examined data generated over the past three years on five experimental strategies developed by different research groups for extending the longevity of resin-dentin bonds. They include: (1) increasing the degree of conversion and esterase resistance of hydrophilic adhesives; (2) the use of broad-spectrum inhibitors of collagenolytic enzymes, including novel inhibitor functional groups grafted to methacrylate resins monomers to produce anti-MMP adhesives; (3) the use of cross-linking agents for silencing the activities of MMP and cathepsins that irreversibly alter the 3-D structures of their catalytic/allosteric domains; (4) ethanol wet-bonding with hydrophobic resins to completely replace water from the extrafibrillar and intrafibrillar collagen compartments and immobilize the collagenolytic enzymes; and (5) biomimetic remineralization of the water-filled collagen matrix using analogs of matrix proteins to progressively replace water with intrafibrillar and extrafibrillar apatites to exclude exogenous collagenolytic enzymes and fossilize endogenous collagenolytic enzymes. A combination of several of these strategies should result in overcoming the critical barriers to progress currently encountered in dentin bonding.

  10. Irregular Characteristics of Bond Interface Formation in Ultrasonic Wire Wedge Bonding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingyu LI; Hongjun JI; Chunqing WANG; Au Tai KUNG; Han Sur BANG; Hee Seon BANG


    The mechanism of ultrasonic wire wedge bonding, one of the die/chip interconnection methods, was investigated based on the characteristics of the ultrasonic wire bonding joints. The Al-1%Si wire of 25 μm in diameter was bonded on Au/Ni/Cu pad and the joint cross-section was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The results indicated that it is irregular for the ultrasonic bond formation, non-welded at the centre but joining well at the periphery, especially at the heel and toe of the joint. Furthermore, the diffusion and/or reaction at the cross-section interface are not clear at C-zone, while there exists a strip layer microstructure at P-zone, and the composition is 78.96 at. pct Al and 14.88 at. pct Ni, close to the Al3Ni intermetallic compound. All these observations are tentatively ascribed to the plastic flow enhanced by ultrasonic vibration and repeated cold deformation driving interdiffusion between Al and Ni at bond interface.

  11. Molecular mechanics on bonding and non-bonding interactions in (atom@C60)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱传宝; 徐志谨; 严继民


    The interactions between the embedded atom X (X=Li,Na,K,Rb,Cs; F,Cl,Br,I) and C60cage in the endohedral-form complexes (X@C60) are calculated and discussed according to molecular mechanics from the point of view of the bonding and non-bonding.It is found from the computational results that for atoms with radii larger than Li’s,their locations with the minimum interaction in (X@C60) are at the cage center,while atom Li has an off-center location with the minimum interaction deviation of-0.05 nm,and the cage-environment in C60 can be regarded as sphero-symmetry in the region with radius r of ~0.2 nm.It is shown that the interaction between X and C60 cage is of non-bonding characteristic,and this non-bonding interaction is not purely electrostatic.The repulsion and dispersion in non-bonding interactions should not be neglected,which make important contribution to the location with minimum interaction of X,at center or off center.Some rules about the variations of interactions with atomic radii have been ob

  12. Raman spectroscopy of supported chromium oxide catalysts : determination of chromium-oxygen bond distances and bond orders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Wachs, I.E.


    An empirical correlation is described for relating Raman stretching frequencies of chromium—oxygen (Cr—O) bonds to their bond lengths in chromium oxide reference compounds. An exponential fit of crystallographically determined Cr—O bond lengths to Cr—O Raman symmetric stretching frequencies (800–130

  13. Preliminary results for explosion bonding of beryllium to copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, D.J. [Northwest Technical Industries, Inc., Sequim, WA (United States); Dombrowski, D.E. [Brush Wellman, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)


    This program was undertaken to determine if explosive bonding is a viable technique for joining beryllium to copper substrates. The effort was a cursory attempt at trying to solve some of the problems associated with explosive bonding beryllium and should not be considered a comprehensive research effort. There are two issues that this program addressed. Can beryllium be explosive bonded to copper substrates and can the bonding take place without shattering the beryllium? Thirteen different explosive bonding iterations were completed using various thicknesses of beryllium that were manufactured with three different techniques.

  14. Studies on Hydrogen Bonding Network Structures of Konjac Glucomannan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Jie; SUN Yu-Jing; YANG You-Hui; CHEN Yuan-Yuan; CHEN Yi-Qing; SUN Yuan-Ming


    In this paper, the hydrogen bonding network models of konjac glucomannan (KGM) are predicted in the approach of molecular dynamics (MD). These models have been proved by experiments whose results are consistent with those from simulation.The results show that the hydrogen bonding network structures of KGM are stable and the key linking points of hydrogen bonding network are at the O(6) and O(2) positions on KGM ring. Moreover, acety1 has significant influence on hydrogen bonding network and hydrogen bonding network structures are more stable after deacetylation.

  15. Advances in modeling and design of adhesively bonded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, S


    The book comprehensively charts a way for industry to employ adhesively bonded joints to make systems more efficient and cost-effective Adhesively bonded systems have found applications in a wide spectrum of industries (e.g., aerospace, electronics, construction, ship building, biomedical, etc.) for a variety of purposes. Emerging adhesive materials with improved mechanical properties have allowed adhesion strength approaching that of the bonded materials themselves. Due to advances in adhesive materials and the many potential merits that adhesive bonding offers, adhesive bonding has replac

  16. Experiments on room temperature optical fiber-fiber direct bonding (United States)

    Hao, Jinping; Yan, Ping; Xiao, Qirong; Wang, Yaping; Gong, Mali


    High quality permanent connection between optical fibers is a significant issue in optics and communication. Studies on room temperature optical large diameter fiber-fiber direct bonding, which is essentially surface interactions of glass material, are presented here. Bonded fiber pairs are obtained for the first time through the bonding technics illustrated here. Two different kinds of bonding technics are provided-fresh surface (freshly grinded and polished) bonding and hydrophobic surface (activated by H2SO4 and HF) bonding. By means of fresh surface bonding, a bonded fiber pair with light transmitting efficiency of 98.1% and bond strength of 21.2 N is obtained. Besides, in the bonding process, chemical surface treatment of fibers' end surfaces is an important step. Therefore, various ways of surface treatment are analyzed and compared, based on atomic force microscopy force curves of differently disposed surfaces. According to the comparison, fresh surfaces are suggested as the prior choice in room temperature optical fiber-fiber bonding, owing to their larger adhesive force, attractive force, attractive distance, and adhesive range.

  17. Theoretical study for Bond between Reinforcement steel and Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    usama mostafa mahran


    Full Text Available The behavior and load carrying behavior of reinforced concrete structures is influence by the interaction between the concrete and reinforcement. The stress transfer between reinforcement and concrete in the longitudinal direction of the bars is called bond. An essential feature of reinforced concrete is the bond between steel and concrete. Anchorage of reinforcement depends on the bond between steel and concrete, crack width and crack spacing are mainly governed by it. So, stiffness, deformation and dynamic behavior are influenced by it, and in reverse loading damping and energy dissipation is a function of bond. This is one of the reasons why bond has been, and still is, a topic of fundamental and applied research. Bond stress is the equivalent unit shear stress acting in parallel to the reinforcing bar on the interface between reinforcing steel bar and concrete. Due to the transfer of forces through bond stress, between the reinforcing rebar and concrete, the force in the reinforcing bar changes along its length. Because bond stress is thought of as stress per unit area of bar surface, it is related to the rate of change of steel stress. Consequently, to have bond stress it is necessary to have a changing steel stress. In cases of high stress at the contact interface, near cracks or end anchorages, the bond stresses are related to relative displacements between concrete and steel. These relative displacements, which are caused by different average strains in the concrete and the steel, are usually called bond-slip (t-d.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The superplasticity and diffusion bonding of IN718 superalloy were studied in this article. The strain rate sensitivity index m was obtained at different temperatures and various initial strain rates using the tensile speed mutation method; m reached its maximum value 0.53 at an initial strain rate of 1 ×10-4s-1 at 1253K. The diffusion bonding parameters, including the bonding temperature T,pressure p, and time t, affected the mechanism of joints. When the bonded specimen with 25μm thick nickel foil interlayer was tensile at room temperature, the shear fracture of the joints with nickel foil interlayer took place at the IN718 part. Microstructure study was carried out with the bonded samples. The microstructure shows an excellent bonding at the interfaces. The optimum parameters for the diffusion bonding are: T= 1273-1323K, p = 20-30MPa, t = 45-60min.

  19. Strength and leak testing of plasma activated bonded interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, M.M.; Weichel, Steen; Reus, Roger De


    Bond strength and hermeticity of plasma activated bonded (PAB) Si-Si interfaces are reported. Bonding of 100 mm Si(1 0 0) wafers was performed. An average bond strength of 9.0+/-3.9 MPa was achieved without performing any annealing steps. Cavities bonded in vacuum were found to be hermetic based...... on detection of changes in membrane deflections. The detection limit for leak was 8E-13 mbar l/s. For comparison, strength and leak tests were also performed with regular fusion bonded wafers annealed at 1100 degreesC. The PAB was found to withstand post-processing steps such as RCA cleaning, 24 h in de......-ionised water (DIW), 24 h in 2.5% HF, 24 h in acetone and 60 s in a resist developer. By analysing the thin silicon oxide present on the surfaces to be bonded with optical methods, the influence of pre-cleaning and activation process parameters was investigated....

  20. Wafer level bonding using localized radio-frequency induction heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A wafer level bonding technique by localized induction heating has been developed and demonstrated in this paper.A suitable fabrication process scheme has also been established for the localized induction heating and bonding.It takes only about 20 seconds to complete the bonding process.The temperatures of solder loops and the central area of solder loops are above 300°C and below 70°C,respectively.Due to the solder reflow,robust and hermetic glass wafer bonding is accomplished,and the average tensile strength is 6.42 MPa.Under-heated or over-heated bonding has been found to result in cracks at bonding interfaces and sputtering layer,which degrades the bonding qualities.

  1. Pricing Chinese Convertible Bonds with Dynamic Credit Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Li


    Full Text Available To price convertible bonds more precisely, least squares Monte Carlo (LSM method is used in this paper for its advantage in handling the dependence of derivatives on the path, and dynamic credit risk is used to replace the fixed one to make the value of convertible bonds reflect the real credit risk. In the empirical study, we price convertible bonds based on static credit risk and dynamic credit risk, respectively. Empirical results indicate that the ICBC convertible bond has been overpriced, resulting from the underestimation of credit risk. In addition, when there is an issue of dividend, the conversion price will change in China's convertible bonds, while it does not change in the international convertible bonds. So we also empirically study the difference between the convertible bond's prices by assuming whether the conversion price changes or not.

  2. Ultrasonic evaluation of beryllium-copper diffusion bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, E.E.


    A study was performed to compare the effectiveness of several advanced ultrasonic techniques when used to determine the strength of diffusion bonded beryllium-copper, which heretofore have each been applied to only a few material systems. The use of integrated backscatter calculations, frequency domain reflection coefficients, and time-of-flight variance was compared in their ability to characterize the bond strength in a series of beryllium-copper diffusion bond samples having a wide variation in bond quality. Correlation of integrated backscatter calculations and time-of-flight variance with bond strength was good. Some correlation of the slope of the frequency based reflection coefficient was shown for medium and high strength bonds, while its Y-intercept showed moderate correlation for all bond strengths.

  3. Shear Bond Strength of Two Types of Glass Ionomer to Bleached Dentin: Effect of Delayed Bonding and Antioxidant Agent (United States)

    Omrani, Ladan Ranjbar; Sabouri, Parastoo; Abbasi, Mehdi; Ahmadi, Elham; Ghavam, Maryam


    Background: Studies have shown a reduction in bond strength of composites and glass ionomer to bleached enamel and dentin. Several methods have been proposed to reverse compromised bond strength. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of delayed bonding and application of antioxidant agent on the bond strength of reinforced self-cured (Fuji IX) and light-cured glass ionomers (Fuji II LC) to bleached dentin. Material: Eighty extracted third molars were randomly divided into 8 groups. Buccal dentin surfaces received different treatments: Two control groups: no treatment + bonding Fuji IX or Fuji II LC. Two immediate bonding groups: bleaching + bonding Fuji IX or Fuji II LC. Two delayed bonding groups: bleaching + 7 days delay + bonding Fuji IX or Fuji II LC. Two sodium ascorbate application groups: Bleaching + application of 10% sodium ascorbate + bonding Fuji IX or Fuji II LC. All samples were tested for shear bond strength. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the mean and standard deviations among groups, followed by the Tukey’s test for significant interaction. Results: No statistically significant difference was detected in shear bond strength of Fuji IX to bleached or normal dentin. Although a significant reduction was found shear bond strength values of Fuji II LC to bleached dentin, no significant difference was observed between no bleaching group and those treated with 10% sodium ascorbate or 7 days of delay in bonding for both types of glass ionomer. Conclusion: Bleaching had no significant effect on shear bond strength of Fuji IX to dentin; this type of GI can be used immediately after bleaching. PMID:28217187

  4. VB studies on bonding features of HNCHCN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO; Xinli(


    [1]Skurski, P., Gutowski, M., Simons, J., Ab initio electronic structure of HCN- and HNC-dipole-bound anions and a description of electron loss upon tautomerization, J. Chem. Phys., 2001, 114(17): 7443-7449.[2]Jursic, B. S., Complete basis set ab initio study of potential energy surfaces of the dissociation recombination reaction HCNH++e(-), J. Mol. Struct., 1999, 487(3): 211-220.[3]Abashkin, Y., Russo, N., Toscano, M., Transition states and energy barriers from density functional studies: representative isomerization reactions, Int. J. Quantum Chem., 1994, 52: 695-704.[4]Bentley, J. A., Bowman, J. M., Gazdy, B. et al., A global ab initio potential for HCN/HNC exact vibrational energies and comparision to experiment, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1992, 198(6): 563-569.[5]Bentley, J. A., Huang, C. M., Wyatt, R. E., Highly vibrationally excited HCN/HNC: eigenvalues, wave functions, and stimulated emission pumping spectra, J. Chem. Phys., 1992, 98(7): 5207-5221.[6]Peric, M., Mladrenovic, M., Peyerimhoff, S. D. et al., Ab initio study of the isomerization HNC-HCN, 1. Ab initio calculation of the HNV reversible HCN potential surface and the corresponding energy-levels, Chem. Phys., 1983, 82: 317-336.[7]Zhang, Q. E., Li, X. Z., Bonded tableau method for many-electron systems, J. Mol. Struct. (Theochem.), 1989, 198: 413-425.[8]Li, X. Z., Zhang, Q. E., Bonded tableau unitary group approach to the many-electron correlation problem, Int. J. Quantum Chem., 1989, 36: 599-632.[9]Li, J. B., Wu, W., New algorithm for nonorthogonal ab initio valence-bond calculations, Theor. Chim. Acta, 1994, 89: 105-121.[10]Wu, W., Mo, Y. R., Zhang, Q. E., On the resonance theory, J. Mol. Struct., 1993, 283: 227-236.[11]Mo, Y. R., Wu, W., Zhang, Q. E., Valence bond description for the ground state and several low-lying excited states of LiH, J. Mol. Struct., 1993, 283: 237-249.[12]Pauling, L., The Nature of Chemical Bond, 3rd ed., Ithaca, New York: Cornell

  5. Bond selective chemistry beyond the adiabatic approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, L.J. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)


    One of the most important challenges in chemistry is to develop predictive ability for the branching between energetically allowed chemical reaction pathways. Such predictive capability, coupled with a fundamental understanding of the important molecular interactions, is essential to the development and utilization of new fuels and the design of efficient combustion processes. Existing transition state and exact quantum theories successfully predict the branching between available product channels for systems in which each reaction coordinate can be adequately described by different paths along a single adiabatic potential energy surface. In particular, unimolecular dissociation following thermal, infrared multiphoton, or overtone excitation in the ground state yields a branching between energetically allowed product channels which can be successfully predicted by the application of statistical theories, i.e. the weakest bond breaks. (The predictions are particularly good for competing reactions in which when there is no saddle point along the reaction coordinates, as in simple bond fission reactions.) The predicted lack of bond selectivity results from the assumption of rapid internal vibrational energy redistribution and the implicit use of a single adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface for the reaction. However, the adiabatic approximation is not valid for the reaction of a wide variety of energetic materials and organic fuels; coupling between the electronic states of the reacting species play a a key role in determining the selectivity of the chemical reactions induced. The work described below investigated the central role played by coupling between electronic states in polyatomic molecules in determining the selective branching between energetically allowed fragmentation pathways in two key systems.

  6. Thioamides: versatile bonds to induce directional and cooperative hydrogen bonding in supramolecular polymers. (United States)

    Mes, Tristan; Cantekin, Seda; Balkenende, Dirk W R; Frissen, Martijn M M; Gillissen, Martijn A J; De Waal, Bas F M; Voets, Ilja K; Meijer, E W; Palmans, Anja R A


    The amide bond is a versatile functional group and its directional hydrogen-bonding capabilities are widely applied in, for example, supramolecular chemistry. The potential of the thioamide bond, in contrast, is virtually unexplored as a structuring moiety in hydrogen-bonding-based self-assembling systems. We report herein the synthesis and characterisation of a new self-assembling motif comprising thioamides to induce directional hydrogen bonding. N,N',N''-Trialkylbenzene-1,3,5-tris(carbothioamide)s (thioBTAs) with either achiral or chiral side-chains have been readily obtained by treating their amide-based precursors with P2S5. The thioBTAs showed thermotropic liquid crystalline behaviour and a columnar mesophase was assigned. IR spectroscopy revealed that strong, three-fold, intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions stabilise the columnar structures. In apolar alkane solutions, thioBTAs self-assemble into one-dimensional, helical supramolecular polymers stabilised by three-fold hydrogen bonding. Concentration- and temperature-dependent self-assembly studies performed by using a combination of UV and CD spectroscopy demonstrated a cooperative supramolecular polymerisation mechanism and a strong amplification of supramolecular chirality. The high dipole moment of the thioamide bond in combination with the anisotropic shape of the resulting cylindrical aggregate gives rise to sufficiently strong depolarised light scattering to enable depolarised dynamic light scattering (DDLS) experiments in dilute alkane solution. The rotational and translational diffusion coefficients, D(trans) and D(rot), were obtained from the DDLS measurements, and the average length, L, and diameter, d, of the thioBTA aggregates were derived (L = 490 nm and d = 3.6 nm). These measured values are in good agreement with the value L(w) = 755 nm obtained from fitting the temperature-dependent CD data by using a recently developed equilibrium model. This experimental verification

  7. Ligand "Brackets" for Ga-Ga Bond. (United States)

    Fedushkin, Igor L; Skatova, Alexandra A; Dodonov, Vladimir A; Yang, Xiao-Juan; Chudakova, Valentina A; Piskunov, Alexander V; Demeshko, Serhiy; Baranov, Evgeny V


    The reactivity of digallane (dpp-Bian)Ga-Ga(dpp-Bian) (1) (dpp-Bian = 1,2-bis[(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imino]acenaphthene) toward acenaphthenequinone (AcQ), sulfur dioxide, and azobenzene was investigated. The reaction of 1 with AcQ in 1:1 molar ratio proceeds via two-electron reduction of AcQ to give (dpp-Bian)Ga(μ2-AcQ)Ga(dpp-Bian) (2), in which diolate [AcQ](2-) acts as "bracket" for the Ga-Ga bond. The interaction of 1 with AcQ in 1:2 molar ratio proceeds with an oxidation of the both dpp-Bian ligands as well as of the Ga-Ga bond to give (dpp-Bian)Ga(μ2-AcQ)2Ga(dpp-Bian) (3). At 330 K in toluene complex 2 decomposes to give compounds 3 and 1. The reaction of complex 2 with atmospheric oxygen results in oxidation of a Ga-Ga bond and affords (dpp-Bian)Ga(μ2-AcQ)(μ2-O)Ga(dpp-Bian) (4). The reaction of digallane 1 with SO2 produces, depending on the ratio (1:2 or 1:4), dithionites (dpp-Bian)Ga(μ2-O2S-SO2)Ga(dpp-Bian) (5) and (dpp-Bian)Ga(μ2-O2S-SO2)2Ga(dpp-Bian) (6). In compound 5 the Ga-Ga bond is preserved and supported by dithionite dianionic bracket. In compound 6 the gallium centers are bridged by two dithionite ligands. Both 5 and 6 consist of dpp-Bian radical anionic ligands. Four-electron reduction of azobenzene with 1 mol equiv of digallane 1 leads to complex (dpp-Bian)Ga(μ2-NPh)2Ga(dpp-Bian) (7). Paramagnetic compounds 2-7 were characterized by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, and their molecular structures were established by single-crystal X-ray analysis. Magnetic behavior of compounds 2, 5, and 6 was investigated by superconducting quantum interference device technique in the range of 2-295 K.

  8. Emulsion primers, their contribution to bonding


    González Sburlati, Rubén Osmar; Sapei, José


    Asphalt irrigation in its various types, performs specific functions in the structure of a road during the construction phase or their service life. In particular, the so-called "Irrigation Primer " is used in underlying layers, in order to generate a transition surface with the new asphalt layer; thus the tack or prime coat will be placed on a surface to ensure a good bond with the overlying layer. For a long time Diluted Asphalts (Cut Back mediums) where used, but have been discontinued for...

  9. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding in myricetin and myricitrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vojta, Danijela; Dominkovic, Katarina; Miljanic, Snezana;


    The molecular structures of myricetin (3,3’,4’,5,5’,7-hexahydroxyflavone; MCE) and myricitrin (myricetin 3-O-rhamnoside; MCI) are investigated by quantum chemical calculations (B3LYP/6-311G**). Two preferred molecular rotamers of MCI are predicted, corresponding to different conformations of the O......-rhamnoside subunit. The rotamers are characterized by different hydrogen bonded cross-links between the hydroxy groups of the rhamnoside substituent and the parent MCE moiety. The predicted OH stretching frequencies are compared with vibrational spectra of MCE and MCI recorded for the sake of this investigation (IR...

  10. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding in myricetin and myricitrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vojta, Danijela; Dominkovic, Katarina; Miljanic, Snezana;


    The molecular structures of myricetin (3,3’,4’,5,5’,7-hexahydroxyflavone; MCE) and myricitrin (myricetin 3-O-rhamnoside; MCI) are investigated by quantum chemical calculations (B3LYP/6-311G**). Two preferred molecular rotamers of MCI are predicted, corresponding to different conformations of the O......-rhamnoside subunit. The rotamers are characterized by different hydrogen bonded cross-links between the hydroxy groups of the rhamnoside substituent and the parent MCE moiety. The predicted OH stretching frequencies are compared with vibrational spectra of MCE and MCI recorded for the sake of this investigation (IR...

  11. The binding energy and bonding in dialane. (United States)

    Goebbert, Daniel J; Hernandez, Heriberto; Francisco, Joseph S; Wenthold, Paul G


    The binding energy of dialane, Al2H6, has been measured using mass spectrometric techniques to be 33 +/- 5 kcal/mol. This represents the first measurement of the thermochemical properties of dialane, which has only recently been observed in low-temperature matricies. High-level quantum mechanical calculations give a binding energy in agreement with the measured value. Experimental and quantum mechanical calculations show that dialane is chemically similar to diborane, B2H6, even though the bonding for these two systems shows significant differences.

  12. Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process (United States)

    Bernhardt, Anthony F.; Contolini, Robert J.; Malba, Vincent; Riddle, Robert A.


    A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder.

  13. The chemical bond structure and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zewail, Ahmed


    This inspired book by some of the most influential scientists of our time--including six Nobel laureates--chronicles our emerging understanding of the chemical bond through the last nine decades and into the future. From Pauling's early structural work using x-ray and electron diffraction to Zewail's femtosecond lasers that probe molecular dynamics in real time; from Crick's molecular biology to Rich's molecular recognition, this book explores a rich tradition of scientific heritage and accomplishment. The perspectives given by Pauling, Perutz, Rich, Crick, Porter, Polanyi, Herschbach, Zewail,

  14. Edward Bond El teatro de compromiso social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa López de D’Amico


    Full Text Available Este trabajo muestra un estudio de la obra del dramaturgo contemporáneo británico Edward Bond. El análisis está basado en la crítica literaria social a través del cual se estudia la violencia presente en la obra de Edward Bond. La investigación se presenta en secciones. En primera instancia, se propone una biografía del autor y la función que este le asigna al teatro. Seguidamente, se expone brevemente el desarrollo del teatro británico en el siglo XX. Luego se plantea un resumen de la obra objeto de estudio, Saved, y a continuación su correspondiente análisis, señalando las acciones violentas y su respectivo estudio. Además, se incluye un subcapítulo en donde se plantea la interrogante acerca de los aspectos positivos o negativos de la obra. En la última parte, se hace una breve revisión de otras obras escritas por el autor en donde se evidencia constantemente la violencia. En las conclusiones se exponen algunas ideas del autor, se plantea la validez del trabajo del escritor y se señala la importancia de este estudio en el proceso de enseñanza del inglés. AbstractThis paper presents a study of the works of the contemporary British playwright Edward Bond. The analysis is based on literary social criticism through which the violence present in the work of Edward Bond is studied. The research is presented in sections. In the first instance, there is a biography of the author and how this was refl ected in his work. Then the study describes briefl y the development of British theater in the twentieth century. Then the study presents a summary of the work under consideration and its corresponding analysis indicating the violent actions and their respective study. Also included is a subchapter where the question arises about the positive or negative aspects of the work. In the last part, there is a brief review of other works written by the author where violence is demonstrated consistently. The

  15. Discovering Chemistry With Natural Bond Orbitals

    CERN Document Server

    Weinhold, Frank


    This book explores chemical bonds, their intrinsic energies, and the corresponding dissociation energies which are relevant in reactivity problems. It offers the first book on conceptual quantum chemistry, a key area for understanding chemical principles and predicting chemical properties. It presents NBO mathematical algorithms embedded in a well-tested and widely used computer program (currently, NBO 5.9). While encouraging a "look under the hood" (Appendix A), this book mainly enables students to gain proficiency in using the NBO program to re-express complex wavefunctions in terms of intui

  16. Formation of Au-Silane Bonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shira Yochelis


    Full Text Available Many intriguing aspects of molecular electronics are attributed to organic-inorganic interactions, yet charge transfer through such junctions still requires fundamental study. Recently, there is a growing interest in anchoring groups, which considered dominating the charge transport. With this respect, we choose to investigate self-assembly of disilane molecules sandwiched between gold surface and gold nanoparticles. These assemblies are found to exhibit covalent bonds not only between the anchoring Si groups and the gold surfaces but also in plane crosslinks that increase the monolayer stability. Finally, using scanning tunneling spectroscopy we demonstrate that the disilane molecules provide strong electrical coupling between the Au nanoparticles and a superconductor substrate.

  17. Constructing supramolecular nanostructure by hydrogen-bonding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YiBao; ZENG QingDao; WANG ZhiHui; QI GuiCun; GUAN Li; FAN XiaoLin; WANG Chen


    The diquinoxalino (2.3-2'.3'-a.c) phenazine (DQP), containing 6 nitrogen atoms, was synthesized, and its adsorption and self-assembling behavior on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) was studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) under ambient conditions. With 1,14-tetradecanedioic acid as a bridge, uniform two-dimensional arrays of 1,14-tetradecanedioic acid/DQP nanostrueture were suc-cessfully fabricated. The result illustrates that it is possible to construct and control supramolecular nanostructure by intermolecular hydrogen-bonding.

  18. Comparison of shear bond strength between unfilled resin to dry enamel and dentin bonding to moist and dry enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasini E.


    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The use of dentine bondings on enamel and dentin in total etch protocols has recently become popular. Unfilled resin is hydrophobic and dentin bonding is hydrophilic in nature. This chemical difference could be effective in enamel bonding process. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of unfilled resin to dry enamel and dentin bonding to dry and moist enamel. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, a total of 30 incisor teeth were used. The specimens were randomly assigned to three groups of 10. 37% phosphoric acid etchant was applied to the enamel surfaces in each group for 15 seconds, rinsed with water for 20 seconds and dried for 20 seconds with compressed air in groups one and two. After conditioning, group 1 received unfilled resin (Margin Bond, Colten and group 2 received dentin bonding (Single Bond, 3M and in group 3 after conditioning and rinsing with water, a layer of dentin bonding (Single Bond was applied on wet enamel. The enamel and dentin bonding were light cured for 20 seconds. A ring mold 3.5 mm in diameter and 2 mm height was placed over the specimens to receive the composite filling material (Z100, 3M. The composite was cured for 40 seconds. The specimens were thermocycled and shear bond strengths were determined using an Instron Universal Testing Machine. The findings were analyzed by ANOVA One-Way and Tukey HSD tests. Results: Shear bond strength of dentin bonding to dry enamel was significantly less than unfilled resin to dry enamel (P<0.05. There was no significant difference between the bond strength of dentin bonding to moist and dry enamel. In addition bond strength of dentin bonding to wet enamel was not significantly different from unfilled resin to dry enamel. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, it is suggested that enamel surface should remain slightly moist after etching before bonding with single bond but when using unfilled resin, the

  19. An in vitro Comparative Evaluation of Micro Tensile Bond Strength of Two metal bonding Resin Cements bonded to Cobalt Chromium alloy (United States)

    Musani, Smita; Musani, Iqbal; Dugal, Ramandeep; Habbu, Nitin; Madanshetty, Pallavi; Virani, Danish


    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the micro tensile bond strength of two metal bonding resin cements to sandblasted cobalt chromium alloy. Materials & Methods: Eight, Cobalt chromium alloy blocks of dimensions 10x5x5 mm were cast, finished and polished. One of the faces of each alloy block measuring 5x5mm was sandblasted with 50 μm grit alumina particles. The alloy blocks were then cleaned in an ultrasonic cleaner for 1 min and then air dried with an air stream. The Sandblasted surfaces of the two alloy blocks were bonded together with 2 different metal bonding resin systems (Panavia F Kuraray and DTK Kleber – Bredent). The samples were divided into 2 groups (n=4). Group 1- Two Co-Cr blocks were luted with Panavia cement. Group 2- Two Co-Cr blocks were luted with DTK Kleber-Bredent cement. The bonded samples were cut with a diamond saw to prepare Microtensile bars of approximately 1mm x 1mm x 6mm. Thirty bars from each group were randomly separated into 2 subgroups (n=15) and left for 3hrs (baseline) as per manufacturer's instructions while the other group was aged for 24hrs in 370C water, prior to loading to failure under tension at a cross head speed of 1mm/min. Failure modes were determined by means of stereomicroscopy (sm). Statistical analysis was performed through one way – ANOVA. Results: Significant variation in micro-tensile bond strength was observed between the two metal bonding resin systems. Conclusion: DTK showed higher mean bond strength values than Panavia F cement both at baseline and after aging. How to cite this article: Musani S, Musani I, Dugal R, Habbu N, Madanshetty P, Virani D. An in vitro Comparative Evaluation of Micro Tensile Bond Strength of Two metal bonding Resin Cements bonded to Cobalt Chromium alloy. J Int Oral Health 2013;5(5):73-8. PMID:24324308

  20. 27 CFR 26.70a - Notice of approval of bonds. (United States)


    ... Secretary, and the revenue agent at the premises, of the total penal sum of the bond or bonds, and in the case of a blanket bond, the amount of the penal sum allocated to the premises. Termination of Bonds...

  1. Theoretical study of the interplay between lithium bond and hydrogen bond in complexes involved with HLi and HCN. (United States)

    Li, Qingzhong; Hu, Ting; An, Xiulin; Li, Wenzuo; Cheng, Jianbo; Gong, Baoan; Sun, Jiazhong


    The lithium- and hydrogen-bonded complex of HLi-NCH-NCH is studied with ab initio calculations. The optimized structure, vibrational frequencies, and binding energy are calculated at the MP2 level with 6-311++G(2d,2p) basis set. The interplay between lithium bonding and hydrogen bonding in the complex is investigated with these properties. The effect of lithium bonding on the properties of hydrogen bonding is larger than that of hydrogen bonding on the properties of lithium bonding. In the trimer, the binding energies are increased by about 19% and 61% for the lithium and hydrogen bonds, respectively. A big cooperative energy (-5.50 kcal mol(-1)) is observed in the complex. Both the charge transfer and induction effect due to the electrostatic interaction are responsible for the cooperativity in the trimer. The effect of HCN chain length on the lithium bonding has been considered. The natural bond orbital and atoms in molecules analyses indicate that the electrostatic force plays a main role in the lithium bonding. A many-body interaction analysis has also been performed for HLi-(NCH)(N) (N=2-5) systems.

  2. Understanding the Formation of Limited Interlamellar Bonding in Plasma Sprayed Ceramic Coatings Based on the Concept of Intrinsic Bonding Temperature (United States)

    Yao, Shu-Wei; Tian, Jia-Jia; Li, Chang-Jiu; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Cheng-Xin


    Interlamellar bonding is an important factor controlling the mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of plasma sprayed ceramic coatings. In order to understand the formation of limited interlamellar bonding, a theoretical model is proposed based on the concept of the intrinsic bonding temperature. The numerical simulation of the interface temperature between a molten splat and underlying splats was performed for splats with uniform and non-uniform thickness, in order to reveal the conditions for the interlamellar bonding formation. The interlamellar bonding ratio was theoretically estimated based on the bonding forming conditions. The features of interlamellar bonding revealed by the simulation agree well with the experimental observations. The bonding ratio of plasma sprayed coatings is significantly influenced by the distribution of splat thickness. According to the distribution of Al2O3 splat thickness in the coating, the theoretical estimation of bonding ratio yielded a value of 0.41 for the plasma sprayed Al2O3 coating at the ambient atmosphere conditions, which is reasonably consistent with the observation value. Therefore, the limited interlamellar bonding can be reasonably explained based on the sufficient condition that the maximum interface temperature between a molten splat and underlying splats is larger than the intrinsic bonding temperature.

  3. Amide-directed photoredox-catalysed C-C bond formation at unactivated sp3 C-H bonds (United States)

    Chu, John C. K.; Rovis, Tomislav


    Carbon-carbon (C-C) bond formation is paramount in the synthesis of biologically relevant molecules, modern synthetic materials and commodity chemicals such as fuels and lubricants. Traditionally, the presence of a functional group is required at the site of C-C bond formation. Strategies that allow C-C bond formation at inert carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bonds enable access to molecules that would otherwise be inaccessible and the development of more efficient syntheses of complex molecules. Here we report a method for the formation of C-C bonds by directed cleavage of traditionally non-reactive C-H bonds and their subsequent coupling with readily available alkenes. Our methodology allows for amide-directed selective C-C bond formation at unactivated sp3 C-H bonds in molecules that contain many such bonds that are seemingly indistinguishable. Selectivity arises through a relayed photoredox-catalysed oxidation of a nitrogen-hydrogen bond. We anticipate that our findings will serve as a starting point for functionalization at inert C-H bonds through a strategy involving hydrogen-atom transfer.

  4. Molecular dynamics simulations of the hydration of poly(vinyl methyl ether): Hydrogen bonds and quasi-hydrogen bonds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU RongLiang; JI Qing; KONG Bin; YANG XiaoZhen


    Atomistic detailed hydration structures of poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME) have been investigated by molecular dynamics simulations under 300 K at various concentrations. Both radial distribution func-tions and the distance distributions between donors and acceptors in hydrogen bonds show that the hydrogen bonds between the polymer and water are shorter by 0.005 nm than those between water molecules. The Quasi-hydrogen bonds take only 7.2% of the van der Waals interaction pairs. It was found the hydrogen bonds are not evenly distributed along the polymer chain, and there still exists a significant amount (10%) of ether oxygen atoms that are not hydrogen bonded to water at a concentra-tion as low as 3.3%. This shows that in polymer solutions close contacts occur not only between polymer chains but also between chain segments within the polymer, which leads to inefficient con-tacts between ether oxygen atoms and water molecules. Variation of the quasi-hydrogen bonds with the concentration is similar to that of hydrogen bonds, but the ratio of the repeat units forming quasi-hydrogen bonds to those forming hydrogen bonds approaches 0.2. A transition was found in the demixing enthalpy at around 30% measured by dynamic testing differential scanning calorimetry (DTDSC) for aqueous solutions of a mono-dispersed low molecular weight PVME, which can be related to the transition of the fractions of hydrogen bonds and quasi-hydrogen bonds at ~27%. The transition of the fractions of hydrogen bonds and quasi-hydrogen bonds at ~27% can be used to explain the demixing enthalpy transition at 30% at a molecular scale. In addition, at the concentration of 86%, each ether oxygen atom bonded with water is assigned 1.56 water molecules on average, and 'free' water molecules emerge at the concentration of around 54%.

  5. Molecular dynamics simulations of the hydration of poly(vinyl methyl ether):Hydrogen bonds and quasi-hydrogen bonds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Atomistic detailed hydration structures of poly(vinyl methyl ether)(PVME) have been investigated by molecular dynamics simulations under 300 K at various concentrations. Both radial distribution functions and the distance distributions between donors and acceptors in hydrogen bonds show that the hydrogen bonds between the polymer and water are shorter by 0.005 nm than those between water molecules. The Quasi-hydrogen bonds take only 7.2% of the van der Waals interaction pairs. It was found the hydrogen bonds are not evenly distributed along the polymer chain,and there still exists a significant amount(10%) of ether oxygen atoms that are not hydrogen bonded to water at a concentration as low as 3.3%. This shows that in polymer solutions close contacts occur not only between polymer chains but also between chain segments within the polymer,which leads to inefficient contacts between ether oxygen atoms and water molecules. Variation of the quasi-hydrogen bonds with the concentration is similar to that of hydrogen bonds,but the ratio of the repeat units forming quasi-hydrogen bonds to those forming hydrogen bonds approaches 0.2. A transition was found in the demixing enthalpy at around 30% measured by dynamic testing differential scanning calorimetry(DTDSC) for aqueous solutions of a mono-dispersed low molecular weight PVME,which can be related to the transition of the fractions of hydrogen bonds and quasi-hydrogen bonds at ~27%. The transition of the fractions of hydrogen bonds and quasi-hydrogen bonds at ~27% can be used to explain the demixing enthalpy transition at 30% at a molecular scale. In addition,at the concentration of 86%,each ether oxygen atom bonded with water is assigned 1.56 water molecules on average,and ’free’ water molecules emerge at the concentration of around 54%.

  6. Hydrogen-Bonded Liquid Crystal Nanocomposites. (United States)

    Roohnikan, Mahdi; Toader, Violeta; Rey, Alejandro; Reven, Linda


    Nanoparticle-liquid crystal (NP-LC) composites based on hydrogen bonding were explored using a model system. The ligand shells of 3 nm diameter zirconium dioxide nanoparticles (ZrO2 NPs) were varied to control their interaction with 4-n-hexylbenzoic acid (6BA). The miscibility and effect of the NPs on the nematic order as a function of particle concentration was characterized by polarized optical microscopy (POM), fluorescence microscopy and (2)H NMR spectroscopy. Nonfunctionalized ZrO2 NPs have the lowest miscibility and strongest effect on the LC matrix due to irreversible binding of 6BA to the NPs via a strong zirconium carboxylate bond. The ZrO2 NPs were functionalized with 6-phosphonohexanoic acid (6PHA) or 4-(6-phosphonohexyloxy)benzoic acid (6BPHA) which selectively bind to the ZrO2 NP surface via the phosphonic acid groups. The miscibility was increased by controlling the concentration of the pendant CO2H groups by adding hexylphosphonic acid (HPA) to act as a spacer group. Fluorescence microscopy of lanthanide doped ZrO2 NPs showed no aggregates in the nematic phase below the NP concentration where aggregates are observed in the isotropic phase. The functionalized NPs preferably concentrate into LC defects and any remaining isotropic liquid but are still present throughout the nematic liquid at a lower concentration.

  7. Ravens intervene in others' bonding attempts. (United States)

    Massen, Jorg J M; Szipl, Georgine; Spreafico, Michela; Bugnyar, Thomas


    The competition for power in a complex social world is hypothesized to be a driving force in the evolution of intelligence. More specifically, power may be obtained not only by brute force but also by social strategies resembling human politics. Most empirical evidence comes from primate studies that report unprovoked aggression by dominants to maintain power by spreading fear and third-party interventions in conflicts. Coalitionary support has also been described in other animals and is often linked to social bonding. As coalitions can lead to a gain in power and fitness benefits, individuals may try to prevent coalitionary support or indirectly prevent others from forming social bonds that might lead to coalitions. Although there is some empirical evidence that coalitionary support can be manipulated, little is known about the indirect strategy. We show here that wild ravens (Corvus corax) regularly intervene in affiliative interactions of others even though such interventions are potentially risky and without immediate benefits. Moreover, the identities of both interveners and intervened pairs are not randomly distributed. Ravens with existing ties initiate most interventions, and ravens that are creating new ties are most likely to be the targets of interventions. These patterns are consistent with the idea that interventions function to prevent others from forming alliances and consequently becoming future competitors. We thus show previously undescribed social maneuvers in the struggle for power. These maneuvers are likely to be of importance in other social species as well.

  8. Hydrogen bonding in asphaltenes and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, N.C.; Tewari, K.C.


    The objective of this program is to investigate and to determine the nature of hydrogen bonding and other molecular interactions that occur in asphaltene and coal liquids, and to seek possible correlations between the interactions and the viscosity. The asphaltene components of samples of centrifuged liquid product, CLP, and solvent-refined coal, SRC, supplied by the Pittsburgh Energy Research Center, are isolated by solvent fractionation. The compositions of the asphaltenes are obtained by elemental analysis and the molecular weights by vapor pressure osmometry. The acid/neutral and base components of the asphaltenes are separated and again elemental analysis and molecular weights are obtained. The magnetic resonance, infrared and calorimetric methods are used to determine the strength of hydrogen-bond and other molecular interactions in the fractions isolated. Investigations on the toluene-insoluble and heavy-oil fractions are also carried out. In addition, extensive proton magnetic resonance, near infrared and calorimetric studies are carried out for o-phenylphenol and quinoline, which serve as model compounds for the aromatic phenols and the heteronuclear aromatic base nitrogens, respectively, found in coal liquefaction products. This is the final report, giving a summary of activities under the Contract for the entire period.

  9. Tetrahedrality and hydrogen bonds in water (United States)

    Székely, Eszter; Varga, Imre K.; Baranyai, András


    We carried out extensive calculations of liquid water at different temperatures and pressures using the BK3 model suggested recently [P. T. Kiss and A. Baranyai, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 204507 (2013)]. In particular, we were interested in undercooled regions to observe the propensity of water to form tetrahedral coordination of closest neighbors around a central molecule. We compared the found tetrahedral order with the number of hydrogen bonds and with the partial pair correlation functions unfolded as distributions of the closest, the second closest, etc. neighbors. We found that contrary to the number of hydrogen bonds, tetrahedrality changes substantially with state variables. Not only the number of tetrahedral arrangements increases with lowering the pressure, the density, and the temperature but the domain size of connecting tetrahedral structures as well. The difference in tetrahedrality is very pronounced between the two sides of the Widom line and even more so between the low density amorphous (LDA) and high density amorphous (HDA) phases. We observed that in liquid water and in HDA, the 5th water molecule, contrary to ice and LDA, is positioned between the first and the second coordination shell. We found no convincing evidence of structural heterogeneity or regions referring to structural transition.

  10. TOPICAL REVIEW Progress in cold roll bonding of metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Li, Kotobu Nagai and Fuxing Yin


    Full Text Available Layered composite materials have become an increasingly interesting topic in industrial development. Cold roll bonding (CRB, as a solid phase method of bonding same or different metals by rolling at room temperature, has been widely used in manufacturing large layered composite sheets and foils. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of a technology using layered composite materials produced by CRB and discuss the suitability of this technology in the fabrication of layered composite materials. The effects of process parameters on bonding, mainly including process and surface preparation conditions, have been analyzed. Bonding between two sheets can be realized when deformation reduction reaches a threshold value. However, it is essential to remove surface contamination layers to produce a satisfactory bond in CRB. It has been suggested that the degreasing and then scratch brushing of surfaces create a strong bonding between the layers. Bonding mechanisms, in which the film theory is expressed as the major mechanism in CRB, as well as bonding theoretical models, have also been reviewed. It has also been showed that it is easy for fcc structure metals to bond compared with bcc and hcp structure metals. In addition, hardness on bonding same metals plays an important part in CRB. Applications of composites produced by CRB in industrial fields are briefly reviewed and possible developments of CRB in the future are also described.

  11. Nondestructive Evaluation of Adhesive Bonds via Ultrasonic Phase Measurements (United States)

    Haldren, Harold A.; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William T.; Cramer, K. Elliott; Gupta, Mool C.


    The use of advanced composites utilizing adhesively bonded structures offers advantages in weight and cost for both the aerospace and automotive industries. Conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) has proved unable to reliably detect weak bonds or bond deterioration during service life conditions. A new nondestructive technique for quantitatively measuring adhesive bond strength is demonstrated. In this paper, an ultrasonic technique employing constant frequency pulsed phased-locked loop (CFPPLL) circuitry to monitor the phase response of a bonded structure from change in thermal stress is discussed. Theoretical research suggests that the thermal response of a bonded interface relates well with the quality of the adhesive bond. In particular, the effective stiffness of the adhesive-adherent interface may be extracted from the thermal phase response of the structure. The sensitivity of the CFPPLL instrument allows detection of bond pathologies that have been previously difficult-to-detect. Theoretical results with this ultrasonic technique on single epoxy lap joint (SLJ) specimens are presented and discussed. This technique has the potential to advance the use of adhesive bonds - and by association, advanced composite structures - by providing a reliable method to measure adhesive bond strength, thus permitting more complex, lightweight, and safe designs.

  12. Experimental Investigation of Second Interface Cement Bond Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Che Xiaohua; Qiao Wenxiao


    Cement bond model wells (1:10 scaled-down) were made with a gradually degrading cement annulus for cement bond evaluation of the first interface (between the casing and the cement annulus) and the second interface (between the cement annulus and the formation).Experimental simulation on cement bond logging was carried out with these model wells.The correlation of acoustic waveforms,casing wave energy and free casing area before and after cement bonding of the second interface was established.The experimental results showed that the arrival of the casing waves had no relationship with the cement bonding of the second interface,but the amplitude of the casing head wave decreased obviously after the second interface was bonded.So,cement bonding of the second interface had little effect on the evaluation of the cement bond quality of the first interface by using casing head wave arrivals.Strong cement annulus waves with early arrivals were observed before the second interface was bonded,while obvious "formation waves" instead of cement annulus waves were observed after the second interface was bonded.

  13. TOPICAL REVIEW: Progress in cold roll bonding of metals (United States)

    Li, Long; Nagai, Kotobu; Yin, Fuxing


    Layered composite materials have become an increasingly interesting topic in industrial development. Cold roll bonding (CRB), as a solid phase method of bonding same or different metals by rolling at room temperature, has been widely used in manufacturing large layered composite sheets and foils. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of a technology using layered composite materials produced by CRB and discuss the suitability of this technology in the fabrication of layered composite materials. The effects of process parameters on bonding, mainly including process and surface preparation conditions, have been analyzed. Bonding between two sheets can be realized when deformation reduction reaches a threshold value. However, it is essential to remove surface contamination layers to produce a satisfactory bond in CRB. It has been suggested that the degreasing and then scratch brushing of surfaces create a strong bonding between the layers. Bonding mechanisms, in which the film theory is expressed as the major mechanism in CRB, as well as bonding theoretical models, have also been reviewed. It has also been showed that it is easy for fcc structure metals to bond compared with bcc and hcp structure metals. In addition, hardness on bonding same metals plays an important part in CRB. Applications of composites produced by CRB in industrial fields are briefly reviewed and possible developments of CRB in the future are also described. Corrections were made to the abstract and conclusion of this article on 18 June 2008. The corrected electronic version is identical to the print version.

  14. Bonding, Achievement, and Activities: School Bonding, Academic Achievement, and Participation in Extracurricular Activities (United States)

    Howard, Anissa K.; Ziomek-Daigle, Jolie


    Utilizing a single-group interrupted time series design (Creswell, 2003), this pilot study examined the relationship between academic achievement, school bonding, and the extracurricular activity participation of "uninvolved" students (n=11) who participated in a voluntary support group at a suburban high school in the southeast. Results…

  15. Effect of density of hydrogen-bonding donor on hydrogen-bonded multilayer buildup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hongyu; MA Ning; WANG Zhiqiang


    The effect of density of hydrogen-bonding donor (HBD) on the formation of layer-by-layer assemblies of poly(4-vinylpyridine) and poly(4-vinylphenol) was investigated. For this purpose, a series of ethyl-substituted poly(4-vinylphenol) (EsPVPhf) with variable ethyl substitute percentage was synthesized by grafting the phenol moiety along the poly(4-vinylphenol) backbone with 1-bromoethane. UV-vis spectroscopy revealed a uniform deposition process of the hydrogen-bonded multilayer consisting of poly(4- vinylpyridine) (PVPy) and EsPVPhf with variable density of HBD. Notably, it was found that increasing the HBD density of EsPVPhf resulted in a marked decrease of both amount of polymers adsorbed and film thickness, which should be related to the EsPVPhf conformation change from coiled state to extended conformation in ethanol solution. Compared with the effect of charge density in polyelectrolyte multilayer, however, there does not exist a critical density of HBD in our case of hydrogen-bonded multilayer assembly. In addition, surface structures of PVPy/EsPVPhf multilayer films also can be tailored controllably by adjusting HBD density of EsPVPhf. As a result, a new method for tuning the structure of hydrogen-bonding-directed multilayer films was developed.

  16. Microshear bond strength evaluation of surface pretreated zirconia ceramics bonded to dentin (United States)

    Anand, Shenbagakuttalam; Ebenezar, Ambrose Vedamanickam Rajesh; Anand, Nirupa; Rajkumar, Kothandaraman; Mahalaxmi, Sekar; Srinivasan, Narasimhan


    Objectives: To comparatively assess the micro shear bond strength (MSBS) of dentin bonded surface pre-treated zirconia ceramics. Materials and Methods: Zirconia blocks were sectioned into 50 cubical blocks. The blocks were further categorized into five groups (n = 10 each). Group I: No treatment was performed on zirconia samples; Group II: The zirconia samples were sand-blasted; Group III: Group II + etched with 9.8% of hydrofluoric (HF) acid for 60 s; Group IV: The sandblasted zirconia samples were selectively infiltrated with low fusing porcelain; and Group V: Group IV + etched using 9.8% HF acid gel. The zirconia specimens were then bonded to dentin samples, and the samples were tested for MSBS evaluation using universal testing machine. Results: The MSBS of all the four experimental groups shows greater value than group I. Among the experimental groups, group V and group IV do not show any statistical significant difference, whereas the mean MSBS of groups IV and V were statistically greater than group III and group II. However, groups I, II, and III do not show any statistical significant difference in mean MSBS values between them. Conclusion: Selective infiltration etching of zirconia ceramics provides the highest bond strength with resin cement. PMID:26038654

  17. Prediction of allosteric sites and mediating interactions through bond-to-bond propensities (United States)

    Amor, B. R. C.; Schaub, M. T.; Yaliraki, S. N.; Barahona, M.


    Allostery is a fundamental mechanism of biological regulation, in which binding of a molecule at a distant location affects the active site of a protein. Allosteric sites provide targets to fine-tune protein activity, yet we lack computational methodologies to predict them. Here we present an efficient graph-theoretical framework to reveal allosteric interactions (atoms and communication pathways strongly coupled to the active site) without a priori information of their location. Using an atomistic graph with energy-weighted covalent and weak bonds, we define a bond-to-bond propensity quantifying the non-local effect of instantaneous bond fluctuations propagating through the protein. Significant interactions are then identified using quantile regression. We exemplify our method with three biologically important proteins: caspase-1, CheY, and h-Ras, correctly predicting key allosteric interactions, whose significance is additionally confirmed against a reference set of 100 proteins. The almost-linear scaling of our method renders it suitable for high-throughput searches for candidate allosteric sites.

  18. Evaluation of shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded on the tooth surface after internal bleaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia de Souza FERREIRA

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is great demand for esthetic treatment by patients who have discolored teeth, because currently aesthetic standards have become stricter and many patients have tooth bleaching procedures performed before or during orthodontic treatment. Objective: To evaluate the bonding of orthodontic brackets to human molars after internal tooth bleaching. Material and method: Forty molars were divided into four groups according to the bleaching agent used: PS sodium perborate + water; PC carbamide peroxide; PC + PS carbamide peroxide + sodium perborate; Cont water (control group. Bleaching agents placed inside the pulp chambers were replaced every 7 days for 2 weeks, and the brackets were bonded 30 days after the end of bleaching. The shear strength test was performed in a universal testing machine (Emic. Result: ANOVA with a significance level of 5% (p > 0.05, showed no statistically significant difference between groups (p = 0.1214. Conclusion: It was concluded that the different bleaching agents studied did not interfere with the bond strength of brackets to enamel and bonding the brackets 30 days after internal bleaching is a safe procedure.

  19. 27 CFR 19.241 - Operations bond-distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (United States)


    ... spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.241 Section 19.241 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... wine cellar. (a) General. A wine cellar under the provisions of 27 CFR part 24 shall be treated as... subpart G for the production of distilled spirits; and (2) Such wine cellar and distilled spirits...

  20. Bonding dynamics of compliant microbump during ultrasonic bonding investigated by using Si strain gauge (United States)

    Iwanabe, Keiichiro; Nakadozono, Kenichi; Senda, Yousuke; Asano, Tanemasa


    The bonding dynamics of a cone-shaped microbump during ultrasonic bonding are investigated by in situ measurements of the strain generated in a substrate using a piezoresistance strain sensor. The strain sensor is composed of a pair of p- and n-type piezoresistance gauges to extract strain components in the ultrasonic vibration along the plane parallel to the substrate surface and along the direction perpendicular to the surface. Flip-chip bonding is performed at room-temperature. The time evolution of the strain generated in the substrate according to the load-up of pressing force and application of ultrasonic vibration is clearly detected. The softening of the bump metal during the application of ultrasonic vibration is clearly observed. Results of a comparative study between the bonding of a cone-shaped microbump and that of a flat-top microbump suggest mechanical stress concentration near the top end of the cone-shaped microbump, which results in the transformation of the crystal texture of the bump from grains to fine crystallites.

  1. Microleakage under Orthodontic Metal Brackets Bonded with Three Different Bonding Techniques with/without Thermocycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berahman Sabzevari


    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the microleakage of beneath the orthodontic brackets bonded with 3 different bonding techniques and evaluate the effect of thermocycling. Methods: One hundred and twenty premolars were randomly divided into 6 groups, received the following treatment: group 1: 37% phosphoric acid gel+Unite primer+Unite adhesive, group 2: 37% phosphoric acid gel+ Transbond XT primer+Transbond XT adhesive, group 3: Transbond plus Self Etching Primer (TSEP+Transbond XT adhesive. Groups 4, 5, and 6 were similar to groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Evaluation of microleakage was done following to thermocycling test. After bonding, the specimens were sealed with nail varnish except for 1 mm around the brackets and then stained with 0.5% basic fuchsine. The specimens were sectioned at buccolingual direction in 2 parallel planes and evaluated under a stereomicroscope to determine the amount of microleakage at bracket-adhesive and adhesive-enamel interfaces from gingival and occlusal margins. Results: Microleakage was observed in all groups, and increased significantly after thermocycling at some interfaces of Unite adhesive group and conventional etching+Transbond XT adhesive group, but the increase was not significant in any interface of TSEP group. With or without thermocycling, TSEP displayed more microleakage than other groups. In most groups, microleakage at gingival margin was significantly higher than occlusal margin. Conclusion: Thermocycling and type of bonding technique significantly affect the amount of microleakage.

  2. Effect of water storage on resin-dentin bond strengths formed by different bonding approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins G


    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of water storage on resin-dentin bond strengths [µTBS] using different adhesive bonding approaches. Materials and Methods: Flat superficial dentin surfaces of 24 extracted human third molars were exposed and polished to create a standardized smear layer. The teeth were randomly distributed into four different groups: Three-step etch-and-rinse (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, 3M ESPE - SBMP, two-step etch-and-rinse (Adper Single Bond 2, 3 M ESPE - SB; two-step self-etch (AdheSE, Ivoclar/Vivadent - AD; and self-etch 1 step (Adper Prompt L-Pop, 3M ESPE - LP. Following the adhesive application (n = 6, resin composite was incrementally applied (Filtek™ Supreme XT - 3 M ESPE in order to obtain bonded sticks, with a cross-sectioned area of 0.81 mm 2 . The bonded sticks were randomly divided and assigned to be tested after one day [OD] (n 30 or six months [6 M] of water storage [6 M] (n = 30. Results: Two-way ANOVA and Tukey′s test showed that none of the adhesives showed degradation after 6 M. SB achieved the highest µTBS both in the [OD] (49.13 MPa and [6M] (40.27 MPa. Despite the highest values in both time evaluations, the µTBS of SB significantly reduced after 6M. LP showed the lowest µTBS in both periods of evaluation (18.35 and 18.34 MPa. Conclusions: Although a significant degradation was only observed for SB, this was the adhesive that showed the highest µTBS after 6 M of water storage.

  3. Bond breaking in a Morse chain under tension: Fragmentation patterns, higher index saddles, and bond healing (United States)

    Mauguière, F. A. L.; Collins, P.; Ezra, G. S.; Wiggins, S.


    We investigate the fragmentation dynamics of an atomic chain under tensile stress. We have classified the location, stability type (indices), and energy of all equilibria for the general n-particle chain, and have highlighted the importance of saddle points with index >1. We show that for an n = 2-particle chain under tensile stress the index 2 saddle plays a central role in organizing the dynamics. We apply normal form theory to analyze phase space structure and dynamics in a neighborhood of the index 2 saddle. We define a phase dividing surface (DS) that enables us to classify trajectories passing through a neighborhood of the saddle point using the values of the integrals associated with the normal form. We also generalize our definition of the dividing surface and define an extended dividing surface (EDS), which is used to sample and classify all trajectories that pass through a phase space neighborhood of the index 2 saddle at total energies less than that of the saddle. Classical trajectory simulations are used to study fragmentation patterns for the n = 2 chain under tension. That is, we investigate the relative probability for breaking one bond versus concerted fission of several (two, in this case) bonds. Initial conditions for trajectories are obtained by sampling the EDS at constant energy. We sample trajectories at fixed energies both above and below the energy of the saddle. The fate of trajectories (single versus multiple bond breakage) is explored as a function of the location of the initial condition on the EDS, and a connection made to the work of Chesnavich on collision-induced dissociation. A significant finding is that we can readily identify trajectories that exhibit bond healing. Such trajectories pass outside the nominal (index 1) transition state for single bond dissociation, but return to the potential well region, possibly several times, before ultimately dissociating.

  4. Evaluation of micro-shear bond strength of resin modified glass-ionomer to composite resins using various bonding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Kasraie


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to compare the micro-shear bond strength between composite and resin-modified glass-ionomer (RMGI by different adhesive systems. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 discs of RMGI with a diameter of 15 mm and a thickness of 2 mm were randomly divided into four groups (n = 4. Four cylinders of composite resin (z250 were bonded to the RMGI discs with Single Bond, Clearfil SE Bond and Clearfil S3 Bond in Groups 1-3, respectively. The fourth group was the control. Samples were tested by a mechanical testing machine with a strain rate of 0.5 mm/min. Failure mode was assessed under a stereo-microscope. Results: The means of micro-shear bond strength values for Groups 1-4 were 14.45, 23.49, 16.23 and 5.46 MPa, respectively. Using a bonding agent significantly increased micro-shear bond strength (P = 0.0001. Conclusion: Micro-shear bond strength of RMGI to composite increased significantly with the use of adhesive resin. The bond strength of RMGI to composite resin could vary depending upon the type of adhesive system used.

  5. Bond Strength of Repaired Composite Resin Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Máximo de ARAÚJO


    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the bond strength of direct composite resins and composite repairs, using 3 different commercial brands - GI: Palfique Estelite Ó (Tokuyama, GII: Filtek Z350 (3M/ESPE and GIII: Te Econon (Ivoclar/Vivadent - and the use of AdperTM Single Bond 2 (3M/ESPE adhesive system at the base/repair interface. Method: Thirty conic bases (5 mm x 5 mm x 3 mm of each commercial brand of composite resin were fabricated. All bases of each group were submitted to a thermocycling regimen of 20,000 cycles (5ºC to 55ºC ± 2ºC, for 30 s. The bases of each group were randomly assigned to 3 sub-groups, in which a combination of the commercial brands was performed for the repairs. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C during 7 days and were thereafter tested in tensile strength in a universal testing machine (EMIC - MEM 2000 with 500 kgf load cell running at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min until fracture. Data in MPa were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey’s test (5%.Results: The following results were found: GI: Palfique Estelite Ó (11.22±4.00 MPa, Te Econom (12.03±3.47 MPa and Filtek Z350 (10.66±2.89 MPa; GII: Palfique Estelite Ó (8.88±2.04 MPa, Te Econom (7.77±1.64 MPa and Filtek Z350 (10.50±6.14 MPa; and GIII: Palfique Estelite Ó (8.41±2.50 MPa, Te Econom (12.33±3.18 MPa and Z350 (11.73±3.54 MPa.Conclusion: The bond strengths at the interface of the different composite resins submitted to repair were statistically similar regardless of the commercial brand.

  6. Interface nanochemistry effects on stainless steel diffusion bonding (United States)

    Cox, M. J.; Carpenter, R. W.; Kim, M. J.


    The diffusion-bonding behavior of single-phase austenitic stainless steel depends strongly on the chemistry of the surfaces to be bounded. We found that very smooth (0.5 nm root-mean-square (RMS) roughness), mechanically polished and lapped substrates would bond completely in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) in 1 hour at 1000 °C under 3.5 MPa uniaxial pressure, if the native oxide on the substrates was removed by ion-beam cleaning, as shown by in-situ Auger analysis. No voids were observed in these bonded interfaces by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the strength was equal to that of the unbounded bare material. No bond formed between the substrates if in-situ ion cleaning was not used. The rougher cleaned substrates partially bonded, indicating that roughness, as well as native oxides, reduced the bonding kinetics.

  7. Laser Surface Preparation and Bonding of Aerospace Structural Composites (United States)

    Belcher, M. A.; Wohl, C. J.; Hopkins, J. W.; Connell, J. W.


    Adhesive bonds are critical to the integrity of built-up structures. Disbonds can often be detected but the strength of adhesion between surfaces in contact is not obtainable without destructive testing. Typically the number one problem in a bonded structure is surface contamination, and by extension, surface preparation. Standard surface preparation techniques, including grit blasting, manual abrasion, and peel ply, are not ideal because of variations in their application. Etching of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) panels using a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser appears to be a highly precise and promising way to both clean a composite surface prior to bonding and provide a bond-promoting patterned surface akin to peel ply without the inherent drawbacks from the same (i.e., debris and curvature). CFRP surfaces prepared using laser patterns conducive to adhesive bonding were compared to typical prebonding surface treatments through optical microscopy, contact angle goniometry, and post-bonding mechanical testing.

  8. The Romanian Municipal Bond Market and the International Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In Romania, the bond market was set up later, comparatively to the equity market. This market is in a development process, but the international financial crisis has affected even the interest of investors in bonds. The secondary municipal bond market is not a very liquid market because these securities are bought from the primary market and held in portfolios by investors because these bonds have a low risk. The issue of these bonds is correlated with the financial independence and the level of decentralization of the local public authorities. The issuance of these bonds is correlated with financial independence and decentralization level specific to local public authorities. Under crisis conditions, the volatility of this market is more significant, the increasing deficits of local budgets decreasing the interest of the middle-class in investing in such financial instruments.

  9. The Pricing and Efficiency of Australian Treasury Bond Futures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Frino


    Full Text Available This paper examines the efficiency of the Treasury Bond futures market in Australia. We provide a comprehensive explanation of the method used to price, and evaluate efficiency of the 3 and 10 Year Australian Treasury Bond Futures contracts, against underlying bond baskets. Results indicate that the futures contracts exhibit minimal variation from their theoretical value. The average mispricing equates to 1.96 basis points for 3 Year and 1.19 basis points for 10 Year government bond futures contracts. However, during some periods (including the financial crisis of 2008, the bond futures contracts exhibit greater mispricing. Consistent with prior literature, we find a decreasing pattern of mispricing towards expiry, with the futures contract yields and average forward yields of the underlying bonds converging towards expiry. Further analysis reveals that volatility and time to expiry exhibit a significant positive relationship with the absolute level of mispricing.

  10. Joining of Silicon Carbide: Diffusion Bond Optimization and Characterization (United States)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay


    Joining and integration methods are critically needed as enabling technologies for the full utilization of advanced ceramic components in aerospace and aeronautics applications. One such application is a lean direct injector for a turbine engine to achieve low NOx emissions. In the application, several SiC substrates with different hole patterns to form fuel and combustion air channels are bonded to form the injector. Diffusion bonding is a joining approach that offers uniform bonds with high temperature capability, chemical stability, and high strength. Diffusion bonding was investigated with the aid of titanium foils and coatings as the interlayer between SiC substrates to aid bonding. The influence of such variables as interlayer type, interlayer thickness, substrate finish, and processing time were investigated. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe analysis were used to characterize the bonds and to identify the reaction formed phases.

  11. Bond valence parameterslinearly dependent on the molybdenum oxidation states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on the available crystal data, a linear correlation between R0, the bond valence parameter for a Mo-containing chemical bond, and the Mo oxidation state n was developed for the first time. Using the "universal" value of the parameter B = 0.037 nm, the linear equations of R0-n for Mo-X (X: O, S, N, Cl and F) bonds were established. The oxidation-state independent Mo-O bond valence parameters, R0 = 0.18788 nm and B = 0.03046 nm, published recently have been shown to be a special case of the linearly correlated functions. Some bond valence sum calculations in compounds containing only Mo-O bonds using these para- meters are presented.

  12. Formation of Embedded Microstructures by Thermal Activated Solvent Bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, S H; Wang, Z F; Lu, A C W; Rodriguez, I; De Rooij, N


    We present a thermal activated solvent bonding technique for the formation of embedded microstrucutres in polymer. It is based on the temperature dependent solubility of polymer in a liquid that is not a solvent at room temperature. With thermal activation, the liquid is transformed into a solvent of the polymer, creating a bonding capability through segmental or chain interdiffusion at the bonding interface. The technique has advantages over the more commonly used thermal bonding due to its much lower operation temperature (30 degrees C lower than the material's Tg), lower load, as well as shorter time. Lap shear test indicated bonding shear strength of up to 2.9 MPa. Leak test based on the bubble emission technique showed that the bonded microfluidic device can withstand at least 6 bars (87 psi) of internal pressure (gauge) in the microchannel. This technique can be applied to other systems of polymer and solvent.

  13. Pricing for Catastrophe Bonds Based on Expected-value Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfei Chen


    Full Text Available As the catastrophes cannot be avoided and result in huge economic losses, therefore the compensation issue for catastrophe losses become an important research topic. Catastrophe bonds can effectively disperse the catastrophe risks which mainly undertaken by the government and the insurance companies currently and focus on capital more effectively in broad capital market, therefore to be an ideal catastrophe securities product. This study adopts Expectancy Theory to supplement and improve the pricing of catastrophe bonds based on Value Theory. A model of expected utility is established to determine the conditions of the expected revenue R of catastrophe bonds. The pricing model of the value function is used to get the psychological value of R,U (R-R‾, for catastrophe bonds. Finally, the psychological value is improved by the value according to expected utility and this can more accurately evaluate catastrophe bonds at a reasonable price. This research can provide decision-making for the pricing of catastrophe bonds.

  14. Superstrong encapsulated monolayer graphene by the modified anodic bonding. (United States)

    Jung, Wonsuk; Yoon, Taeshik; Choi, Jongho; Kim, Soohyun; Kim, Yong Hyup; Kim, Taek-Soo; Han, Chang-Soo


    We report a superstrong adhesive of monolayer graphene by modified anodic bonding. In this bonding, graphene plays the role of a superstrong and ultra-thin adhesive between SiO2 and glass substrates. As a result, monolayer graphene presented a strong adhesion energy of 1.4 J m(-2) about 310% that of van der Waals bonding (0.45 J m(-2)) to SiO2 and glass substrates. This flexible solid state graphene adhesive can tremendously decrease the adhesive thickness from about several tens of μm to 0.34 nm for epoxy or glue at the desired bonding area. As plausible causes of this superstrong adhesion, we suggest conformal contact with the rough surface of substrates and generation of C-O chemical bonding between graphene and the substrate due to the bonding process, and characterized these properties using optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  15. Bond Properties and Experimental Methods of Textile Reinforced Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Textile reinforced concrete(TRC, for short) allows the low size production and offers a high effectiveness of the reinforcement by using continuous roving instead of short-chopped fibers. However, whether textiles can cooperate with concrete very well depends on the bond between them. In this paper, the bonding mechanism that the stress was transferred from fine concrete to textile was analyzed, and the influences of the initial bond length of textile, the surface treatment of textile, the strength and workability of concrete as well as the level of prestressing force on bond behavior were investigated on the basis of pull-out tests. The results reveal that with initial bond length increasing, the maximum pull force increases, and increasing concrete strength and improving workability of concrete matrix, epoxy resin impregnating and sand covering of textile as well as prestressing textile can obviously increase the bond strength between the textile and concrete.

  16. Theoretical characterization of the sulfilimine bond: Double or single? (United States)

    Pichierri, Fabio


    Using quantum mechanical calculations in combination with AIM and NBO analyses, we investigate the properties of the sulfilimine bond, which has been recently detected in collagen IV [Vanacore et al., Science 325 (2009) 1230]. Contrary to the general belief that this is a double bond, -N dbnd S<, our analysis of the wavefunction of a model compound indicates it being a coordinate covalent (dative) single bond, -N ← S<, with a strong polarization towards nitrogen.

  17. Resonant bond wire vibrations in the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Barber, T J; Murray, W; Villani, G; Warren, M; Weidberg, A R


    Dangerous mechanical resonances exist which can lead to the breaking of bond wires if time varying currents are passed through them in a magnetic field. The results of analytic calculations and an FEA analysis are described. The results of experimental investigations using wire bonds on test circuits are given. The possible effects within the ATLAS SCT were investigated and a fixed frequency trigger veto algorithm, designed to minimise the dangers of breaking wire bonds, was developed.

  18. Theoretical Model of Transformation Superlastic Diffusion Bonding for Eutectoid Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on current theories of diffusion and creep cavity closure at high temperature, a theoretical analysis of phase transformation diffusion bonding for T8/T8 eutectoid steel is carried out. The diffusion bonding is mainly described as two-stage process: Ⅰ The interfacial cavity with shape change from diamond to cylinder.Ⅱ The radius of the cylindrical cavity are reduced and eliminated gradually. A new theoretical model is established for the process of transformation superplastic diffusion bonding (TSDB) ...

  19. A Statistical Theory for Hydrogen Bonding Networks: One Component Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hai-Jun; BA Xin-Wu; ZHAO Min; LI Ze-Sheng


    The theory of reversible gelation is shown to be applicable to the hydrogen bonding system by analyzing their similarities in statistical viewpoint. The size distribution of hydrogen bonding clusters, the gelation condition and the generalized scaling law can be obtained directly. These results show that such a system can undergo phase transition process. Furthermore, a relationship between Gibbs free energy of forming hydrogen bond and conversions of groups is given. As an example, the chemical shift of OH groups is considered.

  20. Why China Needs To Develop A Bond Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Most Asian economies long have depended on bank financing,and to a lesser extent, on the equity markets, to fund investments. Except for countries like Singapore,Malaysia and a few other more developed Asian economies, corporate bonds are almost unheard of in the region. But bonds and bond markets are at least as important, if not more so, than stock markets, for the efficient allocation of a nation's resources. In major economies,

  1. Factors Influencing Bonding Strength of Laminated Bamboo Strips Lumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Factors influencing bonding strength of laminated bamboo strips lumber (LBSL) were investigated in this paper. In order to find an optimized technology, this paper investigated how the thickness of bamboo strips, the assembly orientation of bamboo curtain, the type of adhesives, as well as coupling agent treatment of bamboo curtain affected the bonding strength. The following conclusions were drawn: 1)The thinner the thickness of the bamboo strips, the bigger the bonding strength of LBSL; 2) The assembly or...

  2. The role of hydrogen bonding in tethered polymer layers


    Ren, C; Nap, R. J.; Szleifer, I.


    A molecular theory to study the properties of end tethered polymer layers, in which the polymers have the ability to form hydrogen bonds with water is presented. The approach combines the ideas of the single-chain mean-field theory to treat tethered layers with the approach of Dormidontova (Macromolecules, 2002 35,987) to include hydrogen bonds. The generalization includes the consideration of position dependent polymer-water and water-water hydrogen bonds. The theory is applied to model poly...

  3. Hydrogen-bonded sheets in benzylmethylammonium hydrogen maleate. (United States)

    Santacruz, Lynay; Abonia, Rodrigo; Cobo, Justo; Low, John N; Glidewell, Christopher


    In the title compound, C(8)H(12)N(+).C(4)H(3)O(4)(-), there is a short and almost linear but asymmetric O-H...O hydrogen bond in the anion. The ions are linked into C(2)(2)(6) chains by two short and nearly linear N-H...O hydrogen bonds and the chains are further weakly linked into sheets by a single C-H...O hydrogen bond.

  4. Test method to assess interface adhesion in composite bonding



    This paper introduces a new type of peel tests dedicated to composite bonding: Composite Peel Tests. This test is inspired on the standard floating roller peel test widely used for metal bonding. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of the Composite Peel Test to assess interface adhesion in composite bonded structures. To this end, peel tests were performed with nine different types of adhesives and at two environmental temperatures, room temperature and +80°C. The results we...

  5. Adhesive Bonding of Aluminium Alloy A5754 by Epoxy Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Michalec


    Full Text Available Joining thin sheets of aluminium and its alloys is a promising area in the field of joining materials. Nowadays, joining methods that do not melt the material itself are increasingly being utilised. This paper deals with adhesive bonding of aluminium alloy A5754 by two-component epoxy resins. Theresults show that joints bonded by Hysol 9466 have appropriate mechanical properties, but that joints bonded by Hysol 9492 have better thermal stability.

  6. T. thermophila group I introns that cleave amide bonds (United States)

    Joyce, Gerald F. (Inventor)


    The present invention relates to nucleic acid enzymes or enzymatic RNA molecules that are capable of cleaving a variety of bonds, including phosphodiester bonds and amide bonds, in a variety of substrates. Thus, the disclosed enzymatic RNA molecules are capable of functioning as nucleases and/or peptidases. The present invention also relates to compositions containing the disclosed enzymatic RNA molecule and to methods of making, selecting, and using such enzymes and compositions.

  7. Heat pipes made of roll bond panels (United States)

    Moeller, M.; Heil, K.


    The use of large surfaced aluminum roll bond panels with an integral flow system as heat pipes is studied. With a suitable flow system e.g., parallel passages with a cross-connection, one single filling procedure is required for the operating medium. Adequate materials for the manufacture of heat pipes are Al 99,3; AlMn1, 5 and AlMn1, 5Sil,5. Peel, creep and burst tests as well as corrosion tests were made on specimens and structural elements of these materials. Results show that the use of such panels for heat pipe manufacturing is appropriate for limited maximum temperature applications. Prototypes of heat pipes and their characteristic features are described in view of their use as absorbers in solar collectors. Good heat exchange performances obtained.

  8. Seniority Number in Valence Bond Theory. (United States)

    Chen, Zhenhua; Zhou, Chen; Wu, Wei


    In this work, a hierarchy of valence bond (VB) methods based on the concept of seniority number, defined as the number of singly occupied orbitals in a determinant or an orbital configuration, is proposed and applied to the studies of the potential energy curves (PECs) of H8, N2, and C2 molecules. It is found that the seniority-based VB expansion converges more rapidly toward the full configuration interaction (FCI) or complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) limit and produces more accurate PECs with smaller nonparallelity errors than its molecular orbital (MO) theory-based analogue. Test results reveal that the nonorthogonal orbital-based VB theory provides a reverse but more efficient way to truncate the complete active Hilbert space by seniority numbers.

  9. Interface Fracture in Adhesively Bonded Shell Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik Myhre


    Two methods for the prediction of crack propagation through the interface of adhesively bonded shells are discussed. One is based on a fracture mechanics approach; the other is based on a cohesive zone approach. Attention is focussed on predicting the shape of the crack front and the critical...... stress required to propagate the crack under quasi-static conditions. The fracture mechanical model is theoretically sound and it is accurate and numerically stable. The cohesive zone model has some advantages over the fracture mechanics based model. It is easier to generalise the cohesive zone model...... to take into account effects such as plastic deformation in the adhering shells, and to take into account effects of large local curvatures of the interface crack front. The comparison shows a convergence of the results based on the cohesive zone model towards the results based on a fracture mechanics...

  10. Effect of corrosion on flexural bond strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshatha Shetty


    Full Text Available Corrosion is one of the main causes affecting durability of structures. Corrosion effects on structures cannot be ignored and replaced. To understand the performance of structures there is a need to study the rate at which different corrosion levels occur. Hence the present investigation has been taken up to study the behaviour of NBS (National Bureau of Standard beam specimens made up of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC and Portland Pozzolona Cement (PPC concrete matrix were subjected to accelerated corrosion for different corrosion levels of 2.5 % to 10 % at 2.5 % interval. Results are compared with those for control beam specimen. It is observed that bond stress value decreases with the increase in corrosion levels. Also corrosion leads to the decline of load carrying capacity.

  11. Experimental Evidence of a Bonded Dineutron Existence

    CERN Document Server

    Kadenko, I M


    Experimental observation of 159Tb(n,2n) reaction product was performed with application of the activation technique. Tb specimen of natural composition was irradiated with (d,d) neutrons of 5.39 and 7 MeV energy at the AMANDE neutron generating facility with 15 month break. Several instrumental spectra of Tb specimen were measured with HPGe spectrometer in 1.5 years after last irradiation. An unexpected 944.2 keV {\\gamma}-ray peak was observed. Other {\\gamma}-ray lines of 158Gd as the daughter nucleus due to 158Tb EC and \\b{eta}+- decay were identified as well. A bonded dineutron emission with the binding energy (Bdn) within limitations 1.3 MeV < Bdn < 2.8 MeV is evidenced by the energy of incident neutrons and by 158Tb presence in output channel.

  12. Hydrogen bonds in concreto and in computro (United States)

    Stouten, Pieter F. W.; Kroon, Jan


    Molecular dynamics simulations of liquid water and liquid methanol have been carried out. For both liquids an effective pair potential was used. The models were fitted to the heat of vaporization, pressure and various radial distribution functions resulting from diffraction experiments on liquids. In both simulations 216 molecules were put in a cubic periodical ☐. The system was loosely coupled to a temperature bath and to a pressure bath. Following an initial equilibration period relevant data were sampled during 15 ps. The distributions of oxygen—oxygen distances in hydrogen bonds obtained from the two simulations are essentially the same. The distribution obtained from crystal data is somewhat different: the maximum has about the same position, but the curve is much narrower, which can be expected merely from the fact that diffraction experiments only supply average atomic positions and hence average interatomic distances. When thermal motion is taken into account a closer likeness is observed.

  13. Bonded-cell model for particle fracture. (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc-Hanh; Azéma, Emilien; Sornay, Philippe; Radjai, Farhang


    Particle degradation and fracture play an important role in natural granular flows and in many applications of granular materials. We analyze the fracture properties of two-dimensional disklike particles modeled as aggregates of rigid cells bonded along their sides by a cohesive Mohr-Coulomb law and simulated by the contact dynamics method. We show that the compressive strength scales with tensile strength between cells but depends also on the friction coefficient and a parameter describing cell shape distribution. The statistical scatter of compressive strength is well described by the Weibull distribution function with a shape parameter varying from 6 to 10 depending on cell shape distribution. We show that this distribution may be understood in terms of percolating critical intercellular contacts. We propose a random-walk model of critical contacts that leads to particle size dependence of the compressive strength in good agreement with our simulation data.

  14. Recreation of social bonds in the classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Luz Castro Rodríguez


    Full Text Available This article is about an ongoing research in Escuela Normal Superior located in Mompós (Bolivar, whose aim is to recreate the social bonds in the classroom by the effective practice of human values such as; respect and tolerance. This qualitative and ethnographic research intends to identify, analyze and propose solutions to the target situation: interaction difficulties in the classroom. By close contact with the community and its involvement in the research process, it is expected to achieve a deep comprehension of its world view, culture, language, habits and customs in order to suggest and implement educative strategies to build up an armonic school life.

  15. Proton tunnelling in intermolecular hydrogen bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsewill, A.J. [Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom); Johnson, M.R. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France); Trommsdorff, H.P. [Grenoble-1 Univ., 38 (France)


    The wavefunctions of particles extend beyond the classically accessible regions of potential energy-surfaces (PES). A manifestation of this partial delocalization is the quantum-mechanical tunneling effect which enables a particle to escape from a metastable potential-well. Tunnelling is most important for the lightest atoms, so that the determination of its contribution to proton transfer, one of the most fundamental chemical reactions, is an important issue. QENS and NMR techniques have been employed to study the motion of protons in the hydrogen bond of benzoic-acid crystals, a system which has emerged as a particularly suitable model since proton transfer occurs in a near symmetric double-well potential. The influence of quantum tunnelling was revealed and investigated in these experiments. This work provides an experimental benchmark for theoretical descriptions of translational proton-tunnelling. (author). 7 refs.

  16. Reaction kinetics of bond rotations in graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Skowron, Stephen T.


    The formation and healing processes of the fundamental topological defect in graphitic materials, the Stone-Wales (SW) defect, are brought into a chemical context by considering the rotation of a carbon-carbon bond as chemical reaction. We investigate the rates and mechanisms of these SW transformations in graphene at the atomic scale using transmission electron microscopy. We develop a statistical atomic kinetics formalism, using direct observations obtained under different conditions to determine key kinetic parameters of the reactions. Based on the obtained statistics we quantify thermally and irradiation induced routes, identifying a thermal process of healing with an activation energy consistent with predicted adatom catalysed mechanisms. We discover exceptionally high rates for irradiation induced SW healing, incompatible with the previously assumed mechanism of direct knock-on damage and indicating the presence of an efficient nonadiabatic coupling healing mechanism involving beam induced electronic excitations of the SW defect.

  17. Porous Hydrogen-Bonded Organic Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Fei Han


    Full Text Available Ordered porous solid-state architectures constructed via non-covalent supramolecular self-assembly have attracted increasing interest due to their unique advantages and potential applications. Porous metal-coordination organic frameworks (MOFs are generated by the assembly of metal coordination centers and organic linkers. Compared to MOFs, porous hydrogen-bonded organic frameworks (HOFs are readily purified and recovered via simple recrystallization. However, due to lacking of sufficiently ability to orientate self-aggregation of building motifs in predictable manners, rational design and preparation of porous HOFs are still challenging. Herein, we summarize recent developments about porous HOFs and attempt to gain deeper insights into the design strategies of basic building motifs.

  18. Limits to Arbitrage in Sovereign Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelizzon, Loriana; Subrahmanyam, Marti G.; Tomio, Davide

    ), and (ii) the liquidity in the cash market, and not in the futures market, has a significant impact on the basis between the price of the futures contract and that of the cash bond that is cheapest to deliver. However, the interventions of the European Central Bank (ECB), during the Euro-zone crisis, had......Commonality of liquidity refers to the linkages between liquidity across assets through common market-wide factors, while liquidity discovery refers to the transmission of liquidity between assets linked to each other through arbitrage. In the context of liquidity discovery, the transmission...... of liquidity shocks between the two assets is supported by the actions of two types of traders: market-makers and arbitrageurs. These two types of players are motivated and constrained by distinctly different forces. This paper investigates the microstructure of the relationship between liquidity discovery...

  19. Bonding, structure and solid-state chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Ladd, Mark


    This book is aimed at undergraduate students in both chemistry and those degree subjects in which chemistry forms a significant part. It does not reflect any particular academic year, and so finds a place during the normal span of degree studies in the physical sciences. An A-level standard in science and mathematics is presumed; additional mathematical treatments are discussed in Appendices. An introductory first chapter leads into the main subject matter, which is treated through four chapters in terms of the principle bonding forces of cohesion in the solid state; a further chapter discusses nanosize materials. Important applications of the study topics are interspersed at appropriate points within the text. Each chapter is provided with a set of problems of varying degrees of difficulty, so as to assist the reader in gaining a facility with the subject matter and its applications. The problems are supplemented by detailed tutorial solutions, some of which present additional relevant material that indicate...

  20. Reliability Analysis of Adhesive Bonded Scarf Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimiaeifar, Amin; Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Lund, Erik;


    A probabilistic model for the reliability analysis of adhesive bonded scarfed lap joints subjected to static loading is developed. It is representative for the main laminate in a wind turbine blade subjected to flapwise bending. The structural analysis is based on a three dimensional (3D) finite...... the FEA model, and a sensitivity analysis on the influence of various geometrical parameters and material properties on the maximum stress is conducted. Because the yield behavior of many polymeric structural adhesives is dependent on both deviatoric and hydrostatic stress components, different ratios...... of the compressive to tensile adhesive yield stresses in the failure criterion are considered. It is shown that the chosen failure criterion, the scarf angle and the load are significant for the assessment of the probability of failure....

  1. Photoinitiated reactions in weakly bonded complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittig, C.


    This paper discusses photoinitiated reactions in weakly bonded binary complexes in which the constituents are only mildly perturbed by the intermolecular bond. Such complexes, with their large zero point excursions, set the stage for events that occur following electronic excitation of one of the constituents. This can take several forms, but in all cases, entrance channel specificity is imposed by the character of the complex as well as the nature of the photoinitiation process. This has enabled us to examine aspects of bimolecular processes: steric effects, chemical branching ratios, and inelastic scattering. Furthermore, monitoring reactions directly in the time domain can reveal mechanisms that cannot be inferred from measurements of nascent product excitations. Consequently, we examined several systems that had been studied previously by our group with product state resolution. With CO{sub 2}/HI, in which reaction occurs via a HOCO intermediate, the rates agree with RRKM predictions. With N{sub 2}O/HI, the gas phase single collision reaction yielding OH + N{sub 2} has been shown to proceed mainly via an HNNO intermediate that undergoes a 1,3-hydrogen shift to the OH + N{sub 2} channel. With complexes, ab initio calculations and high resolution spectroscopic studies of analogous systems suggest that the hydrogen, while highly delocalized, prefers the oxygen to the nitrogen. We observe that OH is produced with a fast risetime (< 250 fs) which can be attributed to either direct oxygen-side attack or rapid HNNO decomposition and/or a termolecular contribution involving the nearby iodine.

  2. Halogen bond: a long overlooked interaction. (United States)

    Cavallo, Gabriella; Metrangolo, Pierangelo; Pilati, Tullio; Resnati, Giuseppe; Terraneo, Giancarlo


    Because of their high electronegativity, halogen atoms are typically considered, in most of their derivatives, as sites of high electron density and it is commonly accepted that they can form attractive interactions by functioning as the electron donor site (nucleophilic site). This is the case when they work as hydrogen bond acceptor sites. However, the electron density in covalently bound halogens is anisotropically distributed. There is a region of higher electron density, accounting for the ability of halogens to function as electron donor sites in attractive interactions, and a region of lower electron density where the electrostatic potential is frequently positive (mainly in the heavier halogens). This latter region is responsible for the ability of halogen atoms to function as the electron-acceptor site (electrophilic site) in attractive interactions formed with a variety of lone pair-possessing atoms, anions, and π-systems. This ability is quite general and is shown by a wide diversity of halogenated compounds (e.g., organohalogen derivatives and dihalogens). According to the definition proposed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, any attractive interactions wherein the halogen atom is the electrophile is named halogen bond (XB). In this chapter, it is discussed how the practice and the concept of XB developed and a brief history of the interaction is presented. Papers (either from the primary or secondary literature) which have reported major experimental findings in the field or which have given important theoretical contributions for the development of the concept are recollected in order to trace how a unifying and comprehensive categorization emerged encompassing all interactions wherein halogen atoms function as the electrophilic site.

  3. Routes to Hydrogen Bonding Chain-End Functionalized Polymers. (United States)

    Bertrand, Arthur; Lortie, Frédéric; Bernard, Julien


    The contribution of supramolecular chemistry to polymer science opens new perspectives for the design of polymer materials exhibiting valuable properties and easier processability due to the dynamic nature of non-covalent interactions. Hydrogen bonding polymers can be used as supramolecular units for yielding larger assemblies that possess attractive features, arising from the combination of polymer properties and the responsiveness of hydrogen bonds. The post-polymerization modification of reactive end-groups is the most common procedure for generating such polymers. Examples of polymerizations mediated by hydrogen bonding-functionalized precursors have also recently been reported. This contribution reviews the current synthetic routes toward hydrogen bonding sticker chain-end functionalized polymers.

  4. Analysis of tensile bond strengths using Weibull statistics. (United States)

    Burrow, Michael F; Thomas, David; Swain, Mike V; Tyas, Martin J


    Tensile strength tests of restorative resins bonded to dentin, and the resultant strengths of interfaces between the two, exhibit wide variability. Many variables can affect test results, including specimen preparation and storage, test rig design and experimental technique. However, the more fundamental source of variability, that associated with the brittle nature of the materials, has received little attention. This paper analyzes results from micro-tensile tests on unfilled resins and adhesive bonds between restorative resin composite and dentin in terms of reliability using the Weibull probability of failure method. Results for the tensile strengths of Scotchbond Multipurpose Adhesive (3M) and Clearfil LB Bond (Kuraray) bonding resins showed Weibull moduli (m) of 6.17 (95% confidence interval, 5.25-7.19) and 5.01 (95% confidence interval, 4.23-5.8). Analysis of results for micro-tensile tests on bond strengths to dentin gave moduli between 1.81 (Clearfil Liner Bond 2V) and 4.99 (Gluma One Bond, Kulzer). Material systems with m in this range do not have a well-defined strength. The Weibull approach also enables the size dependence of the strength to be estimated. An example where the bonding area was changed from 3.1 to 1.1 mm diameter is shown. Weibull analysis provides a method for determining the reliability of strength measurements in the analysis of data from bond strength and tensile tests on dental restorative materials.

  5. Development of the Automated Bonding Robot for Space Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yue-xin; ZHAO Yan-zheng; FU Zhuang; ZHAO Hui; LUO Zhen


    The bonding process of space solar cells is a very complicated task undertaken by manual labor before. An automatic approach based on robot technology is presented to deal with the difficult problem. The architecture of the bonding robot for space solar cells is described. The two processes carried out by the robot, adhesive dispensing and cover-glass bonding, are studied. Based on the mechanical model, the flow velocity field of the adhesive in needles is obtained and the cover-glass bonding theory is interpreted. According to the studies, the thickness of the adhesive can be controlled accurately by robot and bubbles can be avoided coming about inside the adhesive.

  6. [Corrosion resistance and bond strength of dental alloys]. (United States)

    Schwickerath, H


    Investigated Ni-alloys, which showed extensive solubility of Ni particles in corrosion bathes due to DIN 13927, also revealed pronounced lost of bond strength to ceramic veneers when immersed into corrosion bathes of equal constitution. Noble metal alloys with a gold concentration more than 50 percent, however, showed no such large lost of bond strength. Pd alloys showed a lost of bond strength which increased with their Ga concentration. Co alloys revealed a behavior similar to the Ni alloys but with no obvious correlation between solubility and lost of bond strength.

  7. Shariah Bond as Financial Instrument For Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anim Rahmayati


    Full Text Available This study aims to analyse the potential of sharia bonds in the region as an alternative to local financing. This research is a kind of literary descriptive qualitative research using SWOT analysis. The results of this study indicate that in the area of sharia bonds is an alternative worth considering regional funding compared to other funding. Support policy, very large financing needs for region infrastructure development, the market potential in the area of sharia bonds is an opportunity for local governments in Indonesia to immediately issue sharia bonds in the area.DOI:  10.15408/sjie.v5i1.3126

  8. The Economic Value of Predicting Bond Risk Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarno, Lucio; Schneider, Paul; Wagner, Christian

    This paper studies whether the evident statistical predictability of bond risk premia translates into economic gains for bond investors. We show that ane term structure models (ATSMs) estimated by jointly tting yields and bond excess returns capture this predictive information otherwise hidden to...... deviations mainly matter at short horizons and standard predictability metrics are not compatible with common measures of economic value. Overall, the EH remains the benchmark for investment decisions and should be considered an economic prior in models of bond risk premia....

  9. Bonding auto-polymerising acrylic resin to acrylic denture teeth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nagle, Susan


    This study investigated the effect of surface treatments on the shear bond strength of an auto-polymerising acrylic resin cured to acrylic denture teeth. The surface treatments included a combination of grit-blasting and\\/or wetting the surface with monomer. Samples were prepared and then stored in water prior to shear testing. The results indicated that the application of monomer to the surface prior to bonding did not influence the bond strength. Grit blasting was found to significantly increase the bond strength.

  10. Robustly Engineering Thermal Conductivity of Bilayer Graphene by Interlayer Bonding. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Gao, Yufei; Chen, Yuli; Hu, Ming


    Graphene and its bilayer structure are the two-dimensional crystalline form of carbon, whose extraordinary electron mobility and other unique features hold great promise for nanoscale electronics and photonics. Their realistic applications in emerging nanoelectronics usually call for thermal transport manipulation in a controllable and precise manner. In this paper we systematically studied the effect of interlayer covalent bonding, in particular different interlay bonding arrangement, on the thermal conductivity of bilayer graphene using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. It is revealed that, the thermal conductivity of randomly bonded bilayer graphene decreases monotonically with the increase of interlayer bonding density, however, for the regularly bonded bilayer graphene structure the thermal conductivity possesses unexpectedly non-monotonic dependence on the interlayer bonding density. The results suggest that the thermal conductivity of bilayer graphene depends not only on the interlayer bonding density, but also on the detailed topological configuration of the interlayer bonding. The underlying mechanism for this abnormal phenomenon is identified by means of phonon spectral energy density, participation ratio and mode weight factor analysis. The large tunability of thermal conductivity of bilayer graphene through rational interlayer bonding arrangement paves the way to achieve other desired properties for potential nanoelectronics applications involving graphene layers.

  11. Ultrasonic Bonding of Membrane-Electrode-Assemblies of Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dung-An Wang


    Full Text Available Ultrasonic bonding has a great potential for manufacturing of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs of fuel cells (FCs due to its short process cycle time and low energy consumption.  Before introduction of the bonding process into the industry, a detailed and elaborate investigation of the effects of the processing parameters on the bonding quality is necessary.  We develop a finite element model of the ultrasonic bonding for MEAs of FCs.  The model can be used as a computational framework for initial evaluation of the effectiveness of ultrasonic boding for MEAs of FCs.

  12. Diffusion bonding of titanium alloy to tin-bronze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卓然; 冯吉才; 刘会杰


    The vacuum diffusion bonding of titanium alloy to tin-bronze has been studied and the feasibility and appropriate processing parameters have been investigated. The maximum tensile strength of the joints is bonded joint has been observed by SEM, X-ray and EPMA, and the main factors affecting diffusion bonding have been analyzed. The intermetallic compounds Ti2Cu and TiCu were formed near the interface. The width and quantity of the intermetallic compound increases with the increase of the bonding time. The formation of the intermetallic compounds results in embrittlement of the joint and the poor joint properties.

  13. The pricing of perpetual convertible bond with credit risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Le-le; BIAN Bao-jun


    Convertible bond gives holder the right to choose a conversion strategy to maximize the bond value,and issuer also has the right to minimize the bond value in order to maximize equity value.When there is default occurring,conversion and calling strategies are invalid.In the framework of reduced form model,we reduce the price of convertible bond to variational inequalities,and the coefficients of variational inequalities are unbounded at the original point.Then the existence and uniqueness of variational inequality are proven.Finally,we prove that the conversion area,the calling area and the holding area are connected subsets of the state space.

  14. Hydrogen and Dihydrogen Bonds in the Reactions of Metal Hydrides. (United States)

    Belkova, Natalia V; Epstein, Lina M; Filippov, Oleg A; Shubina, Elena S


    The dihydrogen bond-an interaction between a transition-metal or main-group hydride (M-H) and a protic hydrogen moiety (H-X)-is arguably the most intriguing type of hydrogen bond. It was discovered in the mid-1990s and has been intensively explored since then. Herein, we collate up-to-date experimental and computational studies of the structural, energetic, and spectroscopic parameters and natures of dihydrogen-bonded complexes of the form M-H···H-X, as such species are now known for a wide variety of hydrido compounds. Being a weak interaction, dihydrogen bonding entails the lengthening of the participating bonds as well as their polarization (repolarization) as a result of electron density redistribution. Thus, the formation of a dihydrogen bond allows for the activation of both the MH and XH bonds in one step, facilitating proton transfer and preparing these bonds for further transformations. The implications of dihydrogen bonding in different stoichiometric and catalytic reactions, such as hydrogen exchange, alcoholysis and aminolysis, hydrogen evolution, hydrogenation, and dehydrogenation, are discussed.

  15. Localized CO2 laser bonding process for MEMS packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The packaging poses a critical challenge for commercialization of MEMS products. Major problems with the packaging process include degraded reliability caused by the excess stress due to thermal mismatch and altered performance of the MEMS device after packaging caused by thermal exposure. The localized laser bonding technique for ceramic MEMS packaging to address above-mentioned challenges was investigated. A continuous wave CO2 laser was used to locally heat sealing material for ceramic MEMS package lid to substrate bonding. To determine the laser power density and scanning speed,finite element analysis thermal models were constructed to simulate the localized laser bonding process. Further,the effect of external pressure at sealing ring on the bonding formation was studied. Pull testing results show that the scanning speed and external pressure have significant influence on the pull strength at the bonding interface. Cross-sectional microscopy of the bonding interface indicates that the packages bonded with relatively low scanning speed and external pressure conditions have higher bonding quality. This research demonstrates the potential of localized laser bonding process for ceramic MEMS packaging.

  16. Torsion Testing of Diffusion Bonded LIGA Formed Nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchheit, T.E.; Christenson, T.R.; Schmale, D.T.


    A test technique has been devised which is suitable for the testing of the bond strength of batch diffusion bonded LIGA or DXRL defined structures. The method uses a torsion tester constructed with the aid of LIGA fabrication and distributed torsion specimens which also make use of the high aspect ratio nature of DXRL based processing. Measurements reveal achieved bond strengths of 130MPa between electroplated nickel with a bond temperature of 450 C at 7 ksi pressure which is a sufficiently low temperature to avoid mechanical strength degradation.

  17. Interfiber bonding and fiber segment activation in paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Paulapuro


    Full Text Available Bonding and activation in paper were studied with the help of laboratory test sheets and common paper strength tests. Different papermaking furnishes and raw material treatments were used to examine the effects they have on bonding and activation. Furthermore, various boundary conditions during drying were included to single out the influence of bonding and activation on paper properties. It was found that bonding is clearly increased by beating of kraft pulp, starch addition, and thermomechanical pulp fines, whereas activation benefited most from beating and addition of reinforcement fibers to mechanical pulp based furnishes. Subjecting test sheets to increasing amounts of drying stress affected activation positively, and bonding negatively. The increase in activation did not seem to be dependent on the beating degree of chemical pulp fibers. Bonding, on the other hand, deteriorated more significantly in sheets made of extensively beaten kraft fibers, i.e. in sheets where the initial bonding potential was higher. Commonly used paper strength measurements provide dependable and accurate tools for assessing the effect of different variables on both bonding and activation. A short literature survey of bonding and activation is also provided.

  18. Transition-Metal-Catalyzed C-H Bond Addition to Carbonyls, Imines, and Related Polarized π Bonds. (United States)

    Hummel, Joshua R; Boerth, Jeffrey A; Ellman, Jonathan A


    The transition-metal-catalyzed addition of C-H bonds to carbonyls, imines, and related polarized π bonds has emerged as a particularly efficient and powerful approach for the construction of an incredibly diverse array of heteroatom-substituted products. Readily available and stable inputs are typically employed, and reactions often proceed with very high functional group compatibility and without the production of waste byproducts. Additionally, many transition-metal-catalyzed C-H bond additions to polarized π bonds occur within cascade reaction sequences to provide rapid access to a diverse array of different heterocyclic as well as carbocyclic products. This review highlights the diversity of transformations that have been achieved, catalysts that have been used, and types of products that have been prepared through the transition-metal-catalyzed addition of C-H bonds to carbonyls, imines, and related polarized π bonds.

  19. Theoretical Electron Density Distributions for Fe- and Cu-Sulfide Earth Materials: A Connection between Bond Length, Bond Critical Point Properties, Local Energy Densities, and Bonded Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Gerald V.; Cox, David F.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Ross, Nancy L.; Downs, R. T.; Spackman, M. A.


    Bond critical point and local energy density properties together with net atomic charges were calculated for theoretical electron density distributions, F(r), generated for a variety of Fe and Cu metal-sulfide materials with high- and low-spin Fe atoms in octahedral coordination and high-spin Fe atoms in tetrahedral coordination. The electron density, F(rc), the Laplacian, 32F(rc), the local kinetic energy, G(rc), and the oxidation state of Fe increase as the local potential energy density, V(rc), the Fe-S bond lengths, and the coordination numbers of the Fe atoms decrease. The properties of the bonded interactions for the octahedrally coordinated low-spin Fe atoms for pyrite and marcasite are distinct from those for high-spin Fe atoms for troilite, smythite, and greigite. The Fe-S bond lengths are shorter and the values of F(rc) and 32F(rc) are larger for pyrite and marcasite, indicating that the accumulation and local concentration of F(r) in the internuclear region are greater than those involving the longer, high-spin Fe-S bonded interactions. The net atomic charges and the bonded radii calculated for the Fe and S atoms in pyrite and marcasite are also smaller than those for sulfides with high-spin octahedrally coordinated Fe atoms. Collectively, the Fe-S interactions are indicated to be intermediate in character with the low-spin Fe-S interactions having greater shared character than the highspin interactions. The bond lengths observed for chalcopyrite together with the calculated bond critical point properties are consistent with the formula Cu+Fe3+S2. The bond length is shorter and the F(rc) value is larger for the FeS4 tetrahedron displayed by metastable greigite than those displayed by chalcopyrite and cubanite, consistent with a proposal that the Fe atom in greigite is tetravalent. S-S bond paths exist between each of the surface S atoms of adjacent slabs of FeS6 octahedra comprising the layer sulfide smythite, suggesting that the neutral Fe3S4 slabs are

  20. Bonding and Anti-bonding Modes of Plasmon Coupling Effects in TiO2-Ag Core-shell Dimers (United States)

    Li, Quanshui; Zhang, Zhili


    Bonding and anti-bonding modes of plasmon coupling effects are numerically investigated in TiO2-Ag core-shell nano dimers. First, splitting phenomena of the coupled anti-bonding modes are observed under the longitudinal polarization when the distance between the monomers decreases to a certain level. Second, one of the split resonance modes is identified to be formed by the dipole anti-bonding mode of the monomers from charge density distribution patterns. Those split modes have similar redshift behaviors as the coupled dipole bonding modes in the same situations. Furthermore, the intensities of those anti-bonding modes weaken with decreasing distance between the monomers, because of the interaction of the induced dipole moment in the monomers and the charge distribution variation on the facing surfaces of the gap by the coulomb attraction. Other split bands are the higher-order mode (octupole-like or triakontadipole-like), which do not have obvious peak-shift behavior, and the intensities have very little attenuation with decreasing distance. Finally, the coupling of the bonding and anti-bonding modes under the longitudinal polarization is symmetric (bonding).

  1. Two-photon laser confocal microscopy of micropermeability of resin-dentin bonds made with water or ethanol wet bonding. (United States)

    Sauro, Salvatore; Watson, Timothy F; Mannocci, Francesco; Miyake, Katsuya; Huffman, Bradford P; Tay, Franklin R; Pashley, David H


    This study evaluated the micropermeability of six etch-and-rinse adhesives bonded to dentin. There were two principal groups: wet bonding with water or wet bonding with absolute ethyl alcohol. After bonding and the creation of composite build-ups, the pulp chambers were filled with 0.1% lucifer yellow. The contents of the pulp chamber were kept under 20 cm H(2)O pressure to simulate pulpal pressure for 3 h. The specimens were vertically sectioned into multiple 0.5-mm thick slabs that were polished and then examined using a two-photon confocal laser scanning microscope (TPCLSM). The results showed that specimens bonded with adhesives using the water wet-bonding condition all showed tracer taken up uniformly by the hybrid layer. This uptake of fluorescent tracer into the hybrid layer was quantified by computer software. The most hydrophobic experimental resins showed the highest fluorescent tracer uptake (ca. 1800 +/- 160 arbitrary fluorescent units/std. surface area). The most hydrophilic experimental resins showed the lowest tracer uptake into water-saturated hybrid layers. When ethanol wet-bonding was used, significantly less fluorescent tracer was seen in hybrid layers. The most hydrophilic experimental resins and Single Bond Plus showed little micropermeability. Clearly, ethanol wet-bonding seals dentin significantly better than water-wet dentin regardless of the adhesive in etch-and-rinse systems.

  2. Bonding and Anti-bonding Modes of Plasmon Coupling Effects in TiO2-Ag Core-shell Dimers


    Quanshui Li; Zhili Zhang


    Bonding and anti-bonding modes of plasmon coupling effects are numerically investigated in TiO2-Ag core-shell nano dimers. First, splitting phenomena of the coupled anti-bonding modes are observed under the longitudinal polarization when the distance between the monomers decreases to a certain level. Second, one of the split resonance modes is identified to be formed by the dipole anti-bonding mode of the monomers from charge density distribution patterns. Those split modes have similar redsh...

  3. Research progress of III-V laser bonding to Si (United States)

    Bo, Ren; Yan, Hou; Yanan, Liang


    The vigorous development of silicon photonics makes a silicon-based light source essential for optoelectronics' integration. Bonding of III-V/Si hybrid laser has developed rapidly in the last ten years. In the tireless efforts of researchers, we are privileged to see these bonding methods, such as direct bonding, medium adhesive bonding and low temperature eutectic bonding. They have been developed and applied to the research and fabrication of III-V/Si hybrid lasers. Some research groups have made remarkable progress. Tanabe Katsuaki of Tokyo University successfully implemented a silicon-based InAs/GaAs quantum dot laser with direct bonding method in 2012. They have bonded the InAs/GaAs quantum dot laser to the silicon substrate and the silicon ridge waveguide, respectively. The threshold current of the device is as low as 200 A/cm2. Stevan Stanković and Sui Shaoshuai successfully produced a variety of hybrid III-V/Si laser with the method of BCB bonding, respectively. BCB has high light transmittance and it can provide high bonding strength. Researchers of Tokyo University and Peking University have realized III-V/Si hybrid lasers with metal bonding method. We describe the progress in the fabrication of III-V/Si hybrid lasers with bonding methods by various research groups in recent years. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are presented. We also introduce the progress of the growth of III-V epitaxial layer on silicon substrate, which is also a promising method to realize silicon-based light source. I hope that readers can have a general understanding of this field from this article and we can attract more researchers to focus on the study in this field.

  4. Electrostatically enhanced FF interactions through hydrogen bonding, halogen bonding and metal coordination: an ab initio study. (United States)

    Bauzá, Antonio; Frontera, Antonio


    In this manuscript the ability of hydrogen and halogen bonding interactions, as well as metal coordination to enhance FF interactions involving fluorine substituted aromatic rings has been studied at the RI-MP2/def2-TZVPD level of theory. We have used 4-fluoropyridine, 4-fluorobenzonitrile, 3-(4-fluorophenyl)propiolonitrile and their respective meta derivatives as aromatic compounds. In addition, we have used HF and IF as hydrogen and halogen bond donors, respectively, and Ag(i) as the coordination metal. Furthermore, we have also used HF as an electron rich fluorine donor entity, thus establishing FF interactions with the above mentioned aromatic systems. Moreover, a CSD (Cambridge Structural Database) search has been carried out and some interesting examples have been found, highlighting the impact of FF interactions involving aromatic fluorine atoms in solid state chemistry. Finally, cooperativity effects between FF interactions and both hydrogen and halogen bonding interactions have been analyzed and compared. We have also used Bader's theory of "atoms in molecules" to further describe the cooperative effects.

  5. Simulation research on ultrasonic guided waves detection of metal rod buffer system bonding quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hu


    Full Text Available The judgment of metal rod buffer system bonding quality depends on the bond of the metal rods with the surrounding medium. System bonding area will lead to different reflection amplitude. Compared the simulation with the experiment, it can be concluded that different bonding area can measure bond quality, i.e, the greater the bonding area is the more excellent bonding quality will be. This conclusion provides the basis for the system ultrasonic testing.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidan Alakuş Sabuncuoğlu


    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the effects of different porcelain surface treatment methods on the shear bond strength (SBS and fracture mode of orthodontic brackets. Materials and Methods: Seventy feldspathic porcelain disk samples mounted in acrylic resin blocks were divided into seven groups (n=10 according to type of surface treatment: I, Diamond bur; II, Orthosphoric acid (OPA; III, hydrofluoric acid (HFA; IV, sandblasted with aluminum oxide (SB; V, SB+HFA; VI, Neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG laser; VII, Erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG laser. Brackets were affixed to treated all-porcelain surfaces with a silane bonding agent and adhesive resin and subjected to SBS testing. Specimens were evaluated according to the adhesive remnant index (ARI, and failure modes were assessed quantitatively under a stereomicroscope and morphologically under a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance and the post-hoc Tukey test, with the significance level set at 0.05. Results: The highest SBS values were observed for Group V, with no significant difference between Groups V and III. SBS values for Group I were significantly lower than those of all other groups tested. The porcelain/resin interface was the most common site of failure in Group V (40% and Group III (30%, whereas other groups showed various types of bond failure, with no specific location pre-dominating, but with some of the adhesive left on the porcelain surfaces (ARI scores 2 or 3 in most cases. Conclusion: The current findings indicate that a diamond bur alone is unable to sufficiently etch porcelain surfaces for bracket bonding. Moreover, SB and HFA etching used in combination results in a significantly higher shear-bond strength than HFA or SB alone. Finally, laser etching with either an Nd:YAG or Er:YAG laser was found to be more effective and less time-consuming than both HFA acid and SB for the treatment of deglazed

  7. Labor Income and the Demand for Long-term Bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koijen, R.S.J.; Nijman, T.E.; Werker, B.J.M.


    The riskless nature in real terms of inflation-linked bonds has led to the conclusion that inflation-linked bonds should constitute a substantial part of the optimal investment portfolio of long-term investors.This conclusion is reached in models where investors do not receive labor income during th

  8. Modelling of the Through-air Bonding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hossain


    Full Text Available A computational fluid dynamics (CFD modelling ofthe through-air bonding process of nonwoven fabricproduction is reported in this article. In the throughairprocess, hot air is passed through the fibrous webto heat and melt polymer fibers. Molten polymersubsequently flows to the point of contact betweenany two fibers to produce a bond. Two differentmodelling strategies are adapted to produce acomprehensive understanding of the through-airbonding process. In macroscale modelling, a CFDmodel is developed treating the whole web as aporous media in order to investigate the effect ofprocess parameters. Results reveal that the timerequired to heat and melt the fibers decreases with theincreasing porosity of the web and the velocity of hotair. The CFD modelling technique is then used toanalyze the bonding process at a more fundamentallevel by considering the bonding of individual fibersat microscale. The effects of the fiber diameter,bonding temperature and contact angle between twofibers on the bonding time are investigated. Resultsshow that the time required to bond fibers is weaklyrelated to bonding temperature and fiber diameter.Fiber orientation angle, on the other hand, hassignificant effect on the progression of bondformation.

  9. Atoms in Valence Bond. Method, implementation and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielinski, M.L.


    The Atoms in Valence Bond (AiVB) approach is presented. The main goal was to develop a new and innovative approach, within the existing Valence Bond framework, to build and analyze the molecular VB wave function in terms of atoms and their atomic states, in a very user-friendly environment. The nece

  10. Bond-Energy and Surface-Energy Calculations in Metals (United States)

    Eberhart, James G.; Horner, Steve


    A simple technique appropriate for introductory materials science courses is outlined for the calculation of bond energies in metals from lattice energies. The approach is applied to body-centered cubic (bcc), face-centered cubic (fcc), and hexagonal-closest-packed (hcp) metals. The strength of these bonds is tabulated for a variety metals and is…

  11. Hydrogen Bonding in Thermoplastic Polyurethane Elastomers: IR Thermal Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The hydrogen bond percentage and its temperature dependence of the three TPU samples synthesized from polytetrahydrofuran, 4,4-diphenylmethane diisocyanate, N-methyl diethanol amine or 1,4-butane diol were studied by means of IR thermal analysis. The enthalpy and the entropy of the hydrogen bond dissociation were determined by the Vant Hoff plot.

  12. Resin-Bonded Bridges in vitro and in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, Johannes Hilbrandt van der


    In this thesis in vitro and in vivo studies on the clinical application of resin-bonded bridges are described and discussed. The development of different types of resin-bonded bridges is described in chapter 1. The bridges are often made by boding a cast metal retainer fitted with and artificial too

  13. Effects of water on mortar-brick bond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, C.J.W.P.


    The quality of bond in masonry is, to a large extent, a function of the (i) the hydration conditions and (ii) the mortar composition of the mortar-brick interface. For insight into the effects of these parameters on bond performance it is essential to dispose of quantitative information about water

  14. Ultrasonic echo signal fetures of dissimilar material bonding joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GANG Tie(刚铁); Yasuo TAKAHASHI


    An ultrasonic evaluation method of echo feature of diffusion bond joint between two dissimilar materials is presented. The echo signal was acquired by an automatic ultrasonic C-scan test system. It is found that the intensity of echo and its phase can be used to evaluate the joint quality, and interface products of dissimilar materials bonding can be evaluated by ultrasonic method.

  15. 19 CFR 19.17 - Application to establish warehouse; bond. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application to establish warehouse; bond. 19.17...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS WAREHOUSES, CONTAINER STATIONS AND CONTROL OF MERCHANDISE THEREIN Smelting and Refining Warehouses § 19.17 Application to establish warehouse; bond. (a) Application....

  16. Bonding to zirconia using a new surface treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aboushelib, M.N.; Feilzer, A.J.; Kleverlaan, C.J.


    Purpose: Selective infiltration etching (SIE) is a newly developed surface treatment used to modify the surface of zirconia-based materials, rendering them ready for bonding to resin cements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the zirconia/resin bond strength and durability using the proposed tec

  17. 19 CFR 19.2 - Applications to bond. (United States)


    ... prepare and have available at the warehouse a procedures manual describing the inventory control and... the building or space to be bonded. If the warehouse to be bonded is a tank, the blueprint shall show... laws and regulations. If the application is for a Class 9 warehouse (duty-free store), the...

  18. Which News Moves the Euro Area Bond Market?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Magnus; Overby, Lars Jul; Sebestyén, Szabolcs


    This paper explores a long dataset (1999-2005) of intraday prices on German long-term bond futures and examines market responses to major macroeconomic announcements and ECB monetary policy releases. German bond markets tend to react more strongly to the surprise component in US macro releases co...

  19. 19 CFR 141.41 - Surety on Customs bonds. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surety on Customs bonds. 141.41 Section 141.41 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Powers of Attorney § 141.41 Surety on Customs bonds. Powers...

  20. Realized Bond-Stock Correlation: Macroeconomic Announcement Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Ranaldo, Angelo


    We investigate the effects of macroeconomic announcements on the realized correlation between bond and stock returns. Our results deliver insights into the dominating drivers of bond-stock comovements. We find that it is not so much the surprise component of the announcement, but the mere fact th...