WorldWideScience

Sample records for bombs

  1. Terrorist bombing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Ami; Kluger, Yoram

    2006-01-01

    Bombings and explosion incidents directed against innocent civilians are the primary instrument of global terror. In the present review we highlight the major observations and lessons learned from these events. Five mechanisms of blast injury are outlined and the different type of injury that they cause is described. Indeed, the consequences of terror bombings differ from those of non-terrorism trauma in severity and complexity of injury, and constitute a new class of casualties that differ from those of conventional trauma. The clinical implications of terror bombing, in treatment dilemmas in the multidimensional injury, ancillary evaluation and handling of terror bombing mass casualty event are highlighted. All this leads to the conclusion that thorough medical preparedness to cope with this new epidemic is required, and that understanding of detonation and blast dynamics and how they correlate with the injury patterns is pivotal for revision of current mass casualty protocols. PMID:17101058

  2. Terrorist bombing

    OpenAIRE

    Kluger Yoram; Mayo Ami

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Bombings and explosion incidents directed against innocent civilians are the primary instrument of global terror. In the present review we highlight the major observations and lessons learned from these events. Five mechanisms of blast injury are outlined and the different type of injury that they cause is described. Indeed, the consequences of terror bombings differ from those of non-terrorism trauma in severity and complexity of injury, and constitute a new class of casualties that...

  3. Britain's bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corfield, Richard

    2012-10-01

    On the 60th anniversary of Britain's first nuclear test, Richard Corfield explores how Operation Hurricane - the British effort to develop the atomic bomb in the 1940s and 1950s - compares with states such as Iran that today wish to have such devices.

  4. Italian Bombs & Fuzes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1948-06-01

    withdrawal of the safety pin . The bomb 20.1., on account of its special method of suspension, has a recess cut in the tail, about half way along...Indication of arming :- safety pin and caps missing. To defuze these bombs. Lay the bombs carefully on their sides. Unscrew...bomb can be regarded as ALLWAYS action. (a) If the safety pin hole in the fuze spindle is visible 2 cm above the head of the fuze, the

  5. Korean atomic bomb victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasamoto, Yukuo

    2009-01-01

    After colonizing Korea, Japan invaded China, and subsequently initiated the Pacific War against the United States, Britain, and their allies. Towards the end of the war, U.S. warplanes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in a large number of Koreans who lived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering from the effects of the bombs. The objective of this paper is to examine the history of Korea atomic bomb victims who were caught in between the U.S., Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea).

  6. Cluster bomb ocular injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M Mansour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present the visual outcomes and ocular sequelae of victims of cluster bombs. Materials and Methods: This retrospective, multicenter case series of ocular injury due to cluster bombs was conducted for 3 years after the war in South Lebanon (July 2006. Data were gathered from the reports to the Information Management System for Mine Action. Results: There were 308 victims of clusters bombs; 36 individuals were killed, of which 2 received ocular lacerations and; 272 individuals were injured with 18 receiving ocular injury. These 18 surviving individuals were assessed by the authors. Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% (20/308 of cluster bomb victims. Trauma to multiple organs occurred in 12 of 18 cases (67% with ocular injury. Ocular findings included corneal or scleral lacerations (16 eyes, corneal foreign bodies (9 eyes, corneal decompensation (2 eyes, ruptured cataract (6 eyes, and intravitreal foreign bodies (10 eyes. The corneas of one patient had extreme attenuation of the endothelium. Conclusions: Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% of cluster bomb victims and 67% of the patients with ocular injury sustained trauma to multiple organs. Visual morbidity in civilians is an additional reason for a global ban on the use of cluster bombs.

  7. Are IRIS Bombs Connected to Ellerman Bombs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hui; Xu, Zhi; He, Jiansen; Madsen, Chad

    2016-06-01

    Recent observations by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) have revealed pockets of hot gas (˜2-8 × 104 K) potentially resulting from magnetic reconnection in the partially ionized lower solar atmosphere (IRIS bombs; IBs). Using joint observations between IRIS and the Chinese New Vacuum Solar Telescope, we have identified 10 IBs. We find that 3 are unambiguously and 3 others are possibly connected to Ellerman bombs (EBs), which show intense brightening of the extended {{{H}}}α wings without leaving an obvious signature in the {{{H}}}α core. These bombs generally reveal the following distinct properties: (1) the O iv 1401.156 Å and 1399.774 Å lines are absent or very weak; (2) the Mn i 2795.640 Å line manifests as an absorption feature superimposed on the greatly enhanced Mg ii k line wing; (3) the Mg ii k and h lines show intense brightening in the wings and no dramatic enhancement in the cores; (4) chromospheric absorption lines such as Ni ii 1393.330 Å and 1335.203 Å are very strong; and (5) the 1700 Å images obtained with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory reveal intense and compact brightenings. These properties support the formation of these bombs in the photosphere, demonstrating that EBs can be heated much more efficiently than previously thought. We also demonstrate that the Mg ii k and h lines can be used to investigate EBs similarly to {{{H}}}α , which opens a promising new window for EB studies. The remaining four IBs obviously have no connection to EBs and they do not have the properties mentioned above, suggesting a higher formation layer, possibly in the chromosphere.

  8. Are IRIS bombs connected to Ellerman bombs?

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Hui; He, Jiansen; Madsen, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) have revealed pockets of hot gas ($\\sim$2--8$\\times$10$^{4}$ K) potentially resulting from magnetic reconnection in the partially ionized lower solar atmosphere (IRIS bombs; IBs). Using joint observations between IRIS and the Chinese New Vacuum Solar Telescope, we have identified ten IBs. We find that three are unambiguously and three others are possibly connected to Ellerman bombs (EBs), which show intense brightening of the extended H$_{\\alpha}$ wings without leaving an obvious signature in the H$_{\\alpha}$ core. These bombs generally reveal the following distinct properties: (1) The O~{\\sc{iv}}~1401.156\\AA{} and 1399.774\\AA{} lines are absent or very weak; (2) The Mn~{\\sc{i}}~2795.640\\AA{} line manifests as an absorption feature superimposed on the greatly enhanced Mg~{\\sc{ii}}~k line wing; (3) The Mg~{\\sc{ii}}~k and h lines show intense brightening in the wings and no dramatic enhancement in the cores; (4) Chromospheric absorption lin...

  9. Suicide bombing: a psychodynamic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Uday; Olsson, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The horror and macabre images of suicide bombings appear regularly on television news programs around the world. A focused literature review of psychiatric interview and demographic data about suicide bombers is presented. Of particular clinical interest are the findings from the study of potential suicide bombers who were apprehended before they could act on their suicide bombing plans. The authors offer psychodynamic and social self-psychological theories explaining the phenomenon of suicide bombing behavior.

  10. Ellerman bombs: fallacies, fads, usage

    CERN Document Server

    Rutten, Robert J; van der Voort, Luc H M Rouppe; Sütterlin, Peter; Vitas, Nikola

    2013-01-01

    Ellerman bombs are short-lived brightenings of the outer wings of Halpha that occur in active regions with much flux emergence. We point out fads and fallacies in the extensive Ellerman bomb literature, discuss their appearance in various spectral diagnostics, and advocate their use as indicators of field reconfiguration in active-region topography using AIA 1700 A images.

  11. Peace and the Atomic Bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, Norris E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1948-12-02

    A little over three years after assuming the directorship of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Norris Bradbury returned to his alma mater, Pomona College, and delivered one of his first extended speeches regarding the atomic bomb. Bradbury noted that although the atomic bomb had brought a “peace of kind,” ending World War II, the bomb also had become, without much thought, a “factor in the political, military, and diplomatic thinking of the world.” Bradbury hoped his speech, given to both the faculty and student body of Pomona, would give his audience a foundation on which to assess and understand the new world the bomb had ushered into existence. Bradbury’s talk was quickly printed an distributed by Pomona College and, later, reprinted in The Physical Review (Volume 75, No. 8, 1154-1160, April 15, 1949). It is reprinted here, for a third time, as a reminder of the early days of Los Alamos and its role in international affairs. "Slightly more that three years ago, this country brought to an end the most catastrophic war in history. The conflict had been characterized by an unremitting application of science to the technology of destruction. The final use of the atomic bomb, however, provided a climax so striking that the inevitable nature of future wars was illustrated with the utmost clarity. Peace of a kind followed the first military use of atomic weapons, but international understanding did not, and the atomic bomb became a factor in the political, military, and diplomatic thinking of the world. Where do we now stand in all this? What are the costs and the rewards? Where are we going? These are some of the things that I would like to discuss with you this morning."

  12. Bombe udstiller Sinn Feins dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Natten til mandag den 12. april sprang en bombe lige udenfor Belfast. Hverken tid eller sted var tilfældigt. Bomben sprang nemlig på den dag, hvor det justitspolitiske område blev overført til Nordirland. Og den sprang lige bagved den bygning hvor den britiske sikkerhedstjeneste MI5 har deres nye...

  13. Pure Nuclear Fusion Bomb Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Winterberg, F.

    2008-01-01

    Recent progress towards the non-fission ignition of thermonuclear micro-explosions raises the prospect for a revival of the nuclear bomb propulsion idea, both for the fast transport of large payloads within the solar system and the launch into earth orbit without the release of fission products into the atmosphere. To reach this goal three areas of research are of importance: 1)Compact thermonuclear ignition drivers. 2)Fast ignition and deuterium burn. 3)Space-craft architecture involving mag...

  14. Earthquakes induced by deep penetrating bombing?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Serguei Yu. Balassanian

    2005-01-01

    The data of M≥5 earthquakes occurred in one year before and after 4 deep penetrating bombs in the region within 500 km and 1 000 km from the shooting site are presented. The 4 bombs are those happened in 1999 Kosovo of Yugoslavia, the 1991 Baghdad of Iraq, the 2001 Tora Bora of Afghanistan, and the 2003 Kirkuk of Iraq, respectively. The data indicate that the deep penetrating bombs may have remotely triggered some earthquakes. The deep penetrating bombs in seismically active regions should be forbidden.

  15. Modelling vapour transport in Surtseyan bombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Mark J.; Greenbank, Emma; Schipper, C. Ian

    2016-05-01

    We address questions that arise if a slurry containing liquid water is enclosed in a ball of hot viscous vesicular magma ejected as a bomb in the context of a Surtseyan eruption. We derive a mathematical model for transient changes in temperature and pressure due to flashing of liquid water to vapour inside the bomb. The magnitude of the transient pressure changes that are typically generated are calculated together with their dependence on material properties. A single criterion to determine whether the bomb will fragment as a result of the pressure changes is derived. Timescales for ejection of water vapour from a bomb that remains intact are also revealed.

  16. Pure Nuclear Fusion Bomb Propulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Winterberg, F

    2008-01-01

    Recent progress towards the non-fission ignition of thermonuclear micro-explosions raises the prospect for a revival of the nuclear bomb propulsion idea, both for the fast transport of large payloads within the solar system and the launch into earth orbit without the release of fission products into the atmosphere. To reach this goal three areas of research are of importance: 1)Compact thermonuclear ignition drivers. 2)Fast ignition and deuterium burn. 3)Space-craft architecture involving magnetic insulation and GeV electrostatic potentials

  17. UV spectra, bombs, and the solar atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Philip G

    2015-01-01

    A recent analysis of UV data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph {\\em IRIS} reports plasma "bombs" with temperatures near \\hot{} within the solar photosphere. This is a curious result, firstly because most bomb plasma pressures $p$ (the largest reported case exceeds $10^3$ dyn~cm$^{-2}$) fall well below photospheric pressures ($> 7\\times10^3$), and secondly, UV radiation cannot easily escape from the photosphere. In the present paper the {\\em IRIS} data is independently analyzed. I find that the bombs arise from plasma originally at pressures between $\\lta80$ and 800 dyne~cm$^{-2}$ before explosion, i.e. between $\\lta850$ and 550 km above $\\tau_{500}=1$. This places the phenomenon's origin in the low-mid chromosphere or above. I suggest that bomb spectra are more compatible with Alfv\\'enic turbulence than with bi-directional reconnection jets.

  18. Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Bomb Increment II (SDB II) DoD Component Air Force Joint Participants Department of the Navy Responsible Office References SAR Baseline ( Production ...Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-439 Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Funding 19 Low Rate Initial Production 31 Foreign Military Sales 32 Nuclear Costs 32 Unit Cost 33 Cost Variance 36 Contracts

  19. Bombs, flyin' high. In-flight dynamics of volcanic bombs from Strombolian to Vulcanian eruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddeucci, Jacopo; Alatorre, Miguel; Cruz Vázquez, Omar; Del Bello, Elisabetta; Ricci, Tullio; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Palladino, Danilo

    2016-04-01

    Bomb-sized (larger than 64 mm) pyroclasts are a common product of explosive eruptions and a considerable source of hazard, both from directly impacting on people and properties and from wildfires associated with their landing in vegetated areas. The dispersal of bombs is mostly modeled as purely ballistic trajectories controlled by gravity and drag forces associated with still air, and only recently other effects, such as the influence of eruption dynamics, the gas expansion, and in-flight collisions, are starting to be quantified both numerically and observationally. By using high-speed imaging of explosive volcanic eruptions here we attempt to calculate the drag coefficient of free-flying volcanic bombs during an eruption and at the same time we document a wide range of in-flight processes affecting bomb trajectories and introducing deviations from purely ballistic emplacement. High-speed (500 frames per second) videos of explosions at Stromboli and Etna (Italy), Fuego (Gatemala), Sakurajima (Japan), Yasur (Vanuatu), and Batu Tara (Indonesia) volcanoes provide a large assortment of free-flying bombs spanning Strombolian to Vulcanian source eruptions, basaltic to andesitic composition, centimeters to meters in size, and 10 to 300 m/s in fly velocity. By tracking the bombs during their flying trajectories we were able to: 1) measure their size, shape, and vertical component of velocity and related changes over time; and 2) measure the different interactions with the atmosphere and with other bombs. Quantitatively, these data allow us to provide the first direct measurement of the aerodynamic behavior and drag coefficient of volcanic bombs while settling, also including the effect of bomb rotation and changes in bomb shape and frontal section. We also show how our observations have the potential to parameterize a number of previously hypothesized and /or described but yet unquantified processes, including in-flight rotation, deformation, fragmentation, agglutination

  20. AFSC/REFM: Bomb-produced age validation study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish age validation with bomb-produced radiocarbon (14C) requires a known-age Delta14C reference chronology spanning the era of a marine increase in bomb-produced...

  1. Terror, tortur og den tikkende bombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The so-called "war on terror" has renewed the interest in torture in practice as well as in theory. The philosophical debate about possible justifications for torture has to a large extent revolved about the ticking bomb scenario: would it be justified to torture a terrorist in order to prevent...... a catastrophe? I criticize arguments based on ticking bomb scenarios in two steps. First, I show that exceptional resort to torture will not be possible in the situations where it is most needed. Second, I state several pragmatic as well as principled objections against a state sanctioned or tolerated practice...

  2. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 Section 1546... Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign air carrier may land or take off an airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that airplane, unless...

  3. Bomb apologetics: Farm Hall, August 1945

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, J. [Professor of Physics at Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken New Jersey (United States); Cassidy, D. [Professor at Hofstra University, in Hempstead, New York (United States)

    1995-08-01

    On hearing the news from Hiroshima, the incredulous internees came up with a self-serving story to explain their failures in nucleus research: To keep Hitler from winning, they had deliberately not developed the atomic bomb. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  4. Hurricane Ike versus an Atomic Bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Earl F.

    2013-01-01

    The destructive potential of one of nature's most destructive forces, the hurricane, is compared to one of human's most destructive devices, an atomic bomb. Both can create near absolute devastation at "ground zero". However, how do they really compare in terms of destructive energy? This discussion compares the energy, the…

  5. INDONESIAN SALAFISM ON JIHAD AND SUICIDE BOMBINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusli Rusli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with jihad and suicide bombings from the perspective of Indonesian salafism. It is argued that there are two different points of view related to this issue. The first is those who are affiliated with Wahhabi salafists such as those involved in Salafi-based foundations like As-Sunnah, Ihyaut Turats, al-Sofwah, Lajnah al-Khairiyah, Lajnah al-Istiqamah, and Wahdah Islamiyyah. They do not agree with suicide bombing directed to Western targets—mainly America—and its symbols. Suicide bombings are equivalent to killing oneself, and this is extremely forbidden in Islam. The second is Salafi-jihadists who have justified suicide bombing attacks to infidel targets and the symbols of tagut (false god. The reason is blowing oneself is not the same as committing suicide, for suicide is a sin. However, he is believed as carrying out “martyrdom operations”, sacrificing himself for the sake of the superior goal of defending his religion and community, while suicide is a hopeless deed performed by a person who kills himself for his own selfish reason.

  6. 36Cl bomb peak: comparison of modeled and measured data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eichler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The extensive nuclear bomb testing of the fifties and sixties and the final tests in the seventies caused a strong 36Cl peak that has been observed in ice cores world-wide. The measured 36Cl deposition fluxes in eight ice cores (Dye3, Fiescherhorn, Grenzgletscher, Guliya, Huascarán, North GRIP, Inylchek (Tien Shan and Berkner Island were compared with an ECHAM5-HAM general circulation model simulation (1952–1972. We find a good agreement between the measured and the modeled 36Cl fluxes assuming that the bomb test produced global 36Cl input was ~80 kg. The model simulation indicates that the fallout of the bomb test produced 36Cl is largest in the subtropics and mid-latitudes due to the strong stratosphere-troposphere exchange. In Greenland the 36Cl bomb signal is quite large due to the relatively high precipitation rate. In Antarctica the 36Cl bomb peak is small but is visible even in the driest areas. The model suggests that the large bomb tests in the Northern Hemisphere are visible around the globe but the later (end of sixties and early seventies smaller tests in the Southern Hemisphere are much less visible in the Northern Hemisphere. The question of how rapidly and to what extent the bomb produced 36Cl is mixed between the hemispheres depends on the season of the bomb test. The model results give an estimate of the amplitude of the bomb peak around the globe.

  7. 36Cl bomb peak: comparison of modeled and measured data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eichler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The extensive nuclear bomb testing of the fifties and sixties and the final tests in the seventies caused a strong 36Cl peak that has been observed in ice cores world-wide. The measured 36Cl deposition fluxes in eight ice cores (Dye3, Fiescherhorn, Grenzgletscher, Guliya, Huascarán, North GRIP, Inylchek (Tien Shan and Berkner Island were compared with an ECHAM5-HAM general circulation model simulation (1952–1972. We find a good agreement between the measured and the modeled 36Cl fluxes assuming that the bomb test produced global 36Cl input was ~80 kg. The model simulation indicates that the fallout of the bomb test produced 36Cl is largest in the subtropics and mid-latitudes due to the strong stratosphere-troposphere exchange. In Greenland the 36Cl bomb signal is quite large due to the relatively high precipitation rate. In Antarctica the 36Cl bomb peak is small but is visible even in the driest areas. The model suggests that the large bomb tests in the Northern Hemisphere are visible around the globe but the later (end of sixties and early seventies smaller tests in the Southern Hemisphere are much less visible in the Northern Hemisphere. The question of how rapidly and to what extent the bomb produced 36Cl is mixed between the hemispheres depends on the season of the bomb test. The model results give an estimate of the amplitude of the bomb peak around the globe.

  8. Suicide bomb attack causing penetrating craniocerebral injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manzar Hussain; Muhammad Ehsan Bari

    2013-01-01

    Penetrating cerebral injuries caused by foreign bodies are rare in civilian neurosurgical trauma,although there are various reports of blast or gunshot injuries in warfare due to multiple foreign bodies like pellets and nails.In our case,a 30-year-old man presented to neurosurgery clinic with signs and symptoms of right-sided weakness after suicide bomb attack.The skull X-ray showed a single intracranial nail.Small craniotomy was done and the nail was removed with caution to avoid injury to surrounding normal brain tissue.At 6 months' follow-up his right-sided power improved to against gravity.

  9. The Manhattan Project: Making the atomic bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosling, F.G.

    1994-09-01

    This article is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of US government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  10. CALCULATION OF PER PARCEL PROBABILITY FOR DUD BOMBS IN GERMANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Tavakkoli Sabour

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Unexploded aerial Bombs, also known as duds or unfused bombs, of the bombardments in the past wars remain explosive for decades after the war under the earth’s surface threatening the civil activities especially if dredging works are involved. Interpretation of the aerial photos taken shortly after bombardments has been proven to be useful for finding the duds. Unfortunately, the reliability of this method is limited by some factors. The chance of finding a dud on an aerial photo depends strongly on the photography system, the size of the bomb and the landcover. On the other hand, exploded bombs are considerably better detectable on aerial photos and confidently represent the extent and density of a bombardment. Considering an empirical quota of unfused bombs, the expected number of duds can be calculated by the number of exploded bombs. This can help to have a better calculation of cost-risk ratio and to classify the areas for clearance. This article is about a method for calculation of a per parcel probability of dud bombs according to the distribution and density of exploded bombs. No similar work has been reported in this field by other authors.

  11. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight... upon receiving information that an act or suspected act of air piracy has been committed, the...

  12. H-alpha features with hot onsets. I. Ellerman bombs

    CERN Document Server

    Rutten, R J

    2016-01-01

    Ellerman bombs are transient brightenings of the wings of the Balmer lines that uniquely mark reconnection in the solar photosphere. They are also bright in strong Ca II and ultraviolet lines and in ultraviolet continua, but they are not visible in the optical continuum and the Na I D and Mg I b lines. These discordant visibilities invalidate all published Ellerman bomb modeling. I argue that the assumption of Saha-Boltzmann lower-level populations is informative to estimate bomb-onset opacities for these diverse diagnostics, even and especially for H-alpha, and employ such estimates to gauge the visibilities of Ellerman bomb onsets in all of them. They constrain Ellerman bomb formation to temperatures 10,000 - 20,000 K and hydrogen densities around 10^15 cm^-3. Similar arguments likely hold for H-alpha visibility in other transient phenomena with hot and dense onsets.

  13. The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in retrospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.

    1998-01-01

    For 50 years, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), have conducted epidemiological and genetic studies of the survivors of the atomic bombs and of their children. This research program has provided the primary basis for radiation health standards. Both ABCC (1947–1975) and RERF (1975 to date) have been a joint enterprise of the United States (through the National Academy of Sciences) and of Japan. ABCC began in devastated, occupied Japan. Its mission had to be defined and refined. Early research revealed the urgent need for long term study. In 1946, a Directive of President Truman enjoined the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences to develop the program. By 1950, ABCC staff exceeded 1,000, and clinical and genetic studies were underway. Budgetary difficulties and other problems almost forced closure in 1953. In 1955, the Francis Report led to a unified epidemiological study. Much progress was made in the next decade, but changing times required founding of a binational nonprofit organization (RERF) with equal participation by Japan and the United States. New programs have been developed and existing ones have been extended in what is the longest continuing health survey ever undertaken. PMID:9576898

  14. Foreign bodies radiographically-demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, S.; Onitsuka, H.; Lee, K.; Shimizu, Y.; Russell, W.J.

    1978-08-25

    The prevalence of roentgenologically-detected foreign bodies among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors was studied as an indicator of the A-bomb blast effects. Acupuncture was studied as an indicator of A-bomb-related abnormalities for which it was administered. All Adult Health Study subjects' roentgenograms demonstrating foreign bodies were reviewed. The frequency of glass and metal, and acupuncture needles were analyzed by distance from hypocenters, sex, age, body sites involved; and the subjects' shielding at the times of the A-bombs. The presence of glass fragments correlated closely with distance from hypocenter, heavy shielding from the A-bombs, and with adulthood, and they were more frequent in the chest than hand and wrist. Metal foreign bodies were more frequent in the hand and wrist than in the chest, and not associated with distance from hypocenter or heavy shielding. The prevalence of acupuncture needles increased with age, but did not correlate with A-bomb dose.

  15. The Potentialities of the Atomic Bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bradbury, Norris E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-07

    Since the first use of an atomic bomb on August 5 [sic], 1945, over the city of Hiroshima, Japan, there has been a continual flood of speculation and discussion concerning the effect of this new weapon on military technology. Much of this speculation and discussion has been intelligent and fruitful; much, I regret to say, has had neither of these characteristics. The enormity of the device, in terms of potential destruction and loss of life, and the practical necessity to surround the technical facts with full security restrictions have only combined to make the problem more difficult. At the same time, it is imperative that policymaking personnel in charge of long range national planning know the basic facts concerning atomic weapons and have these facts in a reasonable perspective. This document describes these potentialities in detail.

  16. Perfection and the Bomb: Nuclear Weapons, Teleology, and Motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummett, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Uses Kenneth Burke's theory of perfection to explore the vocabularies of nuclear weapons in United States public discourse and how "the Bomb" as a God term has gained imbalanced ascendancy in centers of power. (MS)

  17. Details of Nazis' A-Bomb program surface

    CERN Document Server

    Glanz, J

    2002-01-01

    Werner Heisenberg, leader of the Nazi atomic bomb program, revealed the projects existence to Niels Bohr in a meeting in Copenhagen in 1941. But contrary to several historical accounts of the meeting, Heisenberg never expressed moral qualms about building a bomb for Hitler nor hinted that he might be willing to sabotage the project, according to secret documents cited in a London newspaper yesterday (2 pages).

  18. Simulated E-Bomb Effects on Electronically Equipped Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    65 Figure 23. GBU-10 Paveway II (From: Bombas Guidas, 2009) ........................... 66 Figure 24. Representative Laser Guided Bomb...from the target. A picture of the GBU- 10 bomb is in Figure 23. Figure 23. GBU-10 Paveway II (From: Bombas Guidas, 2009) According to the Air...Retrieved June 16, 2009, from http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/munitions/blu-82.htm Bombas Guidas. Retrieved June 23 2009, from

  19. Trash can bomb can fall into the hands of terrorists

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Leading scientists from CERN described how if terrorists were able to get their hands on plutonium or uranium, they would be able to manufacture a 'trash can' nuclear bomb simply by inserting the radioactive material into a normal bomb. Once detonated a large area could be contaminated leading to the immediate deaths of many with many more future casualties due to cancers caused by the radiation.

  20. Foreign bodies radiographically demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, S.; Onitsuka, H.; Lee, K.K.; Shimizu, Y.; Russell, W.J.

    1978-02-01

    The prevalence of roentgenologically-detected foregin bodies among atomic bomb survivors was studied as an indicator of the A-bomb blast effects. Acupuncture was studied as an indicator of possible A-bomb-related abnormalities for which it was administered. All available roentgenograms of Adult Health Study (AHS) subjects which demonstrated foreign bodies were reviewed. The frequency of glass and metal foreign bodies and of acupuncture needles was analyzed in detail. Analyses were made by distance from the hypocenter, sex, age, body sites involved, and shielding at the time of the A-bomb (ATB). The presence of glass fragments correlated closely with distance from the hypocenter, with heavy shielding from the A-bombs, and with adulthood, and they were more frequent in the chest than in the hand and wrist. On the contrary, metal foreign bodies were more frequent in the hand and wrist than in the chest, and were not associated with distance from hypocenter or heavy shielding. The prevalence of acupuncture needles increased with age, but did not correlate with A-bomb dose.

  1. Observations and NLTE modeling of Ellerman bombs

    CERN Document Server

    Berlicki, Arkadiusz

    2014-01-01

    Ellerman bombs (EBs) are short-lived and compact structures that are observed well in the wings of the hydrogen H-alpha line. EBs are also observed in the chromospheric CaII lines and in UV continua. H-alpha line profiles of EBs show a deep absorption at the line center and enhanced emission in the line wings. Similar shapes of the line profiles are observed for the CaII IR line at 8542 ang. It is generally accepted that EBs may be considered as compact microflares located in lower solar atmosphere. However, it is still not clear where exactly the emission of EBs is formed in the solar atmosphere. High-resolution spectrophotometric observations of EBs were used for determining of their physical parameters and construction of semi-empirical models. In our analysis we used observations of EBs obtained in the H-alpha and CaII H lines. We also used NLTE numerical codes for the construction of grids of 243 semi-empirical models simulating EBs structures. In this way, the observed emission could be compared with th...

  2. Dirty Bombs: A Discouraging Second Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Cheryl A.

    2004-05-01

    Dirty bombs, terrorist devices to spread intensely radioactive material with the intent to kill, sicken, or inflict economic damage, have been overestimated by some in the government and underestimated by many physicists. It is unlikely that a radiological dispersion device (RDD) will contaminate an area to such a level that brief exposures are lethal or even incapacitating. However, careful examination of the consequences of the accident in Goiânia, Brazil shows that it is highly likely that people in the contaminated region will inhale or ingest dusty or liquid radioactive material in sufficient quantities to cause acute radiation sickness, and in some cases enough to kill. Some forms of radiological attack could kill tens or hundreds of people and sicken hundreds or thousands. This paper provides a general overview of the nature and use of RDDs and examines readily available sources of large quantities of radioactive material, material which requires significantly greater protection than it is afforded today. Under many circumstances an RDD containing only a few curies of cesium-137, strontium-90, cobalt-60 or other industrial isotopes could force the razing of more buildings and inflict greater economic losses than did the September 11, 2002 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. The National Defense University study proposes new policies for the federal government which would decrease the chances of an attack and reduce the cost in lives and money to the United States should one, nevertheless, occur.

  3. Ellerman Bombs with Jets: Cause and Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, A; Scullion, E; Doyle, J G; Shelyag, S; Gallagher, P

    2015-01-01

    Ellerman Bombs (EBs) are thought to arise as a result of photospheric magnetic reconnection. We use data from the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST), to study EB events on the solar disk and at the limb. Both datasets show that EBs are connected to the foot-points of forming chromospheric jets. The limb observations show that a bright structure in the H$\\alpha$ blue wing connects to the EB initially fuelling it, leading to the ejection of material upwards. The material moves along a loop structure where a newly formed jet is subsequently observed in the red wing of H$\\alpha$. In the disk dataset, an EB initiates a jet which propagates away from the apparent reconnection site within the EB flame. The EB then splits into two, with associated brightenings in the inter-granular lanes (IGLs). Micro-jets are then observed, extending to 500 km with a lifetime of a few minutes. Observed velocities of the micro-jets are approximately 5-10 km s$^{-1}$, while their chromospheric counterparts range from 50-80 km s$^{-1}$....

  4. Statistical Analysis of Small Ellerman Bomb Events

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, C J; Erdelyi, R; Huang, Z; Madjarska, M; Mathioudakis, M; Mumford, S; Reardon, K; 10.1007/s11207-012-0222-3

    2013-01-01

    The properties of Ellerman bombs (EBs), small-scale brightenings in the H-alpha line wings, have proved difficult to establish due to their size being close to the spatial resolution of even the most advanced telescopes. Here, we aim to infer the size and lifetime of EBs using high-resolution data of an emerging active region collected using the Interferometric BIdimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) and Rapid Oscillations of the Solar Atmosphere (ROSA) instruments as well as the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). We develop an algorithm to track EBs through their evolution, finding that EBs can often be much smaller (around 0.3") and shorter lived (less than 1 minute) than previous estimates. A correlation between G-band magnetic bright points and EBs is also found. Combining SDO/HMI and G-band data gives a good proxy of the polarity for the vertical magnetic field. It is found that EBs often occur both over regions of opposite polarity flux and strong unipolar fie...

  5. Ellerman Bombs with Jets: Cause and Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, A.; Mathioudakis, M.; Scullion, E.; Doyle, J. G.; Shelyag, S.; Gallagher, P.

    2015-05-01

    Ellerman Bombs (EBs) are thought to arise as a result of photospheric magnetic reconnection. We use data from the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope to study EB events on the solar disk and at the limb. Both data sets show that EBs are connected to the foot points of forming chromospheric jets. The limb observations show that a bright structure in the Hα blue wing connects to the EB initially fueling it, leading to the ejection of material upwards. The material moves along a loop structure where a newly formed jet is subsequently observed in the red wing of Hα. In the disk data set, an EB initiates a jet which propagates away from the apparent reconnection site within the EB flame. The EB then splits into two, with associated brightenings in the inter-granular lanes. Micro-jets are then observed, extending to 500 km with a lifetime of a few minutes. Observed velocities of the micro-jets are approximately 5-10 km s-1, while their chromospheric counterparts range from 50 to 80 km s-1. MURaM simulations of quiet Sun reconnection show that micro-jets with properties similar to those of the observations follow the line of reconnection in the photosphere, with associated Hα brightening at the location of increased temperature.

  6. Simulating an Exploding Fission-Bomb Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Cameron

    2016-03-01

    A time-dependent desktop-computer simulation of the core of an exploding fission bomb (nuclear weapon) has been developed. The simulation models a core comprising a mixture of two isotopes: a fissile one (such as U-235) and an inert one (such as U-238) that captures neutrons and removes them from circulation. The user sets the enrichment percentage and scattering and fission cross-sections of the fissile isotope, the capture cross-section of the inert isotope, the number of neutrons liberated per fission, the number of ``initiator'' neutrons, the radius of the core, and the neutron-reflection efficiency of a surrounding tamper. The simulation, which is predicated on ordinary kinematics, follows the three-dimensional motions and fates of neutrons as they travel through the core. Limitations of time and computer memory render it impossible to model a real-life core, but results of numerous runs clearly demonstrate the existence of a critical mass for a given set of parameters and the dramatic effects of enrichment and tamper efficiency on the growth (or decay) of the neutron population. The logic of the simulation will be described and results of typical runs will be presented and discussed.

  7. The radiological management of bomb blast injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, S S; Goddard, I; Ward, P; Naraghi, A; Dick, E A

    2007-01-01

    A need to understand the nature and patterns of bomb blast injury, particularly in confined spaces, has come to the fore with the current worldwide threat from terrorism. The purpose of this review article is to familiarize the radiologist with the imaging they might expect to see in a mass casualty terrorist event, illustrated by examples from two of the main institutions receiving patients from the London Underground tube blasts of 7 July 2005. We present examples of injuries that are typical in blast victims, as well as highlighting some blast sequelae that might also be found in other causes of multiple trauma. This should enable the radiologist to seek out typical injuries, including those that may not be initially clinically apparent. Terror-related injuries are often more severe than those seen in other trauma cases, and multi-system trauma at distant anatomical sites should be anticipated. We highlight the value of using a standardized imaging protocol to find clinically undetected traumatic effects and include a discussion on management of multiple human and non-human flying fragments. This review also discusses the role of radiology in the management and planning for a mass casualty terrorist incident and the optimal deployment of radiographic services during such an event.

  8. Magnetic Flux Cancellation in Ellerman Bombs

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, A; Doyle, J G; Scullion, E; Henriques, V; Nelson, C; Ray, T

    2016-01-01

    Ellerman Bombs (EBs) are often found co-spatial with bipolar photospheric magnetic fields. We use H$\\alpha$ imaging spectroscopy along with Fe I 6302.5 \\AA\\ spectro-polarimetry from the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST), combined with data from the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) to study EBs and the evolution of the local magnetic fields at EB locations. The EBs are found via an EB detection and tracking algorithm. We find, using NICOLE inversions of the spectro-polarimetric data, that on average (3.43 $\\pm$ 0.49) x 10$^{24}$ ergs of stored magnetic energy disappears from the bipolar region during the EBs burning. The inversions also show flux cancellation rates of 10$^{14}$ - 10$^{15}$ Mx s$^{-1}$, and temperature enhancements of 200 K at the detection footpoints. We investigate near-simultaneous flaring of EBs due to co-temporal flux emergence from a sunspot, which shows a decrease in transverse velocity when interacting with an existing, stationary area of opposite polarity magnetic flux and the EBs are f...

  9. Forensic applications of {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoppi, U. E-mail: ugo@ansto.gov.au; Skopec, Z.; Skopec, J.; Jones, G.; Fink, D.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.; Tuniz, C.; Williams, A

    2004-08-01

    After a brief review of the basics of {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating, this paper presents two unique forensic applications. Particular attention is dedicated to the use of the {sup 14}C bomb-pulse to establish the time of harvest of illicit drugs such as heroin and opium. Preliminary measurements of {sup 14}C concentrations in milligram samples taken from seized drugs are presented. {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating can determine whether drug distribution originates from stockpiles or recent manufacture, and support the action of law enforcement authorities against criminal organisations involved in drug trafficking. In addition, we describe the dating of wine vintages for a number of authenticated single label vintage red wines from the Barossa Valley - South Australia. Our results show that radiocarbon dating can be used to accurately determine wine vintages and therefore reveal the addition of unrelated materials of natural and synthetic origin.

  10. Reassessing the Bunbury Bombing: Juxtaposition of Political and Media Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate O’Donnell

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines an Australian newspaper’s coverage of the bombing of an export port terminal in Bunbury, Western Australia on 19 July, 1976. We wanted to see how The West Australian newspaper framed the story, its precursor events, and the events that followed. We were particularly interested in whether the bombing was reported as an act of terrorism because the then Premier of Western Australia, Sir Charles Court, immediately decried it as “a gross act of terrorism.” We find the newspaper resisted the lure to apply this label, and couched the story in terms of serious criminality. However, it did so before the 1978 Hilton Hotel bombing; an event the news media heralded as the “arrival” of terrorism in Australia. Also, this occurred before what could be argued the sensationalist and politicised reporting of terror-related events became normalised.

  11. The development of the atomic bomb, Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, R.W.

    1993-11-01

    The historical presentation begins with details of the selection of Los Alamos as the site of the Army installation. Wartime efforts of the Army Corps of Engineers, and scientists to include the leader of Los Alamos, Robert Oppenheimer are presented. The layout and construction of the facilities are discussed. The monumental design requirements of the bombs are discussed, including but not limited to the utilization of the second choice implosion method of detonation, and the production of bomb-grade nuclear explosives. The paper ends with a philosophical discussion on the use of nuclear weapons.

  12. Hot-spring cure of atomic-bomb survivors, 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouchi, Tamon (Beppu Genbaku Senta (Japan))

    1984-03-01

    Though a cold winter with snowfalls, in the fiscal year 1983, the number of the atomic-bomb sufferers using the Beppu Atomic-bomb Center (a medical hot spring) was large in January and February, 1984; throughout the fiscal year, the total number was about 3,800 persons. The diseases of the sufferers, mostly in locomotion organs, are such as osteoarthritis of spine, lame hip and knee arthropathy. Being the typical diseases for which hot spring treatment is good, the effect is clear, and those desiring to enter the Center twice in a year are increasing. The situation of usage of the Center from April, 1983, to March, 1984, is described.

  13. Deconstructing The Bomb: Confessions of a Nuclear Archeologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coster-Mullen, John

    2017-01-01

    I am the author of the groundbreaking book Atom Bombs: The Top Secret Inside Story of Little Boy and Fat Man. I will be sharing some of my quarter century of research and methodology that has allowed me to be the first researcher ever to unravel with an unprecedented level of accuracy, the most closely-guarded secrets of the first two Atomic Bombs (``Little Boy'' and ``Fat Man'') created by the Manhattan Project that were used to end WWII. I refer to this methodology as ``Nuclear Archeology'' and will demonstrate that this was done using entirely ``Open Sources'' of information.

  14. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb. 1999 edition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosling, F.G.

    1999-01-01

    ``The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb`` is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  15. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb. 1999 edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, F. G.

    1999-01-01

    "The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb" is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  16. Lack of tissue renewal in human adult Achilles tendon is revealed by nuclear bomb (14)C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, Katja Maria; Schjerling, Peter; Heinemeier, Jan;

    2013-01-01

    the 14C bomb-pulse method. This method takes advantage of the dramatic increase in atmospheric levels of 14C, produced by nuclear bomb tests in 1955-1963, which is reflected in all living organisms. Levels of 14C were measured in 28 forensic samples of Achilles tendon core and 4 skeletal muscle samples...... is revealed by nuclear bomb 14C....

  17. Health survey of atomic bomb survivors in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arita, Ken-ichi; Iwamori, Hiroshi; Kishi, Akihiro; Koutoku, Michiya.

    1988-05-01

    Health survey was undertaken among Korea survivors exposed to atomic bomb in Japan who now reside in South Korea. Of 232 A-bomb survivors on whom raditation exposure information was available, all were exposed to atomic bomb in Hiroshima. According to the distance from the hypocenter, one (0.4 %) A-bomb survior was exposed at < 1,000 m, 60 (25.9 %) at 1,000 - 2,000 m, 124 (53.4 %) at > 2,000 - 3,000 m, and 43 (18.5 %) at < 3,000 m. In the four remaining, it was unknown. According to age, 14.7 % were in their forties, 33.6 % in their fifties, 32.6 % in their sixties, 16.0 % in their severties, and 3.1 % in their eighties, indicating the tendency for the aging of older persons. Common subjective symptoms were lumbar pain and joint pain, which seemed atributable to osteoarthritis. Other diseases included hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sequelae of cerebral stroke, eczema, and mycosis. (Namekawa, K.).

  18. Alabama University Professor's View of the Birmingham Bombing Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents the views of Alabama university scholars regarding the historical significance of the 2001 trial of Thomas Blanton for his role in the Ku Klux Klan bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist church in Birmingham, Alabama thet killed four girls. Their discussions note the need to examine the American judicial system, the weak case against Mr.…

  19. Lack of strategic insight: the "dirty bomb" effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Multiple countries including the United States and France are investing heavily in countermeasures to the threat of a "dirty bomb." All of the machinery simply involves a variation on a Geiger counter that picks up excess photon irradiation. Classically, a "dirty bomb" is defined as a dangerous radioactive material mixed in a variety of ways with high explosive, so when detonated, radioactive material is dispersed. Solid radioactive material such as Cesium or Cobalt sends off very penetrating ('hard') photons from which one cannot simply be protected by sheet lead or a heavy door. For official occasions with dignitaries of State, such a bomb could prove a modest distraction, but simple radiation physics suggests such a bomb would be limited in the damage it could cause, would largely be a mess to be cleaned up by an appropriately trained crew, would involve a very confined area, and thoroughly fails to comprehend the mentality of al-Queda 'central' that wishes to follow 9/11 with an equal or greater show of terrorist force. The author would argue this sort of mind-think occurs when you have too few people in the hard sciences in your intelligence sections.

  20. Dynamic processes associated with the eastern Mediterranean 'bomb' of 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacostas, T. S.; Brikas, D.; Pytharoulis, I.

    2010-09-01

    The meteorological "bomb" of the 21st and 22nd of January 2004, that affected the eastern Aegean Sea with very strong winds reaching 80 kts, excessive rain and even snow, with accumulations of at least one (1) meter on Limnos island and mean sea-level pressure at the record level of 972 hPa on Ikaria island, is studied from the synoptic and mostly dynamic concept. Lagouvardos and co-authors have already proved that the upper tropospheric PV anomaly was a necessary ingredient of the explosive cyclogenesis and the latter was attributed to the merger of troughs coming from North Africa and Europe. The present study is mainly concerned with the dynamic processes that led to the explosive cyclogenesis of 21 - 22 January 2004. Relying upon the use of the original ECMWF data information, a serious attempt is made to investigate, verify and justify the space and time of the "bomb explosion", the accompanied characteristics and the reasons causing the cyclolysis. Upper and lower tropospheric level forcing mechanisms are identified and monitored and a quantitative dynamical picture is provided for the explosively (pre) cyclogenetic period. The explosive cyclogenesis begins in Gabes Sea, just off the Libyan coast, the low forming on a frontogenetically active occlusion of a Saharan depression, when a tropopause fold/upper level front system crosses aloft. The occlusion is traced back to the Sahara desert, as a low level convergence/frontal zone, along which Qs vectors indicate an anticyclonic rotation of the warm part of the front. Dynamic tropopause maps show significant cold air advection just upstream the area of surface cyclogenesis on the 21st of January 2004. Consequently, an upper level vortex forms, which perturbs the thermal field, maximizing Q vector convergence above the bomb. Gradually the role of the tropopause decreases, as the upper level front system weakens. During these initial stages, when the low level vortex of the bomb is not yet well defined, the

  1. The mental health state of atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, Yoshibumi; Imamura, Yoshihiro; Yoshitake, Kazuyasu; Honda, Sumihisa; Mine, Mariko; Hatada, Keiko; Tomonaga, Masao [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Tagawa, Masuko

    1997-03-01

    Our department of Neuropsychiatry has clarified the clinical features of several mental disorders and surveyed the causes of those disorders from the psychosocial aspect using the methodology of epidemiological psychiatric approach. Using this previous research experience, we began a long-planned study to examine the mental health state of atomic bomb survivors. Fifty-one years have passed since the atomic bombing, and the survivors must have suffered various psychosocial stresses, other than any direct effect on the central nervous system from exposure to radiation, and it is assumed that victims` mental state has been affected in various ways as a result. The subjects of the survey were 7,670 people who had regular health examinations for atomic bomb survivors during the study period of three years and who consented to participate in the study. Of the total, 226 subjects were selected for a second phase according to the results of the General Health Questionnaire 12-item Version which was used in the first phase of the survey. The results were as follows: 1. The distance from the hypocenter was related to the degree of ill health, and the percentage of people with a high score was greater among those exposed to the atomic bomb in proximity to the hypocenter. 2. 14.6% of the subjects were diagnosed as having some kind of mental disorders according to clinical interviews by trained psychiatrists. These results had not expected prior to the study. On the based of the study, we will try to establish a mental health support system for atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  2. Imaginary Savior: the image of the nuclear bomb in Korea, 1945-1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Won

    2009-01-01

    Two atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 brought the unexpected liberation of Korea from the 35-year Japanese occupation. Koreans therefore had a very favorable and positive image of the nuclear bomb and nuclear energy from the beginning. The image of the nuclear bomb as "savior" was strengthened during the Korean War when the United States openly mentioned the possible use of the nuclear bomb against North Korean and Chinese military. After the end of the Korean War in July 1953 South Koreans strongly supported the development of the nuclear bomb in order to deter another North Korean invasion. When the US government provided South Korea with a research nuclear reactor in the late 1950s, most South Koreans hailed it as the first step to developing their own nuclear bomb. This paper will analyze how and why the savior image of the nuclear bomb originated and spread in Korea during the 1950s.

  3. Medical examination of A-bomb survivors on Nagasaki A-bomb Casualty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagawa, Masuko [Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Casualty Council (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    Medical examination of A-bomb survivors was described and discussed on history, time change of examinee number, action for subjects not examined, change of prevalence, cancer examination, examination for the second generation, and education and enlightenment. Free examination of the survivors was begun in 1953 and the present casualty was made in 1958 on the law for medical care for the survivors. Systematic examination started from 1967 and the examination for the 2nd generation, from 1974. Cancer examination was from 1988. The number of the survivors was the maximum of 82,439 in 1974 and decreased to 61,388 in 1994, when the actual number of examinees, which being rather settled recently, was 32,294 and their average age was 64 y. The examination is done by tour or at the Center. Subjects receive the information of the examination twice by mail. Hematopoietic diseases like anemia, hepatic ones, metabolic and endocrinic ones like diabetes, renal impairment and others (mostly hyperlipidemia) are increasing recently. The number of examinees for cancer is increasing. Lung cancer is examined by the direct roentgenography, gastric cancer by transillumination, and other cancers like myeloma, those in large bowel, uterus and mammary gland, by the respective suitable methods. Health education and enlightenment have been conceivably effective. (H.O.)

  4. By emotion, no atomic bomb and no blackhole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Philip

    2011-10-01

    As to be, we glory to God and that is basic theology for christian. And I want to say that BE means just thinking. There is no clue of nature and no proposition to prove it. I just believe by feeling and emotion. I trust that it can be the physic really. As for me, I believe when there is atomic bomb, than anytime it has to blow out the world each time of we are living. So the atomic bomb we thinking is just accident and not by the atomic theory. Also when there is blackhole, than there must be the wall to block me forever and never to walk again. So there are no blackhole. And these two subject is the best two subject for the physic.

  5. Increased relative risk of myelodysplastic syndrome in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Kenji [Hiroshima City Hospital (Japan); Kimura, Akiro; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    1998-12-01

    It was investigated what blood disorders except leukemia increased the relative risk with dose dependency in atomic bomb survivors. Subjects were 217 patients of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, who had blood disorders except leukemia and died between 1950 and 1990. Their medical records were analyzed and their diagnoses were reevaluated. Sixteen cases were diagnosed as the aplastic anemia and 12 as the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In the aplastic anemia, there was no correlation between the exposure dose and the mortality. In MDS, the excess relative risk (ERR)/bone marrow exposure dose of 1 Sv was very high (13.0). These results supports the hypothesis that MDS would be broken out by the clonal abnormality of the hematopoietic stem cell and radiation exposure could cause the appearance of the abnormal stem cell clone. (K.H.)

  6. Physicists and the 1945 Decision to Drop the Bomb

    CERN Document Server

    Byers, N

    2002-01-01

    In 1943 fear that the German war machine might use atomic bombs was abating and among physicists another fear was taking its place - that of a postwar nuclear arms race with worldwide proliferation of nuclear weapons. Manhattan Project scientists and engineers began to discuss uses of nuclear energy in the postwar world. Niels Bohr, Leo Szilard, James A. Franck and others launched a concerted effort to lay groundwork for international control of the technology. Realizing the devastation nuclear weapons could cause and that they could be made and delivered much more cheaply than conventional weapons of the same power, they tried to persuade policy makers to take into account long range consequences of using atomic bombs and not base their decisions on short range military expediency alone. They met with little success. The scientists' main message, unheeded then and very relevant now, is that worldwide international agreements are needed to provide for inspection and control of nuclear weapons technology. Thei...

  7. Surveys right after the atomic bombing and a relief squad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mine, Mariko [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-12-01

    An outline of four survey reports right after the atomic bombing in Nagasaki and Hiroshima is introduced. The report of Manhattan District Atomic Bomb Investigating Groups: The subjects of this survey were 900 inpatients in Nagasaki (for 16 days from September 20) and Hiroshima (for 5 days from October 3). Two hundreds and forty-nine patients (16%) died. In cases died without injury, the severe symptoms were alopecia, purpura, hemorrhage, oral cavity and pharynx lesion, vomiting, diarrhea and fever. The residual radioactivity measured at six weeks later was 6-25 roentgen in Hiroshima and 30-110 roentgen in Nagasaki (Nishiyama riverhead area). These values were lower than the predicted value from the clinical consequence. The report of Joint Commission for the Investigation of the Atomic Bomb: Following the above survey, about 6500 subjects were investigated both in Nagasaki and Hiroshima. Incidence of alopecia was investigated by shielded situation at a spot of 2.1 to 2.5 km from a blast center. It was 7.2% of outdoors (shielded: 7.3%, non-shielded: 17.4%) and 2.9% of indoors. The report of the Special Committee for Atomic Bomb Casualty Investigation and Research of the Scientific Research Council of Japan: General part of the report consists of medical part and physical part, and reports from each university were classified and listed in the supplement. Survey of Nagasaki Medical College (not in public): About 8000 subjects were investigated from October to December. Data were gathered up about lethality, time of death, injury and radiation sickness, etc. There was also autograph of a relief squad of the Nagasaki Medical College. (K.H.)

  8. Forensic Medicine: Age Written in Teeth by Nuclear Bomb Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2005-05-04

    Establishing the age of individuals is an important step in identification and a frequent challenge in forensic medicine. This can be done with high precision up to adolescence by analysis of dentition, but establishing the age of adults has remained difficult. Here we show that measuring {sup 14}C from nuclear bomb tests in tooth enamel provides a sensitive way to establish when a person was born.

  9. The Madrid Train Bombings: A Decision-Making Model Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-11

    train bombing terrorist attack AML Anti Money Laundering CFT Combating the Financing of Terrorism ETA Euzkadi Ta Azkatasuna otherwise known as the...Basque Terrorist Organization EU European Union FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation GICM Groupe Islamique Combattant Marocain otherwise known as...Fund board of executives have ―adopted action plans to enhance efforts for AML/CFT [anti money laundering and combating the financing of terrorism

  10. A-bomb radiation and diseases; M proteinemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimura, Kingo (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology); Ito, Chikako

    1994-03-01

    Mass health screening was conducted in 65,483 A-bomb survivors (23,153 men and 42,336 women). Among them, 553 (0.84%) was found to have M proteinemia. The incidence of M proteinemia was higher in men (1.1%) than women (0.72%). M proteinemia was simply classified as benign monoclonal gammopathy (BMG) in 372 A-bomb survivors (67.3%), pre-myeloma (PreMM) in 81 (14.6%), myeloma (MM) in 77 (13.9%), and macroglobulinemia in 23 (4.2%). A higher incidence of M proteinemia was associated with aging; it was rapidly increased in the age-group of 70. Death was seen in 45 (8%) of all cases, frequently due to vascular disorder and cancer. Some of the BMG cases had a long process or developed either PreMM or MM. The incidence of BMG was significantly higher in the group of A-bomb survivors exposed to 100 rad or more than the control group. (N.K.).

  11. Age validation of quillback rockfish (Sebastes maliger) using bomb radiocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, L A; Andrews, A H; Munk, K; Coale, K H; Frantz, B R; Cailliet, G M; Brown, T A

    2005-01-05

    Rockfishes (Sebastes spp.) support one of the most economically important fisheries of the Pacific Northwest and it is essential for sustainable management that age estimation procedures be validated for these species. Atmospheric testing of thermonuclear devices during the 1950s and 1960s created a global radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) signal in the ocean environment that scientists have identified as a useful tracer and chronological marker in natural systems. In this study, we first demonstrated that fewer samples are necessary for age validation using the bomb-generated {sup 14}C signal by emphasizing the utility of the time-specific marker created by the initial rise of bomb-{sup 14}C. Second, the bomb-generated {sup 14}C signal retained in fish otoliths was used to validate the age and age estimation methodology of the quillback rockfish (Sebastes maliger) in the waters of southeast Alaska. Radiocarbon values from the first year's growth of quillback rockfish otoliths were plotted against estimated birth year producing a {sup 14}C time series spanning 1950 to 1985. The initial rise of bomb-{sup 14}C from pre-bomb levels ({approx} -90 {per_thousand}) occurred in 1959 {+-} 1 year and {sup 14}C levels rose relatively rapidly to peak {Delta}{sup 14}C values in 1967 (+105.4 {per_thousand}), with a subsequent declining trend through the end of the record in 1985 (+15.4 {per_thousand}). The agreement between the year of initial rise of {sup 14}C levels from the quillback rockfish record and the chronometer determined for the waters of southeast Alaska from yelloweye rockfish (S. ruberrimus) otoliths validated the ageing methodology for the quillback rockfish. The concordance of the entire quillback rockfish {sup 14}C record with the yelloweye rockfish time series demonstrated the effectiveness of this age validation technique, confirmed the longevity of the quillback rockfish up to a minimum of 43 years, and strongly supports higher age estimates of up to 90 years.

  12. Research on Semi-automatic Bomb Fetching for an EOD Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Jun

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available An EOD robot system, SUPER-PLUS, which has a novel semi-automatic bomb fetching function is presented in this paper. With limited support of human, SUPER-PLUS scans the cluttered environment with a wrist-mounted laser distance sensor and plans the manipulator a collision free path to fetch the bomb. The model construction of manipulator, bomb and environment, C-space map, path planning and the operation procedure are introduced in detail. The semi-automatic bomb fetching function has greatly improved the operation performance of EOD robot.

  13. 360° FILM BRINGS BOMBED CHURCH TO LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kwiatek

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how a computer-generated reconstruction of a church can be adapted to create a panoramic film that is presented in a panoramic viewer and also on a wrap-around projection system. It focuses on the fundamental principles of creating 360º films, not only in 3D modelling software, but also presents how to record 360º video using panoramic cameras inside the heritage site. These issues are explored in a case study of Charles Church in Plymouth, UK that was bombed in 1941 and has never been rebuilt. The generation of a 3D model of the bombed church started from the creation of five spherical panoramas and through the use of Autodesk ImageModeler software. The processed files were imported and merged together in Autodesk 3ds Max where a visualisation of the ruin was produced. A number of historical images were found and this collection enabled the process of a virtual reconstruction of the site. The aspect of merging two still or two video panoramas (one from 3D modelling software, the other one recorded on the site from the same locations or with the same trajectories is also discussed. The prototype of 360º non-linear film tells a narrative of a wartime wedding that occurred in this church. The film was presented on two 360º screens where members of the audience could make decisions on whether to continue the ceremony or whether to run away when the bombing of the church starts. 3D modelling software made this possible to render a number of different alternati ves (360º images and 360º video. Immersive environments empower the visitor to imagine the building before it was destroyed.

  14. UNCOVERING THEIR STORIES: THE RUBBLE OF MEMORY AND BOMBING WAR

    OpenAIRE

    Rasch, William; Universidad de Indiana

    2006-01-01

    In this brilliant essay, WILLIAM RASCH traces current ideas about global war to their first installment in the post-war climate of occupied Germany. RASCH takes issue, in particular, with the current transformation in the nature of war —so called zero casualties war or war at a distance—, hailed as the most important transformation in the field of international relations and international law in the 21st century, and rediscovers its articulation with the carpet bombing (bombenkrieg) of World ...

  15. Total 9 Illegal RE Mining Districts in Dingnan County Were Bombed out

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    On October 17th, mineral managing departments in Dingnan county of Jiangxi province took actions toward illegal mining activity. Total 9 mining districts without licenses were bombed out. Rare earth is the protectively strategic resources in China. They are major minerals with good prospect in Dingnan county.Total 9 Illegal RE Mining Districts in Dingnan County Were Bombed out

  16. A Confusion of Signals: James Franck, the Chicago Scientists and Early Efforts to Stop the Bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Brian Loring

    1975-01-01

    If the scientists working on the Manhattan Project had realized the consequences of the atomic bomb earlier, formulated their recommendations more precisely, and approached the statesmen in time, American policy on use and control of the bomb might well have been different. (Author/BT)

  17. Not to be forgotten: The bombing of Novi Sad: An ecological black area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nježić Zvonko B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 1999 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia, the second largest Yugoslav city Novi Sad was one of the cities that bore the brunt of the bombing. According to NATO press releases, the bombing targeted oil refineries, roads, bridges, and telecommunications relay stations, facilities which had used for military purposes. The bombing of Novi Sad's refinery caused fires which burned 50000 tons of crude oil, sending toxins and carcinogens into the air and contaminating groundwater. The bombing of the city caused great damage to local civilians, including severe pollution and widespread ecological damage, health consequences which will remain for years as well as permanent psychological consequences caused by almost 3 months of trauma and fear.

  18. Bonebrake Theological Seminary - Most Secret A-Bomb Project Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopka, Katherine R.; Sopka, Elisabeth M.

    2004-05-01

    In late 1943, a small number of nuclear scientists was urgently assembled in Dayton, Ohio by the U.S. Army Manhattan District Engineers and Monsanto Chemical Company Research Division to set up a top secret research project essential to counteract the German atomic bomb threat. The site chosen was an old stone building built in 1879 by the United Brethren Church in a residential area known locally as the Bonebrake Seminary. Centered on a sizeable open plot, the austere three story building was surrounded by a tall cyclone fence with a narrow gate and a minimal guard post - nothing revealed the site's intense research activity then or even in the post-WWII Cold War period. Bonebrake scientists would produce the highly radioactive polonium sources for the plutonium (Pu-239) bomb igniter used in August over Nagasaki just before the end of WWII against Japan. The existence of Bonebrake and its research/production work remained classified top secret throughout the Cold War. Only in recent times can any reference be found even to the existence of this project (unlike , for example, Los Alamos or Oak Ridge) and few, if any details, have ever been published. The primary source of information for this paper is Dr. John J. Sopka who was recruited from Princeton University by the Manhattan District in 1943 as physicist for this project.

  19. Axial length of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakiyama, Harumi; Kishikawa, Yasuhiro; Imamura, Naoki [Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan); Amemiya, Tsugio [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-03-01

    We reviewed a series of 778 patients who had cataract surgery during the past 4 years at the Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Memorial Hospital. We evaluated the history of exposure to radiation by atomic bomb in 1945, axial length and state of refraction. All were born before 1945. The series comprised 263 males and 515 females. Their ages averaged 76.5{+-}8.6 years. History of exposure to radiation was present in 356 patients. The remaining 422 patients served as control. There was no difference in the type of cataract between the two groups. High myopia was present in 11 irradiated patients (3.2%) and in 24 patients in the control group (6.0%). The difference was not significant (p=0.083). There was no high myopia among 24 patients who were aged 18 years or less at the time of radiation and who were within 2 km from the epicenter. No difference was present regarding the axial length between the two groups or between both sexes. The present result is not definitive because ''irradiated group'' would include those with little or no exposure and because precise data has not been available about the dosis of radiation. (author)

  20. Genetic radiation effects of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srsen, S. (Komenskeho Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta)

    1984-05-01

    A group of researchers examined persons who had survived the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs and were irradiated and their progeny with the aim of getting an idea of the genetic effects of these explosions. Teratogenic effects are not discussed. In the lymphocytes of the peripheral blood of persons who had been exposed to high dose irradiation the researchers found a significant increase in chromosomal aberrations by conventional and more recent methods of chromosomal analysis. In parents who had survived the atomic holocaust there were no significant deviations as against the rest of the population in still births, neonatal defects, infant mortality, and mortality of first generation progeny, in neonate weight, the sex ratio, increased occurence of leukosis and chromosomal aberrations in their children. These negative findings in the first generation do not signify that there is no danger from atomic bomb blasts for human kind. They only indicate that the effects of radiation were too small to be found by routine methods or that the methods used were not suitable.

  1. Bomb radiocarbon in annual tree rings from Thailand and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Q.; Barbetti, M.; Jacobsen, G. E.; Zoppi, U.; Lawson, E. M.

    2000-10-01

    We have examined the atmospheric 14C excess in the tropics and the southern hemisphere temperate region in the bomb pulse period, using two sets of cross-dated tree rings. One set was from a medium-sized three-leaf pine ( Pinus kesiya) grown in northwestern Thailand and the other was from a Huon pine ( Lagarostrobos franklinii) grown in northwestern Tasmania, Australia. A total of 48 annual tree rings (24 pairs) from 1952 to 1975 AD were pretreated to alpha-cellulose, combusted to CO 2 and converted to graphite for 14C measurement in the tandem accelerator at ANSTO. Excellent agreement was found between our measured 14C data from tree rings and atmospheric 14C records at similar latitudes. A large depletion of atmospheric 14C for Thailand in 1953-1954 AD was observed. This might be due to a combination of the Suess effect and upwelling in the tropical Indian Ocean. The results also showed the rise and decay of bomb 14C peaks from north to south with a time delay of about 1.5 yr, and the effects of minor atmospheric nuclear tests in the late 1960s and early 1970s. A delay of at least one month for 14C in tree cellulose of Huon pine compared with that in the atmosphere was also found.

  2. Oscillatory thermal instability - the Bhopal disaster and liquid bombs

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Rowena

    2011-01-01

    Thermal runaway reactions were involved in the Bhopal disaster of 1984, in which methyl isocyanate was vented from a storage tank of the liquid, and occur in liquid peroxide explosions, yet to date there have been few investigations into the mechanism of thermal runaway in such liquid thermoreactive systems. Consequently protocols for storing thermally unstable liquids and deactivating liquid bombs may be suboptimal. In this work the hydrolysis of methyl isocyanate and the thermal decomposition of triacetone triperoxide were simulated using a gradientless, continuous-flow reactor paradigm. This approximation enabled stability analyses on the steady state solutions of the dynamical mass and enthalpy equations. The results indicate that thermal runaway in both systems is due to the onset of a large amplitude, hard thermal oscillation initiated at a subcritical Hopf bifurcation. This type of thermal misbehaviour cannot be predicted using classical ignition theory, and may be typical of liquid thermoreactive syst...

  3. The Radium Terrors. Science Fiction and Radioactivity before the Bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century the collective imagination was fascinated and terrified by the discovery of radium. A scientific imagery sprang up around radioactivity and was disseminated by public lectures and newspaper articles discussing the ambiguous power of this strange substance. It was claimed that radium could be used to treat cholera, typhus and tuberculosis, but at the same time there were warnings that it could be used for military purposes. The media and the scientists themselves employed a rich vocabulary influenced by religion, alchemy and magic. The ambivalent power of radioactive elements exerted a great influence on science fiction novelists. This paper will examine some significant works published in Europe, America and Russia during the first decades of the 20th century and their role in the creation of the complex imagery of radioactivity that seized the public imagination long before the invention of the atomic bomb.

  4. Explosion and final state of the charged black hole bomb

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchis-Gual, Nicolas; Montero, Pedro J; Font, José A; Herdeiro, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    A Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole (BH) is superradiantly unstable against spherical perturbations of a charged scalar field, enclosed in a cavity, with frequency lower than a critical value. We use numerical relativity techniques to follow the development of this unstable system -- dubbed charged BH bomb -- into the non-linear regime, solving the full Einstein--Maxwell--Klein-Gordon equations, in spherical symmetry. We show that: $i)$ the process stops before all the charge is extracted from the BH; $ii)$ the system settles down into a hairy BH: a charged horizon in equilibrium with a scalar field condensate, whose phase is oscillating at the (final) critical frequency. For low scalar field charge, $q$, the final state is approached smoothly and monotonically. For large $q$, however, the energy extraction overshoots and an explosive phenomenon, akin to a $bosenova$, pushes some energy back into the BH. The charge extraction, by contrast, does not reverse.

  5. Laser Proximity Sensor for Fuel-air Explosive Bomb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durga Singh

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Present study deals with design and development aspects of a diode laser proximity sensorbased on principle of optical triangulation. This sensor incorporates a laser transmitter and anoptical receiver. The beam divergence of laser transmitter and look angle of receiver are orientedin such a way that they intersect at a predetermined measuring segment. The sensor can be setto give signal output at predetermined distance from the target. Theoretical studies have beencarried out to determine the minimum power required for transmitter with a trade-off between S/Nratio, aperture of receiver optics, reflectivity of target and range requirement. The scattered laserradiation from the target in this segment is utilised in deriving a signal output to detonate thebomb at a predetermined distance from the target. The laser proximity sensor has been developedfor 3 ± 0.5 m operational range and has qualified various environmental tests and live fuel-airexplosive bomb trials.

  6. Detecting body cavity bombs with nuclear quadrupole resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michael London

    Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) is a technology with great potential for detecting hidden explosives. Past NQR research has studied the detection of land mines and bombs concealed within luggage and packages. This thesis focuses on an NQR application that has received less attention and little or no publicly available research: detecting body cavity bombs (BCBs). BCBs include explosives that have been ingested, inserted into orifices, or surgically implanted. BCBs present a threat to aviation and secure facilities. They are extremely difficult to detect with the technology currently employed at security checkpoints. To evaluate whether or not NQR can be used to detect BCBs, a computational model is developed to assess how the dielectric properties of biological tissue affect the radio frequency magnetic field employed in NQR (0.5-5MHz). The relative permittivity of some biological tissue is very high (over 1,000 at 1MHz), making it conceivable that there is a significant effect on the electromagnetic field. To study this effect, the low-frequency approximation known as the Darwin model is employed. First, the electromagnetic field of a coil is calculated in free space. Second, a dielectric object or set of objects is introduced, and the free-space electric field is modified to accommodate the dielectric object ensuring that the relevant boundary conditions are obeyed. Finally, the magnetic field associated with the corrected electric field is calculated. This corrected magnetic field is evaluated with an NQR simulation to estimate the impact of dielectric tissue on NQR measurements. The effect of dielectric tissue is shown to be small, thus obviating a potential barrier to BCB detection. The NQR model presented may assist those designing excitation and detection coils for NQR. Some general coil design considerations and strategies are discussed.

  7. Penetrating Cardiac and Hepatic Injury; Polytrauma of a Child After Bombing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baris Akca

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available After a bombing attack, patients were brought into hospital suffering from a combination of injuries caused by the blast, penetrating injuries and burns which as a case of polytrauma. In penetrating thoracoabdominal injuries due to bombing possibility of cardiac injury should be kept in mind. Penetrating cardiac injuries in children are rare but has a high mortality and morbidity. In some cases there may be difficulty in diagnosis of penetrating cardiac injury. In this case we want to share the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up processes of penetrating cardiac and hepatic injury with burns of a politrauma child due to bombing.

  8. Accident in science history. Hitler's atomic bomb; Stoerfall der Wissenschaftsgeschichte. Hitlers Atombombe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, Manfred

    2016-07-01

    Up to now the historical explanation for the fact that NS Germany did not develop an atomic bomb was that there was enough scientific and technical knowledge but not enough resources. Recent historical research showed that the German scientists in the ''Uranverein'' did not know the cross section of U-235 and had no possibility to measure these cross sections. There exist only very few documents dealing with the bomb. The bomb was treated as a special case of a reactor. Obviously the German scientists did not know he bomb technology. It seems that the project was not success-oriented because the scientists expected to be sent to the front in case of a project stop.

  9. The recovery and analysis of mitochondrial DNA from exploded pipe bombs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foran, David R; Gehring, Michael E; Stallworth, Shawn E

    2009-01-01

    Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) represent one of the most common modes of arbitrarily injuring or killing human beings. Because of the heat generated by, and destruction to, an IED postconflagration, most methods for identifying who assembled the device are ineffective. In the research presented, steel pipe bombs were mock-assembled by volunteers, and the bombs detonated under controlled conditions. The resultant shrapnel was collected and swabbed for residual cellular material. Mitochondrial DNA profiles were generated and compared blind to the pool of individuals who assembled the bombs. Assemblers were correctly identified 50% of the time, while another 19% could be placed into a group of three individuals with shared haplotypes. Only one bomb was assigned incorrectly. In some instances a contaminating profile (mixture) was also observed. Taken together, the results speak to the extreme sensitivity the methods have for identifying those who assemble IEDs, along with precautions needed when collecting and processing such evidence.

  10. Long-Term Health Effects of Atom Bomb on Japan Not as Bad as Feared: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Long-Term Health Effects of Atom Bomb on Japan Not as Bad as Feared: Study Survivors of ... 2011 at a nuclear power plant in Fukushima, Japan, after an earthquake triggered a massive tsunami shows ...

  11. Threat perception after the Boston Marathon bombings: The effects of personal relevance and conceptual framing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormwood, Jolie Baumann; Lynn, Spencer K; Feldman Barrett, Lisa; Quigley, Karen S

    2016-01-01

    We examined how the Boston Marathon bombings affected threat perception in the Boston community. In a threat perception task, participants attempted to "shoot" armed targets and avoid shooting unarmed targets. Participants viewing images of the bombings accompanied by affectively negative music and text (e.g., "Terror Strikes Boston") made more false alarms (i.e., more errors "shooting" unarmed targets) compared to participants viewing the same images accompanied by affectively positive music and text (e.g., "Boston Strong") and participants who did not view bombing images. This difference appears to be driven by decreased sensitivity (i.e., decreased ability to distinguish guns from non-guns) as opposed to a more liberal bias (i.e., favouring the "shoot" response). Additionally, the more strongly affected the participant was by the bombings, the more their sensitivity was reduced in the negatively framed condition, suggesting that this framing was particularly detrimental to the most vulnerable individuals in the affected community.

  12. Leo Szilard Lectureship Award Lecture: North Korea: Reactors, bombs and people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Siegfried

    2012-03-01

    In November 2010, during my seventh trip to North Korea, Pyongyang produced a big surprise--it decided to build its own light-water reactor and uranium enrichment plant. During my first visit I was shown plutonium produced in its Yongbyon nuclear complex to convince me they have the bomb. For nearly 40 years, Pyongyang has moved along parallel paths of nuclear energy and nuclear weapons, opting to chose bombs over electricity. I will discuss how North Korea got the bomb, why it got it, and the prospects of whether or not it will give up the bomb. Finally, I will try to show with photos and stories of how North Korea is not such a hermit kingdom after all.

  13. Ellerman bombs at high resolution III. Simultaneous observations with IRIS and SST

    CERN Document Server

    Vissers, Gregal J M; Rutten, Robert J; Carlsson, Mats; De Pontieu, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Ellerman bombs are transient brightenings of the extended wings of the solar Balmer lines in emerging active regions. We describe their properties in the ultraviolet lines sampled by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), using simultaneous imaging spectroscopy in H$\\alpha$ with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST) and ultraviolet images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory for Ellerman bomb detection and identification. We select multiple co-observed Ellerman bombs for detailed analysis. The IRIS spectra strengthen the view that Ellerman bombs mark reconnection between bipolar kilogauss fluxtubes with the reconnection and the resulting bi-directional jet located within the solar photosphere and shielded by overlying chromospheric fibrils in the cores of strong lines. The spectra suggest that the reconnecting photospheric gas underneath is heated sufficiently to momentarily reach stages of ionization normally assigned to the transition region and the corona. We also analyze similar outburst phenome...

  14. Pattern of injury in those dying from traumatic amputation caused by bomb blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, J B; Bowyer, G W; Cooper, G J; Crane, J

    1994-08-01

    Traumatic amputation of limbs caused by bomb blast carries a high risk of mortality. This paper describes 73 amputations in 34 deaths from bomb blast in Northern Ireland. The principal aim was to determine the sites of traumatic amputation to provide a biophysical basis for the development of protective measures. Few amputations were through joints; nearly all were through the bone shafts. The most common site in the tibia was the upper third. The distribution of femoral sites resulting from car bombs differed from that characterizing other types of explosion. For car bombs the principal site of amputation was the upper third; for other types of device it was the lower third. It is concluded that flailing is not a notable contributor to limb avulsion. The pattern of amputation is consistent with direct local pressure loads leading to bone fracture; the amputation itself is a secondary event arising from the flow of combustion products.

  15. Medical Database for the Atomic-Bomb Survivors at Nagasaki University

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Hiroyuki; Mine, Mariko; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Okumura, Yutaka

    1992-01-01

    The Scientific Data Center for Atomic-Bomb Disasters at Nagasaki University was established in 1974. The database of atomicbomb survivors has been in operation since 1977. The database is composed of following 6 physical database : (1) Fundamental information database. (2) Atomic-Bomb Hospital database, (3) Pathological database, (4) Household reconstruction database, (5) Second generation database, and (6) Address database. We review the current contents of the database for its further appli...

  16. Emergency assistance provided abroad to insured travellers from Australia following the Bali bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat, Peter A; Leggat, Frances W

    2004-02-01

    Background. On 12 October 2002, terrorist bombs detonated in the Kuta entertainment district of Bali, Indonesia, a popular tourist destination for Australian travellers. This study was designed to investigate travel insurance claims reported by travellers from Australia requiring emergency assistance and/or aeromedical evacuation, as well as to examine the role of travel insurance and emergency assistance companies, following the Bali bombing. Methods. In 2003, all claims reported, following the Bali bombing attack on 12 October 2002, to a major Australian travel insurance company were examined for those claims that described the use of the insurer's emergency assistance contractor by travellers in Bali following the bombing. Results. Thirteen insured travellers used the emergency assistance service following the Bali bombing. Six travellers cancelled their trip to Bali. Five travellers, who were already abroad cancelled their trip to Bali and one was given evacuation assistance. One traveller required aeromedical evacuation by scheduled aircraft with glass injuries resulting from the bomb blast, and there was also assistance provided to significant others following the death of one insured traveller as a direct consequence of the bombing. Two travellers sought only claiming and policy advice and no claim was made. The mean refund, where a travel insurance claim was made, was AUD1185.09 (SD=AUD3047.31). Conclusions. This study highlights the importance of travellers taking out appropriate travel insurance, which provides for emergency assistance. Travel insurance agencies do play some role after emergencies such as the Bali bombing. This assistance involves predominantly dealing with cancellation of travellers' intended visits to the affected area, but does also involve some assistance to travellers evacuating from the crisis, including some who require aeromedical evacuation. Travellers should be advised to seek travel health advice well before departure overseas

  17. Multiple endocrine tumors in A-bomb survivors, autopsy cases, Hiroshima. Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeichi, Nobuo; Fujikura, Toshio (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)); Ezaki, Haruo

    1984-03-01

    Multiple endocrine tumors (MET) were observed in 27 of 4,136 autopsy cases (0.3%) of the fixed population including Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors and the control group. The thyroid was the most common organ in which MET occurred, followed by the ovary. Thirteen cases, including two cases of three MET, had MET in both the tyroid and the ovary, 11 of which had been exposed to one rad or more of atomic bomb.

  18. Bomb disposal in the Tropics:a cocktail of metabolic and environmental heat

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Ian B; Townshend, Andrew; Rojek, Amanda M.; Costello, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Bomb technicians perform their work while encapsulated in explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) suits. Designed primarily for safety, these suits have an unintended consequence of impairing the body’s natural mechanisms for heat dissipation. Purpose: To quantify the heat strain encountered during an EOD operational scenario in the tropical north of Australia. Methods: All active police male bomb technicians, located in a tropical region of Australia (n=4, experience 7 ± 2.1 yrs, age 34 ± 2 yrs, h...

  19. Factors Determining Satisfaction with Daily Life of Elderly A-bomb Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Mine, Mariko; Okumura, Yutaka; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yokota, Kenichi

    1993-01-01

    From the analysis of questionnaires to elderly A-bomb survivors of over 65 years old, we analysed factors which determined satisfaction with daily life. Analysed categories were housing condition, life style, occupational status, health condition and family status. From the analysis, to be an A-bomb survivor was not a factor for satisfaction with daily life, and it became clear that living in a rented room, not satisfying one's job and low income were serious factors which kept elderly people...

  20. The night of the physicists. Heisenberg, Hahn, Weizsaecker, and the German bomb; Die Nacht der Physiker. Heisenberg, Hahn, Weizsaecker und die deutsche Bombe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirach, Richard von

    2014-07-01

    Finally the German atomic physicists around Heisenberg, von Weizsaecker, and Hahn worked on their ''uranium machine'' in a Swabian beer-cellar - and took themselves for the world elite of nuclear research. In imprisonment they heared from the dropping of the Hiroshima bomb - a shock. Richard von Schirach shows the hindered ''fathers of the German atomic bomb'' in close-up, their eagerness, their hybris, their true importance, and their attempts to give after the war a new interpretation of their own role. A book, which raises in the sense of Duerrenmatt the question for the responsibility of science.

  1. Personality and Major Depression among Directly Exposed Survivors of the Oklahoma City Bombing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol S. North

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Few disaster studies have specifically examined personality and resilience in association with disaster exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and major depression. Methods. 151 directly-exposed survivors of the Oklahoma City bombing randomly selected from a bombing survivor registry completed PTSD, major depression, and personality assessments using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-IV and the Temperament and Character Inventory, respectively. Results. The most prevalent postdisaster psychiatric disorder was bombing-related PTSD (32%; major depression was second in prevalence (21%. Bombing-related PTSD was associated with the combination of low self-directedness and low cooperativeness and also with high self-transcendence and high harm avoidance in most configurations. Postdisaster major depression was significantly more prevalent among those with (56% than without (5% bombing-related PTSD (P<.001 and those with (72% than without (14% predisaster major depression (P<.001. Incident major depression was not associated with the combination of low self-directedness and low cooperativeness. Conclusions. Personality features can distinguish resilience to a specific life-threatening stressor from general indicators of well-being. Unlike bombing-related PTSD, major depression was not a robust marker of low resilience. Development and validation of measures of resilience should utilize well-defined diagnoses whenever possible, rather than relying on nonspecific measures of psychological distress.

  2. Was Nazi Germany on the Road to an Atomic Bomb after all?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Harry

    2006-04-01

    The story of Germany's efforts to develop a nuclear weapon during World War II is a much written about and contentious subject. However there has been agreement on one thing: by the end of the War the Germans had not achieved and were nowhere near to building a bomb. The dispute therefore has been about why Germany did not succeed. Now, from Germany, comes a challenge to this truth, in the provocative book Hitlers Bombe by Rainer Karlsch. The bombshell in Hitler's Bombe is the assertion that German scientists developed and tested a primitive fission and fusion nuclear weapon in March 1945. Karlsch bases this claim on testimony of witnesses in 1962, previously secret Russian documents, and the results of soil tests carried out in 2004 and 2005. However the physics is very murky and it seems out of the question that Germany had enough Uranium 235 or produced any Plutonium for a bomb. Hitlers Bombe also makes other, better documented and more credible revisionist assertions. These include the claim that the Nazis did continue to try to build a bomb after 1942 and that not Werner Heisenberg, but Kurt Diebner and Walther Gerlach were then the leaders of the German Uranium project. Karlsch's book therefore deserves more attention from physicists and historians than it has received in the United States.

  3. Strictosidine activation in Apocynaceae: towards a "nuclear time bomb"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guirimand Grégory

    2010-08-01

    strictosidine vacuolar pool upon enzyme-substrate reunion occurring during potential herbivore feeding constituting a so-called "nuclear time bomb" in reference to the "mustard oil bomb" commonly used to describe the myrosinase-glucosinolate defence system in Brassicaceae.

  4. Telomere loss: mitotic clock or genetic time bomb?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, C B

    1991-01-01

    The Holy Grail of gerontologists investigating cellular senescence is the mechanism responsible for the finite proliferative capacity of somatic cells. In 1973, Olovnikov proposed that cells lose a small amount of DNA following each round of replication due to the inability of DNA polymerase to fully replicate chromosome ends (telomeres) and that eventually a critical deletion causes cell death. Recent observations showing that telomeres of human somatic cells act as a mitotic clock, shortening with age both in vitro and in vivo in a replication dependent manner, support this theory's premise. In addition, since telomeres stabilize chromosome ends against recombination, their loss could explain the increased frequency of dicentric chromosomes observed in late passage (senescent) fibroblasts and provide a checkpoint for regulated cell cycle exit. Sperm telomeres are longer than somatic telomeres and are maintained with age, suggesting that germ line cells may express telomerase, the ribonucleoprotein enzyme known to maintain telomere length in immortal unicellular eukaryotes. As predicted, telomerase activity has been found in immortal, transformed human cells and tumour cell lines, but not in normal somatic cells. Telomerase activation may be a late, obligate event in immortalization since many transformed cells and tumour tissues have critically short telomeres. Thus, telomere length and telomerase activity appear to be markers of the replicative history and proliferative potential of cells; the intriguing possibility remains that telomere loss is a genetic time bomb and hence causally involved in cell senescence and immortalization.

  5. Diagnostics of Ellerman Bombs with High-resolution Spectral Data

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Z; Guo, Y; Chen, P F; Xu, Z; Cao, W

    2015-01-01

    Ellerman bombs (EBs) are tiny brightenings often observed near sunspots. The most impressive characteristic of the EB spectra is the two emission bumps in both wings of the H$\\alpha$ and \\ion{Ca}{II} 8542 {\\AA} lines. High-resolution spectral data of three small EBs were obtained on 2013 June 6 with the largest solar telescope, the 1.6 meter New Solar Telescope (NST), at the Big Bear Solar Observatory. The characteristics of these EBs are analyzed. The sizes of the EBs are in the range of 0.3\\arcsec\\--0.8\\arcsec\\ and their durations are only 3--5 minutes. Our semi-empirical atmospheric models indicate that the heating occurs around the temperature minimum region with a temperature increase of 2700--3000 K, which is surprisingly higher than previously thought. The radiative and kinetic energies are estimated to be as high as 5$\\times$10$^{25}$--3.0$\\times$10$^{26}$ ergs despite the small size of these EBs. Observations of the magnetic field show that the EBs appeared just in a parasitic region with mixed polar...

  6. METROLOGICAL PERFORMANCES OF BOMB CALORIMETERS AT REAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Maksimuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-usage measurement equipment for heat of combustion of organic fuels are bomb isoperibol calorimeters with a water thermostat. The stability of work of calorimeters at real conditions is important for maintenance of reliability of measurement results. The article purpose – the analysis of stability for parameters of calorimeters to environment changes. In this work influence room temperature (Тк and heat exchange conditions on metrological characteristics of two models of calorimeters is considered with different degree of thermal protection: V-08МА and BIC 100. For calorimeters V-08МА the increase in a effective heat capacity (W on 0,1 % by growth of Tк on everyone 5 °С is established. To use value W in all interval laboratory temperatures Tк = 14–28 °С it is necessary to correct W on 2,8 J/°C on everyone 1 °С changes of Tк. Updating W is required, if the correction exceeds error in determination W. For calorimeter BIC 100 it is not revealed dependences W from Tк. BIC 100 have constant-temperature cap, high stability a temperature in thermostat and stabilized heat exchange. It is established that an standard deviation of cooling constant for all calorimeters in direct proportional to standard deviation W. 

  7. Small-Scale Structuring Of Ellerman Bombs at Solar Limb

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, C J; Doyle, J G; Freij, N; Erdélyi, R

    2014-01-01

    Ellerman bombs (EBs) have been widely studied in recent years due to their dynamic, explosive nature and apparent links to the underlying photospheric magnetic field implying that they may be formed by magnetic reconnection in the photosphere. Despite a plethora of researches discussing the morphologies of EBs, there has been a limited investigation of how these events appear at the limb, specifically, whether they manifest as vertical extensions away from the disc. In this article, we make use of high-resolution, high-cadence observations of an AR at the solar limb, collected by the CRISP instrument, to identify EBs and infer their physical properties. The upper atmosphere is also probed using the SDO/AIA. We analyse 22 EB events evident within these data, finding that 20 appear to follow a parabolic path away from the solar surface at an average speed of 9 km s^(-1), extending away from their source by 580 km, before retreating back at a similar speed. These results show strong evidence of vertical motions ...

  8. Bioassays for bomb-makers: proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Suzanne C; Gayton-Ely, Melissa; Nida, Corey M

    2009-09-01

    Clandestine bomb-makers are exposed to significant amounts of explosives and allied materials. As with any ingested xenobiotic substance, these compounds are subject to biotransformation. As such, the potential exists that characteristic suites of biomarkers may be produced and deposited in matrices that can be exploited for forensic and investigative purposes. However, before such assays can be developed, foundational data must be gathered regarding the toxicokinetics, fate, and transport of the resulting biomarkers within the body and in matrices such as urine, hair, nails, sweat, feces, and saliva. This report presents an in vitro method for simulation of human metabolic transformations using human liver microsomes and an assay applicable to representative nitro-explosives. Control and metabolized samples of TNT, RDX, HMX, and tetryl were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and biomarkers identified for each. The challenges associated with this method arise from solubility issues and limitations imposed by instrumentation, specifically, modes of ionization.

  9. Diagnostics of Ellerman bombs with high-resolution spectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Fang, Cheng; Guo, Yang; Chen, Peng-Fei; Xu, Zhi; Cao, Wen-Da

    2015-09-01

    Ellerman bombs (EBs) are tiny brightenings often observed near sunspots. The most impressive characteristic of EB spectra is the two emission bumps in both wings of the Hα and Ca II 8542Å lines. High-resolution spectral data of three small EBs were obtained on 2013 June 6 with the largest solar telescope, the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory. The characteristics of these EBs are analyzed. The sizes of the EBs are in the range of 0.3‧ - 0.8‧ and their durations are only 3-5 min. Our semi-empirical atmospheric models indicate that the heating occurs around the temperature minimum region with a temperature increase of 2700-3000 K, which is surprisingly higher than previously thought. The radiative and kinetic energies are estimated to be as high as 5 × 1025 - 3.0 × 1026 erg despite the small size of these EBs. Observations of the magnetic field show that the EBs just appeared in a parasitic region with mixed polarities and were accompanied by mass motions. Nonlinear force-free field extrapolation reveals that the three EBs are connected with a series of magnetic field lines associated with bald patches, which strongly implies that these EBs should be produced by magnetic reconnection in the solar lower atmosphere. According to the lightcurves and the estimated magnetic reconnection rate, we propose that there is a three phase process in EBs: pre-heating, flaring and cooling phases.

  10. Why did the Germans not produce an atomic bomb?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Harry

    2003-04-01

    The question has been examined and debated in books and articles by physicists and historians of science for the past half century. Since 2000,the controversy has been heightened by Michael Frayn's play Copenhagen. Was the reason for the failure that Werner Heisenberg, the leader of Germany's Uranium Project,for moral reasons, gave incomplete and misleading information to the Nazis, such as withholding the knowledge that fissionable plutonium can be produced in a uranium reactor? Was Heisenberg's science the cause, because it resulted in a critically wrong critical mass for fission of tons instead of kilograms? Did he not make the calculation at all because he was convinced, for practical reasons, that a bomb couldn't be assembled in time to be of use to anyone in World War II? And what about Hans Bethe's assertion that Walter Bothe's mistake in ruling out graphite as a moderator, which obliged the Germans to embark on the difficult, long range effort to obtain enough heavy water, doomed even Heisenberg's reactor program to failure? Can the different answers that have been given to these and other questions be reconciled? If not, which are likely to be correct and which should be abandoned? The talk will be a progress report on this investigation.

  11. Fine-scale Photospheric Connections of Ellerman Bombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Heesu; Chae, Jongchul; Lim, Eun-Kyung; Song, Donguk; Cho, Kyuhyoun; Kwak, Hannah; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl B.; Kim, Yeon-Han

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the photospheric and magnetic field structures associated with Ellerman bombs (EBs) using the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory. The nine observed EBs were accompanied by elongated granule-like features (EGFs) that showed transverse motions prior to the EBs with an average speed of about 3.8 km s-1. Each EGF consisted of a sub-arcsecond bright core encircled by a dark lane around its moving front. The bright core appeared in the TiO broadband filter images and in the far wings of the Hα and Ca ii 8542 Å lines. In four EBs, the bi-directional expanding motion of the EGFs was identified in the TiO images. In those cases, the EGFs were found to be accompanied by an emerging flux (EF). In four other EBs, the EGF developed at the edge of a penumbra and traveled in the sunspot’s radial direction. The EGFs in these cases were identified as a moving magnetic feature (MMF). Our results show a clear connection among the magnetic elements, photospheric features, and EBs. This result suggests that the EBs result from magnetic reconnection forced by EFs or MMFs that are frequently manifested by EGFs.

  12. Application of Bomb Radiocarbon Chronologies to Shortfin Mako (Isurus oxyrinchus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardizzone, D; Cailliet, G M; Natanson, L J; Andrews, A H; Kerr, L A; Brown, T A

    2007-07-16

    and the number of samples for MIA analysis was insufficient for some months. Hence, unequivocal validation of shortfin mako age estimates has yet to be accomplished. Atmospheric testing of thermonuclear devices in the 1950s and 1960s effectively doubled the natural atmospheric radiocarbon ({sup 14}C). The elevated {sup 14}C levels were first recorded in 1957-58, with a peak around 1963. As a consequence, {sup 14}C entered the ocean through gas exchange with the atmosphere at the ocean surface and in terrestrial runoff. Despite variable oceanographic conditions, a worldwide rise of the bomb {sup 14}C signal entered the ocean mixed layer as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in 1957-58. The large amounts of {sup 14}C released from the bomb tests produced a signature that can be followed through time, throughout the marine food web, and into deeper waters. The marked increase of radiocarbon levels was first measured in the DIC of seawater and in biogenic marine carbonates of hermatypic corals in Florida. Subsequently, this record was documented in corals from other regions and in the thallus of rhodoliths. The accumulation of radiocarbon in the hard parts of most marine organisms in the mixed layer (such as fish otoliths and bivalves) was synchronous with the coral time-series. This technique has been used to validate age estimates and longevity of numerous bony fishes to date, as well as to establish bomb radiocarbon chronologies from different oceans. In the first application of this technique to lamnoid sharks, validated annual band-pair deposition in vertebral growth bands for the porbeagle (Lamna nasus) aged up to 26 years. Radiocarbon values from samples obtained from 15 porbeagle caught in the western North Atlantic Ocean (some of which were known-age) produced a chronology similar in magnitude to the reference carbonate chronology for that region. The observed phase shift of about 3 years was attributed to different sources of carbon between vertebrae and those for

  13. Ophthalmologic survey of atomic bomb survivors in Japan, 1949. Atomic bomb radiation cataract case report with histopathologic study. Medical examination of Hiroshima patients with radiation cataracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogan, D.G.; Martin, S.F.; Kimura, S.J.; Ikui, Hiroshi; Fillmore, P.G.

    1959-01-01

    This document contains 3 reports dealing with the delayed effects of radiation on the eyes of survivors of the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In the first study, 1000 persons who were listed as having been in the open and within two kilometers of the hypocenter at the time of the explosion were selected at random from the census files of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission for study. In addition, 231 others, comprising the total available number of surviving persons listed at present in the census files as having been within one kilometer of the hypocenter, were examined, as were several hundred others who were contacted through newspaper publicity, referrals from local ophthalmologists, or through hearsay. The survey resulted in bringing in persons having, or having had, a variety of ocular conditions. Those connected with the atomic bomb included the following diagnoses; multiple injuries of eyes and eyelids; keratoconjunctivitis from ultraviolet and ionizing radiations; thermal burn of the cornea and of the retina; retinitis proliferans; and radiation cataracts. The cataracts were the only delayed manifestations of ocular injury from the atomic bomb. The second paper is a case report of a histopathologic study of atomic bomb radiation cataract. The third paper presents the results of medical examinations of survivors having radiation induced cataracts. 32 references, 8 figures. (DMC)

  14. Design, Development, and Innovation of an Interactive Multimedia Training Simulator for Responding to Air Transportation Bomb Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Christopher A.; Marwaha, Shweta

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an interactive multimedia simulator for air transportation bomb threat training. The objective of this project is to improve the air transportation sector s capability to respond to bomb threats received by commercial airports and aircraft. The simulator provides realistic training on receiving and responding to a variety of bomb threats that might not otherwise be possible due to time, cost, or operational constraints. Validation analysis indicates that the use of the simulator resulted in statistically significant increases in individual ability to respond to these types of bomb threats.

  15. The bomb black market - Inquiry about nuclear proliferation; Le marche noir de la bombe - Enquete sur la proliferation nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertrais, B

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear weapons remain for a long time in the hands of the five big powers: USA, Soviet Union, Great Britain, France and China. Things started to change when Israel, and then India acquired the atomic bomb as well. Pakistan took up the race too but Abdul Qadeer Khan, one of the nuclear program maker of the country, took profit of the situation to set up a huge international proliferation network for the spreading of the technologies, tools and materials necessary for weapons fabrication. He offered his services not only to Iran and North Korea, but to Iraq and Libya as well and probably to some other countries. Today, the Iranian nuclear program generates both envy and fear in the Middle East. Who is going to be the next domino of the nuclear game? Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Turkey are potential candidates. But while Pakistan sinks into crisis, the terrorists are taking interest in nukes. The author of this book has worked for more than 10 years on this dossier. He has had access to the most sensible documents and to essential testimonies. He now lifts the curtain on the secrets of nuclear proliferation. In this book, where reality sometimes surpasses fiction, he explains how the CIA finally succeeded in infiltrating the 'Khan ring' after having closed its eyes on his deals for a long time. He describes the branches of the Pakistani atomic complex and analyses with lucidity the nuclear terrorism risk.

  16. Proteinuria in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, L.R.; Seki, Masafumi; Phair, J.P.; Nefzger, M.D.

    1966-08-25

    A study of the epidemiology of proteinuria was conducted on about 5000 persons comprising a portion of the clinical sample under study at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission. In addition, data from previous examinations of similar samples were analyzed. Proteinuria was more common in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. The rates for men and women did not differ within cities. Age-specific rates of proteinuria were peculiar, peaking in adolescence and old age. In the subjects under study proteinuria was frequently inconstant and usually represented excretion of less than 1.0 g of protein per day. Prior exposure to radiation as measured by distance from the hypocenter was correlated with increased proteinuria rates in 18-year-old subjects who were in utero ATB. Subjects exposed after birth did not show this tendency. It is unsettled whether radiation results in renal disease by increasing the subject's susceptibility to the usual causes of glomerulonephritis or by some more direct mechanism. Persons with proteinuria had higher mean blood pressures and serum urea nitrogen levels than controls and had other findings indicative of generalized cardiovascular-renal disease. Persons with thyroid disease had an increased risk of proteinuria whereas the converse was true of those with a history of treatment for peptic ulcer. Many other factors were tested for a relation to proteinuria, including family history of renal disease, socioeconomic status, urinary symptoms, ingestion of medications, physical findings, hemoglobin levels, height, weight, ABO blood groups, audiometry, vibrometry, and serum cholesterol levels. Although urinary symptoms were more common in persons with proteinuria, the findings in other areas were not sufficiently different to suggest meaningful relations. 20 references, 2 figures, 13 tables.

  17. Application of Bomb Radiocarbon Chronologies to Shortfin Mako (Isurus oxyrinchus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardizzone, D; Cailliet, G M; Natanson, L J; Andrews, A H; Kerr, L A; Brown, T A

    2007-07-16

    and the number of samples for MIA analysis was insufficient for some months. Hence, unequivocal validation of shortfin mako age estimates has yet to be accomplished. Atmospheric testing of thermonuclear devices in the 1950s and 1960s effectively doubled the natural atmospheric radiocarbon ({sup 14}C). The elevated {sup 14}C levels were first recorded in 1957-58, with a peak around 1963. As a consequence, {sup 14}C entered the ocean through gas exchange with the atmosphere at the ocean surface and in terrestrial runoff. Despite variable oceanographic conditions, a worldwide rise of the bomb {sup 14}C signal entered the ocean mixed layer as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in 1957-58. The large amounts of {sup 14}C released from the bomb tests produced a signature that can be followed through time, throughout the marine food web, and into deeper waters. The marked increase of radiocarbon levels was first measured in the DIC of seawater and in biogenic marine carbonates of hermatypic corals in Florida. Subsequently, this record was documented in corals from other regions and in the thallus of rhodoliths. The accumulation of radiocarbon in the hard parts of most marine organisms in the mixed layer (such as fish otoliths and bivalves) was synchronous with the coral time-series. This technique has been used to validate age estimates and longevity of numerous bony fishes to date, as well as to establish bomb radiocarbon chronologies from different oceans. In the first application of this technique to lamnoid sharks, validated annual band-pair deposition in vertebral growth bands for the porbeagle (Lamna nasus) aged up to 26 years. Radiocarbon values from samples obtained from 15 porbeagle caught in the western North Atlantic Ocean (some of which were known-age) produced a chronology similar in magnitude to the reference carbonate chronology for that region. The observed phase shift of about 3 years was attributed to different sources of carbon between vertebrae and those for

  18. Scaling Laws for Impacts into Wet Substrates: Applied to the Bomb Sag at Home Plate, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, S. P.; Manga, M.; Delbridge, B. G.; Patel, A.; Knappe, E.; Dufek, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit imaged a volcanic bomb sag in Gusev crater at Home Plate (Squyres et al., Science 2007). In order to gain a more complete understanding of these types of craters, we perform laboratory experiments to identify controls on the main features of bomb sags. In our previous work (Manga et al., GRL 2012), we were able to identify clear qualitative differences in the crater morphology, which allowed us to determine that the substrate at Home Plate was fully saturated. The current study focuses on further understanding the relationship between the depth of particle penetration, crater radius, impact velocity, impactor radius and substrate grain size for impacts into a fully saturated substrate. The results of these measurements provide a physical understanding to the previous empirical scaling relationships in crater morphology at intermediate impact velocities between 10 m/s and 100 m/s. By gaining insight into the mechanisms of how a saturated granular medium deforms under the load of an impacting sphere we are able to obtain revised scaling laws for the penetration depth of bomb sags with respect to impact velocity for observable bomb sags. With an inferred impact velocity for the case of the Home Plate bomb sag, we can provide a more accurate estimate of a paleo-Mars atmospheric density.

  19. Noncancer mortality based on the Hiroshima Atomic Bomb survivors registry over 30 years, 1968-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasagi, Keiko [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine

    2002-04-01

    The relation of radiation exposure with noncancer mortality was examined on 44,514 atomic bomb survivors (17,935 males, 26,579 females, and mean age 22.8{+-}15.7 yrs at the time of bombing) registered at Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, based on mortality follow-up over 30 years, 1968-1997. Noncancer mortality was significantly related to radiation dose with relative risk of 1.06 at 1 Sv radiation dose, although weaker than the dose response in solid cancer mortality. The significant dose responses were observed especially in circulatory disease, stroke and urinary organ disease, and suggestive dose response in pneumonia. The temporal pattern in dose response by age at the time of bombing indicated that the relative risk of noncancer mortality was higher with follow-up period, which is contrary to a decreasing dose response in solid cancer mortality with follow-up period. The tendency was remarkable in those survivors younger at the time of bombing. These findings suggest that the significant radiation risk observed in noncancer mortality might increase as the proportion of younger survivors among atomic bomb survivors increases. (author)

  20. Nuclear shadows on silvered walls: Atomic Bomb Cinema, from 1935 to 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    The cinema and the atomic bomb are two of the most significant technological innovations of the past-century - their influence on culture has provoked tremendous political, academic, and popular debate. The point at which these two technologies intersect is what the author calls Atomic Bomb Cinema.' Since 1945 almost six hundred films with images of nuclear weapons have been released in the US, and they have been virtually ignored by everyone but the film going public. This study shows how Bomb films' use recurring themes and formal structures, and therefore must be treated as a coherent body of films; identifies historical, mythological, and contemporary motifs; and analyzes these films from two points of view: interdisciplinary (history, politics, economics, sociology, and aesthetics) and cross-cultural (American, Japanese, British, and Australian). The most important element of Atomic Bomb Cinema is the Apocalyptic Imagination; film makers use it to structure their narratives and explore a wide range of ideological issues. In contrast to commonly held beliefs, Atomic Bomb Cinema is undeniably part of a process that helps people to understand the threat of nuclear war. In this instance, the cinema is one cultural institution that contributes to a healthy society.

  1. Sulfur activation at the Little Boy-Comet Critical Assembly: a replica of the Hiroshima bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, G.D.; Emery, J.F.; Pace, J.V. III

    1985-04-01

    Studies have been completed on the activation of sulfur by fast neutrons from the Little Boy-Comet Critical Assembly which replicates the general features of the Hiroshima bomb. The complex effects of the bomb's design and construction on leakage of sulfur-activation neutrons were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Our sulfur activation studies were performed as part of a larger program to provide benchmark data for testing of methods used in recent source-term calculations for the Hiroshima bomb. Source neutrons capable of activating sulfur play an important role in determining neutron doses in Hiroshima at a kilometer or more from the point of explosion. 37 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Ellerman Bombs at High Resolution. IV. Visibility in Na I and Mg I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, R. J.; Rouppe van der Voort, L. H. M.; Vissers, G. J. M.

    2015-08-01

    Ellerman bombs are transient brightenings of the wings of the solar Balmer lines that mark reconnection in the photosphere. Ellerman noted in 1917 that he did not observe such brightenings in the Na i D and Mg i b lines. This non-visibility should constrain EB interpretation, but has not been addressed in published bomb modeling. We therefore test Ellerman’s observation and confirm it using high-quality imaging spectrometry with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope. However, we find a diffuse brightness in these lines that seems to result from prior EBs. We tentatively suggest this is a post-bomb hot-cloud phenomenon also found in recent EB spectroscopy in the ultraviolet.

  3. Ellerman bombs at high resolution. IV. Visibility in Na I and Mg I

    CERN Document Server

    Rutten, R J; Vissers, G J M

    2015-01-01

    Ellerman bombs are transient brightenings of the wings of the solar Balmer lines that mark reconnection in the photosphere. Ellerman noted in 1917 that he did not observe such brightenings in the Na I D and Mg I b lines. This non-visibility should constrain EB interpretation, but has not been addressed in published bomb modeling. We therefore test Ellerman's observation and confirm it using high-quality imaging spectrometry with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope. However, we find diffuse brightness in these lines that seems to result from prior EBs. We tentatively suggest this is a post-bomb hot-cloud phenomenon also found in recent EB spectroscopy in the ultraviolet.

  4. A community study of the psychological effects of the Omagh car bomb on adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Duffy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The main aims of the study were to assess psychological morbidity among adults nine months after a car bomb explosion in the town of Omagh, Northern Ireland and to identify predictors of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. METHOD: A questionnaire was sent to all adults in households in The Omagh District Council area. The questionnaire comprised established predictors of PTSD (such as pre-trauma personal characteristics, type of exposure, initial emotional response and long-term adverse physical or financial problems, predictors derived from the Ehlers and Clark (2000 cognitive model, a measure of PTSD symptoms and the General Health Questionnaire. RESULTS: Among respondents (n = 3131 the highest rates of PTSD symptoms and probable casesness (58.5% were observed among people who were present in the street when the bomb exploded but elevated rates were also observed in people who subsequently attended the scene (21.8% probable caseness and among people for whom someone close died (11.9%. People with a near miss (left the scene before the explosion did not show elevated rates. Exposure to the bombing increased PTSD symptoms to a greater extent than general psychiatric symptoms. Previously established predictors accounted for 42% of the variance in PTSD symptoms among people directly exposed to the bombing. Predictors derived from the cognitive model accounted for 63%. CONCLUSIONS: High rates of chronic PTSD were observed in individuals exposed to the bombing. Psychological variables that are in principle amenable to treatment were the best predictors of PTSD symptoms. Teams planning treatment interventions for victims of future bombings and other traumas may wish to take these results into account.

  5. Seeing the Light: Visibility of the July '45 Trinity Atomic Bomb Test from the Inner Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2006-01-01

    In his "The Making of the Atomic Bomb," Richard Rhodes remarks of the July 16, 1945, Trinity atomic bomb test in New Mexico that "had astronomers been watching they could have seen it reflected from the moon, literal moonshine," an allusion to Ernest Rutherford's famous dismissal of the prospect of atomic energy. Investigating…

  6. Ancestry analysis in the 11-M Madrid bomb attack investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Phillips

    Full Text Available The 11-M Madrid commuter train bombings of 2004 constituted the second biggest terrorist attack to occur in Europe after Lockerbie, while the subsequent investigation became the most complex and wide-ranging forensic case in Spain. Standard short tandem repeat (STR profiling of 600 exhibits left certain key incriminatory samples unmatched to any of the apprehended suspects. A judicial order to perform analyses of unmatched samples to differentiate European and North African ancestry became a critical part of the investigation and was instigated to help refine the search for further suspects. Although mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA and Y-chromosome markers routinely demonstrate informative geographic differentiation, the populations compared in this analysis were known to show a proportion of shared mtDNA and Y haplotypes as a result of recent gene-flow across the western Mediterranean, while any two loci can be unrepresentative of the ancestry of an individual as a whole. We based our principal analysis on a validated 34plex autosomal ancestry-informative-marker single nucleotide polymorphism (AIM-SNP assay to make an assignment of ancestry for DNA from seven unmatched case samples including a handprint from a bag containing undetonated explosives together with personal items recovered from various locations in Madrid associated with the suspects. To assess marker informativeness before genotyping, we predicted the probable classification success for the 34plex assay with standard error estimators for a naïve Bayesian classifier using Moroccan and Spanish training sets (each n = 48. Once misclassification error was found to be sufficiently low, genotyping yielded seven near-complete profiles (33 of 34 AIM-SNPs that in four cases gave probabilities providing a clear assignment of ancestry. One of the suspects predicted to be North African by AIM-SNP analysis of DNA from a toothbrush was identified late in the investigation as Algerian in origin. The

  7. Genius in the shadows a biography of Leo Szilard, the man behind the bomb

    CERN Document Server

    Lanouette, William

    2013-01-01

    Well-known names such as Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi, J. Robert Oppenheimer, and Edward Teller are usually those that surround the creation of the atom bomb. One name that is rarely mentioned is Leo Szilard, known in scientific circles as "father of the atom bomb." The man who first developed the idea of harnessing energy from nuclear chain reactions, he is curiously buried with barely a trace in the history of this well-known and controversial topic.Born in Hungary and educated in Berlin, he escaped Hitler's Germany in 1933 and that first year developed his concept of nucle

  8. MSCT findings in a controlled bus bombing using a pig model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Nikolaj Friis

    2009-01-01

    In terrorist acts such as car and bus bombings by a suicide bomber using home made or other explosives, there may be many fatalities and wounded. From a forensic pathological point of view this poses a challenge regarding identification of the fatalities, recording the injuries and identifying...... and recovering relevant foreign bodies that might have been used in the bomb to inflict more damages to bystanders. The author will present MSCT findings and the injuries found at autopsy in 10 dead pigs were positioned inside the bus in a controlled explosion. This will be done in correlation to the individual...

  9. Algebraically special resonances of the Kerr-black-hole-mirror bomb

    CERN Document Server

    Hod, Shahar

    2014-01-01

    A co-rotating bosonic field interacting with a spinning Kerr black hole can extract rotational energy and angular momentum from the hole. This intriguing phenomenon is known as superradiant scattering. As pointed out by Press and Teukolsky, the black-hole-field system can be made unstable (explosive) by placing a reflecting mirror around the black hole which prevents the extracted energy from escaping to infinity. This composed black-hole-mirror-field bomb has been studied extensively by many researchers. It is worth noting, however, that most former studies of the black-hole bomb phenomenon have focused on the specific case of confined scalar (spin-$0$) fields. In the present study we explore the physical properties of the higher-spin (electromagnetic and gravitational) black-hole bombs. It is shown that this composed system is amenable to an analytic treatment in the physically interesting regime of rapidly-rotating black holes. In particular, we prove that the composed black-hole-mirror-field bomb is chara...

  10. A-BOMB SURVIVOR SITE-SPECIFIC RADIOGENIC CANCER RISKS ESTIMATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A draft manuscript is being prepared that describes ways to improve estimates of risk from radiation that have been derived from A-bomb survivors. The work has been published in the journal Radiation Research volume 169, pages 87-98.

  11. Terrorism in Two Cultures: Stress and Growth Following September 11 and the Madrid Train Bombings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Michael F.; Frazier, Patricia A.; Zacchanini, Jose Luis

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we compared the prevalence of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttraumatic growth following the September 11, 2001, attacks in the United States and the March 11, 2004, Madrid, Spain train bombings. We also examined meaning in life as a correlate of posttrauma outcomes. A sample of midwestern college students (N = 188)…

  12. The Phenomenon of Suicide Bombing: A Review of Psychological and Nonpsychological Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimland, M.; Apter, A.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the phenomenon of suicide bombing. It addresses the question of just how much a psychological understanding of the individuals involved can aid in prevention. The article looks at historical, epidemiological, and cultural perspectives and compares the nonpsycho

  13. Bombs Away: Visual Thinking and Students' Engagement in Design Studios Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro-Koc, Marianella; Scott, Andrew; Coombs, Gretchen

    2015-01-01

    In design studio, sketching or visual thinking is part of processes that assist students to achieve final design solutions. At Queensland University of Technology's (QUT's) First and Third Year industrial design studio classes we engage in a variety of teaching pedagogies from which we identify "Concept Bombs" as instrumental in the…

  14. Ellerman Bombs at high resolution: II. Visibility, triggering and effect on upper atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Vissers, Gregal J M; Rutten, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    We use high-resolution imaging spectroscopy with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST) to study the transient brightenings of the wings of the Balmer Halpha line in emerging active regions that are called Ellerman bombs. Simultaneous sampling of Ca II 854.2 nm with the SST confirms that most Ellerman bombs occur also in the wings of this line, but with markedly different morphology. Simultaneous images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) show that Ellerman bombs are also detectable in the photospheric 170 nm continuum, again with differing morphology. They are also observable in 160 nm SDO images, but with much contamination from C IV emission in transition-region features. Simultaneous SST spectropolarimetry in Fe I 630.1 nm shows that Ellerman bombs occur at sites of strong-field magnetic flux cancelation between small bipolar strong-field patches that rapidly move together over the solar surface. Simultaneous SDO images in He II 30.4 nm, Fe IX 17.1 nm, and Fe XIV 21.1 nm show no clear effect of the E...

  15. The marine radiocarbon bomb pulse across the temperate North Atlantic: a compilation of Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scourse, J.D.; Wanamaker jr., A.D.; Weidman, C.; Heinemeier, J.; Reimer, P.J.; Butler, P.G.; Witbaard, R.; Richardson, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Marine radiocarbon bomb-pulse time histories of annually resolved archives from temperate regions have been underexploited. We present here series of Delta C-14 excess from known-age annual increments of the long-lived bivalve mollusk Arctica islandica from 4 sites across the coastal North Atlantic

  16. The Strategic Bombing of German Cities during World War II and its Impact for Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, S.; Garretsen, H; Schramm, M.

    2003-01-01

    We construct a unique data set in order to analyze whether or not a large temporary shock has an impact on city growth. Following recent work by Davis and Weinstein (2002) on Japan, we take the strategic bombing of German cities during WWII as an example of such a shock, and analyze its impact on po

  17. Books, Not Bombs: Teaching Peace since the Dawn of the Republic. Peace Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Charles; Harris, Ian,

    2010-01-01

    "Books Not Bombs: Teaching Peace Since the Dawn of the Republic" is an important work relevant to peace scholars, practitioners, and students. This incisive book offers an exciting and comprehensive historical analysis of the origins and development of peace education from the creation of the New Republic at the end of the Eighteenth Century to…

  18. Radiation effect on non-cancer diseases among a-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, G.; Akahoshi, M.; Fujiwara, S.; Neriishi, K.; Yamada, M.; Hakoda, M. [Radiation Effect Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    It has been well documented in the literature that radiation induces DNA damages and increases cancer risk. Besides cancer risk, the Life Span Study (LSS) on A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki that has been conducted since 1950 by RERF demonstrated an increase in non-cancer death by cardiovascular diseases and chronic liver diseases (1). Since LSS analysis depends on death certificate, a physiological mechanism has not been elucidated how radiation increases the incidence of non-cancer diseases. In order to elucidate radiation effect on non-fatal disorders, RERF has conducted the Adult Health Study (AHS) since 1958 where 23,000 A-bomb survivors have been examined every other year. This study suggested that radiation exposure about 55 years before reduced the immune response to pathogens such as HB virus and Chlamydia pneumoniae, increased the levels of serum inflammatory markers, the prevalence of chronic hepatitis/liver cirrhosis and senile cataract, and the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Our colleagues reported a dose-dependent decrease in the CD4 T cell number among A-bomb survivors (2,3). Since chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are causative of atherogenic cardiovascular diseases or cataract, we speculate a decrease in the immune response to pathogens, at least in part, is one of the mechanisms that A-bomb exposure increased non-cancer diseases. When the levels of inflammatory marker, C-reactive protein (CRP), were analyzed among subjects with evidence of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection, significantly higher levels of CRP were associated with antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae in those subjects receiving >1Gy than those receiving <5mGy. It is well known that high CRP is one of the risk factors of arteriosclerosis (4,5). Thus, A-bomb exposure seems to augment inflammatory response to pathogens, though of which mechanisms are not clear now.

  19. Media's role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, E Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2014-01-07

    We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), -2.36, 3.23], but lower nationwide when compared with Boston (b = -2.21; SE = 1.07; 95% CI, -4.31, -0.12). Adjusting for prebombing mental health (collected prospectively), demographics, and prior collective stress exposure, six or more daily hours of bombing-related media exposure in the week after the bombings was associated with higher acute stress than direct exposure to the bombings (continuous acute stress symptom total: media exposure b = 15.61 vs. direct exposure b = 5.69). Controlling for prospectively collected prebombing television-watching habits did not change the findings. In adjusted models, direct exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the Sandy Hook School shootings were both significantly associated with bombing-related acute stress; Superstorm Sandy exposure wasn't. Prior exposure to similar and/or violent events may render some individuals vulnerable to the negative effects of collective traumas. Repeatedly engaging with trauma-related media content for several hours daily shortly after collective trauma may prolong acute stress experiences and promote substantial stress-related symptomatology. Mass media may become a conduit that spreads negative consequences of community trauma beyond directly affected communities.

  20. Prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder in children: the case of the Mbagala bomb blasts in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messo, Innocent Nasson

    2013-05-01

    In April 2009, military bombs stockpiled in Mbagala, Dar es Salaam, exploded uncontrollably, landing in the neighbourhood killing 26 people, injuring about 600 and destroying 9049 homes. This must have been a terrible experience, with psychological consequences. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among the children involved in the bomb blasts. It was hypothesized that children would not exhibit PTSD symptoms, as well as not showing sex differences in exhibiting PTSD symptoms. The study findings show 93% of children bomb survivors had PTSD symptoms, with no sex differences in the PTSD reported.

  1. Cancer and non-cancer effects in Japanese atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, M P [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College, London W2 1PG (United Kingdom)], E-mail: mark.little@imperial.ac.uk

    2009-06-01

    The survivors of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are a general population of all ages and sexes and, because of the wide and well characterised range of doses received, have been used by many scientific committees (International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR)) as the basis of population cancer risk estimates following radiation exposure. Leukaemia was the first cancer to be associated with atomic bomb radiation exposure, with preliminary indications of an excess among the survivors within the first five years after the bombings. An excess of solid cancers became apparent approximately ten years after radiation exposure. With increasing follow-up, excess risks of most cancer types have been observed, the major exceptions being chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, and pancreatic, prostate and uterine cancer. For most solid cancer sites a linear dose response is observed, although in the latest follow-up of the mortality data there is evidence (p = 0.10) for an upward curvature in the dose response for all solid cancers. The only cancer sites which exhibit (upward) curvature in the dose response are leukaemia, and non-melanoma skin and bone cancer. For leukaemia the dose response is very markedly upward curving, indeed largely describable as a pure quadratic dose response, particularly in the low dose (0-2 Sv) range. Even 55 years after the bombings over 40% of the Life Span Study cohort remain alive, so continued follow-up of this group is vital for completing our understanding of long-term radiation effects in people. In general, the relative risks per unit dose among the Japanese atomic bomb survivors are greater than those among comparable subsets in studies of medically exposed individuals. Cell sterilisation largely accounts for the discrepancy in relative risks between these two populations, although other

  2. Penetrating injury of the lungs and multiple injuries of lower extremities caused by aircraft bombs splinters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Zoran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Injuries caused by aircraft bombs cause severe damages to the human body. They are characterized by massive destruction of injured tissues and organs, primary contamination by polymorph bacterial flora and modified reactivity of the body. Upon being wounded by aircraft bombs projectiles a victim simultaneously sustains severe damages of many organs and organ systems due to the fact that a large number of projectiles at the same time injure the chest, stomach, head and extremities. Case report. We presented a patient, 41 years of age, injured by aircraft bomb with hemo-pneumothorax and destruction of the bone and soft tissue structures of the foot, as well as the treatment result of such heavy injuries. After receiving thoracocentesis and short reanimation, the patient underwent surgical procedure. The team performed thoracotomy, primary treatment of the wound and atypical resection of the left lung. Thoracic drains were placed. The wounds on the lower leg and feet were treated primarily. Due to massive destruction of bone tissue of the right foot by cluster bomb splinters, and impossibility of reconstruction of the foot, guillotine amputation of the right lower leg was performed. Twelve days after the wounding caused by cluster bomb splinters, soft tissue of the left lower leg was covered by Tirsch free transplantant and the defect in the area of the left foot was covered by dorsalis pedis flap. The transplant and flap were accepted and the donor sites were epithelized. Twenty-six days following the wounding reamputation was performed and amputation stump of the right lower leg was closed. The patient was given a lower leg prosthesis with which he could move. Conclusion. Upon being wounded by aircraft bomb splinters, the injured person sustains severe wounds of multiple organs and organ systems due to simultaneous injuries caused by a large number of projectiles. It is necessary to take care of the vital organs first because they

  3. Very low cost stand-off suicide bomber detection system using human gait analysis to screen potential bomb carrying individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greneker, Gene, III

    2005-05-01

    Individuals who carry bombs on their bodies and detonate those bombs in public places are a security problem. There is belief that suicide bombings currently used in the mid-east may spread to the United States if the organized terrorist groups operating in the United States are not identified and the cell members arrested. While bombs in vehicles are the primary method currently used to spread terror in Iraq, U. S. warfighters are starting to face suicide bombers. This may become more of the situation if a stand-off detection capability is developed for the vehicle bomb case. This paper presents a concept, that if developed and commercialized, could provide an inexpensive suicide bomber screening system that could be used to screen individuals approaching a checkpoint while the individual is still 500 to 1,000 feet from the checkpoint. The proposed system measures both the radar cross-section of the individual and the radar derived gait characteristics that are associated with individuals carrying a bomb on their body. GTRI researchers propose to use human gait characteristics, as detected by radar, to determine if a human subject who is carrying no visible load on the body is actually carrying a concealed load under their clothes. The use of radar gait as a metric for the detection (as opposed to a video system) of a suicide bomber is being proposed because detection of gait characteristics are thought to be less sensitive to where the bomb is located on the body, lighting conditions, and the fact that the legs may be shrouded in a robe. The detection of a bomb using radar gait analysis may also prove to be less sensitive to changing tactics regarding where the bomb is placed on the body. An inert suicide bomb vest was constructed using water pipes to simulate the explosive devices. Wiring was added to simulated detonators. The vest weighs approximately 35 pounds. Radar data was taken on the volunteer subject wearing the vest that simulated the suicide bomb. This

  4. Embracing the Bomb: Ethics, Morality, and Nuclear Deterrence in the U.S. Air Force, 1945-1955

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    U.S. constitution, a personal and professional devotion to strategic bombing, and an ardent belief lThe United States Strategic Bombing Survey...largely wait until after hostilities ceased, so it naturally focused on, and was severely complicated by, the closing epic event of the war: the...activities, from machines to morals, from physics to philosophy, from politics to poetry ,൪ yet the popular feeling was that humans could properly and

  5. Superradiance and black hole bomb in five-dimensional minimal ungauged supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Aliev, Alikram N

    2014-01-01

    We examine the black hole bomb model which consists of a rotating black hole of five-dimenensional minimal ungauged supergravity and a reflecting mirror around it. For low-frequency scalar perturbations, we find solutions to the Klein-Gordon equation in the near-horizon and far regions of the black hole spacetime. To avoid solutions with logarithmic terms, we assume that the orbital quantum number $ l $ takes on nearly, but not exactly, integer values and perform the matching of these solutions in an intermediate region. This allows us to calculate analytically the frequency spectrum of quasinormal modes, taking the limits as $ l $ approaches even or odd integers separately. We find that all $ l $ modes of scalar perturbations undergo negative damping in the regime of superradiance, resulting in exponential growth of their amplitudes. Thus, the model under consideration would exhibit the superradiant instability, eventually behaving as a black hole bomb in five dimensions.

  6. Superradiance and black hole bomb in five-dimensional minimal ungauged supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliev, Alikram N.

    2014-11-01

    We examine the black hole bomb model which consists of a rotating black hole of five-dimenensional minimal ungauged supergravity and a reflecting mirror around it. For low-frequency scalar perturbations, we find solutions to the Klein-Gordon equation in the near-horizon and far regions of the black hole spacetime. To avoid solutions with logarithmic terms, we assume that the orbital quantum number l takes on nearly, but not exactly, integer values and perform the matching of these solutions in an intermediate region. This allows us to calculate analytically the frequency spectrum of quasinormal modes, taking the limits as l approaches even or odd integers separately. We find that all l modes of scalar perturbations undergo negative damping in the regime of superradiance, resulting in exponential growth of their amplitudes. Thus, the model under consideration would exhibit the superradiant instability, eventually behaving as a black hole bomb in five dimensions.

  7. The cohort of the atomic bomb survivors major basis of radiation safety regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Rühm, W; Nekolla, E A

    2006-01-01

    Since 1950 about 87 000 A-bomb survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been monitored within the framework of the Life Span Study, to quantify radiation-induced late effects. In terms of incidence and mortality, a statistically significant excess was found for leukemia and solid tumors. In another major international effort, neutron and gamma radiation doses were estimated, for those survivors (Dosimetry System DS02). Both studies combined allow the deduction of risk coefficients that serve as a basis for international safety regulations. As an example, current results on all solid tumors combined suggest an excess relative risk of 0.47 per Sievert for an attained age of 70 years, for those who were exposed at an age of 30 years. After exposure to an effective dose of one Sievert the solid tumor mortality would thus be about 50% larger than that expected for a similar cohort not exposed to any ionizing radiation from the bombs.

  8. Impact of the Boston Marathon Bombing and Its Aftermath on Refugees and Survivors of Torture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwowarczyk, Linda; Rous, Dana; Mancuso, Anna; Flinton, Kathleen; Hastings, Erica; Forbush, Leigh; Shepherd, Amy

    2016-08-01

    On April 15, 2013, Boston residents and guests gathered for the Boston Marathon. Two explosives at the finish line killed three people and injured hundreds of others. As part of our clinical encounters, patients of the Boston Center for Refugee Health & Human Rights were asked about the marathon bombing. We were concerned about the high level of armed security as many of our patients had been detained in their countries of origin. Eighty patients seen between April 16 and July 7, 2013 were asked about their experience of the Boston Marathon bombing and its aftermath. A retrospective chart review was undertaken and data analyzed using Atlas.ti & SPSS. Approximately 86 % of those interviewed were reminded of their past trauma. The following themes emerged: triggering and trauma related symptoms, content specific cognitive schemas, recognition of the universality of violence, fears of discrimination, issues surrounding safety, and specific concerns of Muslims.

  9. Neutron and gamma ray calculation for Hiroshima-type atomic bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshi, Masaharu; Endo, Satoru; Takada, Jun [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine; Iwatani, Kazuo; Oka, Takamitsu; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Fujita, Shoichiro; Hasai, Hiromi

    1998-03-01

    We looked at the radiation dose of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb again in 1986. We gave it the name of ``Dosimetry System 1986`` (DS86). We and other groups have measured the expose dose since 1986. Now, the difference between data of {sup 152}Eu and the calculation result on the basis of DS86 was found. To investigate the reason, we carried out the calculations of neutron transport and neutron absorption gamma ray for Hiroshima atomic bomb by MCNP3A and MCNP4A code. The problems caused by fast neutron {sup 32}P from sulfur in insulator of pole. To correct the difference, we investigated many models and found agreement of all data within 1 km. (S.Y.)

  10. Howard Zinn, La bombe. De l'inutilité des bombardements aériens

    OpenAIRE

    Erbs, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Avec La bombe, Howard Zinn signe son dernier ouvrage. Historien, intellectuel réputé, engagé au côté des mouvements contestataires américains, Howard Zinn a marqué les consciences grâce à ses écrits critiques sur le pouvoir et ses structures. La bombe reprend un texte original, « Hiroshima : briser le silence », publié en 1995 à l’occasion du 50e anniversaire du bombardement atomique du Japon. L’auteur souhaite y subvertir les discours prônant la nécessité des attaques atomiques contre le Jap...

  11. Work of the Tamm-Sakharov group on the first hydrogen bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritus, V. I.

    2014-09-01

    This review is an extended version of a report delivered at a session of the Department of Physical Sciences, the Department of Energetics, Mechanical Engineering, Mechanics, and Control Processes, and the Coordination Council on Technical Sciences of the RAS devoted to the 60th anniversary of the first hydrogen bomb test. The significant physical ideas suggested by A D Sakharov and V L Ginzburg underlying our first hydrogen bomb, RDS-6s, and numerous concrete problems and difficulties that had to be solved and overcome in designing thermonuclear weapons are presented. The understanding of the country's leaders and the Atomic Project managers of the exceptional role of fundamental science in the appearance and implementation of our scientists' concrete ideas and suggestions is emphasized.

  12. Radiation dose, reproductive history, and breast cancer risk among Japanese A-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, C.E. [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Excess risk of female breast cancer is among the most comprehensively documented late effects of exposure to substantial doses of ionizing radiation, based on studies of medically irradiated populations and the survivors of the A-bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This study looks at the interaction of dose with epidemiological factors like age at first full-term pregnancy and family history of breast cancer, most closely associated with risk in epidemiological studies of non-irradiatied populations. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  13. Prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in Asia: a viewpoint from nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Masako; Tomonaga, Masao

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is a known environmental risk factor for a variety of cancers including hematological malignancies, such as leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and multiple myeloma. Therefore, for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors (surviving victims who were exposed to ionizing radiation emitted from the nuclear weapons), several cancer-screening tests have been provided annually, with government support, to detect the early stage of malignancies. An M-protein screening test has been used to detect multiple myeloma at an early stage among atomic bomb survivors. In the screening process, a number of patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), in addition to multiple myeloma, have been identified. In 2009 and 2011, we reported the age- and sex-specific prevalence of MGUS between 1988 and 2004 and the possible role of radiation exposure in the development of MGUS using the screening data of more than 1000 patients with MGUS among approximately 52,000 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The findings included: (1) a significant lower overall prevalence (2.1%) than that observed in Caucasian or African-origin populations; (2) a significantly higher prevalence in men than in women; (3) an age-related increase in the prevalence; (4) a significantly higher prevalence in people exposed to higher radiation doses only among those exposed at age 20 years or younger; and (5) a lower frequency of immunoglobulin M MGUS in Japanese patients than in patients in Western countries. The large study of MGUS among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors has provided important findings for the etiology of MGUS, including a possible role of radiation exposure on the cause of MGUS and an ethnicity-related difference in the characteristics of MGUS.

  14. Franco Rasetti physicien et naturaliste : (il a dit non à la bombe)

    CERN Document Server

    Ouellet, Danielle

    2000-01-01

    Brève biographie d'un physicien italien injustement méconnu, professeur à l'Université Laval de 1939 à 1947. Ayant contribué, dans les années 1930, à des expériences qui ont par la suite mené à la fabrication de la bombe atomique, il s'est retiré du dossier dès qu'il en a compris le danger.

  15. ["Living with the bomb" - Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's path from physics to politics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker spanned a spectrum from physics to politics, with philosophy in-between. This chapter surveys the most controversial part of his career, including his work on nuclear weapons and participation in cultural propaganda during the Second World War, his subsequent active political engagement during the postwar Federal German Republic, in particular the role of nuclear weapons, and his participation in myths surrounding Hitler's Bomb".

  16. Boosting Belligerence: How the July 7, 2005, London Bombings Affected Liberals' Moral Foundations and Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Vyver, Julie; Houston, Diane M; Abrams, Dominic; Vasiljevic, Milica

    2016-02-01

    Major terrorist events, such as the recent attacks in Ankara, Sinai, and Paris, can have profound effects on a nation's values, attitudes, and prejudices. Yet psychological evidence testing the impact of such events via data collected immediately before and after an attack is understandably rare. In the present research, we tested the independent and joint effects of threat (the July 7, 2005, London bombings) and political ideology on endorsement of moral foundations and prejudices among two nationally representative samples (combined N = 2,031) about 6 weeks before and 1 month after the London bombings. After the bombings, there was greater endorsement of the in-group foundation, lower endorsement of the fairness-reciprocity foundation, and stronger prejudices toward Muslims and immigrants. The differences in both the endorsement of the foundations and the prejudices were larger among people with a liberal orientation than among those with a conservative orientation. Furthermore, the changes in endorsement of moral foundations among liberals explained their increases in prejudice. The results highlight the value of psychological theory and research for understanding societal changes in attitudes and prejudices after major terrorist events.

  17. Proceedings of 42nd Research Society for the Late Effects of the A-Bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Hideo [Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Casualty Council Health Management and Promotion Center (Japan); Nakane, Yoshibumi [Nagasaki Univ. Graduate School of Bio-medicine (Japan); Suzuki, Gen [Radiation Effect Research Foundation, Hiroshima (JP)] [and others

    2002-03-01

    This issue is the collection of study papers presented in the meeting in the title: the special review lecture concerning the epidemiological evidences of multiple myeloma examination in A-bomb survivors (12-year study), the symposium concerning the medical care of A-bomb survivors in 21st century (5 presentations of medical care for the aged survivors, psychiatric approach and psychological care, future clinical studies and survivors' children in RERF, epidemiological study on the late effect of A-bomb radiation, and international cooperation of medical care in Semipalatinsk), and 51 general presentations. The general presentations included 1 article concerning external dose estimation in Ust-Kamenogorsk city, 7, the health care and management of the survivors, 9, cancer and its risk assessment (lung, uterine, stomach, liver and bone marrow), 1, arteriosclerosis, 10, health physics studies in relation to Semipalatinsk and/or Chernobyl (mainly on thyroid cancer), 2, experimental animal studies of thyroid cancer and malformation, 9, genomic studies like gene rearrangement, REV1 SNPs, function analysis and regeneration medicine, and 12, histological and cytological studies concerning DNA/RNA extraction, gene expression, signal transduction and immune system. (K.H.)

  18. Myth-building: The [open quotes]Islamic[close quotes] bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoodbhoy, P. (Quadi-e-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan))

    1993-06-01

    The [open quotes]Islamic Bomb[close quotes] is roughly understood to be a nuclear weapon aquired for broad ideological reasons--a weapon that supposedly belongs to the Muslim [ital ummah] or community and, as such, is the ultimate expression of Islamic solidarity. Concern about the Islamic bomb is at the heart of the intense effort to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons to Muslim countries. The official justification is a general one: proliferation must be curbed globally. But unofficially, the Islamic bomb gets special attention. The reasons behind this special attention are described in this article. The reasons include fear of terrorism, of a [ital jihad] willing to indiscriminately use nuclear weapons in hope of a reward in the Hereafter, and of the transfer of nuclear arms from nuclear to non-nuclear Muslim countries in times of crisis. Possibilities for controlling the proliferation of nuclear weapons in Muslim countries are addressed. Reasons are cited as to why various Muslim countries wish to acquire nuclear weapons.

  19. From the Dawn of Nuclear Physics to the First Atomic Bombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolbright, Stephen; Schumacher, Jacob; Michonova-Alexova, Ekaterina

    2014-03-01

    This work gives a fresh look at the major discoveries leading to nuclear fission within the historical perspective. The focus is on the main contributors to the discoveries in nuclear physics, leading to the idea of fission and its application to the creation of the atomic bombs used at the end of the World War II. The present work is a more complete review on the history of the nuclear physics discoveries and their application to the atomic bomb. In addition to the traditional approach to the topic, focusing mainly on the fundamental physics discoveries in Europe and on the Manhattan Project in the United States, the nuclear research in Japan is also emphasized. Along with that, a review of the existing credible scholar publications, providing evidence for possible atomic bomb research in Japan, is provided. Proper credit is given to the women physicists, whose contributions had not always been recognized. Considering the historical and political situation at the time of the scientific discoveries, thought-provoking questions about decision-making, morality, and responsibility are also addressed. The work refers to the contributions of over 20 Nobel Prize winners. EM-A is grateful to Prof. Walter Grunden and to Prof. Emeritus Shadahiko Kano, Prof. Emeritus Monitori Hoshi for sharing their own notes, documents, and references, and to CCCU for sponsoring her participation in the 2013 Nuclear Weapons Seminar in Japan.

  20. Oxygen bomb combustion of biological samples for inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Gilberto B.; Carrilho, Elma Neide V. M.; Oliveira, Camila V.; Nogueira, Ana Rita A.; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.

    2002-12-01

    A rapid sample preparation method is proposed for decomposition of milk powder, corn bran, bovine and fish tissues, containing certified contents of the analytes. The procedure involves sample combustion in a commercial stainless steel oxygen bomb operating at 25 bar. Most of the samples were decomposed within 5 min. Diluted nitric acid or water-soluble tertiary amines 10% v/v were used as absorption solutions. Calcium, Cu, K, Mg, Na, P, S and Zn were recovered with the bomb washings and determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Ethanol mixed with paraffin was used as a combustion aid to allow complete combustion. A cooling step prior releasing of the bomb valve was employed to increase the efficiency of sample combustion. Iodine was also determined in milk samples spiked with potassium iodide to evaluate the volatilization and collection of iodine in amine CFA-C medium and the feasibility of its determination by ICP-OES with axial view configuration. Most of the element recoveries in the samples were between 91 and 105% and the certified and found contents exhibited a fair agreement at a 95% confidence level.

  1. Discussion: Reporting and calibration of post-bomb 14C data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimer, P J; Brown, T A; Reimer, R W

    2004-10-11

    The definitive paper by Stuiver and Polach (1977) established the conventions for reporting of {sup 14}C data for chronological and geophysical studies based on the radioactive decay of {sup 14}C in the sample since the year of sample death or formation. Several ways of reporting {sup 14}C activity levels relative to a standard were also established, but no specific instructions were given for reporting nuclear weapons testing (post-bomb) {sup 14}C levels in samples. Because the use of post-bomb {sup 14}C is becoming more prevalent in forensics, biology, and geosciences, a convention needs to be adopted. We advocate the use of fraction modern with a new symbol F{sup 14}C to prevent confusion with the previously used Fm, which may or may not have been fractionation corrected. We also discuss the calibration of post-bomb {sup 14}C samples and the available datasets and compilations, but do not give a recommendation for a particular dataset.

  2. How training and experience affect the benefits of autonomy in a dirty-bomb experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Bruemmer; Curtis W. Nielsen; David I. Gertman

    2008-03-01

    A dirty-bomb experiment conducted at the INL is used to evaluate the effectiveness and suitability of three different modes of robot control. The experiment uses three distinct user groups to understand how participants’ background and training affect the way in which they use and benefit from autonomy. The results show that the target mode, which involves automated mapping and plume tracing together with a point and click tasking tool, provides the best performance for each group. This is true for objective performance such as source detection and localization accuracy as well as subjective measures such as perceived workload, frustration and preference. The best overall performance is achieved by the Explosive Ordinance Disposal group which has experience in both robot teleoperation and dirty bomb response. The user group that benefits least from autonomy is the Nuclear Engineers that have no experience with either robot operation or dirty bomb response. The group that benefits most from autonomy is the Weapons of Mass Destruction Civil Response Team that has extensive experience related to the task, but no robot training.

  3. Detailed analysis of a quench bomb for the study of aluminum agglomeration in solid propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallier, S.; Kratz, J.-G.; Quaglia, N.; Fouin, G.

    2016-07-01

    A standard quench bomb (QB) - widely used to characterize condensed phase from metalized solid propellant combustion - is studied in detail. Experimental and numerical investigations proved that collected particles are mostly unburned aluminum (Al) agglomerates despite large quenching distances. Particles are actually found to quench early as propellant surface is swept by inert pressurant. Further improvements of the QB are proposed which allow measuring both Al agglomerates and alumina residue with the same setup. Finally, the results obtained on a typical aluminized ammonium perchlorate (AP) / hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellant are briefly discussed.

  4. Ensuring the safety of surgical teams when managing casualties of a radiological dirty bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Geraint; O'Malley, Michael; Nocera, Antony

    2010-09-01

    The capacity for surgical teams to ensure their own safety when dealing with the consequences caused by the detonation of a radiological dirty bomb is primarily determined by prior knowledge, familiarity and training for this type of event. This review article defines the associated radiological terminology with an emphasis on the personal safety of surgical team members in respect to the principles of radiological protection. The article also describes a technique for use of hand held radiation monitors and will discuss the identification and management of radiologically contaminated patients who may pose a significant danger to the surgical team.

  5. The quantum exodus jewish fugitives, the atomic bomb, and the holocaust

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Gordon Murray

    2012-01-01

    It was no accident that the Holocaust and the Atomic Bomb happened at the same time. When the Nazis came into power in 1933, their initial objective was not to get rid of Jews. Rather, their aim was to refine German culture: Jewish professors and teachers at fine universities were sacked. Atomic science had attracted a lot of Jewish talent, and as Albert Einstein and other quantum exiles scattered, they realized that they held the key to a weapon of unimaginable power. Convincedthat their gentile counterparts in Germany had come to the same conclusion, and having witnessed what the Nazis were

  6. A Tenor Analysis of Barack Obama's Speech on Boston Marathon Bombing Event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄骥

    2013-01-01

    Systemic-Functional Grammar is a sociologically oriented functional linguistic approach developed by M. A. K. Halli-day. One of the focuses of SFG is register, which is composed of field, tenor and mode. Halliday particularly developed these three main parameters, which are useful for characterizing the nature of the social transaction of the participants. In this essay, the method of tenor is used for analyzing Barack Obama's speech on Boston Marathon bombing event to explore how Obama trans-fers his ideas to audience in order to achieve his goals.

  7. 360° FILM BRINGS BOMBED CHURCH TO LIFE

    OpenAIRE

    K. Kwiatek

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores how a computer-generated reconstruction of a church can be adapted to create a panoramic film that is presented in a panoramic viewer and also on a wrap-around projection system. It focuses on the fundamental principles of creating 360º films, not only in 3D modelling software, but also presents how to record 360º video using panoramic cameras inside the heritage site. These issues are explored in a case study of Charles Church in Plymouth, UK that was bombed in 1941 and h...

  8. "Bomb explosion on the Nis express" - lessons from a major incident, Kosovo 16 Feb 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassallo, D J; Graham, P J K; Gupta, G; Alempijevic, Dj

    2005-03-01

    On Friday 16 February 2001, terrorists detonated a bomb under a civilian coach travelling from Nis in Serbia to Gracanica in Kosovo. 10 people were killed at the scene. 13 casualties were treated in the British KFOR hospital (Reynolds Hospital) in Pristina. Another 8 casualties were evacuated to the American KFOR hospital at Camp Bondsteel. The incident provided a unique opportunity for co-operation between British, American, Russian, German and French KFOR hospitals, as well as with Serbian clinicians and forensic pathologists. This article analyses the medical management of this major incident, identifies the lessons to be learned from it, and also provides enough detail for teaching scenarios.

  9. Pros and cons on ''Hitlers' bomb''. Studies on nuclear research in Germany; Fuer und Wider ''Hitlers Bombe''. Studien zur Atomforschung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsch, R.; Petermann, H. (eds.)

    2007-07-01

    This book reveals a sensation: Under supervision of the SS German scientists tested 1944/45 nuclear bombs on Ruegen and in Thuringia. During this period several hundred prisoners of war and prisoners died. Besides proofs for nuclear weapon testing the author also found a draft for a patent on plutonium bombs and discovered the first functioning German atom reactor in the environs of Berlin. The succeeding book titled above enlarges the spectra of contributions from Saenger PLan to attack New York, researches on minimization of critical mass, the attempt to calculate TNT-equivalence as the presentation of important acteurs occuring during the researches. (GL)

  10. Complexities in the Use of Bomb-Curve Radiocarbon to Determine Time Since Death of Human Skeletal Remains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubelaker, D H; Buchholz, B A

    2005-04-26

    Atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons during the 1950s and early 1960s doubled the level of radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) in the atmosphere. From the peak in 1963, the level of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} has decreased exponentially with a mean life of about 16 years, not due to radioactive decay, but due to mixing with large marine and terrestrial carbon reservoirs. Since radiocarbon is incorporated into all living things, the bomb-pulse is an isotopic chronometer of the past half century. The absence of bomb radiocarbon in skeletonized human remains generally indicates a date of death before 1950. Comparison of the radiocarbon values with the post 1950 bomb-curve may also help elucidate when in the post 1950 era, the individual was still alive. Such interpretation however, must consider the age at death of the individual and the type of tissue sampled.

  11. Report on the results of the tenth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Jun [Hiroshima Prefectural Medical Association (Japan); Ohta, Nobuhiro; Sasaki, Hideo [and others

    1996-01-01

    The 10th medical examination of A-bomb survivors resident in North America was conducted from 6 June to 6 July 1995 in L.A., S.F., Seattle, Wailuku, and Honolulu. Since this is the 10th medical examination, results of the previous examination are summarized. With the exclusion of 55 whose death has been confirmed, the total registered number of A-bomb survivors resident in North America is 1,043. The examinees in the present examination amounted to 463 (48 of them are the children of A-bomb survivors), 26 of whom are newly registered survivors. The mean age of the examinees in 64 years. The proportion of those having US nationality gradually increased and reached 62% at the time of the 10th examination, while that of those who have Japanese nationality and permanent US residency rights decreased to 30%. When the examination program was initiated, A-bomb survivors resident in 15 states of the US, but now, in Canada and 31 states of the US. About 90% of these survivors reside along the west coast of the US including Hawaii. The number of holders of A-bomb survivor`s health handbook has increased year after year, reaching 612. When the holders in North-America visit Japan for medical treatment, they are treated similarly with their counterparts in Japan. The major subjective symptoms are complete exhaustion or fatigue, heat intolerance, loss of vigor, and numbness or tingling. The prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus and the proportion of abnormal ECG findings has been increasing with the age. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia was high and that of low HDL cholesterolemia was low. A significant difference was observed between the A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and North America. Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, ischemic heart disease, and diabetes mellitus were observed mainly. Diseased of specific places were not observed. (H.O.).

  12. Effect of improved subgrid scale transport of tracers on uptake of bomb radiocarbon in the GFDL Ocean General Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, P. B.; Eltgroth, P.; Bourgeois, A. J.; Caldeira, K.

    1995-05-01

    We show that the Gent-McWilliams tracer transport parameterization greatly improves the ability of the GFDL ocean general circulation model to simulate vertical profiles of both temperature and bomb radiocarbon with a single set of model parameter values. This parameterization, which includes new advection terms as well as isopycnal mixing, has previously been shown to greatly improve simulated temperature fields. Here, we show that it does not markedly affect the already good simulation of oceanic absorption of bomb radiocarbon, and discuss the reasons for this result.

  13. Genetic effect of A-bomb radiation- Analysis of minisatellite regions detected by DNA fingerprint probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodaira, Mieko [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    In author's laboratory, screening of mutation in germ cells of A-bomb survivors is under investigation with use of 8 single-locus minisatellite probes and no increase in mutation rate has been detected hitherto. This paper reported results of screening on the minisatellite region, which consisting of short repeated base sequence, using a DNA fingerprint probe for 33.15 core sequence. Subjects were 50 A-bomb survivor families exposed to mean dose of 1.9 Sv (exposed group) or 0 Gy (control), having 64 or 60 children, respectively. DNA was extracted from their B cells established by EB virus and subjected to agarose-gel electrophoresis followed by southern blotting with some improvements for fingerprinting. On the fingerprints, numbers of the band detected in regions of >3.5 kb were 1080 in children of the exposed group (16.9/child) and 1024 (17.1) in the control group, indicating no detectable effect of exposure on the germ cell mutation rate in the region.(K.H.)

  14. Sun, Ocean, Nuclear Bombs, and Fossil Fuels: Radiocarbon Variations and Implications for High-Resolution Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Koushik

    2016-06-01

    Radiocarbon, or 14C, is a radiometric dating method ideally suited for providing a chronological framework in archaeology and geosciences for timescales spanning the last 50,000 years. 14C is easily detectable in most common natural organic materials and has a half-life (5,730±40 years) relevant to these timescales. 14C produced from large-scale detonations of nuclear bombs between the 1950s and the early 1960s can be used for dating modern organic materials formed after the 1950s. Often these studies demand high-resolution chronology to resolve ages within a few decades to less than a few years. Despite developments in modern, high-precision 14C analytical methods, the applicability of 14C in high-resolution chronology is limited by short-term variations in atmospheric 14C in the past. This article reviews the roles of the principal natural drivers (e.g., solar magnetic activity and ocean circulation) and the anthropogenic perturbations (e.g., fossil fuel CO2 and 14C from nuclear and thermonuclear bombs) that are responsible for short-term 14C variations in the environment. Methods and challenges of high-resolution 14C dating are discussed.

  15. Dynamic Forecasting Conditional Probability of Bombing Attacks Based on Time-Series and Intervention Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuying; Zhuang, Jun; Shen, Shifei

    2016-08-23

    In recent years, various types of terrorist attacks occurred, causing worldwide catastrophes. According to the Global Terrorism Database (GTD), among all attack tactics, bombing attacks happened most frequently, followed by armed assaults. In this article, a model for analyzing and forecasting the conditional probability of bombing attacks (CPBAs) based on time-series methods is developed. In addition, intervention analysis is used to analyze the sudden increase in the time-series process. The results show that the CPBA increased dramatically at the end of 2011. During that time, the CPBA increased by 16.0% in a two-month period to reach the peak value, but still stays 9.0% greater than the predicted level after the temporary effect gradually decays. By contrast, no significant fluctuation can be found in the conditional probability process of armed assault. It can be inferred that some social unrest, such as America's troop withdrawal from Afghanistan and Iraq, could have led to the increase of the CPBA in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Pakistan. The integrated time-series and intervention model is used to forecast the monthly CPBA in 2014 and through 2064. The average relative error compared with the real data in 2014 is 3.5%. The model is also applied to the total number of attacks recorded by the GTD between 2004 and 2014.

  16. Listeria monocytogenes meningitis in an atomic bomb survivor receiving corticosteroid therapy for aplastic anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujihara, Kazuo; Shida, Norihiko; Ohta, Michiya [Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan)

    1995-12-01

    We report a case of successfully treated Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) meningitis in a atomic bomb survivor receiving steroid therapy for aplastic anemia. The patient was a 62-year-old woman and the past medical history included hypothyroidism due to radioiodide therapy for Basedow disease, breast cancer, aplastic anemia, steroid-induced diabetes mellitus, and pulmonary tuberculosis. At the time of onset, she was receiving corticosteroid, anabolic steroid, an H{sub 2}-blocker (famotidine), and other medication. Since she developed symptoms of meningitis when she visited our hospital for regular medical check-up for aplastic anemia, she was hospitalized and given antibiotic therapy, including ABPC, without delay. With this effective antibiotic therapy and successful management of the co-existing medical conditions, she was cured except for being a little euphoric. Lm meningitis is known to occur in aged and immunocompromised patients. Since most of the atomic bomb survivors are now aged and the prevalence of malignancy, diabetes mellitus, and other diseases which cause immunodeficiency have been rising year by year, Lm meningitis is one of the emergency neurologic conditions whose diagnosis should not be delayed in this population. (author).

  17. Did the Allies Know in 1942 About Nazi Germany's Poor Prospects for an Atomic Bomb?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Harry

    2008-04-01

    According to official accounts, the U.S. knew nothing about Nazi Germany's efforts to get an atomic bomb until the end of the World War II, but had feared the worst. As it turned out, the Germans had made little progress. But did someone in the Allied camp know in 1942? In his 1986 book, The Griffin, Arnold Kramish relates how Paul Rosbaud, a spy for MI6, the British secret intelligence service, kept his handlers informed during the War about the German atomic project and reported the decision to give up on a bomb. Kramish's revelations are, understandably, thinly documented and Rosbaud's name can hardly be found independenly anywhere else. But as Samuel Goudsmit's papers in the Bohr Library show, he knew and communicated with Rosbaud from August 1945 on. In 1986, 15 letters exchanged by Goudsmit and Rosbaud were removed by the Government from the Library and eventually placed in the National Archives under classification review. Renewed interest in the Rosbaud story was engendered last year when his family sued MI6 in an English court for the release of the Rosbaud file. So far the spy agency has refused to reveal even that there is such a file. Discovering authoritatively what Rosbaud told the British and what they did with the information is clearly of historical interest.

  18. Convictions Beyond the Bomb: Interplays Between Violence, Religion and Development in Sri Lanka (abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indika Bulankulame

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Prior to the conclusion of 30 years of civil war, many ordinary Sri Lankans were caught in bombings intended to disrupt daily life. This occurred not only in the war zone, but also in urban areas, primarily the capital of Colombo. While many lost their lives, others survived – scarred, disabled and traumatised. This chapter explores the meaning of ‘survival’ as experienced in newly-formed role of ‘bomb victim’. In doing so, this chapter questions the capacity of survivors to be productive as breadwinners and/or deal with the severe economic dislocations resulting from the drastic changes in their lives’ trajectories. Overall, the chapter finds that the loss of income and inability to fully participate in the market economy isolating the survivors from the main discourses of development, and purported opportunities offered therein. The end of hostilities has marked a clear drive to develop Sri Lanka, and in this important post-war stage, it is important to note the various ways in which religion is used to address survival needs. This chapter thus highlights the dynamic interplay between religion, political violence and development. In doing so, the chapter examines religious responses to (neo liberal, market-driven globalisation, the experience of terror and violence, and the interaction thereof.

  19. [A peculiar speech disorder due to bomb injury of the brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hem, Erlend

    2006-12-14

    Oslo was bombed by British bombers 6 September 1941, and a 28-year-old woman was hit on the head by a bomb fragment. She was seriously wounded with a large defect in the cranium frontally on the left side, and it was believed that she was not going to survive. She was unconscious for 3-4 days, and when she woke up she had right-sided hemiplegia and complete aphasia. She gradually recovered, and two months later she was discharged from hospital. Remarkably, the brain damage had altered her melody of language, and she spoke with a German-like accent. This led to problems for her during the war: she was for example not served in shops. The case story was published after the war by the Norwegian neurologist Georg Herman Monrad-Krohn (1884-1964), and it is the best known case of the so-called foreign accent syndrome. In this paper, this rare syndrome is presented, emphasising Monrad-Krohn's patient and based on his writings and the patient's medical record.

  20. Time in tortoiseshell: a bomb radiocarbon-validated chronology in sea turtle scutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houtan, Kyle S; Andrews, Allen H; Jones, T Todd; Murakawa, Shawn K K; Hagemann, Molly E

    2016-01-13

    Some of the most basic questions of sea turtle life history are also the most elusive. Many uncertainties surround lifespan, growth rates, maturity and spatial structure, yet these are critical factors in assessing population status. Here we examine the keratinized hard tissues of the hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) carapace and use bomb radiocarbon dating to estimate growth and maturity. Scutes have an established dietary record, yet the large keratin deposits of hawksbills evoke a reliable chronology. We sectioned, polished and imaged posterior marginal scutes from 36 individual hawksbills representing all life stages, several Pacific populations and spanning eight decades. We counted the apparent growth lines, microsampled along growth contours and calibrated Δ(14)C values to reference coral series. We fit von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF) models to the results, producing a range of age estimates for each turtle. We find Hawaii hawksbills deposit eight growth lines annually (range 5-14), with model ensembles producing a somatic growth parameter (k) of 0.13 (range 0.1-0.2) and first breeding at 29 years (range 23-36). Recent bomb radiocarbon values also suggest declining trophic status. Together, our results may reflect long-term changes in the benthic community structure of Hawaii reefs, and possibly shed light on the critical population status for Hawaii hawksbills.

  1. Medical aspects of terrorist bombings - a focus on DCS and DCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutafchiyski, Ventsislav M; Popivanov, Georgi I; Kjossev, Kirien C

    2014-01-01

    Although terrorist bombings have tormented the world for a long time, currently they have reached unprecedented levels and become a continuous threat without borders, race or age. Almost all of them are caused by improvised explosive devices. The unpredictability of the terrorist bombings, leading to simultaneous generation of a large number of casualties and severe "multidimensional" blast trauma require a constant vigilance and preparedness of every hospital worldwide. Approximately 1-2.6% of all trauma patients and 7% of the combat casualties require a massive blood transfusion. Coagulopathy is presented in 65% of them with mortality exceeding 50%. Damage control resuscitation is a novel approach, developed in the military practice for treatment of this subgroup of trauma patients. The comparison with the conventional approach revealed mortality reduction with 40-74%, lower frequency of abdominal compartment syndrome (8% vs. 16%), sepsis (9% vs. 20%), multiorgan failure (16% vs. 37%) and a significant reduction of resuscitation volumes, both crystalloids and blood products. DCS and DCR are promising new approaches, contributing for the mortality reduction among the most severely wounded patients. Despite the lack of consensus about the optimal ratio of the blood products and the possible influence of the survival bias, we think that DCR carries survival benefit and recommend it in trauma patients with exsanguinating bleeding.

  2. Lack of tissue renewal in human adult Achilles tendon is revealed by nuclear bomb (14)C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemeier, Katja Maria; Schjerling, Peter; Heinemeier, Jan; Magnusson, Stig Peter; Kjaer, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Tendons are often injured and heal poorly. Whether this is caused by a slow tissue turnover is unknown, since existing data provide diverging estimates of tendon protein half-life that range from 2 mo to 200 yr. With the purpose of determining life-long turnover of human tendon tissue, we used the (14)C bomb-pulse method. This method takes advantage of the dramatic increase in atmospheric levels of (14)C, produced by nuclear bomb tests in 1955-1963, which is reflected in all living organisms. Levels of (14)C were measured in 28 forensic samples of Achilles tendon core and 4 skeletal muscle samples (donor birth years 1945-1983) with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and compared to known atmospheric levels to estimate tissue turnover. We found that Achilles tendon tissue retained levels of (14)C corresponding to atmospheric levels several decades before tissue sampling, demonstrating a very limited tissue turnover. The tendon concentrations of (14)C approximately reflected the atmospheric levels present during the first 17 yr of life, indicating that the tendon core is formed during height growth and is essentially not renewed thereafter. In contrast, (14)C levels in muscle indicated continuous turnover. Our observation provides a fundamental premise for understanding tendon function and pathology, and likely explains the poor regenerative capacity of tendon tissue.

  3. Late effects of radiation: Neglected aspects of A-bomb data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, A.M.; Kneale, G.W. [Dept. of Public Health and Epidemiology, Birmingham Univ., Edgbaston (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    Both from the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers, and from recent surveys of nuclear workers at Hanford and Oak Ridge, have come risk estimates for cancer effects of radiation that are much higher than the ones based on a life span study cohort of A-bomb survivors. Furthermore, relations between the age when exposed and the cancer risk were radically different for workers and survivors. Therefore, there was clearly a need to discover whether the LSS cohort was a normal homogeneous population or, alternatively, whether persons who had shown signs of acute radiation effects constituted a special, radiosensitive subgroup of survivors. Statistical tests of the alternative hypotheses revealed significant differences between 63,072 survivors who denied having any of the following injuries and 2,601 survivors who claimed two or more of them: radiation, burns, purpura, oropharyngeal lesions and epilation. The tests also showed that the group differences were largely the result of exposures before 10 or after 55 years of age being exceptionally dangerous; that cancer was not the only late effect of the A-bomb radiation, and that it was only among the survivors with multiple injuries that the leukaemia death rate was exceptionally high. (orig.)

  4. Genetic effects of radiation in atomic-bomb survivors and their children: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Nori

    2006-01-01

    Genetic studies in the offspring of atomic bomb survivors have been conducted since 1948 at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Past studies include analysis of birth defects (untoward pregnancy outcome; namely, malformation, stillbirth, and perinatal death), chromosome aberrations, alterations of plasma and erythrocyte proteins as well as epidemiologic study on mortality (any cause) and cancer incidence (the latter study is still ongoing). There is, thus far, no indication of genetic effects in the offspring of survivors. Recently, the development of molecular biological techniques and human genome sequence databases made it possible to analyze DNA from parents and their offspring (trio-analysis). In addition, a clinical program is underway to establish the frequency of adult-onset multi-factorial diseases (diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease etc) in the offspring. The complementary kinds of data that will emerge from this three-pronged approach (clinical, epidemiologic, and molecular aspects) promise to shed light on health effects in the offspring of radiation-exposed people.

  5. Balancing Fear: Why Counter-Terror Legislation was Blocked after the Oklahoma City and London Bombings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Rubin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo escruta las reacciones legislativas a los atentados en la ciudad de Oklahoma y los de Londres en 2005 para intentar descifrar como la legislación antiterrorista ha sustancialmente bloqueado estos ataques. Se intenta mostrar como la resistencia de los gobiernos y los ejecutivos aprueba índices críticos en las leyes antiterroristas. A la luz de una reciente encuesta sobre legislación antiterrorista mundial, los casos donde la legislación antiterrorista ha sido bloqueada ha llegado a ser verdaderamente crítica. A este fin, este artículo se pregunta por qué la legislación antiterrorista se bloquea cuando esto sucede. Para responder a esta cuestión, se han testado tres variables: la composición de los gobiernos, la opinión pública-basada en los niveles de terror en sus medios, y el nivel de acuerdos ejecutivos. Para testar estas variables, se han evaluado dos casos: la evolución de la legislación antiterrorista antes de los ataques de la ciudad de Oklahoma en 1995 y antes de los atentados de Londres de 2005. En la evaluación de los casos, los debates legislativos y ejecutivos han ocurrido antes de los ataques terroristas examinados y luego se han comparado los dos casos con el Reino Unido en 1974 y los Estados Unidos en 2001 cuando la legislación antiterrorista inicia su camino. Este artículo concluye que el nivel de acuerdos ejecutivos y la composición de los gobiernos tiene el mayor poder de explicación en determinadas decisiones antiterroristas que llevarán a secundar la legislación antiterrorista o no.Palabras clave: ataques terroristas a Londres, legislación antiterrorista, Estados Unidos, Reino Unido___________________________ABSTRACT:This article scrutinizes the legislative reactions to the Oklahoma City Bombing and the 2005 London Bombings to try to decipher why counter-terror legislation was substantially blocked after these attacks.  It finds that the partisan composition of the government and

  6. Floating Bombs

    OpenAIRE

    Yuri F. Katorin

    2016-01-01

    In this article one of the episodes of the siege of Antwerp is described, by duke of Parma in 1585–1586 the years during the Dutch fighting for independence (1568–1648) – of application by those precipitated of fire ships for the purpose of the destruction of the pontoon bridge, which partitioned Shelda river and which made impossible the supply of garrison and population of city, is given the description of the device of fire ships, and also damage substituted by them to Spaniards, is analyz...

  7. Energy Bomb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖盖锅锅

    2012-01-01

    成员公开,出道曲公开,JJ Project的什么都是HOTISSUE,这个不是队伍庞大,而只是由两人组成的,“自由奔放,无限欢快的10代”组合,制造的一切都是意想不到的流快!

  8. ’Are We Beasts?’ Churchill and the Moral Question of World War II ’Area Bombing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    in Alamogordo, New Mexico , raised to those who had died at Hiroshima, and he asked, did "the Americans have a bad con- science because the atom bomb...Command, was the cultivation of Soviet Russia. Once "Operation Barbaros - sa" thrust Nazi annies into broad swaths of the U.S.S.R. inJune 1941, the

  9. Ending the War against Japan: Science, Morality, and the Atomic Bomb. Choices for the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Don

    This unit presents students with dilemmas faced by U.S. policymakers with three distinct options for U.S. policy toward Japan. Background readings provide students with information on the U.S. decision to drop the atomic bomb on Japan in 1945. By exploring a spectrum of alternatives, students gain a deeper understanding of the values underlying…

  10. "We Are Not Terrorists," but More Likely Transnationals: Reframing Understandings about Immigrants in Light of the Boston Marathon Bombings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasun, G. Sue

    2013-01-01

    The Boston Marathon bombings in April 2013 created a new kind of discomfort in the United States about "self-radicalized" terrorists, particularly related to Muslim immigrants. The two suspected bombers, brothers with Chechen backgrounds, had attended U.S. public schools. News media portrayed the brothers as "immigrants" and…

  11. "A Is for Atom, B Is for Bomb": Civil Defense in American Public Education, 1948-1963.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, JoAnne

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the development of civil defense education following World War II. Examines its effects on the public as atomic bomb drills became commonplace in schools which also served as fallout shelters. Concludes that inadequate portrayal of the horrors of nuclear war produced anger, fear, and disillusionment as the postwar generation matured.…

  12. Bomb Me: Trans/acting Subject into Object, an Installation for R.I. Simon and Angela Failler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saklikar, Renée Sarojini

    2014-01-01

    This installation is one of a series made and being made while the author writes a life-long poem chronicle, "thecanadaproject." The photographs were taken as the author sifted through her personal archive--a collection that is at once intimate and filled with fragments from a public repository: that of the bombing of an airplane in…

  13. Hepatitis virus infection and chronic liver disease among atomic-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, S.; Cologne, J.; Akahoshi, M. [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Kusumi, S.; Kodama, K.; Yoshizawa, H.

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze various laboratory indicators of inflammation measured in atomic bomb survivors. Subjects are 6304 survivors who underwent inflammatory tests at RERF between 1998 and 1992 and whose radiation doses (DS86) are available. Inflammatory tests include leukocyte counts, neutrophil counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, corrected erythrocyte sedimentation rate, alpha 1 globulin, alpha 2 globulin, and sialic acid. Adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and city of residence, regression analysis was conducted. Regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and city of residence showed statistically significant associations with radiation dose for leukocyte counts (71.0 /mm{sup 3}/Gy, p=0.00151), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (1.58 mm/hour/Gy, p=0.0001), corrected erythrocyte sedimentation rate (1.14 mm/hour/Gy, p=0.0001), alpha 1 globulin (0.0057 g/dl/Gy, p=0.0001), alpha 2 globulin (0.0128 g/dl/Gy, p=0.0001), and sialic acid (1.2711 mg/dl/Gy, p=0.0001), but not for neutrophil counts (29.9 /mm{sup 3}/Gy, p=0.1729). Standardized scores combining results from these seven inflammatory tests showed significant associations with radiation dose both for persons with and without inflammatory disease, and for two inflammatory conditions in particular, chronic thyroiditis and chronic liver disease. In analyses of data from 403 AHS patients, in whom both inflammation indicators and T-cell ratios were measured, increased inflammation correlates with decreases in CD4 T-cells. Since the laboratory indicators of inflammation that we studied are not specific for particular clinical diseases, the implication of their dose-response-pattern is hard to interpret. The general occurrence of infectious diseases in survivors is not related to radiation dose. Such a relationship does exist, however, for other diseases in which infection may play an etiologic role. Virologic studies in A-bomb survivors have suggested dose-response alterations in immune

  14. Indicators of the need for ICU admission following suicide bombing attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Miklosh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Critical hospital resources, especially the demand for ICU beds, are usually limited following mass casualty incidents such as suicide bombing attacks (SBA. Our primary objective was to identify easily diagnosed external signs of injury that will serve as indicators of the need for ICU admission. Our secondary objective was to analyze under- and over-triage following suicidal bombing attacks. Methods A database was collected prospectively from patients who were admitted to Hadassah University Hospital Level I Trauma Centre, Jerusalem, Israel from August 2001-August 2005 following a SBA. One hundred and sixty four victims of 17 suicide bombing attacks were divided into two groups according to ICU and non-ICU admission. Results There were 86 patients in the ICU group (52.4% and 78 patients in the non-ICU group (47.6%. Patients in the ICU group required significantly more operating room time compared with patients in the non-ICU group (59.3% vs. 25.6%, respectively, p = 0.0003. For the ICU group, median ICU stay was 4 days (IQR 2 to 8.25 days. On multivariable analysis only the presence of facial fractures (p = 0.014, peripheral vascular injury (p = 0.015, injury ≥ 4 body areas (p = 0.002 and skull fractures (p = 0.017 were found to be independent predictors of the need for ICU admission. Sixteen survivors (19.5% in the ICU group were admitted to the ICU for one day only (ICU-LOS = 1 and were defined as over-triaged. Median ISS for this group was significantly lower compared with patients who were admitted to the ICU for > 1 day (ICU-LOS > 1. This group of over-triaged patients could not be distinguished from the other ICU patients based on external signs of trauma. None of the patients in the non-ICU group were subsequently transferred to the ICU. Conclusions Our results show that following SBA, injury to ≥ 4 areas, and certain types of injuries such as facial and skull fractures, and peripheral vascular injury, can serve

  15. Lake Urmia disaster- a classical example of the Chemical Time Bomb phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prohić, Esad; Prohić, Laila; Fajković, Hana

    2013-04-01

    chemicals in the environment. In our case such a change could be salinity change as one of the environmental factor which can be a "trigger" for CTB. In our paper we are going to present the basics of the "Chemical Time Bomb" (CTB) phenomenon by reviewing the literature and to try to look to the Lake Urmia case through the CTB concept. Is the Lake Urmia with its surroundings environmental compartments today candidate for what has been called Chemical Time Bomb? We would like to go even one step ahead the classical CTB concept and try to speculate about the possible changes in the biosphere in the same way of approach as for the CTB, something which, even, we could call Biological Time Bomb. Few already existed proposals for lake remedy will be critically discussed, as well.

  16. The textural record of conduit and syn-eruptive degassing preserved in ballistic bombs from cyclic Vulcanian explosions of Galeras volcano, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic bombs preserve textural data that record conduit conditions as well as syn-eruptive processes that acted upon a parcel of magma following decompression. Specifically, these pyroclasts may record several episodes of crystal and bubble growth, as well as bubble coalescence and collapse. Furthermore, bombs retrieved from sequential eruptions provide valuable insight into the unobservable evolution of a volcanic conduit over time. We present results from a morphological and textural study of vesicle size distributions in ballistic bombs from six Vulcanian eruptions from the 2004-2012 period of activity of Galeras volcano, Colombia. These violent eruptions cyclically destroyed and ejected a stalled, degassed and crystal-rich plug and a limited amount of underlying magma. They were followed by resumption of the slow rise of magma in the shallow conduit, accompanied by redevelopment of a plug and the perpetuation of a hazardous cycle. We find that bombs from these eruptions fall into three morphological classes including dense bombs, breadcrusted bombs and vesicular bombs based on the existence or absence of a primary quenched rind and comparison of the interior and exterior vesicularities. We study vesicle populations using image analysis of SEM images followed by stereological conversion to reconstruct the degassing history of each pyroclast. The results of this study will be used to produce a quantitative model of the evolution of porosity, permeability and degassing in the upper conduit of Galeras volcano during the 2004-2012 eruptive episode.

  17. TIGER -- A technology to improve the delivery capability of nuclear bombs and the survivability of the delivery aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-12-31

    The TIGER (Terminal guided and Extended-Range) Program was initiated in 1972 to study improved delivery capabilities for stockpiled tactical nuclear bombs. The Southeast Asia conflict fostered the development of air-delivered standoff conventional weapons utilizing terminal guidance systems. SNL initiated the TIGER program to determine if current nuclear bombs could be provided with a similarly accurate standoff capabilities. These conventional weapon delivery techniques, while allowing highly accurate attack, generally require entering the target area at high altitude to establish line of sight to the target. In parallel with the TIGER program, system studies analyzed this concept and showed marked improvement in aircraft and weapon survivability with moderate standoff (10--20 km) if low level deliveries (60 m) could be accomplished. As a result of this work, the TIGER program was redirected in early 1974 to demonstrate a standoff bomb with good accuracy (90 m CEP) when delivered from low flying aircraft. This program redirection resulted in the selection of an inertial guidance system to replace the earlier terminal guidance systems. This program was called the Extended-Range Bomb (ERB). In May 1974, a joint Air Force/DOE study identified the desirability of having a single tactical weapon which could be employed against either fixed, preselected targets, or mobile battlefield targets. Studies conducted on the ERB system showed that the inertially guided weapon could fly not only the standoff mission but also a return-to-target mission against the mobile battlefield targets whose locations are not known accurately enough to use a standoff delivery. The ERB program evolved from these initial investigations into an exploratory program to develop the hardware and demonstrate the technology required to fly standoff and return-to-target trajectories. The application of this technology in the form of field retrofit kits to the B61 bomb is called TIGER II.

  18. The effects of using Cesium-137 teletherapy sources as a radiological weapon (dirty bomb)

    CERN Document Server

    Liolios, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    While radioactive sources used in medical diagnosis do not pose a great security risk due to their low level of radioactivity, therapeutic sources are extremely radioactive and can presumably be used as a radiological weapon. Cobalt-60 and Cesium-137 sources are the most common ones used in radiotherapy with over 10,000 of such sources currently in use worldwide, especially in the developing world, which cannot afford modern accelerators. The present study uses computer simulations to investigate the effects of using Cesium-137 sources from teletherapy devices as a radiological weapon. Assuming a worst-case terrorist attack scenario, we estimate the ensuing cancer mortality, land contamination, evacuation area, as well as the relevant evacuation, decontamination, and health costs in the framework of the linear risk model. The results indicate that an attack with a Cesium-137 dirty bomb in a large metropolitan city (especially one that would involve several teletherapy sources) although would not cause any sta...

  19. Analytic treatment of the charged black-hole-mirror bomb in the highly explosive regime

    CERN Document Server

    Hod, Shahar

    2013-01-01

    A charged scalar field impinging upon a charged Reissner-Nordstrom black hole can be amplified as it scatters off the hole, a phenomenon known as superradiant scattering. This scattering process in the superradiant regime w>1 and for mirror radii r_m in the near-horizon region x_m=(r_m-r_+)/r_+>(tau/x_m)^2>>1 regime, which implies that the instability timescale 1/w_I of the system can be made arbitrarily short in the qQ-->infinity limit. The short instability timescale found in the linear regime along with the spherical symmetry of the system, make the charged bomb a convenient toy model for future numerical studies aimed to investigate the non-linear end-state of superradiant instabilities.

  20. Ellerman Bombs, Type II White-light Flares and Magnetic Reconnection in the Solar Lower Atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Ellerman bombs and Type II white-light flares share many common features despite the large energy gap between them. Both are considered to result from local heating in the solar lower atmosphere. This paper presents numerical simulations of magnetic reconnection occurring in such a deep atmosphere, with the aim to account for the common features of the two phenomena. Our numerical results manifest the following two typical characteristics of the assumed reconnection process: (1) magnetic reconnection saturates in ~600-900 s, which is just the lifetime of the two phenomena; (2) ionization in the upper chromosphere consumes quite a large part of the energy released through reconnection, making the heating effect most significant in the lower chromosphere. The application of the reconnection model to the two phenomena is discussed in detail.

  1. Superradiance energy extraction, black-hole bombs and implications for astrophysics and particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brito, Richard; Pani, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    This volume gives a unified picture of the multifaceted subject of superradiance, with a focus on recent developments in the field, ranging from fundamental physics to astrophysics. Superradiance is a radiation enhancement process that involves dissipative systems. With a 60 year-old history, superradiance has played a prominent role in optics, quantum mechanics and especially in relativity and astrophysics. In Einstein's General Relativity, black-hole superradiance is permitted by dissipation at the event horizon, which allows energy extraction from the vacuum, even at the classical level. When confined, this amplified radiation can give rise to strong instabilities known as "blackhole bombs'', which have applications in searches for dark matter, in physics beyond the Standard Model and in analog models of gravity. This book discusses and draws together all these fascinating aspects of superradiance.

  2. Plastic surgeons and the management of trauma: from the JFK assassination to the Boston Marathon bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, Edward A; Hollier, Larry H; Lin, Samuel J

    2013-11-01

    The fiftieth anniversary of the death by assassination of President John Kennedy is an opportunity to pay homage to his memory and also reflect on the important role plastic surgeons have played in the management of trauma. That reflection included a hypothetical scenario, a discussion of the surgical treatment of Kennedy (if he survived) and Governor Connally. The scenario describes the management of cranioplasty in the presence of scalp soft-tissue contracture, reconstruction of the proximal trachea, reconstitution of the abdominal wall, and restoration of a combined radius and soft-tissue defect. The development of diagnostic and therapeutic advances over the past 50 years in the care of maxillofacial trauma is described, including the evolution of imaging, timing of surgery, and operative techniques. Finally, contemporary measures of triage in situations involving mass casualties, as in the Boston Marathon bombings, complete the dedication to President Kennedy.

  3. Chain reaction. History of the atomic bomb; Kettenreaktion. Die Geschichte der Atombombe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mania, Hubert

    2010-07-01

    Henri becquerel tracked down in 1896 a strange radiation, which was called radioactivity by Marie Curie. In the following centuries German scientists Max Planck, Albert Einstein and Werner Heisenberg presented fundamental contributions to understand processes in the atomic nucleus. At Goettingen, center of the international nuclear physics community, the American student J. Robert Oppenheimer admit to this physical research. In the beginning of 1939 the message of Otto Hahns' nuclear fission electrified researchers. The first step, unleashing atomic energy, was done. A half year later the Second World War begun. And suddenly being friend with and busily communicating physicians were devided into hostile power blocs as bearers of official secrets. The author tells in this exciting book the story of the first atomic bomb as a chain reaction of ideas, discoveries and visions, of friendships, jealousy and intrigues of scientists, adventurers and genius. (orig./GL)

  4. The grave is wide: the Hibakusha of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the legacy of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Gerald F

    2016-07-01

    Following the atomic bomb attacks on Japan in 1945, scientists from the United States and Japan joined together to study the Hibakusha - the bomb affected people in what was advertised as a bipartisan and cooperative effort. In reality, despite the best efforts of some very dedicated and earnest scientists, the early years of the collaboration were characterized by political friction, censorship, controversy, tension, hostility, and racism. The 70-year history, scientific output and cultural impact of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation are described in the context of the development of Occupied Japan.

  5. Report on the results of the sixth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in the South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Hiroaki [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Hirata, Katsumi; Taguchi, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Fumio; Nawachi, Sadahiro; Terada, Kensaku

    1995-11-01

    The medical examination of A-bomb survivors was carried out in Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, Republic of Peru, and Paraguay from October 25th to November 11th 1994. The survivors were 191 persons, and 98 (51.3%) of them received health consultation. Sixty-two persons were exposured in Hiroshima and 36 in Nagasaki. Average age of the medical examinee was 65.0{+-}8.5-year-old. The holding rate of A-bomb survivor`s handbook was 55.1%. The lowered physical vitality and the involution of the mental vitality with increased age were observed from interview sheets. This first orthopedic examination revealed abnormal findings in 12 persons. Sixty-five persons required further examinations. Cardiovascular risk factors of such as hypertension, obesity, hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus were observed. (H.O.).

  6. Prophylaxis for blood-borne diseases during the London 7/7 mass casualty terrorist bombing: a review and the role of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Dafydd S; Barnett-Vanes, A; Narayan, N; Patel, H D L

    2016-10-01

    The suicide bombings in London on 7 July 2005 resulted in a mass casualty situation. Over 50% of casualties were treated at the Royal London Hospital where clinicians witnessed large numbers of severely injured patients. In some casualties human biological foreign material was found embedded in the soft tissue originating from the suicide bombers or other casualties. This had the potential of placing individuals at risk of transmission of blood-borne diseases. Advances in the fields of medicine and biology have led to increased survivorship in the context of trauma and mass casualty incidents. This has resulted in the emergence of ethical scenarios surrounding patient management. A systematic review of the literature of the 7/7 bombings, and suicide bombings reported globally, where biological implantation is noted, was performed to examine the medicolegal issues arising during such attack. Twelve casualties with human tissue implanted were recorded in the 7/7 bombings. While all patients at risk were given prophylaxis based on recommendations by the Health Protection Agency, several ethical considerations surfaced as a result. In this paper, we compare the sequence of events and the management process of the victims of the 7/7 bombings and the evidence-based research regarding blood-borne infection transmission. Furthermore, it explores the ethical dilemmas, experienced by the senior author on 7/7, surrounding prophylaxis for blood-borne diseases and protocols to avoid confusion over best practice in future bombing incidents.

  7. Bombs from On-High: Weaponized Stratospheric Airships for Close Air Support and Time-Sensitive-Target Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    battlefield surveillance. In World War I, balloons evolved into weapons platforms with zeppelins dropping AU/ACSC/MASSIE/AY09 2 bombs on London...immediately kill observed targets have led to the arming of UAVs. The USAF armed the MQ-1 Predator and MQ-9 Reaper with Hellfire missiles and 500-pound...carriage by weight-limited aircraft such as UAVs. Their small size quickly led to other benefits such as increased standoff range and precision

  8. A Simplified Computer Code for Reduction to Burning Rates of Closed Bomb Pressure-Time Data (MINICB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    34,30:OPEN "LPTi:" FOR OUTPUT AS #3 110 DIM R(1028,9) 120 COLOR 14 iSO REM mini closed bomb program writtcen by william oberle 140 REM ** main menu...a. 0.2 - -• • 0 it -0.6r+ k -0.4, -1.,21 -j -1.6 "t--------- _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 50(M IU00I 16000 +000Q 26000 30000 3M000 40000 4600

  9. Exposure and peritraumatic response as predictors of posttraumatic stress in children following the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing

    OpenAIRE

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Doughty, Debby E.; Reddy, Chandrashekar; Patel, Nilam; Gurwitch, Robin H.; Nixon, Sara Jo; Tivis, Rick D.

    2002-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated a positive relationship between exposure and posttraumatic stress, but one's subjective appraisal of danger and threat at the time of exposure may be a better predictor of posttraumatic stress than more objective measures of exposure. We examined the role of peritraumatic response in posttraumatic stress reactions in over 2,000 middle school children 7 weeks after the 1995 Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, bombing. While many children reported hearing and feeling the blast an...

  10. Hepatitis virus infection and chronic liver disease among atomic-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Cologne, John; Akahoshi, Masazumi [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Kusumi, Shizuyo [Institute of Radiation Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Association, Tokyo (Japan); Kodama, Kazunori; Yoshizawa, Hiroshi [Hiroshima University School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    Hepatitis C and B virus (HCV, HBV) infection plays a crucial role in the etiology of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, which have been reported to increase with radiation dose among the atomic bomb survivors. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether radiation exposure altered the prevalence of hepatitis virus infection or accelerated the progress toward chronic hepatitis after hepatitis virus infection. Levels of serum antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), HBs antigen (HBsAg), and anti-HBs antibody (anti-HBs) were measured for 6,121 participants in the Adult Health Study of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. No relationship was found between anti-HCV prevalence and radiation dose, after adjusting for age, sex, city, history of blood transfusion, acupuncture, and family history, but prevalence of anti-HCV was significantly lower overall among the radiation-exposed people (relative prevalence 0.84, p=0.022) compared to people with estimated radiation dose 0 Gy. No significant interaction was found between any of the above mentioned risk factors and radiation dose. People with anti-HCV positive had 13 times higher prevalence of chronic liver disease than those without anti-HCV. However, the radiation dose response for chronic liver disease among anti-HCV positive survivors may be greater than that among anti-HCV negative survivors (slope ratio 20), but the difference was marginally significant (p=0.097). Prevalence of HBsAg increased with whole-body kerma. However, no trend with radiation dose was found in the anti-HBs prevalence. In the background, prevalence of chronic liver disease in people with HBsAg-positive was approximately three times higher that in those without HBsAg. No difference in slope of the dose was found among HBsAg positive and negative individuals (slope: HBsAg positive 0.91/Gy, HBsAg negative 0.11/Gy, difference p=0.66). In conclusion, no dose-response relationship was found between

  11. Mutations detected in the repetitive sequences in the children of the atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Chiyoko; Kodaira, Mieko [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1994-03-01

    We have been examining genetic effects of radiation in the children of the atomic bomb survivors. In a pilot study, 50 exposed families with 64 children and 50 control families with 60 children were examined for trinucleotide repeat expansion mutations at 3 loci and mutations at 6 minisatellite loci. Average dose of the 51 exposed parents was 1.8 Sv. By examining 124 children of 100 families, 65 germ cells derived from exposed parents and 183 germ cells of non-exposed parents were examined. The trinucleotide repeat expansions in genes of certain human genetic diseases show remarkable variation both within the cells of a single individual and among affected members of a single family which have been interpreted as mitotic and meiotic instability. We examined the regions with triplet repeats in the FMR-1, AR and DM genes causative for fragile X syndrome, spinobulbar muscular atrophy and myotonic dystrophy. No mutations were detected in 177 regions derived from 65 germ cells of exposed parents and 443 regions from 183 germ cells of non-exposed parents. No effects on the instability of the triplet repeats in the germ cells derived from exposed or unexposed individuals were observed. In the examinations of the 6 minisatellite loci of Pc-1, {lambda}TM-18, ChdTC-15, p{lambda}g3, {lambda}MS-1, and CEB-1, we detected single mutations at each of the p{lambda}g3 and {lambda}MS-1, and 4 mutations at the CEB-1 locus which had occurred in the 65 gametes in the exposed parents. Thus, mutation rates per gamete at the p{lambda}g3, {lambda}MS-1 and CEB-1 were 1.5%, 1.5% and 6.2%. On the other hand, mutations in these 3 loci in the 183 gametes of non-exposed parents were 0, 11 and 11, that is, the mutation rates per gamete were 0%, 6.0% and 6.0%. No significant difference was observed in the mutation rate at each of the 3 loci between 2 groups of parents. These preliminary results suggest that A-bomb exposure seems not to affect the germline instability at these 3 loci. (J.P.N).

  12. Japan' s Mass Bombing Campaign as Depicted by Ba Jin%巴金笔下的日军轰炸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学振

    2012-01-01

    As a “battle-tested and bomb-scarred” Chinese writer, Ba Jin has had many pieces of writings featuring Japan' s mass bombing campaigns on the Chinese soil. Through his depiction, the inhuman cruelties of the Japa- nese aggressors were exposed to the full, and the indestructible spirit of the Chinese people and army united with bitter hatred against the common enemy was eulogized. The type of literary works by Ba Jin featuring the Japanese air raids is of special significance in the history of Chinese literature both in terms of the literary expression of the scale and degree of atrocities of the mass bombing campaigns and with reference to the artistic altitude that Ba Jin has attained.%作为一位“身经百炸”的作家,巴金留下了大量关于轰炸的作品,既控诉了日军惨无人道的暴行,也讴歌了中国人民面对轰炸的同仇敌忾。无论是就对轰炸表现的全面,还是就艺术上所达到的高度而言,巴金的这类作品都有其文学史上的特别意义。

  13. Pre-bomb marine reservoir ages in the western north Pacific: Preliminary result on Kyoto University collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, Minoru E-mail: myoneda@nies.go.jp; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Plicht, Johannes van der; Uchida, Masao; Tanaka, Atsushi; Uehiro, Takashi; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Morita, Masatoshi; Ohno, Terufumi

    2000-10-01

    The calibration of radiocarbon dates on marine materials involves a global marine calibration with regional corrections. The marine reservoir ages in the Western North Pacific have not been discussed, while it is quite important to determine the timing of palaeo-environmental changes as well as archaeological interpretation around this region. The lack of adequate collection of the pre-bomb shell from western north Pacific was the biggest problem. Recently we had a chance to examine specimens from an old shell collection stored in Kyoto University, including shell specimens from Japan, Korea, Taiwan and the Micronesia of 1920s and 1930s. We explored the possibility for usage of specimen without clear evidence of live collection by measuring 30 apparent radiocarbon ages of pre-bomb mollusk shells from 18 sites in Western North Pacific. The preliminary results showed several discrepancies with previously reported results and with each other. We have to carefully select the shell specimen that has biological signs such as articulating fulcrum. In order to exploit this big resource of pre-bomb shell collection, the new technique to distinguish fossils from live collected samples should be developed by using chemical and physical methods.

  14. Autopsy studies of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1954-1974): relation to atomic bomb radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, M. (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima, Japan); Norman, J.E. Jr.; Kato, H.; Yagawa, K.

    1978-01-01

    The authors examined 155 autopsy cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the Life Span Study sample including both A-bomb survivors and controls in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1954 to 1974). Hashimoto's thyroiditis was classified into lymphoid, diffuse and fibrous types and the following results were obtained. No difference existed in the effects of A-bomb radiation in the incidence and ATB. The ratio of males to females did not reveal statistical significance, even though reversed ratio was noted in the high dose group. The variation of thyroid gland weight in T65 dose or by variant showed no significant pattern, even though the smallest average weight was found in the highest radiation exposure group. The complications in the patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were noted to have high prevalance of ovarian cancer and low prevalence of stomach cancer and total cancer. Only two patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were found to be complicated with thyroid carcinoma. Among collagen diseases, the prevalence of rheumatic fever and rheumatoid arthritis was high as complication. And the prevalence of combined diseases suggested that no late effect of A-bomb radiation existed.

  15. Neutron spectrum and yield of the Hiroshima A-bomb deduced from radionuclide measurements at one location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühm, W; Kato, K; Korschinek, G; Morinaga, H; Nolte, E

    1995-07-01

    In this paper measurements of the radionuclides of 36Cl, 41Ca, 60Co, 152Eu and 154Eu in samples from Hiroshima, which were exposed to neutrons of the A-bomb explosion, are interpreted. In order to calculate the neutron spectrum at the sample site, neutron transport calculations using Monte Carlo techniques were carried out. Activation profiles in a granite mock-up irradiated with reactor neutrons could be reproduced by this method using DS86 input parameters. The calculated neutron spectrum at the sample site for non-thermal neutrons is identical to that obtained in DS86, but contains some 50% more thermal neutrons. The influence of parameters like soil composition, source terms and air humidity on the activation of these radioisotopes is discussed. The granite-covered earth at the sample site, for example, hardens the spectrum in comparison with DS86 values. Even when using a fission spectrum pointing downward and neglecting air humidity one cannot explain our 36Cl measurements. If the effective thermal neutron fluences, that have a similar ratio of resonance integral to thermal neutron capture cross sections obtained from 36Cl, 41Ca and 152Eu, are averaged, a bomb yield of about 16 kt is deduced in agreement with a bomb yield of (15 +/- 3) kt estimated in DS86.

  16. Epidemiological studies on malignant lymphoma in Nagasaki city. Especially in relation to atomic bomb exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Hiroshi; Jubashi, Toru; Matsuo, Takeshi; Shimokawa, Isao; Iwasaki, Keisuke; Ikeda, Takayoshi

    1987-06-01

    One hundred and eighty-two (182) cases of malignant lymphoma registered at the Nagasaki Tumor Registry from 1973 to the end of 1977 were studied in relation to atomic bomb exposure. No significant difference in the incidence of malignant lymphoma was found between the exposed and nonexposed groups. One hundred and thirty-one (131) cases excluding Hodgkin's disease and mycosis fungoides were histologically reviewed and classified according to Lymphoma Study Group (L.S.G.) and Working Formulation (W.F.) Classifications. Using the L.S.G. Classification, the three histological types(diffuse large cell, diffuse pleomorphic, and diffuse medium sized cell) occupied 72.7 % and 69.0 % of the exposed and nonexposed groups respectively. No significant difference in histological type between the exposed and nonexposed groups could be found with an exception of a slightly higher incidence of the diffuse medium sized cell type in the exposed group than in the nonexposed group. An evaluation of these results was made in comparison with the results in Hiroshima.

  17. Mind bomb1 is a ubiquitin ligase essential for mouse embryonic development and Notch signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, Julius C; Rajendra, Rashmi; Wu, Jiang I; Artzt, Karen

    2005-10-01

    The Notch-Delta signaling pathway controls many conserved cell determination events. While the Notch end is fairly well characterized, the Delta end remains poorly understood. Mind bomb1 (MIB1) is one of two E3 ligases known to ubiquitinate Delta. We report here that a targeted mutation of Mib1 in mice results in embryonic lethality by E10.5. Mutants exhibit multiple defects due to their inability to modulate Notch signaling. As histopathology revealed a strong neurogenic phenotype, this study concentrates on characterizing the Mib1 mutant by analyzing Notch pathway components in embryonic neuroepithelium prior to developmental arrest. Premature neurons were observed to undergo apoptosis soon after differentiation. Aberrant neurogenesis is a direct consequence of lowered Hes1 and Hes5 expression resulting from the inability to generate Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD1). We conclude that MIB1 activity is required for S3 cleavage of the Notch1 receptor. These results have direct implications for manipulating the differentiation of neuronal stem cells and provide a putative target for the modulation of specific tumors.

  18. Observations of Ellerman bomb emission features in He I D3 and He I 10830 {\\AA}

    CERN Document Server

    Libbrecht, Tine; Rodríguez, Jaime de la Cruz; Leenaarts, Jorrit; Ramos, Andrés Asensio

    2016-01-01

    Context. Ellerman bombs (EBs) are short-lived emission features, characterized by extended wing emission in hydrogen Balmer lines. Until now, no distinct signature of EBs has been found in the He I 10830 {\\AA} line, and conclusive observations of EBs in He I D 3 have never been reported. Aims. We aim to study the signature of EBs in neutral helium triplet lines. Methods. The observations consist of 10 consecutive SST/TRIPPEL raster scans close to the limb, featuring the H$\\beta$, He I D3 and He I 10830 {\\AA} spectral regions. We also obtained raster scans with IRIS and make use of the SDO/AIA 1700 {\\AA} channel. We use Hazel to invert the neutral helium triplet lines. Results. Three EBs in our data show distinct emission signatures in neutral helium triplet lines, most prominently visible in the He I D3 line. The helium lines have two components: a broad and blue-shifted emission component associated with the EB, and a narrower absorption component formed in the overlying chromosphere. One of the EBs in our d...

  19. Atomic Bomb Survivors Life-Span Study: Insufficient Statistical Power to Select Radiation Carcinogenesis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socol, Yehoshua; Dobrzyński, Ludwik

    2015-01-01

    The atomic bomb survivors life-span study (LSS) is often claimed to support the linear no-threshold hypothesis (LNTH) of radiation carcinogenesis. This paper shows that this claim is baseless. The LSS data are equally or better described by an s-shaped dependence on radiation exposure with a threshold of about 0.3 Sievert (Sv) and saturation level at about 1.5 Sv. A Monte-Carlo simulation of possible LSS outcomes demonstrates that, given the weak statistical power, LSS cannot provide support for LNTH. Even if the LNTH is used at low dose and dose rates, its estimation of excess cancer mortality should be communicated as 2.5% per Sv, i.e., an increase of cancer mortality from about 20% spontaneous mortality to about 22.5% per Sv, which is about half of the usually cited value. The impact of the "neutron discrepancy problem" - the apparent difference between the calculated and measured values of neutron flux in Hiroshima - was studied and found to be marginal. Major revision of the radiation risk assessment paradigm is required.

  20. Report on the results of the ninth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors in South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Michiya [Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan); Hiyama, Keiko; Matsuo, Kakaru; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Nishida, Masashi; Sasaki, Yoshinobu

    2001-06-01

    The results of the ninth medical examination are reported. Atomic bomb survivors who had emigrated to South America as of November 2000 totaled 180 (153 to Brazil, 4 to Paraguay, 7 to Bolivia, 13 to Argentina, and 3 to Peru). Eighty persons (44.4%) were examined (62 in Brazil, 2 in Paraguay, 6 in Bolivia, 7 in Argentina, and 3 in Peru). The mean age of the males was 71.3 years, and the mean age of the females was 69.7 years. They had hypertension (24.1%), diabetes (10.1%), cancer (8.9%), heart disease (7.6%), and thyroid disease (2.5%). The most common manifestations of illness were fatigue (69.6%), loss of vigor (65.8%), taking medicine (55.7%), and heat intolerance (53.2%). The incident rates of electrocardiographic abnormalities and urine, blood, and biochemical tests abnormalities were almost the same as at the previous examination, and there was no change in the percentage of those who required detailed tests and treatment. When independence in daily life was judged by the criteria of the nursing care insurance system, 68 persons were judged ''independent'', and 7 persons ''handicapped.'' (K.H.)

  1. Media Use and Exposure to Graphic Content in the Week Following the Boston Marathon Bombings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nickolas M; Garfin, Dana Rose; Holman, E Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2016-09-01

    Traditional and new media inform and expose the public to potentially distressing graphic content following disasters, but predictors of media use have received limited attention. We examine media-use patterns after the Boston Marathon bombings (BMB) in a representative national U.S. sample (n = 2888), with representative oversamples from metropolitan Boston (n = 845) and New York City (n = 941). Respondents completed an Internet-based survey 2-4 weeks post-BMB. Use of traditional media was correlated with older age, prior indirect media-based exposure to collective traumas, and direct BMB exposure. New media use was correlated with younger age and prior direct exposure to collective traumas. Increased television and online news viewing were associated with exposure to more graphic content. The relationship between traditional and new media was stronger for young adults than all other age groups. We offer insights about the relationship between prior collective trauma exposures and media use following subsequent disasters and identify media sources likely to expose people to graphic content.

  2. A terrorist bomb blast, a real challenge for any tertiary care health provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shiv Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Katyal, Surabhi

    2014-01-01

    Multiple casualties and the complex set of injuries in survivors of a terrorist bomb blast poses a real challenge to health care providers. We are presenting three such cases, first case suffered a fracture of both bone lower limb bilaterally along with head injury (foreign bodies were impacted in the scalp and brain parenchyma). Following primary resuscitation, patient shifted to operation theatre after a quick computerized tomography scan and external fixator applied in general anesthesia using the rapid sequence induction. No active neurosurgical intervention was done. As this patient had acute post-traumatic stress response, he was subjected to low pressure hyperbaric oxygen therapy (pressure of 1.5 ATA for 60 min a day for 10 days) and group counseling. He had good recovery except one lost a limb because of extensive neurovascular damage due to blast. Second case had much more extensive damage involving multiple organ systems. He had blast lung, big cerebrovascular hemorrhage along with gut perforation. Despite best possible surgical and intensive care interventions, patent developed multiple organ failure and unfortunately we lost our patient. Third case was of a right sided globe rupture resulted from blast induced flying foreign bodies. After primary survey and initial resuscitation evisceration done for the damaged eye and patient later on discharged with necessary instruction (including warning signs) for follow-up.

  3. Constraining Primordial Black-Hole Bombs through Spectral Distortions of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    CERN Document Server

    Pani, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    We consider the imprint of superradiant instabilities of nonevaporating primordial black holes (PBHs) on the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). In the radiation dominated era, PBHs are surrounded by a roughly homogeneous cosmic plasma which endows photons with an effective mass through the plasma frequency. In this setting, spinning PBHs are unstable to a spontaneous spindown through the well-known "black-hole bomb" mechanism. At linear level, the photon density is trapped by the effective photon mass and grows exponentially in time due to superradiance. As the plasma density declines due to cosmic expansion, the associated energy around PBHs is released and dissipated in the CMB. We evaluate the resulting spectral distortions of the CMB in the redshift range 10^3 < z < 2x10^6. Using the existing COBE/FIRAS bounds on CMB spectral distortions, we derive upper limits on the fraction of dark matter that can be associated with spinning PBHs in the mass range 10^{-8}*Msun < M < 0.2*Msin...

  4. Bomb-spike dating of a mummified baboon in Ludwig Cave, Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodgins Greg

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1982 a mummified adult female baboon was discovered on a ledge in Ludwig Cave in Namibia. A toe bone was removed for dating in July 1995. AMS radiocarbon dating of bone collagen, tendon, and skin indicates a post-modern age. Application of the atomic bomb-spike calibration curve suggests death in late 1977 and an age at death of around 19 years. Baboons roost in the cave and the mummified female, along with a mummified juvenile male discovered in 2002 and three rotting corpses discovered in 1995, were probably chased by other baboons or by leopards down a ca. 6 m drop during the rainy season, and were unable to climb the steep and very slippery slope to escape. The large number of baboons trapped in the cave in less than 20 years, and mummification of two individuals on dry, dusty ledges in the cave, may explain why large numbers of baboon skeletons have been discovered in ancient bone breccias (up to 4 Ma old in a number of caves throughout Southern Africa.

  5. Atomic "bomb testing": the Elitzur-Vaidman experiment violates the Leggett-Garg inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robens, Carsten; Alt, Wolfgang; Emary, Clive; Meschede, Dieter; Alberti, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Elitzur and Vaidman have proposed a measurement scheme that, based on the quantum superposition principle, allows one to detect the presence of an object—in a dramatic scenario, a bomb—without interacting with it. It was pointed out by Ghirardi that this interaction-free measurement scheme can be put in direct relation with falsification tests of the macro-realistic worldview. Here we have implemented the "bomb test" with a single atom trapped in a spin-dependent optical lattice to show explicitly a violation of the Leggett-Garg inequality—a quantitative criterion fulfilled by macro-realistic physical theories. To perform interaction-free measurements, we have implemented a novel measurement method that correlates spin and position of the atom. This method, which quantum mechanically entangles spin and position, finds general application for spin measurements, thereby avoiding the shortcomings inherent in the widely used push-out technique. Allowing decoherence to dominate the evolution of our system causes a transition from quantum to classical behavior in fulfillment of the Leggett-Garg inequality.

  6. Autopsy findings of the first and second filial generations of atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satow, Yukio (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

    1992-01-01

    Autopsy findings of 652 fetuses whose parents or one parent were exposed to the Atomic Bomb (F[sub 1]) and 115 fetuses which had one or two grandparents exposed (F[sub 2]) were compared with that of 8570 fetuses whose parents were not exposed (control). The F[sub 1] fetuses have been collected since 1963 and F[sub 2] fetuses since 1971 voluntarily in Hiroshima. The findings were classified according to the types of delivery and to the distances away from the hypocenter where the parents and grandparents were exposed. Many normal cases in the group of artificial abortions and many malformations and pathological findings in the group of spontaneous abortions were found in both groups of F[sub 1] and F[sub 2]. The malformations were cardiovascular, central nervous and urogenital system, quantitatively in that order, in both groups of F[sub 1] and F[sub 2]. Although there were a few cases of cystic kidney and chondrodystrophy which belong to autosomal dominant and osteogenesis imperfecta which belong to autosomal recessive, these cases were not correlated with the distance. Most cases of malformation which belong to the multifactorial inheritance were found in each organ. No peculiar malformation was found in the groups of F[sub 1] and F[sub 2]. (author).

  7. Physical characterization and recovery of corroded fingerprint impressions from postblast copper pipe bomb fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, John W; Brady, Thomas F

    2013-05-01

    Pipe bombs made from 1 mm thick copper pipe were detonated with a low explosive power powder. Analysis of the physical characteristics of fragments revealed that the copper had undergone work hardening with an increased Vickers Hardness of 107HV1 compared with 80HV1 for unexploded copper pipe. Mean plastic strain prior to fracture was calculated at 0.28 showing evidence of both plastic deformation and wall thinning. An examination of the external surface showed microfractures running parallel with the length of the pipe at approximately 100 μm intervals and 1-2 μm in width. Many larger fragments had folded "inside out" making the original outside surface inaccessible and difficult to fold back through work hardening. A visual examination for fingerprint corrosion revealed ridge details on several fragments that were enhanced by selective digital mapping of colors reflected from the surface of the copper. One of these fingerprints was identified partially to the original donor.

  8. From the atomic bomb to the Landau Institute autobiography top non-secret

    CERN Document Server

    Khalatnikov, Isaak M

    2012-01-01

    The book is an expanded autobiography of the famous theoretical physicist Isaak Khalatnikov. He worked together with L.D. Landau at the Institute for Physical Problems lead by P.L. Kapitza. He is the co-author of L.D. Landau in a number of important works. They worked together in the frame of the so-called Nuclear Bomb Project. After the death of L.D. Landau, I.M. Khalatnikov initiated the establishment of the Institute for Theoretical Physics, named in honour of L.D. Landau, within the USSR Academy of Sciences. He headed this institute from the beginning as its Director. The institute inherited almost all traditions of the Landau scientific school and played a prominent role in the development of theoretical physics. So, this is a story about how the institute was created, how it worked, and about the life of the physicists in the "golden age" of the Soviet science. A separate chapter is devoted to today´s life of the institute and the young generation of physicists working now in science. It is an historic...

  9. 3-D high-speed imaging of volcanic bomb trajectory in basaltic explosive eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, D.; Taddeucci, J.; Houghton, B. F.; Orr, T. R.; Andronico, D.; Del Bello, E.; Kueppers, U.; Ricci, T.; Scarlato, P.

    2016-10-01

    Imaging, in general, and high speed imaging in particular are important emerging tools for the study of explosive volcanic eruptions. However, traditional 2-D video observations cannot measure volcanic ejecta motion toward and away from the camera, strongly hindering our capability to fully determine crucial hazard-related parameters such as explosion directionality and pyroclasts' absolute velocity. In this paper, we use up to three synchronized high-speed cameras to reconstruct pyroclasts trajectories in three dimensions. Classical stereographic techniques are adapted to overcome the difficult observation conditions of active volcanic vents, including the large number of overlapping pyroclasts which may change shape in flight, variable lighting and clouding conditions, and lack of direct access to the target. In particular, we use a laser rangefinder to measure the geometry of the filming setup and manually track pyroclasts on the videos. This method reduces uncertainties to 10° in azimuth and dip angle of the pyroclasts, and down to 20% in the absolute velocity estimation. We demonstrate the potential of this approach by three examples: the development of an explosion at Stromboli, a bubble burst at Halema'uma'u lava lake, and an in-flight collision between two bombs at Stromboli.

  10. Gold conjugate-based liposomes with hybrid cluster bomb structure for liver cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Chen, Huan; Liu, Ai-Yun; Shen, Jia-Jia; Shah, Vishva; Zhang, Can; Hong, Jin; Ding, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid drug delivery system containing both organic and inorganic nanocarriers is expected to achieve its complementary advantages for the aim of improving the performance of antineoplastic drugs in tumor therapy. Here we report the use of liposomes and gold nanoparticles to construct a liposome with a hybrid Cluster Bomb structure and discuss its unique multi-order drug release property for liver tumor treatment. A very simple method is used for the hybrid liposome preparation and involves mixing two solutions containing liposomes loaded with either non-covalent or covalent Paclitaxel (PTX, namely free PTX or PTX-conjugated GNPs, respectively) by different ratio of volume (25:75, 50:50, 25:75, v/v). Various mixed liposomes were tested to determine the optimal conditions for maximum drug delivery. The optimized liposome was then tested using xenograft Heps tumor-bearing mice and showed the best efficacy for chemotherapeutic inhibition of tumor at PTX liposome: PTX-conjugated GNP liposome of 25:75 ratio (v/v). This system allows for simple and easy preparation while providing a more accurate site- and time-release mode for tumor treatment using antitumor drugs.

  11. Ellerman Bombs - Evidence for Magnetic Reconnection in the Lower Solar Atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, C J; Mathioudakis, M; Doyle, J G; Madjarska, M S; Uitenbroek, H; Erdélyi, R

    2013-01-01

    The presence of photospheric magnetic reconnection has long been thought to give rise to short and impulsive events, such as Ellerman bombs (EBs) and Type II spicules. In this article, we combine high-resolution, high-cadence observations from the Interferometric BIdimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) and Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere (ROSA) instruments at the Dunn Solar Telescope, National Solar Observatory, New Mexico with co-aligned Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA) and Solar Optical Telescope (Hinode/SOT) data to observe small-scale events situated within an active region. These data are then compared with state-of-the-art numerical simulations of the lower atmosphere made using the MURaM code. It is found that brightenings, in both the observations and the simulations, of the wings of the H alpha line profile, interpreted as EBs, are often spatially correlated with increases in the intensity of the FeI 6302.5A line core. Bi-polar regions inferred from Hinode/SOT magnetic field data show evid...

  12. New classes of mind bomb-interacting proteins identified from yeast two-hybrid screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Li-Chuan; Zhang, Chengjin; Cheng, Chun-Mei; Xu, Haoying; Hsu, Chia-Hao; Jiang, Yun-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Notch signaling pathway defines an evolutionarily conserved mechanism in cell-fate determination in a broad spectrum of developmental processes through local cell interactions. mind bomb (mib) encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase that is involved in Notch activation through Delta ubiquitylation and internalization. To further dissect the function of Mib, two yeast two-hybrid screens for zebrafish Mib/Mib2-binding proteins with different strategies have been performed. 81 putative interesting proteins were discovered and classified into six groups: ubiquitin proteasome pathway, cytoskeleton, trafficking, replication/transcription/translation factors, cell signaling and others. Confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP), Mib interacted with four tested proteins: ubiquitin specific protease 1 (Usp1), ubiquitin specific protease 9 (Usp9), tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-associated factor (TRAF)-binding domain (Trabid)/zinc finger, RAN-binding domain containing 1 (Zranb1) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit inhibitor (Hif1an)/factor inhibiting HIF 1 (Fih-1). Usp1, Usp9, Trabid and Fih-1 also bound to zebrafish Mib2, a Mib homolog with similar structural domains and functions. Both Mib and Mib2 can ubiquitylate Trabid and Fih-1, indicating a potential regulating role of Mib and Mib2 on Trabid and Fih-1 and, furthermore, the possible involvement of Notch signaling in hypoxia-regulated differentiation, tumorigenesis and NF-κB pathway. Finally, functions of confirmed Mib/Mib2-interacting proteins are collated, summarized and hypothesized, which depicts a regulating network beyond Notch signaling.

  13. Aerosolization of Water Ejected from a Full Container Impacted by Bomb Fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo W. Stockham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In assessing the potential collateral effects of bomb attacks on tanks of stored liquids, it is useful to separate the liquid that is aerosolized as an escaping cloud from that which remains inside the tank or rapidly falls to the nearby ground. One relationship currently in use partitions the two categories using a linear model of aerosolized fraction versus fragment energy deposited per unit mass of liquid which is based on calculations and a few test data points. Since this model is incorporated in popular programs used by an expanding number of first responders to assess potential hazards, there is a need for high-confidence test data across the parameter space of interest to improve and/or validate the model. Such a series of tests was conducted during November of 2008 in which 7.57-liter (ℓ sized cans of water were impacted with fragments of known mass using scored cased explosive charges. Impact velocities were measured, and the remaining water in the can and on the nearby ground platform was collected and weighed. The missing water was assumed to be aerosolized. This new data establishes an S-curve as a more accurate relationship between aerosolized fraction (AF and the fragment energy deposited per unit mass of liquid in the container.

  14. A terrorist bomb blast, a real challenge for any tertiary care health provider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shiv Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Katyal, Surabhi

    2014-01-01

    Multiple casualties and the complex set of injuries in survivors of a terrorist bomb blast poses a real challenge to health care providers. We are presenting three such cases, first case suffered a fracture of both bone lower limb bilaterally along with head injury (foreign bodies were impacted in the scalp and brain parenchyma). Following primary resuscitation, patient shifted to operation theatre after a quick computerized tomography scan and external fixator applied in general anesthesia using the rapid sequence induction. No active neurosurgical intervention was done. As this patient had acute post-traumatic stress response, he was subjected to low pressure hyperbaric oxygen therapy (pressure of 1.5 ATA for 60 min a day for 10 days) and group counseling. He had good recovery except one lost a limb because of extensive neurovascular damage due to blast. Second case had much more extensive damage involving multiple organ systems. He had blast lung, big cerebrovascular hemorrhage along with gut perforation. Despite best possible surgical and intensive care interventions, patent developed multiple organ failure and unfortunately we lost our patient. Third case was of a right sided globe rupture resulted from blast induced flying foreign bodies. After primary survey and initial resuscitation evisceration done for the damaged eye and patient later on discharged with necessary instruction (including warning signs) for follow-up. PMID:25886231

  15. On the continued acceleration of bomb casing fragments following casing fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael D.HUTCHINSON; David W.PRICE

    2014-01-01

    It has been said that, once a bomb casing has fractured,“detonation gases will then stream around the fragments or bypass them, and the acceleration process stops there.”However, while apparently copious gas flow through casing fractures indicates some pressure release, it is also an indication of significant gas drive pressure, post casing fracture. This paper shows two approaches to the problem of calculating the actual loss of drive. One presents first-order analytical calculations, in cylindrical geometry, of pressure loss to the inside surface of a fractured casing. The second shows the modelling of a selected example in the CTH code. Both approaches reveal that gas escape, while occurring at its own sound-speed relative to the adjacent casing fragments, has to compete with rapid radial expansion of the casing. Together with some historic ex-periments now publicly available, our calculations indicate that post-fracture casing fragment acceleration is, for most systems, unlikely to be reduced significantly.

  16. Optimal Gliding Guidance of Vertical Plane for Standoff Released Guided Bomb Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Ming-shan

    2008-01-01

    Optimal gliding guidance for a guided bomb unit in the vertical plane is studied based on nonlinear dynamics and kinematics. The guidance law is designed under minimum energy loss index. To avoid the complexity in solving two-point-boundary-value problems, the steady-state solutions of the adjoint states in regular equations are suggested to be used. With these considerations, a quasi-closed, optimal gliding guidance law is obtained. The guidance law is described by the angle of attack in a simple nonlinear equation. An iterative computation method can be easily used to get the optimal angle of attack. The further simplified direct computation algorithm for the optimal angle of attack is also given. The guidance properties are compared with those of maximum lift-to-drag angle of attack control. The simulation results demonstrate that the quasi-closed, optimal gliding guidance law can improve the gliding phase terminal performance with significant increase in the altitude and much little decrease in the speed.

  17. Investigation of the Livengood-Wu integral for modelling autoignition in a high-pressure bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhixin; Somers, Bart L. M. T.; Cracknell, Roger F.; Bradley, Derek

    2016-01-01

    The reaction progress variable, which is widely used in premixed and diffusion combustion studies, comprises a set of pre-selected intermediate species to denote reaction progress. Progress towards autoignition can also be traced by the Livengood-Wu (LW) integral. Autoignition occurs when the LW integral attains a value of unity. This concept is further explored by applying it to an inhomogeneous mixture scenario, to determine the time and place of autoignition occurrence. A semidetailed mechanism (137 species and 633 reactions) for n-heptane/iso-octane/toluene is used in this study. Two numerical schemes based on the LW integral are proposed and incorporated into a computational fluid dynamics platform, to model autoignition in a 3D configuration, when a spray is injected into a constant volume bomb under diesel engine conditions. Tabulated chemistry, a traditional method of modelling autoignition using information from pre-calculated igniting diffusion flames, is also used for comparison purposes. The associated predicted pressure profiles are compared with experimental measurements.

  18. 3-D high-speed imaging of volcanic bomb trajectory in basaltic explosive eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, D.; Taddeucci, J; Houghton, B. F.; Orr, Tim R.; Andronico, D.; Del Bello, E.; Kueppers, U.; Ricci, T.; Scarlato, P.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging, in general, and high speed imaging in particular are important emerging tools for the study of explosive volcanic eruptions. However, traditional 2-D video observations cannot measure volcanic ejecta motion toward and away from the camera, strongly hindering our capability to fully determine crucial hazard-related parameters such as explosion directionality and pyroclasts' absolute velocity. In this paper, we use up to three synchronized high-speed cameras to reconstruct pyroclasts trajectories in three dimensions. Classical stereographic techniques are adapted to overcome the difficult observation conditions of active volcanic vents, including the large number of overlapping pyroclasts which may change shape in flight, variable lighting and clouding conditions, and lack of direct access to the target. In particular, we use a laser rangefinder to measure the geometry of the filming setup and manually track pyroclasts on the videos. This method reduces uncertainties to 10° in azimuth and dip angle of the pyroclasts, and down to 20% in the absolute velocity estimation. We demonstrate the potential of this approach by three examples: the development of an explosion at Stromboli, a bubble burst at Halema'uma'u lava lake, and an in-flight collision between two bombs at Stromboli.

  19. An obligatory role of mind bomb-1 in notch signaling of mammalian development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bon-Kyoung Koo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Notch signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved intercellular signaling module essential for cell fate specification that requires endocytosis of Notch ligands. Structurally distinct E3 ubiquitin ligases, Neuralized (Neur and Mind bomb (Mib, cooperatively regulate the endocytosis of Notch ligands in Drosophila. However, the respective roles of the mammalian E3 ubiquitin ligases, Neur1, Neur2, Mib1, and Mib2, in mammalian development are poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Through extensive use of mammalian genetics, here we show that Neur1 and Neur2 double mutants and Mib2(-/- mice were viable and grossly normal. In contrast, conditional inactivation of Mib1 in various tissues revealed the representative Notch phenotypes: defects of arterial specification as deltalike4 mutants, abnormal cerebellum and skin development as jagged1 conditional mutants, and syndactylism as jagged2 mutants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data provide the first evidence that Mib1 is essential for Jagged as well as Deltalike ligand-mediated Notch signaling in mammalian development, while Neur1, Neur2, and Mib2 are dispensable.

  20. Mind Bomb-2 Regulates Hippocampus-dependent Memory Formation and Synaptic Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Somi; Kim, TaeHyun; Lee, Hye-Ryeon; Kong, Young-Yun; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2015-11-01

    Notch signaling is a key regulator of neuronal fate during embryonic development, but its function in the adult brain is still largely unknown. Mind bomb-2 (Mib2) is an essential positive regulator of the Notch pathway, which acts in the Notch signal-sending cells. Therefore, genetic deletion of Mib2 in the mouse brain might help understand Notch signaling-mediated cell-cell interactions between neurons and their physiological function. Here we show that deletion of Mib2 in the mouse brain results in impaired hippocampal spatial memory and contextual fear memory. Accordingly, we found impaired hippocampal synaptic plasticity in Mib2 knock-out (KO) mice; however, basal synaptic transmission did not change at the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses. Using western blot analysis, we found that the level of cleaved Notch1 was lower in Mib2 KO mice than in wild type (WT) littermates after mild foot shock. Taken together, these data suggest that Mib2 plays a critical role in synaptic plasticity and spatial memory through the Notch signaling pathway.

  1. Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation: artificial neural networks inference from atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Masao S; Tachibana, Akira; Takeda, Shunichi

    2014-05-01

    Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation remains poorly defined because of ambiguity in the quantitative link to doses below 0.2 Sv in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki arising from limitations in the statistical power and information available on overall radiation dose. To deal with these difficulties, a novel nonparametric statistics based on the 'integrate-and-fire' algorithm of artificial neural networks was developed and tested in cancer databases established by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. The analysis revealed unique features at low doses that could not be accounted for by nominal exposure dose, including (i) the presence of a threshold that varied with organ, gender and age at exposure, and (ii) a small but significant bumping increase in cancer risk at low doses in Nagasaki that probably reflects internal exposure to (239)Pu. The threshold was distinct from the canonical definition of zero effect in that it was manifested as negative excess relative risk, or suppression of background cancer rates. Such a unique tissue response at low doses of radiation exposure has been implicated in the context of the molecular basis of radiation-environment interplay in favor of recently emerging experimental evidence on DNA double-strand break repair pathway choice and its epigenetic memory by histone marking.

  2. Blast Injuries: From Improvised Explosive Device Blasts to the Boston Marathon Bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay K; Ditkofsky, Noah G; York, John D; Abujudeh, Hani H; Avery, Laura A; Brunner, John F; Sodickson, Aaron D; Lev, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Although most trauma centers have experience with the imaging and management of gunshot wounds, in most regions blast wounds such as the ones encountered in terrorist attacks with the use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are infrequently encountered outside the battlefield. As global terrorism becomes a greater concern, it is important that radiologists, particularly those working in urban trauma centers, be aware of the mechanisms of injury and the spectrum of primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injury patterns. Primary blast injuries are caused by barotrauma from the initial increased pressure of the explosive detonation and the rarefaction of the atmosphere immediately afterward. Secondary blast injuries are caused by debris carried by the blast wind and most often result in penetrating trauma from small shrapnel. Tertiary blast injuries are caused by the physical displacement of the victim and the wide variety of blunt or penetrating trauma sustained as a result of the patient impacting immovable objects such as surrounding cars, walls, or fences. Quaternary blast injuries include all other injuries, such as burns, crush injuries, and inhalational injuries. Radiography is considered the initial imaging modality for assessment of shrapnel and fractures. Computed tomography is the optimal test to assess penetrating chest, abdominal, and head trauma. The mechanism of blast injuries and the imaging experience of the victims of the Boston Marathon bombing are detailed, as well as musculoskeletal, neurologic, gastrointestinal, and pulmonary injury patterns from blast injuries.

  3. Spectral observations of Ellerman bombs and fitting with a two-cloud model

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Jie; Li, Ying; Fang, Cheng; Cao, Wenda

    2014-01-01

    We study the H$\\alpha$ and Ca II 8542 \\r{A} line spectra of four typical Ellerman bombs (EBs) in active region NOAA 11765 on 2013 June 6, observed with the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph installed at the 1.6 meter New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory. Considering that EBs may occur in a restricted region in the lower atmosphere, and that their spectral lines show particular features, we propose a two-cloud model to fit the observed line profiles. The lower cloud can account for the wing emission, and the upper cloud is mainly responsible for the absorption at line center. After choosing carefully the free parameters, we get satisfactory fitting results. As expected, the lower cloud shows an increase of the source function, corresponding to a temperature increase of 400--1000 K in EBs relative to the quiet Sun. This is consistent with previous results deduced from semi-empirical models and confirms that a local heating occurs in the lower atmosphere during the appearance of EBs. We also find that...

  4. An operated case with post-traumatic epilepsy following atomic bombing injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morioka, Takato; Nishio Shunji; Muraishi; Mitsuteru; Hisada, Kei; Takase, Keiichirou; Matsukado, Koichiro; Sasaki, Masayuki; Fukui, Masashi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Ohta, Michiya

    1999-12-01

    The case was 54-years-old man who was bombed at 4-years old 1.5 km apart from the center of explosion in Hiroshima, and had intractable epilepsy after 10 years or more. He suffered from systemic convulsion from 18 years old and took anti-convulsant drugs from 23 years old. The frequency of seizure increased from once a half year to thrice 2 months for these 3-4 years. The attack mainly occurred at night, and it was generalized tonicoclonic convulsion accompanied with unconsciousness and urinary incontience. Valproate (1,800 mg) and clonazepam (1 mg) failed to control the attack, and then he was referred to author's hospital. By CT scanning, MRI and HMPAO-SPECT, the area around the ossified lesion in the right frontal lobe was considered the focus of the epilepsy, and the focus was removed on June 4, 1998. No neurodegeneration and convulsive seizure occurred after surgery. The ossified lesion was confirmed to be bone tissue containing osteoblasts from histological findings and was accompanied by severe gliosis to the brain surface. A large number of active astrocytes were found around the nerve cells in the cortex showing spine-like wave focus, but there were no significant changes in blood vessels in the brain. (K.H.)

  5. Application of a satellite communication and location system for bomb damage assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, J.P.

    1994-09-01

    The Global Verification and Location System (GVLS) is a satellite based communication package proposed for the Global Positioning System (GPS) Block IIR satellites. This system provides the capability to relay bursts of information from small, low power mobile transmitters to command and control facilities. Communication paths through multiple GPS satellites within the field of view allow location of the transmitter using time difference of arrival (TDOA) techniques. Alternately, the transmitter can transmit its own location if known by various other means. Intended applications include determination of the status and location of high-valued assets such as shipments of proliferation-sensitive nuclear materials and treaty-limited items or downed air crews and special operations forces in need of extraction from hostile territory. GVLS provides an enabling technology which can be applied to weapon impact location. The remote transmitter is small and light enough to be integrated into a weapon delivery vehicle, such as a cruise missile, and requires power only during the last second of flight. The antenna is a conformal patch design, therefore minimizing aerodynamic considerations. Precise impact locations are determined by the GVLS system and can be communicated to responsible commands in near real time allowing rapid bomb damage assessment and retargeting without the typical delays of overhead reconnaissance. Since burst data communication is used, weapon status immediately prior to impact can be transmitted providing knowledge of proper arming sequence and other pertinent information. If desired, periodic bursts can be transmitted while in flight, enabling in-course tracking of the weapon. If fully deployed, the GVLS system would consist of communication relays on 24 GPS satellites, five ground stations deployed worldwide, and portable base stations for authorized users to receive and display locations and contents of their transmissions.

  6. Missing doses in the life span study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David B; Wing, Steve; Cole, Stephen R

    2013-03-15

    The Life Span Study of atomic bomb survivors is an important source of risk estimates used to inform radiation protection and compensation. Interviews with survivors in the 1950s and 1960s provided information needed to estimate radiation doses for survivors proximal to ground zero. Because of a lack of interview or the complexity of shielding, doses are missing for 7,058 of the 68,119 proximal survivors. Recent analyses excluded people with missing doses, and despite the protracted collection of interview information necessary to estimate some survivors' doses, defined start of follow-up as October 1, 1950, for everyone. We describe the prevalence of missing doses and its association with mortality, distance from hypocenter, city, age, and sex. Missing doses were more common among Nagasaki residents than among Hiroshima residents (prevalence ratio = 2.05; 95% confidence interval: 1.96, 2.14), among people who were closer to ground zero than among those who were far from it, among people who were younger at enrollment than among those who were older, and among males than among females (prevalence ratio = 1.22; 95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.28). Missing dose was associated with all-cancer and leukemia mortality, particularly during the first years of follow-up (all-cancer rate ratio = 2.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.51, 3.08; and leukemia rate ratio = 4.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.72, 10.67). Accounting for missing dose and late entry should reduce bias in estimated dose-mortality associations.

  7. Radiation risks in lung cancer screening programs: a comparison with nuclear industry workers and atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCunney, Robert J; Li, Jessica

    2014-03-01

    The National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated that screening with low-dose CT (LDCT) scan reduced lung cancer and overall mortality by 20% and 7%, respectively. The LDCT scanning involves an approximate 2-mSv dose, whereas full-chest CT scanning, the major diagnostic study used to follow up nodules, may involve a dose of 8 mSv. Radiation associated with CT scanning and other diagnostic studies to follow up nodules may present an independent risk of lung cancer. On the basis of the NLST, we estimated the incidence and prevalence of nodules detected in screening programs. We followed the Fleischner guidelines for follow-up of nodules to assess cumulative radiation exposure over 20- and 30-year periods. We then evaluated nuclear worker cohort studies and atomic bomb survivor studies to assess the risk of lung cancer from radiation associated with long-term lung cancer screening programs. The findings indicate that a 55-year-old lung screening participant may experience a cumulative radiation exposure of up to 280 mSv over a 20-year period and 420 mSv over 30 years. These exposures exceed those of nuclear workers and atomic bomb survivors. This assessment suggests that long-term (20-30 years) LDCT screening programs are associated with nontrivial cumulative radiation doses. Current lung cancer screening protocols, if conducted over 20- to 30-year periods, can independently increase the risk of lung cancer beyond cigarette smoking as a result of cumulative radiation exposure. Radiation exposures from LDCT screening and follow-up diagnostic procedures exceed lifetime radiation exposures among nuclear power workers and atomic bomb survivors.

  8. Einstein on politics his private thoughts and public stands on nationalism, zionism, war, peace, and the bomb

    CERN Document Server

    Rowe, David E; Schulmann, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The most famous scientist of the twentieth century, Albert Einstein was also one of the century's most outspoken political activists. Deeply engaged with the events of his tumultuous times, from the two world wars and the Holocaust, to the atomic bomb and the Cold War, to the effort to establish a Jewish homeland, Einstein was a remarkably prolific political writer, someone who took courageous and often unpopular stands against nationalism, militarism, anti-Semitism, racism, and McCarthyism. In Einstein on Politics, leading Einstein scholars David Rowe and Robert Schulmann gather Einstein's m

  9. Determining the elemental composition of fuels by bomb calorimetry and the inverse correlation of HHV with elemental composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Niels; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a method to obtain a simplified elemental analysis of an organic sample in which oxygen, nitrogen, and sulphur are lumped. The method uses a bomb calorimeter, water, and ash measurements combined with a numerical procedure based on a generalised equation for predicting higher...... heating value. By analysing pure organic substances, literature data, and fuels it is demonstrated that the method can provide hydrogen estimates within +/- 0.7% daf. and carbon and sum of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulphur estimates within +/- 2% daf. for fuels containing less than 90% ash db., 2% nitrogen...

  10. Pressure Changes before and after Explosive Rhyolitic Bomb Ejection at Chaiten, Chile Recorded By Water Diffusion Profiles Around Tuffisite Veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffen, H.; McGowan, E.; Castro, J. M.; Berlo, K.; James, M. R.; Owen, J.; Schipper, C. I.; Wadsworth, F. B.; Saubin, E.; Wehbe, K.

    2014-12-01

    The recent rhyolitic eruptions at Chaitén and Cordón Caulle have provided valuable new insights into the relationship between explosive and effusive activity, and the gas escape mechanisms that permit rapid effusion of degassed lava[1,2]. Bombs ejected during mixed explosive-effusive activity host spectacular tuffisite veins cutting both dense obsidian (Fig 1a) and highly-expanded pumice. Tuffisite veins are ash-filled fracture networks that act as ephemeral permeable pathways for gas escape in shallow conduits and lava domes. Previous studies have revealed water depletion adjacent to tuffisite veins, leading to models of fracture-triggered pressure release[2] and estimates of gas escape timescales[2,3]. We have characterised water diffusion profiles from a new suite of tuffisite-bearing Chaitén bombs, using synchrotron-source FTIR at the Diamond Light Source, Oxford, UK. Unexpectedly, one exceptionally large tuffisite vein, which is 30 mm thick (Fig. 1a, b) is mantled by zones of strong water enrichment, which enclose the usual narrow depletion zones immediately adjacent to the vein (Fig. 1c). Consistent results from different branches of this vein (Fig. 1b) indicate a similar history. The plausible range of diffusion model solutions points towards ~2-4 hours of vein pressurisation, followed by a brief pre-quench period of lower pressure conditions. In our model the vein opened during a period of overpressure at the lava dome base, sustained by gas influx from a deeper catchment extending hundreds of metres into the upper conduit. Overpressure culminated in violent bomb ejection, after which vein pressure decreased due to gas leakage to the atmosphere through the incompletely welded vein, as observed in rhyolitic bombs from Cordón Caulle (Fig. 1d). Commonly-seen water depletion zones[2,3] may therefore merely record post-fragmentation degassing. However, the enrichment zone points towards the type of deep pressurisation associated with cycles of tilt and

  11. Awful face of the war-impacted smoke bomb capsule in the face and systemic toxicity: reports from the conflict in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Bahar; Yeşiloğlu, Nebil; Firincioğullari, Remzi; Gökkaya, Ali; Özbey, Rafet; Özgür, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a rare kind of injury due to smoke bomb capsule impaction to midface and under the cranial base is presented, and maneuvers to reduce mortality are discussed. Three male patients were presented with impacted smoke bomb capsules into the midface and under the cranial base structures. Midface structures, anterior cranial base, and, in 2 patients, unilateral eye were severely damaged. Two patients died after the initial emergency operations because their lung disease progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome. One of the patients lived, and soft tissue reconstruction was achieved by using temporal transposition and cheek advancement skin flaps with split-thickness skin graft from donor site. However, craniofacial destruction is important in these patients; a multidisciplinary approach is needed for the treatment of direct smoke bomb injuries because the patients experienced chemical burn and acute trauma. The timing of maxillofacial reconstruction is also a question in these specific patients.

  12. Titanium subhydride potassium perchlorate (TiH1.65/KClO4) burn rates from hybrid closed bomb-strand burner experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Marcia A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Oliver, Michael S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-08-01

    A hybrid closed bomb-strand burner is used to measure the burning behavior of the titanium subhydride potassium perchlorate pyrotechnic with an equivalent hydrogen concentration of 1.65. This experimental facility allows for simultaneous measurement of the closed bomb pressure rise and pyrotechnic burn rate as detected by electrical break wires over a range of pressures. Strands were formed by pressing the pyrotechnic powders to bulk densities between 60% and 90% theoretical maximum density. The burn rate dependance on initial density and vessel pressure are measured. At all initial strand densities, the burn is observed to transition from conductive to convective burning within the strand. The measured vessel pressure history is further analyzed following the closed bomb analysis methods developed for solid propellants.

  13. Fish age validation study with bomb-produced radiocarbon (14C) conducted on yellowfin sole (Limanda aspera) and northern rockfish (Sebastes polyspinis) by Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Fisheries Monitoring and Analysis division from 1987-01-01 to 2004-01-01 (NCEI Accession 0134853)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish age validation with bomb-produced radiocarbon (14C) requires a known-age Delta14C reference chronology spanning the era of a marine increase in bomb-produced...

  14. "Water bombs" and seismic areas: two sides to the same problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straser, Valentino; Casati, Michele; Cataldi, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Intensification of catastrophic events over the last few years in Northern Tuscany (Italy), caused by real "water bombs", with the ensuing risk of flooding and an increase in seismicity, may point to a cause-effect relationship between the two phenomena. A relationship between baric variations and seismic activity resulting in earthquakes with a magnitude greater than M3, has already been described by Sytinsky (1997). Studies carried out on atmospheric processes during strong earthquakes have shown that there are also strong perturbations in atmospheric circulation, which manifest as a major restructuring of the pressure fields, as with changes in meteorological parameters. Recent studies by Straser (2015) have emphasized that variations in atmospheric pressure can affect the equilibrium of the rocks in fault zones, above all if part of a distensive tectonic context like the Lunigiana and Garfagnana area, which became an open-air laboratory to carry out this current study. Interaction between tectonic thrusts, the gases emitted in areas under crust stress, the production of ions in the atmosphere, detectable instrumentally and associated with pre-seismic signals have been described by Pulinets, (2007) and Pulinets with Boyarchuk (2004), as has the formation of nano particles and filamentous structures, of varying origin, caused by a combination of meteoric phenomena associated with electrical discharges and airborne ions as highlighted by Courty and Martinez (2015). One element to bear in mind when hypothesizing variations in equilibrium in distensive faults, is water. Indeed, it has been proposed that the quantity of water that reaches the ground during the kinds of strong precipitation analysed in this study might well create pressure variations in close proximity to the faults at the same time as lowering the friction coefficient in tectonically vulnerable areas. In contrast, it has also been suggested that frequent and prolonged seismic activity in the same

  15. Hyporheic nutrient transformation - A panacea for river restoration that solves the "Nitrate Time Bomb" ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, S.; Heathwaite, L.; Binley, A.; Kaeser, D.

    2009-04-01

    The river - aquifer interface, also called the ‘hyporheic zone' or ‘interstitial' characterises the area of intensive mixing between groundwater and surface water within the streambed of a river. Its physical conditions, as hydraulic conductivity and residence time, control fluxes and exchange rates between groundwater and surface water. Because of its often steep and dynamic redox gradients, the hyporheic zone can represent an area of high chemical activity. Previous studies described how the transport and redox processes in the hyporheic zone can cause effective nutrient attenuation, e.g. by denitrification. Hence, river regulators and river basin management plans hope for the hyporheic zone to delimit the negative impact, polluted groundwater has for the stream ecological health. The desperation behind such expectations becomes apparent in light of increasing nitrate concentrations in many groundwater aquifers and their long residence times - the so-called "Nitrate Time Bomb". In this study we investigate spatial and temporal patterns of physical streambed characteristics and redox chemical conditions and its controls on nitrogen transport and transformation in the streambed of several English rivers. For the streambed sediments of a 50 - 250 m stream reaches, pore water nitrate and ammonia concentrations were monitored together with common anions, redox conditions, dissolved oxygen levels and rates of groundwater up-welling and surface water mixing in a dense system of nested piezometer for a two year period. The results of this study indicate that hyporheic nutrient transformation can well exceed the usually assumed streambed depths of a few cm and may occur in depths of up to 1 m. Our investigations furthermore detected, that within the research area the hyporheic passage has a spatially very variable impact on the exchange fluxes and nitrogen concentrations and transformation rates in the streambed. Nitrate attenuation due to denitrification was found in

  16. Requirements for estimation of doses from contaminants dispersed by a 'dirty bomb' explosion in an urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.G., E-mail: kasper.andersson@risoe.d [Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Mikkelsen, T.; Astrup, P.; Thykier-Nielsen, S. [Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Jacobsen, L.H. [Prolog Development Center, HJ Holst Vej 3C-5C, DK-2605 Brondby (Denmark); Hoe, S.C. [Danish Emergency Management Agency, Datavej 16, DK-3460 Birkerod (Denmark); Nielsen, S.P. [Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2009-12-15

    The ARGOS decision support system is currently being extended to enable estimation of the consequences of terror attacks involving chemical, biological, nuclear and radiological substances. This paper presents elements of the framework that will be applied in ARGOS to calculate the dose contributions from contaminants dispersed in the atmosphere after a 'dirty bomb' explosion. Conceptual methodologies are presented which describe the various dose components on the basis of knowledge of time-integrated contaminant air concentrations. Also the aerosolisation and atmospheric dispersion in a city of different types of conceivable contaminants from a 'dirty bomb' are discussed.

  17. The spinning Kerr-black-hole-mirror bomb: A lower bound on the radius of the reflecting mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar Hod

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The intriguing superradiant amplification phenomenon allows an orbiting scalar field to extract rotational energy from a spinning Kerr black hole. Interestingly, the energy extraction rate can grow exponentially in time if the black-hole-field system is placed inside a reflecting mirror which prevents the field from radiating its energy to infinity. This composed Kerr-black-hole-scalar-field-mirror system, first designed by Press and Teukolsky, has attracted the attention of physicists over the last four decades. Previous numerical studies of this spinning black-hole bomb have revealed the interesting fact that the superradiant instability shuts down if the reflecting mirror is placed too close to the black-hole horizon. In the present study we use analytical techniques to explore the superradiant instability regime of this composed Kerr-black-hole-linearized-scalar-field-mirror system. In particular, it is proved that the lower bound rmr+>12(1+8Mr−−1 provides a necessary condition for the development of the exponentially growing superradiant instabilities in this composed physical system, where rm is the radius of the confining mirror and r± are the horizon radii of the spinning Kerr black hole. We further show that, in the linearized regime, this analytically derived lower bound on the radius of the confining mirror agrees with direct numerical computations of the superradiant instability spectrum which characterizes the spinning black-hole-mirror bomb.

  18. The spinning Kerr-black-hole-mirror bomb: A lower bound on the radius of the reflecting mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hod, Shahar

    2016-10-01

    The intriguing superradiant amplification phenomenon allows an orbiting scalar field to extract rotational energy from a spinning Kerr black hole. Interestingly, the energy extraction rate can grow exponentially in time if the black-hole-field system is placed inside a reflecting mirror which prevents the field from radiating its energy to infinity. This composed Kerr-black-hole-scalar-field-mirror system, first designed by Press and Teukolsky, has attracted the attention of physicists over the last four decades. Previous numerical studies of this spinning black-hole bomb have revealed the interesting fact that the superradiant instability shuts down if the reflecting mirror is placed too close to the black-hole horizon. In the present study we use analytical techniques to explore the superradiant instability regime of this composed Kerr-black-hole-linearized-scalar-field-mirror system. In particular, it is proved that the lower bound rm/r+ >1/2 (√{ 1 + 8M/r- } - 1) provides a necessary condition for the development of the exponentially growing superradiant instabilities in this composed physical system, where rm is the radius of the confining mirror and r± are the horizon radii of the spinning Kerr black hole. We further show that, in the linearized regime, this analytically derived lower bound on the radius of the confining mirror agrees with direct numerical computations of the superradiant instability spectrum which characterizes the spinning black-hole-mirror bomb.

  19. Anatomy of the Lockerbie bombing: Libya’s role and reactions to al-Megrahi’s release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Ani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite its long historical antecedents, terrorism is amongst the growing realities of the national history of contemporary sovereign states. With this emergence, destabilizing influence, and internationalization, terrorism has made the associated security challenge a major diplomatic headache for all key international actors and diplomats. This paper, which adopts a theoretical approach, assesses claims that Ghadafi’s Libya championed state-sponsored terrorism. It reviews the Lockerbie bombing and the conviction of al-Megrahi by the court in Netherland as well as his release from Scottish prison on compassionate grounds. It examines Libya’s use of available diplomatic tools and channels not only to prevent Abdelbaset Ali Mohammed al-Megrahi from facing justice but also to attain Ghadafi’s political and economic interests. This article documents the political communication that followed his release and calls for increased diplomatic investigations of the Lockerbie terrorist attack. Finally, the paper beckons on Libya’s new leaders and the leaderships of USA and Scotland to engage in a progressive multilateral strategic cooperation to unravel further facts on the Lockerbie bombing while promoting the current international “war” against terrorism

  20. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Residual Radiation Exposure: Recent Research and Suggestions for Future Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-06

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

  1. Tying Textures of Breadcrust Bombs to their Transport Regime and Cooling History (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufek, J.; Benage, M. C.; Degruyter, W.

    2013-12-01

    The thermal history of a pyroclastic density current (PDC) is influenced by particle concentration and entrainment of air, both of which contribute to the total runout distance of the current. There are few thermal proxies available to study the thermal history of PDCs but textural features of breadcrust bombs (and in particular rind thicknesses) provide a unique thermometer. Here we developed an integrated model to examine bubble growth, cooling rates, and dynamics of PDC and projectile pyroclasts. The pyroclasts are modeled as Lagrangian particles in a coupled multiphase numerical model (Eulerian-Eulerian-Lagrangian [EEL]) that computes the heat exchange between the current and the clasts. Pyroclast morphology is modeled by coupling cooling, viscosity, and bubble growth models. The edge of the pyroclast is cooled by convective and radiative heat transfer to the surrounding environment, and the interior is cooled by conduction. The temperature profile and composition of the pyroclast is used to calculate the distribution of viscosity. Proussevitch et al., (1993) numerical bubble growth model is included to calculate post-eruption bubble evolution and the clast morphology, such as rind thickness and bubble size distributions. We examined the rind developed on projectile pyroclasts and pyroclasts entrained in PDCs using multiple models of varying initial current conditions, initial current temperatures and initial water concentration. Projectile pyroclasts produced rinds 2-3.5 times larger than PDC pyroclasts for 900 K gases in the eruption. For the lower temperature gases (down to 500 K), or more ambient air entrainment, the projectile pyroclasts rinds were 1.25-2 times larger than the PDC pyroclasts. The projectiles developed thicker rinds due to their faster cooling rate. The rind on projectiles cooled 3-4 times faster than the PDC rinds for higher gas temperatures and there was less of a difference for the lower temperature comparison. The model also highlighted

  2. Report on the results of the twelfth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors residing in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Yasuji [Hiroshima Prefectural Medical Association (Japan); Ohama, Koso; Fujiwara, Saeko (and others)

    2000-06-01

    The twelfth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors residing in North America, was conducted in San Francisco and Seattle from May 20 through June 2 1999, and in Los Angeles and Hawaii from June 9 through 23 1999, The examination included an interview, measurement of height, weight, and blood pressure, an ECG, urine and stool tests, blood tests, a physical examination, examination of the breast, thyroid, and rectum by a surgeon, and screening for uterine cancer and a gynecological interview and examination by an obstetrician and gynecologist. The total confirmed number of A-bomb survivors residing in North America as of the end of June 1999 was 1076. Of the 1062 survivors that remained after excluding the 14 subjects whose survey was incomplete, 279 males and 654 females had been exposed in Hiroshima, and 10 males and 119 females in Nagasaki. The peak age at the time of exposure in both sexes was 15-19 years, followed by 10-14 years. The number of survivors exposed <2000 m from the hypocenter was 236, accounting for 21.9% of the total. The confirmed number of survivors exposed in utero was 26. The survivors' age (mean {+-}S.D.) was: 69.0{+-}8.69 years; males, 68.4{+-}80.5 years; females, 69.2{+-}8.91 years. A total of 414 survivors were examined (male 129; female 285; mean age 68.0 years). Approximately 80% of the examinees had experienced at least one general symptom. Many still complain of symptoms that suggest possible posttraumatic stress disorder as a result of exposure to the A-bomb. It will be necessary to consider providing mental health care by psychiatrists beginning with the next examination. The prevalence of life-style diseases has been gradually increased with age. A previous history of cancer was found in 9.2% of the examinees. The most prevalent was of breast cancer, followed by malignant tumors of the colon, rectum, uterus, brain, stomach, and thyroid. The need for cancer screening and promotion of life-style education was keenly felt. (K.H.)

  3. Rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene found for the first time in adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer cases among atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamatani, K.; Mukai, M.; Takahashi, K.; Nakachi, K.; Kusunoki, Y. [Radiobiology/Molecular Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Hayashi, Y. [Geriatric Health Service Facility Hidamari, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    Full text of the publication follows: Thyroid cancer is one of the malignancies most strongly associated with ionizing radiation in humans. Epidemiology studies of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have indicated that excess relative risk of papillary thyroid cancer per Gy was remarkably high in the survivors. We therefore aim to clarify mechanisms linking A-bomb radiation exposure and development of papillary thyroid cancer. Toward this end, we intend to clarify characteristics of gene alterations occurring in radiation-associated adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer from the Life Span Study cohort of A-bomb survivors. We have thus far found that with increased radiation dose, papillary thyroid cancer cases with chromosomal rearrangements (mainly RET/PTC rearrangements) significantly increased and papillary thyroid cancer cases with point mutations (mainly BRAF-V600E) significantly decreased. Papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations that carried no mutations in RET, NTRK1, BRAF or RAS genes tended to increase with increased radiation dose. In addition, we found that relative frequency of these papillary thyroid cancer cases significantly decreased with time elapsed since exposure. Through analysis of papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations, we recently discovered a new type of rearrangement for the first time in papillary thyroid cancer, i.e., rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene, although identification of any partner gene(s) is needed. Specifically, rearrangement of ALK was found in 10 of 19 exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations but not in any of the six non-exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases. Furthermore, papillary thyroid cancer with ALK rearrangement was frequently found in the cases with high radiation dose or with short time elapsed since A-bomb exposure. These results suggest that chromosomal rearrangement, typically of RET and ALK, may play an important

  4. Relationship between spontaneous γH2AX foci formation and progenitor functions in circulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells among atomic-bomb survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kubo, Yoshiko; Misumi, Munechika; Yoshida, Kengo; Hayashi, Tomonori; Imai, Kazue; Ohishi, Waka; Nakachi, Kei; Weng, Nan-ping; Young, Lauren F.; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Moore, Malcolm A.; van den Brink, Marcel R.M.; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Accumulated DNA damage in hematopoietic stem cells is a primary mechanism of aging-associated dysfunction in human hematopoiesis. About 70 years ago, atomic-bomb (A-bomb) radiation induced DNA damage and functional decreases in the hematopoietic system of A-bomb survivors in a radiation dose-dependent manner. The peripheral blood cell populations then recovered to a normal range, but accompanying cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells still remain that bear molecular changes possibly caused by past radiation exposure and aging. In the present study, we evaluated radiation-related changes in the frequency of phosphorylated (Ser-139) H2AX (γH2AX) foci formation in circulating CD34-positive/lineage marker-negative (CD34 + Lin−) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) among 226Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. An association between the frequency of γH2AX foci formation in HSPCs and the radiation dose was observed, but the γH2AX foci frequency was not significantly elevated by past radiation. We found a negative correlation between the frequency of γH2AX foci formation and the length of granulocyte telomeres. A negative interaction effect between the radiation dose and the frequency of γH2AX foci was suggested in a proportion of a subset of HSPCs as assessed by the cobblestone area-forming cell assay (CAFC), indicating that the self-renewability of HSPCs may decrease in survivors who were exposed to a higher radiation dose and who had more DNA damage in their HSPCs. Thus, although many years after radiation exposure and with advancing age, the effect of DNA damage on the self-renewability of HSPCs may be modified by A-bomb radiation exposure. PMID:27169377

  5. Rotating analogue black holes: Quasinormal modes and tails, superresonance, and sonic bombs and plants in the draining bathtub acoustic hole

    CERN Document Server

    Lemos, José P S

    2013-01-01

    The analogy between sound wave propagation and light waves led to the study of acoustic holes, the acoustic analogues of black holes. Many black hole features have their counterparts in acoustic holes. The Kerr metric, the rotating metric for black holes in general relativity, has as analogue the draining bathtub metric, a metric for a rotating acoustic hole. Here we report on the progress that has been made in the understanding of features, such as quasinormal modes and tails, superresonance, and instabilities when the hole is surrounded by a reflected mirror, in the draining bathtub metric. Given then the right settings one can build up from these instabilities an apparatus that stores energy in the form of amplified sound waves. This can be put to wicked purposes as in a bomb, or to good profit as in a sonic plant.

  6. 'What to do if it happens': planners, pamphlets and propaganda in the age of the H-bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Melissa

    2009-06-01

    In 1955, a highly secret Government report painted a bleak picture of Britain after a nuclear war. Without greatly improved civil defence measures, the report warned, a hydrogen bomb attack on Britain could kill one-third of the population within 24h and leave swathes of land uninhabitable. But Government advice to the public told a different story, offering cheerful advice about vacuuming up radioactive fallout and building shelters from books and furniture. Meanwhile, civil defence spending cuts left the public lacking even the standard of protection they had enjoyed during the Second World War. This seemingly paradoxical Government response was shaped by conflicting financial and political pressures, and by the work of the Home Office scientists whose research underpinned British civil defence planning.

  7. A First Look on iMiner's Knowledge base and Detecting Hidden Hierarchy of Riyadh Bombing Terrorist Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah

    2007-01-01

      - Data collection is difficult to any network analysis because it is difficult to create a complete network.  It is not easy to gain information on terrorist networks.  It is fact that terrorist organizations do not provide information on their members and the government rarely allows researchers...... to use their intelligence data (Ressler S., 2006).  Very few researchers (Krebs, V., 2002, Sageman, M., 2004 and Rodriguez, J. A., 2004) collected data from open sources, and to the best of our knowledge, no knowledge base is available in academia for the analysis of the terrorist events.   To counter...... of Investigative Data Mining (IDM). In addition, we present iMiner Information Harvesting System and describe how intelligence agencies could be benefited from detecting hierarchy in non-hierarchical terrorist networks.  In this paper we present results of detection of hidden hierarchy of Riyadh Bombing Terrorist...

  8. An examination of the potential fission-bomb weaponizability of nuclides other than 235U and 239Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2017-01-01

    Long-lived fissionable isotopes other than uranium-235 and plutonium-239 are examined for possible use in fission weapons. A few other isotopes are potentially weaponizable and in some cases have been tried or their criticality experimentally demonstrated. In most cases, however, promising isotopes are either extremely rare, difficult to produce in quantity, or hazardous to handle. Some isotopes can serve to boost the yield of fission weapons, but 235U and 239Pu are likely to remain the only practical primary fuels for nuclear weapons. In view of this, and the fact that this analysis gives no engineering details on the design of nuclear weapons, this paper will be of no assistance to putative bomb-makers; rather, my purpose is to clarify the physics similarities between 235U and 239Pu that make them suitable candidates for fission weapons.

  9. Interannual variations of bomb radiocarbon during 1977-1998 recorded in coral from Daya Bay, South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN; Chengde(沈承德); YU; Kefu(余克服); SUN; Yanmin(孙彦敏); YI; Weixi(易惟熙); YANG; Ying(杨英); ZHOU; Bin(周斌)

    2003-01-01

    22 annual layered samples of coral from 1977 to 1998 were collected from Daya Bay, South China Sea, their bomb-14C(nuclear weapons testing 14C) concentrations were determined and studied, and the atmosphere-sea exchange rate and diffusion thickness were estimated and found to be 17 mol·m-2·a-1 and 32 μm, respectively. The interannual variation of coral △14C is mainly controlled by oceanic factors. In ENSO years, the coastwise upwelling current of South China Sea gets intensified, hence the coral △14C displays its bottom value. The coral △14Cdoes not respond vividly to the variation of the solar radiation energy. In thepast 20 years or so, the general situation and the oceanic thermal structure ofSouth China Sea are still stable even though interannual variation occurs in the atmosphere-sea interaction and the upwelling current driven by the tropical energy.

  10. Metabolic Profile as a Potential Modifier of Long-Term Radiation Effects on Peripheral Lymphocyte Subsets in Atomic Bomb Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kengo; Nakashima, Eiji; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Hakoda, Masayuki; Hayashi, Tomonori; Hida, Ayumi; Ohishi, Waka; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-09-01

    Immune system impairments reflected by the composition and function of circulating lymphocytes are still observed in atomic bomb survivors, and metabolic abnormalities including altered blood triglyceride and cholesterol levels have also been detected in such survivors. Based on closely related features of immune and metabolic profiles of individuals, we investigated the hypothesis that long-term effects of radiation exposure on lymphocyte subsets might be modified by metabolic profiles in 3,113 atomic bomb survivors who participated in health examinations at the Radiation Effect Research Foundation, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in 2000-2002. The lymphocyte subsets analyzed involved T-, B- and NK-cell subsets, and their percentages in the lymphocyte fraction were assessed using flow cytometry. Health examinations included metabolic indicators, body mass index, serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein and hemoglobin A1c, as well as diabetes and fatty liver diagnoses. Standard regression analyses indicated that several metabolic indicators of obesity/related disease, particularly high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, were positively associated with type-1 helper T- and B-cell percentages but were inversely associated with naïve CD4 T and NK cells. A regression analysis adjusted for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol revealed a radiation dose relationship with increasing NK-cell percentage. Additionally, an interaction effect was suggested between radiation dose and C-reactive protein on B-cell percentage with a negative coefficient of the interaction term. Collectively, these findings suggest that radiation exposure and subsequent metabolic profile changes, potentially in relationship to obesity-related inflammation, lead to such long-term alterations in lymphocyte subset composition. Because this study is based on cross-sectional and exploratory analyses, the implications regarding radiation exposure, metabolic

  11. Liver cancer in atomic-bomb survivors. Histological characteristics and relationships to radiation and hepatitis B and C viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuhara, Toshiyuki [Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital (Japan); Sharp, G.B.; Mizuno, Terumi (and others)

    2001-06-01

    Histological features of primary liver cancer among atomic-bomb survivors and their relationship to hepatitis B (HBV) and C viral (HCV) infections are of special interest because of the increased risk of liver cancer in persons exposed to ionizing radiation and the high and increasing liver cancer rates in Japan and elsewhere. We conducted a pathology review of liver cancers occurring from 1958 to 1987 among subjects in the 120,321 member cohort of 1945 Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents. A panel of pathologists classified tumor histological types and defined accompanying cirrhotic changes of the liver. Archival tissue samples were assessed for HBV using pathology stains and PCR. Reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR was used to determine HCV status. We used unconditional logistic regression to compare 302 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases to 53 cholangiocarcinoma (CC) cases, adjusting for age, year of diagnosis, sex and viral status. Cirrhotic changes occurred significantly more often among HCC than CC cases (76% in HCC and 6% in CC). Compared to CC cases, HCC cases were 10.9 times more likely to be HBV-positive (95% confidence interval: 2.1-83.2) and 4.3 times more likely to be HCV-positive (95% confidence interval: 1.1-20.5) No significant differences were found between HCC and CC cases in radiation exposures. The predominance of HCC in the atomic-bomb survivors follows the background liver cancer pattern in Japan. Our findings suggest that HBV and HCV are involved in the pathogenesis of HCC with or without cirrhosis and are significantly less important in that of CC. (author)

  12. (41)Ca in Tooth Enamel. Part II: A means for retrospective biological neutron dosimetry in atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühm, W; Wallner, A; Cullings, H; Egbert, S D; El-Faramawy, N; Faestermann, T; Kaul, D; Knie, K; Korschinek, G; Nakamura, N; Roberts, J; Rugel, G

    2010-08-01

    (41)Ca is produced mainly by absorption of low-energy neutrons on stable (40)Ca. We used accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to measure (41)Ca in enamel of 16 teeth from 13 atomic bomb survivors who were exposed to the bomb within 1.2 km from the hypocenter in Hiroshima. In our accompanying paper (Wallner et al., Radiat. Res. 174, 000-000, 2010), we reported that the background-corrected (41)Ca/Ca ratio decreased from 19.5 x 10(-15) to 2.8 x 10(-15) with increasing distance from the hypocenter. Here we show that the measured ratios are in good correlation with gamma-ray doses assessed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in the same enamel samples, and agree well with calculated ratios based on either the current Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02) or more customized dose estimates where the regression slope as obtained from an errors-in-variables linear model was about 0.85. The calculated DS02 neutron dose to the survivors was about 10 to 80 mGy. The low-energy neutrons responsible for (41)Ca activation contributed variably to the total neutron dose depending on the shielding conditions. Namely, the contribution was smaller (10%) when shielding conditions were lighter (e.g., outside far away from a single house) and was larger (26%) when they were heavier (e.g., in or close to several houses) because of local moderation of neutrons by shielding materials. We conclude that AMS is useful for verifying calculated neutron doses under mixed exposure conditions with gamma rays.

  13. Sweden and the bomb. The Swedish plans to acquire nuclear weapons, 1945 - 1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonter, T [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of History

    2001-09-01

    This study analyses the Swedish nuclear weapons research since 1945 carried out by the Swedish National Defence Research Establishment (FOA). The most important aspect of this research was dealing with protection in broad terms against nuclear weapons attacks. However, another aspect was also important from early on - to conduct research aiming at a possible production of nuclear weapons. FOA performed an extended research up to 1968, when the Swedish government signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which meant the end of these production plans. Up to this date, five main investigations about the technical conditions were made, 1948, 1953, 1955, 1957 and 1965, which all together expanded the Swedish know-how to produce a bomb. The Swedish plans to procure nuclear weapons were not an issue in the debate until the mid-50's. The reason for this was simple, prior to 1954 the plans were secretly held within a small group of involved politicians, military and researchers. The change of this procedure did take place when the Swedish Supreme Commander in a public defence report in 1954 favoured a Swedish Nuclear weapons option. In 1958 FOA had reached a technical level that allowed the parliament to make a decision. Two programs were proposed - the L-programme (the Loading Programme), to be used if the parliament would say yes to a production of nuclear weapons, and the S-programme (the Protection Programme), if the parliament would say no. The debate on the issue had now created problems for the Social Democratic Government. The prime minister, Tage Erlander, who had earlier defended a procurement of nuclear weapons, was now forced to reach a compromise. The compromise was presented to the parliament in a creative manner that meant that only the S-programme would be allowed. The government argued that the technical level did allow a 'freedom of action' up to at least the beginning of the 60's when Sweden was mature to make a decision on the issue

  14. Uranium tetrafluoride reduction closed bomb. Part I: Reduction process general conditions; Reduccion del tetrafluoruro de uranio en bomba cerrada. Part I. estudio de las variables generales del proceso de reduccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anca Abati, R.; Lopez Rodriguez, M.

    1961-07-01

    General conditions about the metallo thermic reduction in small bombs (250 and 800 gr. of uranium) has been investigated. Factors such as kind and granulometry of the magnesium used, magnesium excess and preheating temperature, which affect yields and metal quality have been considered. magnesium excess increased yields in a 15% in the small bomb, about the preheating temperature, there is a range between which yields and metal quality does not change. All tests have been made with graphite linings. (Author) 18 refs.

  15. Satellite-based detection of 16.76 MeV γ-ray from H-bomb D-T fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on the high energy γ-ray yield from the H-bomb D-T fusion reaction,it brings forward the idea applying the 16.76 MeV γ-ray to judge whether the H-bomb happens or not,and to deduce the explosion TNT equivalent accurately.The Monte Carlo N-Particle was applied to simulate the high energy γ-ray radiation characteristics reaching the geosynchronous orbit satellite,and the CVD diamond detector suit for the requirements was researched.A series of experiments were carried out to testify the capabilities of the diamond detector.It provides a brand-new approach to satellite-based nuclear explosion detection.

  16. The human sex odds at birth after the atmospheric atomic bomb tests, after Chernobyl, and in the vicinity of nuclear facilities: comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Walter

    2012-05-01

    The recent claim made in this journal that nuclear bomb tests and the Chernobyl disaster caused distortions in the secondary sex ratio is shown to be a likely artifact of data mining, misused statistics, and misreading of the evidence. In particular, the concept of statistical "significance" and its limitations do not seem to be fully understood, and important confounding factors have not been accounted for.

  17. Ticking Stellar Time Bomb Identified - Astronomers find prime suspect for a Type Ia supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    it will eventually become heavy enough to explode as a supernova. Combining the NACO images with data obtained with several other telescopes [5] the astronomers could determine the distance of the system - about 25 000 light-years from the Sun - and its intrinsic brightness - over 10 000 times brighter than the Sun. This implies that the vampire white dwarf in this system has a high mass that is near its fatal limit and is still simultaneously being fed by its companion at a high rate. "Whether V445 Puppis will eventually explode as a supernova, or if the current nova outburst has pre-empted that pathway by ejecting too much matter back into space is still unclear," says Woudt. "But we have here a pretty good suspect for a future Type Ia supernova!" Notes [1] White dwarfs represent the evolutionary end product of stars with initial masses up to a few solar masses. A white dwarf is the burnt-out stellar core that is left behind when a star like the Sun sheds its outer layers towards the end of its active life. It is composed essentially of carbon and oxygen. This process normally also leads to the formation of a surrounding planetary nebula. [2] Adaptive optics is a technique that allows astronomers to obtain an image of an object free from the blurring effect of the atmosphere. See the adaptive optics page at ESO: http://www.eso.org/public/astronomy/technology/adaptive_optics.html [3] See for example http://www.eso.org/~bleibund/papers/EPN/epn.html [4] This Chandrasekhar limit, named after the Indian physicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, is nearly 1.4 times the mass of the Sun. When a white dwarf reaches a mass above this limit, either by sucking matter from a companion or merging with another white dwarf, it will turn itself into a thermonuclear bomb that will burn carbon and oxygen explosively. [5] The team also used the SOFI instrument on ESO's New Technology Telescope, the IMACS spectrograph on the 6.5-metre Magellan Baade telescope, and the Infrared Survey

  18. Report on the results of the eleventh medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamakido, Michio [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Dohy, Hiroo; Neriishi, Kazuo [and others

    1998-01-01

    The 11th medical examination of A-bomb survivors was conducted in 1997. Two medical teams conducted health examinations in Los Angeles and Seattle, and in San Francisco and Hawaii, respectively. The total number of A-bomb survivors resident in North America as of the end of July 1997 was 1,060, an increase of 17 over that confirmed in 1995. The number of survivors exposed <2,000-m from the hypocenter was 234, accounting for 22.1% of the total. The confirmed number of in-utero exposed survivors was 26. As to the past medical history information, breast cancer, thyroid cancer, and heart disease were frequently observed in the <2,000-m group. Frequent subjective symptoms include complete exhaustion or fatigue, loss of vigor, blurring of vision, itching of the skin, which were reported in more than 40% of the survivors. The frequencies of nocturia, nervousness, severe headache, and excessive sweating in cold weather were higher in the <2,000-m group. Chest pain was seen frequently in the <2,000-m group for males, but no difference was observed in females. Nocturia was observed in more than half of the males in the <2,000-m group. There were 99 cases (22.8%) with fasting plasma glucose level of 110 mg/dl or above, consisting of 39 males (32.0%) and 60 females (19.2%). Abnormal HbA1c levels were observed in 33 cases (7.6%), including 12 males (9.8%) and 11 females (6.7%). The proportion of cases with abnormal HbA1c levels was higher in males. No difference by exposure status was observed either for fasting plasma glucose or HbA1c. The disease of the highest prevalence was hyperlipidemia (57.4%), followed by hypertension (35.0%), obesity (27.2%), liver disease (21.9%), thyroid disease (20.0%), gastrointestinal disease (20.7%), heart disease (13.4%) and urological disease (12.9%). Malignant tumors were observed in two cases in L.A., two in Seattle, and one in S.F. Cancer will be important issue in the future examinations. (K.H.)

  19. Reanalysis of cancer mortality in Japanese A-bomb survivors exposed to low doses of radiation: bootstrap and simulation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dropkin Greg

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP recommended annual occupational dose limit is 20 mSv. Cancer mortality in Japanese A-bomb survivors exposed to less than 20 mSv external radiation in 1945 was analysed previously, using a latency model with non-linear dose response. Questions were raised regarding statistical inference with this model. Methods Cancers with over 100 deaths in the 0 - 20 mSv subcohort of the 1950-1990 Life Span Study are analysed with Poisson regression models incorporating latency, allowing linear and non-linear dose response. Bootstrap percentile and Bias-corrected accelerated (BCa methods and simulation of the Likelihood Ratio Test lead to Confidence Intervals for Excess Relative Risk (ERR and tests against the linear model. Results The linear model shows significant large, positive values of ERR for liver and urinary cancers at latencies from 37 - 43 years. Dose response below 20 mSv is strongly non-linear at the optimal latencies for the stomach (11.89 years, liver (36.9, lung (13.6, leukaemia (23.66, and pancreas (11.86 and across broad latency ranges. Confidence Intervals for ERR are comparable using Bootstrap and Likelihood Ratio Test methods and BCa 95% Confidence Intervals are strictly positive across latency ranges for all 5 cancers. Similar risk estimates for 10 mSv (lagged dose are obtained from the 0 - 20 mSv and 5 - 500 mSv data for the stomach, liver, lung and leukaemia. Dose response for the latter 3 cancers is significantly non-linear in the 5 - 500 mSv range. Conclusion Liver and urinary cancer mortality risk is significantly raised using a latency model with linear dose response. A non-linear model is strongly superior for the stomach, liver, lung, pancreas and leukaemia. Bootstrap and Likelihood-based confidence intervals are broadly comparable and ERR is strictly positive by bootstrap methods for all 5 cancers. Except for the pancreas, similar estimates of

  20. What it Takes to Get Passed On: Message Content, Style, and Structure as Predictors of Retransmission in the Boston Marathon Bombing Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Sutton

    Full Text Available Message retransmission is a central aspect of information diffusion. In a disaster context, the passing on of official warning messages by members of the public also serves as a behavioral indicator of message salience, suggesting that particular messages are (or are not perceived by the public to be both noteworthy and valuable enough to share with others. This study provides the first examination of terse message retransmission of official warning messages in response to a domestic terrorist attack, the Boston Marathon Bombing in 2013. Using messages posted from public officials' Twitter accounts that were active during the period of the Boston Marathon bombing and manhunt, we examine the features of messages that are associated with their retransmission. We focus on message content, style, and structure, as well as the networked relationships of message senders to answer the question: what characteristics of a terse message sent under conditions of imminent threat predict its retransmission among members of the public? We employ a negative binomial model to examine how message characteristics affect message retransmission. We find that, rather than any single effect dominating the process, retransmission of official Tweets during the Boston bombing response was jointly influenced by various message content, style, and sender characteristics. These findings suggest the need for more work that investigates impact of multiple factors on the allocation of attention and on message retransmission during hazard events.

  1. Growth process in an elephant tusk: Age estimations based on temporal variations in bomb-radiocarbon content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Toshio; Koike, Hiroko; Aizawa, Jun; Okuno, Mitsuru

    2015-10-01

    In this study, 14C analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was applied to age estimation based on temporal variations in bomb-produced-14C contents of a full elephant tusk registered at Kyushu University. The tusk measured 175 cm long and 13.8 cm in diameter at the root. Thirty tusk-fragment samples were used for 14C analysis with AMS to estimate the formation ages of different positions according to catalogued global 14C contents (F14C). The F14C value of the tip of the tusk suggested that the elephant was born around 1980, while that of the root suggested death around 1994, a lifespan of at least 14 years, rather shorter period than the average lifetime of an elephant (ca. 80 years). In addition, the F14C values of fragments collected along a cross-sectional line suggested that the outer part of the tusk formed first with inner parts being deposited gradually with growth.

  2. Growth process in an elephant tusk: Age estimations based on temporal variations in bomb-radiocarbon content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Toshio, E-mail: nakamura@nendai.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Koike, Hiroko [Kyushu University Museum, Kyushu University, Hakozaki, Fukuoka, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan); Aizawa, Jun; Okuno, Mitsuru [Department of Earth System Science, Faculty of Science, Fukuoka University, 8-19-1 Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, {sup 14}C analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was applied to age estimation based on temporal variations in bomb-produced-{sup 14}C contents of a full elephant tusk registered at Kyushu University. The tusk measured 175 cm long and 13.8 cm in diameter at the root. Thirty tusk-fragment samples were used for {sup 14}C analysis with AMS to estimate the formation ages of different positions according to catalogued global {sup 14}C contents (F{sup 14}C). The F{sup 14}C value of the tip of the tusk suggested that the elephant was born around 1980, while that of the root suggested death around 1994, a lifespan of at least 14 years, rather shorter period than the average lifetime of an elephant (ca. 80 years). In addition, the F{sup 14}C values of fragments collected along a cross-sectional line suggested that the outer part of the tusk formed first with inner parts being deposited gradually with growth.

  3. Perinatal loss and neurological abnormalities among children of the atomic bomb. Nagasaki and Hiroshima revisited, 1949 to 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, J.N.; Schull, W.J. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Studies of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were exposed to ionizing radiation in utero have demonstrated a significant increase in perinatal loss and the vulnerability of the developing fetal brain to injury. These studies have also helped to define the stages in the development of the human brain that are particularly susceptible to radiation-related damage. Exposure at critical junctures in development increases the risk of mental retardation, small head size, subsequent seizures, and poor performance on conventional tests of intelligence and in school. The most critical period, 8 through 15 weeks after fertilization, corresponds to that time in development when neuronal production increases and migration of immature neurons to their cortical sites of function occurs. The epidemiologic data are, however, too sparse to settle unequivocally the nature of the dose-response function and, in particular, whether there is or is not a threshold to damage. If a threshold does exist, it appears to be in the 0.10- to 0.20-Gy fetal-dose range in this vulnerable gestational period.

  4. Inverse associations between obesity indicators and thymic T-cell production levels in aging atomic-bomb survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kengo Yoshida

    Full Text Available Reduction of the naive T-cell population represents a deteriorating state in the immune system that occurs with advancing age. In animal model studies, obesity compromises the T-cell immune system as a result of enhanced adipogenesis in primary lymphoid organs and systemic inflammation. In this study, to test the hypothesis that obesity may contribute to the aging of human T-cell immunity, a thousand atomic-bomb survivors were examined for obesity status and ability to produce naive T cells, i.e., T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC numbers in CD4 and CD8 T cells. The number of TRECs showed a strong positive correlation with naive T cell numbers, and lower TREC numbers were associated with higher age. We found that the TREC number was inversely associated with levels of obesity indicators (BMI, hemoglobin A1c and serum CRP levels. Development of type-2 diabetes and fatty liver was also associated with lower TREC numbers. This population study suggests that obesity with enhanced inflammation is involved in aging of the human T-cell immune system. Given the fact that obesity increases the risk of numerous age-related diseases, attenuated immune competence is a possible mechanistic link between obesity and disease development among the elderly.

  5. Inverse associations between obesity indicators and thymic T-cell production levels in aging atomic-bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kengo; Nakashima, Eiji; Kubo, Yoshiko; Yamaoka, Mika; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Hayashi, Tomonori; Ohishi, Waka; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of the naive T-cell population represents a deteriorating state in the immune system that occurs with advancing age. In animal model studies, obesity compromises the T-cell immune system as a result of enhanced adipogenesis in primary lymphoid organs and systemic inflammation. In this study, to test the hypothesis that obesity may contribute to the aging of human T-cell immunity, a thousand atomic-bomb survivors were examined for obesity status and ability to produce naive T cells, i.e., T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) numbers in CD4 and CD8 T cells. The number of TRECs showed a strong positive correlation with naive T cell numbers, and lower TREC numbers were associated with higher age. We found that the TREC number was inversely associated with levels of obesity indicators (BMI, hemoglobin A1c) and serum CRP levels. Development of type-2 diabetes and fatty liver was also associated with lower TREC numbers. This population study suggests that obesity with enhanced inflammation is involved in aging of the human T-cell immune system. Given the fact that obesity increases the risk of numerous age-related diseases, attenuated immune competence is a possible mechanistic link between obesity and disease development among the elderly.

  6. An alternative method of OBT measurement for the limited quantity of environmental samples using a combustion bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Bog; Stuart, Marilyne

    2013-12-01

    The measurement of organically bound tritium (OBT) in environmental samples is much more difficult than the measurement of tritiated water (HTO). This study describes an alternative method for OBT determination in plant materials in which tritium-free polyethylene beads are added to the plant sample prior to combustion in a combustion bomb. It is not always possible to collect large enough amounts of some plants (e.g. algae, plankton, grass) within a specific area or specific period. Excellent water recovery is achieved when dry plant materials are combusted with polyethylene beads. When Ultima Gold AB is used as the scintillation cocktail, it is possible to measure the combustion water directly without distillation. Correction factors were derived for the plants used in the study to account for the dilution of the combustion water due to addition of the polyethylene beads. The alternative method has a number of advantages, including an increased yield of combustion water for liquid scintillation counting, less color quenching, reduced sample size and decreased analysis time. Finally, accuracy tests comparing results of the conventional method with those of the alternative method were carried out using environmental samples.

  7. Age validation of canary rockfish (Sebastes pinniger) using two independent otolith techniques: lead-radium and bomb radiocarbon dating.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, A H; Kerr, L A; Cailliet, G M; Brown, T A; Lundstrom, C C; Stanley, R D

    2007-11-04

    Canary rockfish (Sebastes pinniger) have long been an important part of recreational and commercial rockfish fishing from southeast Alaska to southern California, but localized stock abundances have declined considerably. Based on age estimates from otoliths and other structures, lifespan estimates vary from about 20 years to over 80 years. For the purpose of monitoring stocks, age composition is routinely estimated by counting growth zones in otoliths; however, age estimation procedures and lifespan estimates remain largely unvalidated. Typical age validation techniques have limited application for canary rockfish because they are deep dwelling and may be long lived. In this study, the unaged otolith of the pair from fish aged at the Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada was used in one of two age validation techniques: (1) lead-radium dating and (2) bomb radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) dating. Age estimate accuracy and the validity of age estimation procedures were validated based on the results from each technique. Lead-radium dating proved successful in determining a minimum estimate of lifespan was 53 years and provided support for age estimation procedures up to about 50-60 years. These findings were further supported by {Delta}{sup 14}C data, which indicated a minimum estimate of lifespan was 44 {+-} 3 years. Both techniques validate, to differing degrees, age estimation procedures and provide support for inferring that canary rockfish can live more than 80 years.

  8. A two-phase Poisson process model and its application to analysis of cancer mortality among A-bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtaki, Megu; Tonda, Tetsuji; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2015-10-01

    We consider a two-phase Poisson process model where only early successive transitions are assumed to be sensitive to exposure. In the case where intensity transitions are low, we derive analytically an approximate formula for the distribution of time to event for the excess hazard ratio (EHR) due to a single point exposure. The formula for EHR is a polynomial in exposure dose. Since the formula for EHR contains no unknown parameters except for the number of total stages, number of exposure-sensitive stages, and a coefficient of exposure effect, it is applicable easily under a variety of situations where there exists a possible latency time from a single point exposure to occurrence of event. Based on the multistage hypothesis of cancer, we formulate a radiation carcinogenesis model in which only some early consecutive stages of the process are sensitive to exposure, whereas later stages are not affected. An illustrative analysis using the proposed model is given for cancer mortality among A-bomb survivors.

  9. 2C-I-NBOMe, an "N-bomb" that kills with "Smiles". Toxicological and legislative aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaou, Panagiota; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Stefanidou, Maria; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Athanaselis, Sotiris

    2015-01-01

    Substituted phenethylamines are a class of designer drugs that have recently emerged in the drug abuse market. Such substances remain legal to use, possess, and supply until these compounds become classified as scheduled. 2C-I-NBOMe or 25I-NBOMe is the N-benzyl-derivative of the iodo-substituted dimethoxy-phenethylamine (2C-I) that appeared recently in the drug market under the street name "N-Bomb". Due to its high potency, intoxications and fatal cases related to 2C-I-NBOMe use are increased worldwide. The use and trafficking of this substituted phenethylamine is banned only in some countries. A comprehensive review was performed using PubMed and Medline databases, together with additional non-peer reviewed information sources, including books and publications of state authorities in different countries, regarding chemistry, availability, pharmacology, and toxicology of 2C-I-NBOMe. Intoxications or lethal cases, published or reported, as well as the current legislation on this newly introduced drug are also reviewed.

  10. Mind bomb-1 in dendritic cells is specifically required for Notch-mediated T helper type 2 differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Woo Jeong

    Full Text Available In dendritic cell (DC-CD4(+ T cell interaction, Notch signaling has been implicated in the CD4(+ T cell activation, proliferation, and subset differentiation. However, there has been a lot of debate on the exact role of Notch signaling. Here, we observed that expression of Mind bomb-1 (Mib1, a critical regulator of Notch ligands for the activation of Notch signaling, increases gradually as precursor cells differentiate into DCs in mice. To clarify the role of Mib1 in DC-CD4(+ T cell interactions, we generated Mib1-null bone marrow-derived DCs. These cells readily expressed Notch ligands but failed to initiate Notch activation in the adjacent cells. Nevertheless, Mib1-null DCs were able to prime the activation and proliferation of CD4(+ T cells, suggesting that Notch activation in CD4(+ T cells is not required for these processes. Intriguingly, stimulation of CD4(+ T cells with Mib1-null DCs resulted in dramatically diminished Th2 cell populations, while preserving Th1 cell populations, both in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrate that Mib1 in DCs is critical for the activation of Notch signaling in CD4(+ T cells, and Notch signaling reinforces Th2 differentiation, but is not required for the activation or proliferation of the CD4(+ T cells.

  11. The consequences for children of explosive remnants of war: Land mines, unexploded ordnance, improvised explosive devices, and cluster bombs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Hugh G

    2009-01-01

    Land mines are particularly a problem for children. The deaths and loss of body parts have been publicized, but the secondary effects - the loss or maiming of parents, the loss of physical and social space the loss of access to education, and the loss of cultivatable land with the resultant malnutrition and sickness, are less frequently considered. "Explosive Remnants of War" (ERW) is becoming the generic term to refer to land mines, unexploded ordnance, improvised explosive devices and cluster bombs. The United Nations estimates that there are currently as many as 100 million unexploded landmines with an equal number stockpiled around the world waiting to be planted. Mines are designed to be difficult to locate and their clearance is costly. Children in at least 80 countries are at risk due to ERW. The type of mine, the proximity of the child to the explosion, and location of the mine in relation to the child's body are the important determinants of the nature and severity of the injury. Children are especially susceptible to picking up explosive remnants thinking they are toys. The result is commonly loss of the hands, facial injuries, blindness and deafness. Rehabilitation for these children is extremely difficult due to remoteness and the limited resources available.

  12. Bomb-Pulse Chlorine-36 At The Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository Horizon: An Investigation Of Previous Conflicting Results And Collection Of New Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Cizdziel

    2006-07-28

    Previous studies by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) found elevated ratios of chlorine-36 to total chloride ({sup 36}Cl/Cl) in samples of rock collected from the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) and the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) at Yucca Mountain as the tunnels were excavated. The data were interpreted as an indication that fluids containing 'bomb-pulse' {sup 36}Cl reached the repository horizon in the {approx}50 years since the peak period of above-ground nuclear testing. Moreover, the data support the concept that so-called fast pathways for infiltration not only exist but are active, possibly through a combination of porous media, faults and/or other geologic features. Due to the significance of {sup 36}Cl data to conceptual models of unsaturated zone flow and transport, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) was requested by the Department of Energy (DOE) to design and implement a study to validate the LANL findings. The USGS chose to drill new boreholes at select locations across zones where bomb-pulse ratios had previously been identified. The drill cores were analyzed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for {sup 36}Cl/Cl using both active and passive leaches, with the USGS/LLNL concluding that the active leach extracted too much rock-Cl and the passive leach did not show bomb-pulse ratios. Because consensus was not reached between the USGS/LLNL and LANL on several fundamental points, including the conceptual strategy for sampling, interpretation and use of tritium ({sup 3}H) data, and the importance and interpretation of blanks, in addition to the presence or absence of bomb-pulse {sup 36}Cl, an evaluation by an independent entity, the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), using new samples was initiated. This report is the result of that study. The overall objectives of the UNLV study were to investigate the source or sources of the conflicting results from the previous

  13. History of radiation research. On radiation, radioactivity and radiation protection. Pt. 2. The sword of Damocles. Decade of the atomic bomb 1940-1950; Geschichte der Strahlenforschung. Ueber Strahlung, Radioaktivitaet und Strahlenschutz. T. 2. Das Damoklesschwert. Jahrzehnt der Atombombe: 1940-1950

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindell, B.

    2006-07-01

    The book includes contributions with the following titles: Szilards bomb; the excess neutrons; Napoleon's successor; Einstein's letter; the interim year 1940; administration and research; the sailor from India; the production facilities; ''I am the death, destroyer of the world''; Heisenberg's bomb; from other horizons; Potsdam and the atomic bomb decision; Hiroshima and Nagasaki; the beginning of nuclear power; renewed contacts; epilogue.

  14. Bomb-Pulse Chlorine-36 at the Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository Horizon: An Investigation of Previous Conflicting Results and Collection of New Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cizdziel, James

    2006-07-31

    Previous studies Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) found elevated ratios of chlorine-36 to total chloride (36Cl/Cl) in samples of rock collected from the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain (YM). The data were interpreted as an indication that fluids containing “bomb-pulse” 36Cl reached the repository horizon in the ~50 years since the peak period of above-ground nuclear testing. Due to the significance of 36Cl data to conceptual models of unsaturated zone flow, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) implemented a study to validate the LANL findings. The USGS drilled new boreholes at select locations across zones where bomb-pulse ratios had previously been identified. The drill cores were analyzed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Because consensus was not reached between the USGS/LLNL and LANL on several fundamental points including the presence or absence of bomb-pulse 36Cl, an evaluation by the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), was initiated. The overall objectives of the UNLV study were to investigate the source of the validation study’s conflicting results, and to obtain additional data on bomb-pulse isotopes at the repository horizon. UNLV engaged in discussions with previous investigators, reviewed reports, and analyzed archived samples. UNLV also collected new samples of rock from the ESF, soil profiles from the surface of YM, and samples of seep water from inside the ESF. Samples were analyzed for 36Cl/Cl ratios, and 99Tc and 129I in select samples. A column experiment was conducted mimicking the passage of bomb-pulse 36Cl through YM tuff. The work faced several obstacles including an extended shutdown of the tunnel. Only one sample yielded a background corrected 36Cl/Cl ratio that was higher than the accepted bomb-pulse threshold (1250 x 10-15). Specimen 01034214 obtained from the Drill Hole Wash fault (19+33) had a ratio of 1590 ± 80 (1σ) x10-15, whereas the other separate sample from this fault zone

  15. Dose-responses from multi-model inference for the non-cancer disease mortality of atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöllnberger, H; Kaiser, J C; Jacob, P; Walsh, L

    2012-05-01

    The non-cancer mortality data for cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular diseases from Report 13 on the atomic bomb survivors published by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation were analysed to investigate the dose-response for the influence of radiation on these detrimental health effects. Various parametric and categorical models (such as linear-no-threshold (LNT) and a number of threshold and step models) were analysed with a statistical selection protocol that rated the model description of the data. Instead of applying the usual approach of identifying one preferred model for each data set, a set of plausible models was applied, and a sub-set of non-nested models was identified that all fitted the data about equally well. Subsequently, this sub-set of non-nested models was used to perform multi-model inference (MMI), an innovative method of mathematically combining different models to allow risk estimates to be based on several plausible dose-response models rather than just relying on a single model of choice. This procedure thereby produces more reliable risk estimates based on a more comprehensive appraisal of model uncertainties. For CVD, MMI yielded a weak dose-response (with a risk estimate of about one-third of the LNT model) below a step at 0.6 Gy and a stronger dose-response at higher doses. The calculated risk estimates are consistent with zero risk below this threshold-dose. For mortalities related to cardiovascular diseases, an LNT-type dose-response was found with risk estimates consistent with zero risk below 2.2 Gy based on 90% confidence intervals. The MMI approach described here resolves a dilemma in practical radiation protection when one is forced to select between models with profoundly different dose-responses for risk estimates.

  16. Breast cancer risk in atomic bomb survivors from multi-model inference with incidence data 1958-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, J C; Jacob, P; Meckbach, R; Cullings, H M

    2012-03-01

    Breast cancer risk from radiation exposure has been analyzed in the cohort of Japanese a-bomb survivors using empirical models and mechanistic two-step clonal expansion (TSCE) models with incidence data from 1958 to 1998. TSCE models rely on a phenomenological representation of cell transition processes on the path to cancer. They describe the data as good as empirical models and this fact has been exploited for risk assessment. Adequate models of both types have been selected with a statistical protocol based on parsimonious parameter deployment and their risk estimates have been combined using multi-model inference techniques. TSCE models relate the radiation risk to cell processes which are controlled by age-increasing rates of initiating mutations and by changes in hormone levels due to menopause. For exposure at young age, they predict an enhanced excess relative risk (ERR) whereas the preferred empirical model shows no dependence on age at exposure. At attained age 70, the multi-model median of the ERR at 1 Gy decreases moderately from 1.2 Gy(-1) (90% CI 0.72; 2.1) for exposure at age 25 to a 30% lower value for exposure at age 55. For cohort strata with few cases, where model predictions diverge, uncertainty intervals from multi-model inference are enhanced by up to a factor of 1.6 compared to the preferred empirical model. Multi-model inference provides a joint risk estimate from several plausible models rather than relying on a single model of choice. It produces more reliable point estimates and improves the characterization of uncertainties. The method is recommended for risk assessment in practical radiation protection.

  17. Dating of streamwater using tritium in a post nuclear bomb pulse world: continuous variation of mean transit time with streamflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Morgenstern

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Tritium measurements of streamwater draining the Toenepi catchment, a small dairy farming area in Waikato, New Zealand, have shown that the mean transit time of the water varies with the flow rate of the stream. Mean transit times through the catchment are 2–5 years during high baseflow conditions in winter, increasing to 30–40 years as baseflow decreases in summer, and then dramatically older water during drought conditions with mean transit time of more than 100 years. Older water is gained in the lower reaches of the stream, compared to younger water in the headwater catchment. The groundwater store supplying baseflow was estimated from the mean transit time and average baseflow to be 15.4 × 106 m3 of water, about 1 m water equivalent over the catchment and 2.3 times total annual streamflow. Nitrate is relatively high at higher flow rates in winter, but is low at times of low flow with old water. This reflects both lower nitrate loading in the catchment several decades ago as compared to current intensive dairy farming, and denitrification processes occurring in the older groundwater. Silica, leached from the aquifer material and accumulating in the water in proportion to contact time, is high at times of low streamflow with old water. There was a good correlation between silica concentration and streamwater age, which potentially allows silica concentrations to be used as a proxy for age when calibrated by tritium measurements. This study shows that tritium dating of stream water is possible with single tritium measurements now that bomb-test tritium has effectively disappeared from hydrological systems in New Zealand, without the need for time-series data.

  18. Dating of streamwater using tritium in a post-bomb world: continuous variation of mean transit time with streamflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Morgenstern

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Tritium measurements of streamwater draining the Toenepi catchment, a small dairy farming area in Waikato, New Zealand, have shown that the mean transit time of the water varies with the flow of the stream. Mean transit times through the catchment are 2–5 years during high baseflow conditions (in winter, becoming older as streamflow decreases (in summer, and then quite dramatically older during drought conditions, with ages of more than 100 years. Older water seems to be gained in the lower reaches of the stream, compared to younger water in the headwater catchment. The groundwater store supplying baseflow was estimated from the mean transit time and average baseflow to be 15.4×106 m3 of water, about 1 m water equivalent over the catchment and 2.3 times total annual streamflow. Nitrate from recent intensified land use is relatively high at normal streamflow, but is low at times of low flow with old water. This reflects both lower nitrate loading in the catchment several decades ago, and active denitrification processes in older groundwater. Silica, leached from the aquifer material and accumulating in the water in proportion to contact time, is high at times of low streamflow. There was a good correlation between silica and streamwater age, which potentially allows silica concentrations to be used as a proxy for age when calibrated by tritium measurements. This study shows that tritium dating of stream water is possible with single tritium measurements now that bomb-test tritium has effectively disappeared from hydrological systems in New Zealand, without the need for time-series data.

  19. Observations of Ellerman bomb emission features in He i D3 and He i 10 830 Å

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbrecht, Tine; Joshi, Jayant; Rodríguez, Jaime de la Cruz; Leenaarts, Jorrit; Ramos, Andrés Asensio

    2017-01-01

    Context. Ellerman bombs (EBs) are short-lived emission features, characterised by extended wing emission in hydrogen Balmer lines. Until now, no distinct signature of EBs has been found in the He i 10 830 Å line, and conclusive observations of EBs in He i D3 have never been reported. Aims: We aim to study the signature of EBs in neutral helium triplet lines. Methods: The observations consisted of ten consecutive SST/TRIPPEL raster scans close to the limb, featuring the Hβ, He i D3 and He i 10 830 Å spectral regions. We also obtained raster scans with IRIS and made use of the SDO/AIA 1700 Å channel. We used Hazel to invert the neutral helium triplet lines. Results: Three EBs in our data show distinct emission signatures in neutral helium triplet lines, most prominently visible in the He i D3 line. The helium lines have two components: a broad and blueshifted emission component associated with the EB, and a narrower absorption component formed in the overlying chromosphere. One of the EBs in our data shows evidence of strong velocity gradients in its emission component. The emission component of the other two EBs could be fitted using a constant slab. Our analysis hints towards thermal Doppler motions having a large contribution to the broadening for helium and IRIS lines. We conclude that the EBs must have high temperatures to exhibit emission signals in neutral helium triplet lines. An order of magnitude estimate places our observed EBs in the range of T 2 × 104-105 K. Movies associated to Figs. 3-5 are available at http://www.aanda.org

  20. Thermoluminescence dosimetry of gamma rays from the Hiroshima atomic bomb at distances of 1.27 to 1.46 kilometers from the hypocenter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Y; Nagatomo, T; Hoshi, M; Kondo, S

    1987-04-01

    Sixteen ornamental tile samples were collected from 1982 to 1983 from the rooftops of two buildings at Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan. Quartz grains 50-150 microns in size extracted from the samples were analyzed for their thermoluminescence (TL) intensities. Conversion of TL intensity to 60Co gamma exposure resulted in the following estimates: 40.5 to 27.6 mC kg-1 (157 to 107 R) for five samples (one each) collected from five sites at distances of 1.27 to 1.34 km from the hypocenter of the atomic bomb detonated in 1945; 23.7 +/- 1.4 mC kg-1 (92 +/- 5 R) for three samples from one site at a distance of 1.39 km; 21.4 to 17.0 mC kg-1 (83 to 66 R) for three samples (one sample per site) from three sites at distances of 1.40 to 1.43 km; 19.8 +/- 1.3 mC kg-1 (77 +/- 5 R) for four samples from one site at a distance of 1.45 km; and 13.2 mC kg-1 (51 R) for one sample at a distance of 1.46 km. At face value, these estimates are greater by a factor of about 2.5 than previous estimates based on the tentative 1965 radiation dose estimates for atomic bomb survivors (a tentative dosimetry model proposed in 1965), but agree within +32% to -13% (+15% on the average) with recent estimates using modern computational techniques using an improved model of the atomic bomb explosion.

  1. Control Method of Guided Bombs in Roll Channel%制导炸弹滚转通道控制方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许友竹; 凡永华

    2012-01-01

    During the flight of guided bomb, projectile dynamic parameters changed greatly, while projectile suffured various interference factors. In order to ensure the guidance precision, the controller requires good robustness and instruction trace capabilities. Base on parameter space methods and variable structure control theory, two kind controller design of guided bombs are offered for roll channel. First, theoretically analyzed the robustness of the two controllers. Then, designed two ways to one guided bombs roll channel controller. After the simulation analysis, both controllers have good robustness. In the instruction trace capabilities, variable structure control method is superior to the controller parameter space.%制导炸弹飞行过程中,弹体动力学参数发生较大变化,同时弹体受到各种干扰因素的影响.为了保证制导精度,要求控制器具有良好的鲁棒性和指令跟踪能力.基于参数空间方法和变结构控制理论,提出了两种制导炸弹滚动通道控制器设计方法.首先,从理论上对两种控制器的鲁棒性进行了分析;然后,分别使用两种方法对某制导炸弹滚转通道控制器进行了设计.最后经仿真分析,两种控制器均具有良好的鲁棒性;在指令跟踪能力上,变结构控制器要优于参数空间方法控制器.

  2. Medical Effects of Atomic Bombs. The Report of the Joint Commission for the Investigation of the Effects of the Atomic Bomb in Japan; Volume 2. Section 4H. Materials and Methods (Hiroshima. Section 4N. Materials and Methods (Nagasaki). Section 5H. Clinical Observations in Hiroshima. Section 5N. Clinical Observations in Nagasaki

    Science.gov (United States)

    1951-04-19

    multiple lacerations. Leg held in semi fixed position on account of d IL --. Fig. 6 (5H)--Telephone pole at Meiji bridge. 1300 meters. Shadow of...side of face. Bomb to left and anteriorly of Patient. I Deep chocolate brown mask of pigmentation. Sharp v-line of neck. Burns . over left deltoid...scorched. Typical prof i le burn with deep chocolate -brown pigmentation. Very sharp outline. Protection of upper portjon of neck by mandibular shading

  3. Site-specific dose-response relationships for cancer induction from the combined Japanese A-bomb and Hodgkin cohorts for doses relevant to radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumila Marcin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Purpose Most information on the dose-response of radiation-induced cancer is derived from data on the A-bomb survivors. Since, for radiation protection purposes, the dose span of main interest is between zero and one Gy, the analysis of the A-bomb survivors is usually focused on this range. However, estimates of cancer risk for doses larger than one Gy are becoming more important for radiotherapy patients. Therefore in this work, emphasis is placed on doses relevant for radiotherapy with respect to radiation induced solid cancer. Materials and methods For various organs and tissues the analysis of cancer induction was extended by an attempted combination of the linear-no-threshold model from the A-bomb survivors in the low dose range and the cancer risk data of patients receiving radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease in the high dose range. The data were fitted using organ equivalent dose (OED calculated for a group of different dose-response models including a linear model, a model including fractionation, a bell-shaped model and a plateau-dose-response relationship. Results The quality of the applied fits shows that the linear model fits best colon, cervix and skin. All other organs are best fitted by the model including fractionation indicating that the repopulation/repair ability of tissue is neither 0 nor 100% but somewhere in between. Bone and soft tissue sarcoma were fitted well by all the models. In the low dose range beyond 1 Gy sarcoma risk is negligible. For increasing dose, sarcoma risk increases rapidly and reaches a plateau at around 30 Gy. Conclusions In this work OED for various organs was calculated for a linear, a bell-shaped, a plateau and a mixture between a bell-shaped and plateau dose-response relationship for typical treatment plans of Hodgkin's disease patients. The model parameters (α and R were obtained by a fit of the dose-response relationships to these OED data and to the A-bomb survivors. For

  4. Assessing groundwater residence time in a highly anthropized unconfined aquifer using bomb peak 14C and reconstructed irrigation water 3H of irrigation water

    OpenAIRE

    Baudron, Paul; Barbecot, Florent; Gillon, Marina; Garcia Arostegui, Jose Luis; Travi, Yves; Leduc, Christian; Gomariz Castillo, Francisco; Martinez-Vicente, David

    2013-01-01

    Radiocarbon decay is rarely used to assess the residence time of modern groundwater due to the low resolution of its long half-life in comparison to the expected range of ages. Nonetheless, the modern 14C peak induced by the nuclear bomb tests traces efficiently the impacts of recent human activities on groundwater recharge, as well as for tritium. A simple lumped parameter model (LPM) was implemented in order to assess the interest of 14C and 3H nuclear peaks in a highly anthropized aquifer ...

  5. Range Effect Analysis of Projectile Launch Guided Glide Bomb%制导滑翔炸弹上仰投放射程影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵虎

    2011-01-01

    从经典斜抛运动入手,加入并考虑气动阻力影响,从能量学的角度分析上仰投放对制导滑翔炸弹射程的影响,并通过基于制导滑翔炸弹的气动特性和运动数学模型进行验证.%Starting from the analysis of projectile motion, and to consider adding the aerodynamic drag, based on the energy conservation law, changes in the range of Projectile launch Guided glide bomb is analysed, and verified by simulation.

  6. Firing Efficiency of Cluster Bomb Based on Method of Analogy%基于类比法的子母弹射击效率评定研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷培江; 李君; 张立生

    2012-01-01

    The method of analogy is a familiar logistic organon used in the mess of research domain, but it's rarely used in evaluation martial category. The firing efficiency of cluster bomb based on method of analogy have many advantage, for instance it is briefness, practicability, economy, and convenient for largely reckon. The paper builds the evaluation index system of the firing efficiency with cluster bomb, we found the comparable from cluster bomb to another ammunition in classical model, build the mathematics model based on method of analogy in the next place. The paper serve as an example of several emblematic targets, and display status of firing efficiency with several emblematic targets used the radar chart, we have compared the conclusions with method of analogy and emulation mode, validate the firing efficiency of cluster bomb based on method of analogy is feasible.%类比法是一种较为常见的逻辑推理方法,在各研究领域均有应用,但在军事评估领域却应用甚少.基于类比法的子母弹射击效率评定具有简单、实用、经济、便于大量计算等优点.根据子母弹与传统弹药在射击效率评定过程中的相似性,在经典毁伤评估模型的基础上,通过类比法建立字母弹的射击效率评定模型.列举了几种典型目标,并以子母弹的类比法模型进行射击效率评定,最后将类比法所得结论与目标仿真法的结论反映在雷达图上,通过数据比对验证了类比法对子母弹射击效率评定的可行性.

  7. 氧弹燃烧灰化法测定奶粉中的钙和磷%Determination the Content of Calcium and Phosphorus in Milk Powder by Oxygen Bomb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党民团; 刘娟

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen bomb combustion method, which destroys the organic substances, is both simple and convenient as well as fast in operation, and pollution free in element analysis. With satisfactory result, this method has been applied to the determination of the content of calcium and phosphorus in milk powder by ashes of oxygen bomb which proves to be valid and reliable.%用氧弹燃烧灰化法分解有机物进行元素测定,操作简便、快速、无污染.该方法用于测定奶粉中的钙和磷,结果可靠.

  8. The charged black-hole bomb: A lower bound on the charge-to-mass ratio of the explosive scalar field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar Hod

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The well-known superradiant amplification mechanism allows a charged scalar field of proper mass μ and electric charge q to extract the Coulomb energy of a charged Reissner–Nordström black hole. The rate of energy extraction can grow exponentially in time if the system is placed inside a reflecting cavity which prevents the charged scalar field from escaping to infinity. This composed black-hole-charged-scalar-field-mirror system is known as the charged black-hole bomb. Previous numerical studies of this composed physical system have shown that, in the linearized regime, the inequality q/μ>1 provides a necessary condition for the development of the superradiant instability. In the present paper we use analytical techniques to study the instability properties of the charged black-hole bomb in the regime of linearized scalar fields. In particular, we prove that the lower bound qμ>rm/r−−1rm/r+−1 provides a necessary condition for the development of the superradiant instability in this composed physical system (here r± are the horizon radii of the charged Reissner–Nordström black hole and rm is the radius of the confining mirror. This analytically derived lower bound on the superradiant instability regime of the composed black-hole-charged-scalar-field-mirror system is shown to agree with direct numerical computations of the instability spectrum.

  9. The charged black-hole bomb: A lower bound on the charge-to-mass ratio of the explosive scalar field

    CERN Document Server

    Hod, Shahar

    2016-01-01

    The well-known superradiant amplification mechanism allows a charged scalar field of proper mass $\\mu$ and electric charge $q$ to extract the Coulomb energy of a charged Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole. The rate of energy extraction can grow exponentially in time if the system is placed inside a reflecting cavity which prevents the charged scalar field from escaping to infinity. This composed black-hole-charged-scalar-field-mirror system is known as the {\\it charged black-hole bomb}. Previous numerical studies of this composed physical system have shown that, in the linearized regime, the inequality $q/\\mu>1$ provides a necessary condition for the development of the superradiant instability. In the present paper we use analytical techniques to study the instability properties of the charged black-hole bomb in the regime of linearized scalar fields. In particular, we prove that the lower bound ${{q}\\over{\\mu}}>\\sqrt{{{r_{\\text{m}}/r_--1}\\over{r_{\\text{m}}/r_+-1}}}$ provides a necessary condition for the develo...

  10. The feasibility of bomb radiocarbon analysis to support an age-at-length relationship for red abalone, Haliotis rufescens Swainson in northern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leaf, R T; Andrews, A H; Cailliet, G M; Brown, T A

    2009-01-07

    Analysis of bomb generated radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) changes in a red abalone, Haliotis rufescens Swainson shell was used to investigate age-at-length relationships derived from data from a previous multi-year, multi-site tag-recapture study. Shell carbonate was extracted from four successive growth trajectory locations in a single shell with a length of 251 mm MSL. Extraction locations were based on VBGF predictions and chosen to span the initial rise of the {sup 14}C-bomb pulse that is known to have occurred in surface ocean waters during 1958 {+-} 1 y in the northeast Pacific. The close temporal correspondence of the red abalone sample series to regional {Delta}{sup 14}C records demonstrated the utility of the technique for validating age-at-length relationships for the red abalone. The findings provided support for a mean VBGF derived age of 32 y (range 30 to 33 y) for the specimen; however, the analysis of {sup 14}C data indicated that the specimen could be older.

  11. BusWorld: an analog pilot test of a virtual environment designed to treat posttraumatic stress disorder originating from a terrorist suicide bomb attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josman, Naomi; Reisberg, Ayelet; Weiss, Patrice L; Garcia-Palacios, Azucena; Hoffman, Hunter G

    2008-12-01

    Exposure therapy treatment can lead to large reductions in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Virtual reality exposure (VRE) therapy is designed to facilitate cognitive behavioral therapy for PTSD. During VRE therapy, patients go into an immersive computer-generated environment (go back to the scene of the traumatic event) to help them gain access to their memories of the traumatic event, change unhealthy thought patterns, gradually habituate to their anxiety, and reduce the intensity of associated emotions. The therapist's ability to manipulate the amount of anxiety experienced by the client during therapy is an important element of successful exposure therapy. Using a within-subjects design, 30 asymptomatic volunteers each experienced four levels of a virtual world depicting a terrorist bus bombing, designed to be increasingly distressful. There was a statistically significant difference between the mean subjective units of discomfort scores (SUDS) of the four levels, and several planned paired comparisons showed significantly higher SUDS ratings with higher simulation levels. Results suggest that sound may play an important role in successful elicitation of emotional responses during VRE. The results of this analog study provide initial validation of the potential of BusWorld to provide graded exposure for individuals suffering from PTSD originating from suicide bus bombings. Future research exploring whether VR exposure therapy with BusWorld can reduce PTSD in clinical patients is warranted.

  12. Study on Factory Inspection Device for Oxygen Combustion Bomb%氧弹水压试验检测装置的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚玉维; 杨建新

    2015-01-01

    考虑到当前使用的量热仪氧弹水压试验检验装置人工误操作、高压危险等缺点,研制出基于VB语言开发的新型氧弹水压试验检验装置。该试验装置可自动完成氧弹在20 MPa水压时稳压10 min的试验要求并可自动判断试验结果,检验报告可查询、打印且不可更改,液压操作简单方便。%Considering the faults with manual operation and high hydraulic pressure of the traditional hydraulic inspection device for oxygen combustion bomb, a new type device based on VB was designed. The test device can automatically complete the oxygen bomb in 20 MPa water pressure when the testing requirements of voltage regulation 10 min and can automatically judge the test results. The inspection report can be queried and printed only by computer. The Hydraulic system operation is simple and convenient.

  13. Bomb Penetration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1951-06-15

    preset. Primary and seondary b.an lines were establishld at cmvenient points, and the tri- angultion net was broadewd to include the tarot area and the...34elastic constants" arc not. constants but are variables depending upon the stress range. The reader is referred to Figs. 64, 65, and 68 wherein Young’s...Springs granite site reduced in scale from the map presented in the appendix. (See Appendix, part B.) The reader is referred also to Figs. 11 and i2

  14. Post-bomb coral Δ14C record from Iki Island, Japan: possible evidence of oceanographic conditions on the northern East China Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuguchi, Takehiro; Hirota, Masashi; Group, Paleo Labo AMS Dating; Yamazaki, Atsuko; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Yamano, Hiroya

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a sea-surface water Δ14C record of AD 1966-2000 (i.e., after the atmospheric nuclear-bomb testing period of the mid-1950s to early 1960s) was reconstructed from a coral sample collected from Iki Island, western Japan. The island is located in the Tsushima Strait where the Tsushima Current flows from the East China Sea (ECS) continental shelf into the Sea of Japan, indicating a strong influence of the ECS shelf water on the island. It is widely accepted that the Tsushima Current originates in the area between the ECS shelf break and the Nansei Islands further offshore as a branch of the Kuroshio Current, although another possible origin is the Taiwan-Tsushima Current System. The Δ14C record from Iki Island shows the following evidence of a response to the atmospheric nuclear testing: (1) an increase from ~55‰ in 1966 to ~133‰ in 1970, (2) a plateau ranging between ~123 and ~142‰ during the 1970s to the late 1980s, and (3) a gradual decrease from ~115‰ in 1990 to ~83‰ in 2000. Comparison of this record with coral Δ14C records from the Nansei Islands (Okinawa Island, Ishigaki Island and Kikai Island), located ~160-280 km off the ECS shelf break and little influenced by the shelf water, suggests that the surface-water Δ14C around Iki Island was ~30-45‰ lower than that of the Nansei Islands from the mid-1960s to late 1970s, and that the Δ14C difference between Iki Island and the Nansei Islands decreased from the end of the 1970s to ~0-15‰ in the mid-1980s to 2000. The lower Δ14C around Iki Island can be explained as follows: (1) in contrast to the Nansei Islands area, the ECS shelf area is a vertically mixed, highly concentrated carbon reservoir significantly connected to subsurface and deeper waters outside the shelf area, strongly suggesting that the surface-water Δ14C of the shelf area (perhaps excepting very shallow innermost shelf areas) was significantly less sensitive to the atmospheric nuclear-bomb 14C spike than that of the

  15. DS02R1: Improvements to Atomic Bomb Survivors' Input Data and Implementation of Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02) and Resulting Changes in Estimated Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullings, H M; Grant, E J; Egbert, S D; Watanabe, T; Oda, T; Nakamura, F; Yamashita, T; Fuchi, H; Funamoto, S; Marumo, K; Sakata, R; Kodama, Y; Ozasa, K; Kodama, K

    2017-01-01

    Individual dose estimates calculated by Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02) for the Life Span Study (LSS) of atomic bomb survivors are based on input data that specify location and shielding at the time of the bombing (ATB). A multi-year effort to improve information on survivors' locations ATB has recently been completed, along with comprehensive improvements in their terrain shielding input data and several improvements to computational algorithms used in combination with DS02 at RERF. Improvements began with a thorough review and prioritization of original questionnaire data on location and shielding that were taken from survivors or their proxies in the period 1949-1963. Related source documents varied in level of detail, from relatively simple lists to carefully-constructed technical drawings of structural and other shielding and surrounding neighborhoods. Systematic errors were reduced in this work by restoring the original precision of map coordinates that had been truncated due to limitations in early data processing equipment and by correcting distortions in the old (WWII-era) maps originally used to specify survivors' positions, among other improvements. Distortion errors were corrected by aligning the old maps and neighborhood drawings to orthophotographic mosaics of the cities that were newly constructed from pre-bombing aerial photographs. Random errors that were reduced included simple transcription errors and mistakes in identifying survivors' locations on the old maps. Terrain shielding input data that had been originally estimated for limited groups of survivors using older methods and data sources were completely re-estimated for all survivors using new digital terrain elevation data. Improvements to algorithms included a fix to an error in the DS02 code for coupling house and terrain shielding, a correction for elevation at the survivor's location in calculating angles to the horizon used for terrain shielding input, an improved method for truncating

  16. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Review of Dose Related Factors for the Evaluation of Exposures to Residual Radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, George D; Egbert, Stephen D; Al-Nabulsi, Isaf; Bailiff, Ian K; Beck, Harold L; Belukha, Irina G; Cockayne, John E; Cullings, Harry M; Eckerman, Keith F; Granovskaya, Evgeniya; Grant, Eric J; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kaul, Dean C; Kryuchkov, Victor; Mannis, Daniel; Ohtaki, Megu; Otani, Keiko; Shinkarev, Sergey; Simon, Steven L; Spriggs, Gregory D; Stepanenko, Valeriy F; Stricklin, Daniela; Weiss, Joseph F; Weitz, Ronald L; Woda, Clemens; Worthington, Patricia R; Yamamoto, Keiko; Young, Robert W

    2015-12-01

    Groups of Japanese and American scientists, supported by international collaborators, have worked for many years to ensure the accuracy of the radiation dosimetry used in studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Reliable dosimetric models and systems are especially critical to epidemiologic studies of this population because of their importance in the development of worldwide radiation protection standards. While dosimetry systems, such as Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) and Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), have improved, the research groups that developed them were unable to propose or confirm an additional contribution by residual radiation to the survivor's total body dose. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of residual radiation exposures in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a half-day technical session was held for reports on newer studies at the 59 th Annual HPS Meeting in 2014 in Baltimore, MD. A day-and-a-half workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of the newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposure to atomic bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The process also involved a re-examination of very early surveys of radioisotope emissions from ground surfaces at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and early reports of health effects. New insights were reported on the potential contribution to residual radiation from neutron-activated radionuclides in the airburst's dust stem and pedestal and in unlofted soil, as well as from fission products and weapon debris from the nuclear cloud. However, disparate views remain concerning the actual residual radiation doses received by the atomic bomb survivors at different distances from the hypocenter. The workshop discussion indicated that measurements made using thermal luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence, like earlier measurements, especially in very thin layers of the samples, could be expanded to detect possible

  17. Pap Ndiaye. Du nylon et des bombes : Du Pont de Nemours, le marché et l’Etat américain, 1900-1970.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Brunet

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Qu’y a-t-il de commun entre le nylon et la bombe atomique ? Réponse : la firme Du Pont de Nemours, géant historique de l’industrie chimique américaine, qui, en 1945, fabrique et vend à grande échelle ces deux innovations de grande ampleur, divergentes dans leur technologie comme dans leurs usages, mais symboliquement complémentaires dans le nouvel ordre économique et politique qui émerge de la seconde guerre mondiale. Mais ce gros livre, issu d’une thèse d’histoire, n’est pas un tableau du tr...

  18. The Effects of Small Changes in the Input Data on the Determination of Closed-Bomb Burning Rates and Surface Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    8217DEN IGN KG/M3’,FS.2/ 2 ’ VOL BOMB M3’,E12.6) C C READ AND WRITE. C PERFDP, GRDP ... PERF DIAMETER OF PROP, GRAIN DIAMETER PROP (M) C GLP,SW... GRAIN...SPHERICAL, C 12-SLAB) C READ(3, *)PERFDP, GRDP ,GIP,SW, 1FF WRITE (5, 473) PERFDP, GRDP ,GLP, SW, 1FF 473 FORMAT(’PERF DIA ’, 1 ’GRAIN DIA GRAIN LENGTH SLOT...519 CALL FORMFN(PERFDP, GRDP ,GLP,SW,IFF,0.0,FRACP,VOL2,,SURFP,DSDX) SURFP 0-SURFP C C INITIALIZE VARIABLES C HTLOSSO0. DXO-0. TMPO-0. TMASPOO 0. PRTT-0

  19. Aerodynamic Configuration Design of Gliding Extended Range Guided Bomb%滑翔增程制导航弹气动外形设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷娟棉; 吴甲生

    2011-01-01

    To improve the range of guided bomb, the scheme of aerodynamic configuration of extended range GPS guided bomb was put forward based on the gliding extended range technique. The designed aerodynamic configuration was the tail control configuration having great span-chord ratio up-wing and the tail/rudder with " X " form. By aerodynamic characteristics calculation and analysis, the parameters of configuration geometry were determined. Wind tunnel experiments were conducted for two models of wing stretch-out and wing folded model, respectively. The experiment conditions were as follows. The rolling angles are (ψ)=0(wing is horizontal, tail is" X "form) , 22. 5° and 45. 0°. The Mach number are Ma = 0.6, 0. 8 and 1. 0. The angles of attack are a = 0 ~ 12°. The rudder deflection angles are δz - 0; δs = - 5°, - 10° (pitching control); δy = - 5°, - 10° (yawing control); δX = - 5°, - 10° (rolling control). Experiment results indicate that the designed GPS guided bomb' s longitudinal stability and controllability match well, and the controlling efficiency of tail rudder is very high. The angle of attack being propitious to gliding flight is from 4° to 6° and the maximal lift-drag ratio is greater than 10. From the experiment result, it could be concluded that the effective range of the guided bomb would over 120 km while it is released at 12 km altitude.%为了提高制导航弹的射程,在滑翔增程技术研究基础上提出了远程卫星制导炸弹的气动布局方案,即采取大展弦比上弹翼、“×”形全动尾舵的正常式气动布局,通过计算选择了外形参数.对所提出的外形方案进行了风洞测力实验.实验条件为:滚转角(φ)=0(弹翼水平,尾翼呈“×”形),22.5°,45.0°;马赫数Ma=0.6,0.8,1.0;攻角α=0~12°;舵偏角δ=0,δz=-5°,-10°(俯仰控制),δy=-5°,-10°(偏航控制),δr=-5°,-10°(滚转控制).模型有弹翼张开与折叠两种状态.实验结果表明,所设计的卫星制导炸弹

  20. Bomb-produced radiocarbon in the western tropical Pacific Ocean: Guam coral reveals operation-specific signals from the Pacific Proving Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Allen H.; Asami, Ryuji; Iryu, Yasufumi; Kobayashi, Donald R.; Camacho, Frank

    2016-08-01

    High-resolution radiocarbon (14C) analyses on a coral core extracted from Guam, a western tropical Pacific island, revealed a series of early bomb-produced 14C spikes. The typical marine bomb 14C signal—phase lagged and attenuated relative to atmospheric records—is present in the coral and is consistent with other regional coral records. However, 14C levels well above what can be attributed to air-sea diffusion alone punctuate this pattern. This anomaly was observed in other Indo-Pacific coral records, but the Guam record is unmatched in magnitude and temporal resolution. The Guam coral Δ14C record provided three spikes in 1954-1955, 1956-1957, and 1958-1959 that are superimposed on a normal 14C record. Relative to mean prebomb levels, the first peak rises an incredible ˜700‰ and remained elevated for ˜1.2 years. A follow up assay with finer resolution increased the peak by ˜300‰. Subsequent spikes were less intense with a rise of ˜35 and ˜70‰. Each can be linked to thermonuclear testing in the Pacific Proving Grounds at Bikini and Enewetak atolls in Operations Castle (1954), Redwing (1956), and Hardtack I (1958). These 14C signals can be explained by vaporization of coral reef material in the nuclear fireball, coupled with neutron activation of atmospheric nitrogen (14C production), and subsequent absorption of 14CO2 to form particulate carbonates of close-in fallout. The lag time in reaching Guam and other coral records abroad was tied to ocean surface currents and modeling provided validation of 14C arrival observations.

  1. Aging effect of 137Cs obtained from 137Cs in the Kanto loam layer from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident and in the Nishiyama loam layer from the Nagasaki A-bomb explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Tomoko; Mahara, Yasunori; Kubota, Takumi; Igarashi, Toshifumi

    2013-01-01

    We measured (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the surface soil of the Kanto loam in the eastern Tokyo metropolitan area and the Nishiyama loam in Nagasaki, Japan. The observed (137)Cs deposition in the Kanto loam from the Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) accident ranged from 4.0 to 77 kBq m(-2), which corresponds to 0.3-5 times of that in the Nishiyama loam. The (137)Cs retardation factor in the Kanto loam obtained seven months after the Fukusima NPP accident and in the Nishiyama loam after 36 and 38 years from the detonation of the Pu atomic bomb (A-bomb) ranged from 180 to 260 and 2000 to 10,000, respectively. This difference in the retardation factors is attributed to an aging effect that corresponds to seven months and 36 to 38 years after the deposition of (137)Cs occurred on the soil minerals.

  2. Bomb reduction of uranium tetrafluoride. Part II: Influence of the addition elements in the reduction process; Reduccion del tetrafluoruro de uranio en bomba cerrada. Parte II: Influencia de elementos de adicion en la reducion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anca Abati, R.; Lopez Rodriguez, M.

    1962-07-01

    This work shows the influence of uranium oxide and uranyl fluoride in the reduction of uranium with Ca and Mg. These additions are more harmful when using smaller bombs. The uranyl fluoride has influence in the reduction process; the curves yield-concentration shows two regions depending upon the salt concentration. The behaviour of this addition in these regions can be explained following the different decompositions that can take place during the reduction process. (Author) 9 refs.

  3. Threat of Electromagnetic Pulse Bomb and Its Radar Countermeasure%电磁脉冲炸弹的威胁及雷达防护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩阳阳; 苏五星; 李建东

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic pulse bomb is already being used in the actual war. It is a real threat to radar. Firstly, the strong electromagnetic pulse interference waveforms and two kinds of func-tion methods are analyzed, power density changes of electromagnetic pulse is simulated and ana-lyzed;then, combined with its action mechanism, calculation analysis is carried on from three aspects ( the radar antenna, cable and application) . Finally, strong electromagnetic pulse jam-ming protection method is analyzed; a strong electromagnetic jamming protection technology based on electromagnetic bionics is put forward.%电磁脉冲炸弹已经实战应用,对雷达有着现实威胁。首先分析了强电磁脉冲干扰的波形以及两种作用方式,并仿真分析了电磁脉冲功率密度的变化;然后结合其作用机理,从雷达的天线,方舱和线缆三方面对其威胁进行计算分析;最后分析了强电磁脉冲干扰的防护方法,提出了基于电磁仿生技术的雷达强电磁脉冲干扰防护思想。

  4. 氧弹燃烧-ICP-OES测定塑料中的氯和溴%Determination of Chlorine and Bromine in Plastics by Oxygen Bomb-ICP-OES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶振卫; 张娇; 姚文全; 李明霞; 靳兰娇

    2011-01-01

    Pretreated by oxygen bomb,the contents of Cl and Br in plastics were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry(ICP-OES).The detection limits of Cl and Br were 0.053 μg/mL and 0.030 μg/mL(the RSD were 1.09% and 0.97%),respectively.The recovery rates for the five different plastics were in the range of 89.8%~102.9%.Compared with the ion chromatography(IC) results,the proposed method was accurate,and could be a facile route to the determination of Cl and Br in various plastics.%采用氧弹燃烧前处理,电感耦合等离子体发射光谱法(ICP-OES)测定了塑料中的氯和溴。在优化工作条件下,Cl和Br的检出限分别为0.053μg/mL和0.030μg/mL,相对标准偏差(n=6)分别为1.09%和0.97%,5种不同材质的塑料回收率为89.8%~102.9%。与离子色谱结果比对表明该方法具有良好的准确度,能快速实现各类塑料材料中氯和溴的测定。

  5. 汽车炸弹作用下球罐动力学响应的模拟研究%Simulation Research on Dynamic Response of Speherical Tank Effected on Car Bomb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯伟涛; 方向; 谢立军; 刘金川; 陈刊

    2011-01-01

    The numerical simulation on dynamic response of spherical tank effeeted on the car bomb was researched. The ANSYS/LS-DYNA software was used to calculate the relationship among equivalent stress, dispalcement and time on a 5 000 m butylene spherical tank body when a 1 600 kg TNT car bomb exploded. The simulation results show that the metamorphosis of the spherical tank happens earlier and the effective stress and displacement is bigger when the spherical tank closer to the explosion center,then the damage on tank body is more obvious. So,on the effect of the car bombs, the partial damage is very likely to happen on the spherical tank, therefore, it is necessary to adopt some protection measures mound the spherical tanks.%针对球形储罐在汽车炸弹作用下的动力学响应进行了数值模拟研究.采用ANSYS/LS-DYNA软件模拟计算了装药量为1 600 kg TNT汽车炸弹爆炸后在1 m、5 m和10 m距离内5000m3丁烯球罐罐体上的等效应力和位移随时间的变化关系.模拟结果表明,炸药边界距离球罐距离越近,罐体发生变形的时间越早,观察点的应力和位移值越大,汽车炸弹对罐体的破坏作用越明显.因此,在汽车炸弹作用下,球罐极有可能发生局部破坏,有必要在罐区周围采取一定的防护措施.

  6. 五大连池老黑山火山弹和喷发柱动力学模拟%Simulation on the Dynamic Process of Volcanic Bombs and Plumes of Laoheishan Volcano in Wudalianchi Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永生; 刘永顺; 张招崇; 聂保锋; 张东阳

    2012-01-01

    The volcanic eruption is a complex fluid dynamic process of gas, liquid and solid mixtures. A correct understanding of this process is the key factor to study the volcanic eruption. Eject and Plumeria softwares can be good simulations for dynamic processes of volcanic bombs and plumes during real volcanic eruption. On the basis of detailed investigation of volcanic bombs, volcanic debris and the published data of Laoheishan volcano in Wudalianchi area, this study evaluated dynamic processes of Laoheishan volcanic bombs and plumes using Eject and Plumeria softwares. The results show that the bombs ejected from Laoheishan volcano can reach a maximum height of 530 m and a maximum horizontal distance of 1,000 m when ejection angle is 45°; the maximum height of its volcanic plume is 4. 7 km, and the plume head radius is 2. 3 km. Through the discussion of the eruption scale and the ratio of volcanic ashes, it can be concluded that Laoheishan volcano is a small mafic eruption, and its effect on the environment is small.%火山喷发是一个气体、液体和固体混合物的复杂的流体动力学过程.正确理解这个过程是研究火山喷发的关键因素.Eject和Plumeria软件可以很好地模拟现实火山喷发过程中火山弹和喷发柱的动力学过程.在详细调查五大连池老黑山地区火山弹、火山碎屑物和整理已有数据的基础上,运用Eject和Plumeria软件对老黑山火山的火山弹和喷发柱进行了动力学模拟.结果表明:老黑山火山喷发的火山弹喷射最大高度为530 m,喷射角度45.时喷射水平距离最远为1000m,喷发柱最大高度为4.7 km,喷发柱半径为2.3 km.通过对其喷发规模和火山灰构成比例的探讨,认为老黑山火山喷发属于镁铁质火山小型喷发,对环境的影响范围有限.

  7. "Es como uno bomba de tiempo [It's like a time bomb]": A Qualitative Analysis of Perceptions of Diabetes Among First-Degree Relatives of Latino Patients With Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Rivas, Erida; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Milan, Maria; Kanna, Balavenkatesh

    2014-02-01

    Background. The South Bronx, a largely Latino community, has become an epicenter of the diabetes epidemic in New York City. In this community, nondiabetic first-degree relatives of people with diabetes are prime targets for intervention. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore the knowledge of diabetes and attitudes toward health behavior modification of Latino adults who are first-degree relatives of people with diabetes. Methods. Participants were recruited from three settings in the South Bronx (a community-based organization, a faith-based organization, and a taxi station). The Common Sense Model was used to develop focus-group items. This model provides a framework for exploring illness representations along five domains: identity, cause, consequences, timeline, and perceptions of curability. Responses were transcribed verbatim, and data analysis proceeded in the following order: data immersion, assignment of codes, grouping of key concepts to form categories, and construction of higher-order themes. Results. Of the 115 potential participants identified, 53 were found to be eligible, and 23 of these participated in the focus group. Of these, 20 were Dominicans, 2 were Puerto Ricans, and 1 was Salvadorian. The mean age was 46.39 years, 35% were women, 61% were married, and 26% had less than a high school education. Qualitative analyses resulted in 547 codes that were grouped into 52 concepts, from which 9 categories and 4 overarching themes emerged. The dominant themes were 1) family, genetics, and culture play a major role in the etiology of diabetes; 2) being Latino and having a first-degree relative with diabetes makes getting diabetes inevitable, and, like a time bomb exploding, it is destined to happen; 3) once one develops diabetes, the physical and emotional consequences are devastating and destructive; and 4) diabetes can be "cured" through healthy eating and with insulin. Conclusions.In this study, first-degree relatives of patients with

  8. Terrorist bombings: foreign bodies from the Boston Marathon bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, John; Singh, Ajay K; Rocha, Tatiana; Havens, Joaquim; Goralnick, Eric; Sodickson, Aaron

    2015-02-01

    On April 15, 2013, 2 improvised explosive devices detonated at the 117th Boston Marathon, killing 3 people and injuring 264 others. In this article, the foreign bodies and injuries that presented at 2 of the responding level 1 trauma hospitals in Boston-Brigham and Women׳s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital--are reviewed with a broader discussion of blast injuries and imaging strategies.

  9. Unemployed Youth: A Ticking Bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Harvey A.

    1978-01-01

    The author gives a worldwide perspective on the vast numbers of unemployed young people in industrialized nations, takes a hard look at the changing job market, and considers the responsibilities of universities in ensuring that its students study subjects relevant to their future interests. (RK)

  10. Cartel Car Bombings in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    communicado de la secretaria de seguridad publica del estado” (“Communication of the Secretary of Seguridad publishes of the State”), March 19, 2012...Investigación y Seguridad Nacional) COIN Counterinsurgency COTS Commercial Off-The-Shelf DAS Administrative Department of Security...Departamento Administradora de Seguridad en Proceso de Supresión) DEA Drug Enforcement Administration DHS Department of Homeland

  11. Chains, bombs, potrzebies and slugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewess, Mike; McDowell, Alex; Maxfield, Stephen; Hunt, A. G.; Hicks, Bruce

    2010-03-01

    I read with pleasure Robert Crease's article on unusual units (February pp17-19). However, the article stated that an acre is 10×10 chains, when it is in fact 10×1 chains. Incidentally, a distance of 10 chains (220 yards) is known as a furlong, a word that suggests the length of a ploughed furrow and that is still used in horse-racing.

  12. The French atomic bomb tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Nayak

    1961-10-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the details of two French Atomic Tests. Both were carried out at Hamoudia in the vicinity of Reggane (Sahara, the first on 13th of February 1960 and the second on the 1st April 1960. The nuclear explosive used in both cases was plutonium. In the first test the device was placed on the top of a tower of about 100 meters high whereas in the second test it was placed in a prefabricated shed. According to unofficial reports, the yields of the two tests were about 60Kt and less than 20Kt respectively.

  13. 激光制导炸弹无偏置上仰投放战术机动规划%Tactic maneuver planning of loft delivery of laser-guided bomb with no offset

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张滢; 杨任农; 左家亮; 景小宁

    2016-01-01

    Loft delivery of laser-guided bomb with no offset is a typical weapon delivery tactic during surface attack.The purpose of tactic maneuver planning of operational aircraft is to search for the best flying route and the operation location,time and parameters of certain equipment while satisfying the demand of certain tactic principles.According to the literal description of the tactic of loft delivery of laser-guided bomb with no offset, a tactic model based on the combination of maneuvers is set up.Considering the maneuver capability of the opera-tional aircraft and the operation conditions of the laser-guided bomb comprehensively,aiming at obtaining the maximal level of damage of the ground target and the minimal level of threat of the operational aircraft,a multi-objective optimization model on tactic maneuver planning is established.Then,the multi-objective evolutionary algorithm based on the decomposition algorithm is employed to solve the tactic maneuver planning model.Simu-lation experiments prove that the proposed model and algorithm are feasible and efficient.%无偏置上仰投弹是一种典型的激光制导炸弹投放战术,作战飞机战术机动规划的目的是在遵循战术要求的前提下寻找出最优飞行航路以及装备操作关键点、时机和参数。根据无偏置上仰投弹战术描述,建立了基于机动组合的战术模型。综合考虑战机机动性能和激光制导弹使用限制等约束条件,以地面目标毁伤程度最大化和战机受威胁程度最小化为目标,建立了战术机动多目标优化模型。采用基于分解的多目标优化算法求解模型。仿真实验验证了模型和算法的可行性、有效性。

  14. Research on combustion efficiency of boron based fuel-rich propellant in the oxygen bomb%提高含硼富燃料推进剂在氧弹内燃烧效率的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英红; 何长江; 李葆萱; 刘林林

    2012-01-01

    The experimental heat value of the boron based fuel-rich propellant is usually lower than the theoretical value because of the imperfect combustion of the propellant, which makes it difficult to represent the real heat value of the propellant. In order to solve this problem, the effects of the sample mass and the initial pressure of oxygen bomb on the experimental heat value of the boron based fuel-rich propellant were studied. Results show that the tested heat value of the propellant increases with the increasing mass of the sample and the initial pressure of the oxygen bomb under the safe level of the oxygen bomb. The boron based fuel-rich propellant with the size about 20 mesh was mixed with ZS combustion improver by the solver and the final sample was made after a series of treatment process. The special W crucible was made according to the combustion characteristics of the boron based fuel-rich propellant, and the improved oxygen bomb calorimeter was used to test the heat value of the sample. The result indicates that it is effective to test the heat value of the boron based fuel-rich propellant by the use of the combustion improver, which solve the problem that the propellant can not combust completely, and the result has high accuracy and reliability.%为了解决含硼富燃料推进剂在氧弹内燃烧效率低、实验测试值不能正确表征实际燃烧热值的问题,研究了含硼富燃料推进剂燃烧热值测试过程中试样质量和充氧压强对测试结果的影响,在氧弹安全承载范围内,试样质量越大、充氧压强越大,含硼富燃料推进剂燃烧越完全.使用有机溶剂溶解后挥发的混合方式,将作为助燃剂的自制ZS与加工成20目含硼富燃料推进剂实现紧密结合,经过一系列工艺处理制得试样.根据含硼富燃料推进剂在氧弹内的燃烧特点设计加工了专用钨坩埚,使用改进型氧弹式量热仪对试样进行热值测试.实验结果表明,助燃法测试含硼

  15. 用于迫弹速度测量的柔性MEMS流速传感器仿真%Simulation of Flexible MEMS Flow Sensor for Speed Measurement of Mortar Bomb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾庆贵; 崔峰; 杨刚; 刘武; 陈文元; 张卫平

    2016-01-01

    Turbine alternator used as the velocity sensor of the mortar bomb to achieve trajectory discrimination has limitations such as stalling at low speed and speed limit at high speed.A wide-range flexible MEMS flow velocity sensor,which can be mounted on the fuze to measure flight speed of the mortar bomb,is designed.The FEM software is employed to simulate flow field of the fuze and thermal-flow coupling field of the properly mounted sensor in the fuze.The flow field simulation of the fuze shows that the flow velocity of the area where the sensor is mounted approximately has a linear relationship with flight speed of the bomb,that is,0~350 m/s of the flight speed is corresponding to 0~75 m/s of the inlet flow velocity.The simulation results of the mounted flexible flow velocity sensor in the fuze show that a wide range of flow velocity,from 0.01 to 75 m/s,can be measured through heating power of the heater and temperature differences of three pairs of sensing resistors,which lays a theoretical foundation for the sensor used for trajectory discrimination of the mortar bomb.%大部分迫弹采用引信涡轮发电机兼作为弹道辨识用的速度传感器,但是涡轮发电机存在着低速停转和高速限速等测速问题.设计了一种贴装在引信上测量迫弹飞行速度的宽量程柔性MEMS流速传感器.利用有限元仿真软件对迫弹引信进行了流场仿真,确定了流速传感器在引信进气道内的贴装位置,并对传感器进行了热-流场耦合仿真.引信流场仿真表明,拉法尔管进气道后端壁面处流速与迫弹飞行速度为近似线性关系:迫弹飞行速度0~350 m/s对应壁面流速为0~75 m/s.进气道内安装的柔性流速传感器的热-流场耦合仿真表明,由传感器加热电阻的加热功率和三个测温电阻对的温度差可测量0.01~75 m/s的流速,这为传感器用于迫弹的弹道辨识奠定了理论基础.

  16. Determinação de As em amostras orgânicas de interesse ambiental por espectrometria de absorção atômica com atomização eletrotérmica após combustão em bomba de O2 Determination of As in environmental organic samples by atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization after O2 bomb combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Maria da Costa Dias

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of the major As species present in the environment justifies the effort for quantifying the element in environmental organic samples, which can vary from animal and vegetal tissues to coal and industrial residues. This paper comments about the applicability of the O2 bomb digestion, as a general procedure for all environmental organic materials. A rapid and straightforward method is suggested, which consists in burning the sample in the bomb at high O2 pressure, dissolving the vapours in diluted HNO3 and determining As in the resulting solution by atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization. The method was applied to certified materials and plant samples.

  17. Reviews Equipment: Vibration detector Equipment: SPARK Science Learning System PS-2008 Equipment: Pelton wheel water turbine Book: Atomic: The First War of Physics and the Secret History of the Atom Bomb 1939-49 Book: Outliers: The Story of Success Book: T-Minus: The Race to the Moon Equipment: Fridge Rover Equipment: Red Tide School Spectrophotometer Web Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    WE RECOMMEND Vibration detector SEP equipment measures minor tremors in the classroom SPARK Science Learning System PS-2008 Datalogger is easy to use and has lots of added possibilities Atomic: The First War of Physics and the Secret History of the Atom Bomb 1939-49 Book is crammed with the latest on the atom bomb T-Minus: The Race to the Moon Graphic novel depicts the politics as well as the science Fridge Rover Toy car can teach magnetics and energy, and is great fun Red Tide School Spectrophotometer Professional standard equipment for the classroom WORTH A LOOK Pelton wheel water turbine Classroom-sized version of the classic has advantages Outliers: The Story of Success Study of why maths is unpopular is relevant to physics teaching WEB WATCH IOP webcasts are improving but are still not as impressive as Jodrell Bank's Chromoscope website

  18. 抗争中的嬗变:重庆大轰炸的国际影响%On the International Influences of Japan's Intense Bombing of Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘洵

    2012-01-01

    抗日战争时期,作为中国战时首都的重庆,遭受到日军残酷的无差别战略轰炸。由于中国的抗战及重庆战时首都的独特地位,日军对重庆的无差别战略轰炸,不仅引起在华西方人士和国际社会的广泛关注,而且还直接影响到远东各国,尤其是中、日、美三国军事战略的演变。同时,重庆在反轰炸斗争中的英勇行为,一方面赢得了国际社会的广泛同情和支持,另一方面也制约了日本既定军事战略目标的实现,并在一定程度上促进了英美远东战略的调整和远东反法西斯战线的形成。%During the Anti -Japanese War, Chongqing, being the wartime capital of China, suffered deeply from Japan's extremely cruel and indiscriminate strategic bombing. Because of the Chinese Anti - Japanese War and the unique status of Chongqing, Japan's indiscriminate bombing of Chongqing not only attracted great international attention from overseas Chinese and the whole world but also directly caused the Far East countries, especially China, Japan and America to make changes in military strategies. At the same time, the brave counter - fighting of Chongqing, on the one hand, won widespread sympathy and support from the international society, on the other hand, restricted Japan from achieving its established military strategic goal. And to a certain extent, Chongqing's brave counter - fighting promoted Britain and America's strategic adjustment in the Far East and promoted the formation of the Far - east Anti - Fascism Front.

  19. Research on Abrasion of Diamond Impregnated Bit in Drilling Bomb-proof Ceramic%防弹陶瓷孔加工中金刚石钻头的磨损研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高超; 袁军堂; 郑雷

    2011-01-01

    通过防弹陶瓷孔的加工实验,对烧结金刚石钻头的磨损状况进行研究.分析钻头唇面的磨损变相及打滑现象,指出内外径金刚石承受的切削载荷差异是造成钻头唇面磨损变相的主要原因;打滑现象则是由于出露的金刚石磨损过快,胎体的磨损不能与之匹配造成的.根据磨损状况,提出改变金刚石品级、浓度分布、水口总宽度等改善磨损变相的措施以及采用弱包镶、改善胎体耐磨性、优化唇面和水口形状、控制冷却液流量等防止打滑的措施.该研究对优化防弹陶瓷加工工具设计,提高防弹陶瓷的加工效率和加工质量具有一定的参考价值.%With drilling experiments of bomb-proof ceramic, abrasion status of diamond impregnated bits was studied. Rim distortion and bits slipping were observed and analyzed. The conclusion are that difference of loads upon the diamond between inner diameter and external diameter is the principal cause for the rim distortion of bits and the mismatch between wearing speed of working diamond and that of the matrix is the cause for slipping. According to the abrasion status, a number of enhanced measures were proposed to overcome the rim distortion, such as changing grade of diamond, optimizing diamond concentration distribution, and changing the total width of water discharges; and measures were adopted to prevent slipping, such as decreasing bonding strength, improving abrasion endurance of the matrix, optimizing the shapes of rim and water discharges and controlling the flow of cooling liquid. It provides reference for optimizing design of the tools for bomb-proof ceramic processing and improving its processing efficiency and quality.

  20. 效益最优视角下的我国视频侦查工作进路--基于周克华案、波士顿马拉松爆炸案、伦敦地铁爆炸案的比较研究%Study on the Working Approach of our Video Investigation from the Perspective of Optimal Effectiveness---Based on Comparative Case Studies of Zhou Ke-hua Case, Boston Marathon Bombing and the London Subway Bombing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔令勇

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of our video investigation work involves condition of investment and effect .Bas-ic parameter, investment and effect of Zhou Ke-hua case, Boston Marathon Bombing case and London Subway Bombings Case are specific indexes of evaluating video investigation .Optimal effectiveness of video investigation is the maximization of investigation efficiency with limited cost .The economic model of optimal effectiveness of video investigation includes ideal and real functions .Optimal effectiveness of video investigation should also take content of law and sociology into consideration .Working approach of China's video investigation from the perspective of op-timal effectiveness is a integral project which involves theory , hardware , staff and mechanism .%我国视频侦查工作的实施状况包括投入与效果两个层面。周克华案、波士顿马拉松爆炸案、伦敦地铁爆炸案中的案件基本参数状况、资源投入状况与收益状况是评价视频侦查工作实施状况的具体指标。视频侦查工作效益最优是指在视频侦查资源成本投入一定的情况下实现侦查效益的最大化。视频侦查工作效益最优的经济学模型包括理想与现实状态两种函数。视频侦查工作的效益最优还应当兼顾法学与社会学领域的内容。效益最优视角下的我国视频侦查工作进路是一种体系化的工作形式,由原理、硬件、人员与机制四个层面的内容组成。

  1. 基于密闭爆发器的等离子体诊断系统研究%The Study of Plasma Diagnosis System Based on Closed Bomb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋鹏; 钟孟春; 毛保全

    2016-01-01

    为了快速有效地诊断火药燃烧时生成的等离子体密度,设计了一套基于密闭爆发器的等离子体诊断系统,并采用光谱法对等离子体进行诊断。诊断结果表明:通过设计的等离子体诊断系统可以诊断出火药燃烧时的发射光谱,从而获得相应的等离子体密度。%In order to quickly and efficiently diagnose the plasma density generated from gunpowder combustion, a set of plasma diagnostic system based on closed bomb was designed, and the plasma was diagnosed by spectral method. The diagnosis results show that the emission spectrum generated from gunpowder combustion can be diagnosed through the plasma diagnosis system, then the corresponding plasma density can be obtained.

  2. Collection of trace evidence of explosive residues from the skin in a death due to a disguised letter bomb. The synergy between confocal laser scanning microscope and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turillazzi, Emanuela; Monaci, Fabrizio; Neri, Margherita; Pomara, Cristoforo; Riezzo, Irene; Baroni, Davide; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2010-04-15

    In most deaths caused by explosive, the victim's body becomes a depot for fragments of explosive materials, so contributing to the collection of trace evidence which may provide clues about the specific type of device used with explosion. Improvised explosive devices are used which contain "homemade" explosives rather than high explosives because of the relative ease with which such components can be procured. Many methods such as chromatography-mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, stereomicroscopy, capillary electrophoresis are available for use in the identification of explosive residues on objects and bomb fragments. Identification and reconstruction of the distribution of explosive residues on the decedent's body may give additional hints in assessing the position of the victim in relation to the device. Traditionally these residues are retrieved by swabbing the body and clothing during the early phase, at autopsy. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and other analytical methods may be used to analyze the material swabbed from the victim body. The histological examination of explosive residues on skin samples collected during the autopsy may reveal significant details. The information about type, quantity and particularly about anatomical distribution of explosive residues obtained utilizing confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) together with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), may provide very significant evidence in the clarification and reconstruction of the explosive-related events.

  3. A Public History of the Dividing Line: H.D., the Bomb, and the Roots of the Postmodern%一个分界线形成的公史:H. D.,炸弹,后现代的根源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊丽莎白·韦利斯

    2006-01-01

    This essay explores the entanglements of aesthetic discourse and public policy in the aftermath of America's dropping of the atom bomb. While H.D.'s Trilogy, written in London during the German bombing, has been treated critically as a war poem, the major works that followed-especially Helen in Egypt and Tribute to Freud-offer a far more critical and more nuanced vision of the artist in wartime and in the aftermath of war. Poised at the historical turn from modernism to postmodernism, both works conduct provocative interventions into the literary canon and are suggestive of the complex dynamics of mid-20th-century American foreign policy and literary identity. Ostensibly a recasting of a lost pre-Homeric text, Helen in Egypt anticipates the shift to a decisively postmodern lyricism, with its displaced subjectivity and lacunae and its implicit rethinking of the western literary canon. In its investigative tone and its insistence that modern war functions not as a rupture but as a continuity within literary and sociopolitical life, H.D.'s vision of the lyric has never been more relevant.%本文考察了第二次世界大战期间美国对日本投下原子弹之后的美学话语与公共政策之间的纷乱关系.如果说H.D.在德国轰炸下的伦敦创作的一直被作为战争诗而饱受批评,那么她在随后写出的几部主要作品,尤其是和,则提供了艺术家在战争期间以及战后更激进也更微妙的想象图景.这两部作品诞生于现代主义向后现代主义过渡的历史时期,对文学正典形成了挑衅和干扰,并直接指向20世纪中期美国对外政策和文学身份的复杂动因.表面上是对一部早已遗失的前荷马时代的文本的重写,实质上却因其主观性被移置、空白、对西方文学正典所进行的隐晦的重新思考等特征,预示了一个朝向明确的后现代抒情诗歌的转变.作品中探究性的语气以及贯彻始终的观点,即现代战争不是文学生活与社

  4. Study on Benzene Emissions of Unleaded Gasoline in Constant Volume Combustion Bomb%无铅汽油在定容燃烧过程中苯排放的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李西秦; 黎苏; 刘冰

    2012-01-01

    Using unleaded gasoline widely in vehicles increases the emission of harmful benzene. In order to know the formative rules of benzene in gasoline combustion process, the 93# gasoline, base stock and appropriate additives are chosen as the test fuel. A series of tests are carried out in the constant volume combustion bomb. The emission of benzene is measured by a gas phase chromatography. The test results show that the benzene in combustion products comes from the incomplete combustion fuel. The free radicals out of cracking fuel may also become benzene in combustion process. Adding ethanol in fuels does not necessarily increase the emission of benzene.%无铅汽油的广泛使用,使得汽车排放物中有害物质苯的数量有所增加.为了解汽油燃烧过程中苯的生成规律,选用93#汽油、基础油和适当比例的添加剂为试验燃料,在定容燃烧弹上进行了一系列试验研究,利用气相色谱仪分析得到苯的排放量.试验结果表明,燃烧产物中的苯源于未完全燃烧的燃油,燃烧过程中裂解出的小分子自由基也会形成苯,在燃料中添加乙醇后,苯的排放量并不一定增加.

  5. Analysis on Coordination System of Fuse and Warhead of Electromagnetic Pulse Bomb With Cascaded Flux Compression%爆磁压缩电磁脉冲弹引战配合分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛超; 刘忠; 邱志明; 卢发兴

    2012-01-01

    为了提高爆磁压缩电磁脉冲弹作战使用效能,根据该弹定向辐射特点,分析了爆磁压缩电磁脉冲弹定向辐射引战配合特性,建立了电磁脉冲弹引战配合的数学模型,给出了控制电磁脉冲弹引信最佳起爆时刻的数值计算方法.通过数值优化分析,给出了弹目交会参数对定向辐射天线对准精度的影响曲线.仿真图像表明,俯仰角参数对辐射天线对准精度影响最大.研究结论可为电磁脉冲弹攻击参数的计算和战术使用提供理论依据.%To improve the operational effectiveness of electromagnetic pulse bomb(EMPB) with cascaded flux compression,the characteristics of fuse and warhead matching were analyzed based on the directed radiation property,and the coordination system of EMPB was built. Based on the coordination system, the numerical method for the optimal detonation time of the fuse was proposed. By numerical optimization, the effect of parameters of bomb encountering target on reg- istration precision of active antenna was obtained. The calculation figures show that the pitching angle is the principal factor affecting the registration precision. The numerical simulation results offer theoretic basis for setting attack parameters and tactical use of EMPB.

  6. An Experimental System of Constant Volume Combustion Bomb for Dual-fuel of Diesel/Methanol%一种研究柴油甲醇双燃料的定容燃烧弹试验装置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚春德; 代乾; 许汉君; 杨广峰

    2012-01-01

    An experimental system of constant volume combustion bomb was designed and developed,which was carried out for the fundamental research of combustion characteristics of diesel in premixed air/methanol mixtures atmosphere.The distribution,function and characteristics of the sub-system of the experimental equipment were introduced.The experimental results show that the existence of methanol in the mixture can suppress ignition of diesel fuel.As the increase of the methanol concentration in the mixture,the flame of the combustion becomes dim and consequently the formation of soot are inhibited.Comparing with the combustion of diesel in the pure air atmosphere the ignition delay of diesel fuel is postponed and the lift-off length of diesel fuel flame is extended and the variation of lift-off length is strengthened in the premixed methanol ambient.%设计并研制了一种定容燃烧弹试验装置,用于对柴油在甲醇/空气预混均质混合气中燃烧特性的基础研究。介绍了该试验装置的各子系统的原理、结构及特点。定容燃烧弹试验结果表明:甲醇抑制了柴油的着火燃烧,随着甲醇/空气混合气浓度的增大,燃烧火焰变暗,碳烟生成受到抑制。与空气热氛围相比,甲醇/空气混合气氛围延长了柴油的滞燃期,加长了火焰的浮起长度。火焰稳定后,甲醇氛围中火焰的浮起长度随时间的变化比在纯空气氛围中大。

  7. 汽车炸弹钢箱梁内部爆炸局部破坏效应分析%Analysis on local damage of steel box girder under internal blast loading of vehicle bomb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚术健; 蒋志刚; 卢芳云; 张舵; 赵楠

    2015-01-01

    采用ALE(Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian,ALE)多物质流固耦合算法,对汽车炸弹(TNT当量200 kg~1500 kg)在双层桥梁下层桥面典型位置爆炸的局部破坏效应进行了数值模拟,研究了内爆炸冲击作用下钢箱梁的响应过程、破坏模式、破坏参数及其主要影响因素。结果表明:破坏模式及破坏参数与爆炸位置和TNT当量密切相关,爆炸位置对桥梁主要受力体系的受损程度影响较为明显,加劲肋对其垂直方向的破口具有约束作用,箱体对冲击波的约束效应使破坏作用加剧。合理设置加劲肋、加强重要构件和设置防爆层等措施有利于提高桥梁结构抗爆能力。%The response process,failure modes and damage parameters of a double deck steel box girder subjected to internal blast loading of vehicle bombs (TNT equivalent 200kg&1500kg)were simulated by using the ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian)multi-material fluid-solid coupling arithmetic.In the simulation,three typical blast locations on the lower deck were considered.The results show that:the failure modes and damage parameters have a clear correlation with the TNT weight and blast location,and the explosion locations have strong effects on the damage degree of steel trusses. Stiffening ribs can restrict the crack in its vertical direction.The damage effects will be intensified by the restriction of the box-shaped girder.Some useful measurements were also proposed which can help engineers in bridge designing and protection consideration against possible explosion events.

  8. 《原子弹的初光:原子时代初期美国人的思想与文化》书评%Review on"First light of atomic bomb:the thought and culture of American in early atomic age"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙博

    2012-01-01

      The writing of Bowyer"First light of atomic bomb". As the name implies, is a new cultural history and the history of ideas of the works. The book uses the extremely rich data to build the Americans’ perception, psychology and thinking on the atomic bomb from 1945 to 1950, and use of comprehensive information, rigorous attitude, makes the book read like watching America's"Qingmingshanghetu"in fifty's of the last century,.%  鲍耶的著作《原子弹的初光》。顾名思义,是一部新文化史和思想史的著作。全书采用了极其丰富的资料重新构建了1945年至1950年美国人对原子弹的看法、心理与思考,且使用资料之全面,编选之精细,态度之严谨,使得本书让人读起来犹如观看一幅上世纪五十年代末美国的“清明上河图”。

  9. Beyond the bomb: Living without nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, M.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a guide to alternative strategies for building a stable peace. It provides a survey of proposals for peace. Topics covered include: alternative defense: protection without threat; nonviolence: strengths of the weak; economic conversion: swords into services; game theory: nice guys last longest; and alternative futurism: toward more practical utopias.

  10. Carbon-14 Bomb-Pulse Dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, B A

    2007-12-16

    Atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons during the 1950s and early 1960s doubled the concentration of carbon-14 atmosphere and created a pulse that labeled everything alive in the past 50 years as carbon moved up the food chain. The variation in carbon-14 concentration in time is well-documented and can be used to chronologically date all biological materials since the mid-1950s.

  11. Richard Feynman Quarks, Bombs, and Bongos

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Described by his peers as the "finest physicist of his generation," Richard Feynman defied scientist stereotypes. This brash New York-born American physicist startled the more conservative giants of European physics with his endless ability to improvise. Indeed, later in life, Feynman became an accomplished bongo player. Feynman's legacy to physics was his ability to simplify complex equations and clarify fundamental principles through the use of graphs. He developed the theory of quantum electrodynamics, which illustrates the behavior of electrically charged particles, such as elect

  12. Top U.S. Soap Bombs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Different cultural values see award-winning U.S. melodrama run aground in China It had audiences on the edge of their seats in 202 countries and regions around the world, but in China the show was a deleterious bridge too far. The award-winning American soap opera Desperate Housewives, came, was seen, but failed to conquer Chinese TV audiences, exposing the enormous cultural

  13. No blackhole and no atomic bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Philip

    2011-11-01

    Title: c=c(1+1=2) The light speed 1+1=2. So we count the number by step by step for one point. When we count the number by one point, we use the number written on the paper. This means this is not number, but the graph and line. The light speed is the truth in physics. I can prove it by number. 10%=0.1 As %=kg So 10kg=0.1 kg=1/10 x 1/10 kg=1/100 And 100%=1 So kg=100%/100 kg=% So 1kg=1%=1/100 E=mc^2 So cx kgx m^2/sec^2= 1kgx cx m^2/sec^2 cx 1/100x m^2/sec^2= 1/100x cx m^2/sec^2 So c/100=c/100 So c=c And c is the truth never changed. Title: By faith, no blackhole As to be, we glory to God and that is basic theology for christian. And I want to say that BE means just thinking. There is no clue of nature and no proposition to prove it. I just believe by feeling and emotion. I trust that it can be the physic really. There are only human beings and there is no idol that is different existence from human beings, that is true to be. So the nature we see is zero and we, human beings make the zero nature as from no start and no ending. No alpha and omega mean we are idol and that there is no blackhole. Blackhole means the block is existing in the nothing(as we are no alpha and no omega). So the block cannot be existence. So if there is blackhole, then there must be the wall to block me and never walk again. The big bang and evolution mean they are no alpha and no omega and existing by themselves. So they could be existence, but big bang and evolution are just logical fact to be. We need faith as God give us the direction into our spirit.

  14. Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    been further delays to the F-35 System Development and Demonstration ( SDD ) program. As a result, the SDB II integration will be accomplished as a...follow-on integration to the F-35 SDD . SDB II OT&E on the F-35 will not be completed by the FRP threshold of October 2019, thus delaying the FRP decision

  15. Black hole bombs and photon mass bounds

    CERN Document Server

    Pani, Paolo; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Berti, Emanuele; Ishibashi, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    Generic extensions of the standard model predict the existence of ultralight bosonic degrees of freedom. Several ongoing experiments are aimed at detecting these particles or constraining their mass range. Here we show that massive vector fields around rotating black holes can give rise to a strong superradiant instability which extracts angular momentum from the hole. The observation of supermassive spinning black holes imposes limits on this mechanism. We show that current supermassive black hole spin estimates provide the tightest upper limits on the mass of the photon (mv<4x10^{-20} eV according to our most conservative estimate), and that spin measurements for the largest known supermassive black holes could further lower this bound to mv<10^{-22} eV. Our analysis relies on a novel framework to study perturbations of rotating Kerr black holes in the slow-rotation regime, that we developed up to second order in rotation, and that can be extended to other spacetime metrics and other theories.

  16. Academia's Own Demographic Time-Bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Graham

    2005-01-01

    It's no news that Australian academics, like Australian cricketers, are getting older (and perhaps tireder). But the exact dimensions of the sector's staffing crisis haven't been clear. Graham Hugo has been studying the figures in detail, and he suggests that the problem may in fact be worse than has been thought. Around a quarter of the academic…

  17. Terrorism, suicide bombing, fear and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Ian

    2007-06-01

    This paper is based on the Bruce Burns Memorial Trust Lecture, Terrorism and Mental Health, presented in October 2005, in Birmingham. In addition to written sources, it is informed by the author's experience and contact with military and police experts in this arena over 28 years as a member of the British Army. The diagnosis and treatment of post traumatic mental disorders are not addressed in this paper. The author explores the general phenomenon of terrorism, in an endeavour to inform understanding of terrorist acts. He stresses the need for contextualisation of acts of terror, their perpetrators, their effects on populations and individuals, and attention to the psychology of groups. The author aims to invite and inform further thought and debate on the subject by raising a wide range of issues which do not sit comfortably within a strict psychiatric, research-based paradigm. The author covers a brief history of terrorism; organisational requirements of terror groups and the process of recruiting personnel to them; the means, motives and opportunities terrorists exploit in their work; the need for communication with terror groups; sacrificial death; governmental responses to terrorist acts and fear and mental health. The author proposes that terrorist organisations perform some of the functions of a family; that acts of terror are 'propaganda by deed'; that terrorism, or more precisely the media's treatment of it, breeds 'formless fears' which may directly lead to the development of fear-based symptoms and illness within societies. He notes that terrorism is an enterprise from which many players ('experts', media, politicians, etc.) benefit; that terrorism has its shadow in counter-terrorism, which may range from benign to malignant and that psychiatry could, in this context, acknowledge its bias towards individual psychologies and rectify its lack of understanding of groups and the behaviours of individuals within them.

  18. Bomb tests attack the food chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruff, T. (Monash Medical School, Melbourne (Australia))

    1990-03-01

    Ciguatera poisoning, the most common type of fish poisoning in the world, has become a major public health problem in some parts of the South Pacific. This area has always been the site of periodic outbreaks, especially after severe storms or natural disasters that damage core reefs. But since World War II it has become evident that military activities and major construction projects that wreak havoc on corals also lead to ciguatera outbreaks. Extraordinarily high rates of ciguatera poisoning have occurred on the small Pacific islands that have been used for nuclear tests and on the islands that host the military infrastructures and activities that accompany the tests. This is true for both the Marshall Islands near Bikini and Eniwetok, where U.S. tests took place, and in French Polynesia, in the area around Moruroa Atoll where the French government continues to test. Ciguatera poisoning has a disastrous effect on people who depend on fishing as a way of life and on fish as the major source of protein. 10 refs.

  19. Locating bomb factories by detecting hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romolo, Francesco Saverio; Connell, Samantha; Ferrari, Carlotta; Suarez, Guillaume; Sauvain, Jean-Jacques; Hopf, Nancy B

    2016-11-01

    The analytical capability to detect hydrogen peroxide vapour can play a key role in localizing a site where a H2O2 based Improvised Explosive (IE) is manufactured. In security activities it is very important to obtain information in a short time. For this reason, an analytical method to be used in security activity needs portable devices. The authors have developed the first analytical method based on a portable luminometer, specifically designed and validated to locate IE manufacturing sites using quantitative on-site vapour analysis for H2O2. The method was tested both indoor and outdoor. The results demonstrate that the detection of H2O2 vapours could allow police forces to locate the site, while terrorists are preparing an attack. The collected data are also very important in developing new sensors, able to give an early alarm if located at a proper distance from a site where an H2O2 based IE is prepared.

  20. A Study on the Path to Achieve Big Science Projects:Case Studies from Atomic Bomb Manufacturing Project and Manned Space Project%大科学工程的实现路径研究--基于原子弹制造工程和载人航天工程的案例剖析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂继凯; 危怀安

    2015-01-01

    基于原子弹制造工程和载人航天工程的案例剖析发现,原子弹制造工程在实现过程中形成了一条计划型实现路径,载人航天工程则遵循了一条自发型实现路径。两种大科学工程的实现路径在源起、决策和实施过程中都存在明显差异。分析了大科学工程与国家科技重大专项在选择、支撑与修正的实现路径的情况,及在实现路径中充分发挥政府多角色集成效能和激发协同创新机能。%Case studies from atomic bomb manufacturing project and manned space project, the results showed that, a plan achievement path formulated in the atomic bomb manufacturing project, while a spontaneity achieve-ment path followed in the manned space project. There are significant differences in the origins, decision-making and implementation process between the two paths. This offers today's big science projects and national science and technology major projects lots of important inspiration and valuable experience at selecting, supporting and correcting achievement path, exerting government's multi-role integration efficiency and stimulating synergy innova-tion function in the achievement path.

  1. Precision Guided Munitions: Constructing a Bomb More Potent Than the A-Bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    military advantage is hardly unique to the American experience. Technology has shaped warfare in important ways since Herodotus first historicized armed...as today, likely took for granted the then-current state of the art, without feeling compelled to historicize it. However, even a cursory review of

  2. Red China’s Capitalist Bomb: Inside the Chinese Neutron Bomb Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    for civilian and military use. Programs for laser technology, space, biotechnology , information technology, automation and manufacturing technology...deployed capability.187 As long as the United States and Russia are bound by the Intermediate- Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty, neither state can deploy...agreements with the United States and Russia . This study’s analytic framework suggests that the PRC is likely to continue developing and may eventually

  3. Bomb/no bomb: From multivariate analysis to artificial neural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Patrick; Liu, Felix; Yedidia, Barak

    1992-05-01

    Systems for the detection of explosives hidden in checked airline baggage have been under development at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for the FAA since 1985. In May of 1987, the first prototype was fielded for testing at San Francisco International Airport. In 1989, the first production unit was field at JFK Airport in New York. Since than, over 550,000 bags have been screened by SAIC units around the world. The system uses thermal neutron activation (TNA) to detect the presence of explosives. In this technique a suitcase on a conveyor belt moves past a source and an array of detectors. Neutrons from the source easily penetrate the luggage, and are absorbed by all of the materials present. Different elements will emit different energy gamma rays after absorbing these neutrons (much like fluorescence). These gamma rays are of a high enough energy that they easily penetrate the luggage, and are detected by a detector array which surrounds the cavity enclosing the suitcase and conveyor belt. The detectors record the number of gamma rays observed at each energy. The number of gamma rays of a characteristic energy which are observed depends on the amount of the element present, its location, the number of neutrons present, and the probability that the element will capture a thermal neutron and emit the gamma ray. Since this probability is a known constant for any particular element, and the number of neutrons present and the number of characteristic gamma rays are measured, the amount of each element and its location can, in theory, be determined from the array of signals. Commercial and military explosives, such as are used by terrorists, have several characteristics which distinguish them from most objects in luggage. On of these characteristics is a high density of nitrogen. A description of the decision algorithms is presented, and the artificial neural system (ANS) is discussed. On-line experience and decision surfaces are also covered.

  4. 二战期间美国国家战略转变与核观念的初步形成——美国研制原子弹的准备过程%U.S.Military Strategy Shift and the Initial Shape of the Nuclear Conception in World War Ⅱ——On the Preparation for the Development of the Atomic Bomb in the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫晶

    2011-01-01

    Making process for the development of the A-bomb reflected the initial Shape of the U.S.nuclear conception and a shift in the U.S.strategy.With the development of the war,in order to compete with Nazi Germany in the nuclear arms race,after much consideration,Roosevelt decided to cooperate with Britain at last.The development of nucleonics in 1930's,the worry of"enemy alien" and the urgency of warfare provided conditions for the U.S.-Britain joint development of the A-bomb.%原子弹的研制反映了美国核观念的初步确立和战略的转变,是美国军事战略的重要组成部分。随着战争形势的发展,罗斯福经过反复斟酌最终决定联合英国与德国法西斯在军事科学领域展开"核军备竞赛"。20世纪30年代核物理学的发展,"敌国侨民"的担忧和战事的紧迫为美英合研制原子弹提供了条件。

  5. Comparison of Police Social Media Strategies Used in Boston Marathon Bombing and Ferguson Emergency Events%突发事件中美国警方社交媒体的危机传播策略*--基于波士顿马拉松爆炸案和弗格森案的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高扬; 吴锋

    2015-01-01

    波士顿马拉松爆炸案和弗格森案对美国执法体系带来了重大影响。本文对波士顿和圣路易斯警察局在这两起突发事件中的警用社交媒体的使用进行对比数据分析,阐述这两个警察局在使用社交媒体应对突发事件的成功和失败的根本原因,进而总结美国警察局在突发事件中如何利用社交媒体发布、获取和传播信息,安抚稳定公众情绪,呼吁配合案件调查,与市民增强互动,赢得社区信任和支持。这对我国公安机关使用社交媒体应对突发事件,开展警务执法工作等方面有着重要借鉴意义。%In this paper, we conduct a comprehensive review, comparison, and analysis of how the St. Louis Police Department and the Boston Police Department use the social media for emergency response and crisis management during the Ferguson and Boston Bombing e-vents. We perform both qualitative and quantitative analysis of their original social media content posted during these two events and the past two years. We study the successful experience obtained, valuable lesson learned, and efficient measures established by these two po-lice departments in using social media for effective communication and interactions with citizens during emergency events. This will pro-vide useful reference for law enforcement and crisis management by Chinese police departments in the age of social media.

  6. Black-hole bombs and photon-mass bounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Paolo; Cardoso, Vitor; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Berti, Emanuele; Ishibashi, Akihiro

    2012-09-28

    Generic extensions of the standard model predict the existence of ultralight bosonic degrees of freedom. Several ongoing experiments are aimed at detecting these particles or constraining their mass range. Here we show that massive vector fields around rotating black holes can give rise to a strong superradiant instability, which extracts angular momentum from the hole. The observation of supermassive spinning black holes imposes limits on this mechanism. We show that current supermassive black-hole spin estimates provide the tightest upper limits on the mass of the photon (m(v) is black holes could further lower this bound to m(v) black holes in the slow-rotation regime, that we developed up to second order in rotation, and that can be extended to other spacetime metrics and other theories.

  7. Case Study: Iran, Islam, the NPT, and the Bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, E .

    2011-04-01

    The goals of this case study are: (1) To examine the correlation between Iran's nuclear program and clerical statements; (2) To evaluate the importance of these statements; (3) To understand the relationship between policy and fatwas (Islamic decrees); (4) To address the issue of a 'nuclear fatwa'; and (5) To examine how, if at all, Sharia (Islamic law) has influenced Iran's actions or inactions with respect to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and Iran's adherence to its IAEA Safeguards Agreements and the Additional Protocol. The Islamic Republic of Iran (hereinafter Iran) is one of two theocracies in the world, the second being Vatican City. Iran's government derives its constitutional, moral, and political legitimacy from Islam. As a result of this theocratic culture, rules are set and interpreted with a much different calibrator than that of the Western world. Islam affects all aspects of Iranian life. This is further complicated by the fact that Islam is not a nationalistic faith, in that many people all over the world believe in and adhere to Islamic principles. As a result, a political system that derives much of its fervor from being nationalistic is caught between two worlds, one within the land boundaries of Iran and the other within a faith that transcends boundaries. Thus, any understanding of Islamic law must first be understood within this delicate balance of nationalism and transcendence. Iran has found itself on the international stage concerning its nuclear program. Because Iran is a theocratic state, it is imperative to examine its political moves, speeches, rights, and obligations through the lens of Islam. This study will examine how Islam plays a role in Iran's dealing with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), its understanding of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), including parties obligations under Safeguards Agreements and the Additional Protocol, and also provide a recommendation on how to move forward in dealings with Iran based in part on an understanding of Islamic principles.

  8. Obituary Professor Victor Weisskopf - atom-bomb and CERN physicist

    CERN Multimedia

    Dalyell, T

    2002-01-01

    The rise of Nazism brought horror, humiliation, death and torture to so many free-thinking people - Jews, and other minorities. There were some lucky ones, like the Weisskopf family, who were able to escape. Victor Weisskopf was born and brought up in Austria in the spirit of German culture and said that he considered his transfer from Europe to the USA an invaluable source of intellectual enrichment (2 pages).

  9. Love story under the H-bomb shadow

    CERN Document Server

    Filipchuk, K E

    2013-01-01

    The physics is created by human beings with all weaknesses of human nature. This story caught our attention since it demonstrates how fragile the human destiny is and even genius cannot find freedom and preserve human dignity in the face of the totalitarian state.

  10. Lobotomies and Botulism Bombs: Beckett's Trilogy and the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piette, Adam

    2016-06-01

    The article argues that Beckett's Trilogy stages the effects of a lobotomy operation on a potentially politically subversive writer, and that the consequences of the operation can be traced in both the retreat of the narrator(s) of the Trilogy into the mind and into comatose mental states and in the detail of the operation itself, based on the 'icepick' lobotomies performed by neurologist Walter Freeman in the late 1940s and early 1950s. To write about extreme psychiatric situations in the post-war period is necessarily to invoke the political uses of psychosurgery with which this article engages. The article goes on to consider the figure of the brain-damaged mind as a Cold War trope in the references to botulism and the motif of the penetrated skull in The Unnamable.

  11. Svineboom er en tikkende miljøbombe i Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rikke Pape

    2009-01-01

    Stigende velstand i Asien giver stor efterspørgsel på kød. Lokale bønder øger derfor svineproduktionen eksplosivt, hvilket medfører enorme mængder af gylle og miljøproblemer. Udgivelsesdato: 18. november...

  12. Transcendental Terrorism and Dirty Bombs: Radiological Weapons Threat Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    radioactive sources. This gap sets the stage for a Goiania -type disaster, where thieves in Brazil searching for scrap metal broke into an abandoned cancer...unknowingly and unwittingly spread the contamination throughout Goiania .53 The results were five deaths, 151 people who suffered internal...for obsolete radioactive materials. While the distribution of cesium-137 in Goiania was not the result of deliberate terrorist action, it certainly

  13. Dirty Bombs: The Technical Aspects of Radiological Dispersion Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    www.afrri.usuhs.mil/www/outreach/training.htm last accessed: 20APR04 xxiv Neifert, Alex. Case Study: Accidental Leakage of Cesium-137 in Goiania , Brazil, in...www.berkeleynucleonics.com/radiation/rindex.htm last accessed: 07JUN04 viii Neifert, Alex. Case Study: Accidental Leakage of Cesium-137 in Goiania ...Accidental Leakage of Cesium-137 in Goiania , Brazil, in 1987, http://www.nbc- med.org/SiteContent/MedRef/OnlineRef/CaseStudies/csgoiania.html last

  14. Preventing Terrorist Bombings on United States Subway Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    underlying altruistic motivations. Over 100 years ago, Emile Durkheim defined the phenomenon of suicide as comprising four categories: altruistic, egoistic...family and friends’ lot in life in an altruistic suicide as previously described by Durkheim . Suicide terrorism grows out of a necessity based on

  15. Automatic Behavior Sensing for a Bomb-Detecting Dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    for about 10 minutes while it is led through the various activities (running, walking , sitting, lying), which could be incorporated into exercise or...dogs at two locations with a range of terrain. One location had large open spaces with a mix of trees and fields. The other was in a canyon with large...large differences in acceleration between the walking and sitting states. These false positives could be easily dismissed by the handler during the

  16. How BMW Is Defusing the Demographic Time Bomb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.H. Loch (Christoph); F.J. Sting (Fabian); N. Bauer (Nikolaus); H. Mauermann (Helmut)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe article focuses on how the German car manufacturer, Bayerische Motoren Werke AG or BMW, is managing the effects of population aging on the industry. The redesign of BMW's factories to accommodate older workers and increase productivity is mentioned. Research on a pilot production lin

  17. Biplanes and Bombsights, British Bombing in World War I

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    of Frank Halford’s power plant, which had been de- rived from a contemporary Hispano- Suiza model.9 In July 1917, early in the program, it was...Brig Gen Sir David: 6, 35, 39 highest battle losses: 195 highest sick rate: 195 Hispano- Suiza model: 191 HQ RFC: 48 Hyderabad Squadron: 201 304 I.F

  18. Perspectives on radiation dose estimates for A-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewe, W.E.

    1986-12-01

    Four decades after the actual events, quantitative characterization of the radiation fields at Hiroshima and Nagasaki continues to be sought, with high accuracy a goal justified by the unique contribution to radiation protection standards that is represented by the medical records of exposed survivors. The most recent effort is distinguished by its reliance on computer modeling and concomitant detail, and by its decentralized direction, both internationally and internally to the US and Japan, with resultant ongoing peer review and wide scope of inquiry. A new system for individual dose estimation has been agreed upon, and its scientific basis has been elaborated in the literature as well as in a comprehensive treatise to be published in the Spring of 1987. In perspective, this new system appears to be an unusually successful achievement that offers the expectation of reliable estimates with the desired accuracy. Some aspects leading to this expectation, along with a caveat, are discussed here. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Victims of Stalin's A-bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klochko, M.

    1983-06-23

    This article indicates the number of scientists, technicians, workers and the general population, who died, or still suffer from radiation induced diseases, as a result of nuclear tests and research in the 1940's and 1950's. The history of the project, the lack of precautionary measures and the secrecy and censorship involved, are outlined.

  20. Review of Injuries from Terrorist Bombings and Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-31

    caused 1,308 deaths and 6,622 casualties within the districts of Baramulla, Poonch, Kupwara, and Srinagar and causing a total of 60,000 deaths across...uncertainties since physicians and nurses were working under austere circumstances during the days following such disasters. Considering higher than normal... district immediately after the disaster. Global Health Action 4:7196; 2011. Pyper PC Graham WJ. Analysis of terrorist injuries treated at Craigavon area

  1. Bombing beyond Democracy. Remembering the Ruins of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birthe

    2013-01-01

    an invisible line had been crossed – irreversibly, as it seemed. Even if Europe of today is built on ruins in every sense of the word, this may proof to be a more solid foundation as any, if these experiences can find a common ground to be remembered in and thus remain – and maybe in a more reflected way...

  2. Atomic Bomb: Memory and its Power on Japanese Pacifism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    would help repel attacks from unjust samurai and became popular heroes in many instances. The yakuza often resolved disputes but generally solved...in a person. Seppuku occurred during the Samurai period but continues today. Although Seppuku is not unheard of, Mishima’s seppuku, especially for

  3. Beyond Uncertainty Heisenberg, Quantum Physics, and The Bomb

    CERN Document Server

    Cassidy, David C

    2010-01-01

    Award winning biographer revisits the controversial life of this well known German physicist to shed new light on troubling questions. What can we learn about the relationship of scientific research to state power from Heisenberg's role in Nazi Germany?

  4. Digital Preservation: A Time Bomb for Digital Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedstrom, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the difficulty and expense of preserving digital information is a potential impediment to digital library development. Discusses the present state of digital preservation, articulates requirements for users and custodians, and suggests research topics in storage media, migration, conversion, and overall management strategies. (DSK)

  5. From Bombs to Breast Cancer Imaging: Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineau, Rebecca M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-26

    In the United States, one in eight women will be affected by breast cancer. According to the American Cancer Society, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed - as well as the second most fatal - cancer in American women. It is estimated that there will be nearly 200,000 diagnoses of breast cancer this year; more than 40,000 of these will be fatal. Although advances in medical technologies have greatly increased the odds of surviving the disease, the increase in screenings has not resulted in a significant reduction in the breast cancer mortality rate. Moreover, recent studies have even suggested that an increase in these methods might, in itself, cause cancer. A new tool for early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer, supported by an award from the Breast Cancer Research Program (BCRP) of the Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs of Department of Defense, could give women a new advantage in the fight against breast cancer. This LANL-led project will integrate ultrasound tomography (UST) with recent discoveries in the field of cell and tissue biomechanics to improve breast cancer detection and characterization. UST uses ultrasound waves instead of X-rays to identify and characterize breast tumors. This technology reveals small mechanical-property changes within the breast. These changes are often the earliest signs of breast cancer. Additionally, UST is effective for women with dense breast tissue, who have a higher risk of developing breast cancer. Because the technology does not use radiation, UST can also be used as frequently as needed for women with a high risk of developing breast cancer. In contrast, mammography, the only routine breast-cancer screening tool currently available, is not effective for women with dense breast tissue and may come with unwanted side-effects caused by ionizing radiation. UST has great potential to become an alternative breast-cancer screening tool because of UST's advantages and benefits over mammography. Currently, there is fierce debate surrounding the age at which breast cancer screening should begin, and once begun, how often it should occur. The American Cancer Society recommends yearly mammograms starting at age 40. On the other hand, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine so early. Rather, the Task Force recommends biennial mammography screening for women aged 50 to 74 years. The ten-year discrepancy in the onset of screening results from recent data suggesting that the frequent use of X-ray radiation during screenings could potentially increase the likelihood of developing cancer. This danger is increased by the low sensitivity and accuracy of mammograms, which sometimes require multiple screenings to yield results. Furthermore, mammograms are often not only inaccurate, but average appalling misdiagnoses rates: about 80% false positives and 15% false negatives. These misdiagnoses lead to unwarranted biopsies at an estimated health care cost of $2 billion per year, while at the same time, resulting in excessive cases of undetected cancer. As such, the National Cancer Institute recommends more studies on the advantages of types and frequency of screenings, as well as alternative screening options. The UST technology developed at LANL could be an alternative option to greatly improve the specificity and sensitivity of breast cancer screening without using ionizing radiation. LANL is developing high-resolution ultrasound tomography algorithms and a clinical ultrasound tomography scanner to conduct patient studies at the UNM Hospital. During UST scanning, the patient lies face-down while her breast, immersed in a tank of warm water, is scanned by phased-transducer arrays. UST uses recorded ultrasound signals to reconstruct a high-resolution three-dimensional image of the breast, showing the spatial distribution of mechanical properties within the breast. Breast cancers are detected by higher values of mechanical properties compared to surrounding tissues. Thus, high-resolution breast images obtained using LANL's novel UST alg

  6. Optimization Problem of Mortar Barrel and Bomb Clearances

    OpenAIRE

    J. P. Sirpal; Ashok Kapoor

    1987-01-01

    Optimum mortar windage to achieve maximum accuracy and required velocity for impacting the firing stud under two conditions of constraint is considered. These control constraints are considered to be bounded and the extremals have been studied.

  7. Optimization Problem of Mortar Barrel and Bomb Clearances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Sirpal

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Optimum mortar windage to achieve maximum accuracy and required velocity for impacting the firing stud under two conditions of constraint is considered. These control constraints are considered to be bounded and the extremals have been studied.

  8. This is not a bomb / Triin Männik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Männik, Triin

    2005-01-01

    Moskva I rahvusvaheline kaasaja kunsti biennaali lisaprogrammist. Erikülalistena esinesid Christian Boltanski, Bill Viola, Michal Rovner, Ilja Kabakov. Informbüroo projektist, Andrei Jerofejevi kureeritud "Kaasosaliste" ülevaatenäitusest Tretjakovi galeriis, näitusest "Invasioon" ja Robert Mapplethorpe'i fotode väljapanekust Moskva fotograafiakeskuses, näitustest "Post-diasporaa : rännakud ja missioonid" (kuraator Olga Kopenkina) ja "Sooprobleemid" Moskva moodsa kunsti muuseumis

  9. The philosophy of bombs. The theoretical foundations of terrorist attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Kreibohm, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo es examinar las bases esenciales de la filosofía terrorista; es decir, el núcleo duro de Ia convicción que anima a sus actores y que subyace a sus ideas políticas, a sus demandas, ideologías y doctrinas. Con este propósito, el análisis se ha centrado en Io que hemos denominado los cinco pilares de la filosofía terrorista: la necesidad, la legitimidad, la eficacia, la capacidad para propagar el miedo y el valor propagandístico de sus acciones The goal of this ar...

  10. Folic acid - vitamin and panacea or genetic time bomb?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucock, Mark; Yates, Zoë

    2005-03-01

    We live in a health-conscious age - many of us supplement our diet with essential micronutrients through the discretionary use of multivitamin pills or judicious selection of foods that have a health benefit beyond that conferred by the nutrient content alone - the so-called 'functional foods'. Indeed, the citizens of some nations have little choice, with a mandatory fortification policy in place for certain vitamins. But do we ever stop to consider the consequences of an increased exposure to micronutrients? We examine this issue in relation to the B-group vitamin folic acid, and ask whether supplementation with this vitamin could introduce a strong genetic selection pressure - one that has the side effect of increasing the prevalence of some of the most significant, human life-threatening diseases. Are we affecting our genetics - is this a case of human evolution in progress by altering our diet?

  11. UK parliamentary debate analysis: bombing ISIL in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the arguments presented for and against the UK government's motion for the UK to intervene militarily in Syria in the House of Commons debate on ISIL in Syria that took place on 2 December 2015. It considers what the most common arguments were in favour of and in opposition to the motion as well as which arguments were given the most emphasis, in order to understand the prime justifications given that led to the decision to approve the motion. It suggests that due to the shadow of the 2003 Iraq war, politicians in the debate placed a considerable emphasis on the legal justification for military intervention. It argues that the focus on the national security of the UK and its allies in this particular debate seems to contrast with previous military interventions where humanitarian motives were more widely stated. This paper calls for further comparative research of parliamentary debates in order to track such changes in the rhetoric used by UK politicians to defend their support for military intervention.

  12. Population: Time-Bomb or Smoke-Screen?

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    'Overpopulation' is often implicated as a major causative factor of poverty and environmental degradation in the developing world. This review of the population-resource debate focusses on Red, Green and neo-Malthusian ideologies to demonstrate how they have ramified into current economic and development theory. A central hypothesis is that key elements of Marxist analysis, tempered by the best of Green thought, still have much to offer the subject. The contributions of capitalism to 'underde...

  13. Eating grass the making of the Pakistani bomb

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Feroz

    2012-01-01

    The history of Pakistan's nuclear program is the history of Pakistan. Fascinated with the new nuclear science, the young nation's leaders launched a nuclear energy program in 1956 and consciously interwove nuclear developments into the broader narrative of Pakistani nationalism. Then, impelled first by the 1965 and 1971 India-Pakistan Wars, and more urgently by India's first nuclear weapon test in 1974, Pakistani senior officials tapped into the country's pool of young nuclear scientists and engineers and molded them into a motivated cadre committed to building the 'ultimate weapon.' The

  14. The Bombing of Brittany: Solving the Wrong Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    synchronized. Properly conducted design ensures 87 Falconer, 11-12. 88 Showell, 92. 22 synthesis is...indispensable trading port for the East India Trading Company spice trade between Europe and Asia.108 In addition to trade, the city began its first...unacceptable since analysis cannot be reduced to create synthesis .230 A unique behavior of complex problems is their ability to generate and display emergent

  15. Precise Measurement of Heat of Combustion with a Bomb Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-09-02

    coeum~ ’i(l iumuycoe is is tohlveni ent %ttlrlo’ of itritluit’ vinrent. I) V it brtass Tuhit Care i’ ak-en to avoid hlavinwF lw hc h t~ildItljA’ tetween...thle st art ing teni~i(a- liuj nti. Great care -( shouild be taken (luring theio tiie, make wid 11(1 eord( thle reading"s of thite21(1 itoluto ofIiesulle...reinted to the fact that the Pyre% gl a rs ( toes not "’elt completely when theArthim S. Lapine tind (’oinpany Ct’amiag No. u5-0. Manim ~lo Is Maurmot, as

  16. Vertebral bomb radiocarbon suggests extreme longevity in white sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamady, Li Ling; Natanson, Lisa J; Skomal, Gregory B; Thorrold, Simon R

    2014-01-01

    Conservation and management efforts for white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) remain hampered by a lack of basic demographic information including age and growth rates. Sharks are typically aged by counting growth bands sequentially deposited in their vertebrae, but the assumption of annual deposition of these band pairs requires testing. We compared radiocarbon (Δ(14)C) values in vertebrae from four female and four male white sharks from the northwestern Atlantic Ocean (NWA) with reference chronologies documenting the marine uptake of (14)C produced by atmospheric testing of thermonuclear devices to generate the first radiocarbon age estimates for adult white sharks. Age estimates were up to 40 years old for the largest female (fork length [FL]: 526 cm) and 73 years old for the largest male (FL: 493 cm). Our results dramatically extend the maximum age and longevity of white sharks compared to earlier studies, hint at possible sexual dimorphism in growth rates, and raise concerns that white shark populations are considerably more sensitive to human-induced mortality than previously thought.

  17. After Crossroads: The Fate of the Atomic Bomb Target Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, James P.

    2016-04-01

    The atomic tests at Bikini Atoll left a submerged archaeological legacy in the form of sixty-one shipwrecks at or near Bikini, Kwajalein, the California coast, and in two other lesser cases off Oahu and the coast of Washington State. Together they comprise a unique maritime cultural landscape of the Cold War, and the naval aspects of that conflict.

  18. BDA: Anglo-American Air Intelligence, Bomb Damage Assessment, and the Bombing Campaigns Against Germany, 1914-1945

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-19

    mobile, German fuel began running out within days. This forced a retreat from the Gustav Line 60 miles south of Rome to the Gothic Line 150 miles north...operations-as yet largely ignored in scholarly literature . It is also a pressing military and national- security issue. American technological

  19. Statistical analysis of the main diseases among atomic bomb survivors. Study of inpatients in Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital, 1981 - 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Tadao; Kuramoto, Kiyoshi; Nambu, Shigeru

    1988-03-01

    Diseases found in 2,104 consequetive inpatients between April 1981 and March 1986 were statistically analyzed. The incidence of disease increased in the following order: diabetes mellitus > heart disease > cerebrovascular disorder > malignancy > hypertensive disease > arteriosclerosis > osteoarthritis. Malignancy is the most common cause of death or the highest mortality rate, followed by heart disease, cerebrovascular disorder, and liver cirrhosis. For the number of autopsy, the order of diseases was: malignancy, cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal disease, respiratory tract disease, endocrine disease, and hematopoietic disease; for the incidence of autopsy, the order was: liver cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular disorder, malignancy, and heart disease. Malignancy accounted for 23 % of the inpatients. The incidence of malignancy increased in the following organs: stomach > liver > colon > lung > breast > biliary tract > esophagus. The incidence of leukemia was low. There was no definitive correlation between the incidence of malignancy and exposure distance, although the incidence of breast cancer tended to be high in the group exposed at less than or equal to2,000 m from the hypocenter. According to age class, gastric cancer was frequent in patients less than 40 years and more than 60 years. Liver cancer was the most common in the sixtieth decade of life of men. The incidence of lung cancer increased with advancing age; the incidence of breast cancer was higher in younger patients. (Namekawa, K.).

  20. Turning the 'mustard oil bomb' into a 'cyanide bomb': aromatic glucosinolate metabolism in a specialist insect herbivore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einar J Stauber

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved a variety of mechanisms for dealing with insect herbivory among which chemical defense through secondary metabolites plays a prominent role. Physiological, behavioural and sensorical adaptations to these chemicals provide herbivores with selective advantages allowing them to diversify within the newly occupied ecological niche. In turn, this may influence the evolution of plant metabolism giving rise to e.g. new chemical defenses. The association of Pierid butterflies and plants of the Brassicales has been cited as an illustrative example of this adaptive process known as 'coevolutionary armsrace'. All plants of the Brassicales are defended by the glucosinolate-myrosinase system to which larvae of cabbage white butterflies and related species are biochemically adapted through a gut nitrile-specifier protein. Here, we provide evidence by metabolite profiling and enzyme assays that metabolism of benzylglucosinolate in Pieris rapae results in release of equimolar amounts of cyanide, a potent inhibitor of cellular respiration. We further demonstrate that P. rapae larvae develop on transgenic Arabidopsis plants with ectopic production of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin without ill effects. Metabolite analyses and fumigation experiments indicate that cyanide is detoxified by β-cyanoalanine synthase and rhodanese in the larvae. Based on these results as well as on the facts that benzylglucosinolate was one of the predominant glucosinolates in ancient Brassicales and that ancient Brassicales lack nitrilases involved in alternative pathways, we propose that the ability of Pierid species to safely handle cyanide contributed to the primary host shift from Fabales to Brassicales that occured about 75 million years ago and was followed by Pierid species diversification.

  1. Mind Bomb-2 promotes U251 proliferation by regulating nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathways%Mind Bomb-2基因通过调控核因子κB信号通路促进 U251增殖的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伯阳; 许重远

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study effects of Mind Bomb -2 ( MIB2 ) gene expression ’ s promotion on proliferation of U 251.Methods The expression of MIB2 protein in astrocyte and US251 was detected by Western blot.U251, U251 transduction with FLAG ( A 20 base coded marker protein ) plasmid and U251transfection with MIB2 -FLAG plasmid were divided into blank group , control group and test group correspondingly.The relative content of MIB 2 in three groups was detected by Western blotting .The MIB2 -FLAG plasmid was transfected to U251 cells.The real -time quantitative PCR was used to detect MIB 2 mRNA expression in U251.The expression of MIB2, I kappa B ( IkB) and nuclear factor kappa B ( NF-κB) was detected by Western blotting after transfection.MTT experiment was used to detect the proliferation of U251 cells after transfection.Results The relative content of MIB 2 in U251 cells increased by ( 17.04 ±2.91 ) compared with astrocytes.MIB2 mRNA in test group increased by ( 20.02 ±2.11 ) compared with control group.The expression of MIB 2 and NF-κB proteins in test group increased by ( 6.33 ±0.32 ) and ( 5.21 ±0.21 ) compared with control group, the expression of IkB in test group was attenuated by (0.43 ±0.04 ) compared with control group .Com-pared with both blank and control group , test group grew significantly ( P<0.001 ) .Conclusion MIB2 promoted U251 proliferation by regulating NF-κB signaling pathways.%目的:研究Mind Bomb-2(MIB2)的表达对脑胶质瘤细胞U251增殖的影响。方法用蛋白质印迹法检测正常星形胶质细胞和胶质瘤细胞U251和MIB2蛋白的表达情况。将U251细胞、转染FLAG (一种20个碱基编码的标记蛋白)质粒的U251细胞和转染MIB2-FLAG质粒的U251细胞对应分为空白组、对照组和实验组。以蛋白质印迹法检测上述3组中MIB2的相对含量;采用实时定量PCR技术检测MIB2 mRNA在3组U251细胞中的表达情况;以蛋白质印迹法检测转染后U251细胞中MIB2

  2. Medical Effects of Atomic Bombs. The Report of the Joint Commission for the Investigation of the Effects of the Atomic Bomb in Japan; Volume 4. Section 8. Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1951-04-19

    spindle-shaped o r polygonal ce l l s containing prominent eosinophilic granules are found through- I n the case of out t he organ. 5 +3ich9-A...t i v e l y , l i t t l e vacuolation and have f ine ly granu - l a r . cytoplasm. rise There i s abundance of f ine brown pigment i n the re...c e l l s with eosinophilic gran- .. Hassalt s corpuscles They a re anuclear a t t h e i r centers i n most instances, In other. specimens

  3. Precise explosive force determination of the first A-bomb 70 years after the explosion; Genaue Sprengkraftbestimmung der ersten A-Bombe 70 Jahre nach der Explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2016-11-01

    This short note provides a reference to an American magazine article [Susan K. Hanson et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113, 8104 (2016) - 4933] in which an approach to measuring extinct fission products is described that would allow for the characterization of a nuclear test at any time. The isotopic composition of molybdenum in five samples of glassy debris from the 1945 Trinity nuclear test has been measured. Non-natural molybdenum isotopic compositions were observed, reflecting an input from the decay of the short-lived fission products {sup 95}Zr and {sup 97}Zr. By measuring both the perturbation of the {sup 95}Mo/{sup 96}Mo and {sup 97}Mo/{sup 96}Mo isotopic ratios and the total amount of molybdenum in the Trinity nuclear debris samples, it is possible to calculate the original concentrations of the {sup 95}Zr and {sup 97}Zr isotopes formed in the nuclear detonation. Together with a determination of the amount of plutonium in the debris, these measurements of extinct fission products allow for new estimates of the efficiency and yield of the historic Trinity test.

  4. A Concept for Rapid Repair of Bomb-Damaged Runways Using Regulated-Set Cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-01

    TAlo0 .CaX , in which X is a halogen; the cement can also be a blended cement produced by grinding together portland - ceraent clinker and a...than those used for portland cement. The accel- erated setting time of the cement is achieved by burning into the cement clinker a controlled amount...4,779, 26 April 1971 British Patent No. 1,311,^25, 25 July 1973 Indian Patent No. 133,6Ul, 5 July 197^ South African Patent No. 3069/71, 3 May 1972

  5. Assisted reproductive technology, epigenetics, and long-term health: a developmental time bomb still ticking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Kristen S; Sinclair, Kevin D

    2009-09-01

    Live birthrates following assisted reproduction account for 1 to 3% of pregnancies in developed countries, and these figures seem set to rise. Concerns regarding the safe use of assisted reproductive technology (ART) for the treatment of infertility have been voiced for several years, yet, to date, the vast majority of children conceived using these techniques are apparently normal. Controversy surrounding reports of epigenetic alterations to genomic imprinting following human ART in recent years has fueled the ongoing debate. In contrast, both the incidence and severity of such anomalies are more apparent following ART in comparative animal species. The reasons for this are not known. By and large, the confounding effects of infertility and advanced maternal age do not apply to animal studies, which report better pregnancy rates following embryo transfer. Perhaps the incidence of imprinting disorders is increased when procedures such as ovarian stimulation, in vitro maturation, or both are used in conjunction with extended periods of embryo culture; this frequently occurs in animal but rarely in human ART. The focus of attention on imprinting, however, may have served to distract the scientific community from more subtle epigenetic modifications to nonimprinted loci in gametes and the preimplantation embryo, with health-related consequences that do not manifest until adulthood. Accumulating evidence from animal studies indicates that such effects, not yet apparent in human subjects, exist; and this may ultimately transpire to be the true developmental legacy of human ART. This article discusses these issues in the context of epigenetic and developmental abnormalities following ART in animals.

  6. Who Would Jesus Bomb? The Republican Jesus Meme and the Fracturing of Ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Duerringer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This project joins a growing conversation about the cultural significance of memes (and Internet memes in particular, offering a critical analysis of Republican Jesus—one popular image macro that mocks contemporary American conservatism—in order to illustrate the rhetorical potential of these putatively harmless do-it yourself (DIY creations. Ultimately, I argue that Republican Jesus offers a critique of contemporary conservatism that creates “perspective by incongruity” and, thereby, creates a space for ideological struggle.

  7. The Social Time-Bomb: Education of an Underclass in West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castles, Stephen

    1980-01-01

    Examines the transition from temporary migration to permanent settlement of immigrants in West Germany. Discusses the way the educational system works to keep second-generation generation immigrants at the lowest social and occupational levels of German society. (Author/GC)

  8. Symptoms of Depression in Israeli Adolescents Following a Suicide Bombing: The Role of Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barile, John P.; Grogan, Kathryn E.; Henrich, Christopher C.; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A.; Shahar, Golan

    2012-01-01

    This report investigated the potential role of gender in moderating the effects of terror attack exposure on depression symptoms in middle school students from Dimona, Israel (N = 90). Specifically, the effects of three aspects of terror attacks were investigated: physical exposure, relational exposure, and media exposure. Ninety early adolescents…

  9. Bombs Over Bosnia: The Role of Airpower in Bosnia-Herzegovina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Bosnian Serbs in the areas of Sarajevo and the strategic Posavina corridor that linked Serbia with the northern Bosnian Serb stronghold around Banja Luka ...within artillery range of the largest Bosnian Serb town of Banja Luka , before Mladic agreed to move his equipment from around Sarajevo. Combined with...more secure positions around Banja Luka . Amazingly, they now controlled almost exactly 49% of Bosnia, the percentage called for in the proposed peace

  10. Conflictual Media Events, Eyewitness Images, and the Boston Marathon Bombing (2013)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation of camera phones over the past decade has created an unprecedented landslide of visual information in the online public sphere, transforming the form and amount of communication in relation to crisis events. International research on this subject has primarily centered on the way...

  11. The Aero-Resonator Power Plant of the V-1 Flying Bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    1948-06-30

    shows the design proposal of Lorin, which was described in 1908. This scheme depended on Otto - engine construction, the exhaust gases passing through...of the Otto engine or explosion turbine as shown in Figures 1 and 2. Their technical pedigree lies much closer to that of acoustic machines, which...valve using parts from an Otto engine . The machine was used to give a comparison of flap endurances under various loads

  12. Onset of superradiant instabilities in the composed Kerr-black-hole–mirror bomb

    OpenAIRE

    Shahar Hod

    2014-01-01

    It was first pointed out by Press and Teukolsky that a system composed of a spinning Kerr black hole surrounded by a reflecting mirror may develop instabilities. The physical mechanism responsible for the development of these exponentially growing instabilities is the superradiant amplification of bosonic fields confined between the black hole and the mirror. A remarkable feature of this composed black-hole-mirror-field system is the existence of a critical mirror radius, $r^{\\text{stat}}_{\\t...

  13. Onset of superradiant instabilities in the composed Kerr-black-hole-mirror bomb

    CERN Document Server

    Hod, Shahar

    2014-01-01

    It was first pointed out by Press and Teukolsky that a system composed of a spinning Kerr black hole surrounded by a reflecting mirror may develop instabilities. The physical mechanism responsible for the development of these exponentially growing instabilities is the superradiant amplification of bosonic fields confined between the black hole and the mirror. A remarkable feature of this composed black-hole-mirror-field system is the existence of a critical mirror radius, $r^{\\text{stat}}_{\\text{m}}$, which supports {\\it stationary} (marginally-stable) field configurations. This critical (`stationary') mirror radius marks the boundary between stable and unstable black-hole-mirror-field configurations: composed systems whose confining mirror is situated in the region $r_{\\text{m}}r^{\\text{stat}}_{\\text{m}}$ are unstable (that is, there are confined field modes which grow exponentially over time). In the present paper we explore this critical (marginally-stable) boundary between stable and explosive black-hole-...

  14. Protection of Nuclear Plants Against Vehicular Bombs Via Full Spectrum Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campagna, M. S.; Sawruk, W.

    2003-02-25

    A more urgent need now exists since 9/11 to protect vital assets at nuclear plants from physical security threats. Any approach to successful defense must result in the best possible risk profile , while also performing this defense against credible threats within the context of limited personnel and materiel resources. Engineered solutions need to be well thought out, and take advantage of each plant's available organic strengths and opportunities. A robust, well trained/equipped highly motivated protective force will help reduce concerns where there are weaknesses making the plant vulnerable to threats. A thorough risk assessment takes into account the proper combination of both deterministic and probabilistic application of resources as a most advantageous approach; this is postulated to be development of integrated protection methods and plans, which blend solid engineering design with the highest caliber of protection forces. By setting a clear and ambitious objective to shield the nuclear assets with this type of dynamic full spectrum defense in depth, the risk of harm-breach or likelihood of any opponent's threat being realized should be reduced to the lowest practicable levels.

  15. Historical Report Atomic Bomb Tests Able and Baker (Operation Crossroads). Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1946-07-25

    MESSMORE, C. D., Y3c PORTER, R. A., Y3c DIPAOLA, A., GMlc OSTERGOOD, K., GMlc SMITH, P. R., TCic GILLIAM, W. F., CM2c SKINNER , F. V., Flc BRYSON...DOWELL, W. E. ’ * " "’ BROCKWAY, L. I. MELLEN R. H. 7"’. > BROOKS, P. J. MOORE, W. J. r.^:/’. BURBAGE, G. H. MORGART, J. M. :V/ vV"■< BURRUS , R. C

  16. Immigration: a potential time bomb under the integration of Conservation and Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, P.

    2003-01-01

    The Waza Logone project is carried out by the Government of Cameroon, World Conservation Union (IUCN), CML Leiden, SNV and WWF Camereroon, with financial support by DGIS (Netherlands). The rehabilitation of the floodplain resulted in the increase of fishermen, being a negative effect in the projectI

  17. How to Love the Bomb: Trying to solve the prisoner's dilemma with evolutionary game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castela, Vasco

    Economists traditionally see altruistic acts as irrational. However, in the Prisoner's Dilemma, a rational player can do worse than a moral player. The rules of the game imply that one cannot defend one's best interest if one tries to. Game theory has struggled to explain how an agent could have access to the strategically best outcome without behaving irrationally, but with little success. Can a complex systems approach do better?. Peter Danielson, using Evolutionary Game Theory, has avoided some of the assumptions of Game Theory by using a complexity approach to reframe the problem, and offers a solution of sorts. According to Danielson, the foundations of altruism are mechanisms of deterrence that rely on credible threat - we are nice for fear of retaliation. He is both right and wrong. It will be argued that utilitarian, consequentialist principles must have been at work to create the conditions for altruistic acts to be performed. It is wrong to expect, however, that the same reasons are the reasons for action. In order for a model of genuine altruism to be possible, an extra cog must be inserted in the mechanism of causality in order to distance moral action from its strategic advantages. If emotions fulfill this role, we can tell a story in which it is rational to act on altruistic motivations and materially advantageous to hold such motivations. Moral sentiments can be seen as a tool designed by evolution to help optimize cooperation in a social environment. The proposed account integrates the Humean theory of motivation with Robert Frank's commitment model and Aristotle's views on moral education, keeping an adequate story of how it can be in our material interest to be moral without having to renounce to the existence of genuine acts of altruism.

  18. Computation of the Circular Error Probable (CEP) and Confidence Intervals in Bombing Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    22134 NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY RALEIGH NC 27695-8203 DR EDWARD WEGMAN 1 CENTER FOR COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCES DR JAMES D LYNCH GEORGE MASON...UNIVERSITY DEPT OF STATISTICS 157 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY II BUILDING UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA FAIRFAX VA 22030 COLUMBIA SC 29208 DR JAMES GENTLE DR JAMES R...MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY IOWA STATE UNIVEIRSITY EAST LANSING Ml 48824 102 SNEDECOR HALL AMES IA 5001 1-1210 DR ENSOR KATHIERINE 1 )EPT OF STATISTICS )1R

  19. Establishment of a Super Small-Scale Cookoff Bomb (SSCB) Test Facility at MRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Center. 20 5. Collins, L.W. and Haws, L.D. (1977). The thermochemistry of explosives: A review. Thermochimica Acta . 21, 1-38. 6. Pakulak, J.M., Jr, and...Naval Weapons Center. 7. Rogers, R.N. (1975). Thermochemistry of explosives. Thermochimica Acta , 11, 131-139. 8. Janney, J.L. and Rogers, R.N. (1986

  20. U, Pu, and Am nuclear signatures of the Thule hydrogen bomb debris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Mats; Lindahl, Patric; Roos, Per;

    2008-01-01

    for the determination of the nuclear fingerprint of the accident. We report that the fissile material in the hydrogen weapons involved in the Thule accident was a mixture of highly enriched uranium and weapon-grade plutonium and that the main fissile material was U-235 (about 4 times more than the mass of Pu-239......This study concerns an arctic marine environment that was contaminated by actinide elements after a nuclear accident in 1968, the so-called Thule accident. In this study we have analyzed five isolated hot particles as well as sediment samples containing particles from the weapon material....../Pu239+240 = 0.169 +/- 0.005 (activity ratio) (reference date 2001-10-01). From the activity ratios of Pu-241/Am-241, we estimated the time of production of this weapon material to be from the late 1950s to the early 1960s. The results from reanalyzed bulk sediment samples showed the presence of more...

  1. Constraining primordial black-hole bombs through spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Paolo; Loeb, Abraham

    2013-08-01

    We consider the imprint of super-radiant instabilities of nonevaporating primordial black holes (PBHs) on the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). In the radiation-dominated era, PBHs are surrounded by a roughly homogeneous cosmic plasma which endows photons with an effective mass through the plasma frequency. In this setting, spinning PBHs are unstable to a spontaneous spindown through the well-known “black hole bomb” mechanism. At the linear level, the photon density is trapped by the effective photon mass and grows exponentially in time due to super-radiance. As the plasma density declines due to cosmic expansion, the associated energy around PBHs is released and dissipated in the CMB. We evaluate the resulting spectral distortions of the CMB in the redshift range 103≲z≲2×106. Using the existing COBE/FIRAS bounds on CMB spectral distortions, we derive upper limits on the fraction of dark matter that can be associated with spinning PBHs in the mass range 10-8M⊙≲M≲0.2M⊙. For maximally spinning PBHs, our limits are much tighter than those derived from microlensing or other methods. Future data from the proposed PIXIE mission could improve our limits by several orders of magnitude.

  2. The effects of using Cesium-137 teletherapy sources as a radiological weapon (dirty bomb)

    OpenAIRE

    Liolios, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    While radioactive sources used in medical diagnosis do not pose a great security risk due to their low level of radioactivity, therapeutic sources are extremely radioactive and can presumably be used as a radiological weapon. Cobalt-60 and Cesium-137 sources are the most common ones used in radiotherapy with over 10,000 of such sources currently in use worldwide, especially in the developing world, which cannot afford modern accelerators. The present study uses computer simulations to investi...

  3. Suicide Bombing in the COE. DCSINT Handbook No. 1.03

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-15

    relevant resource. A selected bibliography presents citations for detailed study of the topic. Unless stated otherwise, masculine nouns or pronouns do not...terrorist group that he/she will be caught and interrogated by security forces. Additionally, if the attacker is actually captured alive, he is normally...captured Abu Umar al-Kurdi, a lieutenant of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi. During interviews and interrogation al- Kurdi claimed responsibility for over 32

  4. Uganda: Perfection of Post-Conflict Stability or Ticking Time Bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    large presence of western NGOs that gave women opportunities left men idle in the displaced-persons camps. This resulted in many turning to...alcoholism and domestic violence, feeling insignificant as their children grew up now seeing women as the head of the house. While some of the gender changes...Uganda that are ripe for a future group to take hold: [Boko Haram] evolved from a fringe radical group into a force to be reckoned with when it

  5. A Change Is Gonna Come: Bloggers "Google Bomb" Veiled Hate Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barack, Lauren

    2007-01-01

    Keying in the search term "Martin Luther King" on Google would result in retrieving martinlutherking.com as the topmost hit. At first glance, it seems like a neutral informational site, but clicking on a few articles will unmask the hate. This site, which is owned by Don Black, a former Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan, references King as a…

  6. Mind bomb 1 is required for pancreatic ß-cell formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Signe; Kobberup, Sune; Jørgensen, Mette C;

    2012-01-01

    During early pancreatic development, Notch signaling represses differentiation of endocrine cells and promotes proliferation of Nkx6-1(+)Ptf1a(+) multipotent progenitor cells (MPCs). Later, antagonistic interactions between Nkx6 transcription factors and Ptf1a function to segregate MPCs into distal......-specific inactivation of Mib1 caused a loss of Nkx6-1(+)Ptf1a(-) and Hnf1ß(+) cells and a corresponding loss of Neurog3(+) endocrine progenitors and ß-cells. An accompanying increase in Nkx6-1(-)Ptf1a(+) and amylase(+) cells, occupying the proximal domain, suggests that proximal cells adopt a distal fate in the absence...

  7. Procedure Development to Determine the Heat of Combustion of an Energetic Liquid by Bomb Calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    must combust completely under an oxygen atmosphere. Absorption materials such as sponges and various membranes were investigated; however, after...establishing a design of experiment , cellulose filter paper was chosen because of the availability in a chemical laboratory and documented chemical...properties such as chemical composition, ash content, and filtration speed. Filtered papers considered were all standard laboratory cellulose filter

  8. Delivering More Than Bombs: The Utility of Long-Range Strike Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Logistics Center, Hill AFB, Utah. He attended Euro-NATO Joint-Jet Pilot Training at Sheppard AFB, Texas in 2004 and began his flying career piloting B-52H...Air Warfare, ed. John Andreas Olsen (Ithaca: Potomac Books Inc., 2010), 272. 38 Eric Schmitt and Thom Shanker, Counterstrike: the Untold Story of...Stanford, Calif.: Cornell University Press, 1994. Schmitt, Eric , and Thom Shanker. Counterstrike: The Untold Story of America’s Secret Campaign Against Al

  9. The Reich Wreckers: An Analysis of the 306th Bomb Group During World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    at Bernburg , Germany. The 306th provided 39 B-17s (10 of which later aborted prior to reaching the target) to attack target, and 29 aircraft...21 Rheine-Hopston . YES 1 0 17 . Vis . . 113 HVY ACC 22-Feb-44 10 29 Bernburg . . 6 7 23 . . . E/A=20-30 FW-190 114 YES MOD 24-Feb-44 3 17 Schweinfurt

  10. Math bytes Google bombs, chocolate-covered Pi, and other cool bits in computing

    CERN Document Server

    Chartier, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a fun, hands-on approach to learning how mathematics and computing relate to the world around us and help us to better understand it. How can reposting on Twitter kill a movie's opening weekend? How can you use mathematics to find your celebrity look-alike? What is Homer Simpson's method for disproving Fermat's Last Theorem? Each topic in this refreshingly inviting book illustrates a famous mathematical algorithm or result--such as Google's PageRank and the traveling salesman problem--and the applications grow more challenging as you progress through the chapters. But don't

  11. Determination of the Heat of Combustion of Biodiesel Using Bomb Calorimetry: A Multidisciplinary Undergraduate Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Stephen M.; Conkle, Jeremy L.; Thomas, Stephanie N.; Rider, Keith B.

    2006-01-01

    Biodiesel was synthesized by transesterification of waste vegetable oil using common glassware and reagents, and characterized by measuring heat of combustion, cloud point, density and measuring the heat of combustion and density together allows the student the energy density of the fuel. Analyzing the biodiesel can serve as a challenging and…

  12. Dose modelling for 'dirty bomb' scenarios - an ARGOS DSS feature under development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Mikkelsen, Torben; Astrup, Poul;

    The world of today is not only facing the risk of accidents (e.g., in nuclear facilities, as considered in the EURANOS project). Also other types of emergencies, notably involving radiological terrorism, pose a threat. Acts of terror would be most likely to take place in a city, where the greates...

  13. Military perspective on the civilian response to the London bombings July 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, S A; Lockey, D J; Davies, G E; Kehoe, A D

    2006-03-01

    With the break up of the Warsaw Pact and changing global relations, current military deployments are becoming smaller and more expeditionary (e.g. Afghanistan, East Timor and Sierra Leone). During the Cold War, the use of weapons of mass effect was highly likely to have been seen on the battlefield. Ironically, the proliferation of CBRN agents and the knowledge of their application, as well as the manufacture of improvised explosive devices, have lead to the targeting of civilian populations by extremist groups. One of the benefits of military clinicians embedded in NHS hospital trusts, as well as a strong reservist cadre, is a greater understanding of the implications and management of asymmetric attacks against the U.K. The experience and skills of military clinicians may be of benefit to NHS trusts while this type of threat exists. Military clinicians are also likely to benefit from the experience that they get in certain NHS posts that provide skills that are readily transferable to military medicine. The events of 7th July highlighted the dynamic use of deployable medical resources and a rapid return to normal service provision. This type of 'Health Resilience' can only be achieved with a combination of effective emergency planning, on scene clinical risk management and clinical leadership.

  14. Iran After the Bomb: How Would a Nuclear-Armed Tehran Behave?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    public service of the RAND Corporation. CHILDREN AND FAMILIES EDUCATION AND THE ARTS ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT HEALTH AND HEALTH CARE INFRASTRUCTURE AND...www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5hZi_jDLvQSt2zT7C1HkzlaH2DuQw Cafiero, Giorgio, “Saudi Arabia and Qatar: Dueling Monarchies,” Foreign Policy

  15. Framing analysis, dramatism and terrorism coverage: politician and press responses to the Madrid airport bombing

    OpenAIRE

    García-Gurrionero, M. (Mario); Canel, M.J. (María José)

    2016-01-01

    The media and terrorism is an area that has attracted researchers’ attention in looking at the strategic dimensions of framing. This paper combines both Entman’s framing theory (and his ‘cascading activation’ model for analysis of framing contests) with a dramatistic approach to rhetoric (the Burkean concepts of the pentad and ratios) to see whether connections can be made that help provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of interactions between politicians’ words and media reactions...

  16. Non-Thermal, On-Site Decontamination and Destruction of Practice Bombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-12

    propellants in BDU’s that had mud, dirt or rocks blocking the path for caustic to enter the unit, and the number of BDU’s that could be processed per load...Materiel HBV Hepatitis B Virus HCV Hepatitis C Virus HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus HTRW Hazardous, Toxic, and Radiological Waste IDHL...Watch where you sit, and where you put your hands and feet. • Avoid rock piles, stacks of old boards, and brush in wooded areas. If movement is

  17. Onset of superradiant instabilities in the composed Kerr-black-hole–mirror bomb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar Hod

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It was first pointed out by Press and Teukolsky that a system composed of a spinning Kerr black hole surrounded by a reflecting mirror may develop instabilities. The physical mechanism responsible for the development of these exponentially growing instabilities is the superradiant amplification of bosonic fields confined between the black hole and the mirror. A remarkable feature of this composed black-hole–mirror-field system is the existence of a critical mirror radius, rmstat, which supports stationary (marginally-stable field configurations. This critical (‘stationary’ mirror radius marks the boundary between stable and unstable black-hole–mirror-field configurations: composed systems whose confining mirror is situated in the region rmrmstat are unstable (that is, there are confined field modes which grow exponentially over time. In the present paper we explore this critical (marginally-stable boundary between stable and explosive black-hole–mirror-field configurations. It is shown that the innermost (smallest radius of the confining mirror which allows the extraction of rotational energy from a spinning Kerr black hole approaches the black-hole horizon radius in the extremal limit of rapidly-rotating black holes. We find, in particular, that this critical mirror radius (which marks the onset of superradiant instabilities in the composed system scales linearly with the black-hole temperature.

  18. Pyroclast Tracking Velocimetry illuminates bomb ejection and explosion dynamics at Stromboli (Italy) and Yasur (Vanuatu) volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Damien; Taddeucci, Jacopo; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Moroni, Monica; Freda, Carmela; Gaeta, Mario; Palladino, Danilo Mauro

    2014-07-01

    A new image processing technique—Pyroclast Tracking Velocimetry—was used to analyze a set of 30 high-speed videos of Strombolian explosions from different vents at Stromboli (Italy) and Yasur (Vanuatu) volcanoes. The studied explosions invariably appear to result from the concatenation of up to a hundred individual pyroclast ejection pulses. All these pulses share a common evolution over time, including (1) a non-linear decrease of the pyroclast ejection velocity, (2) an increasing spread of ejection angle, and (3) an increasing size of the ejected pyroclasts. These features reflect the dynamic burst of short-lived gas pockets, in which the rupture area enlarges while pressure differential decreases. We estimated depth of pyroclast release to be approximately 1 and 8 m below the surface at Stromboli and Yasur, respectively. In addition, explosions featuring more frequent pulses also have higher average ejection velocities and larger total masses of pyroclasts. These explosions release a larger overall amount of energy stored in the pressurized gas by a combination of more frequent and stronger ejection pulses. In this context, the associated kinetic energy per explosion, ranging 103-109 J appears to be a good proxy for the explosion magnitude. Differences in the pulse-defining parameters among the different vents suggest that this general process is modulated by geometrical factors in the shallow conduit, as well as magma-specific rheology. Indeed, the more viscous melt of Yasur, compared to Stromboli, is associated with larger vents producing fewer pulses but larger pyroclasts.

  19. From blogs to bombs the future of digital technologies in education

    CERN Document Server

    Pegrum, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Does the internet enhance education or erode standards? Does it empower kids or endanger them? Does it mean more freedom or more surveillance? The short answer is: all of the above. Digital technologies - including computing and mobile technologies - are among the most widely discussed subjects of our time, yet the way they affect young people, education and society as a whole is poorly understood. Swamped by competing arguments, many of us have difficulty deciding which experts to listen to or which claims to believe. This book weaves together the many discussions now taking place. Burying so

  20. "Your Job Is to Take Care of Us": Teaching Our Way through the Boston Marathon Bombings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Dana Frantz

    2015-01-01

    The concept of social justice and critical thinking are prevalent topics in conversations about early childhood education. Usually, critical conversations around these practices tend to involve academics in discussion rather than include practitioners. In today's world, young children are frequently confronted with the realities of violence and…

  1. A Unit History of the 315th Bomb Wing: 1944-1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    tired, hungry, and grimy men reached the pitch black confines of the embryo airfield, loaded with one another’s gear and equipment." (38:Apr 45) Col...base at Agana and bought enough fresh lettuce, tomatoes , and cans of Navy ham to make sandwiches for awhile. They also bought a hot plate for only one...directive. Ground training included target study, air-sea rescue procedures, and tactical doctrine. The local orientation flights prepared crews for

  2. H-Bomb Development: Decision on the Merits or Political Necessity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-23

    interpretation of the facts, so he discussed appointing a panel of prominent scientists to evaluate the evidence with Carroll Wilson , the general manager of...State Bulletin XXI, no. 535 (October 3, 1949): 487. See also Harry S. Truman, Memoirs, Vol. II (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1956), 307-308. 59 Herbert...security.”96 Oppenheimer, in a lengthy 1954 letter published in the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, recalled that the AEC asked the GAC to provide advice

  3. The Third Nuclear Age: How I Learned to Start Worrying about the Clean Bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    23 Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation, The National Ignition Facility ( NIF ) and the Issue of Nonproliferation—Draft Study, Section E. 24...accessed 03 February 2013). 23 Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation. The National Ignition Facility ( NIF ) and the Issue of...Nonproliferation—Draft Study. Washington D.C.: Department of Energy, 1995. http://www.osti.gov/news/docs/ nif /front.htm (accessed 24 December 2012). Sagan, Scott D

  4. Lars Larsen - en bombe i underbevidstheden. Et halvt år med reklame i TV2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendt Nygaard

    1989-08-01

    Full Text Available Efter mange års diskussion for og imod fik vi endelig reklamer i dansk TV. Redaktionen har bedt Bendt Nygaard anmelde det første halve års reklamer. Det sker ved at inddele dem i typer, de såkaldte formater. Og ved at trække den vist nok mest atypiske frem. Nygaard begrunder selv hvorfor.

  5. Conflictual Media Events, Eyewitness Images, and the Boston Marathon Bombing (2013)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    in which the production and dissemination of eyewitness images convert mainstream media’s coverage of crisis. This article broadens the perspective by focusing on eyewitness images in relation to “conflictual media events.” The article contributes to discussions on the definition of conflictual media......The proliferation of camera phones over the past decade has created an unprecedented landslide of visual information in the online public sphere, transforming the form and amount of communication in relation to crisis events. International research on this subject has primarily centered on the way...... events in today’s mediatized and connective media environment, which has undergone radical changes from the era of mass media hegemony when Daniel Dayan and Elihu Katz first outlined media events. The article further examines the ways in which the circulation of eyewitness images erodes established...

  6. Improving Standoff Bombing Capacity in the Face of Anti-Access Area Denial Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Kennedy, Michael, Laura H. Baldwin , Michael Boito, Katherine M. Calef, James Chow, Joan Cornuet, Mel Eisman, Chris Fitzmartin, J. R. Gebman, Elham...the Pardee RAND Graduate School. The faculty committee that supervised and approved the dissertation consisted of James S. Chow (Chair), Fred Timson...Grand Strategy," Foreign Affairs, Vol. 94, no. 3, 2015. 15 James Dobbins et al., Conflict with China: Prospects, Consequences, and Strategies for

  7. Human genetics after the bomb: Archives, clinics, proving grounds and board rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindee, Susan

    2016-02-01

    In this paper I track the history of post-1945 human genetics and genomics emphasizing the importance of ideas about risk to the scientific study and medical management of human heredity. Drawing on my own scholarship as it is refracted through important new work by other scholars both junior and senior, I explore how radiation risk and then later disease risk mattered to the development of genetics and genomics, particularly in the United States. In this context I excavate one of the central ironies of post-war human genetics: while studies of DNA as the origin and cause of diseases have been lavishly supported by public institutions and private investment around the world, the day-to-day labor of intensive clinical innovation has played a far more important role in the actual human experience of genetic disease and genetic risk for affected families. This has implications for the archival record, where clinical interactions are less readily accessible to historians. This paper then suggests that modern genomics grew out of radiation risk; that it was and remains a risk assessment science; that it is temporally embedded as a form of both prediction and historical reconstruction; and that it has become a big business focused more on risk and prediction (which can be readily marketed) than on effective clinical intervention.

  8. Tweede Serie Ergonomietests Lichtgewicht Bommenpakken (Second Series of Ergonomic Tests on Lightweight Bomb Disposal Suits)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    I TNO-rapport I TNO-DV 2007 A521 5/25 1 Inleiding Het KPU-bedrijf heeft in 2004 lichtgewicht bornmenpakken (Med-Eng LDE) aangeschaft. De fichte ...wordt over het algerneen het lichte bommenpak gedragen. De ergonornie van fichte bonunenpakken is in de afgelopen jaren niet volgens een vast protocol...van ergonomic kunnen worden bepaald. Bij toekomstige aanschaf van nieuwe fichte bormecnpakken zijn dan eisen aan ergonomic en warmtebelasting te

  9. Relevance of Nuclear Weapons Clean-Up Experience to Dirty Bomb Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vantine, H C; Crites, T R

    2002-08-19

    During the past 50 years, the United States has experienced 32 major nuclear weapons accidents, nine of which released special nuclear material to the environment. Response to these accidents, coupled with recovery experience following the Russian satellite reentry and weapons test site cleanup, form the basis for determining actions that might be required following a nuclear terrorist event involving the release of radioactive material. Though valuable information has been gained following the recovery from various commercial accidents, most notably the Chernobyl nuclear power plant failure and the dismantled radiography source in the Brazilian city of Goi nia, this paper will focus on the lessons learned from the U.S. nuclear weapons program.

  10. Myth, Hiroshima and Fear: How we Overestimated the Usefulness of the Bomb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Wilson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence from World War II and the Cold War shows that nuclear weapons are far less useful as military and political tools than has been believed. Far from giving a madman the power to conquer the world, nuclear weapons are clumsy, dangerous technology with very few real uses — even if you have a monopoly.

  11. Case series: toxicity from 25B-NBOMe--a cluster of N-bomb cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Paul; Schep, Leo J; Jensen, Berit P; Moore, Grant; Barrington, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Background A new class of hallucinogens called NBOMes has emerged. This class includes analogues 25I-NBOMe, 25C-NBOMe and 25B-NBOMe. Case reports and judicial seizures indicate that 25I-NBOMe and 25C-NBOMe are more prevalently abused. There have been a few confirmed reports of 25B-NBOMe use or toxicity. Report Observational case series. This report describes a series of 10 patients who suffered adverse effects from 25B-NBOMe. Hallucinations and violent agitation predominate along with serotonergic/stimulant signs such as mydriasis, tachycardia, hypertension and hyperthermia. The majority (7/10) required sedation with benzodiazepines. Analytical method 25B-NBOMe concentrations in plasma and urine were quantified in all patients using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Peak plasma levels were measured between 0.7-10.1 ng/ml. Discussion The NBOMes are desired by users because of their hallucinogenic and stimulant effects. They are often sold as LSD or synthetic LSD. Reported cases of 25B- NBOMe toxicity are reviewed and compared to our series. Seizures and one pharmacological death have been described but neither were observed in our series. Based on our experience with cases of mild to moderate toxicity, we suggest that management should be supportive and focused on preventing further (self) harm. High doses of benzodiazepines may be required to control agitation. Patients who develop significant hyperthermia need to be actively managed. Conclusions Effects from 25B-NBOMe in our series were similar to previous individual case reports. The clinical features were also similar to effects from other analogues in the class (25I-NBOMe, 25C-NBOMe). Violent agitation frequently present along with signs of serotonergic stimulation. Hyperthermia, rhabdomyolysis and kidney injury were also observed.

  12. Assessment of artificial radionuclides issued from French nuclear bomb testing at Mururoa (French Polynesia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.-M.; Thomas, A.J. (Ecole Normale Superieure, Montrouge (France). Inst. de Biogeochimie Marine); Charrier, B.; Cousteau, J.-Y.; Sarano, F. (Fondation Cousteau, Paris (France))

    1990-03-01

    The Mururoa lagoon was sampled immediately after a nuclear test. {sup 131}I was found in sediments and plankton. Official French sources explain its occurrence by an accidental release during a control operation. Long-lived nuclides ({sup 137}Cs, Pu isotopes, etc) are ascribed to past local atmospheric tests. Their total flux to the Pacific Ocean is markedly low as compared to discharges by major reprocessing plants. Radionuclides short-term impact on Pacific ecosystems and man is insignificant. Long-term processes could not be assessed. (author).

  13. Disseny d'un test de severitat per a components de bombes d'injecció

    OpenAIRE

    Domeyó Fauró, Sergi

    2009-01-01

    Les noves lleis referents al respecte del medi ambient afecten plenament al món de l’automoció. En quan a emissions, lleis com la nova EURO 5 obliguen a que els futurs vehicles emetin la meitat d’emissions que els que circulen actualment. L’empresa Delphi Diesel Systems, productora d’equips d’injecció common rail, s’ha vist obligada a crear una bomba capaç d’assolir pressions d’injecció de mes de 1600 bar. La introducció d’un nou producte ha suposat tot un seguit de modificacio...

  14. Restrained Policy and Careless Execution: Allied Strategic Bombing on the Netherlands in the Second World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    Nederland 1919- 1945. (Series). Den Haag, The Netherlands: Instituut voor Nederlandse Geschiedenis, 2004. AAF Historical Division, United States Airforce...food and money to the crew of a downed British Wellington. Source: A. Korthals Altes, Luchtgevaar: Luchtaanvallen op Nederland , 1940- 1945...of the Liberation of Europe (New York: Free Press, 2008). 6Chris van der Heijden, Grijs Verleden: Nederland en de Tweede Wereldoorlog (Amsterdam

  15. Boosting belligerence: how the July 7, 2005, London bombings affected Liberals’ moral foundations and prejudice

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Vyver, Julie; Houston, Diane M.; Abrams, Dominic; Vasiljevic, Milica

    2016-01-01

    This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from SAGE via http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797615615584. Major terrorist events, such as the recent attacks in Ankara, Sinai, and Paris, can have profound effects on a nation’s values, attitudes, and prejudices. Yet psychological evidence testing the impact of such events via data collected immediately before and after an attack is understandably rare. In the present research, we tested the independent and joint effects of threat...

  16. Bombing the European Axis Powers. A Historical Digest of the Combined Bomber Offensive 1939-1945

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    warships Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, and Prinz Eugen leave Brest and pass through the Strait of Dover to Germany. Bomber Command’s first use of Boston...unrestricted strafing on French railroads begins (such missions soon dubbed “Chat- tanooga Choo Choos ,” after hit song of period). 27 May: Eighth Air Force—three...Cassino, 274, 277–78, 298, 311, 316, 457 chaff, 133, 156 Chamberlain, Neville, 4, 7, 9 Channel Islands, 81, 137, 448 “Chattanooga Choo Choos ,” 342

  17. How the world survived the population bomb: lessons from 50 years of extraordinary demographic history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, David

    2011-11-01

    The world population will reach 7 billion in late 2011, a demographic milestone that is causing renewed attention to the challenges caused by population growth. This article looks at the last 50 years of demographic change, one of the most extraordinary periods in demographic history. During this period, world population grew at rates that have never been seen before and will almost surely never be seen again. There were many concerns about the potential impact of rapid population growth in the 1960s, including mass starvation in countries such as India, depletion of nonrenewable resources, and increased poverty in low-income countries. The actual experience was very different. World food production increased faster than world population in every decade since the 1960s, resource prices fell during most of the period, and poverty declined significantly in much of the developing world. The article considers the economic and demographic explanations for the surprising successes of this important period in demographic history. It also looks at regions that have been less successful, especially Africa, and at the lessons for dealing with the important challenges that still remain.

  18. The biology of aging: looking to defuse the genetic time bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, S

    1993-09-01

    Each cell is functionally restricted by differentiation, which determines its complement of active and inactive genes. Various diseases then become manifest in each cell, depending on these specific gene combinations. Neoplasia, for example, is due to a multistep series of genetic mutations. It is common in continuous replicators such as bronchial epithelium, colon, and marrow but rare in intermittent replicators such as endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In contrast, these latter cell types are centrally involved in degenerative phenomena such as atherosclerosis. However, in both continuous and intermittent replicators, reduction of gratuitous cell turnover will be of great benefit. The nonreplicating adult neuron almost never undergoes tumorigenesis compared with glial cells but gives rise to a variety of age-related degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. In the nonreplicating neuron, therefore, it is imperative that we promote strategies to preserve cell viability by minimizing oxidative damage. Natural antioxidants such as vitamin C and E and beta carotene, as well as an optimal caloric and protein intake, should be cornerstones of treatment and prevention for the aging patient. A place for pharmacologic intervention is also likely soon. Current research should soon identify the precise mechanisms responsible for programmed cellular senescence and oxidative cellular damage so as to illuminate additional means of rational treatment, and perhaps more importantly, prevention.

  19. Reactive Transport at Aquifer - River Interfaces - Panacea for River Restoration or Ticking Time Bomb?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naden, E.; Angermann, L.; Cassidy, N. J.; Kaeser, D.; Binley, A. M.; Heathwaite, L.; Krause, S.

    2009-12-01

    The ‘hyporheic zone’ or ‘interstitial’ characterises an area of intensive groundwater and surface water mixing within streambed sediments. Its physical conditions, as for instance the hydraulic conductivity and residence time, control fluxes and exchange rates between groundwater and surface water. Because of its often steep and dynamic redox gradients, the hyporheic zone can represent an area of high chemical activity. Previous studies described how the transport and redox processes in the hyporheic zone can cause effective nutrient attenuation, e.g. by denitrification. Hence, regulatory bodies and catchment management plans hope for the hyporheic zone to delimit the negative impact, polluted groundwater can have for the stream ecological health. In this study we investigate spatial and temporal patterns of physical streambed characteristics and redox chemical conditions and its controls on the reactive transport and transformation of nitrogen in the streambeds of two UK upland and lowland rivers. For the streambed sediments of several stream reaches, pore water nitrate/nitrite and ammonia concentrations were monitored together with common anions, redox conditions, dissolved oxygen and organic carbon and rates of groundwater up-welling and surface water mixing in a dense system of nested piezometer over several baseflow periods. Spatial patterns of aquifer - river exchange were furthermore investigated by active and passive heat tracer experiments using fibre optic distributed temperature sensor networks at reach and heat pulse injection experiments at local scales. The results of this study indicate that hyporheic nutrient transformation can well exceed the usually assumed streambed depths of a few cm and may occur in depths of > 1m. Our investigations furthermore detected, that within the research area the hyporheic passage has a spatially very variable impact on the exchange fluxes and nitrogen concentrations and transformation rates in the streambed. Nitrate attenuation due to denitrification was found in some areas as well as nitrification in others. The spatial patterns of nitrate attenuation or release areas were controlled by the hyporheic connectivity, described by the spatial and temporal coincidence of flow pattern and residence times within areas of variable redox conditions. The hyporheic nitrate contributions furthermore showed to have a seasonally variable impact on in stream concentrations. At the investigated lowland sites mosaics of confining peat layers within the streambed sediments have been found to function as hyporheic super-reactors, resulting in a complete uptake of nitrate in the up-welling groundwater which is important and needs to be considered for the planning of river regulation and conservation measures.

  20. Beyond Bombs, Bullets and Planes: Developing Airmen-Statements for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-11

    Development System JCS Joint Chiefs of Staff JFC Joint Forces Command JP Joint Publication MOUT Military Operations in Urban Terrain NCOA...Kaplan. Kaplan believes that “scarcity, crime, overpopulation , tribalism, and disease are rapidly destroying the social fabric of our planet.” Kaplan...little analysis. Quite simply, there are only two types of facilities that could be used to support the development of 3C Airmen, schools and urban

  1. Field Prototype of the ENEA Neutron Active Interrogation Device for the Detection of Dirty Bombs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Cherubini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy, and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA Neutron Active Interrogation (NAI device is a tool designed to improve CBRNE defense. It is designed to uncover radioactive and nuclear threats including those in the form of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs, the so-called “dirty bombs”. The NAI device, at its current development stage, allows to detect 6 g of 235U hidden in a package. It is easily transportable, light in weight, and with a real-time response. Its working principle is based on two stages: (1 an “active” stage in which neutrons are emitted by a neutron generator to interact with the item under inspection, and (2 a “passive” stage in which secondary neutrons are detected originating a signal that, once processed, allows recognition of the offence. In particular, a clear indication of the potential threat is obtained by a dedicated software based on the Differential Die-Away Time Analysis method.

  2. Upgrades to the Closed Bomb Facility and Measurement of Propellant Burning Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    attenuation ratio myScope.WriteString (":CHAN1:RANGe " + CStr (Me.tbVRange.value)) ‘Sets the vertical voltage range myScope.WriteString (":CHAN1...OFFSet " + CStr (Me.tboffset.value)) ‘Sets the voltage offset myScope.WriteString ":CHAN1:PROB:STYP SING" ‘Sets the signal type...myScope.WriteString (":TRIG:EDGE:SOURce CHAN" + CStr (Int(val(GetRegistry(CollType, cCHANNEL))))) ‘Sets the source channel myScope.WriteString

  3. We Bomb, Therefore We Are: The Evolution of Terrorist Group Life Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-24

    of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS IN NATIONAL SECURITY AFFAIRS from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL March 1994 Author...Revolutionary Cell and Palestinian PFLP operation that was led by the international terrorist "Carlos." Urbano . 26 terrorist network. but does imply some...violence. In order to retain the media’s and the public’s attention, a terrorist group continually must raise "Interview with Urbano ," in Urban

  4. Simulator Design Features for Air-to-Ground Bombing. I. Performance Experiment I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    NAVTRAEQUIPCEN 81-C-0105-4 degrees to the left (to allow visual contact with the tarjet during the initial part of the task) was compared to use of tle...divided left and right of tarjet center so there was no difference in absolute error. There were also considerable bias differences in the horizontal

  5. Science and Security before the Atomic Bomb: The Loyalty Case of Harald U. Sverdrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreskes, Naomi; Rainger, Ronald

    In the summer of 1941, Harald Sverdrup, the Norwegian-born Director of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) in La Jolla, California, was denied security clearance to work on Navy-sponsored research in underwater acoustics applied to anti-submarine warfare. The clearance denial embarrassed the world renown oceanographer and Arctic explorer, who repeatedly offered his services to the U.S. government only to see scientists of far lesser reputation called upon to aid the war effort. The official story of Sverdrup's denial was the risk of blackmail over relatives in occupied Norway. Declassified documents tell a different story. Although Sverdrup's integrity was defended on the highest levels of U.S. science, doubt was cast upon him by members of his own institution, who accused him of being a Nazi sympathiser. Personal distrust, rooted in scientific and intellectual disagreement, spilled over into questions about Sverdrup's loyalty and judgement. These doubts were considered sufficient grounds for withholding clearance, until Roger Revelle, a former student of Sverdrup now working within the Navy, was able to obtain a limited clearance for Sverdrup to develop techniques to forecast surf conditions during amphibious assaults. After the war, this work was credited with saving many lives, but at the time it placed Sverdrup out of the mainstream of Navy-sponsored oceanographic research. In being denied access to major areas of scientific work, Sverdrup's position as a leader of American oceanography was undermined. The loyalty case of Harald Sverdrup illustrates the emergence of an institutional apparatus through which the U.S. military began to control and shape the organisation of American science in the twentieth century. Military sponsorship of scientific research, begun during the open conflicts of World War II and continuing into the simmering tensions of the Cold War, involved explicit control by the U.S. military of who had access to critical information. This in turn meant who could do science in conjunction with the military. As the U.S. Navy became the principal sponsor of oceanography in the post-war years, clearance to do military work became to a great extent clearance to do oceanography. Choices about who could be trusted were also choices about who would do science, and what kind of science they would do.

  6. Current and Emerging Threats of Homegrown Terrorism: The Case of the Boston Bombings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Gunaratna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available On April 15, 2013, two coordinated Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs exploded near the finish line of the famous Boston Marathon. The fatalities were low but the symbolism was high: more than a decade after 9/11, the United States is still not safe from militant jihadist terrorist attacks. The bombers, Tamerlan and Dzhokhar Tsarnaev had planned on killing and dying in the name of the global jihad after their second set of attacks on New York’s Time Square. They were stopped before getting to New York where the fatalities could have been much greater. The two brothers were self-radicalised homegrown terrorists. At this moment of writing, existing evidence points to the fact that, while inspired by militant jihadism and in loose contact with terrorists in Dagestan, they operated alone. This is an analysis of the radicalisation process that led those two young men to adopt violent jihad, and the failures of U.S. counterterrorism efforts that enabled them to kill three people and injuring some 250 others. This analysis shows that much still needs to be done in international inter-agency collaboration and in community engagement to prevent further attacks of this sort from happening on U.S. soil.

  7. Extracting growth rates from the non-laminated coralline sponge Astrosclera willeyana using "bomb" radiocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallon, S; Guilderson, T

    2004-06-30

    Coralline sponges have the potential to fill in gaps in our understanding of subsurface oceanographic variability. However, one disadvantage they have compared to hermatypic reef building coral proxies is that they do not have annual density bands and need to be radiometrically dated for an age determination. To elucidate growth rate variability we have measured radiocarbon in 1 mm increments from Astrosclera willeyana sponges collected off the Central and Northern Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and from Truk in the Caroline Islands and compared these radiocarbon profiles to independently dated coral radiocarbon records. Growth rates of the GBR sponges average 1.2 {+-} 0.3 and 1.0 {+-} 0.3 mm yr{sup -1}, north and central respectively but can vary by a factor of two. The growth rate of the Truk sponge averages 1.2 {+-} 0.1 mm yr{sup -1}. These growth rates are significantly faster to those measured for other GBR Astrosclera willeyana sponges (0.2 mm yr{sup -1}) by Calcein staining (Woerheide 1988).

  8. Day we bombed Utah: America's most lethal secret

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    Using a narrative approach and the 1953 death of over 4000 sheep from radiation exposure, the author chronicles weapons testing at the Nevada test site and its effects on the surrounding area. He follows the stories of sheep ranchers and residents in Utah and Nevada communities as they are exposed to repeated fallout from both above and underground testing. The efforts of AEC public relations and technical personnel to avoid the mounting eidence of radiological damage and the eventual disclosure of this evidence following passage of the Freedom of Information Act determined the course of lawsuits that began in the early 1950s. Pressure to maintain nuclear superiority and the patriotism of the largely conservative population of the area contributed to the lengthy coverup of a statistical increase in various forms of cancer. The author stresses the moral implications of government actions.

  9. JPRS Report, Arms Control. Reference Aid: Glossary of Arms Control Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-20

    BOMBA , ATOMHAfl ATOMIC BOMB [see BOMBA , HJEPHAfl] BOMBA , BOJOPOJHAH HYDROGEN BOMB BOMBA , HEHTPOHHAH NEUTRON BOMB BOMBA , HJEPHAfl NUCLEAR BOMB... BOMBA , HjJEPHAfl, «HMCTAfl» CLEAN NUCLEAR BOMB BOMBA , HJEPHAfl, ABMAlJMOHHAfl AIRCRAFT-DELIVERED NUCLEAR BOMB BOMBAP4MPOBKA, ATOMHAH ATOMIC BOMBING

  10. Medical Effects of Atomic Bombs. The Report of the Joint Commission for the Investigation of the Effects of the Atomic Bomb in Japan. Volume 3. Section 6. Hematology. Section 7. Studies on Bone Marrow Obtained by Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1951-04-19

    shom i n Tables 6 and 7. hy-perchromic, macrocytic anemia i n subjects poisoned by radium, t h i s condi- Because of reports i n tho medical l i...obvious factors of loss of blood due t o wounds and t o the hemorrhagic tendency tha t developed, as w e l l as the farailiary anemia associated...27 survived. The degree of anemia i e quite s imilar i n the two groups and there is no clear evidence tha t t h i s fac tor can be useful in

  11. The bomb as option. Motivation for the development of a nuclear infrastructure in the Federal Republic of Germany until 1963; Die Bombe als Option. Motive fuer den Aufbau einer atomtechnischen Infrastruktur in der Bundesrepublik bis 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanel, Tilmann

    2015-07-01

    The book on the motivation for the development of a nuclear infrastructure in the Federal Republic of Germany until 1963 discusses the following issues: History of the German reactor development during the time of the National Socialism and World War II, reactor research abroad (examples Sweden and Switzerland), protagonists and motivation (politics, science, economy, army), the development of a nuclear infrastructure, results and consequences of the German nuclear policy until 1963.

  12. ANALYSIS OF SOLID CANCER INCIDENCE AMONG ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS USING A TWO-STAGE MODEL OF CARCINOGENESIS. (R824762)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  13. MX Siting Investigation. Geotechnical Evaluation of Luke Bombing and Gunnery Range. Geotechnical Report, Lechuguilla Desert, Arizona. Volume II. Appendix A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-20

    on the depth scale. 6000 22000 24000 26000 1000 eoo K L LOCATION MAP 36 ______ 10 380 0 36:500,36 30 10 20 0 1002 NAUTICAL, 00E 0 10 20 NI LOll E AS...gi 4900 144 ?.;Co 701 7 tAT4 400 - iSO I17 -17 Qo C 2A 1 7 lp s 17 1AQ4 TT Wi *1* * a. * * hI *t **,#l A eli *1* it~ a.** * hl il h,),i * * ii i ii, a...sp 96 ss320 - -- -- - -- - ISO A -- ~ 7Z~ ~ - - A- S. c-f .- - * .~---- -~ -- I - i WAS- -2 UPS COLLE 24 W4ELL PROJEI 38 BORI~d ELEVAI STATE COUNTI

  14. Smart bomb AS1411 aptamer-functionalized/PAMAM dendrimer nanocarriers for targeted drug delivery in the treatment of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegar Behrooz, Amir; Nabavizadeh, Fatemeh; Adiban, Jamal; Shafiee Ardestani, Mehdi; Vahabpour, Rouhollah; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Sohanaki, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapy, a conventional method assessed in recent oncology studies, poses numerous problems in the clinical environment. To overcome the problems inherent in chemotherapy, an intelligent drug delivery system has come to the forefront of cancer therapeutics. In this study, we designed a dendrimer-based pharmaceutical system together with a single-stranded AS1411 aptamer (APT(AS)(1411) ) as a therapeutic strategy. The polyamidoamine (PAMAM)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) complex was then conjugated with the AS1411 aptamer and confirmed by atomic-force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) .In this study, we show that the conjugated PAMAM-PEG-APT(AS)(1411) complex dramatically increased PAMAM-PEG-5-FU uptake by MKN45 gastric cancer cells. We also demonstrated both the stability of the nanoparticle-5-FU-APT(AS)(1411) complex, by thin layer chromatography (TLC), and an increase in 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) accumulation in the vicinity of cancerous tumors. This smart drug delivery system is capable of effectively transferring 5-FU to MKN45 gastric cancer cells in consistent and without toxic effects.

  15. The spinning Kerr-black-hole-mirror bomb: A lower bound on the radius of the reflecting mirror

    OpenAIRE

    Shahar Hod

    2016-01-01

    The intriguing superradiant amplification phenomenon allows an orbiting scalar field to extract rotational energy from a spinning Kerr black hole. Interestingly, the energy extraction rate can grow exponentially in time if the black-hole-field system is placed inside a reflecting mirror which prevents the field from radiating its energy to infinity. This composed Kerr-black-hole-scalar-field-mirror system, first designed by Press and Teukolsky, has attracted the attention of physicists over t...

  16. Intercomparison of radiocarbon bomb pulse and 210Pb age models. A study in a peat bog core from North Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Natalia; De Vleeschouwer, François; Sikorski, Jarosław; Pawlyta, Jacek; Fagel, Nathalie; Le Roux, Gaël; Pazdur, Anna

    2010-04-01

    Radiocarbon and 210Pb were measured on the uppermost 40 cm of a Wardenaar peat core retrieved from a Baltic raised bog at Słowińskie Błota (Pomerania, North Poland). This site is the subject of ongoing multiproxy studies covering the last 1300 years. Radiocarbon age model was constructed on the basis of 14 AMS dates obtained on selected Sphagnum spp. fragments, with use of P_Sequence tool. We present here a comparison of this model with the age model obtained using CRS model classically applied to 210Pb measurements.

  17. Plate Penetration Tests of the 2000 lb Bomb G. P. (Low Drag) Type EX-11, Mod 0

    Science.gov (United States)

    1952-04-07

    ly. lÄmt%,sfi?r’ noch in« t .-J prcviflti» impact*. ’ --r^^*g^<----y • - ^’ jfe*V_. T>c •’•I .1 Bi^.-„ Ijtitttli ’bnUusr.-Otirjr- V -fe...plate • fe~ Thickness at impact __ . # OBLIQUITY ~’£0*~ MIL UL1M: U0/h, Impact-dimensions [9"_X £ɛ - TENETKÄT1ÖN ~ * flaking

  18. Bombensicher ohne Bombe? Die nukleare Abrüstung der Ukraine aus Sich des Waltzâ schen Neorealismus

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Für die Theorieentwicklung in den Internationalen Beziehungen (IB) war und ist Kenneth N. Waltz eine Schlüsselfigur. Sein Werk â Theory of International Politicsâ begründete den Neorealismus, der die Systemdynamiken zwischenstaatlicher Beziehungen fokussiert. Auch mit Fragen nuklearer Aufrüstung setzte Waltz sich eingehend auseinander. Doch wie steht es um nukleare Abrüstung? Ein Blick auf den akademischen Diskurs zeigt, dass Waltzâ Theorie der internationalen Politik für diesen Bereich keine...

  19. The flipped classroom, disruptive pedagogies, enabling technologies and wicked problems: responding to 'the bomb in the basement'

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchings, Maggie; Quinney, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of enabling technologies by universities provides unprecedented opportunities for flipping the classroom to achieve student-centred learning. While higher education policies focus on placing students at the heart of the education process, the propensity for student identities to shift from partners in learning to consumers of education provides challenges for negotiating the learning experience. Higher education institutions (HEIs) are grappling with the disruptive potential of t...

  20. The Flipped Classroom, Disruptive Pedagogies, Enabling Technologies and Wicked Problems: Responding to "The Bomb in the Basement"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Maggie; Quinney, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of enabling technologies by universities provides unprecedented opportunities for flipping the classroom to achieve student-centred learning. While higher education policies focus on placing students at the heart of the education process, the propensity for student identities to shift from partners in learning to consumers of…

  1. Nuclear proliferation and Latin American Security: Is the bomb' program dead in Brazil. Master's thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jesus, E.

    1994-03-24

    This thesis addresses the possibility of a Brazilian hidden agenda in order to support one of the most advanced nuclear research and nuclear power programs in Latin America. From the early 1970s to the late 1980s Brazilian military leaders pursued the development of nuclear weapons. With the emergence of democratic regimes during the 1980s, these covert projects were halted or terminated. The civilian administration in Brazil is now supporting an ambiguous and uncompromising position by not ratifying significant agreements renouncing nuclear weapons programs. With Brazil still rejecting the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), not formally embracing the Tlatelolco Treaty (which prohibits nuclear weapons in Latin America), and not allowing full implementation of inspections and International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) Safeguards on its nuclear facilities, the future of the Brazilian nuclear program appears to be a dormant but potential political factor in Brazilian foreign policy.

  2. No Quarter Given: The Change in Strategic Bombing Application in the Pacific Theater During World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    On War (Baltimore, MD: Penguin, 1968), 119, 121, 123. 32LTC S. D. Serafini , Officer Basic Course memorandum, Clausewitz Condensed, CRS-3, US Army...Office, December 1945. Serafini , S. D. “Clausewitz Condensed.” Paper presented to Officer’s Basic Course 15 February 1985, United States Army Training

  3. Pre-bomb marine reservoir ages in the western north Pacific : Preliminary result on Kyoto University collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoneda, M; Kitagawa, H; van der Plicht, J; Uchida, M; Tanaka, A; Uehiro, T; Shibata, Y; Morita, M; Ohno, T

    2000-01-01

    The calibration of radiocarbon dates on marine materials involves a global marine calibration with regional corrections. The marine reservoir ages in the Western North Pacific have not been discussed, while it is quite important to determine the timing of palaeo-environmental changes as well as arch

  4. MX Siting Investigation. Volume IIB. Geotechnical Report, Yuma Proving Grounds/Luke-Williams Bombing and Gunnery Range (YPG/LWBGR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-30

    LWBGR generally exceeds 100 degrees Farenheit ( F), with nighttime temperatures usually in the sixties, but often remaining above 90°F during June...H., 1911, Reconnaissance of the ore deposits in north Yuma County, Arizona: U.S. Geol. Survey Bull. 451 , 130 p. * Barnett, H. F., (in press

  5. They cast down China'S first atomic bomb%他们投下了我国首颗原子弹

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶介甫

    2009-01-01

    1965年5月14日10时整,我国首次原子弹空爆试验成功了。执行这次空投任务的是航空兵独立某团副团长、第一飞行员李源一,第一领航员于福海,第二飞行员刘景新,第二领航员张公祥,通信员孙兴富,射击员韩惠安。

  6. Report on the results of the seventh medical examination of atomic bomb survivors in the South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishioka, Shinichi [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Ohta, Nobuhiro; Taguchi, Atsushi; Okada, Fumio; Hara, Tokihiro; Ueno, Kouki

    1997-06-01

    The medical examination was carried out in Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia, Argentina and Peru on 80, 4, 7, 11 and 3 survivors, respectively, from Oct. 30 to Nov. 15, 1996. They (43 males and 62 females) were 66.5 years old in average. The examination involved physical measurements, blood and urine analyses, electrocardiography, health questionnaire and consultation with blood pressure measurement. Results were as follows: Anamnesis; hypertension (51.4%), heart diseases (23.8%), cancer (21.0%), diabetes (19.0%), hemorrhoids (19.0%), stroke (18.1%), stomach ulcer (12.4%) and others: Present major disease; hypertension (23.8%), diabetes (6.7%), heart diseases (6.7%), cancer (6.7%) and others. Loss of vigor (63.8%), complete exhaustion or fatigue (63.8%), heat intolerance (60.0%), numbness or tingling (43.8%), failure of memory (42.9%) and many others were recognized as subjective symptoms. Blood pressure measurement gave hypertensive findings in 31.4%. Normal ECG was found in 67.7%. Cases judged to be necessary for further examinations or for treatment were in 46.7%. This examination was concluded to be continued. (K.H.)

  7. Vers l'infini... et au-delà! Le CERN, jackpot économique, ou bombe à retardement?

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    To go back to the origins of the planet by recreating the conditions of the Big Bang, to understand the past, and about all to explain the future: Such are the stakes of the LHC experiment that starts on 10th September. (2 pages)

  8. Demonstration of Airborne Wide Area Assessment Technologies at Pueblo Precision Bombing Ranges, Colorado. Hyperspectral Imaging, Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-27

    Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) sensors for measuring variation in surface elevation, large-scale orthorectified photography for visual identification of...flown, herbaceous vegetation was dry / senescent due to the late season, and optimal conditions probably existed for discriminating various vegetation...This mapping strategy uses a broader spectrum rather than the VIS/NIR spectrum used in many satellite and photography studies. The SWIR is a key

  9. A smart hydrogel-based time bomb triggers drug release mediated by pH-jump reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prapatsorn Techawanitchai, Naokazu Idota, Koichiro Uto, Mitsuhiro Ebara and Takao Aoyagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a timed explosive drug release from smart pH-responsive hydrogels by utilizing a phototriggered spatial pH-jump reaction. A photoinitiated proton-releasing reaction of o-nitrobenzaldehyde (o-NBA was integrated into poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-2-carboxyisopropylacrylamide (P(NIPAAm-co-CIPAAm hydrogels. o-NBA-hydrogels demonstrated the rapid release of protons upon UV irradiation, allowing the pH inside the gel to decrease to below the pKa value of P(NIPAAm-co-CIPAAm. The generated protons diffused gradually toward the non-illuminated area, and the diffusion kinetics could be controlled by adjusting the UV irradiation time and intensity. After irradiation, we observed the enhanced release of entrapped L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA from the gels, which was driven by the dissociation of DOPA from CIPAAm. Local UV irradiation also triggered the release of DOPA from the non-illuminated area in the gel via the diffusion of protons. Conventional systems can activate only the illuminated region, and their response is discontinuous when the light is turned off. The ability of the proposed pH-jump system to permit gradual activation via proton diffusion may be beneficial for the design of predictive and programmable devices for drug delivery.

  10. Secret Background behind the Nuclear Bombing of Japan%原子弹轰炸日本秘闻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王作化

    2005-01-01

    众所周知,人类历史上真正将核武器用于战争只有一次,那就是二战末期美国对日本进行的原子弹轰炸。1945年8月6日和9日,随着两朵蘑菇云在日本广岛、长崎腾起,威力巨大的原子弹加速了日本法西斯的最后灭亡,同时也宣告了人类核时代的到来。然而在原子弹投掷前后,却有许多鲜为人知的逸事秘闻。

  11. 弓箭、核弹与《枪火》%Bow and Arrow,Nuclear Bomb and GUN FIRE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宇

    2003-01-01

    @@ 剧情简介:黑社会老大文哥(高雄)为不明仇家刺杀,脱险后,为自身安全,召集五个一流杀手--阿鬼(黄秋生)、阿Mike(张耀扬)、阿肥(林雪)、阿来(吴镇宇)、阿信(吕颂贤)--组成临时团队,作为自己的保镖.阿来和阿信是活跃在江湖上的高手,阿鬼、阿Mike、阿肥则是金盆洗手,游离于江湖边缘的昔日英雄.经过与不明仇家的一番较量,五人最终发现了刺杀者及背后主谋,并杀死了文哥的仇家.在这过程中五人成为兄弟.

  12. Requirements for estimation of doses from contaminants dispersed by a 'dirty bomb' explosion in an urban area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Mikkelsen, Torben; Astrup, Poul

    2009-01-01

    contributions from contaminants dispersed in the atmosphere after a ‘dirty bomb’ explosion. Conceptual methodologies are presented which describe the various dose components on the basis of knowledge of time-integrated contaminant air concentrations. Also the aerosolisation and atmospheric dispersion in a city...

  13. Out of a clear blue sky? FOM, the bomb and the boost in Dutch physics funding after World War II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeneveld, F.; van Dongen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Soon after the end of World War II, Dutch science was reconstituted by novel funding agencies with well-filled coffers. The currently received view is that in a vulnerable and war-torn society the new institutions were created on the basis of technocratic ideals that date back to pre-war years. One

  14. Out of a Clear Blue Sky? FOM, The Bomb, and The Boost in Dutch Physics Funding after World War II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeneveld, F; van Dongen, J.A.E.F.

    2013-01-01

    Soon after the end of World War II, Dutch science was reconstituted by novel funding agencies with well-filled coffers. The currently received view is that in a vulnerable and war-torn society the new institutions were created on the basis of technocratic ideals that date back to pre-war years. One

  15. Improving Nonlethal Targeting: A Social Network Analysis Method for Military Planners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    domain. FM 3.0: Operations, 6–16. 4 Jemaah Islamiyah. These terrorists were directly involved with the 2003 Marriott Hotel bombing and the 2004...terrorists who were directly involved with the Australian Embassy bombing, the Bali I Bombing, the Bali II bombing and/or the Marriott Hotel bombing

  16. The Anatomy of Terrorism and Political Violence in South Asia Proceedings of the First Bi-Annual International Symposium of the Center for Asian Terrorism Research (CATR) October 19-21, 2005, Denpensar, Bali, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Jakarta April, 2003 Jakarta Airport Timed Bomb Jakarta August, 2003 JW Marriot Hotel Suicide Bomb Jakarta September, 2004 Australian Suicide Bomb Jakarta...Bali bombings and the J. W Marriot bomb, the spokesman of Al-Qaeda praised the bravery of those who carried out these attacks, labeling their...cases of terrorism in Indonesia such as Bali (2002), Jakarta Marriot (2003), Kuningan Jakarta (2004), Bali II (2005) bombings, it is apparent that

  17. A Ticking Time Bomb: Counterterrorism Lessons From the U.S. Government’s Failure to Prevent the Fort Hood Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ion. They perfonn critica ll y important homeland security funct ions and have produced numerous successes in disrupting and apprehending potential...Radicalizafion in the Wesl: The Homegrown Threat (2007). 17 experience a crisis or have a gri evance - whether social, economic, political, or...he was engaged in overt terrorist activity, (3) analyze Hasan’s communications more critica ll y as to whether they were truly research , and (4

  18. Intercomparison of radiocarbon bomb pulse and {sup 210}Pb age models. A study in a peat bog core from North Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotrowska, Natalia, E-mail: natalia.piotrowska@polsl.p [Department of Radioisotopes, Institute of Physics, Silesian University of Technology, Krzywoustego, 2, Gliwice 44100 (Poland); Vleeschouwer, Francois De; Sikorski, Jaroslaw; Pawlyta, Jacek [Department of Radioisotopes, Institute of Physics, Silesian University of Technology, Krzywoustego, 2, Gliwice 44100 (Poland); Fagel, Nathalie; Roux, Gael Le [Clays and Palaeoclimate Unit, Department of Geology, University of Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, B18, Sart Tilman, Liege 4000 (Belgium); Pazdur, Anna [Department of Radioisotopes, Institute of Physics, Silesian University of Technology, Krzywoustego, 2, Gliwice 44100 (Poland)

    2010-04-15

    Radiocarbon and {sup 210}Pb were measured on the uppermost 40 cm of a Wardenaar peat core retrieved from a Baltic raised bog at Slowinskie Blota (Pomerania, North Poland). This site is the subject of ongoing multiproxy studies covering the last 1300 years. Radiocarbon age model was constructed on the basis of 14 AMS dates obtained on selected Sphagnum spp. fragments, with use of P{sub S}equence tool. We present here a comparison of this model with the age model obtained using CRS model classically applied to {sup 210}Pb measurements.

  19. Bomb or Boon: Linking Population, People and Power in Fragile Regions; Comment on “The Pill Is Mightier Than the Sword”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Gilpin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between population structure and violent conflict is complex and heavily dependent on the behavior of other variables like governance, economic prospects, and urbanization. While addressing rapid population growth might be a necessary condition for peace, it is by no means sufficient. Concomitant steps must also be taken to foster inclusivity, guarantee broader rights for all, particularly women, rebuild social contracts and ensure that all citizens have equal access to economic opportunity. Measures to control family size could reduce dependency and create greater socio-economic opportunities for women and youth, By so doing, the “youth bulge” phenomenon could be a boon for rapidly growing developing countries.

  20. An Approach to Solve Accessible Region and Release Region of Guided Bomb%无推力可控弹可达域和投放域计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈绍炜; 龚诚; 李平安

    2001-01-01

    传统炸弹的火控系统中主要采用连续计算命中点CCIP和连续计算投放点CCRP攻击方式。对无推力可控弹在一定投放条件下构成的弹着点区域进行了计算分析,采用对角度积分的快速积分算法,快速确定区域边界。根据无推力可控弹所具有的可达域的概念,提出了连续计算可达域CCAR和连续计算投放域CCRR攻击方式。充分利用了可控弹的可操纵性,降低了瞄准误差要求。%CCIP (Continuously Computed Impact Point) and CCRP (ContinuouslyComputed Release Point) are two main attack modes for delivering unguided weapons in traditional avionics systems. In this paper, we propose two new attack modes for delivering precision guided weapons, namely, continuously computed accessible region (CCAR) and continuously computed release region (CCRR). To provide the boundary of the accessible region, a non-iterative integration approach for calculating 3D trajectories is presented. A relation between the two modes is investigated, and it shows that two regions will coincides with each other if the weapon is to be released at horizontal level.