WorldWideScience

Sample records for bombs

  1. Bomb parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, George D.; Young, Rebert W.; Cullings, Harry M.; Christry, Robert F.

    2005-01-01

    The reconstruction of neutron and gamma-ray doses at Hiroshima and Nagasaki begins with a determination of the parameters describing the explosion. The calculations of the air transported radiation fields and survivor doses from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs require knowledge of a variety of parameters related to the explosions. These various parameters include the heading of the bomber when the bomb was released, the epicenters of the explosions, the bomb yields, and the tilt of the bombs at time of explosion. The epicenter of a bomb is the explosion point in air that is specified in terms of a burst height and a hypocenter (or the point on the ground directly below the epicenter of the explosion). The current reassessment refines the energy yield and burst height for the Hiroshima bomb, as well as the locations of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki hypocenters on the modern city maps used in the analysis of the activation data for neutrons and TLD data for gamma rays. (J.P.N.)

  2. Korean atomic bomb victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasamoto, Yukuo

    2009-01-01

    After colonizing Korea, Japan invaded China, and subsequently initiated the Pacific War against the United States, Britain, and their allies. Towards the end of the war, U.S. warplanes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in a large number of Koreans who lived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering from the effects of the bombs. The objective of this paper is to examine the history of Korea atomic bomb victims who were caught in between the U.S., Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea).

  3. Atomic bomb cataracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraeda, Kanji

    1992-01-01

    Eye disturbance caused by atomic bomb radiation can be divided into three groups: direct injury immediately after exposure, eye lesions associated with radiation syndrome, and delayed disturbance. The crystalline lens of the eye is the most radiosensitive. Atomic bomb cataract has been investigated in a number of studies. The first section of this chapter discusses radiation cataract in terms of the incidence and characteristics. The second section deals with atomic bomb cataract, which can be diagnosed based on the four criteria: (1) opacity of the crystalline lens, (2) a history of proximal exposure, (3) lack of eye disease complicating cataract, and (4) non-exposure to radiation other than atomic bombing. The prevalence of cataract and severity of opacity are found to correlate with exposure doses and age at the time of exposure. Furthermore, it is found to correlate with distance from the hypocenter, the condition of shielding, epilation, and the presence or absence or degree of radiation syndrome. (N.K.)

  4. Atomic bomb and leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, M.; Tomonaga, M.; Amenomori, T.; Matsuo, T.

    1991-01-01

    Characteristic features of the leukemia among atomic bomb survivors were studied. Dose estimates of atomic bomb radiation were based on T65D, but the new dosimetry system DS86 was used for some analyses. The ratio of a single leukemia type to all leukemias was highest for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in Hiroshima, and the occurrence of CML was thought to be most characteristic to atomic bomb radiation induced leukemia. The threshold of CML occurrence in Hiroshima is likely to be between 0.5∼0.09 Gy. However, the threshold of acute leukemia appears to be nearly 1 Gy. In the distribution of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) subtypes by French-American-British classification, there was no M3 case in 1 Gy or more group, although several atypical AML cases of survivors were observed. Although aplastic anemia has not increased as a late effect of the atomic bomb radiation exposure, many atypical leukemia or other myeloproliferative diseases who had been diagnosed as aplastic anemia or its related diseases have been experienced among atomic bomb survivors. Chromosome study was conducted using colony forming cells induced by hemopoietic stem cells of peripheral blood of proximal survivors. Same chromosome aberrations were observed in colony forming cells and peripheral T-cells in several atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  5. Atomic bomb and leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimaru, M.; Tomonaga, M.; Amenomori, T.; Matsuo, T. (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-12-01

    Characteristic features of the leukemia among atomic bomb survivors were studied. Dose estimates of atomic bomb radiation were based on T65D, but the new dosimetry system DS86 was used for some analyses. The ratio of a single leukemia type to all leukemias was highest for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in Hiroshima, and the occurrence of CML was thought to be most characteristic to atomic bomb radiation induced leukemia. The threshold of CML occurrence in Hiroshima is likely to be between 0.5{approx}0.09 Gy. However, the threshold of acute leukemia appears to be nearly 1 Gy. In the distribution of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) subtypes by French-American-British classification, there was no M3 case in 1 Gy or more group, although several atypical AML cases of survivors were observed. Although aplastic anemia has not increased as a late effect of the atomic bomb radiation exposure, many atypical leukemia or other myeloproliferative diseases who had been diagnosed as aplastic anemia or its related diseases have been experienced among atomic bomb survivors. Chromosome study was conducted using colony forming cells induced by hemopoietic stem cells of peripheral blood of proximal survivors. Same chromosome aberrations were observed in colony forming cells and peripheral T-cells in several atomic bomb survivors. (author).

  6. Atomic bomb and leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimaru, Michito; Tomonaga, Masao; Amenomori, Tatsuhiko; Matsuo, Tatsuki (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-03-01

    Characteristic features of leukemia among atomic bomb survivors were studied. The ratio of a single leukemia type to all leukemias was highest for CML in Hiroshima, and the occurrence of CML was thought to be most characteristic for atomic bomb radiation induced leukemia. In the distribution of AML subtypes of FAB classification, there was no M3 cases in 1 Gy or more group, although several atypical AML cases of survivors were observed. Chromosome study was conducted using colony forming cells induced by hemopoietic stem cells of peripheral blood of proximal survivors. Same chromosome aberrations were observed in colony forming cells and peripheral blood of proximal survivors. (author).

  7. Pathology of atomic bomb casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, S

    1982-01-01

    Thirty seven years ago, 6 August 1945 marks the date of the first atomic bombing never experienced in human history. It was dropped on Hiroshima and this was followed by a second bombing three days later on Nagasaki. The total deaths following exposure to the bomb by the end of 1945 totalled 140,000 (+/- 10,000) in Hiroshima and 70,000 (+/- 10,000) in Nagasaki. The present article described and outline of the physical effects of the atomic bomb and injury to the human body by exposure to the bomb.

  8. Dirty Bomb Risk and Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, Leonard W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    We examined the relative risk and impact of a dirty bomb employing Co-60 and Cs-137, the two most common high activity source materials. We found that the risk of an area denial dirty bomb attack is greater for Cs-137 due to the form and chemistry of CsCl, the soft, powdery salt form currently in use for high activity Cs-137 sources, found in blood and research irradiators.

  9. Bomb pulse biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falso, Miranda J. Sarachine [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Mail Stop L-397, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Buchholz, Bruce A., E-mail: buchholz2@llnl.gov [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Mail Stop L-397, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The past decade has seen an explosion in use of the {sup 14}C bomb pulse to do fundamental cell biology. Studies in the 1960s used decay counting to measure tissue turnover when the atmospheric {sup 14}C/C concentration was changing rapidly. Today bulk tissue measurements are of marginal interest since most of the carbon in the tissue resides in proteins, lipids and carbohydrates that turn over rapidly. Specific cell types with specialized functions are the focus of cell turnover investigations. Tissue samples need to be fresh or frozen. Fixed or preserved samples contain petroleum-derived carbon that has not been successfully removed. Cell or nuclear surface markers are used to sort specific cell types, typically by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Specific biomolecules need to be isolated with high purity and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements must accommodate samples that generally contain less than 40 {mu}g of carbon. Furthermore, all separations must not add carbon to the sample. Independent means such as UV absorbance must be used to confirm molecule purity. Approaches for separating specific proteins and DNA and combating contamination of undesired molecules are described.

  10. Tuberculosis among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tadao; Matsushita, Hiroshi.

    1980-01-01

    Effects of atomic bomb on tuberculosis among atomic bomb survivors necropsied after 1956 when Atomic Bomb Hospital was opened were observed statistically and the following results were obtained. The morbidity of tuberculosis in the group exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter was higher than that of the control group, but there was not a significant difference between the both groups. The morbidity of all types of tuberculosis was significantly higher in the group exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter than in the control group. The morbidity of tuberculosis tended to decrease in both exposed and non-exposed groups with time. However, the morbidity of miliary or active tuberculosis has tended to rise in the exposed since 1975. The morbidity in young a-bomb survivors exposed within 2 km was higher than that in those of other groups, but there was not a difference in the morbidity among the aged. The higher the rate of complication of active tuberculosis with stomach cancer or acute myelocytic leukemia or liver cirrhosis, the nearer the places of exposure were to the hypocenter. Out of 26 patients with miliary tuberculosis, 6 were suspected to have leukemia while they were alive and were suggested to have leukemoid reaction by autopsy. They all were a-bomb survivors, and 4 of them were exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter. (Tsunoda, M.)

  11. Neutron bomb and European defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, W.

    1980-01-01

    France's development of the controversial neutron bomb is in line with the US goal of flexible response to a Soviet threat in Europe. US neutron bomb production is on a standby basis pending agreement among the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) members for deployment. Controversy over the bomb centers on its anti-personnel nature, which many see as immoral in comparison with weapons that primarily damage property. Opponents also see it as lowering the nuclear threshold and increasing the chance of nuclear war. Supporters view the bomb as a tactical weapon to be used on a limited scale as a last resort. If Germany's Chancellor Schmidt fails to negotiate a limit to European nuclear arms deployment with the Soviet Union, neutron-bomb production in the US and France will most likely proceed. The prospects for including European nuclear weapons in the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) III are jeopardized by the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the failure of an early SALT II ratification. 17 references

  12. Neutron bomb and European defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, W.

    1980-08-15

    France's development of the controversial neutron bomb is in line with the US goal of flexible response to a Soviet threat in Europe. US neutron bomb production is on a standby basis pending agreement among the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) members for deployment. Controversy over the bomb centers on its anti-personnel nature, which many see as immoral in comparison with weapons that primarily damage property. Opponents also see it as lowering the nuclear threshold and increasing the chance of nuclear war. Supporters view the bomb as a tactical weapon to be used on a limited scale as a last resort. If Germany's Chancellor Schmidt fails to negotiate a limit to European nuclear arms deployment with the Soviet Union, neutron-bomb production in the US and France will most likely proceed. The prospects for including European nuclear weapons in the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) III are jeopardized by the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the failure of an early SALT II ratification. 17 references. (DCK)

  13. BombCAD - A new tool for bomb defense in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, D.J.; Howard, J.W.; Sturm, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a new tool for analysis of the specific vulnerability of diverse facilites to bomb attack and for computer-aided-design (CAD) of siting, screening and hardening/softening aspects of comprehensive bomb defense programs. BombCAD combines the extensive architectural and engineering data base and graphics capabilities of modern architectural CAD systems with the bomb effects computational capability of the ''SECUREPLAN'' BOMB UTILITY. BombCAD permits architects/engineers, security professionals and facility managers to analytically estimate and graphically display facility vulnerability and changes (reductions) in vulnerability which result from the adoption of various bomb defense measures

  14. Peace and the Atomic Bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, Norris E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1948-12-02

    A little over three years after assuming the directorship of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Norris Bradbury returned to his alma mater, Pomona College, and delivered one of his first extended speeches regarding the atomic bomb. Bradbury noted that although the atomic bomb had brought a “peace of kind,” ending World War II, the bomb also had become, without much thought, a “factor in the political, military, and diplomatic thinking of the world.” Bradbury hoped his speech, given to both the faculty and student body of Pomona, would give his audience a foundation on which to assess and understand the new world the bomb had ushered into existence. Bradbury’s talk was quickly printed an distributed by Pomona College and, later, reprinted in The Physical Review (Volume 75, No. 8, 1154-1160, April 15, 1949). It is reprinted here, for a third time, as a reminder of the early days of Los Alamos and its role in international affairs. "Slightly more that three years ago, this country brought to an end the most catastrophic war in history. The conflict had been characterized by an unremitting application of science to the technology of destruction. The final use of the atomic bomb, however, provided a climax so striking that the inevitable nature of future wars was illustrated with the utmost clarity. Peace of a kind followed the first military use of atomic weapons, but international understanding did not, and the atomic bomb became a factor in the political, military, and diplomatic thinking of the world. Where do we now stand in all this? What are the costs and the rewards? Where are we going? These are some of the things that I would like to discuss with you this morning."

  15. Thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard E.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters are modeled using a lumped heat transfer analysis in which heat is released in a pressure vessel/bomb immersed in a stirred water bath that is surrounded by a static air space bounded by an insulated (static) jacket, a constant/controlled temperature jacket (isoperibol), or a changing temperature (adiabatic) jacket. The temperature history of the water bath for each of these boundary conditions (methods) is well described by the two-term solution for the calorimeter response to a heat impulse (combustion), allowing the heat transfer coefficients and thermal capacities of the bomb and water bath to be determined parametrically. The validated heat transfer model provides an expression for direct calculation of the heat released in an arbitrary process inside a bomb calorimeter using the temperature history of the water bath for each of the boundary conditions (methods). This result makes possible the direct calculation of the heat of combustion of a sample in an isoperibol calorimeter from the recorded temperature history without the need for semi-empirical temperature corrections to account for non-adiabatic behavior. Another useful result is that the maximum temperature rise of the water bath in the static jacket method is proportional to the total heat generated, and the empirical proportionality constant, which is determined by calibration, accounts for all of the heat losses and thermal lags of the calorimeter.

  16. Thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard E

    2015-12-01

    The thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters are modeled using a lumped heat transfer analysis in which heat is released in a pressure vessel/bomb immersed in a stirred water bath that is surrounded by a static air space bounded by an insulated (static) jacket, a constant/controlled temperature jacket (isoperibol), or a changing temperature (adiabatic) jacket. The temperature history of the water bath for each of these boundary conditions (methods) is well described by the two-term solution for the calorimeter response to a heat impulse (combustion), allowing the heat transfer coefficients and thermal capacities of the bomb and water bath to be determined parametrically. The validated heat transfer model provides an expression for direct calculation of the heat released in an arbitrary process inside a bomb calorimeter using the temperature history of the water bath for each of the boundary conditions (methods). This result makes possible the direct calculation of the heat of combustion of a sample in an isoperibol calorimeter from the recorded temperature history without the need for semi-empirical temperature corrections to account for non-adiabatic behavior. Another useful result is that the maximum temperature rise of the water bath in the static jacket method is proportional to the total heat generated, and the empirical proportionality constant, which is determined by calibration, accounts for all of the heat losses and thermal lags of the calorimeter.

  17. Cartel Car Bombings in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    to have ties to drug traffickers. The Mexico City newspaper Universal reported that police said members of the family of Rafael Caro Quintero...targets of attack and likely the first to respond to a bomb scene. Police and other local level responders (emergency medical services), the Cruz Rojo

  18. 'DIRTY BOMB' and its countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shanqiang; Zou Shiya; Zhang Wenzhong

    2008-01-01

    'Dirty bomb', one of the three nuclear and radiological terrorism attack events, is a kind of weapon using conventional explosive to disperse radioactive materials, which leads to harmful and serious environmental contamination with α, β, γ rays and neutron having high radioactivity activity. This paper mainly introduces the characteristics and hazards, and puts forward some recommendations to counter RDD based on current international and national situations in nuclear and radiological terrorisms. (authors)

  19. The media and dirty bombs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanley, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    During the recent Jose Padilla 'dirty bomb' scare, an indignant US citizen wrote to his local newspaper in Florida complaining that the news media were giving terrorists a recipe for making dirty bombs. 'Unless the media eases up on scaring us, he wrote, the public won't feel safe even leaving their homes. Or perhaps that is what they want, he said, 'us staying inside our homes watching the news on how terrorists can destroy us all.' It seems our real motivations have finally been uncovered we in the media want to scare them so much they won't leave their TV screens. Based on the previous event an analysis of the role of media and journalists is discussed. Leaders of the news media would, first of all, universally advise full and rapid and authoritative disclosure of what is known. If it isn't coming quickly from the highest levels, then the news will soon deteriorate to what's being heard on the streets, from police officers and fire fighters and other emergency personnel, and from passers-by. Journalists are the first to acknowledge their ignorance.That is why they ask questions. However, they seem to learn fast. It was found that that the term dirty bomb never appeared on Associated Press news wires before the 11 September 2001 attacks. Now it appears every day, and increasingly we are getting the facts right and helping to prepare our audience of millions for this dangerous new world

  20. Pancreatic exocrine secretion in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Masataka; Kawanishi, Masahiro; Ohtaki, Megu

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of A-bombing on pancreatic exocrine secretion in 6 A-bomb survivors (an average age of 57 years) and the age- and sex-matched non-exposed 6 persons (an average age of 58 years). Six A-bomb survivors consisted of: three who had been directly exposed to A-bombing, one who had entered the city within 3 days after bombing, one who had worked in caring for A-bomb survivors, and one who had later entered the city. Caerulein-Secretin test revealed no significant difference in the total secretion of lipase, maximum bicarbonate, amylase output, or lipase output between the exposed and non-exposed groups. The concentration of lipase ten min after stimulation was significantly decreased in the exposed group than the control group. This suggests that radiation may be responsible for abnormality in the ability of pancreatic exocrine secretion. (N.K.)

  1. The bomb and the men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroh, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Since 1945, more than 2000 nuclear weapon tests have been performed in the world, with a perfect knowledge of the irradiation risks. This book tells this story. The one of the men who designed the bombs, who used and improved them. It tells also the story of these men who were injured by nuclear weapons and those who were directly impacted by the fallouts of these tests. Finally, the book does not forget to mention the men who voluntarily dissimulated the ravages of nuclear weapons before discretely recognizing them and thinking of repairing the damage

  2. Atomic bombs and conspiracy theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binnie, A.

    2001-01-01

    There have been a number of articles in the press concerning Australia's bid to get the atomic bomb. These articles are based on the recent publication of a book, 'Australia's Bid for the Bomb' by Wayne Reynolds. The book at first sight appears to be very well researched, with many archival references from a number of countries, and the hypotheses appear to be well supported and argued. Its major shortcoming is the way that the science and technology involved is presented. The author seems to have a complete lack of understanding of basic science and engineering principles, and the manner in which scientists and politicians communicate with each other. This paper will attempt to redress these shortcomings, I shall look at the way communities of scientists and politicians present their ideas to each other and to the public at large. By investigating the backgrounds to the establishment of the Snowy Mountains Scheme and the later establishment of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission, the author is able to explain how such a hypothesis ever saw the light of day

  3. How Dangerous are 'Dirty Bombs'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.

    2003-01-01

    A radiological weapon (or a radiation weapon) is any weapon that is designed to spread radioactivity, either to kill, or to deny the use of an area (a modern version of salting the earth) and consists of a device (such as a nuclear or conventional explosive), which spreads radioactive material. Recently, it has been called 'dirty bombs'. This term refers especially to a weapon that would disperse radioactive material through conventional explosives. The term was put in focus in June 2002, when U. S. officials announced they had captured an al-Qaida terrorist in Chicago who was allegedly planning for such a device. Designed to produce radiation sickness in a military force or a civilian population instead of destroying a target, Iraq developed and tested radiation weapons in 1980s, during the war with Iran with intention to produce health effects that would be difficult to explain. The project was abandoned because a radiation levels low enough to escape detection were also insufficient to cause significant medical problems in the weeks following an attack. Radiological weapons are therefore widely considered to be militarily useless for a state-sponsored army and are not believed to have been deployed by any military forces. However, these weapons have been suggested as a possible terror weapon in order to create fear and panic in densely populated areas and havoc to local economies. They do not require weapons-grade materials, and common materials such as 1 37C s used in radiological medical equipment, could be used. Subsequent removal of urban radioactive contamination, i.e. cleanup efforts according to experiences from the radiological accident in a Brazilian city of Goiania could be long, difficult and costly. Therefore, the overall effects of exploded dirty bombs are hard to assess considering that: a) The health effects of low-level radiation are hotly contested. Namely, according to 'linear, no-threshold' dosimetric model, any increase over background is

  4. The birth of the atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, Louis

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author proposes an overview of fifty years of researches and works which resulted in the fabrication and use of an atomic bomb. Thus, he evokes the discovery of radioactivity, experiments made by Rutherford, the discovery of nuclear fission induced uranium bombardment by slow neutrons, the discovery of a possibility of chain reaction with a very low critical mass, the first works on the development of a bomb in the USA and United-Kingdom, and finally the Manhattan project and the realisation of the first bombs, tests, and their use in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

  5. Neuropsychiatric and psychologic effects of A-bomb radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Michiko; Sasaki, Hideo

    1992-01-01

    Few studies have assessed the influences of A-bombing from both psychiatric and psychologic points of view. This chapter deals with the knowledge of neuropsychiatric and psychologic influences of A-bombing. Many A-bomb survivors were exposed not only to radiation but also to rapid environmental alterations, such as death of family members and destruction of living. In addition, they suffered from sequelae and anxiety. Naturally, these were considered to cause psychological disturbance including autonomic imbalance and neurosis. Psychological survey, made immediately after A-bombing, is presented, with special attention to behavioral patterns in 54 A-bomb survivors by dividing them into 5 stimulation groups. Radiation syndrome occurring early after exposure and leukemia or cancer occurring later were referred to as 'Genbaku-sho' (A-bomb disease). A-bomb survivors' physically eventful conditions tended to induce mental anxiety or the contrary. Depression and phobia seemed to have correlated with physical conditions. In addition to 'A-bomb disease', mass media, dealing with 'A-bomb neurosis,' 'marriage in A-bomb survivors,' 'suicide in A-bomb survivors,' 'A-bomb survivors orphan,' and 'lonely old A-bomb survivors,' had a great impact on A-bomb survivors. For in uterus exposed and infantile A-bomb survivors, there was no significant difference between the exposed and non-exposed groups, although the incidence of eye tremor and sleeping disorder is found to be higher in the in uterus exposed group than the control group. (N.K.)

  6. 750 Pound M117 Bomb Transportability Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meyer, William

    1999-01-01

    The US Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC) Validation Engineering Division (SIOAC-DEV) was tasked by the US Army Pacific, Fort Shafter, HI to conduct transportability tests on modified 750 pound bombs...

  7. BOMB BLAST: PATTERN AND NATURE OF INJURIES

    OpenAIRE

    Brahmaji Master; Chandra Sekhar; Rangaiah

    2015-01-01

    Bomb blast cause injury on large groups of people by multiple mechanisms. Bomb blast injuries differ from the conventional description of trauma complexity. Primary injuries are caused by blast wave and over pressure. Secondary injuries are caused by flyin g debris and cause shrapnel wounds. Tertiary injuries are caused by blast wind due to forceful impact and quaternary injuries are caused by other vectors like heat, radiation etc. Combined injuries, especially blast and...

  8. The story of an A-bomb by Oppenheimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Eun Yeong

    2005-06-15

    This book concentrates on an A-bomb by Oppenheimer. It is divided into eleven class, which are exile of excellent scientists, uranium atomic fission, situation the U.S. and Germany I, situation the U.S. and Germany II, air strike in pearl Harbor, plan for development of an A-bomb, military action to blow up heavy water plant, select on spot to drop an A-bomb, surrender and drop for an A-bomb and science of an A-bomb. This book is written to explain an A-bomb with form of storytelling.

  9. Colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Hirofumi; Ezaki, Haruo.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on autopsied and surgical cases of colorectal cancer in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have not shown a relationship to radiation. In a recent epidemiologic study made on a fixed population at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), the risk of colon cancer was found to increase significantly with increasing radiation dose in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and also in both males and females. The dose effect for the cities and sexes combined was especially pronounced for cancer of the sigmoid colon. The effect of radiation was found to vary by age at the time of the bomb (ATB) and the effect was remarkable among those under age 20 ATB. The risk of rectal cancer was not found to increase significantly with radiation and the distribution of histological types for cancer of either the colon or rectum was unrelated to radiation dose. The effect of A-bomb exposure on the postoperative survival rate for colorectal cancer patients was studied. No difference by radiation dose could be demonstrated. In Japan, the incidence of colorectal cancer, and of colon cancer in particular, has been increasing. Therefore, close attention should be paid to changes occurring in A-bomb survivors. (author)

  10. Colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, H.; Ezaki, H.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on autopsied and surgical cases of colorectal cancer in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have not shown a relationship to radiation. In a recent epidemiologic study made on a fixed population at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), the risk of colon cancer was found to increase significantly with increasing radiation dose in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and also in both males and females. The dose effect for the cities and sexes combined was especially pronounced for cancer of the sigmoid colon. The effect of radiation was found to vary by age at the time of the bomb (ATB) and the effect was remarkable among those under age 20 ATB. The risk of rectal cancer was not found to increase significantly with radiation and the distribution of histological types for cancer of either the colon or rectum was unrelated to radiation dose. The effect of A-bomb exposure on the postoperative survival rate for colorectal cancer patients was studied. No difference by radiation dose could be demonstrated. In Japan, the incidence of colorectal cancer, and of colon cancer in particular, has been increasing. Therefore, close attention should be paid to changes occuring in A-bomb survivors

  11. Thermal analysis of pyrotechnic mixture-fireworks, atom-bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, Jeya; Thanulingam, T.L.

    2008-01-01

    Sound level produced from two varieties of sound producing fireworks of atom-bomb, cake bomb and thunder bomb were measured. The pyrotechnic mixture, KNO 3 /S/Al(H 3 BO 3 ) of compositions 57.5/19.9/22.1(0.5)% very much similar to commercial atom-bomb were taken and five cake bomb and seven thunder bomb with different net weight of chemicals were manufactured specifically for analysis. Cake bomb with 1g pyrotechnic mixture and thunder bomb with 2g pyrotechnic mixture produce -3 . Ignition temperature of the mixture is above the melting point of the metallic fuel, Al (660 deg C) and self propagating decomposition occurred at high temperature. The pyrotechnic mixture, KNO 3 /S/Al(H 3 BO 3 ) is a safe mixture from accidental factor, static electricity. DSC studies indicate slight formation of potassium nitrite with evolution of NO above 400 deg C. (author)

  12. AFSC/REFM: Bomb-produced age validation study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish age validation with bomb-produced radiocarbon (14C) requires a known-age Delta14C reference chronology spanning the era of a marine increase in bomb-produced...

  13. A-bomb radiation effects digest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, Itsuzo; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Sasaki, Hideo; Ito, Chikako; Kamada, Nanao.

    1993-01-01

    This publication is the digest of the book 'Genbaku Hoshasen no Jintai Eikyo (Effects of A-bomb Radiation on the Human Body)' (365p.), published in Japanese by Hiroshima International Council for Medical Care of the Radiation-Exposed. Following a brief description on the damage of the atomic bomb, the subjects of malignant tumors, endocrine and metabolic deseases, ocular lesions, dermatologic effects, prenatal exposure, chromosoal aberrations, mutations, sensitivity to radiation, immune function, genetic effects and other effects of radiation are summarized. (J.P.N.)

  14. Ultrasonic Device Would Open Pipe Bombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Raheb, Michael S.; Adams, Marc A.; Zwissler, James G.

    1991-01-01

    Piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer, energized by frequency generator and power supply, vibrates shell of pipe bomb while hardly disturbing explosive inner material. Frequency-control circuitry senses resonance in shell and holds generator at that frequency to induce fatigue cracking in threads of end cap. In addition to disarming bombs, ultrasonically induced fatigue may have other applications. In manufacturing, replaces some machining and cutting operations. In repair of equipment, cleanly and quickly disassembles corroded parts. In demolition of buildings used to dismember steel framework safely and controllably.

  15. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 Section 1546... Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign air carrier may land or take off an airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that airplane, unless the...

  16. MK-82 bomb characterization for the sympathetic detonation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucht, R.A.; Hantel, L.W.

    1988-01-01

    Optical, radiographic, and electronic pin techniques were used to evaluate the fragmentation of tail- and side-initiated MK-82 MOD 1 general purpose bombs. They were found to contain large voids, randomly located from bomb to bomb, in the Tritonal explosive fill. Characteristics of the void-side performance of the bomb were found to be as much as 10% different from the nonvoid side and were much less reproducible than the characteristics of the nonvoid side. The data collected will be useful in evaluating sympathetic detonation mitigation systems designed for use with the bombs. 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Future population of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Kenichi; Mine, Mariko; Shibata, Yoshisada

    2013-01-01

    The Nagasaki University Atomic Bomb Survivor Database, which was established in 1978 for elucidating the long-term health effects of the atomic bombing, has registered since 1970 about 120,000 atomic bomb survivors with a history of residence in Nagasaki city. Since the number of atomic bomb survivors has steadily been decreasing, prediction of future population is important for planning future epidemiologic studies, and we tried to predict the population of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki city from 2008 to 2030. In addition, we evaluated our estimated population comparing with the actual number from 2008 to 2011.

  18. Development of A-bomb survivor dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    An all important datum in risk assessment is the radiation dose to individual survivors of the bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The first set of dose estimates for survivors was based on a dosimetry system developed in 1957 by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These Tentative 1957 Doses (T57D) were later replaced by a more extensive and refined set of Tentative 1965 Doses (T65D). The T65D system of dose estimation for survivors was also developed at ORNL and served as a basis for risk assessment throughout the 1970s. In the late 1970s, it was suggested that there were serious inadequacies with the T65D system, and these inadequacies were the topic of discussion at two symposia held in 1981. In early 1983, joint US- Japan research programs were established to conduct a thorough review of all aspects of the radiation dosimetry for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. A number of important contributions to this review were made by ORNL staff members. The review was completed in 1986 and a new Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) was adopted for use. This paper discusses the development of the various systems of A-bomb survivor dosimetry, and the status of the current DS86 system as it is being applied in the medical follow-up studies of the A-bomb survivors and their offspring

  19. Bomb apologetics: Farm Hall, August 1945

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, J. [Professor of Physics at Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken New Jersey (United States); Cassidy, D. [Professor at Hofstra University, in Hempstead, New York (United States)

    1995-08-01

    On hearing the news from Hiroshima, the incredulous internees came up with a self-serving story to explain their failures in nucleus research: To keep Hitler from winning, they had deliberately not developed the atomic bomb. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  20. Bomb apologetics: Farm Hall, August 1945

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, J.; Cassidy, D.

    1995-01-01

    On hearing the news from Hiroshima, the incredulous internees came up with a self-serving story to explain their failures in nucleus research: To keep Hitler from winning, they had deliberately not developed the atomic bomb. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  1. Hurricane Ike versus an Atomic Bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Earl F.

    2013-01-01

    The destructive potential of one of nature's most destructive forces, the hurricane, is compared to one of human's most destructive devices, an atomic bomb. Both can create near absolute devastation at "ground zero". However, how do they really compare in terms of destructive energy? This discussion compares the energy, the…

  2. Health risks of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Y.; Soda, M.; Mabuchi, K.

    1992-01-01

    At the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor organization, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, mortality and morbidity surveys have been continually carried out on about 1,800 persons exposed in utero to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Although the effect of radiation exposure was marked enough to permit observation of a dose-response relationship in the 30 known cases of severe mental retardation among the in utero-exposed, the association between in utero exposure and cancer risk is still uncertain. Based on data for all cancers from 1950 through 1984 for the in utero-exposed, the excess risk per 10,000 person-year-Gy was 6.57 and the relative risk at 1 Gy was 3.77. For the recent years 1985-89, there was no evident excess of cancer risk. During the remaining lifetime, it seems unlikely that any great excess of leukemia will appear. As for the risk of solid tumors, further follow up is in progress. The 1950-89 findings for cancer risk among the in utero-exposed will be compared with cancer risk among A-bomb survivors who were less than 10 years old at the time of the bombings. (author)

  3. William Hayes and His Pallanza Bomb Shell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 10. William Hayes and His Pallanza Bomb Shell. R Jayaraman. General Article Volume 16 Issue 10 October 2011 pp 911-921. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/10/0911-0921 ...

  4. The 'secureplan' bomb utility: A PC-based analytic tool for bomb defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper illustrates a recently developed, PC-based software system for simulating the effects of an infinite variety of hypothetical bomb blasts on structures and personnel in the immediate vicinity of such blasts. The system incorporates two basic rectangular geometries in which blast assessments can be made - an external configuration (highly vented) and an internal configuration (vented and unvented). A variety of explosives can be used - each is translated to an equivalent TNT weight. Provisions in the program account for bomb cases (person, satchel, case and vehicle), mixes of explosives and shrapnel aggregates and detonation altitudes. The software permits architects, engineers, security personnel and facility managers, without specific knowledge of explosives, to incorporate realistic construction hardening, screening programs, barriers and stand-off provisions in the design and/or operation of diverse facilities. System outputs - generally represented as peak incident or reflected overpressure or impulses - are both graphic and analytic and integrate damage threshold data for common construction materials including window glazing. The effects of bomb blasts on humans is estimated in terms of temporary and permanent hearing damage, lung damage (lethality) and whole body translation injury. The software system has been used in the field in providing bomb defense services to a number of commercial clients since July of 1986. In addition to the design of siting, screening and hardening components of bomb defense programs, the software has proven very useful in post-incident analysis and repair scenarios and as a teaching tool for bomb defense training

  5. Foreign bodies radiographically-demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Shozo; Onitsuka, Hideo; Lee, K.; Shimizu, Yukiko; Russell, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    The prevalence of roentgenologically-detected foreign bodies among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors was studied as an indicator of the A-bomb blast effects. Acupuncture was studied as an indicator of A-bomb-related abnormalities for which it was administered. All Adult Health Study subjects' roentgenograms demonstrating foreign bodies were reviewed. The frequency of glass and metal, and acupuncture needles were analyzed by distance from hypocenters, sex, age, body sites involved; and the subjects' shielding at the times of the A-bombs. The presence of glass fragments correlated closely with distance from hypocenter, heavy shielding from the A-bombs, and with adulthood, and they were more frequent in the chest than hand and wrist. Metal foreign bodies were more frequent in the hand and wrist than in the chest, and not associated with distance from hypocenter or heavy shielding. The prevalence of acupuncture needles increased with age, but did not correlate with A-bomb dose. (author)

  6. Aging studies in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belsky, J.L.; Moriyama, I.M.; Fujita, Seiichiro; Kawamoto, Sadahisa.

    1980-01-01

    Though acceleration of aging induced by radiation could not be demonstrated in many investigations on delayed effects of ionizing radiation on a-bomb survivors, studies on acceleration of aging after the exposure to ionizing radiation in human and animals have been carried out. To investigate whether physiological function was related to the exposure to ionizing radiation, a series of examinations concerning age was carried out at the time of general health examinations at ABCC. Simple examinations concerning aging were carried out on 11,351 a-bomb survivors, but the result was essentially negative. If biological or physiological age was defined clearly, the results of functional test would be used as criterion of aging. (Tsunoda, M.)

  7. Black-hole bomb and superradiant instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Dias, Oscar J.C.; Lemos, Jose P.S.; Yoshida, Shijun

    2004-01-01

    A wave impinging on a Kerr black hole can be amplified as it scatters off the hole if certain conditions are satisfied, giving rise to superradiant scattering. By placing a mirror around the black hole one can make the system unstable. This is the black-hole bomb of Press and Teukolsky. We investigate in detail this process and compute the growing time scales and oscillation frequencies as a function of the mirror's location. It is found that in order for the system black hole plus mirror to become unstable there is a minimum distance at which the mirror must be located. We also give an explicit example showing that such a bomb can be built. In addition, our arguments enable us to justify why large Kerr-AdS black holes are stable and small Kerr-AdS black holes should be unstable

  8. Mortality of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mine, Mariko; Honda, Sumihisa; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yokota, Kenichi; Tomonaga, Masao; Okumura, Yutaka

    1999-01-01

    We analyzed the risk in 2,743 atomic bomb survivors by using a new dosimetry system. From the database, we selected 2,743 exposed persons and a total of three times 2,743 age-matched controls who were living far from the center of the A-bomb radiation in Nagasaki at the time of the explosion and who were still alive in 1971. The mortalities from all causes for male subjects exposed were slightly lower than, or almost equal to, those of unexposed persons. Death from cancer, however, increased in both sexes after all levels of irradiation except in males exposed to 0.01-0.49 Gy. In males, the risk was showed significant reduction in death from all diseases other than cancer classified according to 0.31-0.40 Gy. (author)

  9. Redesigning the rotating-bomb combustion calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, Henoc; Mentado, Juan; Amador, Patricia; Torres, Luis Alfonso; Campos, Myriam; Rojas, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    In order to obtain reliable data of the standard enthalpy of combustion of compounds containing sulfur or halogen atoms, a new calorimetric rotating-bomb system has been set up. Around a platinum lining Parr 1004 C combustion bomb, an isoperibolic calorimeter has been designed, constructed and tested. The calorimeter was calibrated by using standard benzoic acid and the resulting equivalent in energy was ε(calor)=(14321.2+/-2.4)J.K -1 . Combustion measurements using thianthrene were made in order to verify the accuracy of the device, leading to the value of Δ c u o =-(33462.9+/-5.7)J.g -1 , in agreement with the recommended one

  10. Suicide bomb attack causing penetrating craniocerebral injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Manzar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Penetrating cerebral injuries caused by foreign bodies are rare in civilian neurosurgical trauma, al-though there are various reports of blast or gunshot inju-ries in warfare due to multiple foreign bodies like pellets and nails. In our case, a 30-year-old man presented to neurosur-gery clinic with signs and symptoms of right-sided weak-ness after suicide bomb attack. The skull X-ray showed a single intracranial nail. Small craniotomy was done and the nail was removed with caution to avoid injury to surround-ing normal brain tissue. At 6 months’ follow-up his right-sided power improved to against gravity. Key words: Head injury, penetrating; Bombs; Nails

  11. Terror, tortur og den tikkende bombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The so-called "war on terror" has renewed the interest in torture in practice as well as in theory. The philosophical debate about possible justifications for torture has to a large extent revolved about the ticking bomb scenario: would it be justified to torture a terrorist in order to prevent a...... of torture. Finally, I offer an explanation of what it means to regard the prohibition of torture as absolute....

  12. The Bali bombing: civilian aeromedical evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Minh D; Garner, Alan A; Morrison, Ion; Sharley, Peter H; Griggs, William M; Xavier, Colin

    2003-10-06

    After the Bali bombing on 12 October 2002, many injured Australians required evacuation to Darwin, and then to burns units around Australia. Many patients were evacuated from Denpasar by Qantas, with assistance from staff of civilian medical retrieval services. The transport of patients from Darwin to specialist burns units involved a coordinated response of civilian and military services. Some issues in responding to such disasters were identified, and a national coordinating network could improve future responses.

  13. Influence on social life of atomic bomb, chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Atomic bombs, for the first time in human history, were dropped on Hiroshima in August 6, and on Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. Though the powers of these bombs were far small as compared with those of present day nuclear weapons, the atomic bombs claimed many lives instantaneously, damaged human bodies, and destroyed all objects, annihilating the urban areas. Even today, the dreadful consequences of the bombings still remain in both body and mind of the victims. Meanwhile, the experiences of atomic bomb disasters are fading constantly. In order to maintain the vivid information, in Part 3 ''Influence on social life'', the following matters are described: relations of the atomic bombings to society; destroyed societies such as disruption of regional societies and loss of wealth; life of the sufferers such as occupation, marriage, hardships of life, orphans, livelihood variation, and suffering of foreigners; and mental process of the sufferers. (J.P.N.)

  14. Why the USA dropped atomic bombs on Japanese cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, B.

    1997-01-01

    Why did the USA use atomic bombs on Japanese cities? Because, by summer 1945, the earlier morality that said you should not kill non-combatants had been chipped away, then eroded, and ultimately destroyed by World War II. After Hitler's viciousness, after the Japanese rape of Nanjing, after the killings in Manila, after the savagery through Asia, after Dresden, after Hamburg, after Tokyo, Osaka, Kobe, Nagoya - over sixty Japanese cities had been bombed before Hiroshima, Hiroshima was inevitable, easy, comfortable, virtually automatic. The transformation was not the use of bomb, but the bombing of non-combatants - massively, intentionally. There was probably a desire to revenge, as well. In addition, there was an expectation that the bombs used on japan would also intimidate the Soviet Union but that was not crucial. Any nation that had the capacity would have used the bomb in righteousness and comfort, self-conceived dignity, amid popular applause from its electorate people

  15. On the anti-neutron bomb movement in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoek, T. van.

    1978-01-01

    The author reports on activities of the Dutch activists group Stop the neutron bomb in his country: Collection of signatures, statements made by about a hundred well-known theologians, two-thirds majority in parliament against the production and emplacement of the neutron bomb, International Forum 1978 in Amsterdam with mass demonstrations. President Carter is said to have been forced to delay the production of the neutron bomb temporarily by means of this international pressure. (HSCH) [de

  16. 36Cl bomb peak: comparison of modeled and measured data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eichler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The extensive nuclear bomb testing of the fifties and sixties and the final tests in the seventies caused a strong 36Cl peak that has been observed in ice cores world-wide. The measured 36Cl deposition fluxes in eight ice cores (Dye3, Fiescherhorn, Grenzgletscher, Guliya, Huascarán, North GRIP, Inylchek (Tien Shan and Berkner Island were compared with an ECHAM5-HAM general circulation model simulation (1952–1972. We find a good agreement between the measured and the modeled 36Cl fluxes assuming that the bomb test produced global 36Cl input was ~80 kg. The model simulation indicates that the fallout of the bomb test produced 36Cl is largest in the subtropics and mid-latitudes due to the strong stratosphere-troposphere exchange. In Greenland the 36Cl bomb signal is quite large due to the relatively high precipitation rate. In Antarctica the 36Cl bomb peak is small but is visible even in the driest areas. The model suggests that the large bomb tests in the Northern Hemisphere are visible around the globe but the later (end of sixties and early seventies smaller tests in the Southern Hemisphere are much less visible in the Northern Hemisphere. The question of how rapidly and to what extent the bomb produced 36Cl is mixed between the hemispheres depends on the season of the bomb test. The model results give an estimate of the amplitude of the bomb peak around the globe.

  17. Suicide bomb attack causing penetrating craniocerebral injury

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain Manzar; Bari Muhammad Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    【Abstract】Penetrating cerebral injuries caused by foreign bodies are rare in civilian neurosurgical trauma, al-though there are various reports of blast or gunshot inju-ries in warfare due to multiple foreign bodies like pellets and nails. In our case, a 30-year-old man presented to neurosur-gery clinic with signs and symptoms of right-sided weak-ness after suicide bomb attack. The skull X-ray showed a single intracranial nail. Small craniotomy was done and the nail was removed wi...

  18. Suicide bomb attack causing penetrating craniocerebral injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Manzar; Bari, Muhammad-Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Penetrating cerebral injuries caused by foreign bodies are rare in civilian neurosurgical trauma, although there are various reports of blast or gunshot injuries in warfare due to multiple foreign bodies like pellets and nails. In our case, a 30-year-old man presented to neurosurgery clinic with signs and symptoms of right-sided weakness after suicide bomb attack. The skull X-ray showed a single intracranial nail. Small craniotomy was done and the nail was removed with caution to avoid injury to surrounding normal brain tissue. At 6 months'follow-up his right-sided power improved to against gravity.

  19. The Manhattan Project: Making the atomic bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosling, F.G.

    1994-09-01

    This article is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of US government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  20. Hans Bethe : Des etoiles a la bombe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    1996-06-01

    Il comprit le premier comment brillent les etoiles. Il fut aussi de cette poignee de scientifiques qui, dans le secret de Los Alamos, mirent au point la tristement celebre bombe atomique. Hans Bethe est l'un des derniers geants qui auront marque la physique de ce siecle d'une empreinte indelebile. C'est dans le bureau 01 du prestigieux laboratoire Kellog de l'institut Caltech qu'il a bien voulu retracer pour nous son impressionnante carriere, et revenir sur les motivations qui ont guide ses pas.

  1. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight... upon receiving information that an act or suspected act of air piracy has been committed, the aircraft...

  2. Radiographic study for sympathetic detonation of 500-lb bombs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucht, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Flash radiography have determined the size and velocity vectors in the near field of fragments from tail- and side-initiated MK 82 MOD 1, general-purpose bombs. Excellent radiographs have been acquired from nine separate tests. Unlike arena tests, the radiographs were taken 75 to 125 cm from the case and show that the fragments peel off the case in long strips. A major concern in the design and execution of the experiments was the protection of the 450-kV x-ray heads and the film cassettes from fragments and blast produced by the 500-lb bombs. The velocity and size data, along with optical and electronic pin data, were used to characterize the fragments of the donor bomb in a donor-acceptor sympathetic detonation system study. The bombs were found to contain large shrink voids, randomly located from bomb to bomb, in the explosive Tritonal fill. Characteristics of the fragments from the void side if the bomb were found to be as much as 10% different from the nonvoid side and were much less reproducible than the fragments characteristics of the nonvoid side. The data collected will be useful in evaluating sympathetic detonation mitigation systems designed for use with the bombs. Such mitigation systems may be required for mass storage methods to meet the evolving insensitive munition requirements. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Autoantibodies and immunoglobulins among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Kodama, Kazunori; Shimaoka, Katsutaro; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Carter, R.L.; Yamakido, Michio

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to atomic bomb radiation affects immune responsiveness, such as the occurrence of autoantibodies and levels of immunoglobulins. Rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody, antithyroglobulin antibody, anti-thyroid-microsomal antibody and immunoglobulin levels (IgG, IgM, IgA and IgE) were measured among 2,061 individuals exposed to atomic bomb radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki whose estimated doses ranged from 0 to 5.6 Gy. The prevalence and titers of rheumatoid factor were found to be increased in the individuals exposed to higher radiation doses. The IgA level in females and the IgM level in both sexes increased as radiation dose increased, although the effects of radiation exposure were not large. No effect of radiation was found on the prevalence of antinuclear antibody, antithyroglobulin antibody and anti-thyroid-microsomal antibody or on the levels of IgG and IgE. 32 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Microstructural characterization of pipe bomb fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Otto; Oxley, Jimmie; Smith, James; Platek, Michael; Ghonem, Hamouda; Bernier, Evan; Downey, Markus; Cumminskey, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Recovered pipe bomb fragments, exploded under controlled conditions, have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and microhardness. Specifically, this paper examines the microstructural changes in plain carbon-steel fragments collected after the controlled explosion of galvanized, schedule 40, continuously welded, steel pipes filled with various smokeless powders. A number of microstructural changes were observed in the recovered pipe fragments: deformation of the soft alpha-ferrite grains, deformation of pearlite colonies, twin formation, bands of distorted pearlite colonies, slip bands, and cross-slip bands. These microstructural changes were correlated with the relative energy of the smokeless powder fillers. The energy of the smokeless powder was reflected in a reduction in thickness of the pipe fragments (due to plastic strain prior to fracture) and an increase in microhardness. Moreover, within fragments from a single pipe, there was a radial variation in microhardness, with the microhardness at the outer wall being greater than that at the inner wall. These findings were consistent with the premise that, with the high energy fillers, extensive plastic deformation and wall thinning occurred prior to pipe fracture. Ultimately, the information collected from this investigation will be used to develop a database, where the fragment microstructure and microhardness will be correlated with type of explosive filler and bomb design. Some analyses, specifically wall thinning and microhardness, may aid in field characterization of explosive devices.

  5. Nutritional survey of atomic bomb survivors, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Fumiyo; Tanigawa, Junko; Ito, Chikako

    1978-01-01

    136 cases in which mild anemia was recognized but stomach disease was not recognized by the examination for a-bomb survivors, were investigated concerning living conditions, the habit of food, and the intake amount of nutrition, and the following results were obtained. 1. The mean intake amount of nutritive substances in a-bomb survivors almost reached the level as compared to the necessary amount of nutritive substances in control. 2. Shortage in intake of protein and iron which seemed to be a factor of occurrence of anemia (protein: 50% in men and 19.7% in women, iron: 25% in men and 22.5% in women), much and frequent intake of confectioneries and luxuries, and the rate of going without meal (33.3% of men went without meal one to 6 times a week) were recongized in each case of anemia with high rate. These tendency was marked in men. 3. Anemia was recognized in some of women, although they took all nutritive substances. This seemed to be caused by physiological loss of iron. Accordingly, it was desirable to take an excess amount of iron. (Tsunoda, M.)

  6. Medical Effects of a Transuranic "Dirty Bomb".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durakovic, Asaf

    2017-03-01

    The modern military battlefields are characterized by the use of nonconventional weapons such as encountered in the conflicts of the Gulf War I and Gulf War II. Recent warfare in Iraq, Afghanistan, and the Balkans has introduced radioactive weapons to the modern war zone scenarios. This presents the military medicine with a new area of radioactive warfare with the potential large scale contamination of military and civilian targets with the variety of radioactive isotopes further enhanced by the clandestine use of radioactive materials in the terrorist radioactive warfare. Radioactive dispersal devices (RDDs), including the "dirty bomb," involve the use of organotropic radioisotopes such as iodine 131, cesium 137, strontium 90, and transuranic elements. Some of the current studies of RDDs involve large-scale medical effects, social and economic disruption of the society, logistics of casualty management, cleanup, and transportation preparedness, still insufficiently addressed by the environmental and mass casualty medicine. The consequences of a dirty bomb, particularly in the terrorist use in urban areas, are a subject of international studies of multiple agencies involved in the management of disaster medicine. The long-term somatic and genetic impact of some from among over 400 radioisotopes released in the nuclear fission include somatic and transgenerational genetic effects with the potential challenges of the genomic stability of the biosphere. The global contamination is additionally heightened by the presence of transuranic elements in the modern warzone, including depleted uranium recently found to contain plutonium 239, possibly the most dangerous substance known to man with one pound of plutonium capable of causing 8 billion cancers. The planning for the consequences of radioactive dirty bomb are being currently studied in reference to the alkaline earths, osteotropic, and stem cell hazards of internally deposited radioactive isotopes, in particular

  7. Foreign bodies radiographically-demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, S.; Onitsuka, H.; Lee, K.; Shimizu, Y.; Russell, W.J.

    1978-08-25

    The prevalence of roentgenologically-detected foreign bodies among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors was studied as an indicator of the A-bomb blast effects. Acupuncture was studied as an indicator of A-bomb-related abnormalities for which it was administered. All Adult Health Study subjects' roentgenograms demonstrating foreign bodies were reviewed. The frequency of glass and metal, and acupuncture needles were analyzed by distance from hypocenters, sex, age, body sites involved; and the subjects' shielding at the times of the A-bombs. The presence of glass fragments correlated closely with distance from hypocenter, heavy shielding from the A-bombs, and with adulthood, and they were more frequent in the chest than hand and wrist. Metal foreign bodies were more frequent in the hand and wrist than in the chest, and not associated with distance from hypocenter or heavy shielding. The prevalence of acupuncture needles increased with age, but did not correlate with A-bomb dose.

  8. Aging studies in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belsky, J.L.; Moriyama, I.M.; Fujita, Shoichiro; Kawamoto, Sadahisa.

    1979-07-01

    Although the studies of the effect of ionizing radiation on atomic bomb survivors have not produced any evidence of radiation-induced aging, there have been studies on experimental animals and man which suggest accelerated aging after exposure to ionizing radiation. To determine if certain physiologic functions could be related to exposure to ionizing radiation, a battery of age-related tests was given at the time of the physical examinations at ABCC. Some 11,351 persons were given these non-invasive age-related tests. The results were essentially negative. Until a satisfactory operational definition of biologic or physiologic age is developed, the administration of functional tests as a measure of aging does not seem justified. (author)

  9. Dirty bombs: assesment of radiological impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trifunovic, D.; Koukouliou, V.

    2009-01-01

    In some countries, regulatory control of radioactive sources, used extensively in medicine and industry, remains weak. Global concerns about the security and safety of radioactive sources escalated following the September 11 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States. There are fears that some radioactive sources could be used by terrorists as radiological dispersal devices (RDD's), or so called 'dirty bombs'. The radioactive material dispersed, depending on the amount and intensity, could cause radiation sickness for a limited number of people nearby if, for example, they inhaled large amounts of radioactive dust. But the most severe tangible impacts would likely be the economic costs and social disruption associated with the evacuation and subsequent clean-up of contaminated property. It has been shown that usage of realistic data in a first response decision making as to avoid inappropriate public reaction accompanied by economic and social consequences is necessary.(author)

  10. Preleukemic state in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikami, Motoko

    1980-01-01

    Hematology data before onset of leukemia were available for 55 of the 1462 acute leukemia cases (as of the end of June 1976) collected by RERF. Among these, 8 showed preleukemic state and 2 were polycythemia. In content, preleukemic state comprised anemia, leukopenia and morphological abnormalities of RBC, platelets and WBC. Leukemia cases presenting preleukemic state were, by type, mostly erythroleukemia and monocytic leukemia. Preleukemic state was not necessarily frequent among cases of leukemia in A-bomb survivors exposed to high dose. The prevalence of the 5 items, prescribed as preleukemic state, i.e., anemia (female =50%), and relative monocytosis (>=10%), could not be said to be high in the survivors exposed to high dose. Anemia in males and leukopenia in males and females were increased significantly with age. Leukemia prevalence was significantly high especially in those cases that had presented leukopenia, relative neutropenia or relative lymphocytosis among the 5 items prescribed as preleukemic state. (author)

  11. Leukemia and lymphoma in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    Leukemia has been observed to increase with increasing radiation dose in the A-bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The first radiation-related cases occurred 3 to 5 years following exposure. The peak incidence years were about 7 to 8 years following exposure and the leukemogenic effect has decreased since that time, but it may last for 40 years or longer in the most heavily exposed persons. A bimodal susceptibility pattern was observed, with peaks following exposure during childhood and after age 50. Latent periods for the development of acute leukemia were shortest in the younger exposed persons. Both acute and chronic forms of leukemia occurred in exposed persons at younger ages in life than normally is expected. The most common types of radiation-induced leukemia were acute and chronic granulocytic in adults and children, and acute lymphocytic in children. The highest radiation-related leukemia risk was for chronic granulocytic leukemia following childhood exposure

  12. Chain reaction. History of the atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mania, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    Henri becquerel tracked down in 1896 a strange radiation, which was called radioactivity by Marie Curie. In the following centuries German scientists Max Planck, Albert Einstein and Werner Heisenberg presented fundamental contributions to understand processes in the atomic nucleus. At Goettingen, center of the international nuclear physics community, the American student J. Robert Oppenheimer admit to this physical research. In the beginning of 1939 the message of Otto Hahns' nuclear fission electrified researchers. The first step, unleashing atomic energy, was done. A half year later the Second World War begun. And suddenly being friend with and busily communicating physicians were devided into hostile power blocs as bearers of official secrets. The author tells in this exciting book the story of the first atomic bomb as a chain reaction of ideas, discoveries and visions, of friendships, jealousy and intrigues of scientists, adventurers and genius. (orig./GL)

  13. Some hematological disorders among atomic bomb survivors. Presidential Address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Susumu

    1977-01-01

    Focusing on their hematological disorders, the late radiation effects among Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors, including cytogenetic and cytological studies, are summarized and discussed. Because of personal research experience, the data were concentrated on the Hiroshima survivors

  14. Accident in science history. Hitler's atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Up to now the historical explanation for the fact that NS Germany did not develop an atomic bomb was that there was enough scientific and technical knowledge but not enough resources. Recent historical research showed that the German scientists in the ''Uranverein'' did not know the cross section of U-235 and had no possibility to measure these cross sections. There exist only very few documents dealing with the bomb. The bomb was treated as a special case of a reactor. Obviously the German scientists did not know he bomb technology. It seems that the project was not success-oriented because the scientists expected to be sent to the front in case of a project stop.

  15. Teaching and Learning Multiple Perspectives: The Atomic Bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doppen, Frans H.

    2000-01-01

    Explores how historical empathy can give students a richer understanding of the past, focusing on the development of the students' historical understanding through an analysis of 18 documents on President Truman's decision to use the atomic bomb against Japan. (CMK)

  16. Perfection and the Bomb: Nuclear Weapons, Teleology, and Motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummett, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Uses Kenneth Burke's theory of perfection to explore the vocabularies of nuclear weapons in United States public discourse and how "the Bomb" as a God term has gained imbalanced ascendancy in centers of power. (MS)

  17. Effects of A-bomb radiation on the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, Itsuzo; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Sasaki, Hideo; Ito, Chikato; Kamada, Nanao

    1992-01-01

    This publication consists of contributions by 39 authors in Hiroshima who are active in the forefront of research, diagnosis and treatment concerning atomic bomb survivors. Following a brief description on the damage of the atomic bomb, the subjects of malignant tumors, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ocular lesions, dermatologic effects, prenatal exposure, chromosomal aberrations, mutations, sensitivity to radiation, immune function, genetic effects and other effects of radiation are described. All of the 45 chapters are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  18. Details of Nazis' A-Bomb program surface

    CERN Multimedia

    Glanz, J

    2002-01-01

    Werner Heisenberg, leader of the Nazi atomic bomb program, revealed the projects existence to Niels Bohr in a meeting in Copenhagen in 1941. But contrary to several historical accounts of the meeting, Heisenberg never expressed moral qualms about building a bomb for Hitler nor hinted that he might be willing to sabotage the project, according to secret documents cited in a London newspaper yesterday (2 pages).

  19. Hitlers' bomb. The secret story of Germanys' nuclear weapon tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsch, R.

    2005-01-01

    This book reveals a sensation: Under supervision of the SS German scientists tested 1944/45 nuclear bombs on Ruegen and in Thuringia. During this period several hundred prisoners of war and prisoners died. Besides proofs for nuclear weapon testing the author also found a draft for a patent on plutonium bombs and discovered the first functioning German atom reactor in the environs of Berlin. (GL) [de

  20. Trash can bomb can fall into the hands of terrorists

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Leading scientists from CERN described how if terrorists were able to get their hands on plutonium or uranium, they would be able to manufacture a 'trash can' nuclear bomb simply by inserting the radioactive material into a normal bomb. Once detonated a large area could be contaminated leading to the immediate deaths of many with many more future casualties due to cancers caused by the radiation.

  1. Dirty bombs : the technical aspects of radiological dispersion devices

    OpenAIRE

    Visger, Benjamin Felix

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Considering the ever-rising threat of terrorist attack and disruption of the economy and of daily activity, the potential strength of a radiological dispersion device must be evaluated. A "dirty bomb" is a weapon in the terrorist arsenal that is highly effective in creating chaos, panic and disruption. All of the immediate deaths caused by a "dirty bomb" are due to blast effects, however the public association with radiation and nucle...

  2. Mental health status of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakane, Hideyuki

    2012-01-01

    The most survivors of disaster usually recover with few or no lasting effects on their mental health. However, in some portions of survivors, distress lasts long. The atomic bomb detonated to Nagasaki in August 1945 instantaneously destroyed almost all areas of the city, resulting in a total of ca. 73,884 deaths by the end of 1945 and about 74,909 injured people. Since the A-bomb survivors reached over 60 years of age, their mental health as well as physical health has become of great concern. Some studies on their mental health conditions have been carried out in Japan. I give an outline about a precedent study on mental health of the A-bomb survivors in this report. The mental health studies of the A-bomb survivors who paid attention to a being bombed experience, stigmatization, long-term outcome, recovery are necessary. The improvement of wide appropriate support system for the A-bomb survivors is expected in future. (author)

  3. Foreign bodies radiographically demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, S.; Onitsuka, H.; Lee, K.K.; Shimizu, Y.; Russell, W.J.

    1978-02-01

    The prevalence of roentgenologically-detected foregin bodies among atomic bomb survivors was studied as an indicator of the A-bomb blast effects. Acupuncture was studied as an indicator of possible A-bomb-related abnormalities for which it was administered. All available roentgenograms of Adult Health Study (AHS) subjects which demonstrated foreign bodies were reviewed. The frequency of glass and metal foreign bodies and of acupuncture needles was analyzed in detail. Analyses were made by distance from the hypocenter, sex, age, body sites involved, and shielding at the time of the A-bomb (ATB). The presence of glass fragments correlated closely with distance from the hypocenter, with heavy shielding from the A-bombs, and with adulthood, and they were more frequent in the chest than in the hand and wrist. On the contrary, metal foreign bodies were more frequent in the hand and wrist than in the chest, and were not associated with distance from hypocenter or heavy shielding. The prevalence of acupuncture needles increased with age, but did not correlate with A-bomb dose.

  4. Mental health for elder A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mine, Mariko; Honda, Sumihisa; Hata, Tomoko

    1994-01-01

    A pilot study was made, based on an interview survey, to improve mental hygiene in A-bomb survivors. The study consisted of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 12 items, Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), Social Disabilities Schedule (SDS), and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 30 items. A majority of the subjects were those aged in their fifties, sixties, and seventies. Eighty A-bomb survivors answered GHQ 12 items, consisting of 7, 17, and 41 who were exposed at <2.0 km, 2.0-2.9 km, and ≥3.0 km from the hypocenter, respectively, and 15 who entered the city early after A-bombing. Thirty-three A-bomb survivors answered CIDI. According to the distance from the hypocenter, the corresponding figures were 2, 10, 15, and 6 A-bomb survivors. The survey for GHQ 12 items revealed that more A-bomb survivors exposed nearer the hypocenter suffered from mental problems. In the survey for CIDI, the most common complaints were found to be physical expression disorder (n=9) and chronic pain (n=8), followed by hypochondria (n=4), panic disorder (n=2), and anxiery (n=one). According to the SDS survey, 85% were judged as having no mental disorder, and the remaining 15% as having merely mild or moderate disorder. (N.K.)

  5. ELLERMAN BOMBS WITH JETS: CAUSE AND EFFECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, A.; Mathioudakis, M. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Scullion, E.; Gallagher, P. [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Doyle, J. G. [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh, BT61 9DG (United Kingdom); Shelyag, S., E-mail: areid29@qub.ac.uk [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, 3800 (Australia)

    2015-05-20

    Ellerman Bombs (EBs) are thought to arise as a result of photospheric magnetic reconnection. We use data from the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope to study EB events on the solar disk and at the limb. Both data sets show that EBs are connected to the foot points of forming chromospheric jets. The limb observations show that a bright structure in the Hα blue wing connects to the EB initially fueling it, leading to the ejection of material upwards. The material moves along a loop structure where a newly formed jet is subsequently observed in the red wing of Hα. In the disk data set, an EB initiates a jet which propagates away from the apparent reconnection site within the EB flame. The EB then splits into two, with associated brightenings in the inter-granular lanes. Micro-jets are then observed, extending to 500 km with a lifetime of a few minutes. Observed velocities of the micro-jets are approximately 5–10 km s{sup −1}, while their chromospheric counterparts range from 50 to 80 km s{sup −1}. MURaM simulations of quiet Sun reconnection show that micro-jets with properties similar to those of the observations follow the line of reconnection in the photosphere, with associated Hα brightening at the location of increased temperature.

  6. Atomic bomb survivor data: utilization and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prentice, R.L.; Thompson, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    There were several motivations for organizing the SIMS Conference reported in this monograph. Risk assessment and its methods have been subjects of several SIMS Conferences in the recent past, and focusing these newer, more powerful methods on the largest human experience of exposure to ionizing radiation seemed an appropriate sequel. There was also the conviction that the data resources of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), generated through the mortality and medical follow-up of large samples of the survivors of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, were being under utilized, and that a conference and its proceedings would create interest in exploiting this resource. The time seemed ripe for gathering a small group of current RERF scientists, veteran US statisticians and epidemiologists, and others with more recent entry into the field of radiation biology to consider long range plans for maximizing the output of information not only on the long term effects of ionizing radiation on man but on new knowledge of the determinants of health and disease that can be learned by study of the records of this cohort. This seemed particularly appropriate at this time while intensive joint Japanese-US efforts are underway to provide a new, more accurate dosimetry for use in these studies. Finally, there was a hope that an ad hoc forum of this type would provide not only a summary of current statistical and epidemiologic activities at RERF, but a useful critique of their scope and quality

  7. Health effects of atomic-bomb radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Nori

    2000-01-01

    This review described carcinogenic and genetic effects of A-bomb radiation. Effects have been investigated on 120,000 exposed people for their life span, 20,000 for health examinations, 3,000 people exposed in the womb and 80,000 second-generations of the exposed people. Epidemiological data revealed the presence of carcinogenic effects: Cancer death amounted to 9% from 1950 to 1990. However, carcinogenic mechanism is unknown yet. Genetic effects have been studied from the points of lesion at birth, sex ratio, chromosome aberration, biochemical test and mortality rate of children of exposed people and, although the effects have been experimentally shown in animals, are not observed in those children. This may be derived from the fact that there are few people who were exposed to such a high dose as used experimentally (0.2 Sv exposure to people within 2.5 km diameter-area from the explosion point vs >3 Sv in animals). Data are presented in Research Foundation home page. (K.H.)

  8. The Potentialities of the Atomic Bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bradbury, Norris E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-07

    In January 1949, Norris Bradbury gave a lecture at the National War College which summarized the progress Los Alamos had made since the end of the war. The transcript of the talk was filed and forgotten until it surfaced fifty years later. It is, perhaps, one of the best summaries of the state of the United States nuclear weapons program in 1949. It is also evidence of how Bradbury saw the future of atomic weapons. It is presented in full, with minor editing, and begins as follows: Since the first use of an atomic bomb on August 5 [sic], 1945, over the city of Hiroshima, Japan, there has been a continual flood of speculation and discussion concerning the effect of this new weapon on military technology. Much of this speculation and discussion has been intelligent and fruitful; much, I regret to say, has had neither of these characteristics. The enormity of the device, in terms of potential destruction and loss of life, and the practical necessity to surround the technical facts with full security restrictions have only combined to make the problem more difficult. At the same time, it is imperative that policymaking personnel in charge of long range national planning know the basic facts concerning atomic weapons and have these facts in a reasonable perspective. This document describes these potentialities in detail.

  9. Characterizing the Performance of Pipe Bombs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Jimmie C; Smith, James L; Bernier, Evan T; Sandstrom, Fredrick; Weiss, Gregory G; Recht, Gunther W; Schatzer, David

    2018-01-01

    Pipe bombs of steel or PVC fragment in reproducible patterns when similarly configured. The power of the explosion correlates with number, mass, and size of the fragments recovered, where a large number of small, low-mass fragments indicate a high-power event and vice versa. In discussing performance, describing pipe fragmentation pattern by fragment weight distribution mapping (FWDM) or fragment surface area distribution mapping (FSADM) was useful. When fillers detonated, detonation velocities of ~4.4 mm/μs were measured. In such cases, side walls of the pipe were thrown first; the average fragment velocity was ~1000 km/s. In deflagrations, the end cap was first thrown; fragment velocities were only ~240 km/s. Blast overpressures varied; at 10 feet, 2 × 12 inch steel pipes containing ~550 g of detonable mixture produced overpressures of 5-6 psi; similar nondetonating pipes produced less than 2 psi. Maximum fragment throw distances were 250-300 m, with an average of ~100 m. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Infectious diseases in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tadao; Ishida, Sadamu; Matsushita, Hiroshi.

    1976-01-01

    Incidences of various infectious diseases in 986 autopsy cases at Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital and Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital from 1965 to 1975 were compared according to the distance from the explosion place, and the following results were obtained. There was not a significant difference at incidences of most infectious diseases between each exposured group and not-exposured group. Incidence of old tuberculosis focus was a little higher in exposured groups, but incidences of main lesions such as tuberculosis, active tuberculosis, and miliary tuberculosis were lower in exposured groups and effect of exposure was negative. Out of urinary tract infections, the nearer the distance to the explosion place was, the higher incidence of cistitis in female was. Incidence of cystitis of female was higher than that of male in the group exposured near to the explosion place. With respect to stomach cancer, leukemia, malignant lymphoma, and cerebrovascular disorder, the nearer the distance to the explosion place was, the higher incidences of various infectious diseases were. (Tsunoda, M.)

  11. Simulating an Exploding Fission-Bomb Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Cameron

    2016-03-01

    A time-dependent desktop-computer simulation of the core of an exploding fission bomb (nuclear weapon) has been developed. The simulation models a core comprising a mixture of two isotopes: a fissile one (such as U-235) and an inert one (such as U-238) that captures neutrons and removes them from circulation. The user sets the enrichment percentage and scattering and fission cross-sections of the fissile isotope, the capture cross-section of the inert isotope, the number of neutrons liberated per fission, the number of ``initiator'' neutrons, the radius of the core, and the neutron-reflection efficiency of a surrounding tamper. The simulation, which is predicated on ordinary kinematics, follows the three-dimensional motions and fates of neutrons as they travel through the core. Limitations of time and computer memory render it impossible to model a real-life core, but results of numerous runs clearly demonstrate the existence of a critical mass for a given set of parameters and the dramatic effects of enrichment and tamper efficiency on the growth (or decay) of the neutron population. The logic of the simulation will be described and results of typical runs will be presented and discussed.

  12. Breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Masayoshi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Land, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty eight years after the atomic bombings, studies of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) on the extended Life Span Study (LSS) sample have continued to provide important information on radiation carcinogenesis. The third breast cancer survey among this sample revealed 564 cases during the period 1950 - 80, of which 412 were reviewed microscopically. The following statements reflect the conclusions from the current investigation; 1) the relationship between radiation dose and breast cancer incidence was consistent with linearity and did not differ markedly between the Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors, 2) a dose-related breast cancer risk was observed among women who were in their first decade of life at the time of exposure, 3) the relative risk of radiation-induced breast cancer decreased with increasing age at exposure, 4) the pattern over time of age-specific breast cancer incidence is similar for exposed and control women (that is, exposed women have more breast cancer than control women but the excess risk closely follows normal risk as expressed by age-specific population rates), and 5) radiation-induced breast cancer appears to be morphologically similar to other breast cancer. (author)

  13. Iraqi violence, Saudi attack and further bombings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2006-03-15

    Iraq moved closer to all-out civil war following an attack on the Imam Ali al-Hadi mosque in Samarra, one of Shi'i Islam's holiest shrines, on 22nd February. In the days that followed, several hundred Iraqis died in inter-communal violence. Attacks on installations close to the Basrah Oil Terminal were reported. Earlier in the month, the main oil storage facility in Kirkuk was bombed, forcing the Northern Oil Company to shut-in the 0.3 mn bpd field. Oil and electricity supplies in southern Iraq were cut by attacks on installations some 40 miles south of Baghdad. Turkey agreed to resume product exports to Iraq after a deal was agreed on repaying Iraqi debts of $1 bn to Turkish suppliers. An official Australian inquiry into illegal payments made under the UN's oil-for-food programme is to investigate allegations involving two Australian-controlled oil firms. (author)

  14. Sources of Radioactive Isotopes for Dirty Bombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubenau, Joel

    2004-05-01

    From the security perspective, radioisotopes and radioactive sources are not created equal. Of the many radioisotopes used in industrial applications, medical treatments, and scientific research, only eight, when present in relatively large amounts in radioactive sources, pose high security risks primarily because of their prevalence and physical properties. These isotopes are americium-241, californium-252, cesium-137, cobalt-60, iridium-192, radium-226, plutonium-238, and strontium-90. Except for the naturally occurring radium-226, nuclear reactors produce the other seven in bulk commercial quantities. Half of these isotopes emit alpha radiation and would, thus, primarily pose internal threats to health; the others are mainly high-energy gamma emitters and would present both external and internal health hazards. Therefore, the response to a "dirty bomb" event depends on what type of radioisotope is chosen and how it is employed. While only a handful of major corporations produce the reactor-generated radioisotopes, they market these materials to thousands of smaller companies and users throughout the world. Improving the security of the high-risk radioactive sources will require, among other efforts, cooperation among source suppliers and regulatory agencies.

  15. Breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunga, M.; Land, C.E.; Tokuoka, S.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty eight years after the atomic bombings, studies of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) on the extended Life Span Study (LSS) sample have continued to provide important information on radiation carcinogenesis. The third breast cancer survey among this sample revealed 564 cases during the period 1950-80, of which 412 were reviewed microscopically. The following statements reflect the conclusions from the current investigation; 1) the relationship between radiation dose and breast cancer incidence was consistent with linearity and did not differ markedly between the Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors, 2) a dose-related breast cancer risk was observed among women who were in their first decade of life at the time of exposure, 3) the relative risk of radiationinduced breast cancer decreased with increasing age at exposure, 4) the pattern over time of age-specific breast cancer incidence is similar for exposed and control women (that is, exposed women have more breast cancer than control women but the excess risk closely follows normal risk as expressed by age-specific population rates), and 5) radiation-induced breast cancer appears to be morphologically similar to other breast cancer

  16. MAGNETIC FLUX CANCELLATION IN ELLERMAN BOMBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, A.; Mathioudakis, M.; Nelson, C. J.; Henriques, V. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Doyle, J. G. [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh, BT61 9DG (United Kingdom); Scullion, E. [Trinity College Dublin, College Green, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Ray, T., E-mail: areid29@qub.ac.uk [Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2016-06-01

    Ellerman Bombs (EBs) are often found to be co-spatial with bipolar photospheric magnetic fields. We use H α imaging spectroscopy along with Fe i 6302.5 Å spectropolarimetry from the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope (SST), combined with data from the Solar Dynamic Observatory , to study EBs and the evolution of the local magnetic fields at EB locations. EBs are found via an EB detection and tracking algorithm. Using NICOLE inversions of the spectropolarimetric data, we find that, on average, (3.43 ± 0.49) × 10{sup 24} erg of stored magnetic energy disappears from the bipolar region during EB burning. The inversions also show flux cancellation rates of 10{sup 14}–10{sup 15} Mx s{sup −1} and temperature enhancements of 200 K at the detection footpoints. We investigate the near-simultaneous flaring of EBs due to co-temporal flux emergence from a sunspot, which shows a decrease in transverse velocity when interacting with an existing, stationary area of opposite polarity magnetic flux, resulting in the formation of the EBs. We also show that these EBs can be fueled further by additional, faster moving, negative magnetic flux regions.

  17. Is Einstein the Father of the Atomic Bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Harry

    2009-05-01

    Soon after the American atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the notion took hold in the popular mind that Albert Einstein was ``the father of the bomb.'' The claim of paternity rests on the belief that E=mc2 is what makes the release of enormous amounts of energy in the fission process possible and that the atomic bomb could not have been built without it. This is a misapprehension. Most physicists have known that all along. Nevertheless in his reaction to the opera Dr. Atomic, a prominent physicist claimed that Einstein's discovery that matter can be transformed into energy ``is precisely what made the bomb possible.'' In fact what makes the fission reaction and one of its applications,the atomic bomb, possible is the smaller binding energies of fission products compared to the binding energies of the nuclei that undergo fission.The binding energies of nuclei are a well understood consequence of the numbers and arrangements of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and of quantum-mechanical effects. The realization that composite systems have binding energies predates relativity. In the 19th century they were ascribed to potential and other forms of energy that reside in the system. With Einstein they became rest mass energy. While E=mc2 is not the cause of fission, measuring the masses of the participants in the reaction does permit an easy calculation of the kinetic energy that is released.

  18. Clinical study of aplastic anemia among A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguma, Nobuo; Dohy, Hiroo; Kyo, Taiichi; Saito, Osamu; Okita, Hajime

    1980-01-01

    In 90 patients with aplastic anemia who were seen at Dept. Med. RINMB, Hiroshima Univ. from 1962 to March, 1980, clinical findings of 33 A-bomb survivors (which included the second generation of the survivors) and those of 57 nonexposed patients were compared. No relationship was found between the age at the time of exposure and the period preceding onset of the disease. The A-bomb survivors showed higher neutrophil counts and higher reticulocyte counts than the nonexposed patients. There were less severe cases in the A-bomb survivors. There was no difference in the incidence of atypical aplastic anemia between the exposed patients and the nonexposed ones. No difference was found in overall survival (one-year and five-year survival rates) between the exposed and the nonexposed. The A-bomb survivors often had complete remission or maintenance of remission, and rarely had acute progression. These results suggested that clinical picture of aplastic anemia in the A-bomb survivors is different from that in the nonexposed patients. (Ueda, J.)

  19. Thyroid disorders in atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaizumi, M.; Neriishi, K.; Akahoshi, M.; Suzuki, G.; Nakashima, E.; Nagataki, S.; Eguchi, K.

    2003-01-01

    It is known from several studies, including those from RERF that radiation exposure can cause thyroid tumors (Socolow, N Engl J Med. 1963;268:406, Parker, Ann Intern Med. 1974;80:600). Effects of radiation on autoimmune thyroid disease are not well understood. We have conducted thyroid disease screening on a population of 2856 individuals from the Adult Health Study (AHS) cohort of atomic-bomb survivors for the period of 1984-1987. This study, which for logistical reasons involved survivors only from Nagasaki, revealed a statistically significant relationship between radiation dose and prevalence of solid nodules, including cancer, and that of autoimmune hypothyroidism (Nagataki, JAMA. 1994;272:364). Because the previous thyroid study was conducted only in Nagasaki, the new comprehensive thyroid disease screening study has been ongoing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki AHS participants since March 2000. For about 4,000 participants in Hiroshima and Nagasaki AHS cohort, thyroid ultrasonography, aspiration biopsy of nodules, thyroid function test, thyroid autoantibody (thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody) test by highly sensitive assay using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay were performed for the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. Analysis of data from the 1874 people examined through July 2001 (915 people from Hiroshima, 959 people from Nagasaki) provides evidence that thyroid cancer increases with radiation dose. The prevalence of positive result for thyroid autoantibody test is increased in the people exposed to relative low dose of radiation (0.01-0.99 Sv). Examination and measurements was completed in February 2003 for all patients. The analysis of these data is providing new and more complete insights into relationships between thyroid diseases and low doses of radiation

  20. The Rhetoric of "Unconditional Surrender" and the Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikins, James W.

    1983-01-01

    Analyzes the decision to drop the atomic bomb from a rhetorical point of view, arguing that the bombs were launched because of an American commitment to a particular rhetoric that focused on the propaganda slogan "unconditional surrender." (PD)

  1. Epidemiologic study of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-01-01

    Data from 140 A-bomb survivors with skin cancer were analyzed with the purpose of elucidating the relationship between atomic bombing and skin cancer. The incidence of skin cancer was significantly correlated with the distance from the hypocenter (p<0.01), regardless of sex. Basal cell epithelioma was the most predominant, followed by squamous cell carcinoma. Histology of skin cancer seemed independent of the distance. Since 1965, the incidence of skin cancer has been increased with aging in A-bomb survivors exposed at le2500 m from the hypocenter. It has been significantly higher since 1975 in the le2500 m group than in the ge3000 m group. (N.K.).

  2. Reassessing the Bunbury Bombing: Juxtaposition of Political and Media Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate O’Donnell

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines an Australian newspaper’s coverage of the bombing of an export port terminal in Bunbury, Western Australia on 19 July, 1976. We wanted to see how The West Australian newspaper framed the story, its precursor events, and the events that followed. We were particularly interested in whether the bombing was reported as an act of terrorism because the then Premier of Western Australia, Sir Charles Court, immediately decried it as “a gross act of terrorism.” We find the newspaper resisted the lure to apply this label, and couched the story in terms of serious criminality. However, it did so before the 1978 Hilton Hotel bombing; an event the news media heralded as the “arrival” of terrorism in Australia. Also, this occurred before what could be argued the sensationalist and politicised reporting of terror-related events became normalised.

  3. Forensic applications of {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoppi, U. E-mail: ugo@ansto.gov.au; Skopec, Z.; Skopec, J.; Jones, G.; Fink, D.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.; Tuniz, C.; Williams, A

    2004-08-01

    After a brief review of the basics of {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating, this paper presents two unique forensic applications. Particular attention is dedicated to the use of the {sup 14}C bomb-pulse to establish the time of harvest of illicit drugs such as heroin and opium. Preliminary measurements of {sup 14}C concentrations in milligram samples taken from seized drugs are presented. {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating can determine whether drug distribution originates from stockpiles or recent manufacture, and support the action of law enforcement authorities against criminal organisations involved in drug trafficking. In addition, we describe the dating of wine vintages for a number of authenticated single label vintage red wines from the Barossa Valley - South Australia. Our results show that radiocarbon dating can be used to accurately determine wine vintages and therefore reveal the addition of unrelated materials of natural and synthetic origin.

  4. Forensic applications of 14C bomb-pulse dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoppi, U.; Skopec, Z.; Skopec, J.; Jones, G.; Fink, D.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.; Tuniz, C.; Williams, A.

    2004-08-01

    After a brief review of the basics of 14C bomb-pulse dating, this paper presents two unique forensic applications. Particular attention is dedicated to the use of the 14C bomb-pulse to establish the time of harvest of illicit drugs such as heroin and opium. Preliminary measurements of 14C concentrations in milligram samples taken from seized drugs are presented. 14C bomb-pulse dating can determine whether drug distribution originates from stockpiles or recent manufacture, and support the action of law enforcement authorities against criminal organisations involved in drug trafficking. In addition, we describe the dating of wine vintages for a number of authenticated single label vintage red wines from the Barossa Valley - South Australia. Our results show that radiocarbon dating can be used to accurately determine wine vintages and therefore reveal the addition of unrelated materials of natural and synthetic origin.

  5. Forensic applications of 14C bomb-pulse dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppi, U.; Skopec, Z.; Skopec, J.; Jones, G.; Fink, D.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.; Tuniz, C.; Williams, A.

    2004-01-01

    After a brief review of the basics of 14 C bomb-pulse dating, this paper presents two unique forensic applications. Particular attention is dedicated to the use of the 14 C bomb-pulse to establish the time of harvest of illicit drugs such as heroin and opium. Preliminary measurements of 14 C concentrations in milligram samples taken from seized drugs are presented. 14 C bomb-pulse dating can determine whether drug distribution originates from stockpiles or recent manufacture, and support the action of law enforcement authorities against criminal organisations involved in drug trafficking. In addition, we describe the dating of wine vintages for a number of authenticated single label vintage red wines from the Barossa Valley - South Australia. Our results show that radiocarbon dating can be used to accurately determine wine vintages and therefore reveal the addition of unrelated materials of natural and synthetic origin

  6. Study of thyroid tumors in atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, Ichiro; Shichijo, Kazuko; Ito, Masahiro; Kishikawa, Masao; Mine, Mariko; Ikeda, Takayoshi; Ooya, Seiichi.

    1992-01-01

    Thyroid tumors, which were registered during 16 years from 1973 through 1988 in the Nagasaki tumor tissue registration committee, were examined with the purpose of searching for the relationship between thyroid tumors and A-bombing. One hundred and three A-bomb survivors having an A-bomb survivors 'handbook and 89 non-exposed persons born before August 9, 1945 in Nagasaki City were enrolled in the present study. The A-bomb survivors were divided into three groups: people exposed at >2,000 m from the hypocenter (n=20), those exposed at ≤2,000 m (n=68), and those entered the city early after A-bombing (n=15). Thyroid tumors examined were: thyroid carcinoma, nodular goiter, thyroid adenoma and malignant lymphoma. Crude incidence rate and relative risk of thyroid cancer were higher in all exposed groups, except for the ≤2,000 m group of males, than the non-exposed group. In particular, the >2,000 m group had significantly higher incidence of thyroid cancer, irrespective of sex. These findings confirmed the previous data for the higher incidence of thyroid cancer in A-bomb survivors exposed to higher doses of radiation. According to age, thyroid cancer was the most common in their sixth decade of life in the exposed group and in their fifth decade of life in the non-exposed group. Histologically, follicular carcinoma occupied higher incidence in the exposed group (19.2%) than the non-exposed group (8.7%). (N.K.)

  7. Relationship between radioactivity from atomic bomb and leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Toranosuke

    1975-01-01

    A study was made on the atomic bomb survivors in whom leukemia subsquently occurred in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The incidence of leukemia averaged 30 per one million people 5--26 years after they had been exposed to less than one rad. Among the atomic bomb survivors who had been exposed to 1--99 rads, leukemia occurred within 5--10 years, which showed a slightly higher incidence than that among those who had been exposed to one rad. Among survivors exposed to more than 100 rads, leukemia occurred within 5--10 years on an average of 900 per one million, which was more than 30 times as high as that among those with one rad. Among those aged 15--29 years at the time of bombing, it was high 10--15 years afterward, but was low among those aged 30--44 years at the time of bombing. Among people over 45 years, it became high within 10--15 years, and was still high 15--26 years after bombing. It was suspected that it took 2--3 years after the bombing to develop. From 1950 to 1961, among survivors with exposure to more than 50 rads in Hiroshima, there was a higher incidence of leukemia than there was in Nagasaki. This suggests that neutron-rays have a stronger effect on the incidence of leukemia than have γ-rays. Survivors who had been exposed to neutron-rays in Hiroshima, often had acute or chronic leukemia. On the other hand, some of the survivors with exposure to γ-rays in Nagasaki had only acute leukemia. (Kanao, N.)

  8. The Bali bombing: the Royal Darwin Hospital response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Didier J; Stephens, Dianne; Fisher, Dale A; Spain, Brian; Read, David J; Notaras, Len

    2003-10-06

    After the Bali bombing on 12 October 2002, injured Australians were evacuated to Darwin. The first patients arrived at the Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH) 26 hours after the blasts. RDH assessed and resuscitated 61 patients (including 20 intensive care patients, with 15 requiring ventilation, 19 surgery and more than 20 escharotomies). RDH evacuated 48 patients to burns centres around Australia within 36 hours of the first patient arrivals at the hospital and 62 hours after the bomb blasts. The response was successful, but improvements are needed in coordination between the different groups involved in such operations.

  9. Why didn't Hitler get the atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevassus-au-Louis, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    This bibliographical note presents a book in which the author reports his historical studies on the Nazi's nuclear activities as, by the end of the 1930's, Germany was probably the leader in this domain. He mentions and describes the various programs that were launched between 1939 and 1945, discusses some evidences related to the fact that the Germans probably tried to master nuclear energy production, and that they might have tested a weapon containing fissile materials (probably a dirty bomb). The author analyses the reasons of the failure of this nuclear sector: a lack of organization, war and bombings, and a relative lack of interest of political authorities

  10. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb. 1999 edition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosling, F.G.

    1999-01-01

    ``The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb`` is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  11. The development of the atomic bomb, Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, R.W.

    1993-11-01

    The historical presentation begins with details of the selection of Los Alamos as the site of the Army installation. Wartime efforts of the Army Corps of Engineers, and scientists to include the leader of Los Alamos, Robert Oppenheimer are presented. The layout and construction of the facilities are discussed. The monumental design requirements of the bombs are discussed, including but not limited to the utilization of the second choice implosion method of detonation, and the production of bomb-grade nuclear explosives. The paper ends with a philosophical discussion on the use of nuclear weapons.

  12. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb. 1999 edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, F. G.

    1999-01-01

    "The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb" is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  13. Lack of tissue renewal in human adult Achilles tendon is revealed by nuclear bomb (14)C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, Katja Maria; Schjerling, Peter; Heinemeier, Jan

    2013-01-01

    the 14C bomb-pulse method. This method takes advantage of the dramatic increase in atmospheric levels of 14C, produced by nuclear bomb tests in 1955-1963, which is reflected in all living organisms. Levels of 14C were measured in 28 forensic samples of Achilles tendon core and 4 skeletal muscle samples...... is revealed by nuclear bomb 14C....

  14. Comparative Test of the Effectiveness of Large Bombs against Reinforced Concrete Structures (Anglo-American Bomb Tests-Project RUBY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1946-10-31

    be expected to perforate up to 15’-l0" of reinforced concreto at this striking velocity. (3) The rocket assisted 4500-lb. Disney bomb, with a striking...to 30 doegre until it is brought to reot in the esneret or ele perforates the slabe (4) The reliability of the arm~t d firing systen of the Disne...Field, Florida. 1. GEMAL: a. Descriotion.-This test is a joint British-American project tc letni el concrete penetrating performance of large bombs

  15. Satisfaction in life of elder A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mine, Mariko; Okumura, Yutaka; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yokota, Kenichi

    1992-01-01

    1500 A-bomb survivor aged more than 65 are sampled and the questionnaire was performed by mailing. 1329 (88.6 %) responded and 937 from the age less than 80 were statistically anylized. Fairly good satisfaction was felt on their daily life, including dwelling, income, work, health and family. (J.P.N.)

  16. Bombing beyond Democracy. Remembering the Ruins of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birthe

    2013-01-01

    ? And which lesson is to be learnt by this – does it affect the European conduct in international conflicts? In order to provide some background information to understand this debate, the paper will give an outline of the background and the extent of the bombings, including the development of the concept...

  17. Current trend of malignant neoplasms among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tadao

    1984-01-01

    A survey was made on 7,589 admitted patients and 1,965 autopsy cases. The overall incidence of malignant neoplasms tended to decrease in the group exposed to atomic bomb within 2 km in autopsy cases and to increase in admitted patients. The incidence of pulmonary cancer tended to increase in both autopsy cases and admitted patients. The incidence of gastric cancer tended to increase up to 1975, and thereafter tended to decrease. The incidence of liver cancer tended to increase in both autopsy cases and admitted patients, which was marked in males. The incidence of leukemia was high in the group exposed to atomic bomb within 2 km in autopsy cases, and in the group within 1 km and the group which entered the city after the explosion in admitted patients. The incidence of malignant lymphoma tended to decrease, and the incidence of carcinoma of the colon tended to gradually increase in both autopsy cases and admitted patients. The incidence of multiple carcinomas tended to increase in both atomic bomb exposed group and non-exposed group, being higher in atomic bomb group than in non-exposed group. The incidence of breast cancer became constant since 1970. The incidence of carcinoma of the thyroid gland tended to decrease, although it was high in the group exposed near the explosion. (Namekawa, K.)

  18. Characterising argon-bomb balloons for high-speed photography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivier, M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A method to optimise the geometry, explosive charge mass and volume of an argon bomb for specific lighting requirements has been proposed. The method is specifically aimed at applications that require photographic diagnostics with ultra-high speed...

  19. Accurate dating with radiocarbon from the atom bomb tests

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vogel, JC

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The artificial radiocarbon produced by the thermonuclear bomb tests in the 1950s and 1960s significantly increased the level of C-14 in the environment. A detailed record of the subsequent changes in the C-14 concentration of the atmosphere can...

  20. Malignant Lymphoma in an Atomic-bomb Survivor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chia Lee

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Atomic bomb survivors outside of Japan are few and often hard to follow-up. Spinal malignant lymphoma among these survivors is rare in established studies from Japan or the United States. Here, we report an 81-year-old woman, who experienced the atomic bomb explosion in Nagasaki when she was 19 years old, who presented with papillary thyroid carcinoma when she was 70 years old. Both follicular lymphoma over the right elbow region and vertebral malignant lymphoma were found when she turned 81 years old. Bone scan did not show any increased uptake of isotope. However, thoracolumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple infiltrative soft tissue masses involving vertebral bodies at the T10–11 level. Computed tomography-guided biopsy further showed lymphocyte infiltration. Fortunately, the neurological deficit was improved after chemotherapy. The diagnosis of malignant lymphoma in atomic bomb survivors should be more careful and aggressive, even when their bone scan results show negative findings. In addition, the authors suggest that atomic bomb survivors should be followed-up carefully throughout their entire life.

  1. Proposed Specifications for International Interoperability on Repaired Bomb Damaged Runways

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    ESL-TR-81-03 PROPOSED SPECIFICATIONS FOR INTERNATIONAL INTEROPERABILITY ON REPAIRED BOMB DAMAGED RUNWAYS CALDWELL, LAPSLEY R. LT COL. USAF GERARDI... Lapsley R., Lt Col, USAF xctard,., Anthony G. IN-HOUSE 9. PERFORk, AG’ •)RGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJ :CT, TASKAREA & WORK

  2. Lymphocyte cytotoxicity of colchicine in Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caplan, R.A.; Odoroff, C.L.; Ozaki, Kyoko; Hamilton, H.B.; Finch, S.C.

    1979-07-01

    The cytotoxicity of colchicine for the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 151 Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors and their controls was determined. No radiation effect was found, but modest age-related changes for the initial number of vialble cells and for the cytotoxicity of colchicine were observed. (author)

  3. The development of the first Soviet atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, German A; Ryabev, Lev D

    2001-01-01

    In the late 1930s and early 1940s, two remarkable physical phenomena - the fission of heavy nuclei and the chain fission reaction - were discovered, implying that a new powerful source of energy (nuclear fission energy) might become a practical possibility for mankind. At that time, however, the political situation in the world made the development of the atomic bomb the main objective of nuclear energy research in the countries involved. The first atomic bombs, notoriously used in the war against Japan, were produced by the United States of America only six and a half years after the discovery of fission. Four years later, the first Soviet atomic bomb was tested. This was a major step toward the establishment of nuclear parity which led to stability and global peace and thus greatly influenced the destiny of human kind. Based on documentary materials covering the period from 1939 to 1949, this paper traces the origin and evolution of the physical ideas behind the first Soviet atomic bomb and discusses the most important events associated with the project. (from the history of physics)

  4. Heisenberg's war. The secret history of the German bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, T.

    1993-01-01

    The history of Second World War Germany's 'Uranium Project', which often is referred to as the 'myth of the German atomic bomb', has been attracting the mind's of secret service men, futurologists, historians and journalists since after the end of the war it has become possible to lift the veil of secrecy. Powers book adds another one to the many investigations published since them. His approach to the piece of history starts with Heisenberg's visit to the U.S.A. in summer 1939, describes the plans of the German Heereswaffenamt pursued with the Uranium Project, and their counterpart on the side of the Allied Forces where German scientists, as immigrants in England and in the U.S.A., were doing their best to launch research for the development of an atomic bomb. The end of this 'competition' is marked by the internment of the ten German scientists and bomb specialists in Fall Hall. The leading story of the book centers on the small group of scientists around Heisenberg, who cleverly 'torpedoed' the development of the German atomic bomb in the years from 1939 until 1944. (HP) [de

  5. 3D reconstructions of a controlled bus bombing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara; Hansen, Nikolaj Friis; Hansen, Kamilla Maria

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: to demonstrate the usefulness of 3D reconstructions to better understand the dynamic of a controlled bus bombing. Materials and methods: 3D models of the victims (pigs) were created from post-mortem CT scanning using Mimic software; 3D models of the crime scene (bus) were generated by...

  6. Biplanes and Bombsights, British Bombing in World War I

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    and arrangements had to be made for a large installation of electrical power for workshops and lighting and petrol in order to save transport. The...strategic bombing, assumptions engen - dered and reinforced by official reports, classified analyses, and public bulletins in the years before the Second

  7. Atomic Bomb: Memory and its Power on Japanese Pacifism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    incentives and most importantly any manipulation of the atomic bomb memory. The most devastated members of Japan’s society however, would be the...The Rape of Nanking. New York: Penguin Books, 1998. Chomsky , Noam. Intervention. San Francisco: City Lights Books, 2007. Christopher, Robert C. The

  8. Alabama University Professor's View of the Birmingham Bombing Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents the views of Alabama university scholars regarding the historical significance of the 2001 trial of Thomas Blanton for his role in the Ku Klux Klan bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist church in Birmingham, Alabama thet killed four girls. Their discussions note the need to examine the American judicial system, the weak case against Mr.…

  9. Pre- and post-bomb radiocarbon in fish otoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, John M.

    1993-02-01

    Measurements of radiocarbon in seawater dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), or suitable proxies such as hermatypic corals, are a valuable source of information on carbon flux and ocean circulation. However, knowledge of the global distribution of both pre- and post-bomb radiocarbon is limited due to the sources of these data. Suitable hermatypic corals are restricted to shallow tropical and subtropical waters and oceanographic collections of seawater are prohibitively expensive. What is needed is a proxy for ocean radiocarbon that can be collected at most latitudes and depths, and which can be reliably aged. Here I report accelerator mass spectrometry analyses of radiocarbon from selected regions of fish otoliths and show that such measurements are suitable for determining both pre- and post-bomb radiocarbon in all oceans and at most depths. Radiocarbon data obtained from otoliths can extend our knowledge of carbon flux in the oceans and atmosphere and help to develop further understanding of the fate of atmospheric CO 2 and ocean circulation. The data presented here represent the first pre- and post-bomb time series of radiocarbon levels from temperate waters. Furthermore, I demonstrate that the dramatic increase in radiocarbon in the atmosphere and oceans, attributable to the atmospheric testing of thermonuclear bombs during the 1950's and 1960's, provides a chemical mark on fish otoliths that is suitable for the validation of age in fishes.

  10. Dr. Lytle Adams' incendiary "bat bomb" of World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Arden G; Christen, Joan A

    2004-11-01

    On December 7, 1941, a 60-year old dentist from Irwin, Pennsylvania, Dr. Lytle S. Adams, was driving home from a vacation at Carlsbad Caverns in New Mexico. Hours earlier, he had been gripped with amazement as he witnessed millions of bats exiting the caves of Carlsbad. Listening to his car radio on his return trip, he was shocked to hear that Japan had just attacked Pearl Harbor. Dr. Adams, outraged over this travesty, began to mentally construct a plan for U.S. retaliation. As his thoughts returned to the countless bats that had awed him, he formed a tentative plan: millions of these small, flying mammals could be connected to tiny, time-fused incendiary bombs, and then released to land on the flimsily constructed structures which dotted the cities of Japan. Within a few minutes, the bombs would explode and enflame the entire urban areas. He postulated that these immeasurable numbers of fires, spreading their devastation over such vast areas within Japanese cities would result in the enemy's speedy surrender. This article documents the futile efforts of Dr. Adams, his team and the U.S. government to develop and employ an effective, incendiary bat bomb. The recently developed atom bomb, a far more deadly weapon was used in its place.

  11. Aplastic anemia and related disorders in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, Michito; Tomonaga, Yu; Matsunaga, Masako; Sadamori, Naoki; Ishimaru, Toranosuke.

    1978-01-01

    Whether the incidence of aplastic anemia significantly increases due to the later effect of atomic-bomb radiation was studied. After the data of aplastic anemia which occurred within 1950 - 1973 were evaluated and the diagnoses of the cases were certified, the incidence of aplastic anemia per 109,000 inhabitants of the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki was calculated and compared according to the dose of atomic-bomb radiation. There was no increase in the incidence according to an increase in radiation dose, and there was no fact that aplastic anemia increased in a certain period either. Most of the atomic-bomb survivors who were close to the epicenter and were clinically diagnosed as aplastic anemia had leukemia lesion or myeloid proliferating lesion, and it is likely to be that pathological changes resembling aplastic anemia may appear in a certain phase of myeloid proliferation or as a phenotype of myeloid proliferation. An evaluation was made on cases of aplastic anemia of other groups, but the doses of atomic-bomb radiation which they received were not so much to give effect on the bone marrow except only two cases. (Ueda, J.)

  12. Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: a test or tragedy ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faridah Mohd Idris

    2003-01-01

    Hiroshima and Nagasaki were left as monument by the history of the man civilization. This article discussed some of related issues i.e. the scenarios of the tragedy, the history of atomic bomb - starts with the discovery of neutrons to the day the tragedy happened

  13. The dirty bomb: management of victims of radiological weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Denise; Coleman, Elizabeth Ann

    2003-12-01

    A "dirty bomb," a conventional explosive packed with radioactive material, kills or injures through the initial blast and by airborne radiation and contamination. Adult-health nurses need an understanding of the consequences of blast injuries and radiation exposure, and the management of victims.

  14. Leukemia among a-bomb survivors living in Hiroshima city, 1971-1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Masahito; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Ohkita, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Norihiko

    1980-01-01

    The death from leukemia among Hiroshima citizens from 1971 to 1978 was investigated. The total number of dead citizens was 241, and 64 of them were a-bomb survivors. Thirty-seven of a-bomb survivors were exposed to a-bomb within 2 km from hypocenter. Seventy-seven of remaining 177 citizens were born after the explosion of a-bomb, but they were not children of a-bomb survivors exposed directly to a-bomb. The mortality of a-bomb survivors exposed near the hypocenter was 1.67 (within 2 km) - 2.51 (within 1.5 km) times that of those exposed far from the hypocenter. The mortality of a-bomb survivors exposed within 1.5 km was significantly high. The death risk from leukemia was significantly high in women. The estimated exposure dose was over 1 rad in 25 of abovementioned 37 a-bomb survivors, and it was over 10 rad in 21 and over 100 rad in 10 of 25. Seven of 10 a-bomb survivors exposed over 100 rad were women. The age at the exposure was under 10 years in 1, teens in 1, twenties in 2, and over thirty in 6. The type of leukemia was acute in 8 and chronic in 2. Both types were myelogenous leukemia. Five of these 10 a-bomb survivors died after 1976. (Tsunoda, M.)

  15. Imaginary Savior: the image of the nuclear bomb in Korea, 1945-1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Won

    2009-01-01

    Two atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 brought the unexpected liberation of Korea from the 35-year Japanese occupation. Koreans therefore had a very favorable and positive image of the nuclear bomb and nuclear energy from the beginning. The image of the nuclear bomb as "savior" was strengthened during the Korean War when the United States openly mentioned the possible use of the nuclear bomb against North Korean and Chinese military. After the end of the Korean War in July 1953 South Koreans strongly supported the development of the nuclear bomb in order to deter another North Korean invasion. When the US government provided South Korea with a research nuclear reactor in the late 1950s, most South Koreans hailed it as the first step to developing their own nuclear bomb. This paper will analyze how and why the savior image of the nuclear bomb originated and spread in Korea during the 1950s.

  16. The mental health state of atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, Yoshibumi; Imamura, Yoshihiro; Yoshitake, Kazuyasu; Honda, Sumihisa; Mine, Mariko; Hatada, Keiko; Tomonaga, Masao [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Tagawa, Masuko

    1997-03-01

    Our department of Neuropsychiatry has clarified the clinical features of several mental disorders and surveyed the causes of those disorders from the psychosocial aspect using the methodology of epidemiological psychiatric approach. Using this previous research experience, we began a long-planned study to examine the mental health state of atomic bomb survivors. Fifty-one years have passed since the atomic bombing, and the survivors must have suffered various psychosocial stresses, other than any direct effect on the central nervous system from exposure to radiation, and it is assumed that victims` mental state has been affected in various ways as a result. The subjects of the survey were 7,670 people who had regular health examinations for atomic bomb survivors during the study period of three years and who consented to participate in the study. Of the total, 226 subjects were selected for a second phase according to the results of the General Health Questionnaire 12-item Version which was used in the first phase of the survey. The results were as follows: 1. The distance from the hypocenter was related to the degree of ill health, and the percentage of people with a high score was greater among those exposed to the atomic bomb in proximity to the hypocenter. 2. 14.6% of the subjects were diagnosed as having some kind of mental disorders according to clinical interviews by trained psychiatrists. These results had not expected prior to the study. On the based of the study, we will try to establish a mental health support system for atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  17. Automatic behavior sensing for a bomb-detecting dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Nans, Adam; Talke, Kurt; Candela, Paul; Everett, H. R.

    2015-05-01

    Bomb-detecting dogs are trained to detect explosives through their sense of smell and often perform a specific behavior to indicate a possible bomb detection. This behavior is noticed by the dog handler, who confirms the probable explosives, determines the location, and forwards the information to an explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) team. To improve the speed and accuracy of this process and better integrate it with the EOD team's robotic explosive disposal operation, SPAWAR Systems Center Pacific has designed and prototyped an electronic dog collar that automatically tracks the dog's location and attitude, detects the indicative behavior, and records the data. To account for the differences between dogs, a 5-minute training routine can be executed before the mission to establish initial values for the k-mean clustering algorithm that classifies a specific dog's behavior. The recorded data include GPS location of the suspected bomb, the path the dog took to approach this location, and a video clip covering the detection event. The dog handler reviews and confirms the data before it is packaged up and forwarded on to the EOD team. The EOD team uses the video clip to better identify the type of bomb and for awareness of the surrounding environment before they arrive at the scene. Before the robotic neutralization operation commences at the site, the location and path data (which are supplied in a format understandable by the next-generation EOD robots—the Advanced EOD Robotic System) can be loaded into the robotic controller to automatically guide the robot to the bomb site. This paper describes the project with emphasis on the dog-collar hardware, behavior-classification software, and feasibility testing.

  18. Leukemia among atomic bomb survivors during the 1980s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusumi, Shizuyo; Matsuo, Tatsuki

    1990-01-01

    On the basis of the dosimetry system 1986, exposure doses were determined in a cohort of 86,502 subjects for the Life Span Study during the period 1950-1985. A total of 248 people were found to develop leukemia in Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities. This is an analysis of the 248 patients with leukemia in connection with exposure doses, years after A-bombing, age at the time of A-bombing, relative risk, and background. An average exposure dose was 0.20 Gy for Hiroshima and 0.22 Gy for Nagasaki. Relative risk for leukemia tended to show a linear increase in proportion to exposure doses. This was significant for acute myelocytic leukemia (AML), regardless of whether A-bomb survivors came from Hiroshima or Nagasaki. The younger the age at the time of A-bombing was, the higher excess relative risk for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) was. For AML, however, it was independent of the age at that time. These findings were similar in Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors, irrespective of age. As for non-exposed group, the incidence of CML was three times higher in Hiroshima citizen than Nagasaki citizen. Similarly, Hiroshima citizen had a 1.6 fold incidence of AML. There was no significant difference in the incidence of ALL between the cities. The incidences of both AML and ALL tended to increase more and more with aging, but the prevalences tended to increase in younger generation. An increased incidence of CML was associated with aging alone. (N.K.)

  19. The mental health state of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakane, Yoshibumi; Imamura, Yoshihiro; Yoshitake, Kazuyasu; Honda, Sumihisa; Mine, Mariko; Hatada, Keiko; Tomonaga, Masao; Tagawa, Masuko

    1997-01-01

    Our department of Neuropsychiatry has clarified the clinical features of several mental disorders and surveyed the causes of those disorders from the psychosocial aspect using the methodology of epidemiological psychiatric approach. Using this previous research experience, we began a long-planned study to examine the mental health state of atomic bomb survivors. Fifty-one years have passed since the atomic bombing, and the survivors must have suffered various psychosocial stresses, other than any direct effect on the central nervous system from exposure to radiation, and it is assumed that victims' mental state has been affected in various ways as a result. The subjects of the survey were 7,670 people who had regular health examinations for atomic bomb survivors during the study period of three years and who consented to participate in the study. Of the total, 226 subjects were selected for a second phase according to the results of the General Health Questionnaire 12-item Version which was used in the first phase of the survey. The results were as follows: 1. The distance from the hypocenter was related to the degree of ill health, and the percentage of people with a high score was greater among those exposed to the atomic bomb in proximity to the hypocenter. 2. 14.6% of the subjects were diagnosed as having some kind of mental disorders according to clinical interviews by trained psychiatrists. These results had not expected prior to the study. On the based of the study, we will try to establish a mental health support system for atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  20. Destroying of chemical and oil industry, bombing of energy sources and use of depleted uranium ammunition during NATO bombing in FR Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antic, D. P.

    2002-01-01

    During the NATO bombing of the FR Yugoslavia from March 24 to June 10, 1999, according to NATO's data, there were 34 250 takeoffs of the 1200 aircrafts; 367 000 tonnes of kerosine were consumed; there were 400 Tomahawk cruise missiles and 130 air-to-ground missiles. It is estimated that 22 000-79 000 tonnes of explosives were dropped; in addition to 20 000 smart bombs and 5000 conventional bombs of various weight and purposes. The bombing had the characteristics of an ecological war, among other things. During the air strikes A-10 aircrafts fired shells with depleted uranium from 30 mm guns. According to NATO estimates, around 31 000 projectiles were fired (298 g of depleted uranium for each bullet, and more than 10 tonnes of uranium-238 as a contaminating agent), and according to the Yugoslav Army estimated, around 50 000 were fired. Some radiological, chemical and ethical consequences of NATO bombing in FR Yugoslavia are reviewed. (author)

  1. A review of colorectal cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Susumu; Sawai, Terumitsu; Ishii, Toshiyo; Eida, Kazuyuki; Noguchi, Kyoichi; Takahara, Osamu

    1989-01-01

    Clinical and pathological characteristics of patients with colorectal cancer amongst atomic bomb survivors, who had undergone operations from 1971∼1984, have been reviewed and compared with that of a control group. The survival rate of the atomic bomb survivors over the age of 60 years was statistically better than that of the same age group in the controls. In this age bracket, the control group were in a more advanced stage of the disease than were the survivors, this accounting for the reason why the survivors had better prognosis. Further, the fact that the survivors continually have received more medical attention than have the aged in the control group affects this statistic. (author)

  2. Food habits in atomic bomb survivors suffering from malignant neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Kazue; Inoue, Hisako; Uchino, Chito

    1984-01-01

    Food habits were surveyed in patients admitted to 13 hospitals in Nagasaki prefecture and other prefectures to compare the incidence of malignant neoplasms according to the food intake between atomic bomb exposed group and non-exposed group. The incidence of malignant neoplasms was significantly higher in male patients having the low intake of milk and salted fish than in those having the high intake of them in atomic bomb exposed group, while it was significantly higher in male patients having the low intake of potatoes and milk and in female patients having the low intake of boiled fish paste than in those having the high intake of them in non-exposed group. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Micronucleus in A-bomb survivors and in thorotrast patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K.; Kawakami, M.; Izumi, T.; Shigeta, C.; Takahashi, H.; Ohkita, T. (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

    1980-11-01

    Micronucleus and Howell-Jolly (H-J) bodies in bone marrow and in peripheral blood were investigated for 31 a-bomb survivors, and 21 thorotrast injected patients with 7 controls. The rate of micronucleus in myeloerythroblast was 0.263% for a-bomb survivors and 0.288% for thorotrast patients, which were higher than the controls, 0.050%. Correlations of micronucleus appearance with the incidence of chromosome aberrations and with estimated exposure dose were observed, suggesting that the micronucleus appearance could be an indicator of radiation damage. Also the micronucleus appearance in routine examinations could suggest the presence of chromosome aberrations. In the case of thorotrast patients H-J bodies appeared in high rate.

  4. Effects of radiation on aging in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Shunzo; Miyajima, Junko; Ichimaru, Michito

    1980-01-01

    Effect of radiation on aging was studied for 122 female a-bomb survivors exposed to more than 100 rad. Correlations of grades of external appearances, Physiological functions, and hematological features with age and radiation were investigated. Several parameters were used for multiple regression analysis, including hair loss, skin elasticity, grip strength, blood pressure, potassium content etc. The comparison of the estimated age of the exposed group and unexposed one showed no statistically significant difference. (Nakanishi, T.)

  5. Autopsy cases of hepatocellular carcinoma in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujihara, Megumu; Kurihara, Kanji; Aimitsu, Shiomi; Yukaya, Hirofumi; Hamada, Tadao.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1956, 388 autopsy cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been obtained at the Hiroshima Red Cross and A-Bomb Survivors Hospital, which consisted of those of proximately exposed 52 A-bomb survivors (mean age, 63.8 years), 105 distally exposed A-bomb survivors (mean age, 64.2 years), and the other 231 non-exposed patients (mean age, 60.6 years). Since 1985, the incidence of HCC tended to be higher in both proximately and distally exposed groups than the non-exposed group. There was no consistent tendency for the incidence of HCC by ages at autopsy and A-bombing. The incidence of liver cirrhosis was approximately 2 times higher in males than females in the non-exposed group, although no gender difference existed after 1981. In the exposed group, the incidence was similar in male and female groups. Approximately 90% of HCC patients had coexistent liver cirrhosis. Liver cirrhosis was associated with HCC in 50-60%. No significant differences in these incidences were observed between the exposed and non-exposed groups. The proportion of liver cirrhosis associated with HCC became constant in patients over the age of 40 in the non-exposed group. In the exposed group, on the other hand, the proportion reached the peak in those in their fifties and sixties. Survival time tended to be longer in the exposed group than the non-exposed group. The patients in the non-exposed group tended to have histologically atypical type and metastases, as compared with those in the exposed group. (N.K.)

  6. Suicide in paradise: aftermath of the Bali bombings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani, L K; Page, A; Lesmana, C B J; Jennaway, M; Basudewa, I D G; Taylor, R

    2009-08-01

    The relationship between the Bali (Indonesia) bombings of October 2002 and suicide has not previously been investigated, despite anecdotal evidence of the economic and psychological consequences of these attacks. Suicide rates were calculated over the period 1994-2006 in three Bali regencies to determine whether suicide increased in the period following the first Bali bombings. Poisson regression and time-series models were used to assess the change in suicide rates by sex, age and area in the periods before and after October 2002. Suicide rates (age-adjusted) increased in males from an average of 2.84 (per 100 000) in the period pre-2002 to 8.10 in the period post-2002, and for females from 1.51 to 3.68. The greatest increases in suicide in the post-2002 period were in the age groups 20-29 and 60 years, for both males and females. Tourist arrivals fell significantly after the bombings, and addition of tourism to models reduced relative risk estimates of suicide, suggesting that some of the increase may be attributable to the socio-economic effects of declines in tourism. There was an almost fourfold increase in male suicide risk and a threefold increase in female suicide risk in the period following the 2002 bombings in Bali. Trends in tourism did not account for most of the observed increases. Other factors such as indirect socio-economic effects and Balinese notions of collective guilt and anxieties relating to ritual neglect are important in understanding the rise in suicide in the post-2002 period.

  7. Ancestry Analysis in the 11-M Madrid Bomb Attack Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Christopher; Prieto, Lourdes; Fondevila, Manuel; Salas, Antonio; G?mez-Tato, Antonio; ?lvarez-Dios, Jos?; Alonso, Antonio; Blanco-Verea, Alejandro; Bri?n, Mar?a; Montesino, Marta; Carracedo, ?ngel; Lareu, Mar?a Victoria

    2009-01-01

    The 11-M Madrid commuter train bombings of 2004 constituted the second biggest terrorist attack to occur in Europe after Lockerbie, while the subsequent investigation became the most complex and wide-ranging forensic case in Spain. Standard short tandem repeat (STR) profiling of 600 exhibits left certain key incriminatory samples unmatched to any of the apprehended suspects. A judicial order to perform analyses of unmatched samples to differentiate European and North African ancestry became a...

  8. Cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors exposed as children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hitomi; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Miyao, Masaru; Fukuda, Hiromi; Sato, Yuzo; Oshida, Yoshiharu

    2012-05-01

    To compare cancer mortality among A-bomb survivors exposed as children with cancer mortality among an unexposed control group (the entire population of Japan, JPCG). The subjects were the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivor groups (0-14 years of age in 1945) reported in life span study report 12 (follow-up years were from 1950 to 1990), and a control group consisting of the JPCG. We estimated the expected number of deaths due to all causes and cancers of various causes among the exposed survivors who died in the follow-up interval, if they had died with the same mortality as the JPCG (0-14 years of age in 1945). We calculated the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of A-bomb survivors in comparison with the JPCG. SMRs were significantly higher in exposed boys overall for all deaths, all cancers, leukemia, and liver cancer, and for exposed girls overall for all cancers, solid cancers, liver cancer, and breast cancer. In boys, SMRs were significantly higher for all deaths and liver cancer even in those exposed to very low doses, and for all cancers, solid cancers, and liver cancer in those exposed to low doses. In girls, SMRs were significantly higher for liver cancer and uterine cancer in those exposed to low doses, and for leukemia, solid cancers, stomach cancer, and breast cancer in those exposed to high doses. We calculated the SMRs for the A-bomb survivors versus JPCG in childhood and compared them with a true non-exposed group. A notable result was that SMRs in boys exposed to low doses were significantly higher for solid cancer.

  9. Chromosome survey for children of A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awa, Akio

    1992-01-01

    To investigate chromosomes from children of A-bomb survivors, cytogenetic survey has been started in 1967 by the ABCC and completed in 1985 by the succeeding RERF. This paper is designed to overview the cytogenetic survey and to discuss the cytogenetic effects of A-bomb radiation. A cohort of 16,298 children of A-bomb survivors, which were collected from mortality survey population in 1974, was enrolled in this survey and was divided into two groups: the proximally exposed group (n=8,322, whose parents exposed to estimated doses of 0.01 Gy or more within 2,000 m from the hypocenter) and the distally exposed group (n=7,976, those exposed to 0.005 Gy or less far from 2,500 m or not in the city). Three chromosomal aberrations were identified: sex chromosome aberrations consisting mainly of XYY, XXY, and mosaic; structural abnormality of autosomes consisting mainly of translocation and inversion; and trisomy of autosomes. Overall, the incidence of chromosomal aberrations was higher in the distally exposed group (6.39%) than the proximally exposed group (5.17%). According to the type of chromosomal aberrations, the incidences of both sex chromosomes and structural abnormality of autosomes were slightly higher in the distally exposed group (0.30% and 0.34%) than the proximally exposed group (0.23% and 0.28%). Trisomy of autosomes was identified in only one child in the proximally exposed group. These findings failed to demonstrate the rationale for the cytogenetic effects of A-bomb radiation; however, cytogenetic risk of radiation has not been denied completely. (N.K.)

  10. Surveys right after the atomic bombing and a relief squad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mine, Mariko [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-12-01

    An outline of four survey reports right after the atomic bombing in Nagasaki and Hiroshima is introduced. The report of Manhattan District Atomic Bomb Investigating Groups: The subjects of this survey were 900 inpatients in Nagasaki (for 16 days from September 20) and Hiroshima (for 5 days from October 3). Two hundreds and forty-nine patients (16%) died. In cases died without injury, the severe symptoms were alopecia, purpura, hemorrhage, oral cavity and pharynx lesion, vomiting, diarrhea and fever. The residual radioactivity measured at six weeks later was 6-25 roentgen in Hiroshima and 30-110 roentgen in Nagasaki (Nishiyama riverhead area). These values were lower than the predicted value from the clinical consequence. The report of Joint Commission for the Investigation of the Atomic Bomb: Following the above survey, about 6500 subjects were investigated both in Nagasaki and Hiroshima. Incidence of alopecia was investigated by shielded situation at a spot of 2.1 to 2.5 km from a blast center. It was 7.2% of outdoors (shielded: 7.3%, non-shielded: 17.4%) and 2.9% of indoors. The report of the Special Committee for Atomic Bomb Casualty Investigation and Research of the Scientific Research Council of Japan: General part of the report consists of medical part and physical part, and reports from each university were classified and listed in the supplement. Survey of Nagasaki Medical College (not in public): About 8000 subjects were investigated from October to December. Data were gathered up about lethality, time of death, injury and radiation sickness, etc. There was also autograph of a relief squad of the Nagasaki Medical College. (K.H.)

  11. Ellerman bombs and UV bursts: reconnection at different atmospheric layers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansteen, V. H.; Ortiz-Carbonell, A. N.; Rouppe van der Voort, L.

    2017-12-01

    The emergence of magnetic flux through the photosphere and into the outer solar atmosphere produces, amongst many other phenomena, the appearance of Ellerman bombs (EBs) in the photosphere. EBs are observed in the wings of H(alpha) and are highly likely to be due to reconnection in the photosphere, below the chromospheric canopy. However, signs of the reconnection process are also observed in several other spectral lines, typical of the chromosphere or transition region. An example are the UV bursts observed in the transition region lines of Si IV. In this work we analyze high cadence coordinated observations between the 1-m Swedish Solar Telescope and the IRIS spacecraft in order to study the possible relationship between reconnection events at different layers in the atmosphere, and in particular, the timing history between them. High cadence, high resolution H-alpha images from the SST provide us with the positions, timings and trajectories of Ellerman bombs in an emerging flux region. Simultaneous co-aligned IRIS slit-jaw images at 1400 and 1330 A and detailed Si IV spectra from the fast spectrograph raster allow us to study the transition region counterparts of those photospheric Ellerman bombs. Our main goal is to study whether there is a temporal relationship between the appearance of an EB and the appearance of a UV burst. Eventually we would like to investigate whether reconnection happens at discrete heights, or as a reconnection sheet spanning several layers at the same time.

  12. Profiles of non-cancer diseases in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazunori Kodama; Saeko Fujiwara; Michiko Yamada; Fumiyoshi Kasagi; Yukiko Shimizu; Itsuzo Shigematsu

    1996-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of a recent study of atomic bomb radiation and non-cancer diseases in the AHS (Adult Health Study) population by the RERF (Radiation Effects Research Foundation) along with a general discussion of previous studies. Recent studies have demonstrated almost certainly that uterine myoma is more frequent among atomic bomb survivors. It cannot, at present, be concluded that uterine myoma is caused by radiation, because there are no reported studies of other exposed populations. Further analyses including the role of confounding factors as well as molecular approaches are needed to verify this radiation effect. The relationship between atomic bomb radiation exposure and hyperparathyroidism can now be said to have been established in view of the strong dose response, the agreement with results of studies of other populations, the high risk in the younger survivors, and the biological plausibility. Future studies by molecular approaches, etc., are needed to determine the pathogenic mechanism. Among other benign tumours, a dose response has been demonstrated for tumours of the thyroid, stomach and ovary. Although fewer studies have been conducted than for cancer, a clear association between radiation and various benign tumours is emerging. 79 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  13. Hyperparathyroidism among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, 1986-88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Ezaki, Haruo; Sposto, R.; Akiba, Suminori; Neriishi, Kazuo; Kodama, Kazunori; Hosoda, Yutaka; Shimaoka, Katsutaro; Yoshimitsu, Kengo.

    1990-10-01

    During the two-year period from August 1986 to July 1988, the prevalence of hyperparathyroidism (HPT) was determined among A-bomb survivors and unexposed control subjects in Hiroshima. The diagnosis of HPT was determined biochemically, based upon the presence of consistent hypercalcemia and elevated serum parathyroid hormone levels. Among a population of 4,675 individuals (1,527 males, 3,148 females), primary HPT was diagnosed in 22 (3 males, 19 females). Of these, 8 underwent surgery, of whom 6 had a single parathyroid adenoma and 2 had parathyroid hyperplasia. HPT was more prevalent among the A-bomb survivors who received higher radiation doses (p <.001 for linear trend). The prevalence rates predicted from the model were 0.204% (±0.094%) at 0 Gy and 0.893% (±0.237%) at 1 Gy. The background rate of HPT did not differ significantly by sex or by age at the time of the bombing, although the effect of radiation exposure was greater for individuals exposed at a younger age (p <.01). (author)

  14. Radiation therapy among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkston, J.A.; Antoku, Shigetoshi; Russell, W.J.

    1980-10-01

    In the continuing evaluations of atomic bomb survivors for late radiation effects, not only doses from the A-bombs but those from other radiation sources must be considered, for the latter may be concomitantly acting factors causing bias among these investigations. In the present study, among 73 Hiroshima and 22 Nagasaki Adult Health Study (AHS) subjects who reported receiving radiation therapy, from 1970 through 1979, the medical records of 72 and 20, respectively, were reviewed, and 41 Hiroshima and 14 Nagasaki subjects were confirmed to have received radiation therapy. The data obtained in the present study were pooled with those of the previous investigation on radiation therapy exposures of AHS subjects prior to 1970. A total of 190 subjects have been documented as receiving radiation therapy and their doses were estimated. Energies used in treatments and diseases treated are discussed. Malignancies developed subsequent to radiation therapy in seven cases; five after treatment for malignancies and two after treatment for benign diseases. Neoplasms of 12 AHS subjects may have been induced by earlier radiation therapy; 5 in the earlier study and 7 in the present one. These investigations underscore the need for continued documentation of exposures to ionizing radiation for medical reasons, especially from sources incurring relatively high doses. Bias in assessments of late radiation effects among A-bomb survivors can thus be avoided. (author)

  15. Leukemia in Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors from 1946 to 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkita, Takeshi

    1976-01-01

    In five recent years, 134 deaths from leukemia among Hiroshima citizen were recorded. Of these, 23 cases (17 acute and 6 chronic types) were atomic bomb survivors exposed within 2,000 m of the hypocenter. Fifteen of them (65%) were over 60 years of age. The frequency of chronic lymphocytic leukemia was still low. Although the risk of leukemia was greatly reduced after 1961, and the frequency of chronic granulocytic leukemia (one of the most characteristic type of Hiroshima atomic bomb-induced leukemia) was also decreased, the death rate from leukemia among survivors exposed within 2,000 m or 1,500 m from the hypocenter was about 3 to 4 times higher than the mean death rate in all Japan. Therefore, careful and long-range follow-up surveillance should be continued. A brief review was also made of relevant studies such as the influence of environmental and host factors in the epidemiology of leukemia, the incidence of leukemia in children exposed in utero, and leukemia in offspring of atomic bomb survivors. (Evans, J.)

  16. Patenting the bomb: nuclear weapons, intellectual property, and technological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellerstein, Alex

    2008-03-01

    During the course of the Manhattan Project, the U.S. government secretly attempted to acquire a monopoly on the patent rights for inventions used in the production of nuclear weapons and nuclear energy. The use of patents as a system of control, while common for more mundane technologies, would seem at first glance to conflict with the regimes of secrecy that have traditionally been associated with nuclear weapons. In explaining the origins and operations of the Manhattan Project patent system, though, this essay argues that the utilization of patents was an ad hoc attempt at legal control of the atomic bomb by Manhattan Project administrators, focused on the monopolistic aspects of the patent system and preexisting patent secrecy legislation. From the present perspective, using patents as a method of control for such weapons seems inadequate, if not unnecessary; but at the time, when the bomb was a new and essentially unregulated technology, patents played an important role in the thinking of project administrators concerned with meaningful postwar control of the bomb.

  17. A synthetic medical and sociological study of A-bomb exposed twin, 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shoji; Satow, Yukio; Kyo, Taiichi

    1984-01-01

    The status of A-bomb exposure and family or relative relationship were investigated in seven twin pairs exposed to A-bomb (14 survivors). The survivors ranged in age between 4 and 24 years when they were exposed to A-bomb. Twins' relationship was comparatively strong. Both of the twins who were exposed to A-bomb tended to be closely connected with each other because of the fearful experience of A-bomb exposure and the subsequent hard social life. Even though one of the pair was not exposed to A-bomb, he (she) was likely to continue to help the other for a long time to restore from the disaster. (Namekawa, K.)

  18. Colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Shimizu, Yukiko

    1984-01-01

    Of 108,739 atomic-bomb (A-bomb) victims enrolled in the population of life span survey by Radiation Effects Research Foundation, 730 victims from October 1950 to December 1980 were selected as subjects of colorectal cancer based on death certificates, autopsy and operative findings, and clinicopathological reconfirmation of colorectal cancer. Tentative dose decided in 1965 (T65D) was used to estimate radiation doses of A-bomb victims. Although the incidence of colon cancer was found to be related to radiation, the relation of the incidence of rectal cancer to radiation was not confirmed. Radiation effects were dependent on the age of A-bomb victims at the time of the bombing, which was noted in A-bomb victims aged less than twenty years at that time. Dose-response relationship was found in cases of cancer of the sigmoid colon. Histological types of cancer were independent of radiation doses. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. Leukemia, malignant lymphoma and multiple myeloma in atomic bomb survivors treated in this hospital lately

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimi, Masanobu; Orimen, Akio; Ota, Takanori; Aisaka, Tadakazu

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes atomic bomb survivors with leukemia and various leukemia like diseases in Hiroshima City Funairi Hospital. The patients who had been exposed near the bombed area (1 - 3.4 km) consisted of 3 with leukemia, 4 with malignant lymphoma and 2 with multiple myeloma. These diseases seems to tend to be still increased now in the survivors exposed near the bombed area. (Serizawa, K.)

  20. Research on Semi-automatic Bomb Fetching for an EOD Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Jun

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available An EOD robot system, SUPER-PLUS, which has a novel semi-automatic bomb fetching function is presented in this paper. With limited support of human, SUPER-PLUS scans the cluttered environment with a wrist-mounted laser distance sensor and plans the manipulator a collision free path to fetch the bomb. The model construction of manipulator, bomb and environment, C-space map, path planning and the operation procedure are introduced in detail. The semi-automatic bomb fetching function has greatly improved the operation performance of EOD robot.

  1. Research on Semi-Automatic Bomb Fetching for an EOD Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Jian-Jun

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An EOD robot system, SUPER-PLUS, which has a novel semi-automatic bomb fetching function is presented in this paper. With limited support of human, SUPER-PLUS scans the cluttered environment with a wrist-mounted laser distance sensor and plans the manipulator a collision free path to fetch the bomb. The model construction of manipulator, bomb and environment, C-space map, path planning and the operation procedure are introduced in detail. The semi-automatic bomb fetching function has greatly improved the operation performance of EOD robot.

  2. The cetene scale and the induction period preceding the spontaneous ignition of diesel fuels in bombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailova, M N; Neumann, M B

    1936-01-01

    In the present report a comparison is made between the scale obtained with mixtures of cetane and l-methyl naphthalene in a bomb, and that obtained with the same fuels in a Waukesha engine. The tests were conducted in a metal bomb heated by a Nichrome spiral. The fuel was injected into the bomb from a Bosch jet by means of a specially constructed plunger pump. The instant injection and the pressure curve in the bomb were registered by a beam of light which was reflected from a mirror connected to the needle of the jet and to a membrane indicator.

  3. 360° FILM BRINGS BOMBED CHURCH TO LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kwiatek

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how a computer-generated reconstruction of a church can be adapted to create a panoramic film that is presented in a panoramic viewer and also on a wrap-around projection system. It focuses on the fundamental principles of creating 360º films, not only in 3D modelling software, but also presents how to record 360º video using panoramic cameras inside the heritage site. These issues are explored in a case study of Charles Church in Plymouth, UK that was bombed in 1941 and has never been rebuilt. The generation of a 3D model of the bombed church started from the creation of five spherical panoramas and through the use of Autodesk ImageModeler software. The processed files were imported and merged together in Autodesk 3ds Max where a visualisation of the ruin was produced. A number of historical images were found and this collection enabled the process of a virtual reconstruction of the site. The aspect of merging two still or two video panoramas (one from 3D modelling software, the other one recorded on the site from the same locations or with the same trajectories is also discussed. The prototype of 360º non-linear film tells a narrative of a wartime wedding that occurred in this church. The film was presented on two 360º screens where members of the audience could make decisions on whether to continue the ceremony or whether to run away when the bombing of the church starts. 3D modelling software made this possible to render a number of different alternati ves (360º images and 360º video. Immersive environments empower the visitor to imagine the building before it was destroyed.

  4. 360° Film Brings Bombed Church to Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, K.

    2011-09-01

    This paper explores how a computer-generated reconstruction of a church can be adapted to create a panoramic film that is presented in a panoramic viewer and also on a wrap-around projection system. It focuses on the fundamental principles of creating 360º films, not only in 3D modelling software, but also presents how to record 360º video using panoramic cameras inside the heritage site. These issues are explored in a case study of Charles Church in Plymouth, UK that was bombed in 1941 and has never been rebuilt. The generation of a 3D model of the bombed church started from the creation of five spherical panoramas and through the use of Autodesk ImageModeler software. The processed files were imported and merged together in Autodesk 3ds Max where a visualisation of the ruin was produced. A number of historical images were found and this collection enabled the process of a virtual reconstruction of the site. The aspect of merging two still or two video panoramas (one from 3D modelling software, the other one recorded on the site) from the same locations or with the same trajectories is also discussed. The prototype of 360º non-linear film tells a narrative of a wartime wedding that occurred in this church. The film was presented on two 360º screens where members of the audience could make decisions on whether to continue the ceremony or whether to run away when the bombing of the church starts. 3D modelling software made this possible to render a number of different alternati ves (360º images and 360º video). Immersive environments empower the visitor to imagine the building before it was destroyed.

  5. The pattern of thoracic trauma after suicide terrorist bombing attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Miklosh; Shussman, Noam; Rivkind, Avraham I; Izhar, Uzi; Almogy, Gidon

    2010-11-01

    The worldwide escalation in the volume of suicide terrorist bombing attacks warrants special attention to the specific pattern of injury associated with such attacks. The goal of this study was to characterize thoracic injuries inflicted by terrorist-related explosions and compare pattern of injury to penetrating and blunt thoracic trauma. Prospectively collected database of patients with chest injury who were admitted to Hadassah Hospital Level I trauma centre, in Jerusalem, Israel, from October 2000 to December 2005. Patients were divided into three groups according to the mechanism of injury: terrorist explosions (n = 55), gunshot wounds (GSW; n = 78), and blunt trauma (n = 747). There were many female victims after suicide bombing attacks (49.1%) compared with GSW (21.8%) and blunt trauma (24.6%; p = 0.009). The number of body regions injured was significantly higher in the terror group compared with the GSW and blunt groups (median, 4, 2, and 3, respectively, p attacks was caused by a unique combination of the effects of the blast wave and penetrating shrapnel. More than half (52.7%) of the terror victims suffered from lung contusion and 25 (45.5%) required tube thoracostomy. Five patients (9.1%) underwent thoracotomy for lung lacerations (n = 3), injury to great vessels (n = 2), cardiac lacerations (n = 1), and esophageal injury (n = 1). Penetrating shrapnel was the mechanism of injury in all these cases. Injury inflicted by terrorist bombings causes a unique pattern of thoracic wounds. Victims are exposed to a combination of lung injury caused by the blast wave and penetrating injury caused by metallic objects.

  6. Two cases of giant parathyroid adenoma in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeichi, Nobuo; Nishida, Toshihiro; Fujikura, Toshio

    1983-12-01

    In a study of parathyroid tumor among autopsy cases at RERF in Hiroshima, 16 cases of parathyroid adenoma were detected among 4,136 autopsies during 1961-77. Of these, two cases were giant adenoma (5 cm in diameter) accompanied by hyperparathyroidism. Both cases were atomic bomb survivors from Hiroshima. One was exposed to 55 rad at age 51 and died at age 71, and the other was exposed to 28 rad at age 45 and died at age 71. These two cases will be reported together with a review of the literature on parathyroid tumors developed following irradiation on the head and neck. (author)

  7. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb. 2010 edition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosling, F. G.

    2010-01-15

    This historical document is part of a planned 3-volume series. This volume, volume 1, provides a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  8. Some thoughts on Hiroshima: 50 years after the bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Shuichi

    1997-01-01

    Commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of Hiroshima, this paper covers three issues: Personal experience, concluding that the bomb was an extraordinary cruel weapon beyond imagination, Japanese experience, i.e. Japanese attitude against nuclear weapons and the actions to be undertaken in order to achieve nuclear-weapon-free world. The support of Non-proliferation Treaty, as well as the support of the protest against any kind of nuclear weapon experiments should be related to the understanding of the cause of the events against which one is protesting. The radical therapy would be the removal of the cause, i.e. the striking discrepancy of nuclear armaments

  9. Review of dosimetry for the atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper summarizes and discusses results of some 1980-1981 studies of neutron and γ-ray exposure to the atomic bomb survivors by W.E. Loewe and E. Mendelsohn of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, D.C. Kaul and W.H. Scott of Science Applications, Inc., and J.V. Pace of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Some other special studies which are now underway to complete the review will also be discussed. The expert assistance of others in these special studies is being supported in part by the US Department of Energy and in part by the US Defense Nuclear Agency

  10. Education, Income, and Support for Suicide Bombings: Evidence from Six Muslim Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Sinno, Abdulkader H.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examine the effect of educational attainment and income on support for suicide bombing among Muslim publics in six predominantly Muslim countries that have experienced suicide bombings: Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, and Turkey. The authors make two contributions. First, they present a conceptual model, which has been…

  11. Medical and sociological study on the A-bombed twins, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satow, Yukio; Okamoto, Naomasa; Watanabe, Shoji; Ohkita, Takeshi; Kurihara, Minoru

    1980-01-01

    Three A-bomb exposed and nonexposed pairs of monoxygotic twins were investigated. In two pairs of them, environmental factors had no apparent influence, and genetic factors were dominant. In the other one pair, one of which was a A-bomb survivor exposed at 1.5 km from the explosion center, environmental factors and various effects on them. (Ueda, J.)

  12. Mental health conditions in Korean atomic bomb survivors. A survey in Seoul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshimoto, Rika; Nakane, Hideyuki; Kim, Hyen

    2011-01-01

    More than 60 years have elapsed since the atomic bombings to Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and since all of the atomic bomb survivors have become old, the importance of caring their mental health has become increasing in Japan. Although approximately 70% of overseas atomic bomb are living in Korea, there have been quite few studies on their mental health. The objectives of the present study were to elucidate whether the mental health conditions of atomic bomb survivor in Korea are similar to those in Japan. The subjects were 181 Korean atomic bomb survivors living in Korea (cases) and 209 outpatients of a hospital in Seoul who were not exposed to atomic bombs (controls). Interviewers administered them at the hospital a questionnaire with Impact of Event Scale-Revised, General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12), Korean version of short form Geriatric Depression Scale and the K scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Excluding subjects with incomplete responses we analyzed 162 cases and 189 controls. The proportion of subjects with high score of GHQ-12 (≥4) was significantly higher in cases (78/162 or 48.1%) than in controls (42/189 or 22.2%) (p<0.0001, Fisher's exact test). The present results, though preliminary, indicate that atomic bomb survivors in Korea have also mental health problems similar to those observed in Japanese atomic bomb survivors, indicating the necessity of a larger study. (author)

  13. The finish. About the reasons and events leading to the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, S.

    1995-01-01

    The bombing was decided not only for military reasons. For the Manhattan Project managers, and for General Groves in particular, it was a question of justification of their own work and commitment. The bomb may have actually prolonged the war. (orig.) [de

  14. One minute after the detonation of the atomic bomb: the erased effects of residual radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroko

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Government's official narrative denies the effects of residual radiation which appeared one minute after the atomic bomb detonations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This paper explores declassified documents from the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, the Atomic Bomb Casualties Commission, and others and shows that these documents actually suggested the existence of serious effects from residual radiation.

  15. Water-Triggered Luminescent "Nano-bombs" Based on Supra-(Carbon Nanodots)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, Q.; Qu, S.; Jing, P.; Ji, W.; Li, D.; Cao, J.; Zhang, H.; Liu, L.; Zhao, J.; Shen, D.

    2015-01-01

    Novel luminescent "nano-bombs" based on a self-assembled system of carbon-nanodots, termed supra-CDs, are developed. The luminescence of these luminescent "nano-bombs" depends strongly on water contact; they show weak emission in toluene and decompose in contact with water, resulting in strong

  16. Diagnosis and treatment of leukemia recognized in atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, Michito

    1978-01-01

    Out of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 256 patients which were diagnosed as having leukemia by 1975 and of which exposure dose was estimated as over 1 rad were described. Chronic myelocytic leukemia (CGL) was plentiful in Hiroshima, and acute myelocytic leukemia (AGL) was comparatively plentiful in Nagasaki. Chronic lymphatic leukemia (CLL) was not recognized in the atomic bomb survivors exposed at places near the center of the explosion, but CLL was recognized plentifully in the atomic bomb survivors exposed to radiation of under 1 rad. The incidence of leukemia according to the total dose was higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. When RBE of neutron on the occurrence of leukemia was considered to be five times that of gamma-ray, the occurrence curves in both cities were consistent well. As to a relationship between leukemia in the atomic bomb survivors and the age at the exposure time, CGL occurred early in the atomic bomb survivors exposed at an early age. A specific lesion of leukemia in the atomic bomb survivors was not recognized, but cases of which leukemia cells were negative to peroxidase and were very difficult to be identified were plentiful in the atomic bomb survivors exposed within 2 km from the explosion center. The treatment of leukemia in atomic bomb survivors does not differ from that of general leukemia, but a method of treatment, administration dosage, a method and a kind of supportive care must be discussed according to each case. (Serizawa, K.)

  17. Radioactive decontamination for the terrorism attacks from 'dirty bomb'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhilan; Wang Shanqiang; Ma Xinhua

    2009-01-01

    Radioactive contamination source term characteristics for the terrorism attacks from 'dirty bomb' and its special demands of decontamination technology are analyzed in this paper. The development and direction of decontamination technology are also discussed. The suggestions are advanced, which decontaminate radioactive contamination caused by the terrorism attacks from 'dirty bomb'. (authors)

  18. Game of thrown bombs in 3D: using high speed cameras and photogrammetry techniques to reconstruct bomb trajectories at Stromboli (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, D.; Taddeucci, J.; Scarlato, P.; Del Bello, E.; Houghton, B. F.; Orr, T. R.; Andronico, D.; Kueppers, U.

    2015-12-01

    Large juvenile bombs and lithic clasts, produced and ejected during explosive volcanic eruptions, follow ballistic trajectories. Of particular interest are: 1) the determination of ejection velocity and launch angle, which give insights into shallow conduit conditions and geometry; 2) particle trajectories, with an eye on trajectory evolution caused by collisions between bombs, as well as the interaction between bombs and ash/gas plumes; and 3) the computation of the final emplacement of bomb-sized clasts, which is important for hazard assessment and risk management. Ground-based imagery from a single camera only allows the reconstruction of bomb trajectories in a plan perpendicular to the line of sight, which may lead to underestimation of bomb velocities and does not allow the directionality of the ejections to be studied. To overcome this limitation, we adapted photogrammetry techniques to reconstruct 3D bomb trajectories from two or three synchronized high-speed video cameras. In particular, we modified existing algorithms to consider the errors that may arise from the very high velocity of the particles and the impossibility of measuring tie points close to the scene. Our method was tested during two field campaigns at Stromboli. In 2014, two high-speed cameras with a 500 Hz frame rate and a ~2 cm resolution were set up ~350m from the crater, 10° apart and synchronized. The experiment was repeated with similar parameters in 2015, but using three high-speed cameras in order to significantly reduce uncertainties and allow their estimation. Trajectory analyses for tens of bombs at various times allowed for the identification of shifts in the mean directivity and dispersal angle of the jets during the explosions. These time evolutions are also visible on the permanent video-camera monitoring system, demonstrating the applicability of our method to all kinds of explosive volcanoes.

  19. The articles on atomic bomb of the newspaper in the past 15 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubuki, Satoru; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Matsuura, Masaaki; Hatano, Hiroko

    1990-01-01

    A-bomb hazards are given publicity by journalism every year from the end of the 1960s, especially in July and August, in Japan. This is generally termed 'the publication of A-bomb articles'. This paper outlines 'the publication of A-bomb articles' and introduces the actual conditions of A-bomb hazard problems. Articles were selected from three major national newspapers and two domestic newspapers (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) during the past 15 years from 1975 through 1989. Contents of the articles were divided into 20 categories and subdivided into 92 categories. According to newspaper, the Hiroshima domestic newspaper published the articles in the largest number (approximately 30% of all the articles). Overall, approximately 21% of the articles were published in August. The most common article content was A-bomb survivors' experiences, accounting for 47% before 1981 and 60% since 1982. (N.K.)

  20. Review of diagnosis and classification of leukemias that occurred in A-bomb survivors (preliminary report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Ichimaru, Michito; Kamata, Nanao; Kuramoto, Atsushi.

    1984-01-01

    According to the current knowledge of diagnosis and classification, a review of 157 patients who had developed leukemia before June 30, 1967 was made. The total number of acute leukemia slightly decreased among A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima; however, the number of acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) increased. The number of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) was unchanged. The frequency of CML implied that A-bombing damaged stem cells in a high incidence. Among A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki, although the number of acute non-lymphatic leukemia decreased, the number of ALL was unchanged. Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) was diagnosed in 7 A-bomb survivors, confirming that Nagasaki is an endemic area for ATL. These preliminary results seem to be of importance in elucidating the mechanism of leukemia developiong among A-bomb survivors. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Cancer incidence and mortality rate in children of A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the previous findings of carcinogenesis and mortality rate in children born to A-bomb survivors. The Radiation Effects Research Foundation has collected 72,228 children born to A-bomb survivors from May 1946 through 1984. Of their parents, 31,159 parents had been exposed to significant doses (≥0.01 Sv), with a mean genital dose of 0.435 Sv. Among a hypothetic population of 100,000 children of A-bomb survivors exposed to an mean genital dose of 0.4 SV, radiation-induced diseases were considered to occur in only 250 children or less. An earlier large-scale survey during the period 1948-1956 has revealed an evidence of significant increase in stillborn, congenital malformation, and infantile death. In the 1946-1982 survey concerning carcinogenesis in 72,216 children of A-bomb survivors, cancer was found to be detected in 92 children, with no statistically significant increase in cancer risk with increasing radiation doses in their parents. The survey on mortality rate in 67,586 children of A-bomb survivors has revealed no evidence of significant increase in mortality rate from diseases, other than cancer, and in the incidence of lethal cancer. For A-bomb survivors, genetic doubling doses were considered to be 1 Sv or more. Further, when genetic doubling doses are calculated, the contribution rate of genital cell disturbance should be considered in the incidence of spontaneously induced disease. There is no supportive evidence of genetic effects of A-bomb radiation in children of A-bomb survivors; however, genetic effects of A-bomb radiation cannot be denied completely. Continuing survey is expected to be done for children of A-bomb survivors. (N.K.)

  2. Mortality rate and cancer incidence among in uterus exposed A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarises the outcome of follow-up surveys on mortality rate and cancer incidence among in uterus exposed A-bomb survivors. The subjects were 1791 A-bomb survivors, and 1534 (85.7%) of these came from Hiroshima. According to uterus absorption doses, these A-bomb survivors could be divided into the 0 Gy exposed group (n=772) and the ≥0.01 Gy (a mean, 0.302 Gy) exposed group (n=1019). The number of proximally exposed A-bomb survivors (2,000 m or less) was approximately 3 times larger in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki, probably due to various socioeconomical factors. When the mortality rate was examined according to uterus absorption doses, it was higher at infancy and at the age of 15-39 in the ≥0.60 Gy exposed group than the 0 Gy exposed group. For infants, it was 3 times higher in the ≥0.60 Gy exposed group than the 0 Gy exposed group. The 1950-1984 survey on cancer incidence among in uterus exposed A-bomb survivors have revealed that cancer incidence tended to increase among in uterus exposed A-bomb survivors with increasing uterus absorption doses in their mothers. Since A-bomb survivors aged 15 years or younger at the time of A-bombing are characterized by developing leukemia 5-10 years after A-bombing, leukemia is unlikely to be increased among in uterus exposed A-bomb survivors. (N.K.)

  3. Sociological and socio-psycho-historical problems of A-bomb exposed twin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shoji

    1983-01-01

    The atomic bombing of Hiroshima brought many casualities on human society, and collapsed human communities. The purpose of this study is to make mainly on pairs of monozygotic twins one of whom was exposed and the other was not, or both of whom were exposed, a general socio-psycho-historical investigations through a twin control study to find whether the bombing, which can be considered to cause major environmental changes, has had any psychological effects on the individuals. Due to the limited sample of atomic bomb exposed twins, in numbers available for study, it is necessary to have an understanding for their condions of the living and identity they have developed from the numerous mental stress they suffered, and rapid socio-cultural changes they experienced, including for changes in life from birth until the atomic bombing and aftermath of the disaster. As the result of this study, by depth interview, projective psychological research and research on socio-psycho-history of exposed twin and the nonexposed before the A-bomb and aftermath of disaster, the following were obtained: a) Although at the age of four and eight they exposed, they still keep it in clear memory of the damage and suffering in the minds. b) The damage and suffereng of the family who belonged were relatively small, the effects of their psychological sufferings continued even after these thirtyseven years. c) In the aftermath of the A-bomb disaster, the psychological bond showed strengthen through crises and following social distress. d) During the long period since the bombing, those who did not experienced A-bombing, have shown high degree of support and co-operation on their familial and social role to their counterpart. e) Even though their social or medical effects of A-bombing are relatively limited, if their spouse or close relative suffer psychological stress caused by A-bomb, they too suffer from their similar experiences. (J.P.N.)

  4. Proliferative and nonproliferative breast disease in atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Masayoshi; Land, C.E.; Aoki, Yoichiro; Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Asano, Masahide; Sato, Eiichi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Sakamoto, Goi; Page, D.L.

    1993-10-01

    The risk of female breast cancer in association with radiation exposure is well established, on the basis of follow-up studies of the atomic-bomb survivors and other exposed populations. This association is especially strong for women exposed before age 20 yr and appears to be much weaker among women exposed after age 40 yr. In this study, breast-tissue autopsy samples from high-dose and low-dose individuals in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study sample were examined in detail to determine whether nonproliferative or proliferative breast lesions are associated with radiation exposure. The results suggest that proliferative disease in general and atypical hyperplasia in particular are associated with radiation exposure and that the risk is strongest for subjects who were ages 40-49 yr at the time of the bombings. It is hypothesized that this finding may be related to the age dependence of radiation-induced breast cancer, in the sense that potential cancers reflecting early-stage changes induced at these ages by radiation exposure may receive too little hormonal promotion to progress to frank cancers. (author)

  5. Axial length of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakiyama, Harumi; Kishikawa, Yasuhiro; Imamura, Naoki; Amemiya, Tsugio

    2002-01-01

    We reviewed a series of 778 patients who had cataract surgery during the past 4 years at the Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Memorial Hospital. We evaluated the history of exposure to radiation by atomic bomb in 1945, axial length and state of refraction. All were born before 1945. The series comprised 263 males and 515 females. Their ages averaged 76.5±8.6 years. History of exposure to radiation was present in 356 patients. The remaining 422 patients served as control. There was no difference in the type of cataract between the two groups. High myopia was present in 11 irradiated patients (3.2%) and in 24 patients in the control group (6.0%). The difference was not significant (p=0.083). There was no high myopia among 24 patients who were aged 18 years or less at the time of radiation and who were within 2 km from the epicenter. No difference was present regarding the axial length between the two groups or between both sexes. The present result is not definitive because ''irradiated group'' would include those with little or no exposure and because precise data has not been available about the dosis of radiation. (author)

  6. The significance of chromosome deletions in atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Shigeta, Chiharu; Oguma, Nobuo; Kamada, Nanao; Deng, Z.; Niimi, Masanobu; Aisaka, Tadaichi.

    1986-01-01

    In 39 A-bomb survivors 40 years after exposure at ≤ 1,000 m from ground zero, the frequency and features of chromosome deletions in peripheral lymphocytes were examined using a differential staining technique. Simultaneously, in vitro irradiation experiment with Cf-252 was made to infer chromosome aberrations occuring immediately after exposure. Californium-252 with 100 rad induced dicentric and ring chromosomes in 40 % of the cells and acentric fragments in 44 %. Among the A-bomb survivors, chromosome aberrations were observed in 651 (21 %) of the total 3,136 cells. There were 146 cells with deletions (22 % of abnormal cells; 5 % of the total cells), and 10 cells with acentric fragment (0.3 % of the total cells). The figure for deletions was far higher than that reported in the literature. A large number of deletions were seen in chromosomes no.4, no.21, and no.22, and a few deletions in chromosomes no.7 and no.20. Significance of chromosome deletions is discussed. (Namekawa, K.)

  7. The bomb, the dark side of the nuclear world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collin, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The reality of the nuclear world can be summarized in few words: a world arsenal of 26000 bombs, enough uranium and plutonium and the know-how to make much more, multiple non-proliferation and weapons limitation treaties which have troubles regulating the diffusion of this technology, indelible environmental and sanitary marks left by 2059 tests, governments secretly wishing to assume this supreme power attribute, a black market, spies and dealers, but also: opponents, political leaders, local representatives and non-governmental organizations who militate for a nuclear weapon-free world. However, this burning question paradoxically remains obscure to citizens and its obscure aspect is relayed by media and politicians. This book aims at decoding the wheels of the international nuclear weapons situation: from the five official nuclear powers to the proliferation actors, from the defense policies to the risks of accidents and the stakes of disarmament, from the bomb fabrication to its devastating effects. It shows how this ultimate weapon has durably pervaded the defense policies and strategies of countries who own it, and how difficult it will be to reconsider this situation

  8. Radiation and cancer risk in atomic-bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, K; Ozasa, K; Okubo, T

    2012-03-01

    With the aim of accurately assessing the effects of radiation exposure in the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation has, over several decades, conducted studies of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, comprising 93 000 atomic-bomb survivors and 27 000 controls. Solid cancer: the recent report on solid cancer incidence found that at age 70 years following exposure at age 30 years, solid cancer rates increase by about 35%  Gy(-1) for men and 58% Gy(-1) for women. Age-at-exposure is an important risk modifier. In the case of lung cancer, cigarette smoking has been found to be an important risk modifier. Radiation has similar effects on first-primary and second-primary cancer risks. Finally, radiation-associated increases in cancer rates appear to persist throughout life. Leukaemia: the recent report on leukaemia mortality suggests that radiation effects on leukaemia mortality persisted for more than 50 years. Moreover, significant dose-response for myelodysplastic syndrome was observed in Nagasaki LSS members even 40-60 years after radiation exposure. Future perspective: given the continuing solid cancer increase in the survivor population, the LSS will likely continue to provide important new information on radiation exposure and solid cancer risks for another 15-20 years, especially for those exposed at a young age.

  9. Study on the multiple cancer in A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Toshiro; Yamamoto, Tsutomu.

    1984-01-01

    Autopsy data from cohort studies performed on A-bomb victims revealed that the incidence rate of multiple cancer was 7.8% (193 of 2,472 cancer A-bomb victims), being higher than that (5.8%) found from the tumor registry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Multiple cancer occurred more frequently in women than in men in both Nagasaki and Hiroshima. The incidence of multiple cancer was 1.5 times higher in the victims exposed to more than 100 rad (Vsub(+) group) than in those exposed to less than one rad (V 0 group), suggesting that there might be dose-response relationship, although this was not statistically significant between the exposed groups. According to the organs, relative risk ratio of developing cancer in the Vsub(+) group to that in the V 0 group was high in the colon and rectum, bladder, lungs, and testes in men; in the thyroid gland, lungs, colon and rectum, bladder, and breast in women, although no statistically significant differences were observed between the groups. This was suggestive of cancer that arises frequently in the lungs of men in the Vsub(+) group. Occult cancer of the thyroid gland and testes was also discussed in relation to the incidence of multiple cancer. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. Genetic radiation effects of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srsen, S. (Komenskeho Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta)

    1984-05-01

    A group of researchers examined persons who had survived the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs and were irradiated and their progeny with the aim of getting an idea of the genetic effects of these explosions. Teratogenic effects are not discussed. In the lymphocytes of the peripheral blood of persons who had been exposed to high dose irradiation the researchers found a significant increase in chromosomal aberrations by conventional and more recent methods of chromosomal analysis. In parents who had survived the atomic holocaust there were no significant deviations as against the rest of the population in still births, neonatal defects, infant mortality, and mortality of first generation progeny, in neonate weight, the sex ratio, increased occurence of leukosis and chromosomal aberrations in their children. These negative findings in the first generation do not signify that there is no danger from atomic bomb blasts for human kind. They only indicate that the effects of radiation were too small to be found by routine methods or that the methods used were not suitable.

  11. Mortality of in-utero children exposed to the A-bomb and of offspring of A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, H.

    1978-01-01

    A cohort-type follow-up study has been carried out by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation on the mortality of children exposed to A-bomb radiation while in utero. The mortality increased with tissue dose during the first year of life and did not increase during the following nine years, but an increase with dose was again suggested during 10-32 years of age. A detailed analysis of infant mortality revealed that the dose-associated excess in mortality among those under one year of age, especially within one month after birth, was attributable partly to the mechanical injury of the mother, but this does not provide the whole explanation. There was no increase of mortality from cancer including leukaemia with dose. As the number of cancer deaths is at present only five, further careful follow-up on this cohort is necessary to determine the state of radiation-induced cancer among this cohort. The continuing study on mortality rates among children born to A-bomb survivors has been updated to 1976. No clearly significant effect of parental exposure on survival of the offspring (average age 24 years) could be demonstrated either by a contingency chi 2 -type of analysis or regression analysis. (author)

  12. Accounting for neutron exposure in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullings, Harry M; Pierce, Donald A; Kellerer, Albrecht M

    2014-12-01

    The Japanese atomic bomb survivors that were directly exposed to both γ rays and neutrons have been followed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). The estimation of the γ-ray risks requires some adjustment for the greater biological effect of the neutrons per unit dose. Because the small neutron doses and the predominant γ-ray doses are highly correlated, the neutron relative biological effectiveness (RBE) cannot be reliably estimated from the survivors' data and information from radiobiology must be invoked. As data became available on neutron doses, RERF has used a constant neutron RBE value of 10, even though radiobiological studies indicate that the RBE values appear to have considerably larger values at low doses. The approximation RBE = 10 assumes that if the RBE is variable it takes roughly this value in the range of total dose most relevant for linear risk estimation, namely about 1 Gy. We consider some possible RBE functions to explain the correct use and the impact of a dose-dependent RBE. However, we do not advocate any particular choice or even that a variable RBE be employed. Rather we show that the assumed neutron RBE, within a wide range of choices, is far less important to the outcome of risk assessment of the RERF data than generally believed. Some of these misperceptions have been related to the consideration of variable RBE functions, and without due attention to the fact that in the case of the A-bomb survivors' data, the mixed field of neutrons and γ rays must be considered. Therefore, the RBE value of neutrons is much lower than the RBE in pure neutron fields that are used in radiobiological experiments. Thus, applying the pure neutron field RBE to the mixed-field A-bomb radiation can lead to an overestimation of the actual neutron RBE for moderate total dose levels of 1 Gy by a factor of more than four. While in a pure neutron exposure the RBE depends on the neutron dose, in the mixed field it depends on both components of

  13. Outline on populations of Nagasaki A-bomb survivors and sex ratio in their children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Isao; Inoue, Akira; Shiomi, Toshio

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of file delivered together with A-bomb surrivor's health Cards in Nagasaki, statistical management was performed on a mass of A-bomb survivors. The number of A-bomb survivors in a mass was 97,032. A family investigation by census registration was performed on 2,547 of A-bomb survivor group (the distance from the center of explosion recorded on cards was within 1.5 km) and 2,791 of its control group. As to 2,547 of A-bomb survivor group, each exposure place was determined, the distance from the center of explosion was measured again, and exposure dose was presumed. The mean exposure dose of A-bomb survivor group was 577 rad in male, and 681 rad in female. By adding A-bomb survivor group to the control group, 4,452 pairs of marriage were confirmed by census registration, and the number of their children was 10,073. With respect to changes of sex ratio, in case of exposed mother, it was expected theoretically that the number of male would decrease together with an decrease of dose, but an opposite change was recognized in a result of the investigation. A result in case of exposed father showed an increase of the male number although not significantly and a change towards the expected direction. (Tsunoda, M.)

  14. Psychological problems of atomic bomb survivors from the medical social worker's standpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomoike, Toshio

    1994-01-01

    Mental data from 80 A-bomb survivors were available during a 20-year period 1973-1992. Types of A-bomb survivors were classified into (1) directly exposed A-bomb survivors, (2) A-bomb survivors living in the United States, (3) those living in prefectures other than Nagasaki, (4) ex-soldiers, (5) A-bomb survivors having family problems and others, (6) the demented elderly, (7) the alcoholic, and (8) others. Mental problems were judged as psychogenic, endogenous, and exogenous. Mental problems were most frequently associated with Type 1 (34.9%), followed by Type 8 (21.0%), Type 2 (18.6%), and Type 3 (7.0%). Noticeable finding was that Type 1 A-bomb survivors suffered from psychogenic and exogenous mental problems in an extremely high incidence, as compared with the non-exposed group (66.3% vs 24%). The incidence of both exogenous and endogenous problems was higher in the non-exposed group (32.6% and 24.5%) than the exposed group (23.2% and 10.5%). There was no significant gender difference in the development of mental problems. According to types of A-bomb survivors, both psychogenic and exogenous mental problems were most common for Type 1. The incidence of psychogenic problems was 2.85 times higher than that of exogenous problems. (N.K.)

  15. Effects of radiation on the incidence of prostate cancer among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hisayoshi; Soda, Midori; Mine, Mariko; Yokota, Kenichi

    2013-10-01

    Atomic bomb survivors have been reported to have an increased risk of some cancers, especially leukemia. However, the risk of prostate cancer in atomic bomb survivors is not known to have been examined previously. This study examined the association between atomic bomb radiation and the incidence of prostate cancer among male Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The subjects were classified by distance from the hypocenter into a proximal group (<2 km), a distal group (≥2 km), and an early entrance group (those who entered the region <2 km from the hypocenter within 2 weeks after the explosion). Between 1996 and 2009, 631 new cases of prostate cancer were identified among approximately 18 400 male Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors who were alive in 1996. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the risk of prostate cancer development, with adjustment for age at atomic bomb explosion, attained age, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. Compared with the distal group, the proximal group had significant increased risks of total, localized, and high-grade prostate cancer (relative risk and 95% confidence interval: 1.51 [1.21-1.89]; 1.80 [1.26-2.57]; and 1.88 [1.20-2.94], respectively). This report is the first known to reveal a significant relationship between atomic bomb radiation and prostate cancer. © 2013 Japanese Cancer Association.

  16. Multiple primary malignant neoplasms in a fixed population of A-bomb survivors, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soda, Midori; Yokoyama, Naokata; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Takagi, Miwako; Kitano, Koei; Toyama, Kyoko; Fujikura, Toshio

    1986-01-01

    In a fixed population (7,564 A-bomb survivors) for Adult Health Study performed until December 1985, 28 A-bomb survivors (5 men and 23 women) were diagnosed as having thyroid cancer, and 79 (including one man) as breast cancer. There was an evident tendency among the group receiving 100 rad or more towards higher incidence of cancers of the thyroid and breast and synchronous or metachronous multiple primaries. The incidence of thyroid cancer tended to be higher in A-bomb survivors less than 20 years of age at the time of exposure; however, this tendency was not seen in the case of breast cancer. The incidence of thyroid cancer - in contrast to breast cancer - tended to decrease from year to year. Multiple primaries were associated with thyroid cancer in 5 A-bomb survivors and breast cancer in 9 A-bomb survivors. Three A-bomb survivors had both thyroid and breast cancers. Among the 11 A-bomb survivors with multiple primaries, nine had received 100 rad or more. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. The Radium Terrors. Science Fiction and Radioactivity before the Bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century the collective imagination was fascinated and terrified by the discovery of radium. A scientific imagery sprang up around radioactivity and was disseminated by public lectures and newspaper articles discussing the ambiguous power of this strange substance. It was claimed that radium could be used to treat cholera, typhus and tuberculosis, but at the same time there were warnings that it could be used for military purposes. The media and the scientists themselves employed a rich vocabulary influenced by religion, alchemy and magic. The ambivalent power of radioactive elements exerted a great influence on science fiction novelists. This paper will examine some significant works published in Europe, America and Russia during the first decades of the 20th century and their role in the creation of the complex imagery of radioactivity that seized the public imagination long before the invention of the atomic bomb.

  18. Activation of cobalt by neutrons from the Hiroshima bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Dyer, F.F.; Emery, J.F.; Pace, J.V. III; Brodzinski, R.L.; Marcum, J.

    1990-02-01

    A study has been completed of cobalt activation in samples from two new locations in Hiroshima. The samples consisted of a piece of steel from a bridge located at a distance of about 1300 m from the hypocenter and pieces of both steel and concrete from a building located at approximately 700 m. The concrete was analyzed to obtain information needed to calculate the cobalt activation in the two steel samples. Close agreement was found between calculated and measured values for cobalt activation of the steel sample from the building at 700 m. It was found, however, that the measured values for the bridge sample at 1300 m were approximately twice the calculated values. Thus, the new results confirm the existence of a systematic error in the transport calculations for neutrons from the Hiroshima bomb. 52 refs., 32 figs., 16 tabs

  19. Organ dose estimates for the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, G.D.

    1978-10-01

    Recent studies concerning radiation risks to man by the Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation have emphasized the need for estimates of dose to organs of the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors. Shielding of internal organs by the body has been investigated for fission-weapon gamma rays and neutrons, and ratios of mean absorbed dose in a number of organs to survivors' T65D assignments of tissue kerma in air are provided for adults. Ratios of mean absorbed dose to tissue kerma in air are provided also for the thyroid and active bone marrow of juveniles. These organ dose estimates for juveniles are of interest in studies of radiation risks due to an elevated incidence of leukemia and thyroid cancer in survivors exposed as children compared to survivors exposed as adults.

  20. Solar Ellerman Bombs in 1D Radiative Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, A.; Mathioudakis, M. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Kowalski, A. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, 2000 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Doyle, J. G. [Armagh Observatory and Planetarium, College Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG (United Kingdom); Allred, J. C., E-mail: aaron.reid@qub.ac.uk [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Recent observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph appear to show impulsive brightenings in high temperature lines, which when combined with simultaneous ground-based observations in H α , appear co-spatial to Ellerman Bombs (EBs). We use the RADYN one-dimensional radiative transfer code in an attempt to try and reproduce the observed line profiles and simulate the atmospheric conditions of these events. Combined with the MULTI/RH line synthesis codes, we compute the H α , Ca ii 8542 Å, and Mg ii h and k lines for these simulated events and compare them to previous observations. Our findings hint that the presence of superheated regions in the photosphere (>10,000 K) is not a plausible explanation for the production of EB signatures. While we are able to recreate EB-like line profiles in H α , Ca ii 8542 Å, and Mg ii h and k, we cannot achieve agreement with all of these simultaneously.

  1. Organ dose estimates for the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.

    1978-10-01

    Recent studies concerning radiation risks to man by the Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation have emphasized the need for estimates of dose to organs of the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors. Shielding of internal organs by the body has been investigated for fission-weapon gamma rays and neutrons, and ratios of mean absorbed dose in a number of organs to survivors' T65D assignments of tissue kerma in air are provided for adults. Ratios of mean absorbed dose to tissue kerma in air are provided also for the thyroid and active bone marrow of juveniles. These organ dose estimates for juveniles are of interest in studies of radiation risks due to an elevated incidence of leukemia and thyroid cancer in survivors exposed as children compared to survivors exposed as adults

  2. Lessons from the atomic bomb about secondary MDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Tomoko; Imanishi, Daisuke; Miyazaki, Yasushi

    2014-12-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) is a hematological neoplasm defined by ineffective hematopoiesis, dysplasia of hematopoietic cells, and risk of progression to acute leukemia. MDS occurs as de novo or secondary, and chemoradiotherapy for cancers is thought to increase the risk of MDS among patients. Recently, an epidemiological study for MDS among A-bomb survivors was performed, and it clearly demonstrated that the exposure to external radiation significantly increased the risk of MDS. Precise epidemiological data among survivors have revealed important clinical factors related to the risk of leukemias. In this review, by comparing data for secondary MDS and leukemia/MDS among survivors, several factors which would affect the risk of MDS, especially secondary MDS, are discussed.

  3. Whole-blood phagocytic and bactericidal activities of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, Sumiko; Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Toyota, Emiko; Neriishi, Shotaro; Yamakido, Michio; Matsuo, Miyo; Hosoda, Yutaka; Finch, S.C.

    1989-04-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of leukocytes in aliquots of whole blood from Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors for Staphylococcus aureus. The data were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Any significant effects of exposure to A-bomb radiation could not be detected for both phagocytic and bactericidal activities of whole blood from A-bomb survivors. In addition, there were no significant effects of age categories, sex or city, except in neutrophil counts. (J.P.N.)

  4. Biochemical survey for children of A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Chiyoko

    1992-01-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation has conducted biochemical survey in children of A-bomb survivors, with the purpose of elucidating whether or not the rate of genetic mutation in genital cells is increased. This paper describes the previous surveys done at protein levels. Two kinds of indicators have been used: (1) 'rare mutation type' reflecting base substitution mutation, base deletion, and insertion; (2) 'mutation type' reflecting the decrease of red cell enzyme activity. According to the DS86 dosimetry system, the children population of A-bomb survivors were examined by dividing into the exposed group (n=11,364) of their parents exposed to 0.01 Sv or more and the control group (n=12,297) of those exposed to less than 0.01 Sv. 'Rare mutation type' was detected using electrophoresis in a total of 1,233 children in both groups. Of these children, 2 in the exposed group and 4 in the control group had a new 'mutation', i.e., mutation that was considered to have occurred in genital cells of their parents. Survey for genetic foci has revealed mutation in 2 children in the exposed group and 4 children in the control group, with the rate of mutation being 0.37 x 10 -5 /genetic foci/generation and 0.68 x 10 -5 /genetic foci/generation, respectively. Mutation type reflecting the decrease in red cell enzyme activity was seen in 26 in the exposed group and 21 in the control group. A total of 41 children were found to have been inherited from their parents. In the survey for genetic foci, only one had mutation in the exposed group, with the rate of mutation being 1.7 x 10 -5 /genetic foci/generation. These findings have revealed no evidence of significant difference in the rate of mutation between the exposed and control groups. Finally, the future genetic surveys at molecular levels are briefly discussed. (N.K.)

  5. Investigation of stomach diseases in atomic bomb survivors, 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masafumi; Matsumoto, Yasuko; Mito, Kazuyo; Kumazawa, Toshihiko; Ito, Chikako.

    1986-01-01

    This is a report of the results of gastric mass survey performed during a 3-year period from 1982 through 1984. Included in this survey were 16,781 A-bomb survivors. The subjects were divided into three groups: a group exposed at ≤ 2,000 m from ground zero (Group 1), a group exposed at > 2,000 m from ground zero (Group 2), and a group consisting of those who entered the city after the bombing or others (Group 3). Regarding the rate for necessity of detailed examinations, there was no difference among the groups. The incidence of abnormal findings was 6.1 % in Group 1, 5.4 % in Group 2, and 4.9 % in Group 3, showing significant difference between Groups 1 and 3. Similarly, the incidence of respective disease was significantly higher in Group 1 than Group 3: gastritis was the most common (2.7 % vs 2.0 %), followed by gastric polyp (0.9 % vs 0.5 %) and gastric cancer (0.6 % vs 0.2 %). The age-adjusted incidence of gastric cancer and polyp was high, irrespective of sex, in Group 1. This was significant for gastric cancer in women and for gastric polyp in men. The incidence of gastric cancer in any age class was higher in Group 1 than Group 3. The incidence of gastric polyp tended to increase with aging in Group 1, being higher particularly for survivors over the age of 50 than those in Groups 2 and 3. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. Studies on the life spans of atom-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hiroo

    1975-01-01

    A shortening of whole life as late injuries of atom-bomb survivors was discussed from the aspects of aging and the studies on the causes of leukemia and cancers. Twenty-one thousands four hundreds and forty-seven of 109000 subjects died during the period between 1950 and 1970. Mortality by exposure doses presented a high value with exposure doses. Mortality of subjects which had received exposure doses of more than 200 rads rose to a level which was 1.27 times in all causes of deaths of the control which had received exposure doses of 0 to 9 rads, and it showed 1.32 times in all deaths of sickness, 18.3 times in leukemia, and 1.48 times in death from cancer. Mortality due to leukemia decreases after 1950-1954, but in the group which had received exposure doses over 100 rads, the mortality was significantly higher than that in all districts in Japan. The shape of dose-reaction curve in Hiroshima was different from that in Nagasaki. In the same dose, mortality due to leukemia in Hiroshima was higher than that in Nagasaki. The younger the age at exposure was, the higher the risk rate of occurring cancer was. Especially, the risk rate of cancer was high in the patients who were exposed to atomic bomb during the age of 0 to 9 years old. Mortality due to cancer increased with the dose. Cancers which statistically showed higher mortality than that in the control group are lung cancer, cancer of the breast (100-199 rad), carcinoma of the esophagus, cancer of the urinary organ (200-299 rad) and gastric cancer (over 300 rads). There are not so clear difference in the mortality due to cancer between Hiroshima and Nagasaki, comparing with the mortality due to leukemia. (Kanao, N.)

  7. Investigation of stomach diseases in atomic bomb survivors, 6. Gastric mass survey in atomic bomb survivors (1982 - 1984)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Masafumi; Matsumoto, Yasuko; Mito, Kazuyo; Kumazawa, Toshihiko; Ito, Chikako

    1986-11-01

    This is a report of the results of gastric mass survey performed during a 3-year period from 1982 through 1984. Included in this survey were 16,781 A-bomb survivors. The subjects were divided into three groups: a group exposed at less than or equal to 2,000 m from ground zero (Group 1), a group exposed at > 2,000 m from ground zero (Group 2), and a group consisting of those who entered the city after the bombing or others (Group 3). Regarding the rate for necessity of detailed examinations, there was no difference among the groups. The incidence of abnormal findings was 6.1% in Group 1, 5.4% in Group 2, and 4.9% in Group 3, showing significant difference between Groups 1 and 3. Similarly, the incidence of respective disease was significantly higher in Group 1 than Group 3: gastritis was the most common (2.7% vs 2.0%), followed by gastric polyp (0.9% vs 0.5%) and gastric cancer (0.6% vs 0.2%). The age-adjusted incidence of gastric cancer and polyp was high, irrespective of sex, in Group 1. This was significant for gastric cancer in women and for gastric polyp in men. The incidence of gastric cancer in any age class was higher in Group 1 than Group 3. The incidence of gastric polyp tended to increase with aging in Group 1, being higher particularly for survivors over the age of 50 than those in Groups 2 and 3. (Namekawa, K.).

  8. Incidence of skin cancer among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors; Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1990-09-01

    Among a total of 65,268 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 140 cases with skin cancer were collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City from 1961 through 1987. Subsequently, these cases of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors were statistically analyzed in relation to the estimated distance from the hypocenter by age, sex, histology and latent period. The results were as follows: (1) A high correlation was observed between the incidence of skin cancer and the distance from the hypocenter. (2) The incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors now appears to be increasing in relation to exposure distance. (3) Among 140 cases, basal cell epithelioma was observed in 67 cases (47.9%) and squamous cell carcinoma in 43 cases (30.7%). (author).

  9. Accident in science history. Hitler's atomic bomb; Stoerfall der Wissenschaftsgeschichte. Hitlers Atombombe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, Manfred

    2016-07-01

    Up to now the historical explanation for the fact that NS Germany did not develop an atomic bomb was that there was enough scientific and technical knowledge but not enough resources. Recent historical research showed that the German scientists in the ''Uranverein'' did not know the cross section of U-235 and had no possibility to measure these cross sections. There exist only very few documents dealing with the bomb. The bomb was treated as a special case of a reactor. Obviously the German scientists did not know he bomb technology. It seems that the project was not success-oriented because the scientists expected to be sent to the front in case of a project stop.

  10. Self injury of extremities leading to amputation while handling local bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadani, Umesh Kumar

    2013-05-01

    Self injury while making material which has a tendency to blast is dangerous- whether it is fire cracker or local bomb. Some villagers living nearby forest make bomb to scare wild animals to protect their pet animals. A 22-year old girl while making this kind of local bomb, got injured badly. The injury was sustained while making bomb in a sitting position with face down as it is evident form type of injury. There was lacerated injury of both hands leading to amputation of both hands above wrists. Lacerated injury was present on medial sides of both thighs and gun powder marks on face. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. An Aerodynamic Database for the Mk 82 General Purpose Low Drag Bomb

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krishnamoorthy, L

    1997-01-01

    The drag database of the Mk 82 General Purpose Low Drag bomb, the primary gravity weapon in the RAAF inventory, has some shortcomings in the quality and traceability of data, and in the variations due...

  12. Effects of bombing after five years: Development of early maladaptive cognitive schemas in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoloski-Končar Nataša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study is to examine effects of bombing on development of early maladaptive schemas in children who live in directly bombed towns in comparison with children who live in towns not directly exposed to bombing. The subjects were twelve years old at the moment of testing (February 2005 meaning that they were at the age of seven during the bombing. Additional aim was to examine gender differences in development of early maladaptive schemas. The theory of Young (1990 provided framework for the study. According to the theory, early maladaptive cognitive schemas, which present basis for psychological disorder later in life, begin to develop in childhood in connection with traumatic experiences and/or other aversive circumstances. The results showed that the early maladaptive schemas are more frequent in children from directly exposed towns; and in male subjects comparing with females.

  13. Outline of developing projects of atomic bomb in Japan and USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Shuji

    2007-01-01

    The content of the title connecting with the World War II is described hoping that younger researchers of nuclear physics could know some of the facts that scientists and the military of Japan and USA, respectively, had have developing projects of atomic bomb by fission reaction, although there are no official documents of those in Japan, even if there are some unofficial documents that are uncertain partly in Japan. Described are a chronological table, the content of research and development of atomic bombs, Japan's experiments by Kikuchi Laboratory of Osaka Imperial University and Nishina Laboratory of RIKEN, as well as the USA's action such as production of fissile nuclide, Pu-239 and U-235, selection of the site to fabricate atomic bomb, investigation the state of research and development of atomic bombs in Germany, Italy and Japan. (S.Y.)

  14. High-Energy Neutrons from the Sandstone Nuclear Bombs as Measured by Threshold Detectors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Linenberger, G

    1949-01-01

    .... All measurements were made without collimation. The results indicate that the efficiency of a bomb cannot be determined by observing the number of neutrons above three million electron volts energy, but that the tonnage may possibly...

  15. Observations of Small-scale IRIS Bombs (Reconnection Events) in an Evolving Active Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, C. A.; Tian, H.; DeLuca, E. E.

    2015-12-01

    We present the first Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) observations of small-scale bombs evolving with their host active region. Bombs appear most clearly in the IRIS 1330 Å and 1400 Å slit-jaw images as small (~1 arcsec), compact, intense brightenings at transition region temperatures. Their NUV/FUV emission spectra exhibit dramatic line splitting and strong absorption features indicative of bidirectional flows from magnetic reconnection embedded deep within the cool lower solar atmosphere. The bombs may contribute significantly to the heating of the solar atmosphere in active regions; however, it's unclear how prevalent the bombs are throughout the lifetime of an active region. Using a semi-automated detection method, we locate bombs within AR 11850 over the course of four observations from 06:00 UT on September 25, 2013 until 11:30 UT the next day. The active region is first observed in an emerging phase and rapidly grows into a mature active region with well-developed sunspots. The bomb occurrence rate drops dramatically as the active region fully emerges. We also find that the bombs fall into two distinct populations: one appears largely during active region emergence and contains a majority of the bombs, while the other population is present regardless of active region age. The first population of bombs is typically found embedded in the low-lying loops prominent in the young active region. Furthermore, we use Solar Dynamics Observatory/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (SDO/HMI) line-of-sight magnetograms to show that the bombs associated with the first population occur at the boundaries between the upward and downward flux of small, isolated bipolar regions. These regions dissipate as the active region emerges and reconfigures its magnetic field into two large network patches of upward and downward flux with a clear inversion line. The second, smaller population of bombs usually occurs far from the active region loop structures in the plage and

  16. Emergency assistance provided abroad to insured travellers from Australia following the Bali bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat, Peter A; Leggat, Frances W

    2004-02-01

    Background. On 12 October 2002, terrorist bombs detonated in the Kuta entertainment district of Bali, Indonesia, a popular tourist destination for Australian travellers. This study was designed to investigate travel insurance claims reported by travellers from Australia requiring emergency assistance and/or aeromedical evacuation, as well as to examine the role of travel insurance and emergency assistance companies, following the Bali bombing. Methods. In 2003, all claims reported, following the Bali bombing attack on 12 October 2002, to a major Australian travel insurance company were examined for those claims that described the use of the insurer's emergency assistance contractor by travellers in Bali following the bombing. Results. Thirteen insured travellers used the emergency assistance service following the Bali bombing. Six travellers cancelled their trip to Bali. Five travellers, who were already abroad cancelled their trip to Bali and one was given evacuation assistance. One traveller required aeromedical evacuation by scheduled aircraft with glass injuries resulting from the bomb blast, and there was also assistance provided to significant others following the death of one insured traveller as a direct consequence of the bombing. Two travellers sought only claiming and policy advice and no claim was made. The mean refund, where a travel insurance claim was made, was AUD1185.09 (SD=AUD3047.31). Conclusions. This study highlights the importance of travellers taking out appropriate travel insurance, which provides for emergency assistance. Travel insurance agencies do play some role after emergencies such as the Bali bombing. This assistance involves predominantly dealing with cancellation of travellers' intended visits to the affected area, but does also involve some assistance to travellers evacuating from the crisis, including some who require aeromedical evacuation. Travellers should be advised to seek travel health advice well before departure overseas

  17. Bullets, Bombs, and Bystanders: The Strategic Implications of Collateral Damage in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-15

    rendered another 9,200,000 homeless .34 Yet, the coup de grăce of the bombing offensive in Japan was the dropping of two atomic bombs on Hiroshima... Malaysia , Palestine, Turkey, and several others. The significant increase in these wars of liberation was a result of the declining influence of colonial...parts of Malaya and then hunt them down remorselessly.29 Ultimately, the endeavor ended in success for the British and the government of Malaysia

  18. Uranium tetrafluoride reduction closed bomb. Part I: Reduction process general conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anca Abati, R.; Lopez Rodriguez, M.

    1961-01-01

    General conditions about the metallo thermic reduction in small bombs (250 and 800 gr. of uranium) has been investigated. Factors such as kind and granulometry of the magnesium used, magnesium excess and preheating temperature, which affect yields and metal quality have been considered. magnesium excess increased yields in a 15% in the small bomb, about the preheating temperature, there is a range between which yields and metal quality does not change. All tests have been made with graphite linings. (Author) 18 refs

  19. Precision closed bomb calorimeter for testing flame and gas producing initiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, D. R., Jr.; Taylor, A. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A calorimeter has been developed under this study to help meet the needs of accurate performance monitoring of electrically or mechanically actuated flame and gas producing devices, such as squib-type initiators. A ten cubic centimeter closed bomb (closed volume) calorimeter was designed to provide a standard pressure trace and to measure a nominal 50 calorie output, using the basic components of a Parr Model 1411 calorimeter. Two prototype bombs were fabricated, pressure tested to 2600 psi, and extensively evaluated.

  20. Medical Database for the Atomic-Bomb Survivors at Nagasaki University

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Hiroyuki; Mine, Mariko; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Okumura, Yutaka

    1992-01-01

    The Scientific Data Center for Atomic-Bomb Disasters at Nagasaki University was established in 1974. The database of atomicbomb survivors has been in operation since 1977. The database is composed of following 6 physical database : (1) Fundamental information database. (2) Atomic-Bomb Hospital database, (3) Pathological database, (4) Household reconstruction database, (5) Second generation database, and (6) Address database. We review the current contents of the database for its further appli...

  1. Personality and Major Depression among Directly Exposed Survivors of the Oklahoma City Bombing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol S. North

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Few disaster studies have specifically examined personality and resilience in association with disaster exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and major depression. Methods. 151 directly-exposed survivors of the Oklahoma City bombing randomly selected from a bombing survivor registry completed PTSD, major depression, and personality assessments using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-IV and the Temperament and Character Inventory, respectively. Results. The most prevalent postdisaster psychiatric disorder was bombing-related PTSD (32%; major depression was second in prevalence (21%. Bombing-related PTSD was associated with the combination of low self-directedness and low cooperativeness and also with high self-transcendence and high harm avoidance in most configurations. Postdisaster major depression was significantly more prevalent among those with (56% than without (5% bombing-related PTSD (P<.001 and those with (72% than without (14% predisaster major depression (P<.001. Incident major depression was not associated with the combination of low self-directedness and low cooperativeness. Conclusions. Personality features can distinguish resilience to a specific life-threatening stressor from general indicators of well-being. Unlike bombing-related PTSD, major depression was not a robust marker of low resilience. Development and validation of measures of resilience should utilize well-defined diagnoses whenever possible, rather than relying on nonspecific measures of psychological distress.

  2. A statistical study of autopsy cases in Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital 1956-1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tadao; Ishida, Sadamu; Matsushita, Hiroshi.

    1976-01-01

    In order to study the differences in the incidence of a variety of disease (excluding tumors), between the cases exposed to the atomic bomb and those who were unexposed, main lesions were studied statistically by autopsy. The subjects were 1230 cases autopsied at the Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital or the Hiroshima Red-Cross Hospital. They were divided into 318 cases exposed at a short distance from the bombed area (within 2 km), and 420 cases exposed at a long distance from that area (more than 2 km), including those who had come to Hiroshima later. Four hundred twenty nine unexposed cases were selected as controls. The incidence of tumor, disturbance of circulation, disturbance of the blood vessels in the brain, blood disease, and respiratory disease was higher in the exposed cases than in the unexposed cases. The incidence of cirrhosis of the liver was higher in females than in males, and was lower in cases farther from the bombed area. Cardiac infarction, valvular disease, and endocarditis were more often seen in the cases exposed near the bombed area. The incidence of the blood vessels in the brain was highest in the exposed cases near the bombed area. The incidence of disturbance of circulation, and disturbance of the blood vessels in the brain had a tendency to be higher in the exposed cases than in the unexposed cases. This is considered to be due to the advanced age in the exposed cases. (Serizawa, K.)

  3. Reanalysis of atomic bomb survivors' leukemia based on the recent classification for leukemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao.

    1990-01-01

    Four hundred and ninety-three A-bomb survivors developing leukemia, who had been exposed within 9,000 m from the hypocenter, were entered on the study for reanalysis of their disease based on the new classification. Chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) showed the highest concordance rate (95%) between the previous and new classifications. For 10 survivors previously diagnosed as having chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a new classification diagnosed CLL as well in 3 and adult T-cell leukemia in the other 7. None of the A-bomb survivors exposed to one Gy or more had subtype M3 of acute myelocytic leukemia (AML), although the exposed group had almost the same distribution pattern of AML subtypes as the naturally induced leukemic group. The incidence of CML was significantly lower than that of AML in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. As A-bomb survivors were older at the time of A-bombing, the relative risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was decreased; that of CML and other types of leukemia was increased. An increased relative risk of ALL and CML tended to be associated with larger doses. A significantly shortened interval between A-bomb exposure and the development of leukemia was also associated with larger doses. (N.K.)

  4. Was Nazi Germany on the Road to an Atomic Bomb after all?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Harry

    2006-04-01

    The story of Germany's efforts to develop a nuclear weapon during World War II is a much written about and contentious subject. However there has been agreement on one thing: by the end of the War the Germans had not achieved and were nowhere near to building a bomb. The dispute therefore has been about why Germany did not succeed. Now, from Germany, comes a challenge to this truth, in the provocative book Hitlers Bombe by Rainer Karlsch. The bombshell in Hitler's Bombe is the assertion that German scientists developed and tested a primitive fission and fusion nuclear weapon in March 1945. Karlsch bases this claim on testimony of witnesses in 1962, previously secret Russian documents, and the results of soil tests carried out in 2004 and 2005. However the physics is very murky and it seems out of the question that Germany had enough Uranium 235 or produced any Plutonium for a bomb. Hitlers Bombe also makes other, better documented and more credible revisionist assertions. These include the claim that the Nazis did continue to try to build a bomb after 1942 and that not Werner Heisenberg, but Kurt Diebner and Walther Gerlach were then the leaders of the German Uranium project. Karlsch's book therefore deserves more attention from physicists and historians than it has received in the United States.

  5. Subclinical hyperthyroidism (Sh) in atomic-bomb survivors in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashizawa, K.; Imaizumi, M.; Usa, T.; Tominaga, T.; Hida, A.; Ejima, E.; Neriishi, K.; Soda, M.; Fujiwara, S.; Maeda, R.; Akahoshi, M.; Nagataki, S.; Eguchi, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Purpose/Background Subclinical hyperthyroidism (Sh) is defined as a biochemical abnormality characterized by a subnormal level of TSH with otherwise normal thyroid tests (F T 3 , F T 4 ) and no clinical symptoms. There are only a small number of cross-sectional studies on the prevalence of Sh. With the improvement of the sensitivity of TSH assay, it has become possible to survey the clinical significance of Sh. With regard to both Sh and subclinical hypothyroidism, discussions are being focused on such as the necessity of treatment. In order to elucidate the clinical significance of Sh, examination data of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were analyzed. Subjects and Method Between 2000 and 2003, of 4,090 A-bomb survivors (1,352 males and 2,738 females with average age of 70.7), 75 individuals (1.83%) with Sh were found who had normal Free T 4 (0.71∼1.51 ng/dL) and TSH<0.45 m U/L. Analysis was limited to those who had not taken antithyroid drugs or thyroxin, and the Sh group (n=35; 9 males and 26 females) was compared with a control group with TSH:0.45∼4.5 m U/L (Group C; N=3,243; 1,109 males and 2,134 females). Result: Nine individuals had TSH<0.1 m U/L. In the Sh group, six individuals were TPO antibody-positive (17%) and 14 were TG antibody-positive (40%); hence, TG antibody-positive was significantly greater in number (p=0.0096). Hematological biochemical tests showed no significant difference between the two groups. Electrocardiograms indicated that more individuals had atrial fibrillation [p=0.028; Odds ratio (OR)=3.98; 95% Confidential interval (CI)=1.2-13.7] or ventricular premature contraction [p=0.016; OR=3.29; 95% CI=1.3-8.6] in the Sh group. In terms of the presence or absence of diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperuricemia, there was no difference between the two groups. One individual from the Sh group was confirmed to have Graves' disease two years later. Conclusion: Since more individuals in the Sh group were

  6. Ionizing radiation and kidney cancer among Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David B; Hamra, Ghassan

    2010-06-01

    Understanding of the role of radiation as a cause of kidney cancer remains limited. The most common types of kidney cancer are renal cell carcinoma and renal pelvis carcinoma. It has been posited that these entities differ in their degree of radiogenicity. Recent analyses of cancer incidence and mortality in the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese atomic bomb survivors have examined associations between ionizing radiation and renal cell carcinoma, but these analyses have not reported results for cancer of the renal pelvis and ureters. This paper reports the results of analyses of kidney cancer incidence during the period 1958-1998 among 105,427 atomic bomb survivors. Poisson regression methods were used to derive estimates of associations between radiation dose (in sievert, Sv) and cancer of the renal parenchyma (n = 167), and cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter (n = 80). Heterogeneity by cancer site was tested by joint modeling of cancer risks. Radiation dose was positively associated with cancers of the renal pelvis and ureter [excess relative rate (ERR)/Sv = 1.65; 90% confidence interval (CI): 0.37, 3.78]. The magnitude of this association was larger than the estimated association between radiation dose and cancer of the renal parenchyma (ERR/Sv = 0.27; 90% CI = -0.19, 0.98). While the association between radiation and cancer of the renal parenchyma was of greater magnitude at ages populations examine these sites in aggregate, results were also derived for the combined category of cancer of the renal parenchyma, renal pelvis and ureters. Overall, there was a positive association between radiation and the combined category of cancer of the renal parenchyma, renal pelvis and ureters (ERR/Sv = 0.60, 90% CI: 0.09, 1.30). Updated follow-up of the LSS cohort provides substantial additional information on the association between radiation and cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter, a site not examined in recent reports on analyses of these data. The results are

  7. Smoking and serum proteins in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stram, D.O.; Akiba, Suminori; Neriishi, Kazuo; Hosoda, Yutaka; Stevens, R.G.

    1989-09-01

    Associations of smoking habit with serum levels of total protein as well as protein fractions were studied in a population consisting of 4,739 atomic bomb survivors and unexposed control subjects in Hiroshima who participated in the 1979-81 period of the Adult Health Study, an on-going health follow-up program of the RERF. Smoking was strongly related to serum protein concentration after correction for age, sex, and body mass index. Among current smokers as compared to nonsmokers, levels of total protein, β globulin, and γ globulin were significantly lower (p 1 and α 2 globulin were significantly higher (p 1 globulin. Duration of smoking (years) was related to increased α 1 and α 2 globulin. Smoking duration was also associated with albumin level but the trend was not monotonic. The radiation exposure effect on serum protein level was significant in several instances but was in general much smaller than the smoking effect. Its inclusion in the regression models did not noticeably affect the association between smoking and serum proteins. (author)

  8. METROLOGICAL PERFORMANCES OF BOMB CALORIMETERS AT REAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Maksimuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-usage measurement equipment for heat of combustion of organic fuels are bomb isoperibol calorimeters with a water thermostat. The stability of work of calorimeters at real conditions is important for maintenance of reliability of measurement results. The article purpose – the analysis of stability for parameters of calorimeters to environment changes. In this work influence room temperature (Тк and heat exchange conditions on metrological characteristics of two models of calorimeters is considered with different degree of thermal protection: V-08МА and BIC 100. For calorimeters V-08МА the increase in a effective heat capacity (W on 0,1 % by growth of Tк on everyone 5 °С is established. To use value W in all interval laboratory temperatures Tк = 14–28 °С it is necessary to correct W on 2,8 J/°C on everyone 1 °С changes of Tк. Updating W is required, if the correction exceeds error in determination W. For calorimeter BIC 100 it is not revealed dependences W from Tк. BIC 100 have constant-temperature cap, high stability a temperature in thermostat and stabilized heat exchange. It is established that an standard deviation of cooling constant for all calorimeters in direct proportional to standard deviation W. 

  9. Autoantibodies and immunoglobulins among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Carter, R.L.; Akiyama, Mitoshi

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to atomic-bomb radiation affects immune responsiveness, such as the occurrence of autoantibodies and levels of immunoglobulins. Rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody, antithyroglobulin antibody, anti-thyroid-microsomal antibody, and immunoglobulin levels (IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE) were measured among 2061 Adult Health Study participants in Hiroshima and Nagasaki from December 1987 to November 1989. The prevalence and titers of rheumatoid factor increased in a statistically significant manner with increasing radiation dose. No radiation effect was found on the prevalence of antinuclear antibody, antithyroglobulin antibody, and anti-thyroid-microsomal antibody. A statistically significant relationship was also found between radiation exposure and the IgA level in females and the IgM levels in both sexes-both levels increased as radiation dose increased. However, the effects of radiation exposure were not large and accounted for less than 10% of the total variation in each measurement. Levels of IgG and IgE were not affected by radiation exposure. (author)

  10. Cell biological study in multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Hironori; Kawano, Michio; Huang, Naihui; Tanabe, Osamu; Tanaka, Hideo; Sakai, Akira; Kuramoto, Atsushi (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

    1992-12-01

    The study was undertaken to determine differences in the expression of cell surface antigens in normal plasma cells and mature myeloma cells. The subjects were 20 patients with multiple myeloma, including 5 A-bomb survivors. Seven normal persons, four with chronic tonsillitis, one with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, and two with chronic lymphadenitis served as controls. In the group of myeloma cells, 12 showed mature myeloma cells of VLA-4[sup +]/VLA-5[sup +]/MPC-1[sup +], and the other 8 showed precursor myeloma cells of VLA-4[sup +]/VLA-5[sup -]/MPC-1[sup -]. In terms of CD56 and CD19, CD56[sup +]/CD19[sup -] were seen in 13 patients, CD56[sup -]/CD19[sup -] in 5, and CD56[sup +]/CD19[sup +] in 2; none of the patients showed phenotype of CD56[sup -]/CD19[sup +]. In the control group, all showed VLA-4[sup +]/VLA-5[sup +]/MPC-1[sup +]/CD44[sup +]/CD56[sup -]/CD19[sup +]; phenotype of normal plasma cells was CD38[sup ++]/CD56[sup -]/CD19[sup +] alone, which was not seen in the group of mature myeloma cells. Thus, this type is considered characteristic to normal plasma cells. These findings revealed that the difference in the expression of CD56 and CD19 aids in the identification of myeloma cells from normal plasma cells. (N.K.).

  11. Colorectal cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors, 1950-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Hirofumi; Shimizu, Yukiko; Yamamoto, Tsutomu

    1992-01-01

    Colorectal cancer incidence in the Life Span Study (LSS) sample during 1950-80 was investigated. A total of 730 incidence cases of colorectal cancer were confirmed from a variety of sources. Sixty-two percent of the cancers were microscopically verified and 12% were ascertained through death certificate only. The risk of colon cancer increased significantly with intestinal dose, but no definite increase of risk was observed for rectal cancer. Relative risk at 1 Sv and excess risk per 10 4 PY-Sv for colon cancer are 1.80 (90% confidence interval 1.37-2.36) and 0.36 (90% confidence interval 0.06-0.77) respectively. City and sex did not significantly modify the dose-response of colon cancer, but the risk decreased with age at the time of bombings (ATB). The relative risk of colon cancer does not vary substantially over time following exposure. A non-linear dose response did not significantly improve the fit. Further, the anatomic location of the tumors indicate that the cecum and ascending, transverse and descending, and sigmoid colon seem equally sensitive to radiation. No difference in the distribution of tumor histological types could be observed by radiation dose. (author)

  12. Colorectal cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors, 1950-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirofumi Nakatsuka; Yukiko Shimizu; Tsutomu Yamamoto; Ichiro Sekine; Haruo Ezaki; Eiichi Tahara; Makoto Takahashi; Takatoshi Shimoyama; Nobuo Mochinaga; Masao Tomita; Ryoichi Tsuchiya; Land, Charles E.

    1992-10-01

    Colerectal cancer incidence in the LSS sample during 1950-80 was investigated. A total of 730 incidence cases of colorectal cancer were confirmed from a variety of sources. Sixty-two percent of the cancers were microscopically verified and 12% were ascertained through death certificate only. The risk of colon cancer increased significantly with intestinal dose, but no definite increase of risk was observed for rectal cancer. Relative risk at 1 Sv and excess risk per 10 4 PY-Sv for colon cancer are 1.80 (90% confidence internal 1.37-2.36) and 0.36 (90% confidence interval 0.06-0.77) respectively. City and sex did not significantly modify the dos-response of colon cancer, but the risk decreased with age at the time of bombings (ATB). The relative risk of colon cancer does not vary substantially over time following exposure. A non-linear dose response did not significantly improve the fit. Further, the anatomic location of the tumors indicate that the cecum and ascending, transverse and descending, and sigmoid colon seem equally sensitive to radiation. No difference in the distribution of tumor histological types could be observed by radiation dose. (author)

  13. Application of Bomb Radiocarbon Chronologies to Shortfin Mako (Isurus oxyrinchus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardizzone, D; Cailliet, G M; Natanson, L J; Andrews, A H; Kerr, L A; Brown, T A

    2007-07-16

    and the number of samples for MIA analysis was insufficient for some months. Hence, unequivocal validation of shortfin mako age estimates has yet to be accomplished. Atmospheric testing of thermonuclear devices in the 1950s and 1960s effectively doubled the natural atmospheric radiocarbon ({sup 14}C). The elevated {sup 14}C levels were first recorded in 1957-58, with a peak around 1963. As a consequence, {sup 14}C entered the ocean through gas exchange with the atmosphere at the ocean surface and in terrestrial runoff. Despite variable oceanographic conditions, a worldwide rise of the bomb {sup 14}C signal entered the ocean mixed layer as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in 1957-58. The large amounts of {sup 14}C released from the bomb tests produced a signature that can be followed through time, throughout the marine food web, and into deeper waters. The marked increase of radiocarbon levels was first measured in the DIC of seawater and in biogenic marine carbonates of hermatypic corals in Florida. Subsequently, this record was documented in corals from other regions and in the thallus of rhodoliths. The accumulation of radiocarbon in the hard parts of most marine organisms in the mixed layer (such as fish otoliths and bivalves) was synchronous with the coral time-series. This technique has been used to validate age estimates and longevity of numerous bony fishes to date, as well as to establish bomb radiocarbon chronologies from different oceans. In the first application of this technique to lamnoid sharks, validated annual band-pair deposition in vertebral growth bands for the porbeagle (Lamna nasus) aged up to 26 years. Radiocarbon values from samples obtained from 15 porbeagle caught in the western North Atlantic Ocean (some of which were known-age) produced a chronology similar in magnitude to the reference carbonate chronology for that region. The observed phase shift of about 3 years was attributed to different sources of carbon between vertebrae and those for

  14. Fluid-filled bomb-disrupting apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Christopher R.

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus and method for disarming improvised bombs are disclosed. The apparatus comprises a fluid-filled bottle or container made of plastic or another soft material which contains a fixed or adjustable, preferably sheet explosive. The charge is fired centrally at its apex and can be adjusted to propel a fluid projectile that is broad or narrow, depending upon how it is set up. In one embodiment, the sheet explosive is adjustable so as to correlate the performance of the fluid projectile to the disarming needs for the improvised explosive device (IED). Common materials such as plastic water bottles or larger containers can be used, with the sheet explosive or other explosive material configured in a general chevron-shape to target the projectile toward the target. In another embodiment, a thin disk of metal is conformably mounted with the exterior of the container and radially aligned with the direction of fire of the fluid projectile. Depending on the configuration and the amount of explosive and fluid used, a projectile is fired at the target that has sufficient energy to penetrate rigid enclosures from fairly long stand-off and yet is focused enough to be targeted to specific portions of the IED for disablement.

  15. Genetic effects of the atomic bombs: a reappraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schull, W.J.; Otake, M.; Neel, J.V.

    1981-01-01

    Data are presented on four indicators of genetic effects from studies of children born to survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The indicators are frequency of untoward pregnancy outcomes (stillbirth, major congenital defect, death during the first postnatal weak); occurrence of death in live-born children, through an average of life expectancy of 17 years; frequency of children with sex chromosome aneuploidy; and frequency of children with mutation resulting in an eletrophoretic variant. In no instance is there a statistically significant effect of parental exposure; but for all indicators the observed effect is in the direction suggested by the hypothesis that genetic damage resulted from the exposure. On the basis of assumptions concerning the contribution that spontaneous mutation in the preceding generation makes to the indicators in question, it is possible to estimate the genetic doubling dose for radiation for the first three indicators (the data base is still too small for the fourth). The average of these estimates is 156 rems. This is some four times higher than the results from experimental studies on the mouse with comparable radiation sources, which have been the principal guide to the presumed human sensitivities. The relevance of these data in setting permissible limits for human exposures is discussed briefly

  16. Genetic effects of the atomic bombs: a reappraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schull, W.J.; Otake, M.; Neel, J.V.

    1981-01-01

    Data are presented on four indicators of genetic effects from studies of children born to survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Negasaki. The indicators are frequency of un toward pregnancy outcomes (stillbirth, major congenital defect, death during first postnatal week); occurrence of death in live-born children, through an average life expectancy of 17 years; frequency of children with sex chromosome aneuploidy; and frequency of children with mutation resulting in an electrophoretic variant. In no instance is there a statistically significant effect of parental exposure; but for all indicators the observed effect is in the direction suggested by the hypothesis that genetic damage resulted from the exposure. On the basis of assumptions concerning the contribution that spontaneous mutation in the preceding generation makes to the indicators in question, it is possible to estimate the genetic doubling dose for radiation for the first three indicators (the data base is still too small for the fourth). The average of these estimates is 156 rems. This is some four times higher than the results from experimental studies on the mouse with comparable radiation sources, which have been the principal guide to the presumed human sensitivities. The relevance of these data in setting permissible limits for human exposures is discussed briefly

  17. Mortality among atomic-bomb survivors, 1950-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, D.L.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Pierce, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of cancer mortality in the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of atomic bomb survivors during the period from 1950 through 1990 was recently published in Radiation Research. Work is also nearing completion on an updated analysis of data on noncancer mortality in the LSS. The new LSS mortality reports, collectively called Report 12, differ from earlier LSS reports in several general aspects. The Report includes some simple tabular, and graphical summaries of the excess risks which were developed to make it easier to comprehend the magnitude and nature of the excess risks in this cohort while highlighting uncertainties in the current LSS data. In order to overcome problems inherent in the use of summary risk estimates averaged over the current follow-up, sex- and age-at-exposure-specific lifetime risks computed for the LSS cohort are used as primary summaries of the excess risks. Throughout the new report, risk estimates were derived from models that make explicit allowance for important risk-modifying factors, such as age-at-exposure, sex, or attained age. This chapter contains a brief summary of some of the findings of the cancer mortality report and provides a preview of the latest non-cancer results

  18. FINE-SCALE PHOTOSPHERIC CONNECTIONS OF ELLERMAN BOMBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Heesu; Chae, Jongchul; Song, Donguk; Cho, Kyuhyoun; Kwak, Hannah [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Yeon-Han [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Yurchyshyn, Vasyl B, E-mail: yang83@snu.ac.kr [Big Bear Solar Observatory, Big Bear City, CA 92314-9672 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the photospheric and magnetic field structures associated with Ellerman bombs (EBs) using the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory. The nine observed EBs were accompanied by elongated granule-like features (EGFs) that showed transverse motions prior to the EBs with an average speed of about 3.8 km s{sup −1}. Each EGF consisted of a sub-arcsecond bright core encircled by a dark lane around its moving front. The bright core appeared in the TiO broadband filter images and in the far wings of the H α and Ca ii 8542 Å lines. In four EBs, the bi-directional expanding motion of the EGFs was identified in the TiO images. In those cases, the EGFs were found to be accompanied by an emerging flux (EF). In four other EBs, the EGF developed at the edge of a penumbra and traveled in the sunspot’s radial direction. The EGFs in these cases were identified as a moving magnetic feature (MMF). Our results show a clear connection among the magnetic elements, photospheric features, and EBs. This result suggests that the EBs result from magnetic reconnection forced by EFs or MMFs that are frequently manifested by EGFs.

  19. The Approach to Suicide Bombing Attacks: Changing Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almgody, Gidon; Bala, Miklosh; Rivkind, Avraham I

    2008-06-01

    Suicide bombing attacks have emerged as a lethal weapon in the hands of terrorist groups. Our aim was to review the medical experience acquired in Israel, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States in managing terrorist attacks, and prepare medical systems for the difficult task of managing these events. EMS protocols are amended to deal with a large number of victims in an urban setting who must be rapidly evacuated to a medical center where resuscitative as well as definitive care is delivered. A combination of extensive soft tissue damage caused by penetrating injuries, blast injury to the lungs and tympanic membranes, and burns are common among survivors. Preparation must include establishment of a clear chain-of-command lead by a general surgeon who manages the event and is responsible for decisions regarding OR preferences and ICU admissions. The emergency department is re-organized to handle the influx of numerous severely injured casualties. Professional personnel and resources are recruited and re-directed away from routine tasks towards treating the victims. This is achieved by deferring non-urgent operations, procedures and imaging studies. Victims are frequently re-assessed and re-evaluated to control chaos, minimize missed injuries and ensure delivery of an adequate level of care.

  20. Ophthalmologic survey of atomic bomb survivors in Japan, 1949. Atomic bomb radiation cataract case report with histopathologic study. Medical examination of Hiroshima patients with radiation cataracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogan, D.G.; Martin, S.F.; Kimura, S.J.; Ikui, Hiroshi; Fillmore, P.G.

    1959-01-01

    This document contains 3 reports dealing with the delayed effects of radiation on the eyes of survivors of the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In the first study, 1000 persons who were listed as having been in the open and within two kilometers of the hypocenter at the time of the explosion were selected at random from the census files of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission for study. In addition, 231 others, comprising the total available number of surviving persons listed at present in the census files as having been within one kilometer of the hypocenter, were examined, as were several hundred others who were contacted through newspaper publicity, referrals from local ophthalmologists, or through hearsay. The survey resulted in bringing in persons having, or having had, a variety of ocular conditions. Those connected with the atomic bomb included the following diagnoses; multiple injuries of eyes and eyelids; keratoconjunctivitis from ultraviolet and ionizing radiations; thermal burn of the cornea and of the retina; retinitis proliferans; and radiation cataracts. The cataracts were the only delayed manifestations of ocular injury from the atomic bomb. The second paper is a case report of a histopathologic study of atomic bomb radiation cataract. The third paper presents the results of medical examinations of survivors having radiation induced cataracts. 32 references, 8 figures. (DMC)

  1. Design, Development, and Innovation of an Interactive Multimedia Training Simulator for Responding to Air Transportation Bomb Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Christopher A.; Marwaha, Shweta

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an interactive multimedia simulator for air transportation bomb threat training. The objective of this project is to improve the air transportation sector s capability to respond to bomb threats received by commercial airports and aircraft. The simulator provides realistic training on receiving and responding to a variety of bomb threats that might not otherwise be possible due to time, cost, or operational constraints. Validation analysis indicates that the use of the simulator resulted in statistically significant increases in individual ability to respond to these types of bomb threats.

  2. The bomb black market - Inquiry about nuclear proliferation; Le marche noir de la bombe - Enquete sur la proliferation nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertrais, B

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear weapons remain for a long time in the hands of the five big powers: USA, Soviet Union, Great Britain, France and China. Things started to change when Israel, and then India acquired the atomic bomb as well. Pakistan took up the race too but Abdul Qadeer Khan, one of the nuclear program maker of the country, took profit of the situation to set up a huge international proliferation network for the spreading of the technologies, tools and materials necessary for weapons fabrication. He offered his services not only to Iran and North Korea, but to Iraq and Libya as well and probably to some other countries. Today, the Iranian nuclear program generates both envy and fear in the Middle East. Who is going to be the next domino of the nuclear game? Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Turkey are potential candidates. But while Pakistan sinks into crisis, the terrorists are taking interest in nukes. The author of this book has worked for more than 10 years on this dossier. He has had access to the most sensible documents and to essential testimonies. He now lifts the curtain on the secrets of nuclear proliferation. In this book, where reality sometimes surpasses fiction, he explains how the CIA finally succeeded in infiltrating the 'Khan ring' after having closed its eyes on his deals for a long time. He describes the branches of the Pakistani atomic complex and analyses with lucidity the nuclear terrorism risk.

  3. Mortality statistics among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima Prefecture. 1968-1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurihara, M.; Munaka, M.; Hayakawa, N.; Yamamoto, H.; Ueoka, H.; Ohtaki, M. (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

    1981-12-01

    In a comparative analysis of mortality among atomic bomb survivors versus the non-exposed, both resident in Hiroshima Prefecture, it was found that in addition to leukaemia, malignant lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the thyroid gland, breast, lung, esophagus, stomach, urinary organs and salivary gland which have been reported from the past to be elevated in risk among atomic bomb survivors, cancers of the colon, larynx, accessory sinuses, uterus, ovary and testis, diseases of the blood, cirrhosis of liver, hypertensive disease and diabetes mellitus were elevated in risk, but the risk of cerebrovascular disease, heart disease, peptic ulcer, gastroenteritis, senility, and accidents was lower than the non-exposed. The relationship of atomic bomb exposure to the relative risk of cancers of the lung, breast, uterus, and testis could be readily explained, but the relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the relative risk of cancers of many other sites, diseases of the blood, and other causes of death was inconsistent. One of the reasons why the risk of senility was low and the risk of diseases of the blood, malignant neoplasms, diabetes mellitus, and hypertensive disease was high is considered to be the higher diagnostic accuracy in atomic bomb survivors.

  4. Studies on population change of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima prefecture 1965-1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueoka, Hiroshi; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru

    1984-01-01

    Studies of population change of Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors from 1965 to 1979 in Hiroshima prefecture of which registered in Data Base of Atomic Bomb Survivors of RINMB were conducted, and following were obtained: 1. Population change of Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors showed increasing trend until 1976 and diminishing trend from 1977. It would be estimated that reason of increasing trend of Atomic Bomb Survivors was correlated the same trend to get register card of ''Atomic Bomb Treatment Law'', and decreasing trend of them was related so much death of the elderly generations. 2. Analysing by residential place the survivors who make a living in Hiroshima city was almost 110,000, and those who make a living in Hiroshima prefecture (except Hiroshima city) was 65,000. Considering exposed distance of the survivors in Hiroshima city, those survivors exposed within 2 km showed diminishing trend; and those who make a living in Hiroshima prefecture (except Hiroshima city), exposed within 2 km showed increasing trend. 3. In 1979, the ratio of male and female survivors by age level showed difference. Those male survivors over 50 years old in Hiroshima city showed much lower percentage than female. 4. In 1979, the population trends of survivors who get the ''card'' before 1964 showed rapid decrease, and those who get the ''card'' after 1965 showed mild decrease. (author)

  5. Noncancer mortality based on the Hiroshima Atomic Bomb survivors registry over 30 years, 1968-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasagi, Keiko [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine

    2002-04-01

    The relation of radiation exposure with noncancer mortality was examined on 44,514 atomic bomb survivors (17,935 males, 26,579 females, and mean age 22.8{+-}15.7 yrs at the time of bombing) registered at Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, based on mortality follow-up over 30 years, 1968-1997. Noncancer mortality was significantly related to radiation dose with relative risk of 1.06 at 1 Sv radiation dose, although weaker than the dose response in solid cancer mortality. The significant dose responses were observed especially in circulatory disease, stroke and urinary organ disease, and suggestive dose response in pneumonia. The temporal pattern in dose response by age at the time of bombing indicated that the relative risk of noncancer mortality was higher with follow-up period, which is contrary to a decreasing dose response in solid cancer mortality with follow-up period. The tendency was remarkable in those survivors younger at the time of bombing. These findings suggest that the significant radiation risk observed in noncancer mortality might increase as the proportion of younger survivors among atomic bomb survivors increases. (author)

  6. Potential influence of new doses of A-bomb after re-evaluation of epidemiological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, T.

    1983-01-01

    Since the peaceful use of atomic energy appears essential for future human existence, we must provide risk estimates from low-dose exposures to human beings. The largest body of human data has been derived from the studies of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Recently, it was proposed by an Oak Ridge National Laboratory group that the current free-in-air doses of atomic bombs are significantly different from the doses recalculated on the basis of the new output spectra of neutrons and gamma rays from the atomic bombs which were declassified by the US Department of Energy in 1976. A joint commission on dose re-evaluation of the United States of America and Japan was established in 1981 to pursue the dose reassessment programme between US and Japanese research groups and to decide an agreed best estimate of organ or tissue doses in survivors as soon as possible. The paper reviews the physical concepts of the re-evaluation of atomic bomb doses and discusses the potential influence of new dosimetric parameters on the epidemiological studies of the atomic bomb survivors in future, although the re-assessment programme is still in progress. (author)

  7. Proteinuria in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, L.R.; Seki, Masafumi; Phair, J.P.; Nefzger, M.D.

    1966-08-25

    A study of the epidemiology of proteinuria was conducted on about 5000 persons comprising a portion of the clinical sample under study at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission. In addition, data from previous examinations of similar samples were analyzed. Proteinuria was more common in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. The rates for men and women did not differ within cities. Age-specific rates of proteinuria were peculiar, peaking in adolescence and old age. In the subjects under study proteinuria was frequently inconstant and usually represented excretion of less than 1.0 g of protein per day. Prior exposure to radiation as measured by distance from the hypocenter was correlated with increased proteinuria rates in 18-year-old subjects who were in utero ATB. Subjects exposed after birth did not show this tendency. It is unsettled whether radiation results in renal disease by increasing the subject's susceptibility to the usual causes of glomerulonephritis or by some more direct mechanism. Persons with proteinuria had higher mean blood pressures and serum urea nitrogen levels than controls and had other findings indicative of generalized cardiovascular-renal disease. Persons with thyroid disease had an increased risk of proteinuria whereas the converse was true of those with a history of treatment for peptic ulcer. Many other factors were tested for a relation to proteinuria, including family history of renal disease, socioeconomic status, urinary symptoms, ingestion of medications, physical findings, hemoglobin levels, height, weight, ABO blood groups, audiometry, vibrometry, and serum cholesterol levels. Although urinary symptoms were more common in persons with proteinuria, the findings in other areas were not sufficiently different to suggest meaningful relations. 20 references, 2 figures, 13 tables.

  8. Injury pattern of suicide bomb attacks in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, M M A; Nasreen, G; Malik, S A

    2012-04-01

    The aim of our study was to analyze the pattern of injuries, hospital care, and outcome of the victims of suicide bomb attacks in Pakistan. This prospective, cohort study was conducted at the Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi during the last 3 years. Seriously injured patients in the "immediate category" were resuscitated in the emergency operation theater adjacent to the emergency room and, after resuscitation, the patients were transferred to the main operation theaters, where consultant surgeons were available. During the study period, 1,296 terrorist victims presented to the emergency department and (86.9%) were admitted, with a mean hospital stay of 8.2 ± 2.1 days. The majority of patients arrived by ambulance (91%) and only 38 (3%) were evacuated by air. Penetrating splinter injuries were the most prevalent (87%), and 29% patients also had associated injuries. Open bone fractures were found in 48% and 42% had injured hollow and solid viscous. Overall, 33% of patients had thoracic injuries and neuro-trauma was observed in 16% of the study population. Deafness was a feature in 33% patients, 121 had to undergo limb amputations, and mortality remained in 7% of patients. Most of the problems encountered were logistic in nature. Early evacuation of the victims remains pivotal in saving lives. The major causes of death in peripheral patients was hypovolemic shock, sepsis, and hypothermia. Mortality and morbidity can be enhanced by ample fluid resuscitation, tetanus prophylaxis, and proficient first aid at the site of injury.

  9. Cytogenetic studies on leukemia and preleukemic state in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Tomonaga, Yu; Tagawa, Masuko; Kusano, Miyuki; Nishino, Kenji

    1980-01-01

    Chromosomal abberation of bone marrow cells in healthy persons and patients with various hematologic diseases both of the exposed and the non-exposed were discussed. One healthy a-bomb survivor exposed near the hypocenter and structural abnormality of chromosomes closely similar to that found out in a small number of patients with hematologic diseases, but clone formation was not recognized. Though it was clarified that there was chromosomal abberation peculiar to each hematologic disease, specific chromosomal abberation peculiar to a-bomb survivors with hematologic diseases was not recognized. There were many a-bomb survivors with hemopoietic dysplasia who had structural abnormality of chromosomes, and their frequency was significantly higher than that of the non-exposed. (Tsunoda, M.)

  10. A review of 40 years studies of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itsuzo Shigematsu

    1993-01-01

    The late health effects of ionizing radiation have been studied by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) based on a fixed population of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki which had been established in 1950. The results thus far obtained up to the present can be classified into the following three categories: (1) The effects for which a strong association with atomic bomb radiation has been found include malignant neoplasms, cataracts, chromosomal aberrations, small head size and mental retardation among the in utero exposed. (2) A weak association has been found in the several sites of cancers, some non-cancer mortalities and immunological abnormalities. (3) No association has been observed in some types of leukemia, osteosarcoma, accelerated aging, sterility and hereditary effects

  11. Sulfur activation at the Little Boy-Comet Critical Assembly: a replica of the Hiroshima bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Emery, J.F.; Pace, J.V. III.

    1985-04-01

    Studies have been completed on the activation of sulfur by fast neutrons from the Little Boy-Comet Critical Assembly which replicates the general features of the Hiroshima bomb. The complex effects of the bomb's design and construction on leakage of sulfur-activation neutrons were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Our sulfur activation studies were performed as part of a larger program to provide benchmark data for testing of methods used in recent source-term calculations for the Hiroshima bomb. Source neutrons capable of activating sulfur play an important role in determining neutron doses in Hiroshima at a kilometer or more from the point of explosion. 37 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  12. The current mortality rates of a-bomb survivors in Nagasaki-city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Shunzo; Mine, Mariko; Nakamura, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Hisayoshi

    1980-01-01

    The causes of death for 9814 a-bomb survivors in Nagasaki-city from '70 to '76 were investigated. The mortality rates of the survivors in the aged group were slightly lower than those of both unexposed citizens in Nagasaki and the national average. No difference of the mortality ratios with respect to sex and the distance from a-bomb at exposure was observed. For the cause of death, the cerebrovascular diseases came next to malignant neoplasms in the a-bomb survivors, which order was reverse in the non-exposed population. The mortality rate of the cerebrovascular diseases in the survivors was lower than the expected value. The mortality rate of survivors due to neoplasms was slightly higher than the national average, although almost the same as that of unexposed citizens in Nagasaki. (Nakanishi, T.)

  13. Organ doses to atomic bomb survivors from radiological examinations at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kazuo; Antoku, Shigetoshi; Sawada, Shozo; Russell, W.J.

    1990-04-01

    When estimating the risks of oncogenesis and cancer mortality as a result of atomic bomb radiation exposure, medical X-ray doses received by the A-bomb survivors must also be estimated and considered. Using a phantom human, we estimated the X-ray doses received by A-bomb survivors during routine biennial medical examinations conducted at RERF as part of the long-term Adult Health Study (AHS), since these examinations may represent about 45 % of the survivors' total medical irradiations. Doses to the salivary glands, thyroid gland, lung, breast, stomach and colon were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters. The results reported here will aid in estimating organ doses received by individual AHS participants. (author)

  14. Seeing the Light: Visibility of the July '45 Trinity Atomic Bomb Test from the Inner Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2006-01-01

    In his "The Making of the Atomic Bomb," Richard Rhodes remarks of the July 16, 1945, Trinity atomic bomb test in New Mexico that "had astronomers been watching they could have seen it reflected from the moon, literal moonshine," an allusion to Ernest Rutherford's famous dismissal of the prospect of atomic energy. Investigating…

  15. A community study of the psychological effects of the Omagh car bomb on adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Duffy

    Full Text Available The main aims of the study were to assess psychological morbidity among adults nine months after a car bomb explosion in the town of Omagh, Northern Ireland and to identify predictors of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.A questionnaire was sent to all adults in households in The Omagh District Council area. The questionnaire comprised established predictors of PTSD (such as pre-trauma personal characteristics, type of exposure, initial emotional response and long-term adverse physical or financial problems, predictors derived from the Ehlers and Clark (2000 cognitive model, a measure of PTSD symptoms and the General Health Questionnaire.Among respondents (n = 3131 the highest rates of PTSD symptoms and probable casesness (58.5% were observed among people who were present in the street when the bomb exploded but elevated rates were also observed in people who subsequently attended the scene (21.8% probable caseness and among people for whom someone close died (11.9%. People with a near miss (left the scene before the explosion did not show elevated rates. Exposure to the bombing increased PTSD symptoms to a greater extent than general psychiatric symptoms. Previously established predictors accounted for 42% of the variance in PTSD symptoms among people directly exposed to the bombing. Predictors derived from the cognitive model accounted for 63%.High rates of chronic PTSD were observed in individuals exposed to the bombing. Psychological variables that are in principle amenable to treatment were the best predictors of PTSD symptoms. Teams planning treatment interventions for victims of future bombings and other traumas may wish to take these results into account.

  16. Leukaemia following childhood radiation exposure in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in medically exposed groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Incidence and mortality risks of radiation-associated leukaemia are surveyed in the Japanese atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors exposed in early childhood and in utero. Leukaemia incidence and mortality risks are also surveyed in 16 other studies of persons who received appreciable doses of ionizing radiation in the course of treatment in childhood and for whom there is adequate dosimetry and cancer incidence or mortality follow-up. Relative risks tend to be lower in the medical series than in the Japanese A-bomb survivors. The relative risks in the medical studies tend to diminish with increasing average therapy dose. After taking account of cell sterilisation and dose fractionation, the apparent differences between the relative risks for leukaemia in the Japanese A-bomb survivors and in the medical series largely disappear. This suggests that cell sterilisation largely accounts for the discrepancy between the relative risks in the Japanese data and the medical studies. Excess absolute risk has also been assessed in four studies, and there is found to be more variability in this measure than in excess relative risk. In particular, there is a substantial difference between the absolute risk in the Japanese atomic bomb survivor data and those in three other (European) populations. In summary, the relative risks of leukaemia in studies of persons exposed to appreciable doses of ionizing radiation in the course of treatment for a variety of malignant and non-malignant conditions in childhood are generally less than those in the Japanese A-bomb survivor data. The effects of cell sterilisation can largely explain the discrepancy between the Japanese and the medical series. (authors)

  17. Frequency of marriage and live birth among survivors prenatally exposed to the atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blot, W.J.; Shimizu, Y.; Kato, H.; Miller, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    Frequency of marriage and birth as of January 1973 was determined for persons exposed in utero to the atomic bombs in 1945 and for controls. The marriage rate was lower in persons heavily exposed in utero than in the non-exposed or lightly exposed. This difference is attributed partly to the lesser marriageability of persons with mental retardation who are significantly more numerous among the heavily exposed, and partly to unmeasured variables, possibly including social discrimination against survivors of the atomic bomb. No consistent relation was observed between radiation exposure and three reproductive indices: childless marriages, number of births, and interval between marriage and first birth

  18. Epidemiology of a thermonuclear bomb-burst over Nashville, Tennessee: a theoretic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    A thermonuclear bomb explosion over any city in the world would have a devastating effect on the population and environment. For those who survive, with or without injuries, life would become primitive with little or no uncontaminated food or water, and with inadequate housing, fuel, and medical care, resulting in a breakdown of family and interpersonal relationships. This theoretic study of the potential outcome of a thermonuclear bomb-burst over Nashville, Tennessee, discusses epidemiologically the wide range of medical and psychologic effects from the direct trauma of blast and fire, widespread epidemics of otherwise controlled disease, long-term chronic illness, genetic damage, and catastrophic environmental havoc

  19. Survey of radiation doses received by atomic-bomb survivors residing in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Yamada, H.; Marks, S.

    1976-01-01

    A survey has been completed of 300 of an estimated 500 to 750 survivors of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki who reside in the United States. Distributions with respect to age, sex, citizenship status, distance from the hypocenter at the time of bombing, and dose from immediate weapon radiation have been tabulated from the results and are presented for this group of 300 survivors. Also presented are survey results concerning exposures to residual radiation from fallout and neutron-induced radioactivity in the areas adjacent to the hypocenter

  20. Genius in the shadows a biography of Leo Szilard, the man behind the bomb

    CERN Document Server

    Lanouette, William

    2013-01-01

    Well-known names such as Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi, J. Robert Oppenheimer, and Edward Teller are usually those that surround the creation of the atom bomb. One name that is rarely mentioned is Leo Szilard, known in scientific circles as "father of the atom bomb." The man who first developed the idea of harnessing energy from nuclear chain reactions, he is curiously buried with barely a trace in the history of this well-known and controversial topic.Born in Hungary and educated in Berlin, he escaped Hitler's Germany in 1933 and that first year developed his concept of nucle

  1. A study on thyroid disorder of Sjoegren's disease in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noma, Koji; Sasaki, Hideo; Ito, Chikako; Hasegawa, Kazuyo.

    1984-01-01

    Thyroid disorders were seen in eight of 25 atomic bomb survivors with Sjoegren's disease -- simple goiter in 2, chronic thyroiditis in 4, and primary hypothyroidism probably arising from chronic thyroiditis in 2. Thyroid disorders associated with Sjoegren's disease seemed to occur frequently in survivors exposed near the explosion. One of the two survivors with primary hypothyroidism had been exposed to atomic bomb 1.7 km from the explosion. As for the other clinical laboratory findings, there was no significant difference between the group with thyroid disorders and the group without them. (Namekawa, K.)

  2. Pros and cons on ''Hitlers' bomb''. Studies on nuclear research in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsch, R.; Petermann, H.

    2007-01-01

    This book reveals a sensation: Under supervision of the SS German scientists tested 1944/45 nuclear bombs on Ruegen and in Thuringia. During this period several hundred prisoners of war and prisoners died. Besides proofs for nuclear weapon testing the author also found a draft for a patent on plutonium bombs and discovered the first functioning German atom reactor in the environs of Berlin. The succeeding book titled above enlarges the spectra of contributions from Saenger PLan to attack New York, researches on minimization of critical mass, the attempt to calculate TNT-equivalence as the presentation of important acteurs occuring during the researches. (GL)

  3. Health effects on individuals and health services of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkita, T.

    1984-01-01

    Human injuries caused by the A-bomb can be categorized as the result of thermal rays, ionizing radiation, or blast. Many persons sustained injuries from more than one cause, any one of which could have been fatal. In addition to such direct injuries, indirect injuries were sustained, caused by fire or the fall of rubble from demolished buildings. The severity of early A-bomb injuries was directly proportional to distance from the hypocentre. Many hospitals and clinics throughout Hiroshima City and Nagasaki City were destroyed or damaged depending on their distance from the hypocentre and the extent to which they were shielded topographically

  4. Synthetic medical studies on atomic bomb survivors exposed in short distances, 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Nanao; Tanaka, Kimio; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Hisashi; Munaka, Masaki; Hattori, Takao; Yokoro, Kenjiro; Kurihara, Minoru

    1986-01-01

    An analysis for chromosome breakpoints in 731 cells with chromosome aberrations obtained from 39 A-bomb survivors was made. There were 50 chromosome regions where the number of breaks was significantly higher than the expected number (p < 0.05). Twenty of these regions were common to those specific to cancer cells, and 16 were common to fragile sites. Chromosome regions commonly seen for constitutional fragile sites, chromosome aberrations in A-bomb survivors and cancer patients were 5q31, 6q25, 8q24, 11q23, and 17q23. (Namekawa, K.)

  5. The relationship between the life environment of the atomic bomb survivors (Hibakusha) and their cardiovascular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaka, Masatoshi; Saito, Osamu; Miyaki, Sumiyo; Watabu, Akiko

    1978-01-01

    In order to observe clinically the effects of the atomic bomb on the human body (and on the environment), subjects were divided into group A (persons living in Hiroshima city more than 10 years after dropping of the atomic bomb) and group B (persons who changed their residence within 1 month). Group A was divided into two separate groups: group A 1 (persons living in segregated areas), and group A 2 (persons living in other areas). General examinations showed no abnormal findings. Incidence of abnormal ECG findings was higher in subjects living in segregated areas and was also higher in women than in men. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. Ancestry analysis in the 11-M Madrid bomb attack investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Phillips

    Full Text Available The 11-M Madrid commuter train bombings of 2004 constituted the second biggest terrorist attack to occur in Europe after Lockerbie, while the subsequent investigation became the most complex and wide-ranging forensic case in Spain. Standard short tandem repeat (STR profiling of 600 exhibits left certain key incriminatory samples unmatched to any of the apprehended suspects. A judicial order to perform analyses of unmatched samples to differentiate European and North African ancestry became a critical part of the investigation and was instigated to help refine the search for further suspects. Although mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA and Y-chromosome markers routinely demonstrate informative geographic differentiation, the populations compared in this analysis were known to show a proportion of shared mtDNA and Y haplotypes as a result of recent gene-flow across the western Mediterranean, while any two loci can be unrepresentative of the ancestry of an individual as a whole. We based our principal analysis on a validated 34plex autosomal ancestry-informative-marker single nucleotide polymorphism (AIM-SNP assay to make an assignment of ancestry for DNA from seven unmatched case samples including a handprint from a bag containing undetonated explosives together with personal items recovered from various locations in Madrid associated with the suspects. To assess marker informativeness before genotyping, we predicted the probable classification success for the 34plex assay with standard error estimators for a naïve Bayesian classifier using Moroccan and Spanish training sets (each n = 48. Once misclassification error was found to be sufficiently low, genotyping yielded seven near-complete profiles (33 of 34 AIM-SNPs that in four cases gave probabilities providing a clear assignment of ancestry. One of the suspects predicted to be North African by AIM-SNP analysis of DNA from a toothbrush was identified late in the investigation as Algerian in origin. The

  7. Ancestry analysis in the 11-M Madrid bomb attack investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Christopher; Prieto, Lourdes; Fondevila, Manuel; Salas, Antonio; Gómez-Tato, Antonio; Alvarez-Dios, José; Alonso, Antonio; Blanco-Verea, Alejandro; Brión, María; Montesino, Marta; Carracedo, Angel; Lareu, María Victoria

    2009-08-11

    The 11-M Madrid commuter train bombings of 2004 constituted the second biggest terrorist attack to occur in Europe after Lockerbie, while the subsequent investigation became the most complex and wide-ranging forensic case in Spain. Standard short tandem repeat (STR) profiling of 600 exhibits left certain key incriminatory samples unmatched to any of the apprehended suspects. A judicial order to perform analyses of unmatched samples to differentiate European and North African ancestry became a critical part of the investigation and was instigated to help refine the search for further suspects. Although mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome markers routinely demonstrate informative geographic differentiation, the populations compared in this analysis were known to show a proportion of shared mtDNA and Y haplotypes as a result of recent gene-flow across the western Mediterranean, while any two loci can be unrepresentative of the ancestry of an individual as a whole. We based our principal analysis on a validated 34plex autosomal ancestry-informative-marker single nucleotide polymorphism (AIM-SNP) assay to make an assignment of ancestry for DNA from seven unmatched case samples including a handprint from a bag containing undetonated explosives together with personal items recovered from various locations in Madrid associated with the suspects. To assess marker informativeness before genotyping, we predicted the probable classification success for the 34plex assay with standard error estimators for a naïve Bayesian classifier using Moroccan and Spanish training sets (each n = 48). Once misclassification error was found to be sufficiently low, genotyping yielded seven near-complete profiles (33 of 34 AIM-SNPs) that in four cases gave probabilities providing a clear assignment of ancestry. One of the suspects predicted to be North African by AIM-SNP analysis of DNA from a toothbrush was identified late in the investigation as Algerian in origin. The results achieved

  8. Hitlers' bomb. The secret story of Germanys' nuclear weapon tests; Hitlers Bombe. Die geheime Geschichte der deutschen Kernwaffenversuche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsch, R.

    2005-07-01

    This book reveals a sensation: Under supervision of the SS German scientists tested 1944/45 nuclear bombs on Ruegen and in Thuringia. During this period several hundred prisoners of war and prisoners died. Besides proofs for nuclear weapon testing the author also found a draft for a patent on plutonium bombs and discovered the first functioning German atom reactor in the environs of Berlin. (GL) [German] Dieses Buch enthuellt eine Sensation: Unter Aufsicht der SS testeten deutsche Wissenschaftler 1944/45 auf Ruegen und in Thueringen nukleare Bomben. Dabei kamen mehrere hundert Kriegsgefangene und Haeftlinge ums Leben. Nach jahrelanger Recherche entschluesselte der Berliner Historiker Rainer Karlsch eines der groessten Raetsel des Dritten Reiches. Neben Belegen fuer die Kernwaffenversuche fand er auch einen Entwurf fuer ein Plutoniumbombenpatent aus dem Jahr 1941 und entdeckte im Umland Berlins den ersten funktionierenden deutschen Atomreaktor. (orig.)

  9. A time series analysis on an individual data of atomic-bomb survivors and reduction to a medical treatment of atomic-bomb survivors using the results, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, Hiroshi; Hamada, Tadao; Kawagoe, Kazuko; Shigenobu, Takuzo; Matsuura, Chifumi.

    1980-01-01

    To prevent death of a-bomb survivors with myocardial infarction, a time series analysis of conditions of death caused by myocardial infarction was performed. Six a-bomb survivors who died of myocardial infarction were selected as subjects because their time series data could be obtained. Growth-equilibrium curves and polynomial trend line obtained from time series analysis were analysed by using a computer. Changes in a white blood cell count, a erythrocyte count, and Hb showed patterns of hemorrhagic shock at a terminal stage. Essential condition necessary for preservation of damaged heart was to keep up an erythrocyte count of 3,060,000 and Hb of 64.7%. The borderline between life and death was systolic pressure of 54 mmHg. It was demonstrated that prof. Abe's theory that the condition necessary for controlling diabetis is to keep up fasting glucose in blood of 140 mg/dl was correct. (Tsunoda, M.)

  10. NeoBOMB1, a GRPR-Antagonist for Breast Cancer Theragnostics: First Results of a Preclinical Study with [67Ga]NeoBOMB1 in T-47D Cells and Tumor-Bearing Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Kaloudi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The GRPR-antagonist-based radioligands [67/68Ga/111In/177Lu]NeoBOMB1 have shown excellent theragnostic profiles in preclinical prostate cancer models, while [68Ga]NeoBOMB1 effectively visualized prostate cancer lesions in patients. We were further interested to explore the theragnostic potential of NeoBOMB1 in GRPR-positive mammary carcinoma, by first studying [67Ga]NeoBOMB1 in breast cancer models; Methods: We investigated the profile of [67Ga]NeoBOMB1, a [68Ga]NeoBOMB1 surrogate, in GRPR-expressing T-47D cells and animal models; Results: NeoBOMB1 (IC50s of 2.2 ± 0.2 nM and [natGa]NeoBOMB1 (IC50s of 2.5 ± 0.2 nM exhibited high affinity for the GRPR. At 37 °C [67Ga]NeoBOMB1 strongly bound to the T-47D cell-membrane (45.8 ± 0.4% at 2 h, internalizing poorly, as was expected for a radioantagonist. [67Ga]NeoBOMB1 was detected >90% intact in peripheral mouse blood at 30 min pi. In mice bearing T-47D xenografts, [67Ga]NeoBOMB1 specifically localized in the tumor (8.68 ± 2.9% ID/g vs. 0.6 ± 0.1% ID/g during GRPR-blockade at 4 h pi. The unfavorably high pancreatic uptake could be considerably reduced (206.29 ± 17.35% ID/g to 42.46 ± 1.31% ID/g at 4 h pi by increasing the NeoBOMB1 dose from 10 pmol to 200 pmol, whereas tumor uptake remained unaffected. Notably, tumor values did not decline from 1 to 24 h pi; Conclusions: [67Ga]NeoBOMB1 can successfully target GRPR-positive breast cancer in animals with excellent prospects for clinical translation.

  11. Books, Not Bombs: Teaching Peace since the Dawn of the Republic. Peace Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Charles; Harris, Ian,

    2010-01-01

    "Books Not Bombs: Teaching Peace Since the Dawn of the Republic" is an important work relevant to peace scholars, practitioners, and students. This incisive book offers an exciting and comprehensive historical analysis of the origins and development of peace education from the creation of the New Republic at the end of the Eighteenth Century to…

  12. Australian doctors in Bali: the initial medical response to the Bali bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, Graeme J; Pethick, Anthony J; Thalayasingam, Priya; Vijayasekaran, Vijith S; Hogg, John J W

    Several Australian medical practitioners were holidaying in Bali at the time of the nightclub bombing on 12 October 2002. On learning of the disaster, they went to Sanglah Hospital to assist. With the very limited resources of the hospital, they helped in providing emergency treatment, stabilising patients, and preparing Australian patients for evacuation.

  13. Characterising the light output from Argon bombs by two simultaneous diagnostic techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivier, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The light output from Argon-bombs was investigated by means of ultra high speed photography (Cordin Model 550-32 camera) and locally developed photodiode sensors. Tubes of various sizes were inflated with Argon gas, and were detonated on one side...

  14. Mental disorders in 37 cases of 'Hibakusya' 40 years after exposure to the atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonaka, Takeshi; Tohyama, Teruhiko; Nakazawa, Masao; Ando, Ichiro; Hayashi, Hideki; Miura, Hirofumi

    1987-01-01

    In 1985, 40 years after the bombing, 37 (8 %) of a total of 814 A-bomb survivors living in Tokyo visited the Department of Neuro-Psychiatry. This is an analysis of these A-bomb survivors suffering from mental disorders. There were 11 men and 26 women. They ranged in age from 45 to 87 years with a median of 61. Eighteen survivors (55 %) were exposed within 2,000 m from ground zero, and 21 (66 %) presented with acute radiation symptoms. According to the classification of DSM-III, features of mental disorders fell into five types: (1) organic psychotic conditions (n = 7), (2) endogenous psychotic conditions (n = 14), (3) delution (n = 3), (4) anxiety somatization (n = 11), and (5) personality disorder (n = 2). Psychotic conditions characterized by mixed atypical symptoms, variable clinical features during the process, and undefined somatic symptoms were noticeable in this series. This is in contrast to the previous reports dealing with neurasthenic A-bomb survivors. The etiology of psychotic conditions must await further study. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. Relationship between epidemiological factors and mortality among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Masanori

    1980-01-01

    In 1965, mail survey on environmental and individual factors was performed for 11,724 male a-bomb survivors, with the age of 40 to 69, selected from the group subjected to joint JNIH-ABCC investigation of life span in a-bomb survivors. During 10 years after the mail survey, 2,834 died. The aim of this mail survey was to clarify the relationship between the mortality and specific environmental, social, and economic factors. There was a relationship between high mortality and low social and economical condition for all causes of death combined, cerebral vascular diseases, all malignant neoplasms, and gastric cancer. Smoking was a significant risk factor to all causes of death combined, ischemic heart diseases, all malignant neoplasms, gastric, tracheal, bronchial, and lung cancers. The mortality due to cardiovascular diseases was significantly higher in a-bomb survivors with heavy weight. The mortality due to all causes of death combined, all malignant neoplasms, lung, and gastric cancer tended to become higher in a-bomb survivors who got married early. (Tsunoda, M.)

  16. The technical feasibility of uranium enrichment for nuclear bomb construction at the parallel nuclear program plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.P.

    1990-01-01

    It is discussed the hole of the Parallel Nuclear Program is Brazil and the feasibility of uranium enrichment for nuclear bomb construction. This program involves two research centers, one belonging to the brazilian navy and another to the aeronautics. Some other brazilian institutes like CTA, IPEN, COPESP and CETEX and also taking part in the program. (A.C.A.S.)

  17. K projektu sovětských atomových bomb

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jindra, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 7 (2017), s. 472 ISSN 0009-2770 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : Soviet Union * atomic bombs Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings) Impact factor: 0.387, year: 2016

  18. Late effects of atomic bomb radiation on human immune responses, (10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Ozaki, Kyoko; Saito, Mayumi; Cologne, J.B.; Akiyama, Mitoshi

    1992-01-01

    Anti-Epstein-Barr (EV) virus antibody titers were measured in age- and sex-matched three groups of each 124 A-bomb survivors who had exposed to 1 Gy. These serum samples showed positive antibodies against viral capsid antigens (VCA). Antibody titers to anti-VCA-IgM or anti-EA-IgG were significantly higher in the groups of 0.01-1 Gy and >1 Gy than in the group of <0.01 Gy, reflecting decreased immune response ability for EV virus. When precursor frequency of cytotoxic cells against autologous EB virus LCL was determined in 68 other A-bomb survivors, no definitive influence of A-bombing was observed. However, serological study revealed that there was inverse correlation between precursor frequency and anti-EA-IgG antibody titer. These findings suggest that the immune response ability for EB virus may have been damaged and that biological reactivity of EB virus may occur frequently in A-bomb survivors. (N.K.)

  19. Teaching the Very Recent Past: "Miriam's Vision" and the London Bombings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitson, Alison; Thompson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    "Miriam's Vision" is an educational project developed by the Miriam Hyman Memorial Trust, an organisation set up in memory of Miriam Hyman, one of the 52 victims of the London bombings of 2005. The project has developed a number of subject-based modules, including history, which are provided free to schools through the website…

  20. Effect of aging on the competence for physical defence among A-bomb survivors, (11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusumi, Shizuyo; Takata, Noboru; Fujimura, Kingo; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Ito, Chikako.

    1984-01-01

    Thrombogenic factors were examined in relation to the frequency and progress of microangiopathy in 7 A-bomb exposed patients (age, 56+-13 years) and 52 non-exposed patients (age, 52+-15 years) who had diabetes mellitus. There was positive correlation between the duration of diabetes mellitus and plasminogen (Plg) levels, and negative correlation between blood platelet counts and fibrinogen (Fbg) levels in A-bomb exposed patients. However, these correlations were contradictory in non-exposed patients. Regarding the other coagulation factors, similar tendency was seen in both groups. The frequency of nephropathy and neuropathy tended to be low in only non-exposed patients who responded well to therapy. A-bomb exposed diabetic patients developing microangiopathy disclosed increased blood platelet counts, an increased mean platelet volume, high Fbg levels, low antithrombin III levels, low Plg levels, and low plasmin inhibitor levels. Increased adenosin diphosphate aggregation was more frequently observed in the following order: A-bomb exposed patients developing microangiopathy, non-exposed patients developing microangiopathy, and non-exposed patients without complications. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Correspondence Urging Bombing of Auschwitz during World War II. Teaching with Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondo, Richard A.; Schmael, Wynell Burroughs

    1993-01-01

    Presents a classroom lesson that utilizes primary sources about Auschwitz, the World War II Nazi concentration camp. Two letters confronting the issue of whether or not U.S. planes should bomb the camps are included. Recommends seven teaching strategies for the lesson and identifies additional resources. (CFR)

  2. How Do Low-Literacy Populations Perceive "Dirty Bombs"? Implications for Preparedness Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Gordon, Thomas F; Maurer, Laurie; Greener, Judith; Mora, Gabriella; Ruggieri, Dominique; Wolak, Caitlin; Parvanta, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Potential terror events such as "dirty bombs" could have significant public health effects, but little is known about how low-literacy populations perceive dirty bombs, their trust in public health or government officials to provide credible information, and their willingness to comply with recommended actions. We surveyed 50 low-literacy adults from a large urban center; they were mostly members of ethnic minority groups. We used unique social marketing methods-perceptual mapping and vector message modeling-to create 3-dimensional models that reflected respondents' knowledge of what a dirty bomb is, their intended behaviors should one occur, and their concerns about complying with "shelter in place" recommendations. To further understand individual variations in this at-risk group, a k-means cluster analysis was used to identify 3 distinct segments, differing on trust of local authorities and their emergency response, willingness to comply with emergency directives, and trust of information sources. Message strategies targeting each segment were developed to focus on concepts important to moving the groups toward a "shelter in place" behavior, revealing key differences in how best to communicate with risk communication. We discuss how these methods helped elucidate specific differences in each segment's understanding of and likely response during the event of a "dirty bomb" and how these techniques can be used to create more effective message strategies targeted to these groups.

  3. T-cell immunosenescence and inflammatory response in atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Yamaoka, Mika; Kubo, Yoshiko; Hayashi, Tomonori; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Douple, Evan B; Nakachi, Kei

    2010-12-01

    In this paper we summarize the long-term effects of A-bomb radiation on the T-cell system and discuss the possible involvement of attenuated T-cell immunity in the disease development observed in A-bomb survivors. Our previous observations on such effects include impaired mitogen-dependent proliferation and IL-2 production, decreases in naive T-cell populations, and increased proportions of anergic and functionally weak memory CD4 T-cell subsets. In addition, we recently found a radiation dose-dependent increase in the percentages of CD25(+)/CD127(-) regulatory T cells in the CD4 T-cell population of the survivors. All these effects of radiation on T-cell immunity resemble effects of aging on the immune system, suggesting that ionizing radiation might direct the T-cell system toward a compromised phenotype and thereby might contribute to an enhanced immunosenescence. Furthermore, there are inverse, significant associations between plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines and the relative number of naïve CD4 T cells, also suggesting that the elevated levels of inflammatory markers found in A-bomb survivors can be ascribed in part to T-cell immunosenescence. We suggest that radiation-induced T-cell immunosenescence may result in activation of inflammatory responses and may be partly involved in the development of aging-associated and inflammation-related diseases frequently observed in A-bomb survivors.

  4. An autopsy case related to a terrorist attack using a ball-bearing bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamiya, Masataka; Biwasaka, Hitoshi; Niitsu, Hisae; Saigusa, Kiyoshi; Aoki, Yasuhiro

    2009-03-01

    We encountered an autopsy case related to a terrorist attack using a ball-bearing bomb. The decedent was a 51-year-old male without significant medical histories. During dinner in a restaurant, the perpetrator suddenly exploded a ball-bearing bomb, the blast from which blew the victim off his chair. The victim was found to be unresponsive, and pronounced dead. X-ray photographs taken before autopsy revealed six spherical shadows. Three penetrating wounds in the head, one in the neck and chest, and two in the left upper arm were observed in vivo. Six projectiles recovered from the body were identified as ball-bearings, one of which traveled through the midbrain, diencephalon, and left temporal lobe. Although blast injuries and penetrating wounds are often combined in bomb attack victims, penetrating brain injury would be the cause of death in this case. Lethal injuries to major organs can thus occur even though the destructive force of a ball-bearing bomb is weak. X-ray films were informative for detecting the ball-bearings in this case, suggesting that autopsy imaging is essential in cases of terrorism victims.

  5. Governing in the space of the "Seam" : Airport security after the liquid bomb plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoijtink, M.

    This paper provides a detailed study of the liquid bomb plot from 2006, focusing on the ways in which the plot was constituted as “an event unlike others” (Adey, Anderson, and Lobo Guerrero 2011, 340). Engaging with a critical body of scholarship that examines how events are assembled and governed

  6. Mind bomb 1 is required for pancreatic ß-cell formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Signe; Kobberup, Sune; Jørgensen, Mette C

    2012-01-01

    the insulin producing ß-cells. However, signals that regulate proximodistal (P-D) patterning and thus formation of ß-cell progenitors are unknown. Here we show that Mind bomb 1 (Mib1) is required for correct P-D patterning of the developing pancreas and ß-cell formation. We found that endoderm...

  7. Bombs Away: Visual Thinking and Students' Engagement in Design Studios Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro-Koc, Marianella; Scott, Andrew; Coombs, Gretchen

    2015-01-01

    In design studio, sketching or visual thinking is part of processes that assist students to achieve final design solutions. At Queensland University of Technology's (QUT's) First and Third Year industrial design studio classes we engage in a variety of teaching pedagogies from which we identify "Concept Bombs" as instrumental in the…

  8. Effect of low dose of A-bomb radiation on risk of death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mine, Mariko; Okumura, Yutaka; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Mori, Hiroyuki

    1992-01-01

    Among about 100,000 A-bomb survivors registered at Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 290 male subjects exposed to 50-149 cGy showed significantly lower mortality from non-cancer death than age-matched unexposed males. This was deduced from the fitting of a U-shaped dose-response relationship. (author)

  9. Bombs grade 'spent' nuclear material removed from Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Spent nuclear fuel containing enough uranium to produce 2.5 nuclear weapons has been safely returned to Russia from Uzbekistan in a classified mission completed on 19 April 2006. It is the first time that fuel used in a nuclear research reactor - referred to as 'spent' - has been repatriated to Russia since the break-up of the Soviet Union. Under tight security, 63 kilograms of spent highly enriched uranium (HEU) was transported to Mayak in Russia, in four separate shipments. IAEA safeguards inspectors monitored and verified the packing of the fuel for transport over the course of 16 days. The secret operation, six years in the planning, was a joint undertaking of the IAEA, the United States, Uzbekistan, Russia and Kazakhstan as part of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI). The aim of the GTRI is to identify, secure and recover high-risk vulnerable nuclear and radiological materials around the world. 'There was particular concern about the Uzbek spent fuel given its significant quantity and that it was no longer 'self protecting', 'the IAEA's Crosscutting Co-ordinator for Research Reactors, Mr. Pablo Adelfang, said. 'This means that the fuel has lost its high radioactivity. In other words, it would no longer injure anyone who handled it and would not deter potential thieves,' Mr. Adelfang said. 'The shipment is an important step to reduce stockpiles of high-risk, vulnerable nuclear materials. Russia, the US, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan should be applauded for their successful cooperation. It will contribute to the security of both Uzbekistan and the international community,' he added. In Russia, the fuel will be processed so that it can not be used for atomic bombs. Russia originally supplied the nuclear fuel to Uzbekistan for use in its 10 megawatt research reactor. Located at the Institute of Nuclear Physics of Uzbekistan, 30 km from Tashkent, the reactor is currently used for research and to produce isotopes for medical purposes. The IAEA is

  10. Mortality statistics of major causes of death among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima Prefecture from 1968 to 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Norihiko; Ohtaki, Megu; Matsuura, Masaaki; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology); Ueoka, Hiroshi

    1989-06-01

    A comparative study was made on mortality during a 15-year period from 1968 to 1982 between atomic bomb survivors resident in Hiroshima Prefecture and non-exposed controls. The mortality rate for all causes of death was lower in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but the rate was higher among those directly exposed within about 1 km than in the non-exposed. The mortality rate for malignant neoplasms was higher in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but that for cerebrovascular disease and heart disease was lower. In examining the rate for malignant neoplasms by site, the sites showing a high mortality rate among atomic bomb survivors were almost identical to the results of the Life Span Study. For these sites, the shorter the exposure distance the higher was the mortality rate. The rate for malignant neoplasms of the uterus and stomach, and leukemia was unnaturally high among early entrants whose period after issuance of atomic bomb survivor's health handbook was short. In observing the atomic bomb survivors by the level of family destruction due to the bombing as a socio-economic factor, a tendency was observed for the mortality rate for malignant neoplasms, diseases of blood and blood-forming organs, and peptic ulcer, to be higher among survivors with severe family destruction. (author).

  11. Clinical survey of blood dyscrasias among Hiroshima a-bomb survivors by the periodical health examination, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taketomi, Yoshinori; Abe, Tsutomu; Okita, Hajime; Kamada, Nanao; Kuramoto, Atsushi

    1980-01-01

    Certain blood examinations were performed on a-bomb survivors having anemia more than moderate stage (the hemoglobin value under 9.0 g/dl), who were found out by the periodical health examination performed in Hiroshima-A-bomb Survivors Health Control Clinic during the latter period of the fiscal year 1975. The total number of a-bomb survivors who received the periodical health examination was 50,973, and the number of survivors whose hemoglobin value was under 9.0 g/dl was 201 (0.39%). The incidence of such anemia was high in women. There was not a relationship between this anemia and the exposure distance from the hypocenter. The incidence of this anemia was high in young a-bomb survivors, and more than 50% of a-bomb survivors having this anemia was under the age of 50. Iron-deficiency anemia was found in 88% of a-bomb survivors, and the course of their anemia ran in many years in many a-bomb survivors. (Tsunoda, M.)

  12. Statistical observation on autopsy cases of malignancy at the Japanese Red Cross, Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahara, Osamu; Toyoda, Shigeki; Tsuno, Sumio; Mukai, Hideaki; Uemura, Seiji

    1976-01-01

    Statistical observation was made as to autopsy cases of atomic-bomb survivors in Nagasaki. The total of autopsy cases at the Japanese Red Cross, Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital from the opening of the hospital, 1968, to December in 1975 was 1,486 cases (autopsy rate, 65.1%) in which 880 cases of atomic bomb survivors (autopsy rate, 68.0%) were contained. Cases of malignancy totaled 829 and 528 cases of those were atomic bomb survivors. Cases of malignancy were divided into three groups, that is, group exposured to atomic bomb at place within 2 km from the explosion place, group exposured at place from more than 2 km or entering after explosion into the city, and not-exposured group. Relationship between main malignancies and exposure was discussed, and the following results were obtained. 1) Obvious relationship was found to exist between exposure and acute and chronic medullary leukemia. 2) Malignant lymphoma was scarecely correlated with exposure, but its occurrence rate was higher than the mean rate in Japan in reflection the region where this disease occurs much geographically. 3) Relationship between exposure and stomach cancer, lung cancer, cancer of the large intestine, and double cancer was not found obviously, but occurrence rate of hepatic cancer was higher than the mean rate in Japan in three groups. The reason was supposed to be geographical factor. 4) Cases of thyroid gland cancer were a small number in female of the group exposured within 2 km, and cases of prostate cancer were a small number in the group within 2 km, but their occurrence rate was high specifically. (Tsunoda, M.)

  13. Media’s role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, E. Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2014-01-01

    We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), −2.36, 3.23], but lower nationwide when compared with Boston (b = −2.21; SE = 1.07; 95% CI, −4.31, −0.12). Adjusting for prebombing mental health (collected prospectively), demographics, and prior collective stress exposure, six or more daily hours of bombing-related media exposure in the week after the bombings was associated with higher acute stress than direct exposure to the bombings (continuous acute stress symptom total: media exposure b = 15.61 vs. direct exposure b = 5.69). Controlling for prospectively collected prebombing television-watching habits did not change the findings. In adjusted models, direct exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the Sandy Hook School shootings were both significantly associated with bombing-related acute stress; Superstorm Sandy exposure wasn't. Prior exposure to similar and/or violent events may render some individuals vulnerable to the negative effects of collective traumas. Repeatedly engaging with trauma-related media content for several hours daily shortly after collective trauma may prolong acute stress experiences and promote substantial stress-related symptomatology. Mass media may become a conduit that spreads negative consequences of community trauma beyond directly affected communities. PMID:24324161

  14. Media's role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, E Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2014-01-07

    We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), -2.36, 3.23], but lower nationwide when compared with Boston (b = -2.21; SE = 1.07; 95% CI, -4.31, -0.12). Adjusting for prebombing mental health (collected prospectively), demographics, and prior collective stress exposure, six or more daily hours of bombing-related media exposure in the week after the bombings was associated with higher acute stress than direct exposure to the bombings (continuous acute stress symptom total: media exposure b = 15.61 vs. direct exposure b = 5.69). Controlling for prospectively collected prebombing television-watching habits did not change the findings. In adjusted models, direct exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the Sandy Hook School shootings were both significantly associated with bombing-related acute stress; Superstorm Sandy exposure wasn't. Prior exposure to similar and/or violent events may render some individuals vulnerable to the negative effects of collective traumas. Repeatedly engaging with trauma-related media content for several hours daily shortly after collective trauma may prolong acute stress experiences and promote substantial stress-related symptomatology. Mass media may become a conduit that spreads negative consequences of community trauma beyond directly affected communities.

  15. Radiation effect on non-cancer diseases among a-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, G.; Akahoshi, M.; Fujiwara, S.; Neriishi, K.; Yamada, M.; Hakoda, M. [Radiation Effect Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    It has been well documented in the literature that radiation induces DNA damages and increases cancer risk. Besides cancer risk, the Life Span Study (LSS) on A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki that has been conducted since 1950 by RERF demonstrated an increase in non-cancer death by cardiovascular diseases and chronic liver diseases (1). Since LSS analysis depends on death certificate, a physiological mechanism has not been elucidated how radiation increases the incidence of non-cancer diseases. In order to elucidate radiation effect on non-fatal disorders, RERF has conducted the Adult Health Study (AHS) since 1958 where 23,000 A-bomb survivors have been examined every other year. This study suggested that radiation exposure about 55 years before reduced the immune response to pathogens such as HB virus and Chlamydia pneumoniae, increased the levels of serum inflammatory markers, the prevalence of chronic hepatitis/liver cirrhosis and senile cataract, and the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Our colleagues reported a dose-dependent decrease in the CD4 T cell number among A-bomb survivors (2,3). Since chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are causative of atherogenic cardiovascular diseases or cataract, we speculate a decrease in the immune response to pathogens, at least in part, is one of the mechanisms that A-bomb exposure increased non-cancer diseases. When the levels of inflammatory marker, C-reactive protein (CRP), were analyzed among subjects with evidence of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection, significantly higher levels of CRP were associated with antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae in those subjects receiving >1Gy than those receiving <5mGy. It is well known that high CRP is one of the risk factors of arteriosclerosis (4,5). Thus, A-bomb exposure seems to augment inflammatory response to pathogens, though of which mechanisms are not clear now.

  16. 40 years of terrorist bombings - A meta-analysis of the casualty and injury profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D S; McMenemy, L; Stapley, S A; Patel, H D L; Clasper, J C

    2016-03-01

    Terrorists have used the explosive device successfully globally, with their effects extending beyond the resulting injuries. Suicide bombings, in particular, are being increasingly deployed due to the devastating effect of a combination of high lethality and target accuracy. The aim of this study was to identify trends and analyse the demographics and casualty figures of terrorist bombings worldwide. Analysis of the Global Terrorism Database (GTD) and a PubMed/Embase literature search (keywords "terrorist", and/or "suicide", and/or "bombing") from 1970 to 2014 was performed. 58,095 terrorist explosions worldwide were identified in the GTD. 5.08% were suicide bombings. Incidents per year are increasing (Pterrorist attacks. Overall 32 deaths and 180 injuries per incident were seen, however significantly more deaths occurred in explosions associated with a BC. Comparing OS and CS no difference in the deaths per incident was seen, 14.2(SD±17.828) and 15.63 (SD±10.071) respectively. However OS explosions resulted in significantly more injuries, 192.7 (SD±141.147), compared to CS, 79.20 (SD±59.8). Extremity related wounds were the commonest injuries seen (32%). Terrorist bombings continue to be a threat and are increasing particularly in the Middle East. Initial reports, generated immediately at the scene by experienced coordination, on the type of detonation (suicide versus non-suicide), the environment of detonation (confined, open, building collapse) and the number of fatalities, and utilising the Kill:Wounded ratios found in this meta-analysis, can be used to predict the number of casualties and their likely injury profile of survivors to guide the immediate response by the medical services and the workload in the coming days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Future use of tritium in mapping pre-bomb groundwater volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastoe, C J; Watts, C J; Ploughe, M; Wright, W E

    2012-01-01

    The tritium input to groundwater, represented as volume-weighted mean tritium concentrations in precipitation, has been close to constant in Tucson and Albuquerque since 1992, and the decrease in tritium concentrations at the tail end of the bomb tritium pulse has ceased. To determine the future usefulness of tritium measurements in southwestern North America, volume-weighted mean tritium levels in seasonal aggregate precipitation samples have been gathered from 26 sites. The averages range from 2 to 9 tritium units (TU). Tritium concentrations increase with site latitude, and possibly with distance from the coast and with site altitude, reflecting local ratios of combination of low-tritium moisture advected from the oceans with high-tritium moisture originating near the tropopause. Tritium used alone as a tool for mapping aquifer volumes containing only pre-bomb recharge to groundwater will become ambiguous when the tritium in precipitation at the end of the bomb tritium pulse decays to levels close to the analytical detection limit. At such a time, tritium in precipitation from the last one to two decades of the bomb pulse will become indistinguishable from pre-bomb recharge. The threshold of ambiguity has already arrived in coastal areas with a mean of 2 TU in precipitation and will follow in the next three decades throughout the study region. Where the mean tritium level is near 5 TU, the threshold will occur between 2025 and 2030, given a detection limit of 0.6 TU. Similar thresholds of ambiguity, with different local timing possible, apply globally. © 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  18. DETECTION OF AN AIRPLANE BOMB BY GEOMAGNETIC TESTING OF THE »REDVIT« BUILDING IN SLAVONSKI BROD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Zagorac

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available An old abandoned building was examined in order to perform a restoration project. Due to the presence of a round opening in the roof and the fact that Slavonski Brod was heavely bombed in the last war, it was assumed that there might be a bomb left. Geomagnetic measurements using a proton magnetometer were performed. A magnetic anomaly was obtained indicating an iron object of more than 100 kilograms weight Position and depth was determined. The excavation is now expected to get the final solution is the object a bomb or not.

  19. Ph1 chromosomes and bcr gene rearrangements in chronic myelocytic leukemia patients developed from atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Takechi, Miho; Shigeta, Chiharu; Sakatani, Keiko; Oguma, Nobuo; Kamada, Nanao; Takimoto, Yasuo; Kuramoto, Atsushi

    1989-01-01

    This study compared findings of chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) in A-bomb survivors (n=8) developing CML within 10 years after the bombing and in non-exposed CML patients (n=14). Both Ph 1 chromosomes and bcr rearrangement were observed in all patients in both exposed and non-exposed groups. There was no significant difference in distribution sites of bcr rearrangement between the groups. These results suggest that bcr-abl chimera mRNA and chimera protein associated with Ph 1 chromosomes have an important role in the development of CML among A-bomb survivors, as well as among non-exposed patients. (N.K.)

  20. Cancer and non-cancer effects in Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M P

    2009-06-01

    The survivors of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are a general population of all ages and sexes and, because of the wide and well characterised range of doses received, have been used by many scientific committees (International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR)) as the basis of population cancer risk estimates following radiation exposure. Leukaemia was the first cancer to be associated with atomic bomb radiation exposure, with preliminary indications of an excess among the survivors within the first five years after the bombings. An excess of solid cancers became apparent approximately ten years after radiation exposure. With increasing follow-up, excess risks of most cancer types have been observed, the major exceptions being chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, and pancreatic, prostate and uterine cancer. For most solid cancer sites a linear dose response is observed, although in the latest follow-up of the mortality data there is evidence (p = 0.10) for an upward curvature in the dose response for all solid cancers. The only cancer sites which exhibit (upward) curvature in the dose response are leukaemia, and non-melanoma skin and bone cancer. For leukaemia the dose response is very markedly upward curving, indeed largely describable as a pure quadratic dose response, particularly in the low dose (0-2 Sv) range. Even 55 years after the bombings over 40% of the Life Span Study cohort remain alive, so continued follow-up of this group is vital for completing our understanding of long-term radiation effects in people. In general, the relative risks per unit dose among the Japanese atomic bomb survivors are greater than those among comparable subsets in studies of medically exposed individuals. Cell sterilisation largely accounts for the discrepancy in relative risks between these two populations, although other

  1. Probabilistic Project Management for a Terrorist Planning a Dirty Bomb Attack on a Major US Port [video

    OpenAIRE

    John, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Video: Richard John and Heather Rossoff: Probabilistic Project Management for a Terrorist Planning a Dirty Bomb Attack on a Major US Port. A talk for the Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) Metrics and Tools Conference, June 2008

  2. Mortality statistics of major causes of death among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima from 1968 to 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Norihiko; Kurihara, Minoru; Munaka, Masaki (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology) (and others)

    1991-01-01

    A comparative study was made on mortality during a 15-year period from 1968 to 1982 between atomic romb survivors resident in Hiroshima Prefecture and non-exposed controls. The mortality rate for all causes of death was lower in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but the rate was higher among those directly exposed within about 1 km than in the non-exposed. The mortality rate for malignant neoplasms was higher in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but that for cerebrovascular disease and heart disease was lower. In examining the rate for malignant neoplasms by site, the site showing a high mortality rate among atomic bomb survivors were almost identical to the results of the Life Span Study. For these sites, the shorter the exposure distance the higher was the mortality rate. The rate for malignant neoplasms of the uterus and stomach, and leukemia was unnaturally high among early entrants whose period after issuance of atomic bomb survivor's health handbook was short. In observing the atomic bomb survivors by the level of family destruction due to the bombing as a socio-economic factor, a tendency ws observed for the mortality rate for malignant neoplasms, diseases of blood-forming organs, and peptic ulcer, to be higher among survivors with severe family destruction. (author).

  3. Studies on preparation of the database system for clinical records of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Tsuyoshi

    1981-01-01

    Construction of the database system aimed at multipurpose application of data on clinical medicine was studied through the preparation of database system for clinical records of atomic bomb survivors. The present database includes the data about 110,000 atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki City. This study detailed: (1) Analysis of errors occurring in a period from generation of data in the clinical field to input into the database, and discovery of a highly precise, effective method of input. (2) Development of a multipurpose program for uniform processing of data on physical examinations from many organizations. (3) Development of a record linkage method for voluminous files which are essential in the construction of a large-scale medical information system. (4) A database model suitable for clinical research and a method for designing a segment suitable for physical examination data. (Chiba, N.)

  4. Survival experience of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1951 - 76

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, I.M.; Guralnick, L.

    1979-10-01

    This report is a review of the experience of persons in the Life Span Study sample exposed to the atomic bombs in 1945 as reflected by survival rates for the period 1951-76. The greatest effect is on the population less than 10 years of age at the time of the bombs (ATB) exposed to 100 rad or more. The survival rates for both sexes in the two cities declined significantly below those for the controls. This change occurred after a latent period. There has been an unusual acceleration in the decline in survival rates for the group aged 25 - 44 years ATB but this does not appear to be raidation related inasmuch as both the exposed and nonexposed populations in the two cities are similarly affected. (author)

  5. Clinical survey of blood dyscrasias among Hiroshima A-bomb survivors by periodical health examination, (6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Tsutomu; Dohy, Hiroo; Okita, Hajime

    1980-01-01

    Serum ferritin was determined in A-bomb survivors, and its significance was evaluated. A low-ferritin group included many of the females under the age of 50, who mostly had iron deficient anemia. A high-ferritin group included many older-aged A-bomb survivors who had secondary anemia due to hemochromatosis, paroxismal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), and multiple myeloma. Secondary anemia due to hemochromatosis, PNH, leukemia, and sideroblastic anemia was detected in those who were old and had underlying moderate or severe anemia with a high ferritin level. As the results of this investigation, blood examination combined with serum ferritin determination is valuable for diagnosis of anemia and detection of underlying diseases. (Ueda, J.)

  6. A toy model for the yield of a tamped fission bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2018-02-01

    A simple expression is developed for estimating the yield of a tamped fission bomb, that is, a basic nuclear weapon comprising a fissile core jacketed by a surrounding neutron-reflecting tamper. This expression is based on modeling the nuclear chain reaction as a geometric progression in combination with a previously published expression for the threshold-criticality condition for such a core. The derivation is especially straightforward, as it requires no knowledge of diffusion theory and should be accessible to students of both physics and policy. The calculation can be set up as a single page spreadsheet. Application to the Little Boy and Fat Man bombs of World War II gives results in reasonable accord with published yield estimates for these weapons.

  7. A patient with a traumatic brain injury due to barrel bomb tertiary blast effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Bolatkale

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Preparing to manage weapons of mass destruction events challenges emergency services systems neighboring Syria every day. Understanding injury from explosives is essential for all providers of emergency care in both civilian and military settings. In this case, the authors present a 22-year-old man who was admitted to the emergency department with displaced skull fracture, epidural hemorrhage and cerebral contusion due to barrel bomb tertiary blast effect. A 22-year-old man who complained of pain in the right temporal head region after barrel bomb explosion was admitted in the emergency department. The patient could not remember the explosion and found himself on the ground. In his medical history, there was not a record of any diseases, operations or traumas. Examination of the head revealed scalp hematoma and slump in the skull on the right temporal region. Patients computed tomography (CT scan showed a displaced skull fracture, epidural hematoma and cerebral contusion.

  8. Late effects of atomic bomb radiation on human immune responses, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Hakoda, Masayuki; Kohno, Nobuoki; Zhou, Ou-Liang; Akiba, Suminori

    1988-01-01

    In an effort to examine whether or not natural killer (NK) cell activation with IL-2 was influenced by atomic bombing, NK cell activity, the ratio of lymphocytes seropositive for NK cell-related antigens, and NK cell activation with IL-2 were examined in 328 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima. NK activity and the ratio of lymphocytes seropositive for Leu 7, Leu 11 and OKM 1 antigens were higher in men than women. These findings became more marked with advancing age in both men and women. An activation of NK cells was significantly stimulated with IL-2. This was significantly correlated with an increase in the seropositive rate for Leu 11 antigen. NK cell activation, as expressed as stimulation index, was significantly higher in women than men. In neither men nor women was there correlation between stimulation index and both aging and exposure doses. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. MSCT findings in a controlled bus bombing using a pig model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Nikolaj Friis

    2009-01-01

    pig's position in the bus at the time of detonation. 1 of the pigs was rigged as a suicide bomber while the others were individually placed as passengers and bus driver inside the bus alongside dummies. Measurements of the blast force and fast speed video recordings were made during the detonation......In terrorist acts such as car and bus bombings by a suicide bomber using home made or other explosives, there may be many fatalities and wounded. From a forensic pathological point of view this poses a challenge regarding identification of the fatalities, recording the injuries and identifying...... and recovering relevant foreign bodies that might have been used in the bomb to inflict more damages to bystanders. The author will present MSCT findings and the injuries found at autopsy in 10 dead pigs were positioned inside the bus in a controlled explosion. This will be done in correlation to the individual...

  10. Suicide to harass others: clues from mythology to understanding suicide bombing attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Suicide by revenge, the Samsonic suicide, and the suicide by devotio, all described in classical mythology and also reported in the ethnographic literature, belong to the same class of suicidal behaviors as kamikaze suicide and the suicide bombing attack: suicide to harass and burden others or suicide with a hostile intent. The lack of a social dimension to share in a positive manner may lead an individual to integrate him/herself in another social structure, e.g., a military organization, which allows the individual to express his/her desires and personal identity only by destroying others and themselves. The dynamics of these forms of suicide are also likely to work in other displays of life-threatening behavior, such as family annihilation, mass murder, and spree killing. A more thorough investigation of the dynamics operating in suicide bombing attacks could, therefore, contribute to preventative strategies against violence at large.

  11. Recent results concerning radiation-induced cancer in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    The most recent data of the prospective study among Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors support the following conclusions: (a) the dose-response relationship is consistent with a straight line through the origin, including the lowest dose group (approx. 3 rad); (b) sensitivity to cancer induction varies considerably by irradiated tissues. (c) most cancers show a radiation effect still increasing 40 years after exposure; (d) a small leukemia excess among those irradiated is still present in Hiroshima; (e) the thyroid cancer excess is declining at present; (g) smoking adds to lung cancer incidence; (g) certain benign tumors show a radiation-related effect; (h) children under 10 years old at time of bombing are presently showing the highest relative cancer risk compared to other survivors at equal attained age. If this effect persists, age-specific cancer risk coefficients are necessary [fr

  12. A simple reductionist model for cancer risk in atom bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    1) In data from the atom bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the roughly linear-quadratic radiation dose responses for chromosome aberration and leukemia correspond closely to each other, as do the linear dose responses for gene mutation and solid cancer incidence. 2) In view of the increasing evidence for multiple oncogene and suppressor gene changes in human cancer, as well as the evidence that human cancer rate is often proportional to age to the power of 6 or so, it is postulated that the radiation has contributed one and only one oncogenic mutational event to the radiation induced cancers. 3) The radiation induced cancers should therefore display a cancer rate versus age relationship that has a power of n-1, where n is the power for the corresponding background cancers. 4) It is shown that this is precisely what is happening in the collective solid cancer incidence of the atom bomb survivors. (author)

  13. Mathematical phantoms for use in reassessment of radiation doses to Japanese atomic-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, M.

    1985-07-01

    In 1972 committees of the United Nations and the US National Academy of Sciencs emphasized the need for organ dose estimates on the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors. These estimates were then supplied by workers in Japan and the US, and they were used with the so-called T65D estimates of a survivor's radiation exposure to assess risk from radiation. Recently the T65D estimates have been questioned, and programs for reassessment of atomic-bomb radiation dosimetry have been started in Japan and the US. As a part of this new effort a mathematical analogue of the human body (or ''mathematical phantom''), to be used in estimating organ doses in adult survivors, is presented here. Recommendations on organ dosimetry for juvenile survivors are also presented and discussed. 57 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. The cohort of the atomic bomb survivors major basis of radiation safety regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Rühm, W; Nekolla, E A

    2006-01-01

    Since 1950 about 87 000 A-bomb survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been monitored within the framework of the Life Span Study, to quantify radiation-induced late effects. In terms of incidence and mortality, a statistically significant excess was found for leukemia and solid tumors. In another major international effort, neutron and gamma radiation doses were estimated, for those survivors (Dosimetry System DS02). Both studies combined allow the deduction of risk coefficients that serve as a basis for international safety regulations. As an example, current results on all solid tumors combined suggest an excess relative risk of 0.47 per Sievert for an attained age of 70 years, for those who were exposed at an age of 30 years. After exposure to an effective dose of one Sievert the solid tumor mortality would thus be about 50% larger than that expected for a similar cohort not exposed to any ionizing radiation from the bombs.

  15. Late effects of atomic bomb radiation on human immune responses, (5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Fujita, Shoichiro; Akiyama, Mitoshi

    1989-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) and lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) activities were determined in peripheral lymphocytes from 62 A-bomb survivors, with the purpose of evaluating their relation to age, sex, and estimated exposure doses (DS86). NK activity in fresh lymphocytes was significantly higher in men than women; a significantly increased activity was associated with aging. However, LAK activity, obtained on the culture medium in the presence of IL-2, was independent of sex and aging. These findings suggest that the cell group involved in LAK activity may be different from that involved in NK activity. The present series failed to reveal the influences of A-bombing on both NK and LAK activities. (N.K.)

  16. Neutron and gamma ray calculation for Hiroshima-type atomic bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshi, Masaharu; Endo, Satoru; Takada, Jun [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine; Iwatani, Kazuo; Oka, Takamitsu; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Fujita, Shoichiro; Hasai, Hiromi

    1998-03-01

    We looked at the radiation dose of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb again in 1986. We gave it the name of ``Dosimetry System 1986`` (DS86). We and other groups have measured the expose dose since 1986. Now, the difference between data of {sup 152}Eu and the calculation result on the basis of DS86 was found. To investigate the reason, we carried out the calculations of neutron transport and neutron absorption gamma ray for Hiroshima atomic bomb by MCNP3A and MCNP4A code. The problems caused by fast neutron {sup 32}P from sulfur in insulator of pole. To correct the difference, we investigated many models and found agreement of all data within 1 km. (S.Y.)

  17. Impact of the Boston Marathon Bombing and Its Aftermath on Refugees and Survivors of Torture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwowarczyk, Linda; Rous, Dana; Mancuso, Anna; Flinton, Kathleen; Hastings, Erica; Forbush, Leigh; Shepherd, Amy

    2016-08-01

    On April 15, 2013, Boston residents and guests gathered for the Boston Marathon. Two explosives at the finish line killed three people and injured hundreds of others. As part of our clinical encounters, patients of the Boston Center for Refugee Health & Human Rights were asked about the marathon bombing. We were concerned about the high level of armed security as many of our patients had been detained in their countries of origin. Eighty patients seen between April 16 and July 7, 2013 were asked about their experience of the Boston Marathon bombing and its aftermath. A retrospective chart review was undertaken and data analyzed using Atlas.ti & SPSS. Approximately 86 % of those interviewed were reminded of their past trauma. The following themes emerged: triggering and trauma related symptoms, content specific cognitive schemas, recognition of the universality of violence, fears of discrimination, issues surrounding safety, and specific concerns of Muslims.

  18. Long-term health and wellbeing of people affected by the 2002 Bali bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Garry J; Dunsmore, Julie C; Agho, Kingsley E; Taylor, Melanie R; Jones, Alison L; van Ritten, Jason J; Raphael, Beverley

    2013-03-18

    To examine the physical and mental health status of individuals directly affected by the 2002 Bali bombing, 8 years after the incident. Cross-sectional study of people directly exposed to and/or bereaved by the 2002 Bali bombing who had participated in a New South Wales Health therapeutic support program. Telephone interviews were conducted during July - November 2010. The sample was weighted to reflect the population of interest, registered participants in the program (n = 115). Self-rated physical health, personal resilience (Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale), past-03 psychological distress and daily functioning (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale), and traumatic stress-related symptoms (Primary Care PTSD Screen). Of 81 individuals contacted, 55 responded (68%). Mean age of respondents was 50 years (range, 20-73 years), 32 were female, and seven were physically injured in the bombing. Most (45/55) reported good physical health, but 12 were experiencing high or very high levels of psychological distress. Being injured in the attack was associated with current functional impairment (P = 0.04) and very high levels of distress (P = 0.005). Lower distress was associated with perceived family support (P> = 0.03) and being in a marital or de facto relationship (P = 0.02). Complicated grief factors were consistently associated with high psychological distress, traumatic stress-related symptoms and lower personal resilience. Eight years after the bombing, directly affected individuals had good physical health but relatively high rates of psychological distress. Marital or de facto relationships and perceived family support appear to be protective factors against long-term distress. Bereavement factors were the strongest correlates of trauma symptoms and distress. Outreach and screening programs incorporating complicated grief items may be useful in the longer-term support of such individuals.

  19. Maintaining physical therapy standards in an emergency situation: solutions after the Bali bombing disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, D; Wood, F; Goodwin-Walters, A

    2005-08-01

    In a mass casualty event, treatment is traditionally provided in a 'best for the most' fashion. This paper examines the challenges encountered by physical therapists while providing rehabilitation to 28 survivors who suffered burns after the terrorist bombing in Bali, Indonesia. Individual patient input was achieved with routine outcome measures and workload statistics. Workforce expansion, maintenance of treatment quality, and other practical initiatives used in order to achieve this goal are discussed.

  20. ["Living with the bomb" - Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's path from physics to politics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker spanned a spectrum from physics to politics, with philosophy in-between. This chapter surveys the most controversial part of his career, including his work on nuclear weapons and participation in cultural propaganda during the Second World War, his subsequent active political engagement during the postwar Federal German Republic, in particular the role of nuclear weapons, and his participation in myths surrounding Hitler's Bomb".

  1. Bomb reduction of uranium tetrafluoride. Part II: Influence of the addition elements in the reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anca Abati, R.; Lopez Rodriguez, M.

    1962-01-01

    This work shows the influence of uranium oxide and uranyl fluoride in the reduction of uranium with Ca and Mg. These additions are more harmful when using smaller bombs. The uranyl fluoride has influence in the reduction process; the curves yield-concentration shows two regions depending upon the salt concentration. The behaviour of this addition in these regions can be explained following the different decompositions that can take place during the reduction process. (Author) 9 refs

  2. Dropping The Bomb? On Critical and Cinematic Reactions to Michael Ondaatje's The English Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Pesch, Josef

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyses Anthony Minghella's film adaptation of Michael Ondaatje’s The English Patient. It aims at establishing patterns of transformation and strategies of adaptation. Not only the nostalgie romanticisation, but also the de-politicisation of the novel is critically scrutinized. As dropping all reference to the atomic bomb from the film is the most blatant example of deviation from the novel, critical and political background is provided which may explain this act of self-censorshi...

  3. Bomb radiocarbon in metabolically inert tissues from terrestrial and marine mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bada, J.L.; Vrolijk, C.D.; Brown, S.; Druffel, E.R.M.; Hedges, R.E.M.

    1987-01-01

    We report here radiocarbon measurements of monkey eye lens nucleus proteins and a narwhal tusk, biological tissues which have sampled the bomb radiocarbon signal in different ways. The results confirm the metabolic inertness of eye lens nucleus proteins and demonstrate the feasibility of measuring radiocarbon in small samples of biological tissue using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The narwhal tusk provides a unique record of the radiocarbon activity in Arctic Ocean waters over most of the 20th century

  4. Studies of colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, 1950-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Hirofumi

    1985-01-01

    Among the 82,064 subjects, 595 cases of colorectal cancer were confirmed, 395 cases (66.4%) by microscopic examinations of histological specimens and 69 cases (11.6%) by death certificate only. Subjects with unknown exposure dose or who were not in Hiroshima city at the time of the bombing were excluded, and the analysis was based on 60,470 persons with estimated exposure dose. In this population, there were 450 colorectal cancer cases: 239 cases of colon cancer, 203 cases of rectal cancer and eight cases with unknown site. Concerning the relationship between incidence of colorectal cancer and radiation exposure, the following conclusions were obtained: 1. The incidence of colorectal cancer increased with radiation dose, and this tendency was observed in both sexes. 2. The risk of colon cancer increased with dose, and linear trend tests showed that the increase was significant both in males (p<0.05) and females (p<0.01). The effects of radiation on the incidence of colon cancer differed by age at the time of the bombing. Among survivors exposed at young ages (less than 20) the effects were especially remarkable, the relative risk of the 100+ rad group versus the 0 rad group being 6.2, which was significantly greater than unity (p<0.01). Further, by site of colon cancer, radiation dose effects on the incidence of cancer of the right side colon (cecum and ascending colon), and sigmoid colon were observed, while dose effects on the incidence of the transverse colon or descending colon were not. 3. No effects atomic bomb radiation on the incidence of rectal cancer could be demonstrated, even when examined by sex and age at the time of the bombing. 4. For both colon cancer and rectal cancer, no difference in the distribution of tumor histological types could be observed by radiation dose. (J.P.N.)

  5. Delayed immunologic effects of low dose radiation in Japanese A-bomb survivors. Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makinodan, Takashi.

    1985-01-01

    Samples collected from 832 A-bomb survivors were analyzed for natural killer activity, interleukin production, interferon production, serum interferon levels, and circulating immune complex levels. The most striking finding was a significant radiation-sex interaction for NK activity. The NK of females exposed to 100+ rads was decreased compared to those exposed to 0 to 99 rads. A significant increase in NK activity with age ATB was observed, as well as an increase with age in circulating immune complex

  6. The Quest. Haywood Hansell and American Strategic Bombing in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    Lines. The Hansells moved to Lima , Peru , where Possum served as vice president of the airline. In 1949 the Peruvian government nationalized the...Field. The officers would abstain from alcohol all through the work week, but on the weekends they would often find time to party. The Hansells...dispatched, of which only 54 bombed the target. Four- teen of the 73 B-17s aborted the mission and no damage was reported to the submarine pens. Five B

  7. Investigating bomb radiocarbon transport in the southern Pacific Ocean with otolith radiocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammer, G. L.; Fallon, S. J.; Izzo, C.; Wood, R.; Gillanders, B. M.

    2015-08-01

    To explore the transport of carbon into water masses from the surface ocean to depths of ∼ 1000 m in the southwest Pacific Ocean, we generated time series of radiocarbon (Δ14C) from fish otoliths. Otoliths (carbonate earstones) from long-lived fish provide an indirect method to examine the "bomb pulse" of radiocarbon that originated in the 1950s and 1960s, allowing identification of changes to distributions of 14C that has entered and mixed within the ocean. We micro-sampled ocean perch (Helicolenus barathri) otoliths, collected at ∼ 400- 500 m in the Tasman Sea, to obtain measurements of Δ14C for those depths. We compared our ocean perch Δ14C series to published otolith-based marine surface water Δ14C values (Australasian snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) and nannygai (Centroberyx affinis)) and to published deep-water values (800-1000 m; orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus)) from the southwest Pacific to establish a mid-water Δ14C series. The otolith bomb 14C results from these different depths were consistent with previous water mass results in the upper 1500 m of the southwest Pacific Ocean (e.g. World Ocean Circulation Experiment and Geochemical Ocean Sections Study). A comparison between the initial Δ14C bomb pulse rise at 400-500 m suggested a ventilation lag of 5 to 10 yr, whereas a comparison of the surface and depths of 800-1000 m detailed a 10 to 20 yr lag in the time history of radiocarbon invasion at this depth. Pre-bomb reservoir ages derived from otolith 14C located in Tasman Sea thermocline waters were ∼ 530 yr, while reservoir ages estimated for Tasman Antarctic intermediate water were ∼ 730 yr.

  8. Prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in Asia: a viewpoint from nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Masako; Tomonaga, Masao

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is a known environmental risk factor for a variety of cancers including hematological malignancies, such as leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and multiple myeloma. Therefore, for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors (surviving victims who were exposed to ionizing radiation emitted from the nuclear weapons), several cancer-screening tests have been provided annually, with government support, to detect the early stage of malignancies. An M-protein screening test has been used to detect multiple myeloma at an early stage among atomic bomb survivors. In the screening process, a number of patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), in addition to multiple myeloma, have been identified. In 2009 and 2011, we reported the age- and sex-specific prevalence of MGUS between 1988 and 2004 and the possible role of radiation exposure in the development of MGUS using the screening data of more than 1000 patients with MGUS among approximately 52,000 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The findings included: (1) a significant lower overall prevalence (2.1%) than that observed in Caucasian or African-origin populations; (2) a significantly higher prevalence in men than in women; (3) an age-related increase in the prevalence; (4) a significantly higher prevalence in people exposed to higher radiation doses only among those exposed at age 20 years or younger; and (5) a lower frequency of immunoglobulin M MGUS in Japanese patients than in patients in Western countries. The large study of MGUS among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors has provided important findings for the etiology of MGUS, including a possible role of radiation exposure on the cause of MGUS and an ethnicity-related difference in the characteristics of MGUS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cytogenetic and molecular genetic analysis of leukemias found in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Nanao; Tanaka, Kimio; Eguchi, Mariko

    1994-01-01

    Seventy five radiation-related leukemia patients in Hiroshima including 16 patients exposed to more than one Gray were cytogenetically examined. Statistical analysis of data on the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations in the survivor groups according to bone marrow doses by DS86 estimation revealed that the heavily exposed group tended to have significantly higher aberration rates compared to the non-exposed group. Furthermore, the chromosomal aberrations in the survivors were observed to be of a more complex nature and had the characteristic findings of secondary leukemia. These observations therefore suggest that patients with a history of heavy exposure to atomic bomb radiation had leukemic cells originating from a stem cell which had been damaged by irradiation at the time of the bombing as well as cells involved in complex chromosome abnormalities. A higher incidence(p=0.06) of 11q23 abnormality was found in acute leukemia patients who had a history of exposure to A-bomb and developed from 1986 to 1993. However, we could not detect rearrangement of MLL gene in these patients. Break point region on 11q23 of radiation induced leukemias may be different from the common 8.5 kb region. Molecular biologic studies on RAS genes in acute and chronic leukemias and the BCR gene in chronic myelocytic leukemia were performed in exposed and non-exposed groups. So far, no distinctive differences have been observed in the frequency and sites of point mutations in N and K-RAS genes or in the rearrangement of the BCR gene. Further, retrospective analysis using DNA from leukemia patients who developed the disease in the early period from atomic bomb radiation exposure would be useful for elucidation of the mechanisms of radiation-induced leukemia. (author)

  10. Contributing factors to long-term psychological consequences in Hiroshima A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asukai, Nozomu; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Kato, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Midori; Saeki, Toshinari

    2012-01-01

    The atomic bombing in Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, caused an estimated casualty of 140,000 by the end of that year. Survivors faced hideous scenes and many lost family members. Later, in the early 1960s, increased rates of leukemia and other types of cancer were observed among the survivors. These long-term health effects caused serious apprehension to linger. However, only a few studies on psychological consequences among the survivors have been conducted. In 2008, Hiroshima City commissioned our study team to perform a large-scale survey on long-term health effects among the survivors. We delivered a questionnaire by mail to all subjects who were living in Hiroshima City and adjacent towns prior to the release of the A-bomb until the study was implemented. The number of potential subjects was 31,598 and the response rate was 75%. We analyzed a subsample of subjects (n=14,373) whose age at the event was 8 or above. In the multiple regression analysis, hibakusha (A-bomb victims) and those who were exposed to the Black Rain (fall-out) showed poor mental health compared to the comparison group on SF-8, K6 and IES-R scores even after adjusting socio-demographic variables. Although traumatic experiences at the event still affected mental health, anxiety for health effects and social stigma showed greater impact. Our findings suggest that even 63 years after the event, apprehension of health effects and social stigma harm mental health in A-bomb survivors. Our findings may also suggest that long-term risk communication will be vital to mitigate mental health effects among survivors of the Fukushima nuclear disaster. (author)

  11. The Development of British Incendiary Bombs during the Period of the 1939-45 World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1946-12-01

    gallons of methanised petrol and had a T.V. of 160 - 180 ft./sec., when falling suspended from its parasheet. 21.2 In the early stages of the design it...34J" lomb Mark I, filled with methanised shale spirit. 80 July ORD Note summari3ing American developments with the M69 bomb. 81 " 7RS Report on Tests

  12. Franco Rasetti physicien et naturaliste : (il a dit non à la bombe)

    CERN Document Server

    Ouellet, Danielle

    2000-01-01

    Brève biographie d'un physicien italien injustement méconnu, professeur à l'Université Laval de 1939 à 1947. Ayant contribué, dans les années 1930, à des expériences qui ont par la suite mené à la fabrication de la bombe atomique, il s'est retiré du dossier dès qu'il en a compris le danger.

  13. Phagocytic and bactericidal activities of leukocytes in whole blood from atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, S.; Yoshimoto, Y.; Toyota, E.; Neriishi, S.; Yamakido, M.; Matsuo, M.; Hosoda, Y.; Finch, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    This study evaluated the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of peripheral blood leukocytes from Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors for Staphylococcus aureus. The data were analyzed by multiple linear regression for age, sex, radiation exposure, city of exposure, and neutrophil counts. No significant radiation effect was observed for either blood phagocytic or bactericidal activities. The only significant variable for these functions was the neutrophil count

  14. Discussion on protection and intervention actions in aftermath of a 'dirty bomb' attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Liye; Zeng Zhi; Li Junli

    2009-01-01

    'Dirty bomb' attack differs from nuclear or radiological accidents in respects of occurrence site, radioactivity release mode and radiation effect scope. It would take place in densely populated downtown, with abruptness and uncertainty. This paper focuses on protection of initial respondors and some considerations in relation to protection and intervention actions in shelter and evacuation. Emphasis is placed on initial determination of emergency zone, devision of inner and outer alert area, and public protection measures, alongside the necessary suggestions recommended. (authors)

  15. Relationship of stature to gamma and neutron exposure among atomic bomb survivors aged less than 10 at the time of the bomb, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Amano, Takako; Kawamoto, Sadahisa.

    1982-10-01

    A reanalysis has been undertaken of the relationship of attained adult height of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors aged less than 10 at the time of the bomb (ATB) to radiation dose based upon new dosimetry data. The present analysis aims to examine the relationship of stature to radiation dose in terms of gamma rays and neutrons, separately. The 628 individuals were selected from Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors, aged less than 10 ATB, whose doses were available, and whose statures were recorded at the Adult Health Study (AHS) biennial health examination during 1970-72. To ascertain the relationship of attained adult stature to gamma and neutron doses three doseresponse models were applied to the data. The analysis revealed that the attained height is a separate function of exposure to gamma rays and neutrons. The model assuming a squared term dependence on gamma rays and a linear dependence on neutrons provides a better explanation of the data. The regression coefficient associated with the squared gamma dose is -0.00000927 and the coefficient associated with neutron dose is -0.0172. The relative biological effectiveness of neutrons in relation to gamma radiation with respect to the effect for diminished development of stature is estimated as 43.1 / √Dn in kerma (Dn=neutron dose). The 95% confidence limits are 19.3 / √Dn--96.5 / √Dn. (author)

  16. Boosting Belligerence: How the July 7, 2005, London Bombings Affected Liberals' Moral Foundations and Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Vyver, Julie; Houston, Diane M; Abrams, Dominic; Vasiljevic, Milica

    2016-02-01

    Major terrorist events, such as the recent attacks in Ankara, Sinai, and Paris, can have profound effects on a nation's values, attitudes, and prejudices. Yet psychological evidence testing the impact of such events via data collected immediately before and after an attack is understandably rare. In the present research, we tested the independent and joint effects of threat (the July 7, 2005, London bombings) and political ideology on endorsement of moral foundations and prejudices among two nationally representative samples (combined N = 2,031) about 6 weeks before and 1 month after the London bombings. After the bombings, there was greater endorsement of the in-group foundation, lower endorsement of the fairness-reciprocity foundation, and stronger prejudices toward Muslims and immigrants. The differences in both the endorsement of the foundations and the prejudices were larger among people with a liberal orientation than among those with a conservative orientation. Furthermore, the changes in endorsement of moral foundations among liberals explained their increases in prejudice. The results highlight the value of psychological theory and research for understanding societal changes in attitudes and prejudices after major terrorist events. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. How training and experience affect the benefits of autonomy in a dirty-bomb experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Bruemmer; Curtis W. Nielsen; David I. Gertman

    2008-03-01

    A dirty-bomb experiment conducted at the INL is used to evaluate the effectiveness and suitability of three different modes of robot control. The experiment uses three distinct user groups to understand how participants’ background and training affect the way in which they use and benefit from autonomy. The results show that the target mode, which involves automated mapping and plume tracing together with a point and click tasking tool, provides the best performance for each group. This is true for objective performance such as source detection and localization accuracy as well as subjective measures such as perceived workload, frustration and preference. The best overall performance is achieved by the Explosive Ordinance Disposal group which has experience in both robot teleoperation and dirty bomb response. The user group that benefits least from autonomy is the Nuclear Engineers that have no experience with either robot operation or dirty bomb response. The group that benefits most from autonomy is the Weapons of Mass Destruction Civil Response Team that has extensive experience related to the task, but no robot training.

  18. Proceedings of 42nd Research Society for the Late Effects of the A-Bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Hideo [Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Casualty Council Health Management and Promotion Center (Japan); Nakane, Yoshibumi [Nagasaki Univ. Graduate School of Bio-medicine (Japan); Suzuki, Gen [Radiation Effect Research Foundation, Hiroshima (JP)] [and others

    2002-03-01

    This issue is the collection of study papers presented in the meeting in the title: the special review lecture concerning the epidemiological evidences of multiple myeloma examination in A-bomb survivors (12-year study), the symposium concerning the medical care of A-bomb survivors in 21st century (5 presentations of medical care for the aged survivors, psychiatric approach and psychological care, future clinical studies and survivors' children in RERF, epidemiological study on the late effect of A-bomb radiation, and international cooperation of medical care in Semipalatinsk), and 51 general presentations. The general presentations included 1 article concerning external dose estimation in Ust-Kamenogorsk city, 7, the health care and management of the survivors, 9, cancer and its risk assessment (lung, uterine, stomach, liver and bone marrow), 1, arteriosclerosis, 10, health physics studies in relation to Semipalatinsk and/or Chernobyl (mainly on thyroid cancer), 2, experimental animal studies of thyroid cancer and malformation, 9, genomic studies like gene rearrangement, REV1 SNPs, function analysis and regeneration medicine, and 12, histological and cytological studies concerning DNA/RNA extraction, gene expression, signal transduction and immune system. (K.H.)

  19. Why 159°?: a story about the dropping of the Hiroshima atom bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunty, Sean L.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the evasive manoeuvre undertaken by the pilot of the Enola Gay aircraft following the dropping of the first uranium bomb. The pilot was instructed to make a 159° turn following the bomb’s release in order to acquire the greatest distance from the point at which the bomb explodes. Accordingly, the objective here is to investigate why the angle should be exactly 159°. The optimum flight-path to maximize the distance from the detonation point is analysed by considering the escape or exit angle taken by the aircraft following a turning-manoeuvre that points it directly away from the detonation site. A range of escape angles are predicted based on the requirement to exit the turning radius prior to detonation. By using information that appeared in a historical account of the event regarding the manoeuvre undertaken by the pilot following the release of the bomb, an estimate is made of the escape angle. Despite the fact that the result shows reasonable agreement with the value of 159°, some uncertainty is expressed as to the close coincidence obtained. In addition, the location of the aircraft and the time of arrival of the shock wave following detonation are also briefly discussed.

  20. Study of Rapid Self-triggering Extinguishing Bomb Fuze Based on the Forest Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dongyang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustained and stable development of forest resources has been focused on world attention, prevention and control of forest fires have also been widespread attention around the world. To extinguish the fire in the forest-fire spot quickly and effectively, a self-triggering fire-extinguishing bomb fuze sensor is designed, and which properties are simulation and analysis. Simulation results show that fire-extinguishing bomb is being placed in the fire, fusible link burn out quickly in high temperature conditions, compressed spring is released, the firing pin was ejected to impact percussion cap so as to detonate explosives, powder extinguishing agent is uniformly blasted, powder is coated on the combustion source to make it extinguished so that the quick and reliable long-range extinguishment is achieved. The abilities of extinguishing fire bombs are significantly improved, it is not only energy- efficient and environmental but also solving problems about the long-range out fire effectively. Therefore, it has good application value to protect the safety of life and property indeed.

  1. Determination of calorific values of forest waste biomass by static bomb calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez-Regueira, L.; Rodriguez-Anon, J.A.; Proupin-Castineiras, J.; Vilanova-Diz, A.; Montero-Santovena, N. [Department of Applied Physics, Research Group TERBIPROMAT, University of Santiago, 15706 Santiago (Spain)

    2001-04-26

    Calorific values of forest waste originating from forestry works such as woodland cleaning, reaforestation and, all other silviculture tasks, were measured by static bomb calorimetry. These waste materials, heretofore considered as useless refuse, are beginning to be used as alternative fuels in wide social sectors all over the world. Two of the main forest species, eucalyptus (E. globulus Labill) and pine (P. pinaster Aiton) existing in Galicia (NW Spain), are included in this study. The experimental procedure was based on that proposed by Hubbard et al. [Experimental Thermochemistry, Interscience, New York, 1956, p. 5]. Simultaneously, some other parameters such as elementary chemical composition and heavy metal contents, moisture, density, and ash percentage after combustion in the bomb, were also determined. The experimental results, with calorific values exceeding 20000kJkg{sup -1}, make it advisable to use these materials as alternative fuels. The different parameters were measured using, as main equipment, a bomb calorimeter with an oxygen atmosphere, an elementary analysis equipment, and an atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

  2. The delayed effects of radiation exposure among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1945-79

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.C.; Moriyama, I.M.

    1980-07-01

    The most important radiation-induced late medical effect in the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been the increased occurrence of certain neoplasms, specifically, leukemia and cancers of the thyroid, lung, and breast. Other definite radiation-related effects include an increase in posterior lenticular opacities, chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and some abnormalities of growth and development following irradiation while in utero or during childhood. Moderate to fairly strong associations between A-bomb exposure and the increased occurrence of stomach cancer, multiple myeloma, and several other types of cancer have been observed. Radiation relationships also are suggestive for alterations of certain aspects of immune mechanisms and the increased occurrence of myelofibrosis. No increase in genetic effects has been demonstrated in the children born of exposed parents, and studies to data have been negative for evidence of increased infertility, accelerated aging, or increased mortality from diseases other than cancer. In general, the radiation dose-response relationships for most positive effects have been higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki, and the shape of the dose-response curves for certain effects is different in the two cities. These differences may be related to differences in the quality of the radiation from the two A-bombs. For several radiation-related effects the latent period following exposure is shorter and the incidence rate is higher in personse exposed when young as compared to exposure later in life. (author)

  3. Study on liver function tests in A-bomb survivors, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Iwao; Mine, Yutaka; Ito, Naomi

    1989-01-01

    The incidence of liver function abnormality was examined in the health screening for A-bomb survivors performed at Nagasaki in l986. Parameters were as follows: GOT, GPT, ALP, ZTT, gamma-GTP, LAP, and LDH. A-bomb survivors were divided into Group A - those exposed within 2,000 m from the hypocenter, Group B - those exposed between 2,000 and l0,000 m, and Group C - those who entered the city within 2 weeks after A-bombing. The incidence of abnormality in GOT, GPT, gamma-GTP, and LAP was higher in men than women in every age group. Women aged 50 years or older had a higher incidence of abnormality in ALP and LDH, in contrast to men aged 60 years or older having a higher incidence for ZTT. There was no definitive tendency among groups for the incidence of abnormal findings, except for GOT showing a higher value among women in Group A. (Namekawa, K)

  4. Follow-up studies on A-bomb survivors: implications for radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablon, S.

    1983-01-01

    A-bomb survivor data are the principal basis for risk estimates for late somatic and genetic effects of radiation on man. The data concern radiation delivered at high dose rate and the risk estimates are dominated by persons with doses (kerma) of more than 100 rads. The estimates, therefore, may not be applicable to low doses received at low dose rates, where some advocate use of a dose-rate reduction factor of at least two for carcinogenesis. In contrast with dose-rate factors, little attention has been given to individual factors such as age. Even after more than 35 years, the experience of only the oldest A-bomb survivors (aged over 50 in 1945) is essentially complete. It appears, however, that the risk of carcinogenesis may depend upon age at exposure and that relative risk may be a more appropriate measure than absolute risk. Limits for occupational or population exposures were not developed on the basis of risk estimates; such estimates can, however, be used to calculate the possible consequences of exposure standards. In contrast to carcinogenesis, which has been shown clearly in the data on A-bomb survivors, and despite the appearance of chromosome aberrations, no evidence of radiation-induced mutations in the children of survivors has yet been detected

  5. Myth-building: The [open quotes]Islamic[close quotes] bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoodbhoy, P. (Quadi-e-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan))

    1993-06-01

    The [open quotes]Islamic Bomb[close quotes] is roughly understood to be a nuclear weapon aquired for broad ideological reasons--a weapon that supposedly belongs to the Muslim [ital ummah] or community and, as such, is the ultimate expression of Islamic solidarity. Concern about the Islamic bomb is at the heart of the intense effort to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons to Muslim countries. The official justification is a general one: proliferation must be curbed globally. But unofficially, the Islamic bomb gets special attention. The reasons behind this special attention are described in this article. The reasons include fear of terrorism, of a [ital jihad] willing to indiscriminately use nuclear weapons in hope of a reward in the Hereafter, and of the transfer of nuclear arms from nuclear to non-nuclear Muslim countries in times of crisis. Possibilities for controlling the proliferation of nuclear weapons in Muslim countries are addressed. Reasons are cited as to why various Muslim countries wish to acquire nuclear weapons.

  6. Radiation-related risks of non-cancer outcomes in the atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, K; Takahashi, I; Grant, E J

    2016-06-01

    Risks of non-cancer outcomes after exposure to atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation have been evaluated among the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort and its subcohort, the Adult Health Study (AHS). Information regarding non-cancer outcomes in the LSS is obtained from death certificates. In the AHS, members undergo clinical examinations biennially to determine their health status. Many AHS studies have been limited to participants attending the clinic over a limited period, and therefore have varying degrees of inferential utility; as such, care is required for comparison with the LSS results. Disease structure of non-cancer diseases in Japan has changed over the long follow-up period since the end of World War II. The health status of the A-bomb survivors may be associated with the hardships of living in a devastated city and impoverished country following the prolonged war effort, in addition to the direct effects of radiation exposure. Radiation-related risk of cardiovascular disease may have increased due to radiation-related increased risk of hypertension and other secondary associations, and the risk of atherosclerotic disorders has also been reported recently. These results should be interpreted with caution because of changes in disease definitions over the follow-up period. The radiation-related risk of non-cancer respiratory diseases also appears to have increased over the follow-up period, but the shapes of the dose-response curves have shown little consistency. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics.

  7. Mental retardation occurring in embryo exposed in utero to the atomic bomb (Hiroshima)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Hiroya; Shimasaki, Akira; Fujiwara, Koichi; Harada, Masazumi; Minami, Ryuichi.

    1978-01-01

    This paper deals with a long term follow-up study on psychological symptoms in four patients with microscopically microcephaly induced by prenatal exposed to atomic bomb. They were exposed to atomic bomb at 8- and 12-week-embryos. The distance from the center of the explosion was 780 - 1180 m. All their mothers had acute radiation hazards. Their growths in the uterus were markedly damaged. Postnatal body weight ranged between 1,300 and 2,000 g. They were commonly characterized by microcephaly, physiological and mental retardation, stigmata of degeneracy, and skin symptoms, who were diagnosed as ''microcephaly induced by early prenatal exposure to atomic bomb'' by the research group for microcephaly in the Ministry of Health and Welfare. These common symptoms such as microcephaly, stigmata of degeneracy, and disturbed growth, but neurological symptoms such as motor aphasia were slighter in these patients than in those having congenital Minamata disease prenatal. These results suggested that the prognosis of these patients in whom 30 years have passed is unexpectedly serious. (Namekawa, K.)

  8. A study of sibling leukemia in the second generations of A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Nobuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Although the sibling leukemia (SL) is very rare, it is known in 4 families living in Osaka and Hiroshima, of which mothers are A-bomb survivors (2 exposed in Hiroshima/2 in Nagasaki). This study was performed on the 8 cases of SL to examine factors concerned with SL morbidity by comparison with SL in families unrelated to A-bomb exposure. Subjects were 4 cases of SL in Osaka, 4 cases in Hiroshima, and comparative 28 cases of age <20 y in 13 families (1930-1974) in a textbook published in 1979. The SL cases from mothers exposed at ages of 10-20 y were 5 males/3 females, and died at ages of 6-17 y (av. 11 y) due to acute, myeloid/monocytic leukemia. Three mothers' exposures were due to entrance in the City just/1 or 10 days after explosion and 2 mothers had lived in the black rain regions of either Hiroshima or Nagasaki. Comparisons were made on sex, type of L, age at death, parents' exposure, family composition, complication, and parents' consanguineous marriage. Findings of SL specific in the second generations of A-bomb survivors were from exposed mothers, and were mostly myeloid (monocyte) type leukemia, suggesting the effect of exposure. These facts may suggest that oocytes/ovula are of high sensitivity to internal exposure or low dose exposure. (T.T.)

  9. Lung cancer incidence among A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950 - 80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Kopecky, K.J.; Fujikura, Toshio; Tokuoka, Shoji; Monzen, Tetsuo; Nishimori, Issei; Nakashima, Eiji; Kato, Hiroo.

    1987-05-01

    The incidence of lung cancer during 1950 - 80 in a cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors and controls was investigated. A total of 1,057 cases were identified; 608 of these diagnoses were based on some form of histopathologic examination, and 442 were confirmed by the present investigators. The distributions of histological types varied significantly between the sexes (p < .001), with adenocarcinoma more frequent among women and epidermoid and small cell carcinoma more frequent among men. The distributions of primary sites did not differ significantly between the sexes. The relative risk (RR) of lung cancer increased significantly with A-bomb radiation dose (p < .0001); based on tentative 1965 dose estimates as revised in 1978 (T65DR) and a linear RR model, the estimated RR at 100 rad (± SE) is 1.41 ± 0.09. Among Hiroshima survivors the women experienced radiation-related excess RR nearly twice as great as men (p = .06). RR increased with decreasing age at the time of bombing (p = .07), and after allowing for this effect, there was no significant evidence that RR varied systematically with attained age. Small cell carcinoma displayed somewhat greater sensitivity to radiation than did adenocarcinoma or epidermoid carcinoma; however the variation between the histology-specific RR functions was not statistically significant (p = .44). (author)

  10. From the Dawn of Nuclear Physics to the First Atomic Bombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolbright, Stephen; Schumacher, Jacob; Michonova-Alexova, Ekaterina

    2014-03-01

    This work gives a fresh look at the major discoveries leading to nuclear fission within the historical perspective. The focus is on the main contributors to the discoveries in nuclear physics, leading to the idea of fission and its application to the creation of the atomic bombs used at the end of the World War II. The present work is a more complete review on the history of the nuclear physics discoveries and their application to the atomic bomb. In addition to the traditional approach to the topic, focusing mainly on the fundamental physics discoveries in Europe and on the Manhattan Project in the United States, the nuclear research in Japan is also emphasized. Along with that, a review of the existing credible scholar publications, providing evidence for possible atomic bomb research in Japan, is provided. Proper credit is given to the women physicists, whose contributions had not always been recognized. Considering the historical and political situation at the time of the scientific discoveries, thought-provoking questions about decision-making, morality, and responsibility are also addressed. The work refers to the contributions of over 20 Nobel Prize winners. EM-A is grateful to Prof. Walter Grunden and to Prof. Emeritus Shadahiko Kano, Prof. Emeritus Monitori Hoshi for sharing their own notes, documents, and references, and to CCCU for sponsoring her participation in the 2013 Nuclear Weapons Seminar in Japan.

  11. Abdominal trauma after terrorist bombing attacks exhibits a unique pattern of injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Miklosh; Rivkind, Avraham I; Zamir, Gideon; Hadar, Tal; Gertsenshtein, Iryna; Mintz, Yoav; Pikarsky, Alon J; Amar, Dalit; Shussman, Noam; Abu Gazala, Mahmoud; Almogy, Gidon

    2008-08-01

    The recent growth in the volume of civilian blast trauma caused by terrorist bombings warrants special attention to the specific pattern of injury associated with such attacks. To characterize the abdominal injuries inflicted by terrorist-related explosions and to compare the pattern of injury with civilian, penetrating and blunt, abdominal trauma. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from 181 patients with abdominal trauma requiring laparotomy, who were admitted to the Hadassah Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel, from October 2000 to December 2005. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to mechanism of injury: terror-related blast injury (n = 21), gunshot wounds (GSW) (n = 73) and blunt trauma (n = 87). Median injury severity score in the blast group was significantly higher compared with GSW and blunt groups (34, 18, and 29, respectively, P or = 3) occurred in 85.7% of blast group, 28.8% of GSW group, and 59.7% of blunt group (P Terrorist attacks generate more severe injuries to more body regions than other types of trauma. Abdominal injury inflicted by terrorist bombings causes a unique pattern of wounds, mainly injury to hollow organs. Shrapnel is the leading cause of abdominal injury following terrorist bombings.

  12. Statistical studies on heart disease of the pathological autopsy cases in the Atomic Bomb Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matushita, Hiroshi; Hamada, Tadao; Ishida, Sadamu.

    1976-01-01

    Of 1230 autopsied cases in the Atomic Bomb Hospital and in the Red-Cross Hospital from 1956 to March, 1975, a statistical study was made on 118 cases in which primary or secondary heart disease had been found. The results are as follows. The incidence of myocardial infarction was 2.4 times higher in the group exposed to the atomic bomb within 2 km distance from the bombed area than that it was in the unexposed group. The incidence of acquired valvular disease was 4.1 times higher in the exposed group than in the unexposed group. From the standpoint of the incidence of myocardiosis, there was no difference between the groups. The incidence of pericarditis was 1.5 times higher in the exposed group than in the unexposed group. The incidence of cor pulmonale was 1.8 times higher in the exposed group than in the unexposed group. The incidence of other heart disease including congenital disease was, however, 1.6 times higher in the unexposed group than in the exposed group. The incidence of general heart disease was 1.7 times higher in the exposed group than in the unexposed group. The incidence of hypertrophy of the heart (more than 400 g) was 1.2 times higher in the exposed group than in the unexposed group. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. Significance of genomic instability in breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors: analysis of microarray-comparative genomic hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Masahiro; Yoshiura, Koh-ichiro; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Miura, Shiro; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Nakashima, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    It has been postulated that ionizing radiation induces breast cancers among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. We have reported a higher incidence of HER2 and C-MYC oncogene amplification in breast cancers from A-bomb survivors. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of A-bomb radiation exposure on genomic instability (GIN), which is an important hallmark of carcinogenesis, in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues of breast cancer by using microarray-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Tumor DNA was extracted from FFPE tissues of invasive ductal cancers from 15 survivors who were exposed at 1.5 km or less from the hypocenter and 13 calendar year-matched non-exposed patients followed by aCGH analysis using a high-density oligonucleotide microarray. The total length of copy number aberrations (CNA) was used as an indicator of GIN, and correlation with clinicopathological factors were statistically tested. The mean of the derivative log ratio spread (DLRSpread), which estimates the noise by calculating the spread of log ratio differences between consecutive probes for all chromosomes, was 0.54 (range, 0.26 to 1.05). The concordance of results between aCGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for HER2 gene amplification was 88%. The incidence of HER2 amplification and histological grade was significantly higher in the A-bomb survivors than control group (P = 0.04, respectively). The total length of CNA tended to be larger in the A-bomb survivors (P = 0.15). Correlation analysis of CNA and clinicopathological factors revealed that DLRSpread was negatively correlated with that significantly (P = 0.034, r = -0.40). Multivariate analysis with covariance revealed that the exposure to A-bomb was a significant (P = 0.005) independent factor which was associated with larger total length of CNA of breast cancers. Thus, archival FFPE tissues from A-bomb survivors are useful for genome-wide aCGH analysis. Our results suggested that A-bomb

  14. Analysis of DNA from post-blast pipe bomb fragments for identification and determination of ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Esiri; LaRue, Bobby; Beherec, Charity; Gangitano, David; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree

    2017-05-01

    Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) such as pipe bombs are weapons used to detrimentally affect people and communities. A readily accessible brand of exploding targets called Tannerite® has been identified as a potential material for abuse as an explosive in pipe bombs. The ability to recover and genotype DNA from such weapons may be vital in the effort to identify suspects associated with these devices. While it is possible to recover DNA from post-blast fragments using short tandem repeat markers (STRs), genotyping success can be negatively affected by low quantities of DNA, degradation, and/or PCR inhibitors. Alternative markers such as insertion/null (INNULs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are bi-allelic genetic markers that are shorter genomic targets than STRs for amplification, which are more likely to resist degradation. In this study, we constructed pipe bombs that were spiked with known amounts of biological material to: 1) recover "touch" DNA from the surface of the device, and 2) recover traces of blood from the ends of wires (simulated finger prick). The bombs were detonated with the binary explosive Tannerite® using double-base smokeless powder to initiate the reaction. DNA extracted from the post-blast fragments was quantified with the Quantifiler® Trio DNA Quantification Kit. STR analysis was conducted using the GlobalFiler® Amplification Kit, INNULs were amplified using an early-access version of the InnoTyper™ 21 Kit, and SNP analysis via massively parallel sequencing (MPS) was performed using the HID-Ion Ampliseq™ Identity and Ancestry panels using the Ion Chef and Ion PGM sequencing system. The results of this study showed that INNUL markers resulted in the most complete genetic profiles when compared to STR and SNP profiles. The random match probabilities calculated for samples using INNULs were lower than with STRs when less than 14 STR alleles were reported. These results suggest that INNUL analysis may be well suited for

  15. 68Ga/177Lu-NeoBOMB1, a Novel Radiolabeled GRPR Antagonist for Theranostic Use in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalm, Simone U; Bakker, Ingrid L; de Blois, Erik; Doeswijk, Gabriela N; Konijnenberg, Mark W; Orlandi, Francesca; Barbato, Donato; Tedesco, Mattia; Maina, Theodosia; Nock, Berthold A; de Jong, Marion

    2017-02-01

    Because overexpression of the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) has been reported on various cancer types, for example, prostate cancer and breast cancer, targeting this receptor with radioligands might have a significant impact on staging and treatment of GRPR-expressing tumors. NeoBOMB1 is a novel DOTA-coupled GRPR antagonist with high affinity for GRPR and excellent in vivo stability. The purpose of this preclinical study was to further explore the use of NeoBOMB1 for theranostic application by determining the biodistribution of 68 Ga-NeoBOMB1 and 177 Lu-NeoBOMB1. PC-3 tumor-xenografted BALB/c nu/nu mice were injected with either approximately 13 MBq/250 pmol 68 Ga-NeoBOMB1 or a low (∼1 MBq/200 pmol) versus high (∼1 MBq/10 pmol) peptide amount of 177 Lu-NeoBOMB1, after which biodistribution and imaging studies were performed. At 6 time points (15, 30, 60, 120, 240, and 360 min for 68 Ga-NeoBOMB1 and 1, 4, 24, 48, 96, and 168 h for 177 Lu-NeoBOMB1) postinjection tumor and organ uptake was determined. To assess receptor specificity, additional groups of animals were coinjected with an excess of unlabeled NeoBOMB1. Results of the biodistribution studies were used to determine pharmacokinetics and dosimetry. Furthermore, PET/CT and SPECT/MRI were performed. Injection of approximately 250 pmol 68 Ga-NeoBOMB1 resulted in a tumor and pancreas uptake of 12.4 ± 2.3 and 22.7 ± 3.3 percentage injected dose per gram (%ID/g) of tissue, respectively, at 120 min after injection. 177 Lu-NeoBOMB1 biodistribution studies revealed a higher tumor uptake (17.9 ± 3.3 vs. 11.6 ± 1.3 %ID/g of tissue at 240 min after injection) and a lower pancreatic uptake (19.8 ± 6.9 vs. 105 ± 13 %ID/g of tissue at 240 min after injection) with the higher peptide amount injected, leading to a significant increase in the absorbed dose to the tumor versus the pancreas (200 pmol, 570 vs. 265 mGy/MBq; 10 pmol, 435 vs. 1393 mGy/MBq). Using these data to predict patient dosimetry, we found

  16. Report on the results of the seventh medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chikako; Kodama, Kazunori; Sasaki, Hideo; Ishibashi, Shinzo; Dote, Keigo; Watanabe, Tadaaki; Hirata, Katsumi; Sugimoto, Sumio.

    1990-01-01

    During a one-month period from June 13 through July 13, 1989, the seventh medical examination was conducted at five cities, including San Francisco, Los Angeles, Seattle, Wailuku and Honolulu, for A-bomb survivors residents in North America. Nine hundred and eighteen A-bomb survivors, including 21 living in Canada, were confirmed, consisting of 234 men and 684 women as of the end of July 1989. The number was increased by 167, compared with that as of the end of July 1987. During the past three years, there were 40 deaths; and 878 A-bomb survivors (223 men and 655 women) are still alive. Ninety percent of the survivors came from Hiroshima. U.S. nationality was seen in 61% and Japanese nationality with permanent U.S. residency rights was seen in 32%. The majority (39%) of the A-bomb survivors were in their fifties, with an average age of 59.4 years. The survivors were residing in 26 states in the USA and in 3 provinces in Canada. The acquisition rate of the A-bomb survivors' health handbook was 52%. Four hundred and six A-bomb survivors participated in the medical examination, including one male and 8 female children born to A-bomb survivors. Questionnaire survey revealed a history of surgical resection for cancer in 21 survivors. Subjective symptoms included complete exhaustion or fatigue, heat intolerance, loss of vigor, and numbness of the body. Overall evaluation revealed the necessity of medical treatment or observation in 71%. This was independent of exposure status. Hypertension was the most common (27%), followed by obesity, hyperlipidemia, heart disease, and diabetes mellitus. Malignant tumors were seen in 9 survivors, consisting of 3 with breast cancer, 2 with colorectal cancer, and single survivors with lung cancer, Hodgkin's disease, cervical cancer, or hepatoma. Only 29% of them have had finantial guarantee for their health management according to the Japanese law. (N.K.)

  17. Changes in Anterior Segment Morphology of Iris Bombe before and after Laser Peripheral Iridotomy in Patients with Uveitic Secondary Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakako Ikegawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To quantify changes in anterior segment (AS parameters after laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI using AS-optical coherence tomography (OCT of iris bombe. Method. AS images of eight eyes were captured before and after iris bombe and more than 2 weeks after LPI (post-LPI using AS-OCT. We compared the following AS parameters: anterior chamber depth (ACD, anterior chamber volume (ACV, iris curvature (IC, iris thickness at 500 μm from the scleral spur (IT-1 in the middle between the iris root and pupillary margin (IT-2 and 500 μm from the pupillary margin (IT-3 to the anterior chamber angle (ACA (angle opening distance [AOD750], and trabecular iris space area. Results. Mean IT-1 and IT-3, but not IT-2, were lower after iris bombe (IT-1, P=0.001; IT-2, P=0.081; and IT-3, P=0.001. There were no significant differences between ACD at pre-LPI and before iris bombe (P=0.096. The mean ACV and AOD750 of iris bombe increased at post-LPI (ACV, P<0.01, and AOD750, P<0.05. The mean IT-1, IT-2, and IT-3 increased at post-LPI (all, P≤0.01. IC decreased at post-LPI (P<0.001, and ACD at post-LPI did not change. Conclusions. The iris extends and becomes thinner during iris bombe. LPI during bombe decreases the IC and increases the ACV and ACA.

  18. Iran, the bomb and the pursuit of security. Structured conflict analyses; Iran, die Bombe und das Streben nach Sicherheit. Strukturierte Konfliktanalysen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, Andreas M. [Akkon-Hochschule fuer Humanwissenschaften, Berlin (Germany); Henneberg, Ingo (ed.) [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Professur fuer Governance in Mehrebenensystemen

    2014-07-01

    This volume introduces readers to the structured conflict analysis as a tool of social science research and uses this instrument exemplarily to analyze systematically and on a broad basis the various conflicts that are associated with Iran both domestically and in foreign policy - beyond popular stereotypes such as the ''bomb''. The 13 contributions draw a complex picture of the conflicts with and in Iran and reflect the various aspects of these conflicts from different perspectives and at a high methodological and theoretical level. The nuclear program is examined, inter alia through the eyes of four major theories of International Relations. In addition, the analyses are concerned with the regional security dimension, the relationship USA-Iran, the role of national preferences, and the effect of national processes to the Iranian foreign policy.

  19. Radiation risk of individual multifactorial diseases in offspring of the atomic-bomb survivors: a clinical health study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Yamada, Michiko; Ohishi, Waka; Hida, Ayumi; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Cologne, John B; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Furukawa, Kyoji; Takahashi, Norio; Nakamura, Nori; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Shore, Roy

    2013-01-01

    There is no convincing evidence regarding radiation-induced heritable risks of adult-onset multifactorial diseases in humans, although it is important from the standpoint of protection and management of populations exposed to radiation. The objective of the present study was to examine whether parental exposure to atomic-bomb (A-bomb) radiation led to an increased risk of common polygenic, multifactorial diseases—hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes mellitus, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction or stroke—in the first-generation (F 1 ) offspring of A-bomb survivors. A total of 11 951 F 1 offspring of survivors in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, conceived after the bombing, underwent health examinations to assess disease prevalence. We found no evidence that paternal or maternal A-bomb radiation dose, or the sum of their doses, was associated with an increased risk of any multifactorial diseases in either male or female offspring. None of the 18 radiation dose–response slopes, adjusted for other risk factors for the diseases, was statistically significantly elevated. However, the study population is still in mid-life (mean age 48.6 years), and will express much of its multifactorial disease incidence in the future, so ongoing longitudinal follow-up will provide increasingly informative risk estimates regarding hereditary genetic effects for incidence of adult-onset multifactorial disease. (paper)

  20. Radiation risk of individual multifactorial diseases in offspring of the atomic-bomb survivors: a clinical health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Cologne, John B; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Yamada, Michiko; Ohishi, Waka; Hida, Ayumi; Furukawa, Kyoji; Takahashi, Norio; Nakamura, Nori; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Shore, Roy

    2013-06-01

    There is no convincing evidence regarding radiation-induced heritable risks of adult-onset multifactorial diseases in humans, although it is important from the standpoint of protection and management of populations exposed to radiation. The objective of the present study was to examine whether parental exposure to atomic-bomb (A-bomb) radiation led to an increased risk of common polygenic, multifactorial diseases-hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes mellitus, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction or stroke-in the first-generation (F1) offspring of A-bomb survivors. A total of 11,951 F1 offspring of survivors in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, conceived after the bombing, underwent health examinations to assess disease prevalence. We found no evidence that paternal or maternal A-bomb radiation dose, or the sum of their doses, was associated with an increased risk of any multifactorial diseases in either male or female offspring. None of the 18 radiation dose-response slopes, adjusted for other risk factors for the diseases, was statistically significantly elevated. However, the study population is still in mid-life (mean age 48.6 years), and will express much of its multifactorial disease incidence in the future, so ongoing longitudinal follow-up will provide increasingly informative risk estimates regarding hereditary genetic effects for incidence of adult-onset multifactorial disease.

  1. Coping support factors among Australians affected by terrorism: 2002 Bali bombing survivors speak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Garry J; Dunsmore, Julie C; Agho, Kingsley E; Taylor, Melanie R; Jones, Alison L; Raphael, Beverley

    2013-12-16

    To examine terrorism survivors' perceptions of factors likely to promote coping and recovery, and to determine whether coping supports vary according to demographic, physical and mental health, incident-exposure and bereavement variables. Individuals directly exposed to and/or bereaved by the 2002 Bali bombings and who had participated in a New South Wales Health therapeutic support program completed cross-sectional telephone interviews during July-November 2010. Spoken passages were categorised into coping support themes. Advocated supports were then examined by demographic, physical and mental health, incident-exposure and bereavement variables. Based on their experiences, respondents identified personal, social and service-related factors that they believed would optimally support future survivors of terrorism. Of the 81 people contacted, 55 (68%) participated, providing a total of 114 comments. Thirty-two respondents were women, and 54 had lost relatives or friends in the bombing. Mean age was 50 years (range, 20-73 years). Four meaningful coping support themes emerged, with excellent inter-rater reliability: professional help and counselling; social support; proactive government response and policy; and personal coping strategies. Women were significantly more likely to advocate the need for proactive government response (P = 0.03). Men were more likely to endorse the use of personal coping strategies (P bombings were significantly less likely to advocate social support processes (P = 0.04). Our findings highlight the perceived value of counselling-related services for terrorism-affected groups. Male survivors may benefit more from mental health interventions that initially build on problem-focused forms of coping, including brief education about reactions and periodic check-ups. Proactive government health and support services that allow simplified and longer-term access were consistently identified as priority areas.

  2. Study of skin cancer incidence in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 1958-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Otake, Masanori; Honda, Takeo.

    1993-03-01

    The effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on skin cancer incidence in a cohort of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors in the Nagasaki Extended Life Span Study (LSS-E85) sample have been investigated. Among 25,942 exposed survivors at risk whose DS86 dose estimates were available, 47 cases of skin cancer including malignant melanoma were confirmed in the Nagasaki Tumor Registry during the period from 1 April 1958 to 31 December 1985. The dose-response relationship of skin cancer based on an additive relative risk model showed linearity without threshold, not a linear-quadratic curve. The excess relative risk (ERR) of 2.2 per gray in the LSS-E85 sample was highly significant (95% confidence limits: 0.5 to 5.0). In addition, the ERR of 3.1 per gray in the Adult Health Study (AHS) sample was also significant (95% confidence limits: 0.6 to 20.3). When dose equivalents based on a relative biological effectiveness of neutrons of 10 were used, the ERR in the former sample decreased to 2.0 per sievert (95% confidence limits: 0.7-4.5), and the risk in the latter group also declined, to 2.7 per sievert (95% confidence limits: 0.6-17.8). The ERRs did not differ significantly between males and females in the LSS-E85 and AHS samples, but a highly significant increase was observed for the ERR of age at exposure and time trend since exposure. The ERR of skin cancer cases including and excluding 4 malignant melanoma cases for the LSS-E85 sample (there were no malignant melanoma cases in the AHS sample) showed almost the same linear dose response. This is the first report to demonstrate a highly significant dose-response relationship between A-bomb exposure and skin cancer incidence. (author)

  3. Primary intracranial tumors among atomic bomb survivors and controls, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-75

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyama, Shinichi; Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Iijima, Soichi; Mori, Kazuo.

    1980-02-01

    An analysis was made of the relationship of radiation dose to the occurrence of primary intracranial tumors among atomic bomb survivors and nonexposed controls, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in the fixed cohort of the Life Span Study (LSS) extended sample during the period 1961-75, or 16 to 30 years after the A-bombs. Based on various medical sources, 104 cases of primary intracranial tumors were identified among approximately 99,000 LSS extended sample members who were alive as of 1 January 1961. Of these 104 cases, 45 had manifested clinical signs of brain tumors, but, 59 cases were identified incidentally at postmortem examination. The distributions of morphologic type, age, and size of tumor were quite different for those primary intracranial tumors with and without a clinical sign of brain tumor. Glioma was the most frequent type of tumor with a clinical sign and meningioma was the most frequent type without. In relation to radiation dose the incidence rate of primary intracranial tumors with a clinical sign showed a significant excess risk for males in the high dose group who received 100 rad or more after adjustment for age at the time of the bomb (ATB). The standardized relative risk is around 5 in this group. The data also suggest that the crude relative risk of glioma is greater in the high dose group for younger ages ATB. However, there is no increased risk in females. Among the 5,012 autopsy subjects in the LSS extended sample during 1961-75, there is no relationship between radiation dose and the prevalence rate of primary intracranial tumors in those identified incidentally by autopsy. The relative risk of subclinical adenoma of the pituitary gland between high dose subjects and controls was also examined for a sample of 95 sex- and age-matched pairs using Hiroshima autopsy materials for 1961-74, but no relationship to dose was observed. (author)

  4. Circulating Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells in Aging Atomic Bomb Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kubo, Yoshiko; Misumi, Munechika; Kajimura, Junko; Yoshida, Kengo; Hayashi, Tomonori; Imai, Kazue; Ohishi, Waka; Nakachi, Kei; Young, Lauren F; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Moore, Malcolm A; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-01-01

    It is not yet known whether hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are compromised in the aging population of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors after their exposure nearly 70 years ago. To address this, we evaluated age- and radiation-related changes in different subtypes of circulating HSPCs among the CD34-positive/lineage marker-negative (CD34(+)Lin(-)) cell population in 231 Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. We enumerated functional HSPC subtypes, including: cobblestone area-forming cells; long-term culture-initiating cells; erythroid burst-forming units; granulocyte and macrophage colony-forming units; and T-cell and natural killer cell progenitors using cell culture. We obtained the count of each HSPC subtype per unit volume of blood and the proportion of each HSPC subtype in CD34(+)Lin(-) cells to represent the lineage commitment trend. Multivariate analyses, using sex, age and radiation dose as variables, showed significantly decreased counts with age in the total CD34(+)Lin(-) cell population and all HSPC subtypes. As for the proportion, only T-cell progenitors decreased significantly with age, suggesting that the commitment to the T-cell lineage in HSPCs continuously declines with age throughout the lifetime. However, neither the CD34(+)Lin(-) cell population, nor HSPC subtypes showed significant radiation-induced dose-dependent changes in counts or proportions. Moreover, the correlations of the proportions among HSPC subtypes in the survivors properly revealed the hierarchy of lineage commitments. Taken together, our findings suggest that many years after exposure to radiation and with advancing age, the number and function of HSPCs in living survivors as a whole may have recovered to normal levels.

  5. Leukemia among Hiroshima A-bomb survivors from 1971 to 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkita, Takeshi; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Kawakami, Masahito; Shigeta, Chiharu; Shimizu, Hiroyuki.

    1976-01-01

    The number of death from leukemia between 1971 - 1975 was 134. 91 cases of them were born before A-bomb explosion. Out of 91 cases, 34 cases were exposed within 5 km from the hypocenter, 23 cases were exposed within 2 km, and 18 cases were exposed within 1.5 km. There were 10 cases of early entrants after A-bomb explosion (till August 16). The mortality from leukemia was the highest in 1975. With respect to the type of leukemia in 23 cases exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter, acute leukemia was seen in 17 cases and chronic leukemia, in 16 cases. Age of 15 cases was over 60 years old, 10 cases were males and 13 cases were females. According to the calculation from 1971 - 1974, the mortality from leukemia among the proximally exposed was higher in both female and male than that of the mean in Japan. The relative risk in the exposed within 1.5 km was about 3 times of the mean in Japan and about 1.8 times in the exposed within 2 km. With respect to the estimated exposure dose in 23 cases exposed within 2 km, 7 of 8 cases in the range from 10 to 99 rad were exposed to over 40 rad. 4 cases received 0 rad, and further 3 cases were not subject for dose estimation. The number of leukemia found out in the physical examination of A-bomb survivors was 8 of acute leukemia and 10 of chronic leukemia. The incidence rate of leukemia was 3.4 (per 100,000 population per year) which was not over the estimated number of about 4 calculated from the mortality from leukemia in Japan. (Kanao, N.)

  6. Public health nutritional studies on the atomic bomb female survivors living in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munaka, Masaki; Yamamoto, Hisashi; Ohtaki, Megu; Ueoka, Hiroshi; Kishida, Noriko; Ishigai, Keiko.

    1982-01-01

    The atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a long distance (LDG) was found to take a great quantity of soybean curd, miso and fruit except citrus, while the atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a short distance (SDG) was found to take a significant amount of fish paste product. SDG tends to ingest processed food and in nutrient supply rate the percentage of calcium, iron and vitamin A is low. Judging from a state of food group without a meal rate, we got the result that SDG has a few kinds of ingestion food and takes them partially in each meal. In terms of socio-economic status, the rate of living alone, supporting oneself and living an empty life is high and the rate of living with a partner is low. On the other hand, we analysed the relations of three factors on physique-physical fitness and living status, and then got the following results. (1) ''Volume capacity'', in the cases of ''be married at present'', ''have a large family'', ''ingest a lot of protein and iron'', tends to be large, while in the cases of ''have no disease'', ''don't go without a meal'', ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', and ''nutritional balance is good'', it tends to be small. (2) ''Height'', in the case of ''socio-economical status was good before exposure to the atomic bomb'', tends to increase. (3) ''Synthetic physical fitness'', in the cases of ''health condition is good at present'', ''have no disease at present'', ''ingest a lot of vitamin A'' and ''nutritional balance is good'', tends to be superior; in the cases of ''food cost is high'' and ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', it tends to be low. The significant difference was observed in ''synthetic physical fitness'' between the two age groups of 50-59 years and beyond 70 years. (J.P.N.)

  7. Forensic dental and medical response to the Bali bombing. A personal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lain, Russell; Griffiths, Chris; Hilton, John M N

    2003-10-06

    After the Bali bombing on 12 October 2002, once the survivors had been treated or evacuated, many dead, severely burned and fragmented bodies were left. Formal identification was required before any remains could be released to grieving families. Australia sent a team to assist the Indonesians in this daunting and disturbing task. The "disaster victim identification" process eventually confirmed 202 people as dead, including 88 Australians. Personal and professional relationships between the Indonesians and our team were important factors in our acceptance into the Indonesian emergency response.

  8. The role of anaesthetists in the Darwin response to the Bali bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, B T; Blum, P G; Hams, S C

    2003-06-01

    The bombing of nightclubs in Bali on the night of October 12, 2002 was one of the worst peacetime disasters affecting Australians. This paper examines the unique role of anaesthetists in helping manage the victims, with the main emphasis on events in Darwin. Anaesthetists were involved in the multiple stages of patient care; from the hospital in Bali, evacuation to Darwin, resuscitation and onward evacuation to burns units around Australia as well as definitive surgical management. We discuss the role of anaesthetists in disaster management.

  9. Hitler's bomb: the secret story of Germans' attempts to get the nuclear weapon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsch, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    In this historical book, the author claims to have evidence concerning the development and testing of a possible 'nuclear weapon' by Nazi Germany in 1945. The 'weapon' in question is not alleged to be a standard nuclear weapon powered by nuclear fission, but something closer to either a radiological weapon (a so-called 'dirty bomb') or a hybrid-nuclear fusion weapon. Its new evidence is concerned primarily with the parts of the German nuclear energy project (an attempted clandestine scientific effort led by Germany to develop and produce atomic weapons during World War II) under Kurt Diebner, a German nuclear physicist who directed and administrated the project

  10. Media’s role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings

    OpenAIRE

    Holman, E. Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2013-01-01

    We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), -...

  11. Technical approaches to on-person bomb detection for counter-terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Steve

    2004-09-01

    Western democracies can reasonably expect an increase in homicide bombings as a major terrorist weapon of choice causing fear and economic damage far in excess of the actual loss of life and property caused by the explosives. The terrorists will strike at public venues (transportation, shopping, sporting events, schools, and governmental facilities) greatly multiplying the complexity and cost of effective defense. The author argues for accelerated research in multiple electromagnetic and passive technologies and fielding single and multi-sensor fixed, mobile and manportable systems to attempt to stay one step ahead of the growing reality of global terrorism.

  12. The quantum exodus jewish fugitives, the atomic bomb, and the holocaust

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Gordon Murray

    2012-01-01

    It was no accident that the Holocaust and the Atomic Bomb happened at the same time. When the Nazis came into power in 1933, their initial objective was not to get rid of Jews. Rather, their aim was to refine German culture: Jewish professors and teachers at fine universities were sacked. Atomic science had attracted a lot of Jewish talent, and as Albert Einstein and other quantum exiles scattered, they realized that they held the key to a weapon of unimaginable power. Convincedthat their gentile counterparts in Germany had come to the same conclusion, and having witnessed what the Nazis were

  13. Mortality statistics by causes of death among A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima prefecture, 1973 - 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Norihiko; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru

    1985-01-01

    The standardized mortality ratios of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima Prefecture between 1973 and 1977 were compared with those of non-exposed population in this prefecture. In the malignant neoplasms, the ratios for leukemia, liver, breast, lung, larynx, brain, bone, skin, uterus, bladder and colon were higher than non-exposed. Other than the neoplasms, the ratios for cirrhosis of liver, diabetes, hypertensive diseases and blood and blood-forming organs were higher than nonexposed, while those for heart diseases, cerebro-vascular diseases, senility, gastro-enteritis and accidents were lower than non-exposed. (author)

  14. Nagasaki and radiation. Health effects of radiation: atomic bomb, Chernobyl and JCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagataki, Shigenobu

    2005-01-01

    Under the title of Nagasaki and Radiation, this presentation will include the significance of the investigation of health of radiation on A-bomb survivors, dissociation between the scientific results and the public impression at the Chernobyl accident and problems in health control of the people in the regions surrounding JCO, Tokaimura. It is proposed that in the area of the low-dose radiation, economic, ethical, psychological, environmental, and scientific factors are all essential in the policy and regulatory decision-making process to assure public health and well-being. (author)

  15. A synthetic medical and sociological study on twins exposed by atomic bomb, 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satow, Yukio; Watanabe, Shoji; Kyo, Taiichi

    1984-01-01

    The relationship between immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA, IgM) levels and the exposure status was examined in 13 enzygotic twin pairs who had been exposed to atomic bomb under the same or different conditions and who had no disease showing changes in immunoglobulin levels. The difference in immunoglobulin levels tended to be smaller between the twins exposed under the same conditions and to be larger between the twins exposed under the different conditions. This should be further studied because there were some exceptions in this study. (Namekawa, K.)

  16. Risk of cancer and non-cancer diseases in the atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, Kotaro; Shimizu, Yukiko; Sakata, Ritsu; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Grant, Eric J; Soda, Midori; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Suyama, Akihiko

    2011-07-01

    Late health effects of exposure to atomic bomb radiation have been evaluated in survivors. A cohort of 120 321 people has been followed since 1950 for mortality, including the cause of death using the Japanese population registry system (Life Span Study), and for cancer incidence using population-based cancer registries. Findings have included a markedly increased risk of leukaemia several years after the exposure, increased risk of various malignant tumours several decades after the exposure and, more recently, findings of increased rates of non-cancer diseases such as cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Public health nutritional studies on the atomic bomb female survivors living in Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munaka, Masaki (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

    1983-08-01

    The dietary life and socio-economic status of atomic bomb female survivors living in Hiroshima were investigated. The atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a long distance (LDG) was found to take a great quantity of soybean curd, miso and fruit except citrus, while the atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a short distance (SDG) was found to take a significant amount of fish paste products. SDG tends to ingest processed food and in nutrient supply rate the percentage of calcium, iron and vitamin A is low. Judging from a state of food group without a meal rate, we got the result that SDG has a few kinds of ingestion food and takes them partially in each meal. In terms of socio-economic status, the rate of living alone, supporting oneself and living an empty life is high and the rate of living with a partner is low. On the other hand, we analysed the relations of three factors on physique.physical fitness and living status, and then got the following results. (1) ''Volume capacity'', in the cases of ''be married at present'', ''have a large family'', ''ingest a lot of protein and iron'', tends to be large, while in the cases of ''have no dis ease'', ''don't go without a meal'', ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', and ''nutr itional balance is good'', it tends to be small. (2) ''Height'', in the case of ''socio-economical status was good before exposure to the atomic bomb'', tends to increase. (3) ''Synthetic physical fitness'', in the cases of ''health condition is good at present'', ''have no disease at present'', ''ingest a lot of vitamin A'' and ''nutritional balance is good'', tends to be superior; in the cases of ''food cost is high

  18. Public health nutritional studies on the atomic bomb female survivors living in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munaka, Masaki

    1983-01-01

    The dietary life and socio-economic status of atomic bomb female survivors living in Hiroshima were investigated. The atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a long distance (LDG) was found to take a great quantity of soybean curd, miso and fruit except citrus, while the atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a short distance (SDG) was found to take a significant amount of fish paste products. SDG tends to ingest processed food and in nutrient supply rate the percentage of calcium, iron and vitamin A is low. Judging from a state of food group without a meal rate, we got the result that SDG has a few kinds of ingestion food and takes them partially in each meal. In terms of socio-economic status, the rate of living alone, supporting oneself and living an empty life is high and the rate of living with a partner is low. On the other hand, we analysed the relations of three factors on physique.physical fitness and living status, and then got the following results. (1) ''Volume capacity'', in the cases of ''be married at present'', ''have a large family'', ''ingest a lot of protein and iron'', tends to be large, while in the cases of ''have no dis ease'', ''don't go without a meal'', ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', and ''nutr itional balance is good'', it tends to be small. (2) ''Height'', in the case of ''socio-economical status was good before exposure to the atomic bomb'', tends to increase. (3) ''Synthetic physical fitness'', in the cases of ''health condition is good at present'', ''have no disease at present'', ''ingest a lot of vitamin A'' and ''nutritional balance is good'', tends to be superior; in the cases of ''food cost is high'' and ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', it tends to be low. The significant difference was observed in ''synthetic physical fitness'' between the two age groups of 50-59 years and beyond 70 years. (author)

  19. Alternatives to the BEIR relative risk model for explaining atomic-bomb survivor cancer mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    The apparent failure of the BEIR absolute risk model to explain the data on the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors does not imply that the BEIR relative risk model (RRM) is correct. RRM is objectionable in that it fits the data only in conjunction with an assumption not in accord with current knowledge and thinking. Contrary to what is widely believed, RRM is not a consequence of, or consistent with, initiator-promoter theories; models derived from initiator-promoter theories fit the data with fewer adjustable parameters and without requiring unpalatable assumptions. The preferable models give substantially lower radiation risks

  20. Deep underground measurements of 60Co in steel exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, Mikael; Gasparro, Joël; Vasselli, Roberto; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Arnold, Dirk; Neumaier, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    When using gamma-ray spectrometry performed deep underground, it is possible to measure 60Co activities down to 0.1 mBq in steel samples of some 100 g without any pre-concentration. It is thus still possible to measure 60Co induced by neutrons from the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima in pieces of steel collected at distances up to about 1200 m slant range. The results of non-destructive measurements of eight steel samples are compared with the 1986 Dose Re-Evaluation (DS86) model calculations.

  1. Deep underground measurements of 60Co in steel exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hult, Mikael; Gasparro, J.Joeel; Vasselli, Roberto; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Arnold, Dirk; Neumaier, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    When using gamma-ray spectrometry performed deep underground, it is possible to measure 60 Co activities down to 0.1 mBq in steel samples of some 100 g without any pre-concentration. It is thus still possible to measure 60 Co induced by neutrons from the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima in pieces of steel collected at distances up to about 1200 m slant range. The results of non-destructive measurements of eight steel samples are compared with the 1986 Dose Re-Evaluation (DS86) model calculations

  2. Deep underground measurements of {sup 60}Co in steel exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hult, Mikael E-mail: mikael.hult@cec.eu.int; Gasparro, J.Joeel; Vasselli, Roberto; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Arnold, Dirk; Neumaier, Stefan

    2004-09-01

    When using gamma-ray spectrometry performed deep underground, it is possible to measure {sup 60}Co activities down to 0.1 mBq in steel samples of some 100 g without any pre-concentration. It is thus still possible to measure {sup 60}Co induced by neutrons from the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima in pieces of steel collected at distances up to about 1200 m slant range. The results of non-destructive measurements of eight steel samples are compared with the 1986 Dose Re-Evaluation (DS86) model calculations.

  3. Pros and cons on ''Hitlers' bomb''. Studies on nuclear research in Germany; Fuer und Wider ''Hitlers Bombe''. Studien zur Atomforschung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsch, R.; Petermann, H. (eds.)

    2007-07-01

    This book reveals a sensation: Under supervision of the SS German scientists tested 1944/45 nuclear bombs on Ruegen and in Thuringia. During this period several hundred prisoners of war and prisoners died. Besides proofs for nuclear weapon testing the author also found a draft for a patent on plutonium bombs and discovered the first functioning German atom reactor in the environs of Berlin. The succeeding book titled above enlarges the spectra of contributions from Saenger PLan to attack New York, researches on minimization of critical mass, the attempt to calculate TNT-equivalence as the presentation of important acteurs occuring during the researches. (GL)

  4. Comparison of rescue and relief activities within 72 hours of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunari, Yuko; Yoshimoto, Nao

    2013-12-01

    To clarify the factors and reasons for the differences in the outcomes of rescue and relief efforts in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, mainly focusing on the numbers of rescue/relief staffs and casualties in the period within 72 hours of the atomic bombings in August 1945. By retrieving the data and information from the records and reports concerning the disasters in the two cities, together with other publications as to the damages by the atomic bombings and subsequent rescue-relief activities, and restoration activities. It seems that there was less damage in Nagasaki, where a stronger atomic bomb was used than in Hiroshima. There were crucial geographic factors that led to the different effects in terms of the numbers of victims; however, systematic organization and mobilization of rescue and relief staffs, maintenance of functional transportation, and advanced medical knowledge and public warning with regard to disaster all may have contributed to a lower death toll and increase in survivors in Nagasaki.

  5. Report on the results of the second medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in the South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamitsuna, Akimitsu; Monzen, Tetsuo; Oguma, Nobuo; Sakuma, Saburo; Takata, Yoshiki; Nakashima, Yoshiaki; Sakata, Morimitsu.

    1987-01-01

    In October 9 - 31, 1986, the second medical examination for A-bomb survivors was undertaken in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Peru. Among 173 recognized A-bomb survivors in the five countries, 126 (73 %) participated in the examination, consisting of 61 men and 65 women. Seventy-eight A-bomb survivors came from Hiroshima and 48 from Nagasaki. The average age was 55.6 +- 9.7 years for men and 56.5 +- 9.8 years for women. The acquisition rate of ''Survivor's Health Handbook'' was 34 %. Gastric cancer was observed in two survivors and cervical cancer in one survivor. Major subjective symptoms were: fatigue, sensation of paralysis, heat intolerance, decreased physical strength, and itching. None of the abnormal findings were observed in 33 %. The incidence of hypertension, obesity, cardiac disease, and liver disease was high. The incidence of hypercholesteremia and diabetes mellitus was lower than that in the USA. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. A shell-derived time history of bomb 14C on Georges Bank and its Labrador Sea implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidman, C.R.; Jones, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Bomb-produced radiocarbon has been used in the past as an important tracer of ocean circulation and as a valuable tool for calculating CO 2 air-sea exchange. However, previous studies of the ocean's time-varying bomb 14 C record have been confined exclusively to analyzing banded corals, and thus their application has been limited to the lower latitudes. The first time history of bomb 14 C from the high-latitude North Atlantic Ocean is obtained from a 54-year-old mollusc specimen, (Bivalvia) Arctica islandica, which was collected live from Georges Bank (41 degrees N) in 1990. The annual growth bands of its shell were analyzed for Δ 14 C using accelerator mass spectrometry, producing a Δ 14 C time history from 1939 to 1990. The depleted condition of the Georges Bank bomb 14 C signal relative to two coral-derived North Atlantic Δ 14 C time histories suggests a significant deepwater source for the waters on Georges Bank. Supported by previous work linking the origin of waters on Georges Bank to the Labrador Sea, the Δ 14 C budget on Georges Bank is modeled as Labrador Sea water, which largely becomes confined to the shelf and partially equilibrates with the atmosphere during a 1-year transit time from the Labrador Sea to Georges Bank. This model is also used to estimate a time history of bomb 14 C for the Labrador Sea. Prebomb Δ 14 C values calculated for the surface Labrador Sea suggest that a greater inventory of bomb 14 C has accumulated here than has previously been reported. Deduced variations in the ventilation and/or 14 CO 2 uptake rates in the Labrador Sea correspond with observed changes in surface salinity of the Labrador Sea, suggesting a reduction in deepwater formation during the late 1960s and 1970s. 59 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Report on the results of the tenth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Jun; Ohta, Nobuhiro; Sasaki, Hideo

    1996-01-01

    The 10th medical examination of A-bomb survivors resident in North America was conducted from 6 June to 6 July 1995 in L.A., S.F., Seattle, Wailuku, and Honolulu. Since this is the 10th medical examination, results of the previous examination are summarized. With the exclusion of 55 whose death has been confirmed, the total registered number of A-bomb survivors resident in North America is 1,043. The examinees in the present examination amounted to 463 (48 of them are the children of A-bomb survivors), 26 of whom are newly registered survivors. The mean age of the examinees in 64 years. The proportion of those having US nationality gradually increased and reached 62% at the time of the 10th examination, while that of those who have Japanese nationality and permanent US residency rights decreased to 30%. When the examination program was initiated, A-bomb survivors resident in 15 states of the US, but now, in Canada and 31 states of the US. About 90% of these survivors reside along the west coast of the US including Hawaii. The number of holders of A-bomb survivor's health handbook has increased year after year, reaching 612. When the holders in North-America visit Japan for medical treatment, they are treated similarly with their counterparts in Japan. The major subjective symptoms are complete exhaustion or fatigue, heat intolerance, loss of vigor, and numbness or tingling. The prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus and the proportion of abnormal ECG findings has been increasing with the age. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia was high and that of low HDL cholesterolemia was low. A significant difference was observed between the A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and North America. Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, ischemic heart disease, and diabetes mellitus were observed mainly. Diseased of specific places were not observed. (H.O.)

  8. A survey of radiation doses received by atomic-bomb survivors residing in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Yamada, H.; Marks, S.

    1976-01-01

    A survey has been completed of 300 of an estimated 500 to 750 survivors of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki who reside in the U.S. Distributions with respect to age, sex, citizenship status, distance from the hypocenter at the time of bombing, and dose from immediate weapon radiation have been tabulated from the results and are presented for this group of 300 survivors. Also presented are survey results concerning exposures to residual radiation from fallout and neutral-induced radioactivity in the areas adjacent to the hypocenter. (author)

  9. Requirements for estimation of doses from contaminants dispersed by a 'dirty bomb' explosion in an urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.G.; Mikkelsen, T.; Astrup, P.; Thykier-Nielsen, S.; Jacobsen, L.H.; Hoe, S.C.; Nielsen, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    The ARGOS decision support system is currently being extended to enable estimation of the consequences of terror attacks involving chemical, biological, nuclear and radiological substances. This paper presents elements of the framework that will be applied in ARGOS to calculate the dose contributions from contaminants dispersed in the atmosphere after a 'dirty bomb' explosion. Conceptual methodologies are presented which describe the various dose components on the basis of knowledge of time-integrated contaminant air concentrations. Also the aerosolisation and atmospheric dispersion in a city of different types of conceivable contaminants from a 'dirty bomb' are discussed.

  10. The nuclear bomb carbon curve recorded in tree-rings and lake sediments near Taal Volcano, Central Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, M. S.; Li, H. C.; Huang, S. K.; Guan, B. T.

    2017-12-01

    Dendrochronologies built from precisely dated annual rings have shown to record the regional bomb pulse and the C-14 concentration variations caused by local events. In this study, we collected teak trees Tectona grandis near the Lake Taal, Central Philippines in 2011 for dendrochronological analysis and radiocarbon dating. The tree-ring sample contains 90 rings dated from 1922 to 2011. Currently, 28 selected subsamples have been measured by AMS 14C on bulk carbon with a few samples on holocellulose. The 14C results of the samples indicate that: 1) the results of AMS 14C dating between holocellulose and whole wood from the same ring are similar, so we select whole wood for AMS 14C dating. 2) The nuclear bomb 14C pulse was clearly recorded in the Tectona grandis growth rings. The Δ14C values rose dramatically in 1960 and reached a maximum of 692‰ in 1966. The magnitude and the peak year of the bomb curve in the Tectona grandis tree-ring record are comparable to other published tree-ring records in the tropical regions. 3) The Δ14C values suddenly dropped in 1950, 1964 and 1968, probably affected by CO2 gas releasing due to the Taal volcanic activities. Further study on the tree-ring 14C dating will allow us to evaluate the bomb pulse trends more precisely, and the volcanic activities of Pinatubo and Taal Volcanoes. The tree-ring Δ14C record not only confirms existence of the bomb curve in Taal Lake area, but also allows us compare to the Δ14C record in the lake sediment for chronological construction. A 120-cm gravity core, TLS-2, collected from Lake Taal in 2008, shows the nuclear bomb carbon curve in the TOC of the core. However, the magnitude of the nuclear bomb 14C pulse in the TOC of TLS-2 is much lower than that in the tree-ring records, due to mixing effect of different organic carbon sources, smoothing effect of 14CO2 in multiple years plant growths, local old CO2 emission from volcanic activity, degassing from the lake bottom, and industrial and city

  11. Experimental patients of drug treatment for cataracta in the persons exposed to an atomic bomb near the explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Shigenori

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes the clinical process of 4 persons exposed to an atomic bomb near the explosion in Nagasaki who have received chemotherapy because of incipient senile cataracta associated by cataracta due to an atomic bomb. The dropping of Catalin and Tathion in the eyes, oral administration of Thiola, and injection of Glutathione were done. Dramatic results were not obtained. However, when the administration was done at the time of slight corneal opacity, it did not developed. Therefore, it can't be denied now that the chemotherapy is effective. (Kanao, N.)

  12. Selection, follow-up, and analysis in the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablon, S.

    1985-01-01

    More is known about ionizing radiation as a cause of human cancer than about any other carcinogen. Most of this knowledge is derived from the studies conducted by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and Radiation Effects Research Foundation on about 100,000 Japanese survivors of the atomic bombing in 1945. The importance of these studies is based on the large size of the exposed population and the fact that individual estimates of radiation dose were possible. These factors and the combined excellence of the centralized vital statistics reporting and population registration systems in Japan have made feasible the continuing longitudinal studies of cancer mortality by site in relation to radiation dose over a span of more than 30 years. Excellent voluntary cooperation by the survivors has enabled the continuation of a biennial physical examination program which has made possible the acquisition of blood for studies of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations and mutations at the level of specific genes. Similarly, with the cooperation of local universities, hospitals, and physicians, tumor and tissue registries necessary for the study of cancer incidence have been developed. An autopsy pathology program has enabled study of the accuracy of cause of death certification

  13. Risk of cancer among children exposed in utero to A-bomb radiations, 1950-84

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Kato, Hiroo; Schull, W.J.; Texas Univ., Houston

    1988-01-01

    This study examines the risk of cancer (incidence) over 40 years among in-utero exposed survivors of atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and adds eight years of follow-up to a previous report confined to mortality. Only two cases of childhood cancer were observed among these survivors in the first 14 years of life; both had been heavily exposed. Subsequent cancers have all been of the adult type. Not only did the observed cancers occur earlier in the 0.30+ Gy dose group than in the 0 Gy dose group but incidence continues to increase, and crude cumulative incidence rate, 40 years after A-bombing, is 3.9-fold greater in the 0.3+ Gy group. In the observation period 1950-84, based on the absorbed dose to the mother's uterus as estimated by the 1986 dosimetry system (DS86), the relative risk of cancer at 1 Gy is 3.77 with a 95% confidence interval of 1.14-13.48. For the entire 0.01 + Gy dose group the average excess risk per 10 4 person-year-gray is 6.57 (0.07-14.49) and the estimated attributable risk is 40.9% (2.9-90.2%). (author)

  14. Late effects of radiation: Neglected aspects of A-bomb data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, A.M.; Kneale, G.W. [Dept. of Public Health and Epidemiology, Birmingham Univ., Edgbaston (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    Both from the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers, and from recent surveys of nuclear workers at Hanford and Oak Ridge, have come risk estimates for cancer effects of radiation that are much higher than the ones based on a life span study cohort of A-bomb survivors. Furthermore, relations between the age when exposed and the cancer risk were radically different for workers and survivors. Therefore, there was clearly a need to discover whether the LSS cohort was a normal homogeneous population or, alternatively, whether persons who had shown signs of acute radiation effects constituted a special, radiosensitive subgroup of survivors. Statistical tests of the alternative hypotheses revealed significant differences between 63,072 survivors who denied having any of the following injuries and 2,601 survivors who claimed two or more of them: radiation, burns, purpura, oropharyngeal lesions and epilation. The tests also showed that the group differences were largely the result of exposures before 10 or after 55 years of age being exceptionally dangerous; that cancer was not the only late effect of the A-bomb radiation, and that it was only among the survivors with multiple injuries that the leukaemia death rate was exceptionally high. (orig.)

  15. Before the bombing: High burden of traumatic injuries in Kunduz Trauma Center, Kunduz, Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemat, Hamayoun; Shah, Safieh; Isaakidis, Petros; Das, Mrinalini; Kyaw, Nang Thu Thu; Zaheer, Sattar; Qasemy, Abdul Qayeum; Zakir, Mutallib; Mahama, Gbane; Van Overloop, Catherine; Dominguez, Lynette

    2017-01-01

    Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) has been providing healthcare in Afghanistan since 1981 including specialized health services for trauma patients in Kunduz Trauma Center (KTC) from 2011. On October 3rd, 2015, a US airstrike hit the KTC, killing 42 people including 14 MSF staff. This study aims to demonstrate the impact on healthcare provision, after hospital destruction, by assessing the extent of care provided for trauma and injuries by the MSF KTC and to report on treatment outcomes from January 2014 to June 2015, three months prior to the bombing. This is a descriptive, retrospective review of hospital records. All patients with traumatic injuries registered in the Emergency Department (ED) or hospitalized in In-Patients Department (IPD) and/or Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of KTC between January 2014 and June 2015 were included in the study. A total of 35647 patients were registered in KTC during the study period. 3199 patients registered in the ED were children aged wound surgery followed by orthopedic surgery (27.0%). This study highlights the high burden of traumatic injuries in Kunduz province and MSF Trauma Center's contribution to saving lives, preventing disabilities and alleviating suffering among adults and children within the region. The bombing and destruction of KTC has resulted in a specific gap in critical healthcare services for the local communities in the health system of this war-ravaged region. This suggests the urgent need for reconstruction and re-opening of the center.

  16. Levels of parathyroid hormone and calcitonin in serum among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Yokoyama, Naokata; Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Sposto, R.; Shimaoka, Katsutaro; Shiraki, Mastaka

    1994-01-01

    To examines the potential causes of increased levels of calcium in serum with increasing dose of atomic bomb radiation, which was obtained from the previous preliminary analysis, levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin in serum were examined among 1459 subjects in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. A significant effect of radiation on levels of calcium, PTH and calcitonin in serum was found, even after patients with hyperparathyroidism were excluded. The level of calcium in serum increased with radiation dose; this can be explained partly by the increase in the level of PTH with radiation dose. However, the dose effect on calcium remained even after adjustment for PTH, calcitonin and confounding factors such as renal function, serum albumin level and medication. Parathyroid hormone increased initially by 6.8% per gray, but the dose response leveled off after about 1 Gy. The level of calcitonin increased with radiation dose, probably in part due to feedback mechanisms stimulated by the increase in calcium. However, after adjustment for the level of calcium, the increase in the level of calcitonin with dose was still found. Although the etiological mechanisms of the effect of radiation on serum levels of calcium, PTH and calcitonin are unclear, radiation exposure may affect secretion of PTH and calcitonin and regulation of calcium a long time after atomic bomb exposure. 21 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Listeria monocytogenes meningitis in an atomic bomb survivor receiving corticosteroid therapy for aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujihara, Kazuo; Shida, Norihiko; Ohta, Michiya

    1995-01-01

    We report a case of successfully treated Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) meningitis in a atomic bomb survivor receiving steroid therapy for aplastic anemia. The patient was a 62-year-old woman and the past medical history included hypothyroidism due to radioiodide therapy for Basedow disease, breast cancer, aplastic anemia, steroid-induced diabetes mellitus, and pulmonary tuberculosis. At the time of onset, she was receiving corticosteroid, anabolic steroid, an H 2 -blocker (famotidine), and other medication. Since she developed symptoms of meningitis when she visited our hospital for regular medical check-up for aplastic anemia, she was hospitalized and given antibiotic therapy, including ABPC, without delay. With this effective antibiotic therapy and successful management of the co-existing medical conditions, she was cured except for being a little euphoric. Lm meningitis is known to occur in aged and immunocompromised patients. Since most of the atomic bomb survivors are now aged and the prevalence of malignancy, diabetes mellitus, and other diseases which cause immunodeficiency have been rising year by year, Lm meningitis is one of the emergency neurologic conditions whose diagnosis should not be delayed in this population. (author)

  18. Genetic effect of A-bomb radiation- Analysis of minisatellite regions detected by DNA fingerprint probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodaira, Mieko

    1999-01-01

    In author's laboratory, screening of mutation in germ cells of A-bomb survivors is under investigation with use of 8 single-locus minisatellite probes and no increase in mutation rate has been detected hitherto. This paper reported results of screening on the minisatellite region, which consisting of short repeated base sequence, using a DNA fingerprint probe for 33.15 core sequence. Subjects were 50 A-bomb survivor families exposed to mean dose of 1.9 Sv (exposed group) or 0 Gy (control), having 64 or 60 children, respectively. DNA was extracted from their B cells established by EB virus and subjected to agarose-gel electrophoresis followed by southern blotting with some improvements for fingerprinting. On the fingerprints, numbers of the band detected in regions of >3.5 kb were 1080 in children of the exposed group (16.9/child) and 1024 (17.1) in the control group, indicating no detectable effect of exposure on the germ cell mutation rate in the region.(K.H.)

  19. Medical aspects of terrorist bombings - a focus on DCS and DCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutafchiyski, Ventsislav M; Popivanov, Georgi I; Kjossev, Kirien C

    2014-01-01

    Although terrorist bombings have tormented the world for a long time, currently they have reached unprecedented levels and become a continuous threat without borders, race or age. Almost all of them are caused by improvised explosive devices. The unpredictability of the terrorist bombings, leading to simultaneous generation of a large number of casualties and severe "multidimensional" blast trauma require a constant vigilance and preparedness of every hospital worldwide. Approximately 1-2.6% of all trauma patients and 7% of the combat casualties require a massive blood transfusion. Coagulopathy is presented in 65% of them with mortality exceeding 50%. Damage control resuscitation is a novel approach, developed in the military practice for treatment of this subgroup of trauma patients. The comparison with the conventional approach revealed mortality reduction with 40-74%, lower frequency of abdominal compartment syndrome (8% vs. 16%), sepsis (9% vs. 20%), multiorgan failure (16% vs. 37%) and a significant reduction of resuscitation volumes, both crystalloids and blood products. DCS and DCR are promising new approaches, contributing for the mortality reduction among the most severely wounded patients. Despite the lack of consensus about the optimal ratio of the blood products and the possible influence of the survival bias, we think that DCR carries survival benefit and recommend it in trauma patients with exsanguinating bleeding.

  20. Age validation and growth of bluenose Hyperoglyphe antarctica using the bomb chronometer method of radiocarbon ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, P L; Neil, H L; Paul, L J; Marriott, P

    2010-11-01

    Age validation of bluenose Hyperoglyphe antarctica was sought using the independent bomb chronometer procedure. Radiocarbon ((14) C) levels were measured in core micro-samples from 12 otoliths that had been aged using a zone count method. The core (14) C measurement for each fish was compared with the value on a surface water reference curve for the calculated birth year of the fish. There was good agreement, indicating that the line-count ageing method described here is not substantially biased. A second micro-sample was also taken near the edge of nine of the otolith cross-sections to help define a bomb-carbon curve for waters deeper than 200-300 m. There appears to be a 10 to 15 year lag in the time it takes the (14) C to reach the waters where adult H. antarctica are concentrated. The maximum estimated age of this species was 76 years, and females grow significantly larger than males. Von Bertalanffy growth curves were estimated, and although they fit the available data reasonably well, the lack of aged juvenile fish results in the K and t(0) parameters being biologically meaningless. Consequently, curves that are likely to better represent population growth were estimated by forcing t(0) to be -0·5. © 2010 NIWA. Journal of Fish Biology © 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. Time in tortoiseshell: a bomb radiocarbon-validated chronology in sea turtle scutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houtan, Kyle S; Andrews, Allen H; Jones, T Todd; Murakawa, Shawn K K; Hagemann, Molly E

    2016-01-13

    Some of the most basic questions of sea turtle life history are also the most elusive. Many uncertainties surround lifespan, growth rates, maturity and spatial structure, yet these are critical factors in assessing population status. Here we examine the keratinized hard tissues of the hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) carapace and use bomb radiocarbon dating to estimate growth and maturity. Scutes have an established dietary record, yet the large keratin deposits of hawksbills evoke a reliable chronology. We sectioned, polished and imaged posterior marginal scutes from 36 individual hawksbills representing all life stages, several Pacific populations and spanning eight decades. We counted the apparent growth lines, microsampled along growth contours and calibrated Δ(14)C values to reference coral series. We fit von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF) models to the results, producing a range of age estimates for each turtle. We find Hawaii hawksbills deposit eight growth lines annually (range 5-14), with model ensembles producing a somatic growth parameter (k) of 0.13 (range 0.1-0.2) and first breeding at 29 years (range 23-36). Recent bomb radiocarbon values also suggest declining trophic status. Together, our results may reflect long-term changes in the benthic community structure of Hawaii reefs, and possibly shed light on the critical population status for Hawaii hawksbills. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Geographical distribution of radiation risk unaccountable by direct exposure dose in hiroshima A-bomb victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonda, Tetsuji; Satoh, Kenichi; Ohani, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    Death risks due to solid cancer were estimated from region to region where the A-bomb survivors had been actually exposed, to visualize the risk distribution on the map, which resulting in risk regional difference that had been unaccountable by direct exposure dose estimation. Analysis was performed with 3 hazard models of the previous one, + direct exposed dose as a confounding factor and, further, + spatial distance from the explosion point. Subjects were 37,382 A-bomb survivors at Jan. 1, 1970 with known positional coordinate at explosion, followed until Dec. 31, 2009, whose endpoint was set by 4,371 deaths due to cancer except leukemia, cancers of thyroid and breast. Confounding factors in the previous hazard model were sex, age at the exposure, dose and shielding. With the previous model, risk distribution was observed in a concentric circular region around the hypocenter and in an additional west to northwestern suburbs. The latter risk distribution was also seen with the second model in the same region, where dose decreased with -7 powers of the distance. When adjusted with -3 powers of the distance with the third model, the actual risk distribution was found best fitted, indicating the presence of distance-dependent risk. It was suggested that the region exposed to additional dose possibly derived from fallout had been the actual black rainfall area as those regions agreed with each other. (T.T.)

  3. New approaches to evaluating the genetic effects of the atomic bombs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neel, J.V.

    1995-01-01

    In the aftermath of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki fifty years ago, one of the compelling biomedical questions that arose concerned the genetic effects of this exposure. More recently, revelations of the extent of industrial or accidental exposures in the former Soviet Union and charges that employment in the Sellafield Nuclear Reprocessing Plant in West Cumbria, England has resulted in a gene-mediated increase in children of plant employees have served to keep in the public mind the issue of the genetic risks of exposure to ionizing radiation. The study of the genetic effects of the atomic bombs has moved from the gross morphological level of congenital malformations to the examination of DNA. However, were the need for such genetic studies to arise in the foreseeable future, despite this impressive progress in DNA-oriented systems, the documentation of congenital defect, genetic disease and child survival would still be an essential component of any future study. Whatever the geneticists may think, the phenotypic well-being and survival of children are still the primary indicators on which the public, who ultimately supports these studies, will base its judgement of risk. 28 refs

  4. Bomb radiocarbon in the Red Sea: A medium-scale gas exchange experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cember, R.

    1989-01-01

    The history of bomb-produced radiocarbon in the surface waters of the Red Sea and the western Gulf of Aden was reconstructed from annual growth bands of corals. Gulf of Aden surface water entering the Red Sea and flowing to the north at the surface of the Red Sea becomes progressively enriched in bomb 14 C by air-sea exchange of carbon dioxide. With physical oceanographic observations and analysis as the basis of a simple model, this progressive northward enrichment can be used to calculate a mean invasionn flux for CO 2 across the Red Sea surface. The CO 2 invasion flux so calculated is 8 mol/m 2 /yr with an uncertainty of approximately 2 mol/m 2 /yr. When combined with the extensive historical observations of wind speeds in the Red Sea, the calculated CO 2 invasion flux supports the empirical relationship between CO 2 invasion and wind speed proposed by other workers. Sea surface pCO 2 was measured at seven stations along the length of the Red Sea in January 1985. These pCO 2 data show that in midwinter the net flux of CO 2 across the Red Sea surface (i.e. the difference between the invasion and evasion fluxes) is approximately zero for the Red Sea as a whole. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  5. Cumulative exposure to prior collective trauma and acute stress responses to the Boston marathon bombings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, Dana Rose; Holman, E Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2015-06-01

    The role of repeated exposure to collective trauma in explaining response to subsequent community-wide trauma is poorly understood. We examined the relationship between acute stress response to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings and prior direct and indirect media-based exposure to three collective traumatic events: the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. Representative samples of residents of metropolitan Boston (n = 846) and New York City (n = 941) completed Internet-based surveys shortly after the Boston Marathon bombings. Cumulative direct exposure and indirect exposure to prior community trauma and acute stress symptoms were assessed. Acute stress levels did not differ between Boston and New York metropolitan residents. Cumulative direct and indirect, live-media-based exposure to 9/11, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook shooting were positively associated with acute stress responses in the covariate-adjusted model. People who experience multiple community-based traumas may be sensitized to the negative impact of subsequent events, especially in communities previously exposed to similar disasters. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Reanalysis of interviewing study data in the health attitude survey of A-bomb survivors, etc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    The interviewing study data in the title were initially contained in the official request of Hiroshima City and Prefecture, which had been presented to MHLW (Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare) in 2010, concerning spread of previously defined A-bomb exposed regions and were statistically reanalyzed based on the requirement of the consequent MHLW council. The data were originally derived from the questionnaire in 2008 about the health attitude survey by Hiroshima authorities, from which 892 survivors had received the interview together with self-writing, and answers of 869 parsons (524 males) were finally subjected to the present reanalysis. Measures of the interview involved the SF-36 (Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36-item Health Survey) for QOL, GHQ28 (General Health Questionnaire 28-item) for screening of neurosis/depression, and CAPS (Clinician Administered PTSD Scale) for diagnosis of PTSD (post traumatic stress disorder), etc. These measures were analyzed along with classes of A-bomb experience with adjustment factors of sex, age and income by multiple-/multivariate logistic-regression. It was found that measures were tended to be worse in groups experiencing the black rain without effects of adjustment factors, which was similar to groups experiencing the heavier rainfall; however, these results were statistically insignificant. (T.T.)

  7. Search for gene mutations affecting protein structure in children of A-bomb survivors, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Chiyoko; Fujita, Mikio; Goriki, Kazuaki; Asakawa, Jun-ichi; Takahashi, Norio; Hamilton, H.B.; Hazama, Ryuji; Neel, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    Children who were born between May 1, 1946 and April 1, 1971 to survivor(s) exposed to A-bombing within 2,000 m from the hypocenter in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were selected as exposed group; their sex- and age-matched children born to survivor(s) who were exposed at 2,500 m or farther were selected as control group. When these children were in junior high school, mutation of protein structure was examined by using electrophoresis and by determining red cell enzymes with decreased activity and heat-unstable red cell enzymes. Electrophoretic study revealed a ''rare type of protein mutation'' in 635 of 12,242 individuals in the exposed group and in 448 of 10,154 individuals in the control group. The number of locuses in all proteins examined was calculated. The number of locuses per protein was corrected using the rate of parents' mutation type, and relative number of locuses were obtained. As a result, there was no difference in the mutation frequency per locus and generation between the exposed and control groups. Among children having red cell enzymes with decreased activity, mutant in triose phosphate isomerase was detected in one child in the exposed group, in whom electrophoretic pattern was normal and red cell enzymes were stable to heat. Heat-unstable red cell enzymes were seen in 9 children and their parents. However, family survey revealed genetic mutation in all instances irrespective of A-bombing. (Namekawa, K.)

  8. Genetic effects of radiation in atomic-bomb survivors and their children. Past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Nori

    2006-01-01

    Genetic studies in the offspring of atomic bomb survivors have been conducted since 1948 at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Past studies include analysis of birth defects (untoward pregnancy outcome; namely, malformation, stillbirth, and perinatal death), chromosome aberrations, alterations of plasma and erythrocyte proteins as well as epidemiologic study on mortality (any cause) and cancer incidence (the latter study is still ongoing). There is, thus far, no indication of genetic effects in the offspring of survivors. Recently, the development of molecular biological techniques and human genome sequence databases made it possible to analyze DNA from parents and their offspring (trio-analysis). In addition, a clinical program is underway to establish the frequency of adult-onset multi-factorial diseases (diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease etc) in the offspring. The complementary kinds of data that will emerge from this three-pronged approach (clinical, epidemiologic, and molecular aspects) promise to shed light on health effects in the offspring of radiation-exposed people. (author)

  9. Cancer risk among atomic bomb survivors. The RERF Life Span Study. Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Y.; Schull, W.J.; Kato, H.

    1990-01-01

    This article summarizes the risk of cancer among the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. We focus primarily on the risk of death from cancer among individuals in the Life Span Study sample of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation from 1950 through 1985 based on recently revised dosimetry procedures. We report the risk of cancer other than leukemia among the atomic bomb survivors. We note that the number of excess deaths of radiation-induced malignant tumors other than leukemia increases with age. Survivors who were exposed in the first or second decade of life have just entered the cancer-prone age and have so far exhibited a high relative risk in association with radiation dose. Whether the elevated risk will continue or will fall with time is not yet clear, although some evidence suggests that the risk may be declining. It is important to continue long-term follow-up of this cohort to document the changes with time since exposure and to provide direct rather than projected risks over the lifetime of an exposed individual

  10. The hypothesis of radiation-accelerated aging and the mortality of Japanese A-bomb victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, G.W.; Land, C.E.; Kato, H.

    1978-01-01

    The hypothesis that ionizing radiation accelerates aging is extremely difficult to investigate in man except at the level of mortality. Among the 82000 Japanese A-bomb survivors being followed for mortality, there were 14400 deaths from non-neoplastic diseases from October 1950 to September 1974, and this experience has been analysed for evidence of a non-specific mortality differential associated with radiation dose (kerma). Cause of death has been classified as follows: neoplastic diseases individually and in various groupings, tuberculosis, cerebrovascular diseases, cardiovascular diseases other than cerebrovascular, diseases of blood and blood-forming organs, diseases of the digestive system, all other non-neoplastic diseases, and all non-neoplastic diseases. Although there is clear evidence of a radiation effect for many forms of cancer, mortality from other diseases contains little suggestion of a relationship to radiation dose. A superficial association between mortality from diseases of blood and blood-forming organs and radiation rests entirely on the carcinogenic effect of radiation, especially the leukaemogenic effect. Deaths from digestive diseases seem related to radiation dose but only in the 1971-74 period and among the Hiroshima survivors; the excess is small but occurred in all age groups. Thus far the mortality experience of the Japanese A-bomb survivors suggests that the life-shortening effect of whole-body human exposure to ionizing radiation derives from its carcinogenic effect, not from any acceleration of the aging process

  11. Listeria monocytogenes meningitis in an atomic bomb survivor receiving corticosteroid therapy for aplastic anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujihara, Kazuo; Shida, Norihiko; Ohta, Michiya [Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan)

    1995-12-01

    We report a case of successfully treated Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) meningitis in a atomic bomb survivor receiving steroid therapy for aplastic anemia. The patient was a 62-year-old woman and the past medical history included hypothyroidism due to radioiodide therapy for Basedow disease, breast cancer, aplastic anemia, steroid-induced diabetes mellitus, and pulmonary tuberculosis. At the time of onset, she was receiving corticosteroid, anabolic steroid, an H{sub 2}-blocker (famotidine), and other medication. Since she developed symptoms of meningitis when she visited our hospital for regular medical check-up for aplastic anemia, she was hospitalized and given antibiotic therapy, including ABPC, without delay. With this effective antibiotic therapy and successful management of the co-existing medical conditions, she was cured except for being a little euphoric. Lm meningitis is known to occur in aged and immunocompromised patients. Since most of the atomic bomb survivors are now aged and the prevalence of malignancy, diabetes mellitus, and other diseases which cause immunodeficiency have been rising year by year, Lm meningitis is one of the emergency neurologic conditions whose diagnosis should not be delayed in this population. (author).

  12. Radiosensitivity of skin fibroblasts from atomic bomb survivors with and without breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Sadayuki; Setlow, R.B.; Bender, M.A.

    1990-11-01

    Fibroblasts were established in vitro from skin biopsies obtained from 55 women and one man with or without breast cancer and with or without exposure to radiation from the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima. The radiosensitivity of these cells was evaluated by clonogenic assays after exposure to X rays or to fission neutrons from a 252 Cf source. Data were fitted to a multitarget model, S/S 0 = A[1-(1-e kD ) N ], for both X-ray and neutron dose-survival curves. A single-hit model, S/S 0 = Ae kD , fits the neutron dose-survival responses as well. These was no difference in the means or variances of radiosensitivity between exposed and nonexposed groups, or between patients with or without breast cancer. Hence, although the sample is not large, it provides no support for the hypothesis that A-bomb radiation preferentially induces breast cancer in women whose cells in vitro are sensitive to cell killing by radiation. (author)

  13. Did the Allies Know in 1942 About Nazi Germany's Poor Prospects for an Atomic Bomb?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Harry

    2008-04-01

    According to official accounts, the U.S. knew nothing about Nazi Germany's efforts to get an atomic bomb until the end of the World War II, but had feared the worst. As it turned out, the Germans had made little progress. But did someone in the Allied camp know in 1942? In his 1986 book, The Griffin, Arnold Kramish relates how Paul Rosbaud, a spy for MI6, the British secret intelligence service, kept his handlers informed during the War about the German atomic project and reported the decision to give up on a bomb. Kramish's revelations are, understandably, thinly documented and Rosbaud's name can hardly be found independenly anywhere else. But as Samuel Goudsmit's papers in the Bohr Library show, he knew and communicated with Rosbaud from August 1945 on. In 1986, 15 letters exchanged by Goudsmit and Rosbaud were removed by the Government from the Library and eventually placed in the National Archives under classification review. Renewed interest in the Rosbaud story was engendered last year when his family sued MI6 in an English court for the release of the Rosbaud file. So far the spy agency has refused to reveal even that there is such a file. Discovering authoritatively what Rosbaud told the British and what they did with the information is clearly of historical interest.

  14. About disturbances of the skin and other organs, detected in atomic bomb survivors who were irradiated within 1 km from the hypocenter of Hiroshima and were examined by the human dry dock, at the 41st year after bombing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimi, Masanobu; Takemoto, Masao; Fujii, Atsushi

    1990-01-01

    Hiroshima City Funairi Hospital has performed periodic medical examinations for 32,397 A-bomb survivors up to 1988. This is an analysis of 266 A-bomb survivors exposed within 1,000 m from the hypocenter. At the time of A-bombing, 41, 26, and 132 A-bomb survivors had sustained both burns and injuries, burns, and injuries, respectively. According to the exposure status, the incidence of burns in the presence of shielding was one fifth that in the absence of shielding. Medical examinations revealed the highest incidence of cardiovascular and endocrine diseases in the middle-aged or elderly people. According to malignancy, one had gastric cancer, and one had liver cancer. There was no correlation between the exposure distance and both disease incidence and contents. People participating in periodic medical examinations at short-term intervals had smaller number of diseases in every age group, as compared with those participating at long-term intervals. The significance of periodic medial examinations is discussed. (N.K.)

  15. Consumption bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, P

    1999-01-01

    This article focuses on the issue of consumption in relation to the growing world population. Over the past 25 years, world population increased by 53%, while world consumption per person increased by only 39%. If consumption continues to grow at 1.4%, the world consumption per person will rise by 100% over the next 50 years with the population increasing by only half that amount. The burden of reducing the environmental impact brought about by this increase lies on technology. Technology needs to deliver major changes in improving resource productivity, and decreasing the amount of waste created. Productivity such as global food production has kept up with demand. Malnutrition persists due to poverty, and not because of the inability of the world to produce enough food. However, the prospects are much worse for resources that are not traded on markets or subject to sustainable management such as groundwater, state forests, ocean fish, and communal waste sinks like rivers, lakes, and the global atmosphere. These resources are not under the direct control of people affected by shortage. People who want to change the way these resources are used or managed have to pass through the legal or political system. Usually, political responses are slow and there has to be a very widespread environmental damage before action is taken.

  16. Report on results of fourth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors residing in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzen, Tetsuo; Ito, Chikako; Tanaka, Yoshikiyo; Kodama, Kazunori; Inamizu, Tsutomu.

    1984-01-01

    Review was made of the fourth medical examination and the actual state of health of the U.S. atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors. The number of survivors registered with the Committee of A-bomb Survivors residing in the U.S. as of the end of June 1983 in 592 (males 154, females 438), of whom 58.8% possess U.S. citizenship. Survivor's health handbooks issued to survivors under the Japanese A-bomb Survivors Medical Treatment Law are possessed by 29.2%, with female holders being about twice as numerous as males. Responses to the health survey questionnaire were received from 306. Complaints of subjective symptoms tended to be higher in the early entrants, and by place of examination, those of Honolulu had the higher rate. Those who underwent health examination numbered 305 (73 males and 232 females). RBC and hemoglobin value were higher in the U.S. survivors than in Hiroshima survivors. No abnormality was observed in 47.5%. The main abnormalities noted were obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, and liver disease. Comparison of those who had received examination on two consecutive occasions in 1981 and 1983 and those who were examined for the first time in 1983 showed a decrease in the frequency of obesity and hypertension. (J.P.N.)

  17. Bomb Me: Trans/acting Subject into Object, an Installation for R.I. Simon and Angela Failler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saklikar, Renée Sarojini

    2014-01-01

    This installation is one of a series made and being made while the author writes a life-long poem chronicle, "thecanadaproject." The photographs were taken as the author sifted through her personal archive--a collection that is at once intimate and filled with fragments from a public repository: that of the bombing of an airplane in…

  18. Incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors based on DS86 dosimetry system, 1958-1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadamori, Naoki (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Otake, Masanori; Honda, Takeo

    1992-03-01

    The incidence of skin cancer during the period 1958-1985 was examined in the population registered in the life span study extension (LSSE) and the adult health study (AHS). Among 25,942 A-bomb survivors in whom DS86 was available, skin cancer was confirmed in 47 A-bomb survivors. These A-bomb survivors consisted of 24 males and 23 females. According to DS86 dosimetry system, ten A-bomb survivors had been exposed to 0.50 Gy or more. The most common histology was basal cell epithelioma (n=25), followed by malignant melanoma (n=4) and basosquamous cell carcinoma and sweat gland carcinoma (one each). In the group of 0.50 Gy or more, the incidence of occurrence of skin cancer was 20.8/100,000 population per year (PY) for the LSSE population and 22.8/100,000 PY for the AHS population. In the group of 0.01-0.49 Gy, it was 6.8/100,000 PY for the LSSE population and 12.8/100,000 PY for the AHS population. It was significantly associated with higher exposure doses. The dose-response relationship was linear. (N.K.).

  19. Ending the War against Japan: Science, Morality, and the Atomic Bomb. Choices for the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Don

    This unit presents students with dilemmas faced by U.S. policymakers with three distinct options for U.S. policy toward Japan. Background readings provide students with information on the U.S. decision to drop the atomic bomb on Japan in 1945. By exploring a spectrum of alternatives, students gain a deeper understanding of the values underlying…

  20. Mental disorders in 37 cases of 'Hibakusya' 40 years after exposure to the atomic bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonaka, Takeshi; Tohyama, Teruhiko; Nakazawa, Masao; Ando, Ichiro; Hayashi, Hideki; Miura, Hirofumi

    1987-07-01

    In 1985, 40 years after the bombing, 37 (8 %) of a total of 814 A-bomb survivors living in Tokyo visited the Department of Neuro-Psychiatry. This is an analysis of these A-bomb survivors suffering from mental disorders. There were 11 men and 26 women. They ranged in age from 45 to 87 years with a median of 61. Eighteen survivors (55 %) were exposed within 2,000 m from ground zero, and 21 (66 %) presented with acute radiation symptoms. According to the classification of DSM-III, features of mental disorders fell into five types: (1) organic psychotic conditions (n = 7), (2) endogenous psychotic conditions (n = 14), (3) delution (n = 3), (4) anxiety somatization (n = 11), and (5) personality disorder (n = 2). Psychotic conditions characterized by mixed atypical symptoms, variable clinical features during the process, and undefined somatic symptoms were noticeable in this series. This is in contrast to the previous reports dealing with neurasthenic A-bomb survivors. The etiology of psychotic conditions must await further study. (Namekawa, K.).

  1. Clinically significant avoidance of public transport following the London bombings: Travel phobia or subthreshold posttraumatic stress disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Rachel V.; Salkovskis, Paul M.; Scragg, Peter; Ehlers, Anke

    2009-01-01

    Following the London bombings of 7 July 2005 a “screen and treat” program was set up with the aim of providing rapid treatment for psychological responses in individuals directly affected. The present study found that 45% of the 596 respondents to the screening program reported phobic fear of public transport in a screening questionnaire. The screening program identified 255 bombing survivors who needed treatment for a psychological disorder. Of these, 20 (8%) suffered from clinically significant travel phobia. However, many of these individuals also reported symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]. Comparisons between the travel phobia group and a sex-matched group of bombing survivors with PTSD showed that the travel phobic group reported fewer re-experiencing and arousal symptoms on the Trauma Screening Questionnaire (Brewin et al., 2002). The only PTSD symptoms that differentiated the groups were anger problems and feeling upset by reminders of the bombings. There was no difference between the groups in the reported severity of trauma or in presence of daily transport difficulties. Implications of these results for future trauma response are discussed. PMID:19765946

  2. "We Are Not Terrorists," but More Likely Transnationals: Reframing Understandings about Immigrants in Light of the Boston Marathon Bombings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasun, G. Sue

    2013-01-01

    The Boston Marathon bombings in April 2013 created a new kind of discomfort in the United States about "self-radicalized" terrorists, particularly related to Muslim immigrants. The two suspected bombers, brothers with Chechen backgrounds, had attended U.S. public schools. News media portrayed the brothers as "immigrants" and…

  3. A First Look on iMiner's Knowledge base and Detecting Hidden Hierarchy of Riyadh Bombing Terrorist Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah

    2007-01-01

    of Investigative Data Mining (IDM). In addition, we present iMiner Information Harvesting System and describe how intelligence agencies could be benefited from detecting hierarchy in non-hierarchical terrorist networks.  In this paper we present results of detection of hidden hierarchy of Riyadh Bombing Terrorist...

  4. Projecte d’una instal•lació solar fotovoltaica per a un sistema de bombes de reg

    OpenAIRE

    Batllori Alvarez, Eduard

    2009-01-01

    Instal.lació d’una explotació agrícola amb funcionament per energia solar fotovoltaica a Torregrossa (Tarragona). Disseny i definició de les parts necessàries que conformaran la instal•lació solar fotovoltaica que subministrarà energia elèctrica a les bombes de reg

  5. Hepatitis virus infection and chronic liver disease among atomic-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, S.; Cologne, J.; Akahoshi, M. [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Kusumi, S.; Kodama, K.; Yoshizawa, H.

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze various laboratory indicators of inflammation measured in atomic bomb survivors. Subjects are 6304 survivors who underwent inflammatory tests at RERF between 1998 and 1992 and whose radiation doses (DS86) are available. Inflammatory tests include leukocyte counts, neutrophil counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, corrected erythrocyte sedimentation rate, alpha 1 globulin, alpha 2 globulin, and sialic acid. Adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and city of residence, regression analysis was conducted. Regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and city of residence showed statistically significant associations with radiation dose for leukocyte counts (71.0 /mm{sup 3}/Gy, p=0.00151), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (1.58 mm/hour/Gy, p=0.0001), corrected erythrocyte sedimentation rate (1.14 mm/hour/Gy, p=0.0001), alpha 1 globulin (0.0057 g/dl/Gy, p=0.0001), alpha 2 globulin (0.0128 g/dl/Gy, p=0.0001), and sialic acid (1.2711 mg/dl/Gy, p=0.0001), but not for neutrophil counts (29.9 /mm{sup 3}/Gy, p=0.1729). Standardized scores combining results from these seven inflammatory tests showed significant associations with radiation dose both for persons with and without inflammatory disease, and for two inflammatory conditions in particular, chronic thyroiditis and chronic liver disease. In analyses of data from 403 AHS patients, in whom both inflammation indicators and T-cell ratios were measured, increased inflammation correlates with decreases in CD4 T-cells. Since the laboratory indicators of inflammation that we studied are not specific for particular clinical diseases, the implication of their dose-response-pattern is hard to interpret. The general occurrence of infectious diseases in survivors is not related to radiation dose. Such a relationship does exist, however, for other diseases in which infection may play an etiologic role. Virologic studies in A-bomb survivors have suggested dose-response alterations in immune

  6. Public health nutritional studies on the atomic bomb female survivors living in Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munaka, Masaki; Yamamoto, Hisashi; Ohtaki, Megu; Ueoka, Hiroshi (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology); Kishida, Noriko; Ishigai, Keiko

    1982-09-01

    The atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a long distance (LDG) was found to take a great quantity of soybean curd, miso and fruit except citrus, while the atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a short distance (SDG) was found to take a significant amount of fish paste product. SDG tends to ingest processed food and in nutrient supply rate the percentage of calcium, iron and vitamin A is low. Judging from a state of food group without a meal rate, we got the result that SDG has a few kinds of ingestion food and takes them partially in each meal. In terms of socio-economic status, the rate of living alone, supporting oneself and living an empty life is high and the rate of living with a partner is low. On the other hand, we analysed the relations of three factors on physique-physical fitness and living status, and then got the following results. (1) ''Volume capacity'', in the cases of ''be married at present'', ''have a large family'', ''ingest a lot of protein and iron'', tends to be large, while in the cases of ''have no disease'', ''don't go without a meal'', ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', and ''nutritional balance is good'', it tends to be small. (2) ''Height'', in the case of ''socio-economical status was good before exposure to the atomic bomb'', tends to increase. (3) ''Synthetic physical fitness'', in the cases of ''health condition is good at present'', ''have no disease at present'', ''ingest a lot of vitamin A'' and ''nutritional balance is good'', tends to be superior; in the cases of ''food cost is high'' and ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', it tends to be low. The significant

  7. 14C dating with the bomb peak: An application to forensic medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, E.M.; Arlamovsky, K.A.; Golser, R.; Kutschera, W.; Priller, A.; Puchegger, S.; Rom, W.; Steier, P.; Vycudilik, W.

    2000-01-01

    Samples originating from the time period after 1950 can be radiocarbon dated utilising the 14 C bomb peak as a calibration curve. The applicability of 'radiocarbon dating' of recent organic human material for the determination of the time of death of humans was tested. The radiocarbon results from hair and lipid samples from individuals with known date of death were compared with the results from two individuals with unknown time of death. An estimate of the year of death for the unknowns could be derived by this way. Due to the long turnover time of collagen in human bones it is not possible to use the radiocarbon content of bone collagen for a reliable estimate. In order to study the time dependence of the collagen turnover we tested 'soft' chemical methods for the isolation of collagen from the bone matrix. First radiocarbon results of this investigation are presented

  8. T and B cells and PHA response of peripheral lymphocytes among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakido, Michio; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Dock, D.S.; Hamilton, H.B.; Awa, A.A.

    1982-07-01

    Little is known about immune compretence in atomic bomb survivors. The following results were observed from this study. T and B cells showed no change in proportion by age or exposure dose. The percentage of T cells was slightly lower in malignant tumor patients than in the control group. However, it was significantly higher in the group with chromosomal aberrations than in the control group. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) response of peripheral lymphocytes decreased significantly with age in the 0 rad control group and the 200+ rad exposure group, particularly so in the latter. The malignant tumor group also showed lower PHA response than the control group. The PHA response of the chromosomal aberration group was significantly depressed compared with that of the control group. (author)

  9. fissioncore: A desktop-computer simulation of a fission-bomb core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron Reed, B.; Rohe, Klaus

    2014-10-01

    A computer program, fissioncore, has been developed to deterministically simulate the growth of the number of neutrons within an exploding fission-bomb core. The program allows users to explore the dependence of criticality conditions on parameters such as nuclear cross-sections, core radius, number of secondary neutrons liberated per fission, and the distance between nuclei. Simulations clearly illustrate the existence of a critical radius given a particular set of parameter values, as well as how the exponential growth of the neutron population (the condition that characterizes criticality) depends on these parameters. No understanding of neutron diffusion theory is necessary to appreciate the logic of the program or the results. The code is freely available in FORTRAN, C, and Java and is configured so that modifications to accommodate more refined physical conditions are possible.

  10. Conflictual Media Events, Eyewitness Images, and the Boston Marathon Bombing (2013)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    in which the production and dissemination of eyewitness images convert mainstream media’s coverage of crisis. This article broadens the perspective by focusing on eyewitness images in relation to “conflictual media events.” The article contributes to discussions on the definition of conflictual media...... events in today’s mediatized and connective media environment, which has undergone radical changes from the era of mass media hegemony when Daniel Dayan and Elihu Katz first outlined media events. The article further examines the ways in which the circulation of eyewitness images erodes established...... boundaries between experts and laymen and between professionals and non-professionals in relation to conflictual media events. The bombing of the Boston Marathon in April 2013 constitutes the empirical point of departure....

  11. Some effects of random dose measurement errors on analysis of atomic bomb survivor data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of random dose measurement errors on analyses of atomic bomb survivor data are described and quantified for several procedures. It is found that the ways in which measurement error is most likely to mislead are through downward bias in the estimated regression coefficients and through distortion of the shape of the dose-response curve. The magnitude of the bias with simple linear regression is evaluated for several dose treatments including the use of grouped and ungrouped data, analyses with and without truncation at 600 rad, and analyses which exclude doses exceeding 200 rad. Limited calculations have also been made for maximum likelihood estimation based on Poisson regression. 16 refs., 6 tabs

  12. Nuclear medical expertise delivered by telemedicine in a 'dirty bomb' exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Bettina; Meineke, Viktor

    2007-01-01

    Management of victims in a 'dirty bomb' incident requires communication between the physicians directly involved and experts in radiation medicine. Telemedicine is an excellent tool to support doctors--who may not have specific training in radiation medicine--in handling radiation casualties. We have successfully used telemedicine in an exercise of the Federal Police in Germany. Experts in radiation medicine were provided by the Bundeswehr Institute of Radiobiology. Simple PC-based videoconferencing equipment was used with a 128 kbit/s ISDN line. To facilitate a standardized approach, a new questionnaire for radiation accidents was developed and tested during the exercise. A special camera was used for capturing skin images. Advice for patient treatment and strategies for safeguarding personnel and the environment during the exercise was provided almost immediately.

  13. Penetration of bomb radiocarbon in the tropical Indian Ocean measured by means of accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bard, E.; Arnold, M.; Maurice, P.; Monfray, P.; Duplessy, J.C.; Oestlund, H.G.

    1988-01-01

    Radiocarbon measurements performed on seawater samples by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) enable to reduce by a factor of 2000 the water sample size needed for the 14 C measurements. Therefore no chemical treatment on board the oceanographic vessel is required. Seventy-four AMS 14 C determinations on samples collected in the tropical-equatorial Indian Ocean during the second leg of the INDIGO program (1986) are presented and compared with the β-counting results obtained during the same campaign and the GEOSECS program (1978). A pronounced reduction of the equatorial 14 C deficit suggests that substantial amounts of bomb- 14 C are associated with the westward flowing Pacific water which enters the Indian Ocean via passages through the Indonesia Archipelago and/or to meridional mixing with 14 C-rich water of the southern subtropical gyre. (orig.)

  14. Discovering forgeries of modern art by the 14C Bomb Peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caforio, L.; Fedi, M. E.; Mandò, P. A.; Minarelli, F.; Peccenini, E.; Pellicori, V.; Petrucci, F. C.; Schwartzbaum, P.; Taccetti, F.

    2014-01-01

    Exploiting the anomalous behaviour of the atmospheric radiocarbon concentration in the years after 1955 (so-called "Bomb Peak"), an alleged painting by Fernard Léger was unambiguously proven to be a fake just by dating the canvas support. Some art historians had questioned the authenticity of the painting, and their suspicions were fuelled by some scientific examinations of the paint materials (X-ray radiography, SEM-EDS), compared to those of another work unquestionably attributed to Léger. The decisive argument to prove that it was a fake was provided by the radiocarbon date obtained from a sample of canvas of the painting, using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at the INFN-Labec laboratory in Florence. Beyond any doubt, the cotton plant from which the canvas was produced was cut no earlier than 1959, i.e. four years after Léger's death, thus definitely confirming the concerns of a fake.

  15. Review of the radiological significance of revised dose estimates for the Hiroshima-Nagasaki bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.; Osborne, R.V.

    1988-03-01

    Recently, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has indicated that new dosimetric and epidemiological data on Japanese bomb survivors will 'raise the risk estimate (for fatal cancers) for the exposed population by a total factor of the order of 2. This change is for a population of all ages, whereas for a worker population of ages 18-65 the changes will be small'. The present report has reviewed the available scientific literature that is relevant to this statement. The topics reviewed in this report include: a) the methods used in previous reports by scientific committees to calculate estimated lifetime risks of radiation-induced fatal cancers; b) recent revisions of the dosimetry for Hiroshima-Nagasaki survivors; c) updates on the epidemiological data on the Hiroshima-Nagasaki survivors; and d) revised estimates of fatal cancer risk from the Hiroshima-Nagasaki data

  16. Beyond bonus or bomb: upholding the sexual and reproductive health of young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrixson, Anne

    2014-05-01

    Described as a blessing or a curse, a bonus or a bomb, the youthful population boom in the global South is thought to be the catalyst of present and future social change on a massive scale. These binary understandings of youth are popular among proponents of development programs aimed at young people, including for family planning. But dualistic, numbers-based theories oversimplify a much more complex picture. They narrow our perceptions of young populations and, when lacking more detailed understanding based in youth experience, have the potential to constrict sexual and reproductive health and rights. Instead, youth-friendly, inclusive sexual and reproductive health policy should build from young peoples' visions and diverse realities. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Iran, the bomb and the pursuit of security. Structured conflict analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, Andreas M.; Henneberg, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    This volume introduces readers to the structured conflict analysis as a tool of social science research and uses this instrument exemplarily to analyze systematically and on a broad basis the various conflicts that are associated with Iran both domestically and in foreign policy - beyond popular stereotypes such as the ''bomb''. The 13 contributions draw a complex picture of the conflicts with and in Iran and reflect the various aspects of these conflicts from different perspectives and at a high methodological and theoretical level. The nuclear program is examined, inter alia through the eyes of four major theories of International Relations. In addition, the analyses are concerned with the regional security dimension, the relationship USA-Iran, the role of national preferences, and the effect of national processes to the Iranian foreign policy.

  18. RADYN Simulations of Non-thermal and Thermal Models of Ellerman Bombs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jie; Ding, M. D. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Carlsson, Mats, E-mail: dmd@nju.edu.cn [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2017-08-20

    Ellerman bombs (EBs) are brightenings in the H α line wings that are believed to be caused by magnetic reconnection in the lower atmosphere. To study the response and evolution of the chromospheric line profiles, we perform radiative hydrodynamic simulations of EBs using both non-thermal and thermal models. Overall, these models can generate line profiles that are similar to observations. However, in non-thermal models we find dimming in the H α line wings and continuum when the heating begins, while for the thermal models dimming occurs only in the H α line core, and with a longer lifetime. This difference in line profiles can be used to determine whether an EB is dominated by non-thermal heating or thermal heating. In our simulations, if a higher heating rate is applied, then the H α line will be unrealistically strong and there are still no clear UV burst signatures.

  19. Bombs and Flares at the Surface and Lower Atmosphere of the Sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansteen, V. H.; Pereira, T. M. D.; Carlsson, M.; Van der Voort, L. Rouppe [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, Norway, PB 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Archontis, V. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, St. Andrews University, St. Andrews, KY169SS (United Kingdom); Leenaarts, J. [Institute for Solar Physics, Dept. of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Roslagstullbacken 21 SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-04-10

    A spectacular manifestation of solar activity is the appearance of transient brightenings in the far wings of the H α line, known as Ellerman bombs (EBs). Recent observations obtained by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph have revealed another type of plasma “bombs” (UV bursts) with high temperatures of perhaps up to 8 × 10{sup 4} K within the cooler lower solar atmosphere. Realistic numerical modeling showing such events is needed to explain their nature. Here, we report on 3D radiative magnetohydrodynamic simulations of magnetic flux emergence in the solar atmosphere. We find that ubiquitous reconnection between emerging bipolar magnetic fields can trigger EBs in the photosphere, UV bursts in the mid/low chromosphere and small (nano-/micro-) flares (10{sup 6} K) in the upper chromosphere. These results provide new insights into the emergence and build up of the coronal magnetic field and the dynamics and heating of the solar surface and lower atmosphere.

  20. Is there a genetic instability in A-bomb survivors' lymphocytes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Nori; Kodama, Yoshiaki; Awa, Akio

    1997-01-01

    Based on the reports that the genetic instability can be induced even by low LET radiation and that the instability can be essentially the cause of radiation carcinogenicity, data accumulated hitherto on the chromosome aberrations in A-bomb survivors were re-evaluated since it can be conceivable that there is still remaining a genetic instability in them. For a measure of biological radiation dose, translocation frequency was used and for genetic instability, dicentrics frequency. The relationship between those frequencies was analyzed in about 2500 survivors and showed either a saturable or linear one. For clear conclusion, additional studies on dicentrics frequency occurring in cultured lymphocytes from subjects who received various radiation doses would be necessary. (K.H.)

  1. The anatomy of a pipe bomb explosion: measuring the mass and velocity distributions of container fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bors, Dana; Cummins, Josh; Goodpaster, John

    2014-01-01

    Improvised explosive devices such as pipe bombs are prevalent due to the availability of materials and ease of construction. However, little is known about how these devices actually explode, as few attempts to characterize fragmentation patterns have been attempted. In this study, seven devices composed of various pipe materials (PVC, black steel, and galvanized steel) and two energetic fillers (Pyrodex and Alliant Red Dot) were initiated and the explosions captured using high-speed videography. The video footage was used to calculate fragment velocities, which were represented as particle velocity vector maps. In addition, the fragments were weighed. The results demonstrate a correlation between the type of energetic filler and both the size and velocity of the fragments. Larger fragments were produced by Pyrodex filler indicating a less complete fragmentation, compared with smaller fragments produced by double-base smokeless powder. Additionally, higher fragment velocities were seen with Alliant Red Dot filler. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Persisting injuries in immune system and their effects on health in a-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Hayashi, Tomonori; Kyoizumi, Seishi

    2000-01-01

    This review describes findings concerning persisting effects of A-bomb radiation on immune cells and their relation to diseases. Injuries in immune system are mainly the depression of cellular immunity mediated by T-lymphocytes, especially CD4 T-cells, and the elevation of humoral immunity by B-cells. These are conceivably the imbalance results in immune system of incomplete recovery of those T-cells after exposure and thymus retraction by aging and of consequently affecting the functional differentiation of CD4 T-cells to lower the cellular immunity and to elevate the humoral immunity. Lowered cellular immunity in the survivors can be related to their liver and cardiovascular diseases caused by infection and cancer caused by tumor antigens and oncoviruses. Thus immunological investigations of the survivors are revealing not only the effect of radiation on the immune system but also the correlation between immunity and diseases. (K.H.)

  3. Non-cancer effects of exposure to A-bomb radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, A.M.; Kneale, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    A slight rearrangement of the data included in a recent report from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) has shown differences between cardiovascular and other non-malignant diseases of A-bomb survivors which probably result from two factors: selection effects of early infection deaths and residual effects of marrow damage. Both effects were dose related but neither was obvious because one reduced the risk of later infection deaths and the other increased the risk. Allowance for these factors is bound to alter present RERF estimates for cancer effects of radiation and the change will probably be in an upward direction, thus bringing these estimates closer to ones based on radiation workers. (author)

  4. The radioecological consequences after explosion of the most powerful atomic bomb over Novaya Zemlya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chugunov, V.V.; Ramzaev, P.V.

    1995-01-01

    On the 30 October 1961 an H-bomb of 50 MT TNT-equivalent was exploded at a height of 3.5 km over Novaya Zemlya. This explosion required the expert inspection of the most important regions of Russia Arctic to enforce the system of population radiation safety. It was necessary to inspect 10,000 km of coast and to assess the situation in towns and settlements of the main provinces, districts and autonomous republics. The scientific tasks included aerogamma survey and collection of air and snow samples, samples of local food, daily ration, soil, vegetables and autopsy material. The radioactivity of samples was measured and extensive contaminated material was obtained. Some of the data of importance regarding observed radioactivity in air, lichens, reindeer bones, permanent reindeer meat consumers and vegetables are presented in the present report. 1 fig

  5. Complications in autopsy cases of Hashimoto's disease with special reference to A-bomb exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Masahide; Kato, Hiroo

    1978-01-01

    To clarify a relationship between A-bomb exposure and Hashimoto's disease and that between Hashimoto's disease and carcinoma of the thyroid gland, autopsy cases of Hashimoto's disease (112 cases in Hiroshima and 43 cases in Nagasaki) were examined. Incidence of Hashimoto's disease was not related to exposure doses and ages at the time of exposure. Incidence of carcinoma of the thyroid gland from Hashimoto's disease was 1.3% (2 cases), and there was no relationship between them. Incidence of ovarian cancer as cancer accompanied with Hashimoto's disease was significantly high, but that of stomach cancer was significantly low. Incidence of total cancer from Hashimoto's disease was also significantly low. Incidences of rheumatic fever and rheumatoid arthritis which were collagen diseases and diseases similar to them complicated by Hashimoto's disease was significantly high. (Tsunoda, M.)

  6. A case of refractory anemia with chromosomal abnormality (5q-) in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusano, Miyuki; Ikeda, Shuichi; Tomonaga, Yu; Sadamori, Naoki; Matsunaga, Masako

    1978-01-01

    Although assumed to be almost free from the effect of A-bomb radiation on the basis of the estimated dose, this case had progressive anemia with a specific manifestation and disclosed a clone with chromosomal abnormality (5q - ). In pure leukemia, a clone of abnormal chromosome is considered exactly that of leukemia. However, the presence of clones with chromosomal abnormality which are found in polycythemia vera or myelofibrosis do not always denote the leukemic changes. There is no established theory as to the significance of the clones with chromosomal abnormality in refractory anemia. Thus the interpretation of chromosomal abnormality in blood diseases is very difficult. Therefore analysis of chromosomes will be made actively in leukemia and related diseases as well as refractory anemia and preleukemia, and those will be compared in detail to search the relation between on occurrence of leukemia and chromosomal abnormality and also that between chromosomal abnormality and exposure to radiation. (Ueda, J.)

  7. Superradiance energy extraction, black-hole bombs and implications for astrophysics and particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brito, Richard; Pani, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    This volume gives a unified picture of the multifaceted subject of superradiance, with a focus on recent developments in the field, ranging from fundamental physics to astrophysics. Superradiance is a radiation enhancement process that involves dissipative systems. With a 60 year-old history, superradiance has played a prominent role in optics, quantum mechanics and especially in relativity and astrophysics. In Einstein's General Relativity, black-hole superradiance is permitted by dissipation at the event horizon, which allows energy extraction from the vacuum, even at the classical level. When confined, this amplified radiation can give rise to strong instabilities known as "blackhole bombs'', which have applications in searches for dark matter, in physics beyond the Standard Model and in analog models of gravity. This book discusses and draws together all these fascinating aspects of superradiance.

  8. Fast neutron inspection of sea containers for the presence of 'dirty bomb'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, V.; Sudac, D.; Blagus, S.; Nad, K.; Obhodas, J.; Vekic, B.; Nebbia, G.; Pesente, S.

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of the detection of 'dirty bomb' presence inside sea containers is evaluated. The method proposed for explosive and fissile material detection makes use of two sensors (X-rays and neutrons). A commercial imaging device based on the X-ray radiography performs a fast scan of the container, identifies a 'suspect' region and provides its coordinates to the neutron based device for the final 'confirmatory' inspection. In this two sensor system a 14 MeV neutron beam defined by the detection of associated alpha particles is used for interrogation of only volume elements marked by X-ray sensor. The object's nature is determined from passive and neutron induced, gamma energy spectra measurements. Experimental results (time-of-flight and gamma energy spectra) obtained for the irradiation 30 kg of TNT, depleted uranium and other materials hidden inside the container are presented

  9. Estimation of inhalation radiation doses associated with a strontium-90 dirty bomb event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reshetin, V.P.

    2006-01-01

    The initial stage of dispersion of 90 Sr radiological dispersion device (dirty bomb) in a terrorist event was investigated on the basis of a numerical solution of the full system of Navier-Stokes equations. Maximum inhalation doses at the level of ≥1, ≥5, ≥10, ≥50 mSv are used as evaluative criteria to assess probable consequences. The intentional release of a relatively small amount of 90 Sr using a conventional explosive has the potential to cause internal exposure to beta-radiation with relatively high maximum inhalation doses achieving hundreds of mSv, but the spatial extent of the area within which high exposures might occur is very small with most of the population receiving maximum inhalation doses between 1-10 mSv. The extent of radiation contamination (area and activity) is dependent on 90 Sr particle size, the height of release, and local weather conditions

  10. Malignant tumors during the first 2 decades of life in the offspring of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Y.; Neel, J.V.; Schull, W.J.; Kato, H.; Soda, M.; Eto, R.; Mabuchi, K.

    1990-01-01

    The risk of cancer (incidence) prior to age 20 years has been determined for children born to atomic bomb survivors and to a suitable comparison group. Tumor ascertainment was through death certificates and the tumor registries maintained in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The rationale for the study stemmed from the evidence that a significant proportion of such childhood tumors as retinoblastoma and Wilms tumor arise on the basis of a mutant gene inherited from one parent plus a second somatic cell mutation involving the allele of this gene. Gonadal radiation doses were calculated by the recently established DS86 system, supplemented by an ad hoc system for those children for one or both of whose parents a DS86 dose could not be computed but for whom an ad hoc dose could be developed on the basis of the available information. The total data set consisted of (1) a cohort of 31,150 live-born children one or both of whose parents received greater than 0.01 Sv of radiation at the time of the atomic bombings (average conjoint gonad exposure 0.43 Sv) and (2) two suitable comparison groups totaling 41,066 children. Altogether, 43 malignant tumors were ascertained in the children of exposed parents, and 49 malignant tumors were ascertained in the two control groups. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed no increase in malignancy in the children of exposed parents. However, examination of the data suggested that only 3.0-5.0% of the tumors of childhood that were observed in the comparison groups are associated with an inherited genetic predisposition that would be expected to exhibit an altered frequency if the parental mutation rate were increased. There is thus far no confirmation of the positive findings that Nomura found in a mouse system

  11. Radiation-related ophthalmologic changes and aging among the atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Masanori; Finch, S.C.; Choshi, Kanji; Takaku, Isao; Mishima, Hiromu; Takase, Tomoko.

    1993-05-01

    The relationship of ionizing radiation to the age-related ophthalmologic findings of the 1978-80 ophthalmologic examination of the atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been reanalyzed using Dosimetry System 1986 eye organ dose estimates. The main purpose of this re-evaluation was to determine whether age and radiation exposure have an additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effect on ophthalmologic changes. The best model fitting axial opacities gives a significant positive effect for both linear dose-response and linear age-related regression coefficients and a significant negative effect for an interaction between radiation dose and age. Such a negative interaction implies an antagonistic effect in that the relative risks with relation to radiation doses decrease with increasing age. This phenomenon suggests that the lenses of younger persons are more sensitive to radiation than are those of older persons. However, the best-fitting relationship for posterior subcapsular changes suggested a linear-quadratic dose response and linear age-related effects. The quadratic estimate of radiation dose squared showed a highly significant effect with a negative trend, but the negative quadratic estimate was so extremely small it had almost no contributive value within an appropriative dose area. These data suggest an additive relationship between aging and radiation for the induction of posterior subcapsular changes, and they also indicate that there is no distinct evidence of a radiation-induced aging effect. The radiation-related relative risks increase with a log linearity. The decrease of visual acuity and accommodation with increasing age were comparable in both exposed and control subjects, with age-related visual acuity decreasing more than accommodation. (J.P.N.)

  12. Findings of a recent ORNL review of dosimery for the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    More detail than previously available on the leakage spectra of neutrons from the Nagasaki and Hiroshima weapons was provided by calculations made at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1976. Several neutron-transport calculations using these data predicted significantly less neutron exposure in Hiroshima than the current radiation-exposure estimates for survivors designated as T65D (or Tentative 1965 Doses). The difference was extremely important since recent studies using the T65D estimates have predicted a very large leukemia risk for neutrons at low exposure levels in Hiroshima. Some findings are that the neutron exposures in Hiroshima were probably less than the T65D estimates by factors varying from about four at a ground distance of 1000 m to eight at 2000 m, and the gamma-ray exposures were greater than the T65D estimates starting at about 1000 m and were probably larger by a factor of about three at 2000 m. In Nagasaki, the situation was reversed with respect to gamma rays, and the T65D estimates were higher, but the differences were small (i.e., about 20% at 1000 m and 30% at 2000 m). As a result, it now appears that leukemia and other late effects at lower exposure levels in Hiroshima were due largely to gamma rays rather than neutrons. This may not be true at higher exposure levels in Hiroshima, however. Any reanalysis of data on late effects among the atomic-bomb survivors should be regarded as highly speculative until some other important issues have been investigated in more detail. These issues include the anisotropy in neutron leakage from the Hiroshima weapon, the energy yield of the Hiroshima weapon, the shielding factors for houses, and the organ-dose factors for the atomic-bomb survivors

  13. Low dose radiation risks for women surviving the a-bombs in Japan: generalized additive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dropkin, Greg

    2016-11-24

    Analyses of cancer mortality and incidence in Japanese A-bomb survivors have been used to estimate radiation risks, which are generally higher for women. Relative Risk (RR) is usually modelled as a linear function of dose. Extrapolation from data including high doses predicts small risks at low doses. Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) are flexible methods for modelling non-linear behaviour. GAMs are applied to cancer incidence in female low dose subcohorts, using anonymous public data for the 1958 - 1998 Life Span Study, to test for linearity, explore interactions, adjust for the skewed dose distribution, examine significance below 100 mGy, and estimate risks at 10 mGy. For all solid cancer incidence, RR estimated from 0 - 100 mGy and 0 - 20 mGy subcohorts is significantly raised. The response tapers above 150 mGy. At low doses, RR increases with age-at-exposure and decreases with time-since-exposure, the preferred covariate. Using the empirical cumulative distribution of dose improves model fit, and capacity to detect non-linear responses. RR is elevated over wide ranges of covariate values. Results are stable under simulation, or when removing exceptional data cells, or adjusting neutron RBE. Estimates of Excess RR at 10 mGy using the cumulative dose distribution are 10 - 45 times higher than extrapolations from a linear model fitted to the full cohort. Below 100 mGy, quasipoisson models find significant effects for all solid, squamous, uterus, corpus, and thyroid cancers, and for respiratory cancers when age-at-exposure > 35 yrs. Results for the thyroid are compatible with studies of children treated for tinea capitis, and Chernobyl survivors. Results for the uterus are compatible with studies of UK nuclear workers and the Techa River cohort. Non-linear models find large, significant cancer risks for Japanese women exposed to low dose radiation from the atomic bombings. The risks should be reflected in protection standards.

  14. Ichiban: radiation dosimetry for the survivors of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxier, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    One of the most important issues of the nuclear age concerns the effects of ionizing radiation on man. Immediately after the cessation of fighting in Japan in World War II, studies began which were aimed at learning as much as possible about radiation effects on the survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings. The most important factors were the immediate and long-term effects of the varying doses of radiation to the survivors. Although the medical studies commenced within months of the bombings, it was ten years before technology reached the stage at which it appeared possible to determine with any real reliability the effect the radiation doses had on these people. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and subsequently the Energy Research and Development Administration supported and strongly encouraged medical and dosimetry studies of the survivors until 1975 when the United States and Japan joined as full partners to carry on the studies far into the future. During the last few years, reliable doses for most of the individual survivors have been obtained, and the door was opened to a much better understanding of the effects of radiation on human beings. The dosimetry portion of these studies is recorded in this monograph. In this review the author presents an interesting mixture of historical highlights and scientific information without trying to cover either subject in great depth. The objective is to give the reader some insight and understanding into the overall program and to identify the original publications for those seeking an in-depth analysis

  15. Clonally expanded T lymphocytes from atomic bomb survivors in vitro show no evidence of cytogenetic instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasaki, K; Kusunoki, Y; Nakashima, E; Takahashi, N; Nakachi, K; Nakamura, N; Kodama, Y

    2009-08-01

    Abstract Genomic instability has been suggested as a mechanism by which exposure to ionizing radiation can lead to cancer in exposed humans. However, the data from human cells needed to support or refute this idea are limited. In our previous study on clonal lymphocyte populations carrying stable-type aberrations derived from A-bomb survivors, we found no increase in the frequency of sporadic additional aberrations among the clonal cell populations compared with the spontaneous frequency in vivo. That work has been extended by using multicolor FISH (mFISH) to quantify the various kinds of chromosome aberrations known to be indicative of genomic instability in cloned T lymphocytes after they were expanded in culture for 25 population doublings. The blood T cells used were obtained from each of two high-dose-exposed survivors (>1 Gy) and two control subjects, and a total of 66 clonal populations (36 from exposed and 30 from control individuals) were established. For each clone, 100 metaphases were examined. In the case of exposed lymphocytes, a total of 39 additional de novo stable, exchange-type aberrations [translocation (t) + derivative chromosome (der)] were found among 3600 cells (1.1%); the corresponding value in the control group was 0.6% (17/3000). Although the ratio (39/3600) obtained from the exposed cases was greater than that of the controls (17/3000), the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.101). A similar lack of statistical difference was found for the total of all structural chromosome alterations including t, der, dicentrics, duplications, deletions and fragments (P = 0.142). Thus there was no clear evidence suggesting the presence of chromosome instabilities among the clonally expanded lymphocytes in vitro from A-bomb survivors.

  16. Malignant breast tumors among Atomic Bomb Survivors, Hirsoshima and Nagasaki, 1950 to 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, M.; Norman, J.E. Jr.; Asano, M.; Tokuoka, S.; Ezaki, H.; Nishimori, I.; Tsuji, Y.

    1979-01-01

    From 1950 to 1974, 360 cases of malignant breast tumors were identified among the 63,000 females of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation's (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) Extended Life-Span Study sample of survivors of the 1945 atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; 288 of these females were residing in one of these two cities at the time of bombing (ATB). Two-thirds of all cases were classified as breast cancers on the basis of microscopic review of slides, and 108 cases received an estimated breast tissue dose of at least 10 rads. The number of cases of radiogenic breast cancer could be well estimated by a linear function of radiation dose for tissue doses below 200 rads. Excess risk estimates, based on this function, for women 10 to 19, 20 to 29, 30 to 39, and 50 years old or older ATB were 7.3, 4.2, 2.6, and 4.7 cases per million women per year per rad, respectively. Women irradiated in their forties showed no dose effect. Among all women who received at least 10 rads, those irradiated before age 20 years will have experienced the highest rates of breast cancer throughout their lifetimes. Separate excess risk estimates for Hiroshima and Nagasaki did not differ significantly, which indicates that for radiogenic breast cancer the effects of neutrons (emitted only in the Hiroshima explosion) and gamma radiation were about equal. Radiation did not reduce the latency period for the development of breast cancer, which was at least 10 years. The distribution of histologic types of cancers did not vary significantly with radiation dose. The data suggested that irradiation prior to menarche conferred a greater risk than irradiation after menarche

  17. Cancer incidence of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki City, 1973 - 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Takayoshi; Shimokawa, Isao; Iwasaki, Keisuke; Matsuo, Takeshi; Mori, Hiroyuki; Mine, Mariko

    1988-01-01

    Subjects were residents older than 30 years ascertained through the population-based cancer registry in Nagasaki City during a ten-year period from 1973 to 1982. The total number of cancer patients was 6,243 (3,456 men and 2,787 women), 2,626 of whom were A-bomb survivors. Stomach cancer was the most common, irrespective of sex, in both exposed and non-exposed groups. Crude incidence of cancer of any organ was higher in the exposed group, especially the group of people entering the city early after the bombing, than the non-exposed group. In the groups exposed at <2,000 m and at 2,000 - 10,000 m from the hypocenter, the incidence of stomach, lung, and thyroid cancers and malignant lymphoma; and the incidence of stomach, breast, and thyroid cancers were radiation-dose dependent in men and women, respectively. Age-adjusted relative risks of breast and thyroid cancers were significantly higher in the exposed group of women than the non-exposed group. Comparing cancer incidence during the first and latter five years, the incidence of thyroid cancer and malignant lymphoma tended to decrease or remain unchanged in both men and women. The incidence of colorectal cancer showed a tendency to increase. An increased incidence of stomach and lung cancers was restricted to the exposed group of women. As for breast cancer, the exposed group of women had a tendency for decrease, as opposed to the non-exposed group with the increased incidence. There was no significant difference in histologic types between the exposed and non-exposed groups. (Namekawa, K.)

  18. Reassessment of diagnosis and subtyping of leukemias among atomic bomb survivors, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomonaga, Masao; Kuriyama, Kazutaka; Ichimaru, Michito; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Finch, S.C.; Imanaka, Fumio; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Kamada, Nanao.

    1988-01-01

    In evaluable 456 (60 %) of 750 leukemic patients exposed at ≤9,000 m from the hypocenter, diagnosis and subtypes of leukemia were reevaluated in relation to radiation doses and age at the time of bombing using a new classification method of French-American-British (FAB). The FAB classification diagnosed 63 patients (13.5 %) as acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), 181 (39.0 %) as acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 26 (5.6 %) as myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), 106 (22.8 %) as chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), 39 (7.5 %) as adult T-cell leukemia, and 5 (0.8 %) as chronic lymphocytic leukemia. According to radiation doses, the incidence of CML increased in the group exposed to one to 99 cGy; the incidences of ALL and MDS increased in the group exposed to ≥100 cGy. The incidence of CML was definitively higher in Hiroshima than Nagasaki in all groups; this was noted in the group exposed to 0 cGy (approximately 2.5 times higher). The incidences of ALL and MDS showed a tendency to increase in proportion to radiation doses. In the group exposed to ≥100 cGy, the incidences of ALL, CML, and MDS increased in patients younger than 15 years, those aged 16 - 35 years, and those older than 36 years, respectively, at the time of the bombing. In this group, there were also differences in latent period (10 yr in ALL and CML, 15 yr in AML, and 17 yr in MDS). None of the AML patients in the group exposed to ≥100 cGy had M3. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. Differential effects of atomic bomb irradiation in inducing major leukemia types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomonaga, Masao; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Carter, R.L.

    1993-05-01

    In this report we utilize data from the additional 517 cases from the leukemia registry together with the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort data to study the effects of atomic bomb irradiation on major leukemia types. The French-American-British classification and other improved diagnostic methods were used to reclassify cases into 21 categories, including new disease entities such as adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). These categories were then grouped into four major types for analysis: (1) acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), (2) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) including myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), (3) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and (4) OTHER types including ATL. Analyses of radiation effects were based on the updated Dosimetry System 1986(DS86). Incidence rates of all four leukemia types increased with increasing exposure level. The effects of radiation were significantly greater on the incidence of ALL and CML than on that of AML and OTHER. In the two lowest dose categories (1-49 and 50-499 mGy), estimated incidence either remained constant or increased slightly as the population of survivors aged. In the two highest dose categories (500-1,499 and ≥ 1,500 mGy). Among unexposed persons, the estimated risk of CML in Nagasaki relative to Hiroshima was significantly less than that of AML, whereas that of OTHER types was significantly greater. The time to onset of ALL, AML, and CML declined with increasing dose. The rate of decline, however, was greater for ALL and CML than for AML. The resulting differences at high doses reflect shorter incubation times for atomic-bomb-induced ALL and CML than for AML. (J.P.N.)

  20. Risk of cancer among in utero children exposed to A-bomb radiation, 1950-84

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Kato, Hiroo; Schull, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    This study examines the risk of cancer (incidence) over a period of 40 years among the inutero exposed survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and adds eight years of follow-up to a previous report which was confined to mortality. Only two cases of childhood cancer were observed among these survivors in the first 14 years of life; both had been heavily exposed. Subsequent cancers have all been of the adult type. Not only did the observed cancers occur earlier in the ≥ 0.30 Gy dose group than in the 0 Gy dose group but the incidence continues to increase and the crude cumulative incidence rate, 40 years after the A-bombing, is 3.9-fold greater in the ≥ 0.30 Gy group. In the observation period 1950-84, based on the absorbed dose to the mother's uterus, as estimated by the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86), the relative risk of cancer at 1 Gy is 3.77 with a 95% confidence interval of 1.14-13.48. For the entire ≥ 0.01 Gy dose group the average excess risk per 10 4 person-year-gray is 6.57 (0.07-14.49) and the estimated attributable risk is 40.9% (2.9%-90.2%). These results, when viewed in the perspective of fetus doses, suggest that susceptibility to radiation-induced cancers is higher in pre- than in postnatally exposed survivors (at least those exposed as adults). However, definitive conclusions must await further follow-up studies. (author)

  1. Von Pape on Airpower Meets Airpower for Dummies: A Comparative Review of Robert Pape's Bombing to Win and John Warden III's Air Campaign

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Robert E

    2002-01-01

    .... Despite the similar goal, the books are designed for different audiences. Pape's, Bombing to Win, while informative to policymakers, is intended as a first step for social scientists to begin the study of the use of military coercion...

  2. Detection of de novo single nucleotide variants in offspring of atomic-bomb survivors close to the hypocenter by whole-genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horai, Makiko; Mishima, Hiroyuki; Hayashida, Chisa; Kinoshita, Akira; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tsuruda, Kazuto; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Sato, Shinya; Imanishi, Daisuke; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Hata, Tomoko; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Yoshiura, Koh-Ichiro

    2018-03-01

    Ionizing radiation released by the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 caused many long-term illnesses, including increased risks of malignancies such as leukemia and solid tumours. Radiation has demonstrated genetic effects in animal models, leading to concerns over the potential hereditary effects of atomic bomb-related radiation. However, no direct analyses of whole DNA have yet been reported. We therefore investigated de novo variants in offspring of atomic-bomb survivors by whole-genome sequencing (WGS). We collected peripheral blood from three trios, each comprising a father (atomic-bomb survivor with acute radiation symptoms), a non-exposed mother, and their child, none of whom had any past history of haematological disorders. One trio of non-exposed individuals was included as a control. DNA was extracted and the numbers of de novo single nucleotide variants in the children were counted by WGS with sequencing confirmation. Gross structural variants were also analysed. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to the study. There were 62, 81, and 42 de novo single nucleotide variants in the children of atomic-bomb survivors, compared with 48 in the control trio. There were no gross structural variants in any trio. These findings are in accord with previously published results that also showed no significant genetic effects of atomic-bomb radiation on second-generation survivors.

  3. Estimation of radiation contamination associated with a 90Sr dirty bomb event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reshetin, V.P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results of using a semi-empirical model to estimate the maximum inhalation doses (mSv), the spatial extent (km 2 ) and radioactivity (Bq) of contamination within an urban area after the initial dispersion of 90 Sr by a radiological dispersion device (dirty bomb) in a terrorist event. Estimation of radioactivity levels associated with a 90 Sr dirty bomb reveals that a terrorist event involving an RDD containing a relatively small amount of 90 Sr (i.e., approximately 0.07 g) might result in a relatively small area within the overall contaminated zone in which the theoretically possible maximum inhalation doses might equal several mSv. The majority of the population along a centre line of the cloud might receive maximum inhalation doses varying between 0.01 and 0.1 mSv. The extent of radiation contamination (area and activity) is dependent on 90 Sr particle size, the height of release, and local weather conditions. The initial stage of dispersion was investigated based on a numerical solution of the full system of Navier-Stokes equations. With this aim the well-known program STAR-CD, that allows the modelling of the gas motion under a wide variety of different conditions, was applied. The case of detonation of the explosive corresponding to 1 kg of TNT that results in a release of isotopes of 90 Sr with total activity of 10 Ci in the atmosphere was elaborately considered. The location and geometry of all the objects near the place of blast correspond to the real location of buildings, trees, etc., in one of the streets in Minsk. The trees and other vegetation were modelled as objects with some transparency. By the time when the explosive matter burns out, a typical dimension of thermal achieves about one meter and the density of gases released after the blast equals 1 kg/m 3 , that is about 20 % less than the density of the surrounding atmosphere. The shock waves reflected from the ground and the buildings change the configuration of the thermal

  4. A search for genetic effects of atomic bomb radiation on the growth and development of the F1 generation, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusho, Toshiyuki; Otake, Masanori.

    1978-10-01

    In a search for possible genetic effects of atomic bomb radiation on the growth and development of offspring of A-bomb survivors a survey was made in 1965 on approximately 200,000 children of all primary schools, junior high schools, and senior high schools in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Of the collected data, those pertaining to senior high school students 15 to 17 years of age of Hiroshima City were analyzed to determine if there was any genetic effect of A-bomb radiation on stature. Comparisons were made with regard to the mean stature and variance of the offspring and the covariance and correlation between one parent or the sum for both parents and offspring for the exposed group and the nonexposed group. The observed differences included those with both positive and negative signs, but none were statistically significant nor did they demonstrate any specific tendency. A comparison was made with a similar study reported by Neel and Schull. Furthermore, estimation of the regression coefficients of the mean stature, variance, covariance, and correlation between one parent or the sum for both parents and offspring by parental radiation dose also did not show any specific tendency. Though the genetic effects of A-bomb radiation on stature could not be accurately estimated in the current series of analyses, the stature data of 6- to 14-year-old children in Hiroshima and those of 6- to 17-year-old children in Nagasaki Will soon be studied, which should permit a more comprehensive and extensive analysis and evaluation of the possible genetic effects of radiation on stature. (author)

  5. Scenario of a dirty bomb in an urban environment and acute management of radiation poisoning and injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, F K C

    2007-10-01

    In the new security environment, there is a clear and present danger of terrorists using non-conventional weapons to inflict maximum psychological and economic damage on their targets. This article examines two scenarios of radiation contamination and injury, one accidental in nature leading to environmental contamination, and another of deliberate intent resulting in injury and death. This article also discusses the management of injury from radiological dispersion devices or dirty bombs, with emphasis on the immediate aftermath as well as strategy recommendations.

  6. Simulations of radiocarbon in a coarse-resolution world ocean model 2. Distributions of bomb-produced Carbon 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toggweiler, J.R.; Dixon, K.; Bryan, K.

    1989-01-01

    Part 1 of this study examined the ability of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) primitive equation ocean general circulation model to simulate the steady state distribution of naturally produced 14 C in the ocean prior to the nuclear bomb tests of the 1950's and early 1960's. In part 2 begin with the steady state distributions of part 1 and subject the model to the pulse of elevated atmospheric 14 C concentrations observed since the 1950's

  7. Bomb-curve radiocarbon measurement of recent biologic tissues and applications to wildlife forensics and stable isotope (paleo)ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Uno, Kevin T.; Quade, Jay; Fisher, Daniel C.; Wittemyer, George; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Andanje, Samuel; Omondi, Patrick; Litoroh, Moses; Cerling, Thure E.

    2013-01-01

    Above-ground thermonuclear weapons testing from 1952 through 1962 nearly doubled the concentration of radiocarbon (14C) in the atmosphere. As a result, organic material formed during or after this period may be radiocarbon-dated using the abrupt rise and steady fall of the atmospheric 14C concentration known as the bomb-curve. We test the accuracy of accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of 29 herbivore and plant tissues collected on known dates between 1905 and 2008 in East Africa...

  8. A search for mutations affecting protein structure in children of proximally and distally exposed atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neel, J.V.; Satoh, Chiyoko; Hamilton, H.B.; Otake, Masanori; Goriki, Kazuaki; Kageoka, Takeshi; Fujita, Mikio; Neriishi, Shotaro; Asakawa, Jun-ichi.

    1981-07-01

    A total of 289,868 locus tests based on 28 different protein phenotypes, employing one-dimensional electrophoresis to detect variant proteins, has yielded one probable mutation in the offspring of 'proximally exposed' parents, who received an estimated average gonadal exposure dose of between 31 and 39 rem from the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. There were no mutations in 208,196 locus tests involving children of 'distally exposed' parents, who had essentially no radiation exposure. (author)

  9. Apparently beneficial effect of low to intermediate doses of A-bomb radiation on human life-span

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mine, Mariko; Okumura, Y.; Ichimaru, M.; Nakamura, T.; Kondo, S.

    1991-01-01

    Among about 100,000 A-bomb survivors registered at Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 290 male subjects exposed to 50-149 cGy showed significantly lower mortality from non-cancerous diseases than age-matched unexposed males. This was deduced from the fitting of a U-shaped dose-response relationship. Reasons for this effects in males, but not in females, are discussed with reference to selection of individuals and to hormesis. (author)

  10. Relation between both oxidative and metabolic-osmotic cell damages and initial injury severity in bombing casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučeljić Marina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. We have recently reported the development of oxidative cell damages in bombing casualties within a very early period after the initial injury. The aim of this study, was to investigate malondialdehyde (MDA, as an indicator of lipid peroxidation, and osmolal gap (OG, as a good indicator of metabolic cell damages and to assess their relationship with the initial severity of the injury in bombing casualties. Methods. The study included the males (n = 52, injured during the bombing with the Injury Severity Score (ISS ranging from 3 to 66. The whole group of casualties was devided into a group of less severely (ISS < 25, n = 24 and a group of severely (ISS ≥ 26, n = 28 injured males. The uninjured volunteers (n = 10 were the controls. Osmolality, MDA, sodium, glucose, urea, creatinine, total bilirubin and total protein levels were measured in the venous blood, sampled daily, within a ten-day period. Results. In both groups of casualties, MDA and OG levels increased, total protein levels decreased, while other parameters were within the control limits. MDA alterations correlated with ISS (r = 0.414, p < 0.01, while a statistically significant correlation between OG and ISS was not obtained. Interestingly, in spite of some differences in MDA and OG trends, at the end of the examined period they were at the similar level in both groups. Conclusion. The initial oxidative damages of the cellular membrane with intracellular metabolic disorders contributed to the gradual development of metabolic-osmotic damages of cells, which, consequently caused the OG increase. In the bombing casualties, oxidative cell damages were dependent on the initial injury severity, while metabolic-osmotic cell damages were not.

  11. Delayed effects occurring within the first decade after exposure of young individuals to the Hiroshima atomic bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.W.

    1956-01-01

    The review of the literature and the data presented in this report describe the late effects of exposure of young subjects to ionizing radiation or to nuclear weapons as known in the early part of 1955. The new information may be useful in the further definition of the tolerance of humans to ionizing radiation. In 6 years ending in December 1954, 19 persons who were within 2100 meters of the hypocenter have developed leukemia before attaining the age of 19 years. The annual incidence of this disease among those who were within 1500 meters and who were younger than 19 years of age at the time of exposure is 1:1000. There are no cataracts that impair vision among the present pediatic group. An increased incidence of a mild visual disability, the cause of which is thus far indefinite, has been found among those now 16 through 19 years of age who were within 1800 meters of the bomb center. The incidence of chronic otitis media is the same for the 2 exposure groups, as are the means of the hematologic values for the patients with this ailment. There is no increase in the tumor incidence of the exposed children as compared with the nonexposed. There are no data to prove it, but the impression is that among the survivors the fear of late effects may be common and potentially disabling. Of those 19 years of age and younger, there were 2771 within 3000 meters of the hypocenter at the time of detonation of the bomb who were examined in 1954. Twenty-four of these had sequelae of the blast or thermal effects of the bomb other than well-heated scars. No other abnormalities related to atomic bomb exposure have been identified.

  12. Tritium from bombs - the time behaviour since 1963 in mean-European rivers and smaller hydrological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esser, N.

    1980-01-01

    Numerical simulation models are presented to describe the observed of nuclear bomb tritium fallout (lyrimeter measurements) in the unsaturated ground zone and the ground water. These models are based on the well-known time-dependence of the tritium concentration in the local rainy waters and on water balance parameters. The tritium migration behaviour can be described well by the drainage model, the leakage model and the flow model (program-out, measured data). (DG) [de

  13. Hepatitis virus infection and chronic liver disease among atomic-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Cologne, John; Akahoshi, Masazumi [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Kusumi, Shizuyo [Institute of Radiation Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Association, Tokyo (Japan); Kodama, Kazunori; Yoshizawa, Hiroshi [Hiroshima University School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    Hepatitis C and B virus (HCV, HBV) infection plays a crucial role in the etiology of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, which have been reported to increase with radiation dose among the atomic bomb survivors. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether radiation exposure altered the prevalence of hepatitis virus infection or accelerated the progress toward chronic hepatitis after hepatitis virus infection. Levels of serum antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), HBs antigen (HBsAg), and anti-HBs antibody (anti-HBs) were measured for 6,121 participants in the Adult Health Study of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. No relationship was found between anti-HCV prevalence and radiation dose, after adjusting for age, sex, city, history of blood transfusion, acupuncture, and family history, but prevalence of anti-HCV was significantly lower overall among the radiation-exposed people (relative prevalence 0.84, p=0.022) compared to people with estimated radiation dose 0 Gy. No significant interaction was found between any of the above mentioned risk factors and radiation dose. People with anti-HCV positive had 13 times higher prevalence of chronic liver disease than those without anti-HCV. However, the radiation dose response for chronic liver disease among anti-HCV positive survivors may be greater than that among anti-HCV negative survivors (slope ratio 20), but the difference was marginally significant (p=0.097). Prevalence of HBsAg increased with whole-body kerma. However, no trend with radiation dose was found in the anti-HBs prevalence. In the background, prevalence of chronic liver disease in people with HBsAg-positive was approximately three times higher that in those without HBsAg. No difference in slope of the dose was found among HBsAg positive and negative individuals (slope: HBsAg positive 0.91/Gy, HBsAg negative 0.11/Gy, difference p=0.66). In conclusion, no dose-response relationship was found between

  14. Hepatitis virus infection and chronic liver disease among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Cologne, John; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Kusumi, Shizuyo; Kodama, Kazunori; Yoshizawa, Hiroshi

    2000-01-01

    Hepatitis C and B virus (HCV, HBV) infection plays a crucial role in the etiology of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, which have been reported to increase with radiation dose among the atomic bomb survivors. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether radiation exposure altered the prevalence of hepatitis virus infection or accelerated the progress toward chronic hepatitis after hepatitis virus infection. Levels of serum antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), HBs antigen (HBsAg), and anti-HBs antibody (anti-HBs) were measured for 6,121 participants in the Adult Health Study of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. No relationship was found between anti-HCV prevalence and radiation dose, after adjusting for age, sex, city, history of blood transfusion, acupuncture, and family history, but prevalence of anti-HCV was significantly lower overall among the radiation-exposed people (relative prevalence 0.84, p=0.022) compared to people with estimated radiation dose 0 Gy. No significant interaction was found between any of the above mentioned risk factors and radiation dose. People with anti-HCV positive had 13 times higher prevalence of chronic liver disease than those without anti-HCV. However, the radiation dose response for chronic liver disease among anti-HCV positive survivors may be greater than that among anti-HCV negative survivors (slope ratio 20), but the difference was marginally significant (p=0.097). Prevalence of HBsAg increased with whole-body kerma. However, no trend with radiation dose was found in the anti-HBs prevalence. In the background, prevalence of chronic liver disease in people with HBsAg-positive was approximately three times higher that in those without HBsAg. No difference in slope of the dose was found among HBsAg positive and negative individuals (slope: HBsAg positive 0.91/Gy, HBsAg negative 0.11/Gy, difference p=0.66). In conclusion, no dose-response relationship was found between

  15. Preparedness in America's prime danger zone and at the Boston Marathon bombing site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Leonard A; Scott, Sandra R; Feravolo, Michael; Lamba, Sangeeta

    2014-01-01

    The area between Newark and Elizabeth, NJ, contains major transportation hubs, chemical plants, and a dense population. This makes it "the most dangerous two miles in America," according to counterterrorism officials at the Federal Bureau of Investigation. This study compares medical response capabilities for terror and disaster in Newark, New Jersey's largest city, with those in Boston in view of that city's favorable response to the Marathon bombings in April 2013. Boston's numerous world-class medical facilities offer advantages unavailable in Newark and most other metropolitan locations. Thus, preparedness in Newark, despite its prime-danger designation, can also be instructive for many communities with similar medical resources. Three categories of response capabilities are assessed: hospital resources, relevant personnel, and symposia/exercises. Data were derived from hospital Web sites, the New Jersey and Massachusetts Hospital Asso-ciations, communications with emergency response personnel, and interviews with spokespersons for hospitals. Boston's population (618,000) is more than twice Newark's (278,000), and the number of hospitals and hospital beds in each city reflects that proportion. However, Boston's seven general adult hospitals include five level 1 trauma centers (which can provide comprehensive trauma care), whereas Newark's four hospitals include only one such center.Beds per 1,000 people are similarly disparate in those trauma centers: five in Boston, 1.5 in Newark. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel based in Boston and Newark are comparable in numbers, though full-time hospital physicians/dentists and nurses are not. The number of doctors at Boston's five level 1 centers is more than triple that at all four of Newark's hospitals (5,284 vs 1,494). The disparity between nurses at the two sites is even greater (6,784 vs 1,566).There is greater equivalency between the two cities both in content and frequency of symposia/exercises. Hospitals

  16. Ionizing radiation exposure and the development of soft-tissue sarcomas in atomic-bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samartzis, Dino; Nishi, Nobuo; Cologne, John; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Hayashi, Mikiko; Kodama, Kazunori; Miles, Edward F; Suyama, Akihiko; Soda, Midori; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi

    2013-02-06

    Very high levels of ionizing radiation exposure have been associated with the development of soft-tissue sarcoma. The effects of lower levels of ionizing radiation on sarcoma development are unknown. This study addressed the role of low to moderately high levels of ionizing radiation exposure in the development of soft-tissue sarcoma. Based on the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, 80,180 individuals were prospectively assessed for the development of primary soft-tissue sarcoma. Colon dose in gray (Gy), the excess relative risk, and the excess absolute rate per Gy absorbed ionizing radiation dose were assessed. Subject demographic, age-specific, and survival parameters were evaluated. One hundred and four soft-tissue sarcomas were identified (mean colon dose = 0.18 Gy), associated with a 39% five-year survival rate. Mean ages at the time of the bombings and sarcoma diagnosis were 26.8 and 63.6 years, respectively. A linear dose-response model with an excess relative risk of 1.01 per Gy (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.13 to 2.46; p = 0.019) and an excess absolute risk per Gy of 4.3 per 100,000 persons per year (95% CI: 1.1 to 8.9; p = 0.001) were noted in the development of soft-tissue sarcoma. This is one of the largest and longest studies (fifty-six years from the time of exposure to the time of follow-up) to assess ionizing radiation effects on the development of soft-tissue sarcoma. This is the first study to suggest that lower levels of ionizing radiation may be associated with the development of soft-tissue sarcoma, with exposure of 1 Gy doubling the risk of soft-tissue sarcoma development (linear dose-response). The five-year survival rate of patients with soft-tissue sarcoma in this population was much lower than that reported elsewhere.

  17. Chromosome aberrations and oncogene alterations in atomic bomb related leukemias - different mechanisms from de novo leukemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, H.; Kamada, N.

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that leukemia occurred more frequently among atomic bomb survivors. In 132 atomic bomb related ( AB- related) leukemia patients during 1978-1999, 33 acute myeloid leukemia (AML)/myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients had their exposure doses of more than 1Gy (DS86). Chromosome aberrations of the 33 patients were compared with those from 588 de novo AML/MDS patients who had been bone before August 1945 as control. No FAB M3 patient was observed in the exposed group. Most AB-related AML preceded a long term of MDS stage. Twenty seven of the 33 patients showed complex types of chromosome aberrations with more than three chromosomes involving chromosomes 5,7 and 11. The number of chromosomes abnormality per cell in the AB-related leukemia was 3.78 while 0.92 in de novo leukemia. Only one of the 33 patients had normal karyotype, while 44.1% in de novo leukemia patients. Translocations of chromosome 11 at 11q13 to 11q23 and deletion/ loss of chromosome 20 were frequently observed in AB-related leukemia. No leukemia-type specific translocations such as t(8;21),t(15;17) and 11q23 were found in the 33 AB-related leukemia patients. Furthermore, molecular analyses using FISH and PCR-SSCP revealed the presence of breakpoint located outside of MLL gene in the patients with translocations at 11q22-23 and DNA base derangements of RUNT domain of AML1(CBF β 2)gene with AML/MDS patients without t(8;21) and with a high dose of exposure. These results suggest that AB-related leukemia derives from an exposed pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell which has been preserved for a long time in the bone marrow, expressing high genetic instability such as microsatellite instability. On the other hand, de novo leukemia develops from a committed hematopoietic stem cell and shows simple and leukemia-type specific chromosome aberrations. These findings are important for understanding mechanisms for radiation-induced leukemia

  18. Detection of radiation-induced translocations in A-bomb survivors by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awa, A.A.; Kodama, Y.; Nakano, M.; Ohtaki, K.; Lucas, J.N.; Gray, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The present paper describes the results of a collaborative study by RERF, LINL and UCSF on an analysis of the utility of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with whole-chromosome probes (chromosomes 1, 2 and 4) for measurement of the frequencies of chromosomal translocations that have persisted for decades in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of atomic bomb survivors. In this study, attempts have been made to investigate whether the translocation frequencies measured using FISH agree well with the translocation frequencies measured using both G-banding and conventional Giemsa staining analyses, the latter two techniques of which have been accepted as standard cytogenetic procedures. Sample subjects under study include 20 Hiroshima A-bomb survivors, consisting of 2 distally exposed survivors in the 0-Gy group, and 18 proximally exposed survivors with estimated DS86 kerma ranging from 0.5 to 5.0 Gy. Our preliminary results of measurement of translocations using FISH on A-bomb survivors have indicated that the FISH technique is a useful biological assay system for rapid and accurate detection of induced translocations, and thus for quantification of previous acute exposures to ionizing radiation. Translocation analysis using FISH can also be utilized to assess the level of acute radiation exposure independent of time between exposure and cytogenetic analysis. (author)

  19. Report on the results of the fourteenth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Jitsuro; Kambe, Masayuki; Hakoda, Masayuki

    2004-01-01

    The fourteenth medical examination of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors resident in North America was carried out from June 18th through July 2nd and from July 24th through August 6th, 2003, in the cities of Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and Honolulu. The total number of those who underwent the fourteenth medical examination was 453, 65 of whom were second-generation A-bomb survivors. As the survivors in North America are advancing in age, the average age of the examinee was 71.6 years. The examination items included an interview, clinical and physical examinations, electrocardiography (E.C.G.), and blood, urine, and stool tests. The review of the medical history showed that hypertension was the most frequent in the survivors examined, with the prevalence of 45.4%. Previous history of malignant tumors was observed in 15.7% of the survivors examined, with major sites being the mammary gland, uterine, colon, and prostate. As a result of the blood test, 14.9% of the survivors examined were diagnosed as diabetic, and hypercholesterolemia was found in 28.4% of the survivors examined. Latent hypothyroidism was found in 21.2% of the survivors examined. No disease or examination finding showed a clear relation with exposure status. A report providing the results of the medical examination and necessity of undergoing closer examination and receiving medical treatment, if any, was mailed to each examinee. (author)

  20. Report on the results of the fifteenth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambe, Masayuki; Matsumura, Makoto; Suyama, Akihiko

    2006-01-01

    The fifteenth medical examination of A-bomb survivors resident in North America was carried out from May 11th through May 25th and from June 15th through June 29th, 2005, in the cities of Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and Honolulu. The total number of those who underwent the fifteenth medical examination was 435, 68 of whom were second-generation A-bomb survivors. As the survivors in North America are advancing in age, the average age of the examinees was 73.1 years. The examination items included an interview, clinical and physical examinations, electrocardiography (E.C.G.), and blood, urine, and stool tests. The review of the medical history showed that hypertension was the most frequent in the survivors examined, with the prevalence of 51.8%. Previous history of malignant tumors was observed in 19.6% of the survivors examined, with major sites being the mammary gland, uterus, colon, and prostate. As a result of the blood test, 12.8% of the survivors examined were diagnosed as diabetic, and hypercholesterolemia was found in 26.2% of the survivors examined. Latent hypothyroidism was found in 16.9% of the survivors examined. Among the examinees of A-bomb survivors, statistically significant associations with exposure status were not found in any disease or examination finding. A report providing the results of the medical examination and the necessity of undergoing closer examination and receiving medical treatment, if any, was mailed to each examinee. (author)

  1. Prevalence rate of thyroid diseases among autopsy cases of the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, 1951-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Ezaki, Haruo; Etoh, Ryozo; Hiraoka, Toshio; Akiba, Suminori

    1995-01-01

    To examine the radiogenic risk of latent thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma, colloid/adenomatous goiter and chronic thyroiditis, the date for 3821 subjects collected in the course of autopsies of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima from 1951 to 1985 by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) were analyzed using a logistic model. About 80% of the autopsies were performed at RERF and the remainder at local hospitals. The frequencies of the above diseases were not associated with whether the underlying cause of death was cancer. However, note that our results may be influenced by potentially biasing factors associated with autopsy selection. The relative frequency of latent thyroid cancer (greatest dimension ≤1.5 cm but detectable on a routine microscopic slide of the thyroid gland) increased as the radiation dose increased and was about 1.4-fold greater at 1 Gy than in the 0-Gy dose group. The relative occurrence of thyroid adenoma also increased as radiation dose increased, and was about 1.5-fold greater at 1 Gy than in the 0-Gy dose group. Sex, age at the time of the bombing or period of observation did not significantly modify the radiogenic risks for thyroid adenoma or latent thyroid cancer. No statistically significant association was found between radiation exposure and the rates of colloid/adenomatous goiter and chronic thyroiditis. The possible late effect of atomic bomb radiation on the frequency of benign thyroid diseases is discussed on the basis of these data. 38 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  2. DNA analysis in perpetrator identification of terrorism-related disaster: suicide bombing of the Australian Embassy in Jakarta 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudoyo, Herawati; Widodo, Putut T; Suryadi, Helena; Lie, Yuliana S; Safari, Dodi; Widjajanto, Agung; Kadarmo, D Aji; Hidayat, Soegeng; Marzuki, Sangkot

    2008-06-01

    We report the strategy that we employed to identify the perpetrator of a suicide car bombing in front of the Australian Embassy in Jakarta, Indonesia, on 9 September 2004. The bomb was so massive that only small tissue pieces of the perpetrator could be recovered, preventing conventional approach to the identification of the bomber, necessitating the introduction of DNA analysis as the primary means for perpetrator identification. Crime scene investigation revealed the trajectory of the bomb blast, which was used to guide the collection of charred tissue fragments of the perpetrator. Mitochondrial DNA analysis was first conducted on 17 tissue fragments, recovered over large areas of the trajectory to, (a) confirm that they are of a common source, i.e. the perpetrator, and thus (b) establish the mtDNA HV1 sequence profile of the perpetrator. The mtDNA of the perpetrator matches that of a maternally related family member of one of four suspects. Standard autosomal STR analysis confirmed the identification. This case is of interest as an illustration of a successful application of DNA analysis as the primary means of disaster perpetrator identification.

  3. Th effectiveness of soot removal techniques for the recovery of fingerprints on glass fire debris in petrol bomb cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umi Kalthom Ahmad; Mei, Y.S.; Mohd Shahru Bahari; Raramasivam, V.K.

    2011-01-01

    The increased use of petrol bombs as an act of vengeance in Malaysia has heightened awareness for the need of research relating physical evidence found at the crime scene to the perpetrator of the crime. A study was therefore carried out to assess the effectiveness of soot removal techniques on glass fire debris without affecting the fingerprints found on the evidence. Soot was removed using three methods which were brushing, 2 % NaOH solution and tape lifting. Depending on the visibility of prints recovered, prints which were visible after soot removal were lifted directly while prints that were not visible were subjected to enhancement. Glass microscope slides were used in laboratory experiment and subjected to control burn for the formation of soot. Soot was later removed following enhancement of the prints over time (within 1 day, within 2 days and after 2 days). While in simulated petrol bomb ground experiment, petrol bombs were hurled in glass bottles and the fragments were collected. Favorable results were obtained in varying degrees using each soot removal methods. In laboratory testing, brushing and 2 % NaOH solution revealed fingerprints that were visible after removal of excess soot and were lifted directly. As for tape lifting technique, some prints were visible and were successfully lifted while those that were not visible were subjected to super glue fuming for effective fingerprint identification. (author)

  4. Micronuclei and chromosome aberrations found in bone marrow cells and lymphocytes form thorotrast patients and atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Izumi, Takaki; Ohkita, Takeshi; Kamada, Nanao (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

    1984-03-01

    As two cytogenetic parameters of radiation exposure, the frequency of micronucleus in erythroblasts, lymphocytes and red cells (Howell-Jolly body) as well as chromosome aberrations in bone marrow cells and in lymphocytes were studied in 24 thorotrast patients and in 32 atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors who were exposed within one kilometer from the Hiroshima hypocenter. The incidence of both micronucleus and chromosome aberrations in these two exposed groups were significantly higher than that in non-exposed controls. So that these two parameters are useful guide for evaluating the residual effects of radiation, especially on hematopoietic cells. Because of its simple procedures, micronucleus test is also helpful as screening for prediction of chromosome aberrations. The characteristics of lymphocyte chromosome aberrations differed considerably between thorotrast patients and A-bomb survivors; the incidence of unstable type aberrations and intracellular complexity of chromosome aberrations were much higher in the former group. The incidence of micronucleus in erythroblasts and lymphocytes was also higher in thorotrast patients. Such differences are attributable to the differences in the radiation quality (..cap alpha..-ray or ..gamma..-ray+neutron) and in the mode of exposure (persistent or single) of these two groups.

  5. CD14 and IL18 gene polymorphisms associated with colorectal cancer subsite risks among atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yiqun; Yoshida, Kengo; Cologne, John B; Maki, Mayumi; Morishita, Yukari; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Ohishi, Waka; Hida, Ayumi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Nakachi, Kei; Hayashi, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy worldwide, and chronic inflammation is a risk factor for CRC. In this study, we carried out a cohort study among the Japanese atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivor population to investigate any association between immune- and inflammation-related gene polymorphisms and CRC. We examined the effects of six single-nucleotide polymorphisms of CD14 and IL18 on relative risks (RRs) of CRC. Results showed that RRs of CRC, overall and by anatomic subsite, significantly increased with increasing radiation dose. The CD14-911A/A genotype showed statistically significant higher risks for all CRC and distal CRC compared with the other two genotypes. In addition, the IL18-137 G/G genotype showed statistically significant higher risks for proximal colon cancer compared with the other two genotypes. In phenotype-genotype analyses, the CD14-911A/A genotype presented significantly higher levels of membrane and soluble CD14 compared with the other two genotypes, and the IL18-137 G/G genotype tended to be lower levels of plasma interleukin (IL)-18 compared with the other two genotypes. These results suggest the potential involvement of a CD14-mediated inflammatory response in the development of distal CRC and an IL18-mediated inflammatory response in the development of proximal colon cancer among A-bomb survivors.

  6. Reassessment of the atomic bomb radiation dosimetry for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Dosimetry system 2002. DS02. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Robert W.; Kerr, George D.

    2005-01-01

    The extensive efforts to review the dosimetry of the atomic-bomb survivors and formulate the new dosimetry system DS02 have been greatly welcomed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). This accomplishment is a fine tribute to the importance of the epidemiological studies being conducted at RERF. No other study is so informative of the effects of radiation on human health. The gracious participation in the RERF program by the atomic-bomb survivors allows us to contribute to the well being of these individuals, and the high quality of the data obtained allows the RERF results to feature so prominently in the formulation of international guidelines for radiation protection. Such a great effort to improve and substantiate the dosimetry would not otherwise have been justified. RERF greatly appreciates the independent work of the U.S. and Japanese Working Groups on the atomic-bomb dosimetry and the review by the Joint Senior Review Group of this overall effort. We are assured that unbiased development of the new dosimetry system will reflect well in its application in the RERF epidemiology study. The documentation included in this report will serve as reference for the many deliberations concluded. The title publications are divided into 2 volumes. This is the first volume. The 8 of the reports in each chapter are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  7. Reassessment of the atomic bomb radiation dosimetry for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Dosimetry system 2002. DS02. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Robert W.; Kerr, George D.

    2005-01-01

    The extensive efforts to review the dosimetry of the atomic-bomb survivors and formulate the new dosimetry system DS02 have been greatly welcomed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). This accomplishment is a fine tribute to the importance of the epidemiological studies being conducted at RERF. No other study is so informative of the effects of radiation on human health. The gracious participation in the RERF program by the atomic-bomb survivors allows us to contribute to the well being of these individuals, and the high quality of the data obtained allows the RERF results to feature so prominently in the formulation of international guidelines for radiation protection. Such a great effort to improve and substantiate the dosimetry would not otherwise have been justified. RERF greatly appreciates the independent work of the U.S. and Japanese Working Groups on the atomic-bomb dosimetry and the review by the Joint Senior Review Group of this overall effort. We are assured that unbiased development of the new dosimetry system will reflect well in its application in the RERF epidemiology study. The documentation included in this report will serve as reference for the many deliberations concluded. The title publications are divided into 2 volumes. This is the second volume. The 29 of the reports in each chapter are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  8. Targeting cancer with 'smart bombs': equipping plant virus nanoparticles for a 'seek and destroy' mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Stefan; Lommel, Steven A

    2009-07-01

    This article discusses plant virus nanoparticles as a weapon in the war on cancer. The successes and failures of numerous nanoparticle strategies are discussed as a background to consideration of the plant virus nanoparticle approach. To have therapeutic benefit, the advantages of the targeted nanoparticle must outweigh the problems of colloidal stability, uptake by the reticuloendothelial system as well as the requirement for clearance from the body. Biodegradable nanoparticles are considered to have the most promise to address these complex phenomena. After justifying the choice of biodegradable particles, the article focuses on comparison of micelles, liposomes, polymers and modified plant viruses. The structural uniformity, cargo capacity, responsive behavior and ease of manufacturing of plant virus nanoparticles are unique properties that suggest they have a wider role to play in targeted therapy. The loading of chemotherapeutic cargo is discussed, with specific reference to the advantage of reversible transitions of the capsid of Red clover necrotic mosaic virus. These features will be contrasted and compared with other biodegradable 'smart bombs' that target cancer cells.

  9. A study on aging by physical measurements among female A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hisashi; Kurihara, Minoru; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Ikeuchi, Minoru; Munaka, Masaki

    1978-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-two women living in Hiroshima underwent physical measurements in 1970 and 1976. Those in the short-distance group (60) were directly exposed to the a-bomb within 1 km of the center of explosion. Those in the long-distance group (92) either were directly exposed over 3 km from the center of explosion, entered the city on or following the 4th day after the explosion, or nursed the exposed and disposed of the dead. Changes in physical measurement values were determined. Systolic pressure was more elevated and grasping power and vital capacity decreased more in the short-distance group than in the long-distance group. However, there was no statistically significant difference between both groups. There were few other differences between the groups. Regarding those under the age of 29 at the time of exposure, the physiological age, estimated from physical abilities (8 items were measured), was about 1 year older than the actual age at the time of the investigation. However, as the actual age increased, the physiological age tended to greatly decrease. (Tsunoda, M.)

  10. Leukemia incidence in the atomic bomb survivor Life Span Study, 1950 - 87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, D.L.; Mabuchi, K.; Kusumi, S.; Izumi, S.

    1992-01-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) is currently preparing a series of reports on cancer incidence in the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of atomic bomb survivors for the period from 1950 to 1987. One of these reports will present analyses of the data on the risk of hematopoietic cancers including leukemia, malignant lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. These analyses add an additional 11 years of follow-up to the previous comprehensive analysis of the LSS leukemia data. In this presentation, these data are presented and the methods being used modeling the leukemia risks are outlined. An analysis of the leukemia data pooled over subtypes will be used to illustrate these methods. It is shown that the data suggest a non-linear, concave upward dose response and that the temporal pattern of the radiation-induced excess absolute risks (EARs) depends on age-at-exposure and sex. There is no evidence of city differences in the EAR in this pooled analysis. The results suggest that the EARs for the youngest survivors were initially much higher and have declined more rapidly than those for older survivors. The same general pattern is seen both sexes, but the initial peak incidence is somewhat lower and the rate of decline less rapid for women than for men. (author)

  11. The Bali bombings and the evolving mental health response to disaster in Australia: lessons from Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guscott, W M; Guscott, A J; Malingambi, G; Parker, R

    2007-05-01

    The Bali bombing in 2002 initiated a new phase of trauma response for public health services in Australia, and the Royal Darwin Hospital in particular. The mental health response to the initial disaster was limited to a debriefing of Royal Darwin Hospital staff some time after the disaster. Following this initial episode, a number of important developments occurred within the Royal Darwin Hospital and nationally to further develop mental health resources. A mental health consultation liaison nursing position was established within the hospital. The Director of Mental Health for the Northern Territory, along with the Director of Psychiatry, was involved with an evolving national mental health response to mass trauma through the National Planning Group of Mental Health Response to Trauma. The improved recognition of mental health in disaster response, along with increased recognition and confidence in the consultation liaison nursing staff, considerably improved the mental health services available to patients and Royal Darwin Hospital staff following the second Bali blast in October 2005.

  12. An operated case with post-traumatic epilepsy following atomic bombing injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morioka, Takato; Nishio Shunji; Muraishi; Mitsuteru; Hisada, Kei; Takase, Keiichirou; Matsukado, Koichiro; Sasaki, Masayuki; Fukui, Masashi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Ohta, Michiya

    1999-12-01

    The case was 54-years-old man who was bombed at 4-years old 1.5 km apart from the center of explosion in Hiroshima, and had intractable epilepsy after 10 years or more. He suffered from systemic convulsion from 18 years old and took anti-convulsant drugs from 23 years old. The frequency of seizure increased from once a half year to thrice 2 months for these 3-4 years. The attack mainly occurred at night, and it was generalized tonicoclonic convulsion accompanied with unconsciousness and urinary incontience. Valproate (1,800 mg) and clonazepam (1 mg) failed to control the attack, and then he was referred to author's hospital. By CT scanning, MRI and HMPAO-SPECT, the area around the ossified lesion in the right frontal lobe was considered the focus of the epilepsy, and the focus was removed on June 4, 1998. No neurodegeneration and convulsive seizure occurred after surgery. The ossified lesion was confirmed to be bone tissue containing osteoblasts from histological findings and was accompanied by severe gliosis to the brain surface. A large number of active astrocytes were found around the nerve cells in the cortex showing spine-like wave focus, but there were no significant changes in blood vessels in the brain. (K.H.)

  13. Autopsy findings of the first and second filial generations of atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satow, Yukio (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

    1992-01-01

    Autopsy findings of 652 fetuses whose parents or one parent were exposed to the Atomic Bomb (F[sub 1]) and 115 fetuses which had one or two grandparents exposed (F[sub 2]) were compared with that of 8570 fetuses whose parents were not exposed (control). The F[sub 1] fetuses have been collected since 1963 and F[sub 2] fetuses since 1971 voluntarily in Hiroshima. The findings were classified according to the types of delivery and to the distances away from the hypocenter where the parents and grandparents were exposed. Many normal cases in the group of artificial abortions and many malformations and pathological findings in the group of spontaneous abortions were found in both groups of F[sub 1] and F[sub 2]. The malformations were cardiovascular, central nervous and urogenital system, quantitatively in that order, in both groups of F[sub 1] and F[sub 2]. Although there were a few cases of cystic kidney and chondrodystrophy which belong to autosomal dominant and osteogenesis imperfecta which belong to autosomal recessive, these cases were not correlated with the distance. Most cases of malformation which belong to the multifactorial inheritance were found in each organ. No peculiar malformation was found in the groups of F[sub 1] and F[sub 2]. (author).

  14. Genetic effects of atomic bomb radiation on growth of stature of F1 generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusho, Toshiyuki

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of the data on stature of high school students aged from 15 to 17 in Hiroshima Prefecture, exposed group was divided into two groups. One was both-parents exposed group and the other was one-parent only exposed group. Each group was subdivided into 1 rad > exposed group and 1 rad . However, the difference of fourth central moment and correlation showed no definite tendency. Difference of mean was minus in many children of the father exposed and mother non-exposed group, but was plus in the contrary group. In other groups, no definite tendency was found. Regression analysis of exposure dose of parents from mean value of children showed no particular results, including non-exposed group or not. However, minus regression coefficient was more frequently seen on statistically significant level. Estimated value of induced mutation rate of polygene by A-bomb radiation, which effected on stature per generation, site of polygene in co-ordinate and 1 rad, was very low. As it was, however, the estimated value per 1 rad, it seemed to be not necessarily low. Concerning on the induced mutation rate, similar results were obtained in both-parents exposed group and one-parent only exposed group. (Kanao, N.)

  15. Autopsy findings of the first and second filial generations of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satow, Yukio

    1992-01-01

    Autopsy findings of 652 fetuses whose parents or one parent were exposed to the Atomic Bomb (F 1 ) and 115 fetuses which had one or two grandparents exposed (F 2 ) were compared with that of 8570 fetuses whose parents were not exposed (control). The F 1 fetuses have been collected since 1963 and F 2 fetuses since 1971 voluntarily in Hiroshima. The findings were classified according to the types of delivery and to the distances away from the hypocenter where the parents and grandparents were exposed. Many normal cases in the group of artificial abortions and many malformations and pathological findings in the group of spontaneous abortions were found in both groups of F 1 and F 2 . The malformations were cardiovascular, central nervous and urogenital system, quantitatively in that order, in both groups of F 1 and F 2 . Although there were a few cases of cystic kidney and chondrodystrophy which belong to autosomal dominant and osteogenesis imperfecta which belong to autosomal recessive, these cases were not correlated with the distance. Most cases of malformation which belong to the multifactorial inheritance were found in each organ. No peculiar malformation was found in the groups of F 1 and F 2 . (author)

  16. Blast experiments for the derivation of initial cloud dimensions after a ''Dirty Bomb'' event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thielen, H.; Schroedl, E.

    2004-01-01

    Basis for the assessment of potential consequences of a ''dirty bomb'' event is the calculation of the atmospheric dispersion of airborne particles. The empirical derivation of parameters for the estimation of the initial pollutant cloud dimensions was the principal purpose for blast experiments performed in the training area Munster in summer 2003 with the participation of several highly engaged German organisations and institutions. The experiments were performed under variation of parameters like mass and kind of explosive, subsurface characteristics or meteorological conditions and were documented by digital video recording. The blasting experiments supplied significant results under reproducible conditions. The initial cloud dimension was primarily influenced by the explosive mass. The influence of other parameters was relatively small and within the range of the experimental uncertainties. Based on these experimental results a new correlation was determined for the empirical estimation of the initial cloud dimensions as a function of explosive mass. The observed initial cloud volumes were more than an order of magnitude smaller than those calculated with other widely-used formulas (e.g. HOTSPOT). As a smaller volume of the initial cloud leads to higher near-ground concentration maxima, our results support an appropriate adjustment of currently employed calculation methods. (orig.)

  17. Report on the results of the ninth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Michiya; Hiyama, Keiko; Matsuo, Kakaru; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Nishida, Masashi; Sasaki, Yoshinobu

    2001-01-01

    The results of the ninth medical examination are reported. Atomic bomb survivors who had emigrated to South America as of November 2000 totaled 180 (153 to Brazil, 4 to Paraguay, 7 to Bolivia, 13 to Argentina, and 3 to Peru). Eighty persons (44.4%) were examined (62 in Brazil, 2 in Paraguay, 6 in Bolivia, 7 in Argentina, and 3 in Peru). The mean age of the males was 71.3 years, and the mean age of the females was 69.7 years. They had hypertension (24.1%), diabetes (10.1%), cancer (8.9%), heart disease (7.6%), and thyroid disease (2.5%). The most common manifestations of illness were fatigue (69.6%), loss of vigor (65.8%), taking medicine (55.7%), and heat intolerance (53.2%). The incident rates of electrocardiographic abnormalities and urine, blood, and biochemical tests abnormalities were almost the same as at the previous examination, and there was no change in the percentage of those who required detailed tests and treatment. When independence in daily life was judged by the criteria of the nursing care insurance system, 68 persons were judged ''independent'', and 7 persons ''handicapped.'' (K.H.)

  18. Proceedings of 41st Research Society for the Late Effects of the A-Bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-09-01

    This issue is the collection of study papers presented in the meeting in the title of the special review lecture concerning the late effect research, the symposium concerning the Tokai JCO criticality accident (6 presentations: radiation quality and dose assessment, treatment of highly-irradiated patients, medical preparedness, health care with its global standard for the residents, health management of public, and proposal from a view of medical care supporting A-bomb survivors) and 47 general presentations. The general presentations included 6 concerning the health care and management of the survivors, 3, hematological examinations, 2, cancer risk (lung and mammary gland), 1, blood pressure, 1, urinary occult blood, 4, thyroid diseases involving its cancer, 5, health physics studies in relation to Semipalatinsk and/or Belarus-Chernobyl, 4, experimental studies using animals, 4, cytological studies like gene mutation, 17, basic radiation biology studies such as those on gene expression, cloning (human REV1), mutation, abnormal protein expression, apoptosis, and gene therapy of hepatoma cells. (K.H.)

  19. Genetic instability model for cancer risk in A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, Ohtsura

    1998-01-01

    This review was written rather against Mendelsohn's reductionist model for cancer risk in A-bomb survivors in following chapters. Assumptions for carcinogenic process: mutation of a cell to the cancer cell and its proliferation. Multi-step theory for carcinogenesis and age of crisis: induction of cancer by accumulation of cancer-related gene mutations which being linear to time (age). Effect of exogenous hit in the multi-step theory: radiation as an exogenous hit to damage DNA. Dose-effect relationship for cancer risk in the survivors and the problem for the latent period: for solid tumors, dose-effect relationship is linear and shortening of the latent period is not observed. Considerations on cancer data in adulthood exposure/Indirect effect model in radiation carcinogenesis: solid cancer data supporting the indirect effect model. Possible mechanism for radiation-induced long-term increase of natural mutation frequency: genetic instability remaining in the irradiated cells which being a basis of the indirect effect model. Notes for considerations of carcinogenicity in exposed people/Difference in carcinogenic mechanisms due to age. The author concluded that the radiation-induced carcinogenesis is deeply related with the natural carcinogenesis and particularly for solid cancers, it can not be explained by the classic reductionist model. (K.H.)

  20. Analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes of atomic bomb survivors using monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kobuke, Kyoko; Hakoda, Masayuki; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Ochi, Yoshimichi; Jones, S.L.; Olson, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    In order to study the effects of exposure to atomic bomb radiation on the immune competence of man, the proportions of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets (subpopulations) were determined by an indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay using monoclonal antibodies and fluorescence microscopy. The study was based on a total of 104 Adult Health Study participants in Hiroshima, including 29 individuals exposed to 100 + rad, 46 exposed to 1 - 99 rad, and 29 0 rad controls. No change in the proportion of Leu-1 positive cells (total T cells) and Leu-2a positive cells (cytotoxic/suppressor T cells) and the ratio of Leu-3a/Leu-2a was observed with age, while Leu-3a positive cells (helper/inducer T cells) decreased with age and HLA-DR positive cells (B cells and monocytes) increased with age, with the differences occurring predominantly in the oldest age group (age > 75). The proportion of HLA-DR positive cells was higher in males, but there was no significant sex difference in the proportions of other cell types and the ratio of Leu-3a/Leu-2a. Radiation exposure did not significantly affect the proportions of Leu-1, Leu-2a, Leu-3a, and HLA-DR positive cells and the ratio of Leu-3a/Leu-2a. No interaction between the effects of age and radiation exposure was demonstrated. (author)