WorldWideScience

Sample records for bomb health benefits

  1. The mental health state of atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, Yoshibumi; Imamura, Yoshihiro; Yoshitake, Kazuyasu; Honda, Sumihisa; Mine, Mariko; Hatada, Keiko; Tomonaga, Masao [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Tagawa, Masuko

    1997-03-01

    Our department of Neuropsychiatry has clarified the clinical features of several mental disorders and surveyed the causes of those disorders from the psychosocial aspect using the methodology of epidemiological psychiatric approach. Using this previous research experience, we began a long-planned study to examine the mental health state of atomic bomb survivors. Fifty-one years have passed since the atomic bombing, and the survivors must have suffered various psychosocial stresses, other than any direct effect on the central nervous system from exposure to radiation, and it is assumed that victims` mental state has been affected in various ways as a result. The subjects of the survey were 7,670 people who had regular health examinations for atomic bomb survivors during the study period of three years and who consented to participate in the study. Of the total, 226 subjects were selected for a second phase according to the results of the General Health Questionnaire 12-item Version which was used in the first phase of the survey. The results were as follows: 1. The distance from the hypocenter was related to the degree of ill health, and the percentage of people with a high score was greater among those exposed to the atomic bomb in proximity to the hypocenter. 2. 14.6% of the subjects were diagnosed as having some kind of mental disorders according to clinical interviews by trained psychiatrists. These results had not expected prior to the study. On the based of the study, we will try to establish a mental health support system for atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  2. Terrorism, suicide bombing, fear and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Ian

    2007-06-01

    This paper is based on the Bruce Burns Memorial Trust Lecture, Terrorism and Mental Health, presented in October 2005, in Birmingham. In addition to written sources, it is informed by the author's experience and contact with military and police experts in this arena over 28 years as a member of the British Army. The diagnosis and treatment of post traumatic mental disorders are not addressed in this paper. The author explores the general phenomenon of terrorism, in an endeavour to inform understanding of terrorist acts. He stresses the need for contextualisation of acts of terror, their perpetrators, their effects on populations and individuals, and attention to the psychology of groups. The author aims to invite and inform further thought and debate on the subject by raising a wide range of issues which do not sit comfortably within a strict psychiatric, research-based paradigm. The author covers a brief history of terrorism; organisational requirements of terror groups and the process of recruiting personnel to them; the means, motives and opportunities terrorists exploit in their work; the need for communication with terror groups; sacrificial death; governmental responses to terrorist acts and fear and mental health. The author proposes that terrorist organisations perform some of the functions of a family; that acts of terror are 'propaganda by deed'; that terrorism, or more precisely the media's treatment of it, breeds 'formless fears' which may directly lead to the development of fear-based symptoms and illness within societies. He notes that terrorism is an enterprise from which many players ('experts', media, politicians, etc.) benefit; that terrorism has its shadow in counter-terrorism, which may range from benign to malignant and that psychiatry could, in this context, acknowledge its bias towards individual psychologies and rectify its lack of understanding of groups and the behaviours of individuals within them.

  3. Health survey of atomic bomb survivors in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arita, Ken-ichi; Iwamori, Hiroshi; Kishi, Akihiro; Koutoku, Michiya.

    1988-05-01

    Health survey was undertaken among Korea survivors exposed to atomic bomb in Japan who now reside in South Korea. Of 232 A-bomb survivors on whom raditation exposure information was available, all were exposed to atomic bomb in Hiroshima. According to the distance from the hypocenter, one (0.4 %) A-bomb survior was exposed at < 1,000 m, 60 (25.9 %) at 1,000 - 2,000 m, 124 (53.4 %) at > 2,000 - 3,000 m, and 43 (18.5 %) at < 3,000 m. In the four remaining, it was unknown. According to age, 14.7 % were in their forties, 33.6 % in their fifties, 32.6 % in their sixties, 16.0 % in their severties, and 3.1 % in their eighties, indicating the tendency for the aging of older persons. Common subjective symptoms were lumbar pain and joint pain, which seemed atributable to osteoarthritis. Other diseases included hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sequelae of cerebral stroke, eczema, and mycosis. (Namekawa, K.).

  4. How training and experience affect the benefits of autonomy in a dirty-bomb experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Bruemmer; Curtis W. Nielsen; David I. Gertman

    2008-03-01

    A dirty-bomb experiment conducted at the INL is used to evaluate the effectiveness and suitability of three different modes of robot control. The experiment uses three distinct user groups to understand how participants’ background and training affect the way in which they use and benefit from autonomy. The results show that the target mode, which involves automated mapping and plume tracing together with a point and click tasking tool, provides the best performance for each group. This is true for objective performance such as source detection and localization accuracy as well as subjective measures such as perceived workload, frustration and preference. The best overall performance is achieved by the Explosive Ordinance Disposal group which has experience in both robot teleoperation and dirty bomb response. The user group that benefits least from autonomy is the Nuclear Engineers that have no experience with either robot operation or dirty bomb response. The group that benefits most from autonomy is the Weapons of Mass Destruction Civil Response Team that has extensive experience related to the task, but no robot training.

  5. WHEAT GRASS HEALTH BENEFITS

    OpenAIRE

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-01-01

    Nutraceutical is a food or food product that provides health and medical benefits, including the preventionand treatment of disease. Nutraceuticals are the products typically claim to prevent chronic diseases, improve health,delay the aging process, and increase life expectancy.Let us know something about one such nutraceutical.Wheatgrass is a commonly found herb in India contains enzymes like protease, cytrochrome, amylase, lipase,transhydrogenase and SOD (super oxide dismutase). Besides the...

  6. Long-Term Health Effects of Atom Bomb on Japan Not as Bad as Feared: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Long-Term Health Effects of Atom Bomb on Japan Not as Bad as Feared: Study Survivors of ... 2011 at a nuclear power plant in Fukushima, Japan, after an earthquake triggered a massive tsunami shows ...

  7. WHEAT GRASS HEALTH BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nutraceutical is a food or food product that provides health and medical benefits, including the preventionand treatment of disease. Nutraceuticals are the products typically claim to prevent chronic diseases, improve health,delay the aging process, and increase life expectancy.Let us know something about one such nutraceutical.Wheatgrass is a commonly found herb in India contains enzymes like protease, cytrochrome, amylase, lipase,transhydrogenase and SOD (super oxide dismutase. Besides these enzymes, it also contains all the essential aminoacids especially alanine, asparatic acid, glutamic acid, arginine and serine, which are helpful in providing good amountof protein in body which builds and repair tissues. Wheatgrass contains chlorophyll and flavonoids in good amount.It also contains vitamins like vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E and minerals like iron, calcium and magnesium.Chlorophyll has been shown to build red blood cells quickly,cures anemia, normalise blood pressure by dilating theblood vessels. Chlorophyll has been shown to produce an unfavourable environment for bacterial growth in the bodyand therefore effective in increasing the body's resistance to illness. Probably the most important benefit ofwheatgrass is, it is a cancer fighting agent. Many people strongly believe that the benefits of wheatgrass on cancerare real and that consuming wheat grass can help in the treatment and even in the prevention of cancer. Wheatgrassproduces an immunization effect against many dietary carcinogens..Additional benefits of wheatgrass are bettercomplexion and a healthy glow. The slowing of graying hair is also a benefit believed to come from wheatgrass. Wecan grow wheat grass in small cups, pots and trays very conveniently in our homes, so that we will have fresh juiceand powder with minimum cost.

  8. HEALTH BENEFITS OF BARLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of lifestyle diseases is increasing day by day. Mostly the younger generation do not have much awareness about healthy nutritional supplements. One such important cereal grain not used mostly by youngsters is barley It is a good old grain with so many health benefits like weight reduction, decreasing blood pressure, blood cholesterol, blood glucose in Type 2 diabetes and preventing colon cancer. It is easily available and cheap grain. It contains both soluble and insoluble fiber, protein, vitamins B and E, minerals selenium, magnesium and iron, copper, flavonoids and anthocynins. Barley contains soluble fiber, beta glucan binds to bile acids in the intestines and thereby decreasing plasma cholesterol levels. Absorbed soluble fiber decreases cholesterol synthesis by liver and cleansing blood vessels. Insoluble fiber provides bulkiness in the intestines, thereby satiety. decreased appetite. It promotes intestinal movements relieving constipation, cleansing colonic harmful bacteria and reduced incidence of colonic cancer. It is a good source of niacin ,reducing LDL levels and increasing HDL levels. Selenium and vitamin E providing beneficial antioxidant effects. Magnesium, a cofactor for many carbohydrate metabolism enzymes and high fiber content contributes for its blood glucose reducing effect in Type 2 diabetes. It is having good diuretic activity and is useful in urinary tract infections. Barley contains gluten, contraindicated in celiac disease.

  9. Health benefits of particle filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, W J

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also, reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percentage improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, for example, 7% to 25%. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  10. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percentage improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, e.g., 7percent to 25percent. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  11. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also, reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percent age improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, for example, 7percent to 25percent. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  12. Health benefits of Moringa oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal; Ibrahim, Muhammad Din; Kntayya, Saie Brindha

    2014-01-01

    Phytomedicines are believed to have benefits over conventional drugs and are regaining interest in current research. Moringa oleifera is a multi-purpose herbal plant used as human food and an alternative for medicinal purposes worldwide. It has been identified by researchers as a plant with numerous health benefits including nutritional and medicinal advantages. Moringa oleifera contains essential amino acids, carotenoids in leaves, and components with nutraceutical properties, supporting the idea of using this plant as a nutritional supplement or constituent in food preparation. Some nutritional evaluation has been carried out in leaves and stem. An important factor that accounts for the medicinal uses of Moringa oleifera is its very wide range of vital antioxidants, antibiotics and nutrients including vitamins and minerals. Almost all parts from Moringa can be used as a source for nutrition with other useful values. This mini-review elaborate on details its health benefits.

  13. Soybean Consumption And Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Neela Bolla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract soy foods are rich source of dietary protein. soy based foods are rich in a class of compounds called isoflavones. Isoflavones have chemical structure that is similar to the hormone estrogen receptors commonly called phytoestrogens. the consumption of soy isoflavones appears to result in health benefits for cancer heart disease menopausal symptoms and osteoporosis. so as a result soy protein have become major components of food.

  14. Soybean Consumption And Health Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Kusuma Neela Bolla

    2015-01-01

    Abstract soy foods are rich source of dietary protein. soy based foods are rich in a class of compounds called isoflavones. Isoflavones have chemical structure that is similar to the hormone estrogen receptors commonly called phytoestrogens. the consumption of soy isoflavones appears to result in health benefits for cancer heart disease menopausal symptoms and osteoporosis. so as a result soy protein have become major components of food.

  15. Health Benefits of Fiber Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Wendy J; Agro, Nicole C; Eliasson, Åsa M; Mialki, Kaley L; Olivera, Joseph D; Rusch, Carley T; Young, Carly N

    2017-02-01

    Although fiber is well recognized for its effect on laxation, increasing evidence supports the role of fiber in the prevention and treatment of chronic disease. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the health benefits of fiber and its fermentation, and describe how the products of fermentation may influence disease risk and treatment. Higher fiber intakes are associated with decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of cancer. Fiber may also have a role in lowering blood pressure and in preventing obesity by limiting weight gain. Fiber is effective in managing blood glucose in type 2 diabetes, useful for weight loss, and may provide therapeutic adjunctive roles in kidney and liver disease. In addition, higher fiber diets are not contraindicated in inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome and may provide some benefit. Common to the associations with disease reduction is fermentation of fiber and its potential to modulate microbiota and its activities and inflammation, specifically the production of anti-inflammatory short chain fatty acids, primarily from saccharolytic fermentation, versus the deleterious products of proteolytic activity. Because fiber intake is inversely associated with all-cause mortality, mechanisms by which fiber may reduce chronic disease risk and provide therapeutic benefit to those with chronic disease need further elucidation and large, randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm causality.Teaching Points• Strong evidence supports the association between higher fiber diets and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of cancer.• Higher fiber intakes are associated with lower body weight and body mass index, and some types of fiber may facilitate weight loss.• Fiber is recommended as an adjunctive medical nutritional therapy for type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and certain liver diseases.• Fermentation and the resulting shifts in

  16. Health Benefits of Nut Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Ros

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nuts (tree nuts and peanuts are nutrient dense foods with complex matrices rich in unsaturated fatty and other bioactive compounds: high-quality vegetable protein, fiber, minerals, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phenolic compounds. By virtue of their unique composition, nuts are likely to beneficially impact health outcomes. Epidemiologic studies have associated nut consumption with a reduced incidence of coronary heart disease and gallstones in both genders and diabetes in women. Limited evidence also suggests beneficial effects on hypertension, cancer, and inflammation. Interventional studies consistently show that nut intake has a cholesterol-lowering effect, even in the context of healthy diets, and there is emerging evidence of beneficial effects on oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular reactivity. Blood pressure, visceral adiposity and the metabolic syndrome also appear to be positively influenced by nut consumption. Thus it is clear that nuts have a beneficial impact on many cardiovascular risk factors. Contrary to expectations, epidemiologic studies and clinical trials suggest that regular nut consumption is unlikely to contribute to obesity and may even help in weight loss. Safety concerns are limited to the infrequent occurrence of nut allergy in children. In conclusion, nuts are nutrient rich foods with wide-ranging cardiovascular and metabolic benefits, which can be readily incorporated into healthy diets.

  17. 5 CFR 630.1209 - Health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....1209 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1209 Health benefits. An employee enrolled in a health benefits..., United States Code) who is placed in a leave without pay status as a result of entitlement to leave...

  18. A terrorist bomb blast, a real challenge for any tertiary care health provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shiv Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Katyal, Surabhi

    2014-01-01

    Multiple casualties and the complex set of injuries in survivors of a terrorist bomb blast poses a real challenge to health care providers. We are presenting three such cases, first case suffered a fracture of both bone lower limb bilaterally along with head injury (foreign bodies were impacted in the scalp and brain parenchyma). Following primary resuscitation, patient shifted to operation theatre after a quick computerized tomography scan and external fixator applied in general anesthesia using the rapid sequence induction. No active neurosurgical intervention was done. As this patient had acute post-traumatic stress response, he was subjected to low pressure hyperbaric oxygen therapy (pressure of 1.5 ATA for 60 min a day for 10 days) and group counseling. He had good recovery except one lost a limb because of extensive neurovascular damage due to blast. Second case had much more extensive damage involving multiple organ systems. He had blast lung, big cerebrovascular hemorrhage along with gut perforation. Despite best possible surgical and intensive care interventions, patent developed multiple organ failure and unfortunately we lost our patient. Third case was of a right sided globe rupture resulted from blast induced flying foreign bodies. After primary survey and initial resuscitation evisceration done for the damaged eye and patient later on discharged with necessary instruction (including warning signs) for follow-up.

  19. A terrorist bomb blast, a real challenge for any tertiary care health provider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shiv Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Katyal, Surabhi

    2014-01-01

    Multiple casualties and the complex set of injuries in survivors of a terrorist bomb blast poses a real challenge to health care providers. We are presenting three such cases, first case suffered a fracture of both bone lower limb bilaterally along with head injury (foreign bodies were impacted in the scalp and brain parenchyma). Following primary resuscitation, patient shifted to operation theatre after a quick computerized tomography scan and external fixator applied in general anesthesia using the rapid sequence induction. No active neurosurgical intervention was done. As this patient had acute post-traumatic stress response, he was subjected to low pressure hyperbaric oxygen therapy (pressure of 1.5 ATA for 60 min a day for 10 days) and group counseling. He had good recovery except one lost a limb because of extensive neurovascular damage due to blast. Second case had much more extensive damage involving multiple organ systems. He had blast lung, big cerebrovascular hemorrhage along with gut perforation. Despite best possible surgical and intensive care interventions, patent developed multiple organ failure and unfortunately we lost our patient. Third case was of a right sided globe rupture resulted from blast induced flying foreign bodies. After primary survey and initial resuscitation evisceration done for the damaged eye and patient later on discharged with necessary instruction (including warning signs) for follow-up. PMID:25886231

  20. Health benefits of prebiotic fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Diederick

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the various compounds that can act as prebiotic fibers: their structure, occurrence, production, and physiological effects (health effects) will be presented. The basis for the description is the latest definitions for dietary fibers and for prebiotics. Using as much as possible data from human studies, both the fiber and the prebiotic properties will be described of a variety of compounds. Based on the presented data the latest developments in the area of prebiotics, fibers and gut and immune health will be discussed in more detail as they show best what the potential impact of prebiotics on health of the human host might be.

  1. The Benefits of Health Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, Alan H.

    1987-01-01

    The article focuses on the merits of a comprehensive, medically-oriented health maintenance/risk assessment program, and suggests that such conditions as heart disease, cancer, and arteriosclerosis can be prevented or postponed through proper nutrition, weight control, exercise, smoking cessation, and stress management. (Author/CB)

  2. Terrorist bombing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Ami; Kluger, Yoram

    2006-01-01

    Bombings and explosion incidents directed against innocent civilians are the primary instrument of global terror. In the present review we highlight the major observations and lessons learned from these events. Five mechanisms of blast injury are outlined and the different type of injury that they cause is described. Indeed, the consequences of terror bombings differ from those of non-terrorism trauma in severity and complexity of injury, and constitute a new class of casualties that differ from those of conventional trauma. The clinical implications of terror bombing, in treatment dilemmas in the multidimensional injury, ancillary evaluation and handling of terror bombing mass casualty event are highlighted. All this leads to the conclusion that thorough medical preparedness to cope with this new epidemic is required, and that understanding of detonation and blast dynamics and how they correlate with the injury patterns is pivotal for revision of current mass casualty protocols. PMID:17101058

  3. Terrorist bombing

    OpenAIRE

    Kluger Yoram; Mayo Ami

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Bombings and explosion incidents directed against innocent civilians are the primary instrument of global terror. In the present review we highlight the major observations and lessons learned from these events. Five mechanisms of blast injury are outlined and the different type of injury that they cause is described. Indeed, the consequences of terror bombings differ from those of non-terrorism trauma in severity and complexity of injury, and constitute a new class of casualties that...

  4. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-08-04

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits.

  5. Nutritional and digestive health benefits of seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Niranjan; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2011-01-01

    Seaweed is a famous delicacy in some parts of the Asia and also a well-known source of important food hydrocolloids, such as agar, alginates, and carrageenan. In addition to the food value of seaweed, several health benefits have also been reported to be present in this valuable food source. It is presumed that the unique features of the marine environment, where the seaweeds are grown, are mainly responsible for most of its properties. Among the functional effects of the seaweed, nutritional and health-related benefits have been widely studied. Compared to the terrestrial plants and animal-based foods, seaweed is rich in some health-promoting molecules and materials such as, dietary fiber, ω-3 fatty acids, essential amino acids, and vitamins A, B, C, and E. In this chapter, the nutritive value of seaweed and the functional effects of its soluble fiber are discussed with a special reference to the digestive health promotion of human.

  6. Oral health benefits of chewing gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades sugar-free chewing gum has developed in an oral healthcare product, next to the conventional products such as the toothbrush and mouthrinses. In this thesis we investigate the oral health benefits of chewing gum and the effects of additives to chewing gum, such as antimicrobials.

  7. Combined oral contraceptives: health benefits beyond contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caserta, D; Ralli, E; Matteucci, E; Bordi, G; Mallozzi, M; Moscarini, M

    2014-09-01

    It has been recognized for over 50 years that combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are also capable of offering health benefits beyond contraception through the treatment and prevention of several gynaecological and medical disorders. During the last years a constant attention was given to the adverse effects of COCs, whereas their non-contraceptive benefits were underestimated. To date, most women are still unaware of the therapeutic uses of hormonal contraceptives, while on the contrary there is an extensive and constantly increasing of these non-contraceptive health benefits. This review summarizes the conditions of special interest for physicians, including dysmenorrhoea, menorrhagia, hyperandrogenism (acne, hirsutism, polycystic ovary syndrome), functional ovarian cysts, endometriosis, premenstrual syndrome, myomas, pelvic inflammatory disease, bone mineral density, benign breast disease and endometrial/ovarian and colorectal cancer. The benefits of COCs in rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, menstrual migraine and in perimenopause have also been treated for more comprehensive information. Using COCs specifically for non-contraceptive indications is still outside the product licence in the majority of cases. We strongly believe that these aspects are not of minor relevance and they deserve a special consideration by health providers and by the mass media, which have the main responsibility in the diffusion of scientific information. Thus, counseling and education are necessary to help women make well-informed health-care decisions and it is also crucial to increase awareness among general practitioners and gynaecologists.

  8. Britain's bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corfield, Richard

    2012-10-01

    On the 60th anniversary of Britain's first nuclear test, Richard Corfield explores how Operation Hurricane - the British effort to develop the atomic bomb in the 1940s and 1950s - compares with states such as Iran that today wish to have such devices.

  9. 42 CFR 457.420 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 457.420 Section 457.420 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.420 Benchmark health benefits coverage....

  10. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Ya Li; Jiao-Jiao Zhang; Dong-Ping Xu; Tong Zhou; Yue. Zhou; Sha Li; Hua-Bin Li

    2016-01-01

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we rev...

  11. Nutritional and health benefits of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denke, M A

    2000-11-01

    Physicians should be aware of the growing evidence supporting the nutritional and health benefits of moderate consumption of alcohol as part of a healthy lifestyle. The recently approved voluntary label on wine ("the proud people who made this wine encourage you to consult your family doctor about the health effects of wine consumption") implies that physicians should promote wine as the preferred source of dietary alcohol. However, studies evaluating the relative benefits of wine versus beer versus spirits suggest that moderate consumption of any alcoholic beverage is associated with lower rates of cardiovascular disease. From a nutritional standpoint, beer contains more protein and B vitamins than wine. The antioxidant content of beer is equivalent to that of wine, but the specific antioxidants are different because the barley and hops used in the production of beer contain flavonoids different from those in the grapes used in the production of wine. The benefits of moderate alcohol consumption have not been generally endorsed by physicians for fear that heavy consumers may consider any message as a permissive license to drink in excess. Discussions with patients regarding alcohol consumption should be made in the context of a general medical examination. There is no evidence to support endorsement of one type of alcoholic beverage over another. The physician should define moderate drinking (1 drink per day for women and 2 drinks per day for men) for the patient and should review consumption patterns associated with high risk.

  12. Fiber and Prebiotics: Mechanisms and Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Slavin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The health benefits of dietary fiber have long been appreciated. Higher intakes of dietary fiber are linked to less cardiovascular disease and fiber plays a role in gut health, with many effective laxatives actually isolated fiber sources. Higher intakes of fiber are linked to lower body weights. Only polysaccharides were included in dietary fiber originally, but more recent definitions have included oligosaccharides as dietary fiber, not based on their chemical measurement as dietary fiber by the accepted total dietary fiber (TDF method, but on their physiological effects. Inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, and other oligosaccharides are included as fiber in food labels in the US. Additionally, oligosaccharides are the best known “prebiotics”, “a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well-bring and health.” To date, all known and suspected prebiotics are carbohydrate compounds, primarily oligosaccharides, known to resist digestion in the human small intestine and reach the colon where they are fermented by the gut microflora. Studies have provided evidence that inulin and oligofructose (OF, lactulose, and resistant starch (RS meet all aspects of the definition, including the stimulation of Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial genus. Other isolated carbohydrates and carbohydrate-containing foods, including galactooligosaccharides (GOS, transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS, polydextrose, wheat dextrin, acacia gum, psyllium, banana, whole grain wheat, and whole grain corn also have prebiotic effects.

  13. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirtida R Tandel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, animal studies have convincingly proven that artificial sweeteners cause weight gain, brain tumors, bladder cancer and many other health hazards. Some kind of health related side effects including carcinogenicity are also noted in humans. A large number of studies have been carried out on these substances with conclusions ranging from "safe under all conditions" to "unsafe at any dose". Scientists are divided in their views on the issue of artificial sweetener safety. In scientific as well as in lay publications, supporting studies are often widely referenced while the opposing results are de-emphasized or dismissed. So this review aims to explore the health controversy over perceived benefits of sugar substitutes.

  14. Fiber and prebiotics: mechanisms and health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne

    2013-04-22

    The health benefits of dietary fiber have long been appreciated. Higher intakes of dietary fiber are linked to less cardiovascular disease and fiber plays a role in gut health, with many effective laxatives actually isolated fiber sources. Higher intakes of fiber are linked to lower body weights. Only polysaccharides were included in dietary fiber originally, but more recent definitions have included oligosaccharides as dietary fiber, not based on their chemical measurement as dietary fiber by the accepted total dietary fiber (TDF) method, but on their physiological effects. Inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, and other oligosaccharides are included as fiber in food labels in the US. Additionally, oligosaccharides are the best known "prebiotics", "a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well-bring and health." To date, all known and suspected prebiotics are carbohydrate compounds, primarily oligosaccharides, known to resist digestion in the human small intestine and reach the colon where they are fermented by the gut microflora. Studies have provided evidence that inulin and oligofructose (OF), lactulose, and resistant starch (RS) meet all aspects of the definition, including the stimulation of Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial genus. Other isolated carbohydrates and carbohydrate-containing foods, including galactooligosaccharides (GOS), transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS), polydextrose, wheat dextrin, acacia gum, psyllium, banana, whole grain wheat, and whole grain corn also have prebiotic effects.

  15. Health benefits of probiotics: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kechagia, Maria; Basoulis, Dimitrios; Konstantopoulou, Stavroula; Dimitriadi, Dimitra; Gyftopoulou, Konstantina; Skarmoutsou, Nikoletta; Fakiri, Eleni Maria

    2013-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria have become increasingly popular during the last two decades as a result of the continuously expanding scientific evidence pointing to their beneficial effects on human health. As a result they have been applied as various products with the food industry having been very active in studying and promoting them. Within this market the probiotics have been incorporated in various products, mainly fermented dairy foods. In light of this ongoing trend and despite the strong scientific evidence associating these microorganisms to various health benefits, further research is needed in order to establish them and evaluate their safety as well as their nutritional aspects. The purpose of this paper is to review the current documentation on the concept and the possible beneficial properties of probiotic bacteria in the literature, focusing on those available in food.

  16. Avocado: characteristics, health benefits and uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Fonseca Duarte

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to present a literature review about the characteristics, applications, and potential of avocado (Persea americana. Avocado is considered one of the main tropical fruits, as it contains fat-soluble vitamins which are less common in other fruits, besides high levels of protein, potassium and unsaturated fatty acids. Avocado pulp contains variable oil content, and is widely used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry, and in the production of commercial oils similar to olive oil. This fruit has been recognized for its health benefits, especially due to the compounds present in the lipidic fraction, such as omega fatty acids, phytosterols, tocopherols and squalene. Studies have shown the benefits of avocado associated to a balanced diet, especially in reducing cholesterol and preventing cardiovascular diseases. The processed avocado pulp is an alternative to utilize fruits, which can be used in various value-added food products. Fluid extract of the avocado leaves is widely used in pharmaceutical products, mainly due to the diuretic characteristic of the present compounds in plant leaves. With the increasing research supporting the nutritional characteristics and benefits of avocado, the tendency is to increase the production and exploitation of this raw material in Brazil, as also observed in other countries.

  17. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Rui

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals.

  18. 42 CFR 440.330 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 440.330 Section... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Benchmark Benefit and Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.330 Benchmark health benefits coverage. Benchmark coverage is...

  19. Polyphenol content and health benefits of raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Gary; Carughi, Arianna

    2010-08-01

    The health benefits of grapes and wine have been studied and publicized extensively, but dried grapes (raisins, including "sultanas" and "currants") have received comparatively little attention. The purpose of the review was to summarize the polyphenol, phenolic acid, and tannin (PPT) composition of raisins; predict the likely bioavailability of the component PPT; and summarize the results of human intervention studies involving raisins. The most abundant PPTs are the flavonols, quercetin and kaempferol, and the phenolic acids, caftaric and coutaric acid. On a wet weight basis, some PPTs, such as protocatechuic and oxidized cinnamic acids, are present at a higher level in raisins compared to grapes. In human intervention studies, raisins can lower the postprandial insulin response, modulate sugar absorption (glycemic index), affect certain oxidative biomarkers, and promote satiety via leptin and ghrelin. However, only limited numbers of studies have been performed, and it is not clear to what extent the PPT component is responsible for any effects. More research is required to establish the bioavailability and health effects of the PPT component of raisins, the effects of raisins on health biomarkers in vivo in humans, and how these effects compare to grapes and wine.

  20. Health benefits of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koba, Kazunori; Yanagita, Teruyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a group of positional and geometric (cis or trans) isomers of linoleic acid with a conjugated double bond. The most representative CLA isomers are 9c,11t-18:2 and 10t,12c-18:2. CLA has been shown to exert various potent physiological functions such as anticarcinogenic, antiobese, antidiabetic and antihypertensive properties. This means CLA can be effective to prevent lifestyle diseases or metabolic syndromes. Also, reports suggest that physiological effects of CLA are different between the isomers, for example the 10t,12c isomer is anticarcinogenic, antiobese and antidiabetic, whereas the 9c,11t isomer is mainly anticarcinogenic. We describe here the physiological properties of CLA including the possible mechanism and the possibility to benefit human health.

  1. Grape phytochemicals and associated health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Xiao, Yang-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The phytochemicals present in fruits and vegetables may play an important role in deceasing chronic disease risk. Grapes, one of the most popular and widely cultivated and consumed fruits in the world, are rich in phytochemicals. Epidemiological evidence has linked the consumption of grapes with reduced risk of chronic diseases, including certain types of cancer and cardiovascular disease. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that grapes have strong antioxidant activity, inhibiting cancer cell proliferation and suppressing platelet aggregation, while also lowering cholesterol. Grapes contain a variety of phytochemicals, like phenolic acids, stilbenes, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of grapes, however, varies greatly among different varieties. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of grapes and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The aim of this paper is to critically review the most recent literature regarding the concentrations, biological activities, and mechanisms of grape phytochemicals.

  2. Therapeutic potential and health benefits of Sargassumspecies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash R Yende

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sargassum species are tropical and sub-tropical brown macroalgae (seaweed of shallow marine meadow. These are nutritious and rich source of bioactive compounds such as vitamins, carotenoids, dietary fibers, proteins, and minerals. Also, many biologically active compounds like terpenoids, flavonoids, sterols, sulfated polysaccharides, polyphenols, sargaquinoic acids, sargachromenol, pheophytine were isolated from different Sargassum species. These isolated compounds exhibit diverse biological activities like analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective, anti-microbial, anti-tumor, fibrinolytic, immune-modulatory, anti-coagulant, hepatoprotective, anti-viral activity etc., Hence, Sargassum species have great potential to be used in pharmaceutical and neutralceutical areas. This review paper explores the current knowledge of phytochemical, therapeutic potential, and health benefits of different species of genus Sargassum.

  3. Nutritional and health benefits of dried beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Virginia

    2014-07-01

    Dried beans (often referred to as grain legumes) may contribute to some of the health benefits associated with plant-based diets. Beans are rich in a number of important micronutrients, including potassium, magnesium, folate, iron, and zinc, and are important sources of protein in vegetarian diets. In particular, they are among the only plant foods that provide significant amounts of the indispensable amino acid lysine. Commonly consumed dried beans are also rich in total and soluble fiber as well as in resistant starch, all of which contribute to the low glycemic index of these foods. They also provide ample amounts of polyphenols, many of which are potent antioxidants. Intervention and prospective research suggests that diets that include beans reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, favorably affect risk factors for metabolic syndrome, and reduce risk of ischemic heart disease and diabetes. The relatively low bean intakes of North Americans and northern Europeans can be attributed to a negative culinary image as well as to intestinal discomfort attributable to the oligosaccharide content of beans. Cooking practices such as sprouting beans, soaking and discarding soaking water before cooking, and cooking in water with a more alkaline pH can reduce oligosaccharide content. Promotional efforts are needed to increase bean intake.

  4. Nutritional and health benefits of soy proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, M; Brandon, D L

    2001-03-01

    Soy protein is a major component of the diet of food-producing animals and is increasingly important in the human diet. However, soy protein is not an ideal protein because it is deficient in the essential amino acid methionine. Methionine supplementation benefits soy infant formulas, but apparently not food intended for adults with an adequate nitrogen intake. Soy protein content of another essential amino acid, lysine, although higher than that of wheat proteins, is still lower than that of the milk protein casein. Adverse nutritional and other effects following consumption of raw soybean meal have been attributed to the presence of endogenous inhibitors of digestive enzymes and lectins and to poor digestibility. To improve the nutritional quality of soy foods, inhibitors and lectins are generally inactivated by heat treatment or eliminated by fractionation during food processing. Although lectins are heat-labile, the inhibitors are more heat-stable than the lectins. Most commercially heated meals retain up to 20% of the Bowman-Birk (BBI) inhibitor of chymotrypsin and trypsin and the Kunitz inhibitor of trypsin (KTI). To enhance the value of soybeans in human nutrition and health, a better understanding is needed of the factors that impact the nutrition and health-promoting aspects of soy proteins. This paper discusses the composition in relation to properties of soy proteins. Also described are possible beneficial and adverse effects of soy-containing diets. The former include soy-induced lowering of cholesterol, anticarcinogenic effects of BBI, and protective effects against obesity, diabetes, irritants of the digestive tract, bone, and kidney diseases, whereas the latter include poor digestibility and allergy to soy proteins. Approaches to reduce the concentration of soybean inhibitors by rearrangement of protein disulfide bonds, immunoassays of inhibitors in processed soy foods and soybean germplasm, the roles of phytoestrogenic isoflavones and lectins, and

  5. Risks, benefits, health and the food economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornelis, M.; Fischer, A.R.H.

    2007-01-01

    This report examines consumer attitudes and purchase behaviour towards risks and benefits of food products. Experimental approaches are used to analyse determinants of consumer risk and benefit perceptions regarding food products. The results suggest that perceptions and behaviour of consumers becom

  6. Italian Bombs & Fuzes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1948-06-01

    withdrawal of the safety pin . The bomb 20.1., on account of its special method of suspension, has a recess cut in the tail, about half way along...Indication of arming :- safety pin and caps missing. To defuze these bombs. Lay the bombs carefully on their sides. Unscrew...bomb can be regarded as ALLWAYS action. (a) If the safety pin hole in the fuze spindle is visible 2 cm above the head of the fuze, the

  7. 75 FR 76615 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Miscellaneous Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... benefits. The authority to permit the Plan to offer more than two levels of benefits is a matter for... to subsidize health insurance premium payments for certain low-income children who have access to... child health assistance are eligible to receive State premium subsidy assistance payments to help...

  8. Assisted reproductive technology, epigenetics, and long-term health: a developmental time bomb still ticking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Kristen S; Sinclair, Kevin D

    2009-09-01

    Live birthrates following assisted reproduction account for 1 to 3% of pregnancies in developed countries, and these figures seem set to rise. Concerns regarding the safe use of assisted reproductive technology (ART) for the treatment of infertility have been voiced for several years, yet, to date, the vast majority of children conceived using these techniques are apparently normal. Controversy surrounding reports of epigenetic alterations to genomic imprinting following human ART in recent years has fueled the ongoing debate. In contrast, both the incidence and severity of such anomalies are more apparent following ART in comparative animal species. The reasons for this are not known. By and large, the confounding effects of infertility and advanced maternal age do not apply to animal studies, which report better pregnancy rates following embryo transfer. Perhaps the incidence of imprinting disorders is increased when procedures such as ovarian stimulation, in vitro maturation, or both are used in conjunction with extended periods of embryo culture; this frequently occurs in animal but rarely in human ART. The focus of attention on imprinting, however, may have served to distract the scientific community from more subtle epigenetic modifications to nonimprinted loci in gametes and the preimplantation embryo, with health-related consequences that do not manifest until adulthood. Accumulating evidence from animal studies indicates that such effects, not yet apparent in human subjects, exist; and this may ultimately transpire to be the true developmental legacy of human ART. This article discusses these issues in the context of epigenetic and developmental abnormalities following ART in animals.

  9. YOGA - ITS AWARENESS AND BENEFITS ON HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Inspite of the benefits of yoga not much is being done for incorporating it along with conventional methods of treatment for chronic diseases. It has been a subject of research for the past few decades as a complementary therapy for chronic diseases, but still lo t needs to be done regarding it being used as a non - pharmaceutical method for treatment . This study was carried out to find out the benefits of yoga if practiced regularly for a period of 3 months. OBJECTIVES : To find out the awareness regarding the benefi ts of yoga and to find out the benefits on various ailments of regular yoga practice for a period of 3 months. MATERIALS & METHODS : Data was collected from adults who followed a regular regime of Yoga from 3 centers in the city of Kakinada in a pretested q uestionnaire which contained both open and close ended questions in the beginning and at the end of 3 months of regular yoga practice . Analysis was done using epi info and significance was tested using Chi square tests. RESULTS: There was significant impro vement in Joint pains and low back ache, obesity, Stress and digestive problems of the respondents . The general awareness level about the benefits of yoga were low. CONCLUSIONS: The observed favorable effects of yoga on all the said variables needs to be s ubstantiated by more rigorous studies. However much needs to be done to create awareness as well to include yoga as a complementary as well as preventive therapy for most chronic diseases .

  10. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Tandel, Kirtida R.

    2011-01-01

    Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, ...

  11. Benefits negotiation: three Swedish hospitals pursuit of potential electronic health record benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeansson, John S

    2013-01-01

    At the very heart of Swedish healthcare digitalisation are large investments in electronic health records (EHRs). These integrated information systems (ISs) carry promises of great benefits and value for organisations. However, realising IS benefits and value has, in general, proven to be a challenging task, and as organisations strive to formalise their realisation efforts a misconception of rationality threatens to emerge. This misconception manifests itself when the formality of analysis threatens to underrate the impact of social processes in deciding which potential benefits to pursue. This paper suggests that these decisions are the result of a social process of negotiation. The purpose of this paper is to observe three benefits analysis projects of three Swedish hospitals to better understand the character and management of proposed benefits negotiations. Findings depict several different categories of benefits negotiations, as well as key factors to consider during the benefits negotiation process.

  12. Personal Benefits of a Health Evaluation and Enhancement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzelmann, F.; Durbeck, D. C.

    1970-01-01

    A study was made of the benefits reported by participants in a health evaluation and enhancement program dealing with physical activity. Program benefits were identified and defined in regard to three major areas: program effects on work; program effects on health; and program effects on habits and behavior. A strong positive and consistent relationship was found between reported benefits in each of these areas and measures of improvement in cardiovascular functioning based on treadmill performance. Significant differences in these measures of improvement were also found between participants who reported program benefits and those persons who did not. These findings provide a meaningful profile of the pattern of benefits generated by this kind of health program.

  13. A review of the metrics for One Health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häsler, B; Cornelsen, L; Bennani, H; Rushton, J

    2014-08-01

    One Health as a concept has been with us for many years, yet it is only recently that it is actively being discussed as a way of mitigating risks in society. Initiatives in the use of this concept require methods to monitor the benefits gained from an holistic approach to health, yet there is an absence of adequate frameworks to measure One Health benefits. This paper explores the problem with a review of the available literature and an examination of methods used. It concludes that most published work on One Health describes how this concept is valuable without trying to estimate the size of benefit or type of value. A framework for measuring the advantages of a One Health approach is needed and, through the process of an international workshop and the development of a One Health business case, the authors are working towards its development.

  14. Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP) Plan Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — A list of all Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP) plans available in each state, as well as links to the plan brochures, changes for each plan from the...

  15. Willingness to pay as a measure of health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, M V; Mauskopf, J A; Wood, L L

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the use of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) for evaluating new healthcare interventions, present the theoretical basis for the use of willingness to pay as a method for valuing benefits in a CBA and describe how to obtain willingness-to-pay (WTP) measures of health benefits and how to use these values in a CBA. We review selected economic studies on consumer demand and consumer surplus and studies presenting WTP estimates for healthcare interventions. The theoretical foundations of willingness to pay as a measure of commodity value are rooted in consumer demand theory. The area under the fixed income consumer demand curve represents the consumer's maximum willingness to pay for the commodity. We identify 3 types of potential benefits from a new healthcare intervention, namely patient benefits, option value and altruistic value, and suggest WTP questions for valuing different combinations of these benefits. We demonstrate how responses to these questions can be adjusted for income effects and incorporated into economic evaluations. We suggest that the lack of popularity of CBAs in the health area is related to the perceived difficulty in valuing health benefits as well as concern over how CBA incorporates the distribution of income. We show that health benefits can be valued using simple survey techniques and that these values can be adjusted to any desired income distribution.

  16. Inulin: Properties, health benefits and food applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaib, Muhammad; Shehzad, Aamir; Omar, Mukama; Rakha, Allah; Raza, Husnain; Sharif, Hafiz Rizwan; Shakeel, Azam; Ansari, Anum; Niazi, Sobia

    2016-08-20

    Inulin is a water soluble storage polysaccharide and belongs to a group of non-digestible carbohydrates called fructans. Inulin has attained the GRAS status in USA and is extensively available in about 36,000 species of plants, amongst, chicory roots are considered as the richest source of inulin. Commonly, inulin is used as a prebiotic, fat replacer, sugar replacer, texture modifier and for the development of functional foods in order to improve health due to its beneficial role in gastric health. This review provides a deep insight about its production, physicochemical properties, role in combating various kinds of metabolic and diet related diseases and utilization as a functional ingredient in novel product development.

  17. NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH BENEFITS OF BUCKWHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Danihelová

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat represents a raw material interesting in term of its nutritional and health beneficial suitability. Buckwheat grain is a source of valuable proteins, starch with low glycemic index or high amount of unsaturated fatty acids. It contains compounds with prophylactic value, too. Buckwheat is one of the richest sources of flavonoids. The highest content of dietary fibre is in bran fraction, where it counts for 40 %. Present phytosterols are usefull in lowering blood cholesterol. Buckwheat is better source of magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, zinc, manganese and copper than other cereals. Among vitamins the most abundant is pyridoxin. Buckwheat is effective in management of many diseases, mainly cardiovascular and digestion disorders, cancer, diabetes and obesity. In the last decades buckwheat is an interesting material not only for development of new functional foods, but for the preparation of concentrates with healing buckwheat components, too.doi:10.5219/206

  18. A perception on health benefits of coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sunitha Elizabeth; Ramalakshmi, Kulathooran; Mohan Rao, Lingamallu Jagan

    2008-05-01

    Coffee, consumed for its refreshing and stimulating effect, belongs to the tribe Coffea of the subfamily Cinchonoidea of Rubiaceae family. Coffee is a complex chemical mixture composed of several chemicals. It is responsible for a number of bioactivities and a number of compounds accounting for these effects. Few of the significant bioactivities documented are antioxidant activity, anticarcinogenic activity, antimutagenic activity etc. Various compounds responsible for the chemoprotective effects of coffee are mainly polyphenols including chlorogenic acids and their degradation products. Others include caffeine, kahweol, cafestol, and other phenolics. Coffee also shows protective or adverse effects on various systems like the skeletal (bone) system, the reproductive system, the nervous system, the cardiovascular system, the homocysteine levels, the cholesterol levels etc. Harmful effects of coffee are associated with people who are sensitive to stimulants. Overall, with the available information, it can be concluded that the moderate consumption, corresponding to 3 to 4 cups/day with average strength is safer to human health.

  19. An Update on the Health Benefits of Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda C. Reygaert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Green tea, which is produced from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant, is one of the most popular beverages worldwide. Over the past 30 years or more, scientists have studied this plant in respect to potential health benefits. Research has shown that the main components of green tea that are associated with health benefits are the catechins. The four main catechins found in green tea are: (−-epicatechin (EC, (−-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG, (−-epigallocatechin (EGC, and (−-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG. Of these four, EGCG is present in the largest quantity, and so has been used in much of the research. Among the health benefits of green tea are: anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties, and benefits in cardiovascular disease and oral health. Research has been carried out using various animal models and cells lines, and is now more and more being carried out in humans. This type of research will help us to better understand the direct benefits of green tea. This review will focus primarily on research conducted using human subjects to investigate the health benefits of green tea.

  20. [Advances in mechanisms of health benefits of exercise and nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Mu-Qing; Liu, Jian-Kang; Zhang, Yong

    2014-10-01

    Adequate physical activity/exercise and nutrition are the footstone for health, and primary components of healthy life style and prevention and treatment of life style-related diseases. Here we briefly review the recent advances in mechanisms of health benefits of regular physical activity/exercise and adequate nutrition, mitochondrial nutrients, and so on.

  1. Pet Dogs Benefit Owners' Health: A "Natural Experiment" in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headey, Bruce; Na, Fu; Zheng, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports results from a "natural experiment" taking place in China on the impact of dogs on owners' health. Previous Western research has reported modest health benefits, but results have remained controversial. In China pets were banned in urban areas until 1992. Since then dog ownership has grown quite rapidly in the major cities,…

  2. Health benefits of legal abortion: an analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrer, L B

    1985-01-01

    The abolition of legal abortion in the US would seriously threaten the health, and even the lives, of women and children. Statistics on the relationship between abortion and health attained before and after abortion was legalized were used to project some of the probable consequences of reversing the US Supreme Court's 1973 Roe v. Wade decision. Abortion has been widely practiced throughout US history, but the actual number of procedures performed before some states legalized abortion is unknown. Few legal procedures were performed for medical reasons, yet many illegal abortions took place. In 1955, a panel of experts could only provide a "best estimate" of between 200,000 and 1,200,000 illegally induced abortions occurring annually in the US. The actual number was most likely closer to the higher figure. The complication rates for illegal abortions, most of which were performed by unskilled practitioners in unsafe settings, were much higher than the rates for legal abortion now. Complications were related to ineffective or unsafe methods, Sepsis, particularly with the bacterium "Clostridium prefringens," which causes gas gangrene, was a major problem that has virtually disappeared. Each year prior to the 1970s, more than 100 women in the US died of abortion complications. Due to the fact that vital statistics reflect an incomplete ascertainment of deaths, the actual number of deaths is probably larger, possibly by as much as 50%. In 1983 more than 1.3 million procedures were performed -- a figure close to the estimated number of illegal abortions performed before 1970. In comparison, 672,000 hysterectomies and 424,000 tonsillectomy operations were performed the same year. The number of abortion-related deaths in the US decreased between 1972 and 1980, from 90 to 16. Most of this decrease resulted from the availability and safety of legal abortion. Legal abortion carries an especially low risk of death, particularly when performed in the 1st trimester. For the 1972

  3. 42 CFR 417.101 - Health benefits plan: Basic health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-term evaluative or crisis intervention mental health services, or both; (5) Diagnosis, medical... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Basic health services. 417.101 Section 417.101 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  4. Health benefit modelling and optimization of vehicular pollution control strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonawane, Nayan V.; Patil, Rashmi S.; Sethi, Virendra

    2012-12-01

    This study asserts that the evaluation of pollution reduction strategies should be approached on the basis of health benefits. The framework presented could be used for decision making on the basis of cost effectiveness when the strategies are applied concurrently. Several vehicular pollution control strategies have been proposed in literature for effective management of urban air pollution. The effectiveness of these strategies has been mostly studied as a one at a time approach on the basis of change in pollution concentration. The adequacy and practicality of such an approach is studied in the present work. Also, the assessment of respective benefits of these strategies has been carried out when they are implemented simultaneously. An integrated model has been developed which can be used as a tool for optimal prioritization of various pollution management strategies. The model estimates health benefits associated with specific control strategies. ISC-AERMOD View has been used to provide the cause-effect relation between control options and change in ambient air quality. BenMAP, developed by U.S. EPA, has been applied for estimation of health and economic benefits associated with various management strategies. Valuation of health benefits has been done for impact indicators of premature mortality, hospital admissions and respiratory syndrome. An optimization model has been developed to maximize overall social benefits with determination of optimized percentage implementations for multiple strategies. The model has been applied for sub-urban region of Mumbai city for vehicular sector. Several control scenarios have been considered like revised emission standards, electric, CNG, LPG and hybrid vehicles. Reduction in concentration and resultant health benefits for the pollutants CO, NOx and particulate matter are estimated for different control scenarios. Finally, an optimization model has been applied to determine optimized percentage implementation of specific

  5. Physical Activity: A Tool for Improving Health (Part 2-Mental Health Benefits)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaway, Patrick J.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    By promoting physical activities and incorporating them into their community-based programs, Extension professionals are improving the health of individuals, particularly those with limited resources. This article is the second in a three-part series describing the benefits of physical activity for human health: (1) biological health benefits of…

  6. Physical Activity: A Tool for Improving Health (Part 1--Biological Health Benefits)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaway, Patrick J.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2015-01-01

    Extension educators have been promoting and incorporating physical activities into their community-based programs and improving the health of individuals, particularly those with limited resources. This article is the first of a three-part series describing the benefits of physical activity for human health: 1) biological health benefits of…

  7. The Nature of Unintended Benefits in Health Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuziemsky, Craig E.; Borycki, Elizabeth; Nøhr, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    Health information systems (HISs) have been shown to introduce unintended consequences post implementation. Much of the current research on these consequences has focused on the negative aspects of them. However unintended consequences of HIS usage can also be beneficial to various aspects...... of healthcare delivery. This paper uses several case studies of HIS implementation to develop a model of unintended benefits of HIS usage with three categories of benefits: patient, service delivery and administrative. We also discuss the implications of these benefits on the design and evaluation of HISs....

  8. Increasing HPV vaccination through policy for public health benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Heather M; Pierce, Jennifer Young; Crary, Ashley

    2016-06-02

    Vaccines against specific types of human papillomavirus (HPV) linked to cancer and other diseases have been met with mixed acceptance globally and in the United States. Policy-level interventions have been shown to be effective in increasing public health benefit. Government policies and mandates may result in improved HPV vaccination coverage and reduced disease burden, and alternative policies that improve unhindered access to HPV vaccination may allow success as well. The purpose of this commentary is to summarize policy efforts to maximize the public health benefit of HPV vaccination. We examine selected examples of HPV vaccination policy in global contexts and in the United States.

  9. Doses of Nearby Nature Simultaneously Associated with Multiple Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. C. Cox

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to nature provides a wide range of health benefits. A significant proportion of these are delivered close to home, because this offers an immediate and easily accessible opportunity for people to experience nature. However, there is limited information to guide recommendations on its management and appropriate use. We apply a nature dose-response framework to quantify the simultaneous association between exposure to nearby nature and multiple health benefits. We surveyed ca. 1000 respondents in Southern England, UK, to determine relationships between (a nature dose type, that is the frequency and duration (time spent in private green space and intensity (quantity of neighbourhood vegetation cover of nature exposure and (b health outcomes, including mental, physical and social health, physical behaviour and nature orientation. We then modelled dose-response relationships between dose type and self-reported depression. We demonstrate positive relationships between nature dose and mental and social health, increased physical activity and nature orientation. Dose-response analysis showed that lower levels of depression were associated with minimum thresholds of weekly nature dose. Nearby nature is associated with quantifiable health benefits, with potential for lowering the human and financial costs of ill health. Dose-response analysis has the potential to guide minimum and optimum recommendations on the management and use of nearby nature for preventative healthcare.

  10. Korean atomic bomb victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasamoto, Yukuo

    2009-01-01

    After colonizing Korea, Japan invaded China, and subsequently initiated the Pacific War against the United States, Britain, and their allies. Towards the end of the war, U.S. warplanes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in a large number of Koreans who lived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering from the effects of the bombs. The objective of this paper is to examine the history of Korea atomic bomb victims who were caught in between the U.S., Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea).

  11. Organically grown food provides health benefits to Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Ria; Kolli, Santharam; Bauer, Johannes H

    2013-01-01

    The "organic food" market is the fastest growing food sector, yet it is unclear whether organically raised food is nutritionally superior to conventionally grown food and whether consuming organic food bestows health benefits. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of organic foods, we used the well-characterized fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. Fruit flies were raised on a diets consisting of extracts of either conventionally or organically raised produce (bananas, potatoes, raisins, soy beans). Flies were then subjected to a variety of tests designed to assess overall fly health. Flies raised on diets made from organically grown produce had greater fertility and longevity. On certain food sources, greater activity and greater stress resistance was additionally observed, suggesting that organic food bestows positive effects on fly health. Our data show that Drosophila can be used as a convenient model system to experimentally test potential health effects of dietary components. Using this system, we provide evidence that organically raised food may provide animals with tangible benefits to overall health.

  12. Organically grown food provides health benefits to Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria Chhabra

    Full Text Available The "organic food" market is the fastest growing food sector, yet it is unclear whether organically raised food is nutritionally superior to conventionally grown food and whether consuming organic food bestows health benefits. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of organic foods, we used the well-characterized fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. Fruit flies were raised on a diets consisting of extracts of either conventionally or organically raised produce (bananas, potatoes, raisins, soy beans. Flies were then subjected to a variety of tests designed to assess overall fly health. Flies raised on diets made from organically grown produce had greater fertility and longevity. On certain food sources, greater activity and greater stress resistance was additionally observed, suggesting that organic food bestows positive effects on fly health. Our data show that Drosophila can be used as a convenient model system to experimentally test potential health effects of dietary components. Using this system, we provide evidence that organically raised food may provide animals with tangible benefits to overall health.

  13. New insights into the health benefits of dairy products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt have long been known to provide good nutrition. The protein, calcium, and fatty acids present in milk and the vitamin D added to it are major healthful contributors to the diets of many people. Additional ways in which milk and milk products benefit h...

  14. Benefits of Breastfeeding (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-10-08

    Breastfeeding has health benefits for babies and mothers, and getting off to a good start in the hospital is important. This podcast discusses the importance of beginning breastfeeding at the hospital.  Created: 10/8/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 10/8/2015.

  15. Cluster bomb ocular injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M Mansour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present the visual outcomes and ocular sequelae of victims of cluster bombs. Materials and Methods: This retrospective, multicenter case series of ocular injury due to cluster bombs was conducted for 3 years after the war in South Lebanon (July 2006. Data were gathered from the reports to the Information Management System for Mine Action. Results: There were 308 victims of clusters bombs; 36 individuals were killed, of which 2 received ocular lacerations and; 272 individuals were injured with 18 receiving ocular injury. These 18 surviving individuals were assessed by the authors. Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% (20/308 of cluster bomb victims. Trauma to multiple organs occurred in 12 of 18 cases (67% with ocular injury. Ocular findings included corneal or scleral lacerations (16 eyes, corneal foreign bodies (9 eyes, corneal decompensation (2 eyes, ruptured cataract (6 eyes, and intravitreal foreign bodies (10 eyes. The corneas of one patient had extreme attenuation of the endothelium. Conclusions: Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% of cluster bomb victims and 67% of the patients with ocular injury sustained trauma to multiple organs. Visual morbidity in civilians is an additional reason for a global ban on the use of cluster bombs.

  16. Bioactives from probiotics for dermal health: functions and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, L-C; Liong, M-T

    2013-05-01

    Probiotics have been extensively reviewed for decades, emphasizing on improving general gut health. Recently, more studies showed that probiotics may exert other health-promoting effects beyond gut well-being, attributed to the rise of the gut-brain axis correlations. Some of these new benefits include skin health such as improving atopic eczema, atopic dermatitis, healing of burn and scars, skin-rejuvenating properties and improving skin innate immunity. Increasing evidence has also showed that bacterial compounds such as cell wall fragments, their metabolites and dead bacteria can elicit certain immune responses on the skin and improve skin barrier functions. This review aimed to underline the mechanisms or the exact compounds underlying the benefits of bacterial extract on the skin based on evidences from in vivo and in vitro studies. This review could be of help in screening of probiotic strains with potential dermal enhancing properties for topical applications.

  17. Employee health benefit redesign at the academic health center: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Julie; Weaver, Deirdre C; Splaine, Kevin; Hefner, David S; Kirch, Darrell G; Paz, Harold L

    2013-03-01

    The rapidly escalating cost of health care, including the cost of providing health care benefits, is a significant concern for many employers. In this article, the authors examine a case study of an academic health center that undertook a complete redesign of its health benefit structure to control rising costs, encourage use of its own provider network, and support employee wellness. With the implementation in 2006 of a high-deductible health plan combined with health reimbursement arrangements and wellness incentives, the Penn State Hershey Medical Center (PSHMC) was able to realize significant cost savings and increase use of its own network while maintaining a high level of employee satisfaction. By contracting with a single third-party administrator for its self-insured plan, PSHMC reduced its administrative costs and simplified benefit choices for employees. In addition, indexing employee costs to salary ensured that this change was equitable for all employees, and the shift to a consumer-driven health plan led to greater employee awareness of health care costs. The new health benefit plan's strong focus on employee wellness and preventive health has led to significant increases in the use of preventive health services, including health risk assessments, cancer screenings, and flu shots. PSHMC's experience demonstrates the importance of clear and ongoing communication with employees throughout--before, during, and even after--the process of health benefit redesign.

  18. Benefits and risks of fish consumption for the human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Fernandes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article aimed at identifying and discussing scientific evidences on the benefits and risks of fish consumption the human health. There was a systematic survey for articles published from 2003 and May 2011, at the MedLine, Scopus, SciELO, Lilacs and Google Scholar databases. The key words used were: fish, food intake, omega-3 fatty acids, fatty fish, benefits, risk, and consumption. The search produced 12,632 articles, 25 eligible cohort studies on possible benefits, 61 on risks and 10 studies that assessed the "risk/benefit" relation. Of the 25 works, 14 suggested a preventive effect of fish consumption related to cardiovascular diseases, depression, cataract and some types of cancer. Evidences of a relation between exposure to mercury and an increase in the risk of neurological disorders, but not of cardiovascular diseases, were also found. Given the importance of fish consumption, its possible risks and the lack of Brazilian studies on the topic, it is important to conduct more longitudinal studies that assess both the benefits and risks of fish consumption for the human health. We also emphasize the need for policies to reduce exposure of fish and seafood to mercury and other contaminants.

  19. Are IRIS Bombs Connected to Ellerman Bombs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hui; Xu, Zhi; He, Jiansen; Madsen, Chad

    2016-06-01

    Recent observations by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) have revealed pockets of hot gas (˜2-8 × 104 K) potentially resulting from magnetic reconnection in the partially ionized lower solar atmosphere (IRIS bombs; IBs). Using joint observations between IRIS and the Chinese New Vacuum Solar Telescope, we have identified 10 IBs. We find that 3 are unambiguously and 3 others are possibly connected to Ellerman bombs (EBs), which show intense brightening of the extended {{{H}}}α wings without leaving an obvious signature in the {{{H}}}α core. These bombs generally reveal the following distinct properties: (1) the O iv 1401.156 Å and 1399.774 Å lines are absent or very weak; (2) the Mn i 2795.640 Å line manifests as an absorption feature superimposed on the greatly enhanced Mg ii k line wing; (3) the Mg ii k and h lines show intense brightening in the wings and no dramatic enhancement in the cores; (4) chromospheric absorption lines such as Ni ii 1393.330 Å and 1335.203 Å are very strong; and (5) the 1700 Å images obtained with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory reveal intense and compact brightenings. These properties support the formation of these bombs in the photosphere, demonstrating that EBs can be heated much more efficiently than previously thought. We also demonstrate that the Mg ii k and h lines can be used to investigate EBs similarly to {{{H}}}α , which opens a promising new window for EB studies. The remaining four IBs obviously have no connection to EBs and they do not have the properties mentioned above, suggesting a higher formation layer, possibly in the chromosphere.

  20. 42 CFR 457.430 - Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage. 457... STATES State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.430 Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage. (a) Aggregate actuarial value. Benchmark-equivalent coverage is health benefits coverage that...

  1. Are IRIS bombs connected to Ellerman bombs?

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Hui; He, Jiansen; Madsen, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) have revealed pockets of hot gas ($\\sim$2--8$\\times$10$^{4}$ K) potentially resulting from magnetic reconnection in the partially ionized lower solar atmosphere (IRIS bombs; IBs). Using joint observations between IRIS and the Chinese New Vacuum Solar Telescope, we have identified ten IBs. We find that three are unambiguously and three others are possibly connected to Ellerman bombs (EBs), which show intense brightening of the extended H$_{\\alpha}$ wings without leaving an obvious signature in the H$_{\\alpha}$ core. These bombs generally reveal the following distinct properties: (1) The O~{\\sc{iv}}~1401.156\\AA{} and 1399.774\\AA{} lines are absent or very weak; (2) The Mn~{\\sc{i}}~2795.640\\AA{} line manifests as an absorption feature superimposed on the greatly enhanced Mg~{\\sc{ii}}~k line wing; (3) The Mg~{\\sc{ii}}~k and h lines show intense brightening in the wings and no dramatic enhancement in the cores; (4) Chromospheric absorption lin...

  2. HEALTH BENEFITS OF AMLA OR INDIAN GOOSEBERRY FRUIT (PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Foods can be effectively used as medicine to treat and prevent disease. Ayurveda, the 5,000 year old ancient Indian health science, have mentioned benefits of food for therapeutic purpose. According to Ayurveda, amla balances all three doshas. In Ayurvedic polyherbal formulations, Indian gooseberry is a common constituent .It may be used as a rejuvenative to promote longevity, to enhance digestion , treat constipation , reduce fever , purify the blood , reduce cough , alleviate asthma , strengthen the heart , benefit the eyes , stimulate hair growth and enhance intellect.

  3. Health benefits of Kung Fu: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Tracey Wai Man; Kohn, Michael; Chow, Chin Moi; Singh, Maria Fiatarone

    2008-10-01

    The Chinese martial arts (Kung Fu) have existed for centuries and are generally accepted as being beneficial for health without much empirical data. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the health effects of "hard" Kung Fu styles by performing electronic and manual searches of the literature. The aspects of health and the Kung Fu style examined varied between most studies; in some cases, the martial art group consisted of practitioners of other martial art styles also. Of 2103 references identified, only nine papers were eligible and reviewed. All were observational studies, observing a range of health aspects possibly related to Kung Fu training or performance. Our findings suggest that there is no evidence that Kung Fu practice is associated with the prevention or treatment of any health condition. However, as a moderate- to high-intensity form of aerobic exercise, it may confer benefits similar to those attributed to other aerobic training modalities. However, this hypothesis remains to be tested in clinical trials. Physiological benefits (e.g., aerobic capacity and bone density) may be associated with long-term Kung Fu practice. Future research in this area should adopt experimental designs, clearly identifying eligibility criteria, testing and training protocols, and include health-related outcomes and documentation of adverse events, to advance knowledge in this field.

  4. Medicare health maintenance organization benefits packages and plan performance measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Don; Lanyi, Bettina; Strabic, Allison

    2002-01-01

    This article reports the results of an analysis of the relationship between supplemental benefits offered by Medicare+Choice (M+C) plans and their plan performance ratings. We examined two measures of plan performance: (1) plan ratings as reported in the Medicare Managed Care (MMC) Consumer Assessment of Health Care Study (CAHPS), and (2) disenrollment rates. The results of our analysis indicated that variations in plan supplemental offerings have little impact on enrollees' plan performance ratings--both overall ratings and access to care measures. Furthermore, disenrollment rates were found to be more sensitive to the availability of alternative M+C plans, either in general, or for specific benefits than to variations in benefit offerings.

  5. Health benefits, ecological threats of low-carbon electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibon, Thomas; Hertwich, Edgar G.; Arvesen, Anders; Singh, Bhawna; Verones, Francesca

    2017-03-01

    Stabilizing global temperature will require a shift to renewable or nuclear power from fossil power and the large-scale deployment of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) for remaining fossil fuel use. Non-climate co-benefits of low-carbon energy technologies, especially reduced mortalities from air pollution and decreased ecosystem damage, have been important arguments for policies to reduce CO2 emissions. Taking into account a wide range of environmental mechanisms and the complex interactions of the supply chains of different technologies, we conducted the first life cycle assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts of a global low-carbon electricity scenario. Our assessment indicates strong human health benefits of low-carbon electricity. For ecosystem quality, there is a significant trade-off between reduced pollution and climate impacts and potentially significant ecological impacts from land use associated with increased biopower utilization. Other renewables, nuclear power and CCS show clear ecological benefits, so that the climate mitigation scenario with a relatively low share of biopower has lower ecosystem impacts than the baseline scenario. Energy policy can maximize co-benefits by supporting other renewable and nuclear power and developing biomass supply from sources with low biodiversity impact.

  6. Galactooligosaccharides: production, health benefits, application to foods and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elizabeth Cavalcante Fai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Synthesized from lactose transgalactosylation, galactooligosaccharides are non-digestible carbohydrates classified as prebiotic ingredients of high added value. Recently studies associate potential health benefits and disease prevention properties to these oligosaccharides. This review involves production aspects and physicochemical properties of these compounds, correlated to their physiological effects and application in food industry. It was also presented some of the physiological effect and the perspectives for these non-conventional sugars from current viewpoint.

  7. Putative benefits of microalgal astaxanthin on exercise and human health

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Marcelo P; Sandra C. Poppe; Tácito P. Souza-Junior

    2011-01-01

    Astaxanthin (ASTA) is a pinkish-orange carotenoid produced by microalgae, but also commonly found in shrimp, lobster and salmon, which accumulate ASTA from the aquatic food chain. Numerous studies have addressed the benefits of ASTA for human health, including the inhibition of LDL oxidation, UV-photoprotection and prophylaxis of bacterial stomach ulcers. ASTA is recognized as a powerful scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially those involved in lipid peroxidation. Both aerobic ...

  8. Economic Benefits of Investing in Women's Health: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Husøy Onarheim

    Full Text Available Globally, the status of women's health falls short of its potential. In addition to the deleterious ethical and human rights implications of this deficit, the negative economic impact may also be consequential, but these mechanisms are poorly understood. Building on the literature that highlights health as a driver of economic growth and poverty alleviation, we aim to systematically investigate the broader economic benefits of investing in women's health.Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed health, gender, and economic literature to identify studies that investigate the impact of women's health on micro- and macroeconomic outcomes. We developed an extensive search algorithm and conducted searches using 10 unique databases spanning the timeframe 01/01/1970 to 01/04/2013. Articles were included if they reported on economic impacts stemming from changes in women's health (table of outcome measures included in full review, Table 1. In total, the two lead investigators independently screened 20,832 abstracts and extracted 438 records for full text review. The final review reflects the inclusion of 124 articles.The existing literature indicates that healthier women and their children contribute to more productive and better-educated societies. This study documents an extensive literature confirming that women's health is tied to long-term productivity: the development and economic performance of nations depends, in part, upon how each country protects and promotes the health of women. Providing opportunities for deliberate family planning; healthy mothers before, during, and after childbirth, and the health and productivity of subsequent generations can catalyze a cycle of positive societal development.This review highlights the untapped potential of initiatives that aim to address women's health. Societies that prioritize women's health will likely have better

  9. How Health Relationship Management Services (HRMS Benefits the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Meckl-Sloan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Remote health monitoring and Health Relationship Management Services (HRMS can provide health care solutions for the elderly, the fastest-growing segment of the U.S. population. The year 2030 Problem questions whether enough resources and an operative service system will be available fourteen years from now when the elderly population will be greater than what it is today. One solution for reducing elder health care costs is home care, which is a preferable alternative to institutionalization. Many elderly have access to health services or outreach medical care, but do not use them due to lack of accessibility to safe transportation. The elderly often have problems with medication misuse stemming from the aging process, such as loss of memory, poor vision, and fixed-incomes. Seniors have dietary problems that weaken immune systems, leading to dehydration and other health issues. They also experience depression and loneliness from living alone or even with family members. The elderly who experience these problems can benefit from Health Relationship Management Services (HRMS, a new healthcare paradigm using remote health monitoring in the home.

  10. 78 FR 33450 - Submission for Review: Report of Withholdings and Contributions for Health Benefits, Life...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ...) Report of Withholdings and Contributions for Health Benefits, Life Insurance and Retirement (Standard... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Report of Withholdings and Contributions for Health Benefits, Life Insurance and Retirement (Standard Form 2812); Report of Withholdings and Contributions for Health...

  11. Xylooligosaccharides: an economical prebiotic from agroresidues and their health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ira; Kumar, Vikash; Satyanarayana, T

    2015-03-01

    Oligosaccharides and dietary fibres are non-digestible food ingredients that preferentially stimulate the growth of prebiotic Bifidobacterium and other lactic acid bacteria in the gastro-intestinal tract. Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) provide a plethora of health benefits and can be incorporated into several functional foods. In the recent times, there has been an over emphasis on the microbial conversion of agroresidues into various value added products. Xylan, the major hemicellulosic component of lignocellulosic materials (LCMs), represents an important structural component of plant biomass in agricultural residues and could be a potent bioresource for XOS. On an industrial scale, XOS can be produced by chemical, enzymatic or chemo-enzymatic hydrolysis of LCMs. Chemical methods generate XOS with a broad degree of polymerization (DP), while enzymatic processes will be beneficial for the manufacture of food grade and pharmaceutically important XOS. Xylooligomers exert several health benefits, and therefore, have been considered to provide relief from several ailments. This review provides a brief on production, purification and structural characterization of XOS and their health benefits.

  12. The health benefits of reducing air pollution in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Richard A; Fann, Neal; Cristina, Tina J Navin; Fulcher, Charles; Duc, Hiep; Morgan, Geoffrey G

    2015-11-01

    Among industrialised countries, fine particle (PM2.5) and ozone levels in the Sydney metropolitan area of Australia are relatively low. Annual mean PM2.5 levels have historically remained below 8 μg/m(3) while warm season (November-March) ozone levels occasionally exceed the Australian guideline value of 0.10 ppm (daily 1 h max). Yet, these levels are still below those seen in the United States and Europe. This analysis focuses on two related questions: (1) what is the public health burden associated with air pollution in Sydney; and (2) to what extent would reducing air pollution reduce the number of hospital admissions, premature deaths and number of years of life lost (YLL)? We addressed these questions by applying a damage function approach to Sydney population, health, PM2.5 and ozone data for 2007 within the BenMAP-CE software tool to estimate health impacts and economic benefits. We found that 430 premature deaths (90% CI: 310-540) and 5800 YLL (95% CI: 3900-7600) are attributable to 2007 levels of PM2.5 (about 2% of total deaths and 1.8% of YLL in 2007). We also estimate about 630 (95% CI: 410-840) respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions attributable to 2007 PM2.5 and ozone exposures. Reducing air pollution levels by even a small amount will yield a range of health benefits. Reducing 2007 PM2.5 exposure in Sydney by 10% would, over 10 years, result in about 650 (95% CI: 430-850) fewer premature deaths, a gain of 3500 (95% CI: 2300-4600) life-years and about 700 (95% CI: 450-930) fewer respiratory and cardiovascular hospital visits. These results suggest that substantial health benefits are attainable in Sydney with even modest reductions in air pollution.

  13. 29 CFR 4.175 - Meeting requirements for health, welfare, and/or pension benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fringe benefit determinations containing health and welfare and/or pension requirements specify a fixed... vacation pay. (2) A fringe benefit determination calling for a specified benefit such as health insurance... benefits provided. Therefore, in determining compliance with an applicable fringe benefit...

  14. Potential Health Benefits of Deep Sea Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samihah Zura Mohd Nani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep sea water (DSW commonly refers to a body of seawater that is pumped up from a depth of over 200 m. It is usually associated with the following characteristics: low temperature, high purity, and being rich with nutrients, namely, beneficial elements, which include magnesium, calcium, potassium, chromium, selenium, zinc, and vanadium. Less photosynthesis of plant planktons, consumption of nutrients, and organic decomposition have caused lots of nutrients to remain there. Due to this, DSW has potential to become a good source for health. Research has proven that DSW can help overcome health problems especially related to lifestyle-associated diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, cancer, and skin problems. This paper reviews the potential health benefits of DSW by referring to the findings from previous researches.

  15. Phytosterols: natural compounds with established and emerging health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trautwein Elke A.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytosterols (plant sterols and stanols are naturally occurring compounds which are found in all foods of plant origin. The term phytosterols refers to more than 200 different compounds. The most abundant ones in the human diet are sitosterol and campesterol. Their saturated counterparts, sitostanol and campestanol, are found in much lower amounts. Good food sources of phytosterols include vegetable oils, cereal grains, nuts, legumes, and fruits and vegetables. Phytosterols are structurally similar to cholesterol. Despite this structural similarity, they are not absorbed in significant quantities. Absorption is less than 2% for phytosterols, while it is 30-60% for cholesterol. Phytosterols are known to have various bioactive properties, which may have an impact on human health, and as such boosted interest in phytosterols in the past decade. The most important benefit is their blood cholesterol-lowering effect via partial inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption. The recommended daily intake of 2 g of phytosterols reduces cholesterol absorption by 30-40% and LDL-cholesterol by 10% on average. Other claimed benefits of phytosterols are possible anti-atherogenic effects as well as, particularly for beta-sitosterol, immune stimulating and anti-inflammatory activities. Furthermore, there is emerging evidence suggesting that particularly plant sterols may have beneficial effects against the development of different types of cancers, like colorectal, breast and prostate cancers. It is not clear whether mechanisms other than the established cholesterol-lowering action of phytosterols as such also contribute to these potential health benefits.

  16. Retiree health benefits-vesting of welfare benefits-early retirement-duty to bargain-termination of benefits-estoppel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Poore v. Simpson Paper Co., 2009 U.S. App. LEXIS 11170 (9th Cir. Or. May 21, 2009). To be able to sue under ERISA, retirement health plan participants need not show that their benefits are vested the same way pension benefits are vested; the rights to the benefits need not be fixed or unalterable, rather, the employee must have an entitlement to the benefits.

  17. 77 FR 42417 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Coverage for Certain Firefighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... 3206-AM66 Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Coverage for Certain Firefighters AGENCY: Office of... (OPM) is issuing an interim final rule to amend the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHB... health insurance coverage under the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) program to...

  18. Health Benefits In 2015: Stable Trends In The Employer Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Gary; Rae, Matthew; Panchal, Nirmita; Whitmore, Heidi; Damico, Anthony; Kenward, Kevin; Long, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    The annual Kaiser Family Foundation/Health Research and Educational Trust Employer Health Benefits Survey found that in 2015, average annual premiums (employer and worker contributions combined) were $6,251 for single coverage and $17,545 for family coverage. Both premiums rose 4 percent from 2014, continuing several years of modest growth. The percentage of firms offering health benefits and the percentage of workers covered by their employers' plans remained statistically unchanged from 2014. Eighty-one percent of covered workers were enrolled in a plan with a general annual deductible. Among those workers, the average deductible for single coverage was $1,318. Half of large employers either offered employees the opportunity or required them to complete biometric screening. Of firms that offer an incentive for completing the screening, 20 percent provide employees with incentives or penalties that are tied to meeting those biometric outcomes. The 2015 survey included new questions on financial incentives to complete wellness programs and meet specified biometric outcomes as well as questions about narrow networks and employers' strategies related to the high-cost plan tax and the employer shared-responsibility provisions of the Affordable Care Act.

  19. Do the health benefits of cycling outweigh the risks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Johan de Hartog

    Full Text Available Although from a societal point of view a modal shift from car to bicycle may have beneficial health effects due to decreased air pollution emissions and increased levels of physical activity, shifts in individual adverse health effects such as higher exposure to air pollution and risk of a traffic accident may prevail. We have summarized the literature for air pollution, traffic accidents, and physical activity using systematic reviews supplemented with recent key studies. We quantified the impact on all-cause mortality when 500,000 people would make a transition from car to bicycle for short trips on a daily basis in the Netherlands. We estimate that beneficial effects of increased physical activity are substantially larger (3-14 months gained than the potential mortality effect of increased inhaled air pollution doses (0.8-40 days lost and the increase in traffic accidents (5-9 days lost. Societal benefits are even larger because of a modest reduction in air pollution and traffic accidents. On average, the estimated health benefits of cycling were substantially larger than the risks relative to car driving for individuals shifting their mode of transport.

  20. Health Benefits of Geologic Materials and Geologic Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Finkelman

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The reemerging field of Medical Geology is concerned with the impacts of geologic materials and geologic processes on animal and human health. Most medical geology research has been focused on health problems caused by excess or deficiency of trace elements, exposure to ambient dust, and on other geologically related health problems or health problems for which geoscience tools, techniques, or databases could be applied. Little, if any, attention has been focused on the beneficial health effects of rocks, minerals, and geologic processes. These beneficial effects may have been recognized as long as two million years ago and include emotional, mental, and physical health benefits. Some of the earliest known medicines were derived from rocks and minerals. For thousands of years various clays have been used as an antidote for poisons. “Terra sigillata,” still in use today, may have been the first patented medicine. Many trace elements, rocks, and minerals are used today in a wide variety of pharmaceuticals and health care products. There is also a segment of society that believes in the curative and preventative properties of crystals (talismans and amulets. Metals and trace elements are being used in some of today’s most sophisticated medical applications. Other recent examples of beneficial effects of geologic materials and processes include epidemiological studies in Japan that have identified a wide range of health problems (such as muscle and joint pain, hemorrhoids, burns, gout, etc. that may be treated by one or more of nine chemically distinct types of hot springs, and a study in China indicating that residential coal combustion may be mobilizing sufficient iodine to prevent iodine deficiency disease.

  1. Health benefits of geologic materials and geologic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    The reemerging field of Medical Geology is concerned with the impacts of geologic materials and geologic processes on animal and human health. Most medical geology research has been focused on health problems caused by excess or deficiency of trace elements, exposure to ambient dust, and on other geologically related health problems or health problems for which geoscience tools, techniques, or databases could be applied. Little, if any, attention has been focused on the beneficial health effects of rocks, minerals, and geologic processes. These beneficial effects may have been recognized as long as two million years ago and include emotional, mental, and physical health benefits. Some of the earliest known medicines were derived from rocks and minerals. For thousands of years various clays have been used as an antidote for poisons. "Terra sigillata," still in use today, may have been the first patented medicine. Many trace elements, rocks, and minerals are used today in a wide variety of pharmaceuticals and health care products. There is also a segment of society that believes in the curative and preventative properties of crystals (talismans and amulets). Metals and trace elements are being used in some of today's most sophisticated medical applications. Other recent examples of beneficial effects of geologic materials and processes include epidemiological studies in Japan that have identified a wide range of health problems (such as muscle and joint pain, hemorrhoids, burns, gout, etc.) that may be treated by one or more of nine chemically distinct types of hot springs, and a study in China indicating that residential coal combustion may be mobilizing sufficient iodine to prevent iodine deficiency disease. ?? 2006 MDPI. All rights reserved.

  2. The Health Benefiting Mechanisms of Virgin Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Parkinson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil (VOO is credited as being one of the many healthful components associated with the Mediterranean diet. Mediterranean populations experience reduced incidence of chronic inflammatory disease states and VOO is readily consumed as part of an everyday Mediterranean dietary pattern. VOO is rich in phenolic compounds and the health promoting benefits of these phenolics are now established. Recent studies have highlighted the biological properties of VOO phenolic compounds elucidating their anti-inflammatory activities. This paper will review current knowledge on the anti-inflammatory and nutrigenomic, chemoprotective and anti-atherosclerotic activities of VOO phenolics. In addition the concentration, metabolism and bioavailability of specific phenolic compounds will be discussed. The evidence presented in the review concludes that oleurepein, hydroxytyrosol and oleocanthal have potent pharmacological activities in vitro and in vivo; however, intervention studies with biologically relevant concentrations of these phenolic compounds are required.

  3. Putative benefits of microalgal astaxanthin on exercise and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo P. Barros

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin (ASTA is a pinkish-orange carotenoid produced by microalgae, but also commonly found in shrimp, lobster and salmon, which accumulate ASTA from the aquatic food chain. Numerous studies have addressed the benefits of ASTA for human health, including the inhibition of LDL oxidation, UV-photoprotection and prophylaxis of bacterial stomach ulcers. ASTA is recognized as a powerful scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS, especially those involved in lipid peroxidation. Both aerobic and anaerobic exercise are closely related to overproduction of ROS in muscle tissue. Post-exercise inflammatory processes can even exacerbate the oxidative stress imposed by exercise. Thus, ASTA is suggested here as a putative nutritional alternative/coadjutant for antioxidant therapy to afford additional protection to muscle tissues against oxidative damage induced by exercise, as well as for an (overall integrative redox re-balance and general human health.

  4. Agaricus blazei Murill - immunomodulatory properties and health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biedron R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM, also known as Agaricus brasiliensis L. due to its origin in Brazilian rain forest, is an edible mushroom of the Basidiomycetes family, which also comprises medicinal mushrooms such as Hericium erinaceus and Grifola frondosa. AbM has been used in traditional medicine locally and also recently as a health food worldwide. Since it has been found to possess immunomodulatory properties, its biological and health-related effects, as well as its isolated active ingredients e.g. beta-glucans, have been examined by scientists. Otherinvestigations have been performed with mixed mushroom products, such as AndoSanTM, which contains mostly AbM, but also the two other mushrooms above. AbM-related benefits reviewed here include effects against cancer, infections, inflammation, allergy/ asthma and diabetes. Effects of AndoSanTMand other AbM-based extracts have been compared in a bacterial sepsis model.

  5. The Health Benefiting Mechanisms of Virgin Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Lisa; Cicerale, Sara

    2016-12-16

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is credited as being one of the many healthful components associated with the Mediterranean diet. Mediterranean populations experience reduced incidence of chronic inflammatory disease states and VOO is readily consumed as part of an everyday Mediterranean dietary pattern. VOO is rich in phenolic compounds and the health promoting benefits of these phenolics are now established. Recent studies have highlighted the biological properties of VOO phenolic compounds elucidating their anti-inflammatory activities. This paper will review current knowledge on the anti-inflammatory and nutrigenomic, chemoprotective and anti-atherosclerotic activities of VOO phenolics. In addition the concentration, metabolism and bioavailability of specific phenolic compounds will be discussed. The evidence presented in the review concludes that oleurepein, hydroxytyrosol and oleocanthal have potent pharmacological activities in vitro and in vivo; however, intervention studies with biologically relevant concentrations of these phenolic compounds are required.

  6. Nutritional constituents and health benefits of wild rice (Zizania spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendiran, Gangadaran; Alsaif, Maha; Kapourchali, Fatemeh Ramezani; Moghadasian, Mohammed H

    2014-04-01

    Wild rice (Zizania spp.) seems to have originated in North America and then dispersed into Eastern Asia and other parts of the world. Nutritional analysis shows that wild rice is rich in minerals, vitamins, protein, starch, dietary fiber, and various antioxidant phytochemicals, while it is low in fat. Wild rice has been recognized as a whole grain by the US Food and Drug Administration; in the North American marketplace it is currently sold as and considered to be a health-promoting food. Recent scientific studies have revealed antioxidant and lipid-lowering properties of wild rice, while others have documented cardiovascular benefits associated with the long-term consumption of wild rice in experimental settings. The present review article summarizes various features of wild rice and its cultivation, including its plantation, harvest, nutritional composition, and biological properties. While evidence for the cardiovascular benefits of wild rice consumption is accumulating, additional studies are warranted to determine the clinical benefits of regular consumption of wild rice.

  7. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jeong Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1 psychological benefit, (2 physical benefit, and (3 social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women.

  8. 76 FR 38281 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: New Premium Rating Method for Most Community Rated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    .... Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: New Premium Rating Method for Most Community Rated Plans... 3206-AM39 Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: New Premium Rating Method for Most Community...

  9. Health Benefits of Methylxanthines in Cacao and Chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Franco

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One may wonder why methylxanthines are so abundant in beverages used by humans for centuries, or in cola-drinks that have been heavily consumed since their appearance. It is likely that humans have stuck to any brew containing compounds with psychoactive properties, resulting in a better daily life, i.e., more efficient thinking, exploring, hunting, etc., however, without the serious side effects of drugs of abuse. The physiological effects of methylxanthines have been known for a long time and they are mainly mediated by the so-called adenosine receptors. Caffeine and theobromine are the most abundant methylxanthines in cacao and their physiological effects are notable. Their health-promoting benefits are so remarkable that chocolate is explored as a functional food. The consequences of adenosine receptor blockade by natural compounds present in cacao/chocolate are here reviewed. Palatability and health benefits of methylxanthines, in general, and theobromine, in particular, have further contributed to sustain one of the most innocuous and pleasant habits: chocolate consumption.

  10. Health Benefits of Methylxanthines in Cacao and Chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Rafael; Oñatibia-Astibia, Ainhoa; Martínez-Pinilla, Eva

    2013-01-01

    One may wonder why methylxanthines are so abundant in beverages used by humans for centuries, or in cola-drinks that have been heavily consumed since their appearance. It is likely that humans have stuck to any brew containing compounds with psychoactive properties, resulting in a better daily life, i.e., more efficient thinking, exploring, hunting, etc., however, without the serious side effects of drugs of abuse. The physiological effects of methylxanthines have been known for a long time and they are mainly mediated by the so-called adenosine receptors. Caffeine and theobromine are the most abundant methylxanthines in cacao and their physiological effects are notable. Their health-promoting benefits are so remarkable that chocolate is explored as a functional food. The consequences of adenosine receptor blockade by natural compounds present in cacao/chocolate are here reviewed. Palatability and health benefits of methylxanthines, in general, and theobromine, in particular, have further contributed to sustain one of the most innocuous and pleasant habits: chocolate consumption. PMID:24145871

  11. Health benefits of methylxanthines in cacao and chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Rafael; Oñatibia-Astibia, Ainhoa; Martínez-Pinilla, Eva

    2013-10-18

    One may wonder why methylxanthines are so abundant in beverages used by humans for centuries, or in cola-drinks that have been heavily consumed since their appearance. It is likely that humans have stuck to any brew containing compounds with psychoactive properties, resulting in a better daily life, i.e., more efficient thinking, exploring, hunting, etc., however, without the serious side effects of drugs of abuse. The physiological effects of methylxanthines have been known for a long time and they are mainly mediated by the so-called adenosine receptors. Caffeine and theobromine are the most abundant methylxanthines in cacao and their physiological effects are notable. Their health-promoting benefits are so remarkable that chocolate is explored as a functional food. The consequences of adenosine receptor blockade by natural compounds present in cacao/chocolate are here reviewed. Palatability and health benefits of methylxanthines, in general, and theobromine, in particular, have further contributed to sustain one of the most innocuous and pleasant habits: chocolate consumption.

  12. Mental health through forgiveness: Exploring the roots and benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Raj

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Forgiveness is conceptualized as the process of making peace with life. The three sources of forgiveness, another person, oneself, and a situation or circumstance are capable of freeing a person from a negative association to the source that has transgressed against a person. Research studies show the mental health benefits associated with forgiveness. The present study explores the experiences of adults who practice forgiveness, specifically, the indicators of forgiveness, the childhood antecedents, and the benefits of forgiving behavior. The study uses a qualitative research approach following a phenomenological framework. A total of 12 adults, ranging from 25 to 40 years of age, who received a high score on Heartland Forgiveness Scale were included in the study. Using semi-structured in-depth interviews, their personal experiences were explored. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The themes emerged show that the childhood antecedents of forgiveness are parental influences and early childhood experiences. The indicators of forgiving behavior include positive emotional state, empathy and perspective taking, and religiosity. The themes identified are enhanced sense of well-being, improved self-acceptance, and competence to deal with challenges. Forgiveness enhanced physical and psychological well-being. The findings of the study have several implications for religious leaders, teachers, parents, mental health professionals, and trainers.

  13. The Nutritional Value and Health Benefits of Chickpeas and Hummus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Taylor C.; Murray, Robert; Zelman, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advocate for increasing vegetable intake and replacing energy-dense foods with those that are nutrient-dense. Most Americans do not eat enough vegetables, and particularly legumes, each day, despite their well-established benefits for health. Traditional hummus is a nutrient-dense dip or spread made from cooked, mashed chickpeas, blended with tahini, olive oil, lemon juice, and spices. Consumers of chickpeas and/or hummus have been shown to have higher nutrient intakes of dietary fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin C, folate, magnesium, potassium, and iron as compared to non-consumers. Hummus consumers have also been shown to have higher Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI-2005) scores. This may be, in part, due to hummus’ higher Naturally Nutrient Rich (NNR) score as compared to other dips and spreads. Emerging research suggests that chickpeas and hummus may play a beneficial role in weight management and glucose and insulin regulation, as well as have a positive impact on some markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Raw or cooked chickpeas and hummus also contain dietary bioactives such as phytic acid, sterols, tannins, carotenoids, and other polyphenols such as isoflavones, whose benefits may extend beyond basic nutrition requirements of humans. With chickpeas as its primary ingredient, hummus—and especially when paired with vegetables and/or whole grains—is a nutritious way for Americans to obtain their recommended servings of legumes. This manuscript reviews the nutritional value and health benefits of chickpeas and hummus and explores how these foods may help improve the nutrient profiles of meals. PMID:27916819

  14. The Nutritional Value and Health Benefits of Chickpeas and Hummus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor C. Wallace

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advocate for increasing vegetable intake and replacing energy-dense foods with those that are nutrient-dense. Most Americans do not eat enough vegetables, and particularly legumes, each day, despite their well-established benefits for health. Traditional hummus is a nutrient-dense dip or spread made from cooked, mashed chickpeas, blended with tahini, olive oil, lemon juice, and spices. Consumers of chickpeas and/or hummus have been shown to have higher nutrient intakes of dietary fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin C, folate, magnesium, potassium, and iron as compared to non-consumers. Hummus consumers have also been shown to have higher Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI-2005 scores. This may be, in part, due to hummus’ higher Naturally Nutrient Rich (NNR score as compared to other dips and spreads. Emerging research suggests that chickpeas and hummus may play a beneficial role in weight management and glucose and insulin regulation, as well as have a positive impact on some markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Raw or cooked chickpeas and hummus also contain dietary bioactives such as phytic acid, sterols, tannins, carotenoids, and other polyphenols such as isoflavones, whose benefits may extend beyond basic nutrition requirements of humans. With chickpeas as its primary ingredient, hummus—and especially when paired with vegetables and/or whole grains—is a nutritious way for Americans to obtain their recommended servings of legumes. This manuscript reviews the nutritional value and health benefits of chickpeas and hummus and explores how these foods may help improve the nutrient profiles of meals.

  15. The Nutritional Value and Health Benefits of Chickpeas and Hummus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Taylor C; Murray, Robert; Zelman, Kathleen M

    2016-11-29

    The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advocate for increasing vegetable intake and replacing energy-dense foods with those that are nutrient-dense. Most Americans do not eat enough vegetables, and particularly legumes, each day, despite their well-established benefits for health. Traditional hummus is a nutrient-dense dip or spread made from cooked, mashed chickpeas, blended with tahini, olive oil, lemon juice, and spices. Consumers of chickpeas and/or hummus have been shown to have higher nutrient intakes of dietary fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin C, folate, magnesium, potassium, and iron as compared to non-consumers. Hummus consumers have also been shown to have higher Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI-2005) scores. This may be, in part, due to hummus' higher Naturally Nutrient Rich (NNR) score as compared to other dips and spreads. Emerging research suggests that chickpeas and hummus may play a beneficial role in weight management and glucose and insulin regulation, as well as have a positive impact on some markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Raw or cooked chickpeas and hummus also contain dietary bioactives such as phytic acid, sterols, tannins, carotenoids, and other polyphenols such as isoflavones, whose benefits may extend beyond basic nutrition requirements of humans. With chickpeas as its primary ingredient, hummus-and especially when paired with vegetables and/or whole grains-is a nutritious way for Americans to obtain their recommended servings of legumes. This manuscript reviews the nutritional value and health benefits of chickpeas and hummus and explores how these foods may help improve the nutrient profiles of meals.

  16. 42 CFR 440.335 - Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage. 440... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Benchmark Benefit and Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.335 Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage....

  17. Health benefits of algal polysaccharides in human nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mišurcová, Ladislava; Škrovánková, Soňa; Samek, Dušan; Ambrožová, Jarmila; Machů, Ludmila

    2012-01-01

    The interest in functional food, both freshwater and marine algal products with their possible promotional health effects, increases also in regions where algae are considered as rather exotic food. Increased attention about algae as an abundant source of many nutrients and dietary fiber from the nutrition point of view, as well as from the scientific approaches to explore new nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals, is based on the presence of many bioactive compounds including polysaccharides extracted from algal matter. Diverse chemical composition of dietary fiber polysaccharides is responsible for their different physicochemical properties, such as their ability to be fermented by the human colonic microbiota resulted in health benefit effects. Fundamental seaweed polysaccharides are presented by alginates, agars, carrageenans, ulvanes, and fucoidans, which are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industry and also in other branches of industry. Moreover, freshwater algae and seaweed polysaccharides have emerged as an important source of bioactive natural compounds which are responsible for their possible physiological effects. Especially, sulfate polysaccharides exhibit immunomodulatory, antitumor, antithrombotic, anticoagulant, anti-mutagenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities including anti-HIV infection, herpes, and hepatitis viruses. Generally, biological activity of sulfate polysaccharides is related to their different composition and mainly to the extent of the sulfation of their molecules. Significant attention has been recently focused on the use of both freshwater algae and seaweed for developing functional food by reason of a great variety of nutrients that are essential for human health.

  18. Rents From the Essential Health Benefits Mandate of Health Insurance Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2015-01-01

    The essential health benefits mandate constitutes one of the most controversial health care reforms introduced under the U.S. Affordable Care Act of 2010. It bears important theoretical and practical implications for health care risk and insurance management. These essential health benefits are examined in this study from a rent-seeking perspective, particularly in terms of three interrelated questions: Is there an economic rationale for standardized, minimum health care coverage? How is the scope of essential health services and treatments determined? What are the attendant and incidental costs and benefits of such determination/s? Rents offer ample incentives to business interests to expend considerable resources for health care marketing, particularly when policy processes are open to contestation. Welfare losses inevitably arise from these incentives. We rely on five case studies to illustrate why and how rents are created, assigned, extracted, and dissipated in equilibrium. We also demonstrate why rents depend on persuasive marketing and the bargained decisions of regulators and rentiers, as conditioned by the Tullock paradox. Insights on the intertwining issues of consumer choice, health care marketing, and insurance reform are offered by way of conclusion.

  19. Therapeutic potential and health benefits of Sargassum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yende, Subhash R; Harle, Uday N; Chaugule, Bhupal B

    2014-01-01

    Sargassum species are tropical and sub-tropical brown macroalgae (seaweed) of shallow marine meadow. These are nutritious and rich source of bioactive compounds such as vitamins, carotenoids, dietary fibers, proteins, and minerals. Also, many biologically active compounds like terpenoids, flavonoids, sterols, sulfated polysaccharides, polyphenols, sargaquinoic acids, sargachromenol, pheophytine were isolated from different Sargassum species. These isolated compounds exhibit diverse biological activities like analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective, anti-microbial, anti-tumor, fibrinolytic, immune-modulatory, anti-coagulant, hepatoprotective, anti-viral activity etc., Hence, Sargassum species have great potential to be used in pharmaceutical and neutralceutical areas. This review paper explores the current knowledge of phytochemical, therapeutic potential, and health benefits of different species of genus Sargassum.

  20. Benefits of Wine Polyphenols on Human Health: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Banc

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents  an overview of the health benefits of wine polyphenols, induced by a moderate consumption. Several studies have shown that moderate wine intake may have many beneficial effects on human health and these effects are mainly attributed to the phenolic derivatives, especially flavonoids. Beside flavonoid compounds, phenolic acids (hydroxybenzoic acids and hydroxycinnamic acids and stilbenes are important non-flavonoid compounds present in grapes and wine. In the present review, the biological role of these classes of polyphenols in wine is briefly introduced, together with the knowledge on their bioavailability. The health-protective properties of wines are mainly due to antioxidant activities and capability to eliminate free radicals of the phenolic compounds. Additionally, these compounds (e.g. catechin and their oligomers and proanthocyanidins, quercetin, resveratrol have been reported to have multiple biological activities, including cardioprotective, anti-carcinogenic, anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antibacterial properties. Epidemiological and clinical studies have pointed out that regular and moderate red wine consumption (one to two glasses a day is associated with decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, and certain types of cancer, including lung, esophagus, stomach, colon, endometrium, ovarian and prostate cancer. The bioavailability of phenolic compounds differs largely among different polyphenol molecules, thus the most abundant polyphenols in wines are not necessarily those leading to the highest levels of active metabolites in target tissues. Therefore, since wine is a complex mixture, it is likely that a multitude of chemical constituents, as well as their metabolites, act synergistically on human health.

  1. Suicide bombing: a psychodynamic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Uday; Olsson, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The horror and macabre images of suicide bombings appear regularly on television news programs around the world. A focused literature review of psychiatric interview and demographic data about suicide bombers is presented. Of particular clinical interest are the findings from the study of potential suicide bombers who were apprehended before they could act on their suicide bombing plans. The authors offer psychodynamic and social self-psychological theories explaining the phenomenon of suicide bombing behavior.

  2. Beta Glucan: Health Benefits in Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. El Khoury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the lack of international agreement regarding the definition and classification of fiber, there is established evidence on the role of dietary fibers in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Beta glucan (β-glucan is a soluble fiber readily available from oat and barley grains that has been gaining interest due to its multiple functional and bioactive properties. Its beneficial role in insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity is being continuously documented. The fermentability of β-glucans and their ability to form highly viscous solutions in the human gut may constitute the basis of their health benefits. Consequently, the applicability of β-glucan as a food ingredient is being widely considered with the dual purposes of increasing the fiber content of food products and enhancing their health properties. Therefore, this paper explores the role of β-glucans in the prevention and treatment of characteristics of the metabolic syndrome, their underlying mechanisms of action, and their potential in food applications.

  3. Foreign bodies radiographically-demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, S.; Onitsuka, H.; Lee, K.; Shimizu, Y.; Russell, W.J.

    1978-08-25

    The prevalence of roentgenologically-detected foreign bodies among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors was studied as an indicator of the A-bomb blast effects. Acupuncture was studied as an indicator of A-bomb-related abnormalities for which it was administered. All Adult Health Study subjects' roentgenograms demonstrating foreign bodies were reviewed. The frequency of glass and metal, and acupuncture needles were analyzed by distance from hypocenters, sex, age, body sites involved; and the subjects' shielding at the times of the A-bombs. The presence of glass fragments correlated closely with distance from hypocenter, heavy shielding from the A-bombs, and with adulthood, and they were more frequent in the chest than hand and wrist. Metal foreign bodies were more frequent in the hand and wrist than in the chest, and not associated with distance from hypocenter or heavy shielding. The prevalence of acupuncture needles increased with age, but did not correlate with A-bomb dose.

  4. 49 CFR 25.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 25.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 25.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services....

  5. 29 CFR 36.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 36.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 36.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health and insurance benefits and services. 36.440...

  6. 24 CFR 3.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Activities Prohibited § 3.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 3.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health and insurance benefits...

  7. 10 CFR 1042.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1042.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 1042.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services....

  8. 45 CFR 86.39 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.39 Health and insurance benefits and services. In providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services....

  9. 45 CFR 2555.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Activities Prohibited § 2555.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 2555.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services....

  10. 7 CFR 15a.39 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Programs and Activities Prohibited § 15a.39 Health and insurance benefits and services. In providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services....

  11. 34 CFR 106.39 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Prohibited § 106.39 Health and insurance benefits and services. In providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services....

  12. 32 CFR 196.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Activities Prohibited § 196.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 196.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services....

  13. 45 CFR 618.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 618.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services....

  14. 13 CFR 113.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 113.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits...

  15. D-002 (beeswax alcohols): concurrent joint health benefits and gastroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Vivian; Mas, R; Carbajal, D

    2015-01-01

    Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs include the traditional drugs and more selective COX-2 inhibitors. Traditional nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use is hampered by their gastrotoxicity, while COX-2-inhibitors increase the cardiovascular risk. The search of safer substances for managing inflammatory conditions is updated, a challenge wherein dual COX/5-LOX inhibitors have a place. This review summarizes the benefits of D-002, a mixture of higher aliphatic beeswax alcohols, on joint health and gastric mucosa. D-002 elicits gastroprotection through a multiple mechanism that involves the increased secretion and improved quality of the gastric mucus, the reduction of hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, neutrophil infiltration and the increase of antioxidant enzymes on the gastric mucosa. Consistently, D-002 inhibits NSAIDs, ethanol, pylorus-ligation and acetic acid-induced gastric ulceration in rats, and has reduced gastrointestinal symptoms in clinical studies. Early results found that D-002 was effective in the cotton pellet-induced granuloma and carrageenan-induced pleurisy model in rats, lowering pleural leukotriene B4 levels without causing gastrointestinal ulceration. However, D-002 effects on inflammation received little attention for years. Recent data have shown that D-002 inhibited both COX and 5-LOX activities with a greater affinity for 5-LOX and could act as a dual COX/5-LOX inhibitor. This mechanism might explain efficacy in experimental inflammatory and osteoarthritic models as well as clinical efficacy in osteoarthritic patients while supporting the lack of D-002 gastrotoxicity, but not the gastroprotective effects, which appear to be due to multiple mechanisms. In summary oral D-002 intake could help manage inflammatory conditions that impair joint health, while offering gastroprotection.

  16. D-002 (beeswax alcohols: Concurrent joint health benefits and gastroprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Molina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs include the traditional drugs and more selective COX-2 inhibitors. Traditional nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use is hampered by their gastrotoxicity, while COX-2-inhibitors increase the cardiovascular risk. The search of safer substances for managing inflammatory conditions is updated, a challenge wherein dual COX/5-LOX inhibitors have a place. This review summarizes the benefits of D-002, a mixture of higher aliphatic beeswax alcohols, on joint health and gastric mucosa. D-002 elicits gastroprotection through a multiple mechanism that involves the increased secretion and improved quality of the gastric mucus, the reduction of hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, neutrophil infiltration and the increase of antioxidant enzymes on the gastric mucosa. Consistently, D-002 inhibits NSAIDs, ethanol, pylorus-ligation and acetic acid-induced gastric ulceration in rats, and has reduced gastrointestinal symptoms in clinical studies. Early results found that D-002 was effective in the cotton pellet-induced granuloma and carrageenan-induced pleurisy model in rats, lowering pleural leukotriene B4 levels without causing gastrointestinal ulceration. However, D-002 effects on inflammation received little attention for years. Recent data have shown that D-002 inhibited both COX and 5-LOX activities with a greater affinity for 5-LOX and could act as a dual COX/5-LOX inhibitor. This mechanism might explain efficacy in experimental inflammatory and osteoarthritic models as well as clinical efficacy in osteoarthritic patients while supporting the lack of D-002 gastrotoxicity, but not the gastroprotective effects, which appear to be due to multiple mechanisms. In summary oral D-002 intake could help manage inflammatory conditions that impair joint health, while offering gastroprotection.

  17. Ellerman bombs: fallacies, fads, usage

    CERN Document Server

    Rutten, Robert J; van der Voort, Luc H M Rouppe; Sütterlin, Peter; Vitas, Nikola

    2013-01-01

    Ellerman bombs are short-lived brightenings of the outer wings of Halpha that occur in active regions with much flux emergence. We point out fads and fallacies in the extensive Ellerman bomb literature, discuss their appearance in various spectral diagnostics, and advocate their use as indicators of field reconfiguration in active-region topography using AIA 1700 A images.

  18. mTOR and the health benefits of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kurt; Baar, Keith

    2014-12-01

    Exercise is the greatest physiological stress that our bodies experience. For example, during maximal endurance exercise in elite athlete's cardiac output can increase up to 8-fold and the working muscles receive 21-times more blood each minute than at rest. Given the physiological stress associated with exercise and the adaptations that occur to handle this stress, it is not surprising that exercise training is known to prevent or effectively treat a multitude of degenerative conditions including cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, depression, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and many others. Many of the health benefits of exercise are mediated by the mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), either in complex 1 or 2, not only within the working muscle, but also in distant tissues such as fat, liver, and brain. This review will discuss how exercise activates mTOR in diverse tissues and the ways that mTOR is important in the adaptive response that makes us bigger, stronger, and healthier as a result of exercise.

  19. Advance on the Flavonoid C-glycosides and Health Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianbo; Capanoglu, Esra; Jassbi, Amir Reza; Miron, Anca

    2016-07-29

    The dietary flavonoids, especially their glycosides, are the most vital phytochemicals in diets and are of great general interest due to their diverse bioactivity. Almost all natural flavonoids exist as their O-glycoside or C-glycoside forms in plants. The dietary flavonoid C-glycosides have received less attention than their corresponding O-glycosides. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding flavonoid C-glycosides and their influence on human health. Among the flavonoid C-glycosides, flavone C-glycosides, especially vitexin, isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin and their multiglycosides are more frequently mentioned than others. Flavonoid C-monoglycosides are poorly absorbed in human beings with very few metabolites in urine and blood and are deglycosylated and degraded by human intestinal bacteria in colon. However, flavonoid C-multiglycosides are absorbed unchanged in the intestine and distributed to other tissues. Flavonoid C-glycosides showed significant antioxidant activity, anticancer and antitumor activity, hepatoprotective activity, anti-inflammatory activity, anti-diabetes activity, antiviral activity, antibacterial and antifungal activity, and other biological effects. It looks like that the C-glycosylflavonoids in most cases showed higher antioxidant and anti-diabetes potential than their corresponding O-glycosylflavonoids and aglycones. However, there is a lack of in vivo data on the biological benefits of flavonoid C-glycosides. It is necessary to investigate more on how flavonoid C-glycosides prevent and handle the diseases.

  20. Medicinal Uses of Punica Granatum And Its Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjit Bhowmik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate has been used for thousands of years to cure a wide range of diseases across different cultures and civilizations. It has great nutritional values and numerous health benefits. Pomegranates as a Treatment for Cancer, Osteoarthritis and Other Diseases. The pomegranate has been used in natural and holistic medicine to treat sore throats, coughs, urinary infections, digestive disorders, skin disorders, arthritis, and to expel tapeworms. However, modern research suggests that pomegranates might be useful in treating such serious conditions as prostate cancer, skin cancer, osteoarthritis, and diabetes. Studies also show that pomegranate seeds might help rid the digestive system of fats. Clinical research shows that pomegranates, when part of a healthy diet, might help prevent heart disease, heart attacks and strokes. This is because pomegranates have the potential to thin the blood, increase blood flow to the heart, reduce blood pressure, reduce plaque in the arteries, and reduce bad cholesterol while increasing good cholesterol. A decoction of seed is used to treat syphilis. Juice used to treat jaundice and diarrhoea. Juice of flower is used to treat nose bleeds. The fruit pulp and the seed are stomachic. Dried, pulverized flower buds are employed as a remedy for bronchitis.

  1. The Role of Health Co-Benefits in the Development of Australian Climate Change Mitigation Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Annabelle; Blashki, Grant; Karoly, David; Wiseman, John

    2016-01-01

    Reducing domestic carbon dioxide and other associated emissions can lead to short-term, localized health benefits. Quantifying and incorporating these health co-benefits into the development of national climate change mitigation policies may facilitate the adoption of stronger policies. There is, however, a dearth of research exploring the role of health co-benefits on the development of such policies. To address this knowledge gap, research was conducted in Australia involving the analysis of several data sources, including interviews carried out with Australian federal government employees directly involved in the development of mitigation policies. The resulting case study determined that, in Australia, health co-benefits play a minimal role in the development of climate change mitigation policies. Several factors influence the extent to which health co-benefits inform the development of mitigation policies. Understanding these factors may help to increase the political utility of future health co-benefits studies. PMID:27657098

  2. South African consumers’ opinions and beliefs regarding the health benefits of soy and soy products

    OpenAIRE

    Bosman, Magdalena J C; Susanna M Ellis; Johann C Jerling; Badham, Jane; Van der Merwe, Daleen

    2011-01-01

    Studies linking diet and health and consumers’ demand for health information, has led to an increasing awareness of the role of nutrition in health and disease. Interest in soy foods and an awareness of its health benefits has also increased. The objective was to assess South African (SA) consumers’ opinions and beliefs regarding the health benefits of soy and soy products using different statements. This cross-sectional study randomly selected 3001 respondents from metropolita...

  3. South African consumers opinions and beliefs regarding the health benefits of soy and soy products

    OpenAIRE

    Badham, Jane Melissa; Bosman, Magdalena Johanna Catharina; Ellis, Susanna Maria; Jerling, Johann Carl; Van der Merwe, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Studies linking diet and health and consumers' demand for health information, has led to an increasing awareness of the role of nutrition in health and disease. Interest in soy foods and an awareness of its health benefits has also increased. The objective was to assess South African (SA) consumers' opinions and beliefs regarding the health benefits of soy and soy products using different statements. This cross-sectional study randomly selected 3001 respondents from metropolitan and rural...

  4. The health co-benefits of climate change policies: doctors have a responsibility to future generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ian

    2009-06-01

    Mitigating climate change presents unrivalled opportunities for improving public health. The policies that need to be implemented to reduce greenhouse gas emissions will also bring about substantial reductions in heart disease, cancer, obesity, diabetes, road deaths and injuries, and air pollution. The health benefits arise because climate change policies necessarily impact on two of the most important determinants of health: human nutrition and human movement. Although the health co-benefits of climate change policies are increasingly recognised by health professionals they are not widely appreciated by those responsible for policy. Because the existence of important health co-benefits will dramatically reduce the cost to society of taking strong action to mitigate climate change, failure to appreciate their importance could have serious environmental consequences. Health professionals have an urgent responsibility to ensure that the health benefits of environmental policies are understood by the public and by policymakers.

  5. A New Dimension of Health Care: Systematic Review of the Uses, Benefits, and Limitations of Social Media for Health Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Moorhead, S Anne; Hazlett, Diane E; Harrison, Laura; Carroll, Jennifer K.; Irwin, Anthea; Hoving, Ciska

    2013-01-01

    Background There is currently a lack of information about the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals from primary research. Objective To review the current published literature to identify the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals, and identify current gaps in the literature to provide recommendations for...

  6. Evidence-based benefit design: toward a sustainable health care future for employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, William B; Stave, Gregg M; Allen, Harris; Naim, Ahmad B

    2010-10-01

    Health care costs for employers are rising much faster than inflation. The common approach to health benefit design of increasing cost sharing has failed to contain costs. Some employers, however, have been successful at mitigating the cost trend or actually reducing health care costs. These employers have in common a dedication to data analysis, a search for cost drivers, and a willingness to adjust their approach to health benefit design to address these cost drivers. This approach has much in common with the movement in clinical practice toward evidence-based medicine. We propose that employers adopt a similar approach toward health benefits termed evidence-based benefit design, which is based on a health and productivity framework focused on direct and indirect costs. Evidence-based benefit design incorporates the relevant literature and employer-specific data that are integrated and regularly analyzed.

  7. Foreign bodies radiographically demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, S.; Onitsuka, H.; Lee, K.K.; Shimizu, Y.; Russell, W.J.

    1978-02-01

    The prevalence of roentgenologically-detected foregin bodies among atomic bomb survivors was studied as an indicator of the A-bomb blast effects. Acupuncture was studied as an indicator of possible A-bomb-related abnormalities for which it was administered. All available roentgenograms of Adult Health Study (AHS) subjects which demonstrated foreign bodies were reviewed. The frequency of glass and metal foreign bodies and of acupuncture needles was analyzed in detail. Analyses were made by distance from the hypocenter, sex, age, body sites involved, and shielding at the time of the A-bomb (ATB). The presence of glass fragments correlated closely with distance from the hypocenter, with heavy shielding from the A-bombs, and with adulthood, and they were more frequent in the chest than in the hand and wrist. On the contrary, metal foreign bodies were more frequent in the hand and wrist than in the chest, and were not associated with distance from hypocenter or heavy shielding. The prevalence of acupuncture needles increased with age, but did not correlate with A-bomb dose.

  8. 22 CFR 229.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 229... benefits and services. Subject to § 229.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not discriminate...

  9. 22 CFR 146.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 146... benefits and services. Subject to § 146.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not discriminate...

  10. 15 CFR 8a.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and... benefits and services. Subject to § 8a.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not discriminate...

  11. 28 CFR 54.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and... benefits and services. Subject to § 54.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not discriminate...

  12. 43 CFR 41.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services... benefits and services. Subject to § 41.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not discriminate...

  13. 6 CFR 17.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 17... benefits and services. Subject to § 17.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not discriminate...

  14. 14 CFR 1253.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services... benefits and services. Subject to § 1253.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not discriminate...

  15. OPPORTUNITIES AND BENEFITS IMPLEMENTATION BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE APPLICATION ON HEALTH CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hady Pranoto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The health center has the task of providing health services to the community, to be able to win the competition among the existing health centers; a health center should have a good operating system, a computerized operating system to improve services in the field of administration. However, providing a computerized system is not enough, many other health centers or competitors also use a computerized system. Unfortunately, health centers in Indonesia have not yet implemented business intelligence application. There are many public and private health centers do not apply automated operational system. A study of the literature is conducted to find evidence of the application of BI, and any sector of the BI can be applied. Many sectors in health services where BI can be applied to improve the productivity quality of service and competitiveness in this era of globalization.

  16. 78 FR 50119 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: Medically Underserved Areas for 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: Medically Underserved Areas for 2014 AGENCY: U.S... Medically Underserved Areas under the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program for calendar...

  17. 77 FR 43127 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: Medically Underserved Areas for 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: Medically Underserved Areas for 2013 AGENCY: U.S... Medically Underserved Areas under the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program for calendar...

  18. 77 FR 67743 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Coverage for Certain Intermittent Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... RIN 3206-AM74 Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Coverage for Certain Intermittent Employees... Personnel Management (OPM) is issuing an interim final rule to amend the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP) regulations to make certain employees who work on intermittent schedules eligible to...

  19. 41 CFR 60-741.25 - Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. 60-741.25 Section 60-741.25 Public Contracts and Property Management... Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical...

  20. 5 CFR 352.309 - Retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... life insurance. 352.309 Section 352.309 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... Organizations § 352.309 Retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance. (a) Agency action. An employee... entitled to retain coverage for retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance purposes if he or...

  1. 40 CFR 5.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 5.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits...

  2. 18 CFR 1317.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 1317.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 1317.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health and...

  3. 36 CFR 1211.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Activities Prohibited § 1211.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 1211.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and insurance...

  4. 44 CFR 19.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 19.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 19.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health and insurance...

  5. 38 CFR 23.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Prohibited § 23.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 23.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and...

  6. 10 CFR 5.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 5.440 Section 5.440 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.440 Health and insurance benefits and services. Subject...

  7. Corporate health benefits and the indexing of the personal income tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrisey, M A

    1983-01-01

    This note focuses on the role of the personal income tax in reducing the effective price of health care benefits. Tax-bracket creep is shown to provide a cushion that absorbs relatively large increases in health benefit costs, thus reducing the impetus for employer initiatives to control health care costs. It is hypothesized that the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981, with its provision for the indexing of tax brackets, will increase employer concern, and may therefore spur the development of effective employer initiatives to reduce the costs of health benefits.

  8. Retiree health benefits in the United States: a strategic critical management review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asubonteng, P; Bumpus, M; Munchus, G

    1997-01-01

    This article provides a critical review of studies associated with retiree health benefits in the United States. An attempt is made to determine if logical conclusions or trends could be identified regarding this issue of health care policy debate. The forms of retiree health benefits are covered, as is a discussion of Medigap policies and insurance coverage for the elderly. Employer-sponsored retiree benefits and the effects of supplemental coverage on the use of services are also reviewed. Lastly, a discussion and conclusion regarding this research agenda is presented with a critical analysis of the health care policy management debate for the future.

  9. Low-Income US Women Under-informed of the Specific Health Benefits of Consuming Beans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M Winham

    Full Text Available Bean consumption can reduce chronic disease risk and improve nutrition status. Consumer knowledge of bean health benefits could lead to increased intakes. Low-income women have poorer health and nutrition, but their level of knowledge about bean health benefits is unknown. Beans are a familiar food of reasonable cost in most settings and are cultural staples for Hispanics and other ethnicities. Study objectives were to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women, and to evaluate any differences by acculturation status for Hispanic women in the Southwestern United States.A convenience sample of 406 primarily Mexican-origin (70% low-income women completed a survey on knowledge of bean health benefits and general food behaviors. Principal components analysis of responses identified two summary scale constructs representing "bean health benefits" and "food behaviors." Acculturation level was the main independent variable in chi-square or ANOVA.The survey completion rate was 86% (406/471. Most women agreed or strongly agreed that beans improved nutrition (65% and were satiating (62%. Over 50% answered 'neutral' to statements that beans could lower LDL cholesterol (52%, control blood glucose (56% or reduce cancer risk (56%, indicating indifference or possible lack of knowledge about bean health benefits. There were significant differences by acculturation for beliefs that beans aid weight loss and intestinal health. Scores on the bean health benefits scale, but not the food behavior scale, also differed by acculturation.Limited resource women have a favorable view of the nutrition value of beans, but the majority did not agree or disagreed with statements about bean health benefits. Greater efforts to educate low-income women about bean health benefits may increase consumption and improve nutrition.

  10. Acai Berry Products: Do They Have Health Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including arthritis, weight loss, high cholesterol, erectile dysfunction, skin appearance, detoxification and general health. Acai berries contain antioxidants, fiber and heart-healthy fats. They may have ...

  11. Benefits of Breastfeeding (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-10-08

    Breastfeeding has well-documented benefits for both newborns and their mothers, and getting off to a good start is important for success. In this podcast, Dr. Cria Perrine discusses the importance of breastfeeding babies during their first year of life.  Created: 10/8/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 10/8/2015.

  12. Health issues in adolescents' Internet use - benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardoff, D

    2013-09-01

    The Internet has turned during the past decade into a major information resource in various domains of life and a communication venue among adolescents who seek health information via the net. The increasing availability of computers in homes, as well as wireless Internet access, means that adolescents today can go online anywhere, at any time. The media are not the leading cause of any major health problem, but they do contribute significantly to a variety of adolescent health problems, including aggressive behavior, sexual activity, drug use, obesity, sleep disorders, eating disorders, depression, suicide and self harm. This paper focuses on 3 major health issues in adolescents' Internet use: Body image and eating behaviors; sexuality and reproductive health behaviors; and self harm and suicidal behavior. This paper also demonstrates Internet venues where reliable health information is provided to young people by health professionals. Health professionals need to recognize the hazards of adolescents Internet use, and to address potential Internet abuse when encountering adolescents in clinical settings.

  13. What is a health benefit? An evaluation of EFSA opinions on health benefits with reference to probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnendijk, K H; Rijkers, G T

    2013-09-01

    Probiotics are microorganisms that have a beneficial effect on the health of the host. However, before these effects can be referred to as beneficial to human health, such claims need to be evaluated by regulatory institutes such as the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and allergies (NDA) has published their opinions regarding health claims including probiotics, most of which were rejected in the past years. Using the EFSA database, the NDA dossiers published between 2005 and 2013 were analysed to provide an overview on what grounds certain health effects were accepted as beneficial and others not. The NDA Panel distinguishes between claims that are definitely beneficial, possibly beneficial or non-beneficial to human health. Overall, 78% of all analysed health claims are considered by the NDA Panel as (possibly) beneficial to human health, in particular the gut health effects. Since, in many cases, the scientific substantiation of a particular health claim was deemed insufficient, most applications were turned down. For future health claim applications concerning probiotics to be successful, they should include specific statements on what exactly the microorganism affects, and the scientific substantiation of the particular health claim should be based on the targeted (general) population.

  14. Comparison of health risk behavior, awareness, and health benefit beliefs of health science and non-health science students: An international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Yung, Tony K C; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Rehman, Rehana

    2016-06-01

    This study determines the differences in health risk behavior, knowledge, and health benefit beliefs between health science and non-health science university students in 17 low and middle income countries. Anonymous questionnaire data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of 13,042 undergraduate university students (4,981 health science and 8,061 non-health science students) from 17 universities in 17 countries across Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Results indicate that overall, health science students had the same mean number of health risk behaviors as non-health science university students. Regarding addictive risk behavior, fewer health science students used tobacco, were binge drinkers, or gambled once a week or more. Health science students also had a greater awareness of health behavior risks (5.5) than non-health science students (4.6). Linear regression analysis found a strong association with poor or weak health benefit beliefs and the health risk behavior index. There was no association between risk awareness and health risk behavior among health science students and an inverse association among non-health science students.

  15. How Health Relationship Management Services (HRMS Benefits Corporate Wellness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Tehrani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The typical worker spends about 47 hours a week commuting sitting in cars, trains, buses, or sitting at their desks. These statistics show that maintaining a healthy work and life balance has become progressively important. Workplace wellness and health promotion are of central importance for any organization in today's world. People are becoming highly conscious about their health and seek to ensure that they are provided with best medical services and facilities in case of any health issue. Organizations have switched to proactive strategies for the healthcare of their employees. Billions of dollars are spent on the workforce only after illnesses or injuries have occurred. Over the past several decades, healthcare services have drastically changed, altering the manner in which healthcare was previously managed. Technological advancements in medical systems have revolutionized the healthcare industry, and digital health tracking has been quite successful in monitoring patients’ health. Since patients are continuously monitored, no matter where they are, these systems can indicate patients’ adherence to medical protocols and act as a warning sign for such diseases as heart problems, Alzheimer’s disease, and many others. Health Relationship Management Services (HRMS is a new paradigm which defines comprehensive healthcare for an individual. HRMS is a complete health ecosystem suitable for the workplace, which enables healthcare providers to collect personal health data from various sources, analyze it for positive outcomes, and take action to preserve an employee’s good health to reduce absenteeism or turnover. HRMS can act as a preventative sentinel for corporate well-being as well.

  16. Health and climate benefits of offshore wind facilities in the Mid-Atlantic United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonocore, Jonathan J.; Luckow, Patrick; Fisher, Jeremy; Kempton, Willett; Levy, Jonathan I.

    2016-07-01

    Electricity from fossil fuels contributes substantially to both climate change and the health burden of air pollution. Renewable energy sources are capable of displacing electricity from fossil fuels, but the quantity of health and climate benefits depend on site-specific attributes that are not often included in quantitative models. Here, we link an electrical grid simulation model to an air pollution health impact assessment model and US regulatory estimates of the impacts of carbon to estimate the health and climate benefits of offshore wind facilities of different sizes in two different locations. We find that offshore wind in the Mid-Atlantic is capable of producing health and climate benefits of between 54 and 120 per MWh of generation, with the largest simulated facility (3000 MW off the coast of New Jersey) producing approximately 690 million in benefits in 2017. The variability in benefits per unit generation is a function of differences in locations (Maryland versus New Jersey), simulated years (2012 versus 2017), and facility generation capacity, given complexities of the electrical grid and differences in which power plants are offset. This work demonstrates health and climate benefits of offshore wind, provides further evidence of the utility of geographically-refined modeling frameworks, and yields quantitative insights that would allow for inclusion of both climate and public health in benefits assessments of renewable energy.

  17. The electronic cigarette: potential health benefit or mere business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Cinzia; Invernizzi, Giovanni; Bosi, Sandra; Pozzi, Paolo; Di Paco, Adriano; Mazza, Roberto; Ruprecht, Ario Alberto; Munarini, Elena; Boffi, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have attracted considerable attention as a possible alternative to tobacco cigarettes, but uncertainties about their impact on health and indoor air quality as well as their commercial success without a clear regulatory framework are arousing concern. We have therefore tried to summarize the health-related implications of the use of e-cigarettes in order to help physicians and health professionals provide accurate information on this device. Given the lack of unequivocal scientific data on their toxicity and safety, we conclude that at the moment there is no reason to approve e-cigarettes as a safe alternative to tobacco smoke.

  18. Fasting: Benefits and probable health harmfulness from the Islamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2015-06-01

    Medical science can determine the effects and consequences of thirst and hunger during the month of Ramadan. In the religious perspective, it has been emphasized that fasting is for achieving the divine virtue, and this shouldn’t be in conflict with maintaining man’s health. Therefore, the conditions in which there is the probability of harmfulness to man’s health due to fasting, man shouldn’t fast. As a result, medical science could recognize the conditions in which there is probable harmfulness to man’s health.

  19. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyoung Kim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1 the experience of psychological benefits, 2 the creation of social support, and 3 the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging.

  20. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhyoung; Yamada, Naoko; Heo, Jinmoo; Han, Areum

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1) the experience of psychological benefits, 2) the creation of social support, and 3) the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging. PMID:25059979

  1. Can cloud computing benefit health services? - a SWOT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Mu-Hsing; Kushniruk, Andre; Borycki, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss cloud computing, the current state of cloud computing in healthcare, and the challenges and opportunities of adopting cloud computing in healthcare. A Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis was used to evaluate the feasibility of adopting this computing model in healthcare. The paper concludes that cloud computing could have huge benefits for healthcare but there are a number of issues that will need to be addressed before its widespread use in healthcare.

  2. Implementing the Affordable Care Act: choosing an essential health benefits benchmark plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlette, Sabrina; Lucia, Kevin W; Levin, Max

    2013-03-01

    To improve the adequacy of private health insurance, the Affordable Care Act requires insurers to cover a minimum set of medical benefits, known as "essential health benefits." In implementing this requirement, states were asked to select a "benchmark plan" to serve as a reference point. This issue brief examines state action to select an essential health benefits benchmark plan and finds that 24 states and the District of Columbia selected a plan. All but five states will have a small-group plan as their benchmark. Each state, whether or not it made a benchmark selection, will have a set of essential health benefits that reflects local, employer-based health insurance coverage currently sold in the state. States adopted a variety of approaches to selecting a benchmark, including intergov­ernmental collaboration, stakeholder engagement, and research on benchmark options.

  3. Health Benefits from Nature Experiences Depend on Dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Danielle F.; Bush, Robert; Gaston, Kevin J.; Lin, Brenda B.; Dean, Julie; Barber, Elizabeth; Fuller, Richard A.

    2016-06-01

    Nature within cities will have a central role in helping address key global public health challenges associated with urbanization. However, there is almost no guidance on how much or how frequently people need to engage with nature, and what types or characteristics of nature need to be incorporated in cities for the best health outcomes. Here we use a nature dose framework to examine the associations between the duration, frequency and intensity of exposure to nature and health in an urban population. We show that people who made long visits to green spaces had lower rates of depression and high blood pressure, and those who visited more frequently had greater social cohesion. Higher levels of physical activity were linked to both duration and frequency of green space visits. A dose-response analysis for depression and high blood pressure suggest that visits to outdoor green spaces of 30 minutes or more during the course of a week could reduce the population prevalence of these illnesses by up to 7% and 9% respectively. Given that the societal costs of depression alone in Australia are estimated at AUD$12.6 billion per annum, savings to public health budgets across all health outcomes could be immense.

  4. Regional variations in the health, environmental, and climate benefits of wind and solar generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler-Evans, Kyle; Azevedo, Inês Lima; Morgan, M Granger; Apt, Jay

    2013-07-16

    When wind or solar energy displace conventional generation, the reduction in emissions varies dramatically across the United States. Although the Southwest has the greatest solar resource, a solar panel in New Jersey displaces significantly more sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter than a panel in Arizona, resulting in 15 times more health and environmental benefits. A wind turbine in West Virginia displaces twice as much carbon dioxide as the same turbine in California. Depending on location, we estimate that the combined health, environmental, and climate benefits from wind or solar range from $10/MWh to $100/MWh, and the sites with the highest energy output do not yield the greatest social benefits in many cases. We estimate that the social benefits from existing wind farms are roughly 60% higher than the cost of the Production Tax Credit, an important federal subsidy for wind energy. However, that same investment could achieve greater health, environmental, and climate benefits if it were differentiated by region.

  5. 76 FR 57637 - TRICARE; Continued Health Care Benefit Program Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... expansions of Military Health System (MHS) coverage, particularly with the Reserve Component (RC) members... under 10 U.S.C. chapter 55 Therefore, members or former members of the RC, such as TRICARE Reserve Select under 10 U.S.C. 1076d or TRICARE Retired Reserve under 10 U.S.C. Section 1076e coverage...

  6. Quinoa Beverages: Formulation, Processing and Potential Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Intelli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Research on innovative foods and beverages that serve well to the nutritional needs of individuals suffering from metabolic disorders like obesity, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia is an urgent need for today. This study aims to describe a method for preparing gluten free quinoa beverages and to investigate their effects on human health.

  7. 31 CFR 28.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health and insurance benefits and services. 28.440 Section 28.440 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... benefits and services. Subject to § 28.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or...

  8. Non-Production Benefits of Education: Crime, Health, and Good Citizenship. NBER Working Paper No. 16722

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, Lance

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of work suggests that education offers a wide-range of benefits that extend beyond increases in labor market productivity. Improvements in education can lower crime, improve health, and increase voting and democratic participation. This chapter reviews recent developments on these "non-production" benefits of education with an…

  9. 41 CFR 60-300.25 - Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. 60-300.25 Section 60-300.25 Public Contracts and Property Management..., life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service company,...

  10. 41 CFR 60-250.25 - Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. 60-250.25 Section 60-250.25 Public Contracts and Property Management..., life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service company,...

  11. 41 CFR 101-4.440 - Health and insurance benefits and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... insurance benefits and services. Subject to § 101-4.235(d), in providing a medical, hospital, accident, or life insurance benefit, service, policy, or plan to any of its students, a recipient shall not... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health and...

  12. The health benefits of mechanization at the Nigerian Coal Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asogwa, S E

    1988-04-01

    Nigerian Coal Corporation started operations in 1916 and in October 1977 introduced full mechanization at its coal mine in Enugu. An appraisal of the mining accidents between 1975-1980 showed an overall downward trend following mechanization, from 1073 per 1000 in 1975 to 425 in 1980 (a 60% reduction). The underground accidents were reduced from a monthly average of 63 to 26 but those at the surface remained basically unaffected. Changes were also recorded in sickness absences indices, with the most significant occurring with respect to the severity index which dropped from 9.2 in 1975 to 3.0 in 1980. The distribution of injury remained essentially the same except that injuries to the upper limbs became more common than the more serious pelvic injury prior to mechanization. The impact of mechanization in industries in developing countries are discussed and ways of ensuring optimum benefits from this transfer of technology suggested.

  13. Peace and the Atomic Bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, Norris E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1948-12-02

    A little over three years after assuming the directorship of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Norris Bradbury returned to his alma mater, Pomona College, and delivered one of his first extended speeches regarding the atomic bomb. Bradbury noted that although the atomic bomb had brought a “peace of kind,” ending World War II, the bomb also had become, without much thought, a “factor in the political, military, and diplomatic thinking of the world.” Bradbury hoped his speech, given to both the faculty and student body of Pomona, would give his audience a foundation on which to assess and understand the new world the bomb had ushered into existence. Bradbury’s talk was quickly printed an distributed by Pomona College and, later, reprinted in The Physical Review (Volume 75, No. 8, 1154-1160, April 15, 1949). It is reprinted here, for a third time, as a reminder of the early days of Los Alamos and its role in international affairs. "Slightly more that three years ago, this country brought to an end the most catastrophic war in history. The conflict had been characterized by an unremitting application of science to the technology of destruction. The final use of the atomic bomb, however, provided a climax so striking that the inevitable nature of future wars was illustrated with the utmost clarity. Peace of a kind followed the first military use of atomic weapons, but international understanding did not, and the atomic bomb became a factor in the political, military, and diplomatic thinking of the world. Where do we now stand in all this? What are the costs and the rewards? Where are we going? These are some of the things that I would like to discuss with you this morning."

  14. Perceptions of drugs benefits and barriers to quit by undergraduate health students

    OpenAIRE

    HENRIQUÉZ, Patricia Cid; Carvalho,Ana Maria Pimenta

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have exposed the consumption of drugs by undergraduate students in the health area, who are supposed to be examples of behavior and health educators. This descriptive correlation study aimed to relate the benefits of tobacco consumption and barriers to quit according to the perception of undergraduate students. Eighty third-year students, in three different courses, answered a self-applied questionnaire. The studied variables were: consumption conditions, barriers and benefits...

  15. Platycosides from the Roots of Platycodon grandiflorum and Their Health Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Nyakudya, Elijah; Jeong, Jong Hoon; Lee, Nam Keun; Jeong, Yong-Seob

    2014-01-01

    The extracts and pure saponins from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (PG) are reported to have a wide range of health benefits. Platycosides (saponins) from the roots of PG are characterized by a structure containing a triterpenoid aglycone and two sugar chains. Saponins are of commercial significance, and their applications are increasing with increasing evidence of their health benefits. The biological effects of saponins include cytotoxic effects against cancer cells, neuroprotective a...

  16. The Benefit of Pets and Animal-Assisted Therapy to the Health of Older Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health...

  17. Ecosystem Health and Comprehensive Ecological Benefit Assessment of an Artificial Wetland in Western Jilin Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] This research aimed to assess the state of ecosystem health and comprehensive ecological benefit of an artificial wetland in western Jilin Province. [Method] To investigate the effects of reclaimed water from Yingtai Oil Production Plant on the wetland ecosystem, a comprehensive ecological assessment index of an artificial wetland in the west of Jilin Province was established to measure the ecological economic and social benefits. The quantitative evaluation on the ecosystem health and comprehen...

  18. The influence of tasting experience and health benefits on Nordic consumers' rejection of genetically modified foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a conjoint study of 750 Danish, Swedish, Nor-wegian and Finnish consumers' preferences for genetically modified and conventional cheese with different types of health benefits. The results showed homogeneity in preferences within as well as across co...... countries. In general, the genetically modified cheese was rejected, but this was modified somewhat by health benefits and tasting experience....

  19. Perceived Health Benefits and Soy Consumption Behavior: Two-Stage Decision Model Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Wanki; Balasubramanian, Siva K.; Rimal, Arbindra

    2005-01-01

    A two-stage decision model is developed to assess the effect of perceived soy health benefits on consumers' decisions with respect to soy food. The first stage captures whether or not to consume soy food, while the second stage reflects how often to consume. A conceptual/analytical framework is also employed, combining Lancaster's characteristics model and Fishbein's multi-attribute model. Results show that perceived soy health benefits significantly influence both decision stages. Further, c...

  20. VEGETABLE GROWING - HOBBY AND BENEFIT FOR AGED PERSON HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scurtu Ion

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable growing in small areas (open field, plastic tunnels, unheated or heated green house or even in balcony may be a very pleasant activity for many old persons who want to preserve their physical and mental health. Beside many common vegetable species like tomatoes, pepper, eggplant, onion, garlic, cabbage, cucumber, lettuce and so on - can be cultivated in small areas many others vegetables like broccoli, Brussels cabbage, Scorzonera hispanica, asparagus, Witloof Chicory (French endive and vegetable with medicinal properties.

  1. Designing food structures for nutrition and health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Jennifer E; Wallis, Gareth A; Spyropoulos, Fotis; Lillford, Peter J; Norton, Ian T

    2014-01-01

    In addition to providing specific sensory properties (e.g., flavor or textures), there is a need to produce foods that also provide functionality within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, over and above simple nutrition. As such, there is a need to understand the physical and chemical processes occurring in the mouth, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine, in addition to the food structure-physiology interactions. In vivo techniques and in vitro models have allowed us to study and simulate these processes, which aids us in the design of food microstructures that can provide functionality within the human body. Furthermore, it is important to be aware of the health or nutritional needs of different groups of consumers when designing food structures, to provide targeted functionality. Examples of three groups of consumers (elderly, obese, and athletes) are given to demonstrate their differing nutritional requirements and the formulation engineering approaches that can be utilized to improve the health of these individuals. Eating is a pleasurable process, but foods of the future will be required to provide much more in terms of functionality for health and nutrition.

  2. Nurse-midwives in federally funded health centers: understanding federal program requirements and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Midwives are working in federally funded health centers in increasing numbers. Health centers provide primary and preventive health care to almost 20 million people and are located in every US state and territory. While health centers serve the entire community, they also serve as a safety net for low-income and uninsured individuals. In 2010, 93% of health center patients had incomes below 200% of the Federal Poverty Guidelines, and 38% were uninsured. Health centers, including community health centers, migrant health centers, health care for the homeless programs, and public housing primary care programs, receive grant funding and enjoy other benefits due to status as federal grantees and designation as federally qualified health centers. Clinicians working in health centers are also eligible for financial and professional benefits because of their willingness to serve vulnerable populations and work in underserved areas. Midwives, midwifery students, and faculty working in, or interacting with, health centers need to be aware of the regulations that health centers must comply with in order to qualify for and maintain federal funding. This article provides an overview of health center regulations and policies affecting midwives, including health center program requirements, scope of project policy, provider credentialing and privileging, Federal Tort Claims Act malpractice coverage, the 340B Drug Pricing Program, and National Health Service Corps scholarship and loan repayment programs.

  3. Urban energy, carbon management (low carbon cities) and co-benefits for human health

    OpenAIRE

    Milner, James; Davies, Michael; Wilkinson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been growing evidence that activities to mitigate climate change can have beneficial impacts on public health as a result of changes to environmental pollutants and health-related behaviours. Urban settlements provide particular opportunities to help achieve reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and thus associated health benefits. Energy efficiency improvements in housing can help protect against the adverse health effects of low and high temperatures and outdo...

  4. Knowledge and Perceptions of Overweight Employees about Lifestyle-Related Health Benefit Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Linnan, Laura; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Tate, Deborah; Naseer, Carolyn; Evenson, Kelly R.

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated overweight state employees’ perceptions about health insurance benefit changes designed to reduce the scope of health benefits for employees who were obese or smoked. Methods Prior to implementation of health benefit plan changes, 658 overweight [body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2] state employees enrolled in a weight loss intervention study were asked about their attitudes and beliefs of the new benefit plan changes. Results Thirty-one percent of employees with a BMI≥40 kg/ m2 were unaware that their current BMI would place them in a higher risk benefit plan. More than half reported that the new benefit change would motivate them to make behavioral changes, but less than half felt confident in making changes. Respondents with a BMI≥40 kg/m2 were more likely to oppose the new changes focused on BMI categories compared to respondents in lower BMI categories (P<0.0001). Current smokers were more likely to oppose the new benefit change focused on tobacco use than former smokers and non-smokers (P<0.01). Limitations Participants represented a sample of employees enrolled in a weight loss study, limiting generalizability to the larger population of state employees. Conclusions Benefit plan changes that require employees who are obese or smoke to pay more for health care may motivate some, but not all, individuals to change their behaviors. Since confidence to lose weight was lowest among those in the highest weight categories, health plan benefit modifications may be required to achieve desired health behavior changes. PMID:21901911

  5. Therapeutic Benefits of Laughter in Mental Health: A Theoretical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, JongEun

    2016-01-01

    In modern society, fierce competition and socioeconomic interaction stress the quality of life, causing a negative influence on a person's mental health. Laughter is a positive sensation, and seems to be a useful and healthy way to overcome stress. Laughter therapy is a kind of cognitive-behavioral therapies that could make physical, psychological, and social relationships healthy, ultimately improving the quality of life. Laughter therapy, as a non-pharmacological, alternative treatment, has a positive effect on the mental health and the immune system. In addition, laughter therapy does not require specialized preparations, such as suitable facilities and equipment, and it is easily accessible and acceptable. For these reasons, the medical community has taken notice and attempted to include laughter therapy to more traditional therapies. Decreasing stress-making hormones found in the blood, laughter can mitigate the effects of stress. Laughter decreases serum levels of cortisol, epinephrine, growth hormone, and 3,4-dihydrophenylacetic acid (a major dopamine catabolite), indicating a reversal of the stress response. Depression is a disease, where neurotransmitters in the brain, such as norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin, are reduced, and there is something wrong in the mood control circuit of the brain. Laughter can alter dopamine and serotonin activity. Furthermore, endorphins secreted by laughter can help when people are uncomfortable or in a depressed mood. Laughter therapy is a noninvasive and non-pharmacological alternative treatment for stress and depression, representative cases that have a negative influence on mental health. In conclusion, laughter therapy is effective and scientifically supported as a single or adjuvant therapy.

  6. Gastrointestinal microbial ecology and its health benefits in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.B. Kore

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal microbial balance is the most important prerequisite for normal functions of digestive system, physiological and immunological homeostasis in dogs as well as in other animals. It helps in prevention of pathogenic colonization, provides energy through SCFA by nutrient breakdown, and improves mineral-vitamin supply to host, augment host immune status. Hence, it is imperative to explore the potential means to improve the gastrointestinal microbial diversity which in turns boost up dog health. [Vet. World 2010; 3(3.000: 140-141

  7. The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in retrospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.

    1998-01-01

    For 50 years, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), have conducted epidemiological and genetic studies of the survivors of the atomic bombs and of their children. This research program has provided the primary basis for radiation health standards. Both ABCC (1947–1975) and RERF (1975 to date) have been a joint enterprise of the United States (through the National Academy of Sciences) and of Japan. ABCC began in devastated, occupied Japan. Its mission had to be defined and refined. Early research revealed the urgent need for long term study. In 1946, a Directive of President Truman enjoined the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences to develop the program. By 1950, ABCC staff exceeded 1,000, and clinical and genetic studies were underway. Budgetary difficulties and other problems almost forced closure in 1953. In 1955, the Francis Report led to a unified epidemiological study. Much progress was made in the next decade, but changing times required founding of a binational nonprofit organization (RERF) with equal participation by Japan and the United States. New programs have been developed and existing ones have been extended in what is the longest continuing health survey ever undertaken. PMID:9576898

  8. Development of prebiotic food products and health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Moura Rolim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the current context from the nutritional and epidemiological point of view, it can be seen an occurrence increase of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases, as well as the inflammatory ones, ordinarily associated to a wrong feed, poor in fibers and rich in fats and simple and refined carbohydrates. This view has evidenced a progressive increase of diseases, highlighting the importance of colonic microbiota as an active mechanism of infectious processes control and modulation of immunologic answer. Therefore, constant the worries related to recovering and maintenance of healthy intestines, stocked with prebiotic nutrients that support the survival of beneficial health agents. This way, researchers and the segment of food industry has encouraged the development of products with prebiotic properties, looking for the health promotion, treatment and diseases prevention, besides the strengthening on the competitive market. This article will embrace the contents about physiologic effects of the main known prebiotic, their potential in relation to fermentatives bacterias, new developed products and used methodologies to the recognition of pre and probiotic functions.

  9. Genomics to benefit livestock production: improving animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Stuart Plastow

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The primary principle underlying the application of genomics is that it has the most value for difficult and expensive to measure traits. These traits will differ between species and probably also between markets. Maintenance of health will be one of the biggest challenges for efficient livestock production in the next few decades. This challenge will only increase in the face of demand for animal protein, resistance to existing drugs, and the pressure to reduce the use of antibiotics in agriculture. There is probably genetic variation in susceptibility for all diseases but little has been done to make use of this variation to date. In part this is because it is very difficult as well as expensive to measure this variation. This suggests that genomics should provide one of the ways of tackling the challenge of improving animal health. This paper will discuss the concepts of resistance, variation in susceptibility, and resilience; provide examples and present some recent results in cattle and pigs; and briefly discuss the application of gene editing in relation to disease resistance.

  10. Serious engagement in sport and health benefits among Korean immigrants in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhyoung; Kim, May; Henderson, Karla A.; Han, Areum; Park, Se-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of information pertaining to ethnicity and serious leisure among immigrants. The purpose of our study was to explore the health benefits of serious engagement in sports among Korean immigrants who are part of club activities. Using semi-structured in-depth interviews, we identified three themes associated with the benefits of serious leisure: (a) coping with acculturative stress, (b) creating ethnic strength, and (c) personal benefits. Participants gain personal and social benefits by pursuing leisure activities in a serious manner within their ethnic in-group. PMID:27492152

  11. Serious engagement in sport and health benefits among Korean immigrants in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyoung Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a dearth of information pertaining to ethnicity and serious leisure among immigrants. The purpose of our study was to explore the health benefits of serious engagement in sports among Korean immigrants who are part of club activities. Using semi-structured in-depth interviews, we identified three themes associated with the benefits of serious leisure: (a coping with acculturative stress, (b creating ethnic strength, and (c personal benefits. Participants gain personal and social benefits by pursuing leisure activities in a serious manner within their ethnic in-group.

  12. Urban governance and the systems approaches to health-environment co-benefits in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jose A Puppim de; Doll, Christopher N H; Siri, José; Dreyfus, Magali; Farzaneh, Hooman; Capon, Anthony

    2015-11-01

    The term "co-benefits" refers to positive outcomes accruing from a policy beyond the intended outcome, often or usually in other sectors. In the urban context, policies implemented in particular sectors (such as transport, energy or waste) often generate multiple co-benefits in other areas. Such benefits may be related to the reduction of local or global environmental impacts and also extend into the area of public health. A key to identifying and realising co-benefits is the adoption of systems approaches to understand inter-sectoral linkages and, in particular, the translation of this understanding to improved sector-specific and city governance. This paper reviews a range of policies which can yield health and climate co-benefits across different urban sectors and illustrates, through a series of cases, how taking a systems approach can lead to innovations in urban governance which aid the development of healthy and sustainable cities.

  13. Contextual effects on the perceived health benefits of exercise: the exercise rank hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, John; Wood, Alex M; Vlaev, Ivo; Taylor, Michael J; Brown, Gordon D A

    2012-12-01

    Many accounts of social influences on exercise participation describe how people compare their behaviors to those of others. We develop and test a novel hypothesis, the exercise rank hypothesis, of how this comparison can occur. The exercise rank hypothesis, derived from evolutionary theory and the decision by sampling model of judgment, suggests that individuals' perceptions of the health benefits of exercise are influenced by how individuals believe the amount of exercise ranks in comparison with other people's amounts of exercise. Study 1 demonstrated that individuals' perceptions of the health benefits of their own current exercise amounts were as predicted by the exercise rank hypothesis. Study 2 demonstrated that the perceptions of the health benefits of an amount of exercise can be manipulated by experimentally changing the ranked position of the amount within a comparison context. The discussion focuses on how social norm-based interventions could benefit from using rank information.

  14. Not to be forgotten: The bombing of Novi Sad: An ecological black area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nježić Zvonko B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 1999 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia, the second largest Yugoslav city Novi Sad was one of the cities that bore the brunt of the bombing. According to NATO press releases, the bombing targeted oil refineries, roads, bridges, and telecommunications relay stations, facilities which had used for military purposes. The bombing of Novi Sad's refinery caused fires which burned 50000 tons of crude oil, sending toxins and carcinogens into the air and contaminating groundwater. The bombing of the city caused great damage to local civilians, including severe pollution and widespread ecological damage, health consequences which will remain for years as well as permanent psychological consequences caused by almost 3 months of trauma and fear.

  15. Bombe udstiller Sinn Feins dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Natten til mandag den 12. april sprang en bombe lige udenfor Belfast. Hverken tid eller sted var tilfældigt. Bomben sprang nemlig på den dag, hvor det justitspolitiske område blev overført til Nordirland. Og den sprang lige bagved den bygning hvor den britiske sikkerhedstjeneste MI5 har deres nye...

  16. Marginal benefit incidence of public health spending: evidence from Indonesian sub-national data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Sparrow (Robert); M.P. Pradhan (Menno); I. Kruse (Ioana)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe examine the marginal effects of decentralized public health spending by incorporating estimates of behavioural responses to changes in public health spending through benefit incidence analysis. The analysis is based on a panel dataset of 207 Indonesian districts over a 4-year period f

  17. Vaccine Risk/Benefit Communication: Effect of an Educational Package for Public Health Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Terry C.; Fredrickson, Doren D.; Kennen, Estela M.; Humiston, Sharon G.; Arnold, Connie L.; Quinlin, Mackey S.; Bocchini, Joseph A., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an in-service for public health nurses (PHNs) and accompanying educational materials could improve vaccine risk/benefit communication. The content and timing of vaccine communication were recorded during 246 pre-and 217 post-intervention visits in two public health immunization clinics.…

  18. Tomato-A Natural Medicine and Its Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjit Bhowmik

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes can make people healthier and decrease the risk of conditions such as cancer, osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. People who ate tomatoes regularly have a reduced risk of contracting cancer diseases such as lung, prostate, stomach, cervical, breast, oral, colorectal, esophageal, pancreatic, and many other types of cancer. Some studies show that tomatoes and garlic should be taken together at the same time to have its cancer preventive effects. Whatever it is, we really do not know how or why tomatoes work against cancers. We believe that lycopene and the newly discovered bioflavonoids in tomatoes are responsible as cancer fighting agents. Not only raw tomatoes but also cooked or processed tomato products such as ketchup, sauce, and paste, are counted as good sources of cancer prevention. Tomato is also good for liver health. Tomato has detoxification effect in the body. Probably it is due to the presence of chlorine and sulfur in tomatoes.According to some studies, 51 mg of chlorine and 11 mg of sulfur in 100 grams size of tomato have a vital role in detoxification process. We know that natural chlorine works in stimulating the liver and its function for filtering and detoxifying body wastes. Sulfur in tomatoes protects the liver from cirrhosis, too. Tomato juice is known as good energy drink and for rejuvenating the health of patients on dialysis. Herbalists knew that taking tomatoes and tomato products could reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases because of lycopene in it.What is your worry when you take too much food that contains animal fat, Butter, cheese, pork, egg, beef, and other fried foods. Take tomato, it will prevent hardening of the arteries. Therefore, tomato can reduce high blood pressure, too. Red ripened tomato is a powerful antioxidant. Vitamin E and lycopene in tomato prevents LDL oxidation effectively. Bean sprouts, cabbage or barley malt contain vitamin E. Tomato is an excellent fruit or vegetable for rapid

  19. Health benefits and risk associated with adopting a vegetarian diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilis, Wiesław; Stec, Krzysztof; Zych, Michał; Pilis, Anna

    2014-01-01

    A vegetarian diet may be adopted for various reasons that can include ecological, economic, religious, ethical and health considerations. In the latter case they arise from the desire to lose weight, in tackling obesity, improving physical fitness and/or in reducing the risk of acquiring certain diseases. It has been shown that properly applied vegetarian diet is the most effective way of reducing body mass (expressed as BMI), improving the plasma lipid profile and in decreasing the incidence of high arterial blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, stroke, metabolic syndrome and arteriosclerosis. In addition, improved insulin sensitivity together with lower rates of diabetes and cancer has been observed. Some studies have however found that a vegetarian diet may result in changes adversely affecting the body. These could include; hyperhomocysteinaemia, protein deficiency, anaemia, decreased creatinine content in muscles and menstrual disruption in women who undertake increased physical activity. Some of these changes may decrease the ability for performing activities that require physical effort. Nevertheless, on balance it can be reasonably concluded that the beneficial effects of a vegetarian diet significantly, by far, outweigh the adverse ones. It should also be noted that the term 'vegetarian diet' is not always clearly defined in the literature and it may include many dietary variations.

  20. Ventilation effectiveness : health benefits of heat recovery ventilators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-08-15

    Studies have shown that the installation of a heat recovery ventilator (HRV) in homes in northern Canada could improve indoor air quality and the respiratory health of inhabitants. Low ventilation rates are common in many homes in the North because the climate is severe, homes are smaller and lack basements, and occupancies are higher, leading to unhealthy indoor air quality. Northern communities also have a high rate of respiratory infections. HRVs recover much of the energy used to ventilate, which is desirable in cold regions with high heating costs. For the study, the test sample was divided into two types of houses, notably houses with active HRVs and those with control HRVs that were installed and operated but that did not function. The study results showed that HRVs provided increased ventilation. Complaints by residents about HRV noise, discomfort, or low humidity were common but equally spread between those with active and placebo HRVs. The study showed that the system design needs to be improved to better suit the needs of Inuit families. The nature of northern housing presents installation and maintenance challenges. It is hard to retrofit HRV ducting inside small, existing houses, and building supplies arrive infrequently, so detailed planning and careful take-offs of all supplies and materials must be done well in advance of construction. In addition, contractors are hard to locate and have variable expertise, and there is little technical follow-up. Robust technical support by local contractors and housing authorities is therefore important. 2 refs.

  1. A Case Study on the Implementation of Local Health Insurance Benefit Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyantoro Supriyantoro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The variation of benefit packages implemented by some local social health insurance schemes (Jamkesda become an important issue in the effort to integrating them into National Health Insurance (JKN. This study aims to describe implementation of Jamkesda’s benefit packages as a basic consideration in integration to JKN. Methods: Design of this study is case study with qualitative and quantitative aproaches, conducted 2013–2014 in all of districts/cities which already have Jamkesda. Primary and secondary data was collected. Primary data has been collected by focus group discussion, interview, observation, and self administered questioner. Secondary data collected from many sources such as articles, journal, official document, statistics data, and others. Results:Of this study show there is no significant relationship between fiscal capacity group and benefit packages (continuity correction, p value = 0.065. But, districts/cities with high fiscal capacity (high and very high seem likely to have probability 1,920 bigger than lower capacity districts/cities in giving equal or more benefit than existing national social health insurance (Jamkesmas (Mantel-Haenszel, Common Odds Ratio Estimates = 1.920; Confidence Interval 95% =1.008–3.658; asymp. Sig 2 sided = 0.047. There is variation of benefit packages between each Jamkesda. Qualitative results show there are many obstacles faced in giving benefit health services, such as limited community accessibility to health facilities, the absence of health workforce, and lack of health infrastructure and equipment. Recomendation: This study recommends to set a national minimum benefit packages and equalizing percetion of local decission maker.

  2. Definitions and potential health benefits of the Mediterranean diet: views from experts around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichopoulou, Antonia; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Tong, Tammy Yn; Forouhi, Nita G; Khandelwal, Shweta; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Mozaffarian, Dariush; de Lorgeril, Michel

    2014-07-24

    The Mediterranean diet has been linked to a number of health benefits, including reduced mortality risk and lower incidence of cardiovascular disease. Definitions of the Mediterranean diet vary across some settings, and scores are increasingly being employed to define Mediterranean diet adherence in epidemiological studies. Some components of the Mediterranean diet overlap with other healthy dietary patterns, whereas other aspects are unique to the Mediterranean diet. In this forum article, we asked clinicians and researchers with an interest in the effect of diet on health to describe what constitutes a Mediterranean diet in different geographical settings, and how we can study the health benefits of this dietary pattern.

  3. Progressivity of health care financing and incidence of service benefits in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazili, James; Garshong, Bertha; Aikins, Moses; Gyapong, John; McIntyre, Di

    2012-03-01

    The National Health Insurance (NHI) scheme was introduced in Ghana in 2004 as a pro-poor financing strategy aimed at removing financial barriers to health care and protecting all citizens from catastrophic health expenditures, which currently arise due to user fees and other direct payments. A comprehensive assessment of the financing and benefit incidence of health services in Ghana was undertaken. These analyses drew on secondary data from the Ghana Living Standards Survey (2005/2006) and from an additional household survey which collected data in 2008 in six districts covering the three main ecological zones of Ghana. Findings show that Ghana's health care financing system is progressive, driven largely by the progressivity of taxes. The national health insurance levy (which is part of VAT) is mildly progressive while NHI contributions by the informal sector are regressive. The distribution of total benefits from both public and private health services is pro-rich. However, public sector district-level hospital inpatient care is pro-poor and benefits of primary-level health care services are relatively evenly distributed. For Ghana to attain an equitable health system and fully achieve universal coverage, it must ensure that the poor, most of whom are not currently covered by the NHI, are financially protected, and it must address the many access barriers to health care.

  4. Benefit distribution of social health insurance: evidence from china's urban resident basic medical insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jay; Tian, Sen; Zhou, Qin; Han, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Equity is one of the essential objectives of the social health insurance. This article evaluates the benefit distribution of the China's Urban Residents' Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI), covering 300 million urban populations. Using the URBMI Household Survey data fielded between 2007 and 2011, we estimate the benefit distribution by the two-part model, and find that the URBMI beneficiaries from lower income groups benefited less than that of higher income groups. In other words, government subsidy that was supposed to promote the universal coverage of health care flew more to the rich. Our study provides new evidence on China's health insurance system reform, and it bears meaningful policy implication for other developing countries facing similar challenges on the way to universal coverage of health insurance.

  5. Another look at the relationship between socioeconomic factors and the black-white health benefit inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohn, Jonathan; McMahon, Lauren; Carter, Tony

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates the black-white disparity in health benefit coverage and the socioeconomic variables-unemployment, income, and education. The health benefit disparity is strongly related to the disparity in underlying socioeconomic variables. Moreover, the time-series examination reveals that the change in white workers' health insurance coverage is largely determined by its year-to-year persistence and the labor market tightness (or the business cycle), while that of black workers is largely determined by the change in their earnings with a slight persistence. The effect of the change in annual earnings seems to dominate the effect of the labor market condition (unemployment rate) and other variables. Finally, although marginally significant, an increase in the attainment of higher education (college) has a positive effect on the black-white health benefit disparity.

  6. Conditional health-related benefits of higher education: an assessment of compensatory versus accumulative mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauldry, Shawn

    2014-06-01

    A college degree is associated with a range of health-related benefits, but the effects of higher education are known to vary across different population subgroups. Competing theories have been proposed for whether people from more or less advantaged backgrounds or circumstances will gain greater health-related benefits from a college degree. This study draws on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and recently developed models for analyzing heterogeneous treatment effects to examine how the effect of obtaining a college degree on the self-rated health of young adults varies across the likelihood of obtaining a college degree, a summary measure of advantage/disadvantage. Results indicate that a college degree has a greater effect on self-rated health for people from advantaged backgrounds. This finding differs from two recent studies, and possible reasons for the contrasting findings are discussed.

  7. A healthy indulgence? Wine consumers and the health benefits of wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey M. Higgins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the US. Moderate red wine consumption has been linked to a reduction in the risk of death by heart disease and heart attack by 30–50%. With about 600,000 people dying from heart disease in the US each year, red wine has become increasingly popular among health conscious consumers. Wine is often touted for its potential health benefits, but to what extent is “health” a factor when consumers make their consumption decisions for alcoholic beverages? This study aims to further understand how consumers make their beverage choices and to understand the role wine health benefit knowledge plays in the willingness of consumers to purchase wine. The results suggest that consumers value the relationship between food/beverage intake and their health status. Consumers with few health issues were the ones more likely to indicate that they consume wine for health reasons, suggesting a potential market among consumers with known health issues. In addition, consumers who attributed the most health benefits to wine were the ones most likely to drink more wine and pay more for wine if it were health enhanced.

  8. Beyond privacy: benefits and burdens of e-health technologies in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aultman, Julie M; Dean, Erin

    2014-01-01

    In this mixed methods study we identify and assess ethical and pragmatic issues and dilemmas surrounding e-health technologies in the context of primary care, including what is already in the literature. We describe how primary healthcare professionals can access reliable and accurate data, improve the quality of care for patients, and lower costs while following institutional guidelines to protect patients. Using qualitative and quantitative methodologies we identify several underlying ethical and pragmatic burdens and benefits of e-health technologies.The 41 study participants reported more burdens than benefits, and were generally ambivalent about their level of satisfaction with their institutions' e-health technologies, their general knowledge about the technologies, and whether e-health can improve team-based communication and collaboration. Participants provided recommendations to improve e-health technologies in primary care settings.

  9. Health benefits from improved outdoor air quality and intervention in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Williams, Gail; Guo, Yuming

    2016-07-01

    China is at its most critical stage of outdoor air quality management. In order to prevent further deterioration of air quality and to protect human health, the Chinese government has made a series of attempts to reduce ambient air pollution. Unlike previous literature reviews on the widespread hazards of air pollution on health, this review article firstly summarized the existing evidence of human health benefits from intermittently improved outdoor air quality and intervention in China. Contents of this paper provide concrete and direct clue that improvement in outdoor air quality generates various health benefits in China, and confirm from a new perspective that it is worthwhile for China to shift its development strategy from economic growth to environmental economic sustainability. Greater emphasis on sustainable environment design, consistently strict regulatory enforcement, and specific monitoring actions should be regarded in China to decrease the health risks and to avoid long-term environmental threats.

  10. Health insurance benefit design and healthcare utilization in northern rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Poverty due to illness has become a substantial social problem in rural China since the collapse of the rural Cooperative Medical System in the early 1980s. Although the Chinese government introduced the New Rural Cooperative Medical Schemes (NRCMS in 2003, the associations between different health insurance benefit package designs and healthcare utilization remain largely unknown. Accordingly, we sought to examine the impact of health insurance benefit design on health care utilization. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from a household survey of 15,698 members of 4,209 randomly-selected households in 7 provinces, which were representative of the provinces along the north side of the Yellow River. Interviews were conducted face-to-face and in Mandarin. Our analytic sample included 9,762 respondents from 2,642 households. In each household, respondents indicated the type of health insurance benefit that the household had (coverage for inpatient care only or coverage for both inpatient and outpatient care and the number of outpatient visits in the 30 days preceding the interview and the number of hospitalizations in the 365 days preceding the household interview. People who had both outpatient and inpatient coverage compared with inpatient coverage only had significantly more village-level outpatient visits, township-level outpatient visits, and total outpatient visits. Furthermore, the increased utilization of township and village-level outpatient care was experienced disproportionately by people who were poorer, whereas the increased inpatient utilization overall and at the county level was experienced disproportionately by people who were richer. CONCLUSION: The evidence from this study indicates that the design of health insurance benefits is an important policy tool that can affect the health services utilization and socioeconomic equity in service use at different levels. Without careful

  11. Health and climate benefits of different energy-efficiency and renewable energy choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonocore, Jonathan J.; Luckow, Patrick; Norris, Gregory; Spengler, John D.; Biewald, Bruce; Fisher, Jeremy; Levy, Jonathan I.

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy (RE) can benefit public health and the climate by displacing emissions from fossil-fuelled electrical generating units (EGUs). Benefits can vary substantially by EE/RE installation type and location, due to differing electricity generation or savings by location, characteristics of the electrical grid and displaced power plants, along with population patterns. However, previous studies have not formally examined how these dimensions individually and jointly contribute to variability in benefits across locations or EE/RE types. Here, we develop and demonstrate a high-resolution model to simulate and compare the monetized public health and climate benefits of four different illustrative EE/RE installation types in six different locations within the Mid-Atlantic and Lower Great Lakes of the United States. Annual benefits using central estimates for all pathways ranged from US$5.7-US$210 million (US$14-US$170 MWh-1), emphasizing the importance of site-specific information in accurately estimating public health and climate benefits of EE/RE efforts.

  12. Co-benefits of mitigating global greenhouse gas emissions for future air quality and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J. Jason; Smith, Steven J.; Silva, Raquel A.; Naik, Vaishali; Zhang, Yuqiang; Adelman, Zachariah; Fry, Meridith M.; Anenberg, Susan; Horowitz, Larry W.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

    2013-10-01

    Actions to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions often reduce co-emitted air pollutants, bringing co-benefits for air quality and human health. Past studies typically evaluated near-term and local co-benefits, neglecting the long-range transport of air pollutants, long-term demographic changes, and the influence of climate change on air quality. Here we simulate the co-benefits of global GHG reductions on air quality and human health using a global atmospheric model and consistent future scenarios, via two mechanisms: reducing co-emitted air pollutants, and slowing climate change and its effect on air quality. We use new relationships between chronic mortality and exposure to fine particulate matter and ozone, global modelling methods and new future scenarios. Relative to a reference scenario, global GHG mitigation avoids 0.5+/-0.2, 1.3+/-0.5 and 2.2+/-0.8 million premature deaths in 2030, 2050 and 2100. Global average marginal co-benefits of avoided mortality are US$50-380 per tonne of CO2, which exceed previous estimates, exceed marginal abatement costs in 2030 and 2050, and are within the low range of costs in 2100. East Asian co-benefits are 10-70 times the marginal cost in 2030. Air quality and health co-benefits, especially as they are mainly local and near-term, provide strong additional motivation for transitioning to a low-carbon future.

  13. [Health and economic benefits of compulsory regular vaccination in the Slovak Republic. I. Methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudecková, H; Straka, S

    2000-02-01

    The authors will submit in their series of contributions under the common title of "Health and Economic Benefits of Compulsory Regular Vaccination in the Slovak Republic" estimates of benefits and effectiveness of particular vaccinations. In their first contribution they deal with the objectives and methods of this evaluation essential for the allocation of funds for the maintenance of existing preventive programmes and also for the implementation of new preventive measures. On the basis of literary data and their own experience they formulate modified methods of cost/effectiveness and cost/benefit and other parameters adjusted for the conditions of the vaccination programme in the Slovak Republic.

  14. Cost-benefit analysis in occupational health: A comparison of intervention scenarios for occupational asthma and rhinitis among bakery workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijster, T.; Duuren-Stuurman, B. van; Heederik, D.; Houba, R.; Koningsveld, E.; Warren, N.; Tielemans, E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Use of cost-benefit analysis in occupational health increases insight into the intervention strategy that maximises the cost-benefit ratio. This study presents a methodological framework identifying the most important elements of a cost-benefit analysis for occupational health settings.

  15. Health benefits of reducing NO x emissions in the presence of epidemiological and atmospheric nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappin, A. J.; Hakami, A.; Blagden, P.; Nasari, M.; Szyszkowicz, M.; Burnett, R. T.

    2016-06-01

    Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that the logarithm of concentration is a better predictor of mortality risk from long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 and NO2 than concentration itself. A log-concentration-response function (CRF) predicts a heightened excess risk per unit concentration at low levels of exposure that further increases as the air becomes less polluted. Using an adjoint air quality model, we estimate the public health benefits of reducing NO x emissions, on a per-ton and source-by-source basis. Our estimates of benefits-per-ton assume linear in concentration and log-concentration CRFs for NO2 and a CRF that is linear in concentration for O3. We apply risk coefficients estimated using the Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort. We find that a log-concentration CRF for NO2 leads almost consistently to larger benefits-per-ton than a linear in concentration CRF (e.g., 500 000 ton-1 compared to 270 000 ton-1 for Ottawa). We observe that concentrations gradually decline due to widespread, progressive emissions abatement, entailing increasing health benefits as a result of (1) a log-concentration CRF for NO2 and (2) the nonlinear response of O3 to NO x emissions. Our results indicate that NO x abatement has the potential to incur substantial and increasing health benefits, by up to five times with 85% emission reductions, for Canada into the future.

  16. Latina and Non-Latina Mothers' Perceived Health Barriers and Benefits and Their Relationship to Children's Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highland, Krista B; Lundahl, Alyssa; Kidwell, Katherine M; Hankey, Maren; Caballos, Miguel; McChargue, Dennis

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Disparities exist in rates of overweight/obesity between Latino and non-Latino populations. Attention should be given to risk factors that may be modifiable through interventions involving both the parent and child. The current study sought to identify ethnic differences in parental health beliefs and their relation to children's health behaviors. Methods Latina and non-Latina mothers (N = 203) at rural and urban clinics and health departments completed self-report questionnaires. Key information included beliefs about barriers and benefits to health practices and children's health behaviors. Results Children of Latina mothers consumed significantly more soda and fried foods and exercised less than children of non-Latina mothers. Latina mothers were significantly more likely to perceive barriers to healthy eating and significantly less likely to perceive benefits to healthy eating and physical activity than non-Latina mothers. Ethnicity mediated the relationship between maternal views of health benefits and soda consumption. Conclusions Policy changes are needed to promote health education and increase the accessibility of healthy foods and safe places to exercise for Latino families.

  17. A critical discussion of the benefits of e-health in population-level dental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Raymond; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Population-level research is an essential area of health with the potential to affect quality of life and the broader economy. There are excellent epidemiological studies that have improved health services, but traditional research requires a considerable investment. Although electronic technology has changed the practice of many industries with improved efficiency, its application to health is relatively new. Termed 'e-health', this emerging area has been defined by the World Health Organization as the use of information technology to support many aspects of health such as in administration and scientific information. However, not all professionals are convinced of its use. This paper presents a novel application of this emerging area to describe the benefit in data collation and research to support one of the most pressing issues in public health: oral health and policy. Using the Chronic Disease Dental Scheme as an example, a critical discussion of its benefit to population-level research is presented. The Chronic Disease Dental Scheme method of electronic administration has been shown to enhance research and to complement existing progress in health data linkage. e-Health is an invaluable tool for population-level dental research.

  18. Public Health benefits of partner notification for sexually transmitted infections and HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Berit; Low, N; Martin Hilber, Adriane

    2013-01-01

    Background European countries have used partner notification as one of a range of measures to control sexually transmitted infections (STI) since the early 1900s. Besides clinical benefits, public health benefits are also recognised such as controlling the spread of STI, reducing STI......-related morbidity and mortality, reaching people with asymptomatic STI and people who do not present for diagnosis, counselling and treatment. Considerable variation in the ways of implementation exists across countries. Differences in laws, policies, regulations and clinical guidelines contribute to this. Health...

  19. Can health benefits break down Nordic consumers' rejection of genetically modified foods?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.

    In general, Nordic consumers perceive foods that are processed in traditional ways as more healthy than novel foods including genetically modified and functional foods. But because the use of genetic modification in the production of pharmaceuticals is readily accepted, the food industry believes......' preferences for genetically modified and conventional cheese with different types of health benefits. Before implementing the conjoint task, two thirds of the respondents were asked to taste a cheese, which was supposedly genetically modified. The results showed homogeneity in preferences within as well...... as across countries. In general, the genetically modified cheese was rejected, but this was modified somewhat by health benefits and tasting experience....

  20. Pure Nuclear Fusion Bomb Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Winterberg, F.

    2008-01-01

    Recent progress towards the non-fission ignition of thermonuclear micro-explosions raises the prospect for a revival of the nuclear bomb propulsion idea, both for the fast transport of large payloads within the solar system and the launch into earth orbit without the release of fission products into the atmosphere. To reach this goal three areas of research are of importance: 1)Compact thermonuclear ignition drivers. 2)Fast ignition and deuterium burn. 3)Space-craft architecture involving mag...

  1. How E-Mental Health Services Benefit University Students with ADHD: A literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Binhadyan, Bader; Davey, Bill; Wickramasinghe, Nilmini

    2016-01-01

    E-mental health is an area within e-health in which the key role of IS/IT has not been well established. Both clinicians and scholars are uncertain as to the role of IS/IT and its potential benefits. This research review is introduced to assist in understanding the enabling role in e-mental health and it focused on one area of mental health, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in university students. ADHD is estimated to affect approximately 6% of university students by negatively...

  2. Stakeholders understanding of the concept of benefit sharing in health research in Kenya: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzpatrick Raymond

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of benefit sharing to enhance the social value of global health research in resource poor settings is now a key strategy for addressing moral issues of relevance to individuals, communities and host countries in resource poor settings when they participate in international collaborative health research. The influence of benefit sharing framework on the conduct of collaborative health research is for instance evidenced by the number of publications and research ethics guidelines that require prior engagement between stakeholders to determine the social value of research to the host communities. While such efforts as the production of international guidance on how to promote the social value of research through such strategies as benefit sharing have been made, the extent to which these ideas and guidelines have been absorbed by those engaged in global health research especially in resource poor settings remains unclear. We examine this awareness among stakeholders involved in health related research in Kenya. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with key informants drawn from within the broader health research system in Kenya including researchers from the mainstream health research institutions, networks and universities, teaching hospitals, policy makers, institutional review boards, civil society organisations and community representative groups. Results Our study suggests that although people have a sense of justice and the moral aspects of research, this was not articulated in terms used in the literature and the guidelines on the ethics of global health research. Conclusion This study demonstrates that while in theory several efforts can be made to address the moral issues of concern to research participants and their communities in resource poor settings, quick fixes such as benefit sharing are not going to be straightforward. We suggest a need to pay closer attention to the processes through which

  3. The value of health benefits from ambient air quality improvements in Central and Eastern Europe. An exercise in benefits transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupnick, A.; Harrison, K.; Nickell, E.; Toman, M. [Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The study on the title subject is an initial effort to estimate the effects of air pollution on human health in Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland and Ukraine. The estimates are derived from data on ambient air quality in those countries, together with a model that links these ambient conditions to physical impacts on health and attaches economic values (dollars) to these impacts. The focus is on particulates, SO{sub 2} and Pb. Dose response functions, taken from the clinical and epidemiological literature in the USA, Canada, and Western Europe are used to generate estimates of the change in physical effects. These effects then are given an economic value by applying two approaches for scaling unit valuation figures, applicable to the USA. A Monte Carlo model is constructed to propagate the uncertainties of the dose-response functions and unit values to obtain confidence intervals on the total benefits from pollutant reductions in each country. Scenarios are examined where the above-mentioned countries improve ambient conditions for the pollutants in question to meet the European Community standards and then compare these scenarios to ones involving uniform percentage ambient reductions across locations in each country. 3 figs., 9 tabs., 33 refs.

  4. Emphasizing the Health Benefits of Vitamin D for Those with Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Intellectual Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Grant

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available People with neurodevelopmental disorders and intellectual disabilities have much greater health care needs. Mainly staying indoors, such people generally have low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations. The Vitamin D Task Force of the American Academy of Developmental Medicine and Dentistry (AADMD reviewed the evidence of 25(OHD concentrations that benefit the health of persons with developmental disabilities. Maintaining recommended optimal serum 25(OHD concentrations year long will benefit skeletal development in infants, children, and adolescents, and benefit musculoskeletal health and neuromuscular coordination in adult patients, and decrease risk of falls. Maintaining optimal concentrations decreases risks and severities of autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular disease, many types of cancer, dementia, types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus, and respiratory tract infections. Other benefits include improved dental and oral health and improved physical performance. The Task Force recommends that 25(OHD concentrations for optimal health to be in the range of 75 to 125 nmol/L, which can be achieved using between 800 and 4000 IU/day vitamin D3 and sensible exposure to solar UVB radiation. The paper also discusses the potential risks of higher 25(OHD concentrations, the evidence from and limitations of randomized controlled trials, and the recommendations by various groups and agencies.

  5. A methodology for estimating health benefits of electricity generation using renewable technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Ian; Gamkhar, Shama

    2012-02-01

    At Copenhagen, the developed countries agreed to provide up to $100 bn per year to finance climate change mitigation and adaptation by developing countries. Projects aimed at cutting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will need to be evaluated against dual criteria: from the viewpoint of the developed countries they must cut emissions of GHGs at reasonable cost, while host countries will assess their contribution to development, or simply their overall economic benefits. Co-benefits of some types of project will also be of interest to host countries: for example some projects will contribute to reducing air pollution, thus improving the health of the local population. This paper uses a simple damage function methodology to quantify some of the health co-benefits of replacing coal-fired generation with wind or small hydro in China. We estimate the monetary value of these co-benefits and find that it is probably small compared to the added costs. We have not made a full cost-benefit analysis of renewable energy in China as some likely co-benefits are omitted from our calculations. Our results are subject to considerable uncertainty however, after careful consideration of their likely accuracy and comparisons with other studies, we believe that they provide a good first cut estimate of co-benefits and are sufficiently robust to stand as a guide for policy makers. In addition to these empirical results, a key contribution made by the paper is to demonstrate a simple and reasonably accurate methodology for health benefits estimation that applies the most recent academic research in the field to the solution of an increasingly important problem.

  6. Assessing the co-benefits of greenhouse gas reduction: Health benefits of particulate matter related inspection and maintenance programs in Bangkok, Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ying, E-mail: liying@email.unc.edu [Department of Public Policy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Crawford-Brown, Douglas J. [Cambridge Centre for Climate Change Mitigation Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Since the 1990s, the capital city of Thailand, Bangkok has been suffering from severe ambient particulate matter (PM) pollution mainly attributable to its wide use of diesel-fueled vehicles and motorcycles with poor emission performance. While the Thai government strives to reduce emissions from transportation through enforcing policy measures, the link between specific control policies and associated health impacts is inadequately studied. This link is especially important in exploring the co-benefits of greenhouse gas emissions reductions, which often brings reduction in other pollutants such as PM. This paper quantifies the health benefits potentially achieved by the new PM-related I/M programs targeting all diesel vehicles and motorcycles in the Bangkok Metropolitan Area (BMA). The benefits are estimated by using a framework that integrates policy scenario development, exposure assessment, exposure-response assessment and economic valuation. The results indicate that the total health damage due to the year 2000 PM emissions from vehicles in the BMA was equivalent to 2.4% of Thailand's GDP. Under the business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, total vehicular PM emissions in the BMA will increase considerably over time due to the rapid growth in vehicle population, even if the fleet average emission rates are projected to decrease over time as the result of participation of Thailand in post-Copenhagen climate change strategies. By 2015, the total health damage is estimated to increase by 2.5 times relative to the year 2000. However, control policies targeting PM emissions from automobiles, such as the PM-oriented I/M programs, could yield substantial health benefits relative to the BAU scenario, and serve as co-benefits of greenhouse gas control strategies. Despite uncertainty associated with the key assumptions used to estimate benefits, we find that with a high level confidence, the I/M programs will produce health benefits whose economic impacts considerably

  7. Health co-benefits of mitigating short-lived climate forcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, S.

    2011-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone and black carbon (BC), a component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), are associated with premature mortality and disrupt global and regional climate. While attention to their impacts on climate is relatively new, these pollutants have been regulated under health-based standards in the US and elsewhere in the world for decades. Understanding the health benefits of reducing short-lived climate forcers may help inform mitigation strategies, since health will likely continue to drive concern over air quality in the future. Several recent studies have examined the health and climate co-benefits of control measures targeting BC and methane, an ozone precursor. This talk will highlight the health benefits of 14 presently available BC and methane mitigation measures examined in the United Nations Environment Programme/World Meteorological Organization Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Ozone. Fully implementing these specific measures is estimated to avoid 1-5 million annual ozone and PM2.5-related premature deaths globally in 2030, >80% of which occur in Asia. BC mitigation measures are estimated to achieve ~98% of the avoided deaths from all measures, due to associated reductions of non-methane ozone precursor and organic carbon emissions and stronger mortality relationships for PM2.5 relative to ozone. These substantial public health co-benefits of mitigating short-lived climate forcers are independent of whether CO2 measures are enacted. Further analyses are needed to improve economic valuation of the varied impacts of short-lived climate forcers and quantify the benefits and costs of these measures in individual countries or regions to support policy decisions made at the national level.

  8. Maximizing the benefit of health workforce secondment in Botswana: an approach for strengthening health systems in resource-limited settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grignon JS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Jessica S Grignon,1,2 Jenny H Ledikwe,1,2 Ditsapelo Makati,2 Robert Nyangah,2 Baraedi W Sento,2 Bazghina-werq Semo1,2 1Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2International Training and Education Center for Health, Gaborone, Botswana Abstract: To address health systems challenges in limited-resource settings, global health initiatives, particularly the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, have seconded health workers to the public sector. Implementation considerations for secondment as a health workforce development strategy are not well documented. The purpose of this article is to present outcomes, best practices, and lessons learned from a President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief-funded secondment program in Botswana. Outcomes are documented across four World Health Organization health systems' building blocks. Best practices include documentation of joint stakeholder expectations, collaborative recruitment, and early identification of counterparts. Lessons learned include inadequate ownership, a two-tier employment system, and ill-defined position duration. These findings can inform program and policy development to maximize the benefit of health workforce secondment. Secondment requires substantial investment, and emphasis should be placed on high-level technical positions responsible for building systems, developing health workers, and strengthening government to translate policy into programs. Keywords: human resources, health policy, health worker, HIV/AIDS, PEPFAR

  9. Earthquakes induced by deep penetrating bombing?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Serguei Yu. Balassanian

    2005-01-01

    The data of M≥5 earthquakes occurred in one year before and after 4 deep penetrating bombs in the region within 500 km and 1 000 km from the shooting site are presented. The 4 bombs are those happened in 1999 Kosovo of Yugoslavia, the 1991 Baghdad of Iraq, the 2001 Tora Bora of Afghanistan, and the 2003 Kirkuk of Iraq, respectively. The data indicate that the deep penetrating bombs may have remotely triggered some earthquakes. The deep penetrating bombs in seismically active regions should be forbidden.

  10. Modelling vapour transport in Surtseyan bombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Mark J.; Greenbank, Emma; Schipper, C. Ian

    2016-05-01

    We address questions that arise if a slurry containing liquid water is enclosed in a ball of hot viscous vesicular magma ejected as a bomb in the context of a Surtseyan eruption. We derive a mathematical model for transient changes in temperature and pressure due to flashing of liquid water to vapour inside the bomb. The magnitude of the transient pressure changes that are typically generated are calculated together with their dependence on material properties. A single criterion to determine whether the bomb will fragment as a result of the pressure changes is derived. Timescales for ejection of water vapour from a bomb that remains intact are also revealed.

  11. ARS: Health benefits of dairy products made from milk from pasture fed cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many of the health benefits associated with dairy foods are attributed to specific chemical compounds. Research has been conducted on the effects of the bovine herd’s diet on dairy product composition, quality, nutrition, and flavor. Research now is linking the consumption of dairy products to hea...

  12. Executive summary: The health and fitness benefits of regular participation in small-sided football games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Dvorak, J.; Junge, A.

    2010-01-01

    The present special issue of Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports deals with health and fitness benefits of regular participation in small-sided football games. One review article and 13 original articles were the result of a 2-year multi-center study in Copenhagen and Zurich...

  13. Health care professionals' knowledge and attitudes of drug benefits and risks in africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhe, Derbew F.; Taxis, Katja; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Mol, Peter G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Inappropriate drug use is a major global challenge. In Africa, it may be even more widespread for a number of reasons, especially limited resources. Drugs may be prescribed by health care professionals (HCPs) who have received little training on drug benefits, but especially risks. Objec

  14. Discussing the risks and benefits of homebirths on online health forums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Butler, Antoinette Mary

    2016-01-01

    for many personal reasons, may result in greater health risks to both self and baby. This paper contributes to current research into online patient communication by exploring the question: “How do pregnant women discuss the potential risks and benefits associated with homebirths on online patient forums...

  15. U.S. Air Quality and Health Benefits from Avoided Climate Change under Greenhouse Gas Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Menendez, Fernando; Saari, Rebecca K; Monier, Erwan; Selin, Noelle E

    2015-07-07

    We evaluate the impact of climate change on U.S. air quality and health in 2050 and 2100 using a global modeling framework and integrated economic, climate, and air pollution projections. Three internally consistent socioeconomic scenarios are used to value health benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation policies specifically derived from slowing climate change. Our projections suggest that climate change, exclusive of changes in air pollutant emissions, can significantly impact ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution across the U.S. and increase associated health effects. Climate policy can substantially reduce these impacts, and climate-related air pollution health benefits alone can offset a significant fraction of mitigation costs. We find that in contrast to cobenefits from reductions to coemitted pollutants, the climate-induced air quality benefits of policy increase with time and are largest between 2050 and 2100. Our projections also suggest that increasing climate policy stringency beyond a certain degree may lead to diminishing returns relative to its cost. However, our results indicate that the air quality impacts of climate change are substantial and should be considered by cost-benefit climate policy analyses.

  16. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease involves substantial health-care service and social benefit costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Bach; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Fonager, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    a cohort study performed in Denmark during 2004-2006 were linked with national register data that identified the costs of social benefits and health-care services. The cohort comprised 546 participants with COPD (forced expiratory volume in the first sec. (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio ... Insurance Foundation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  17. Uptake of Medicare Benefits Schedule Items by Psychologists and Other Mental Health Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteford, Harvey A.; Doessel, Darrel P.; Sheridan, Judith S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a background to the mental health policy changes introduced by the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) in 2006. It then considers a major Australian Government COAG reform, the revision of the Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS), by analysing the month-by-month utilisation of the available time-series data for the 17-month…

  18. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: urban land transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, James; Edwards, Phil; Tonne, Cathryn; Armstrong, Ben G; Ashiru, Olu; Banister, David; Beevers, Sean; Chalabi, Zaid; Chowdhury, Zohir; Cohen, Aaron; Franco, Oscar H; Haines, Andy; Hickman, Robin; Lindsay, Graeme; Mittal, Ishaan; Mohan, Dinesh; Tiwari, Geetam; Woodward, Alistair; Roberts, Ian

    2009-12-05

    We used Comparative Risk Assessment methods to estimate the health effects of alternative urban land transport scenarios for two settings-London, UK, and Delhi, India. For each setting, we compared a business-as-usual 2030 projection (without policies for reduction of greenhouse gases) with alternative scenarios-lower-carbon-emission motor vehicles, increased active travel, and a combination of the two. We developed separate models that linked transport scenarios with physical activity, air pollution, and risk of road traffic injury. In both cities, we noted that reduction in carbon dioxide emissions through an increase in active travel and less use of motor vehicles had larger health benefits per million population (7332 disability-adjusted life-years [DALYs] in London, and 12 516 in Delhi in 1 year) than from the increased use of lower-emission motor vehicles (160 DALYs in London, and 1696 in Delhi). However, combination of active travel and lower-emission motor vehicles would give the largest benefits (7439 DALYs in London, 12 995 in Delhi), notably from a reduction in the number of years of life lost from ischaemic heart disease (10-19% in London, 11-25% in Delhi). Although uncertainties remain, climate change mitigation in transport should benefit public health substantially. Policies to increase the acceptability, appeal, and safety of active urban travel, and discourage travel in private motor vehicles would provide larger health benefits than would policies that focus solely on lower-emission motor vehicles.

  19. Health Benefits of Urban Allotment Gardening: Improved Physical and Psychological Well-Being and Social Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Masashi; Cox, Daniel T C; Yamaura, Yuichi; Gaston, Kevin J; Kurisu, Kiyo; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2017-01-12

    With an ever-increasing urban population, promoting public health and well-being in towns and cities is a major challenge. Previous research has suggested that participating in allotment gardening delivers a wide range of health benefits. However, evidence from quantitative analyses is still scarce. Here, we quantify the effects, if any, of participating in allotment gardening on physical, psychological and social health. A questionnaire survey of 332 people was performed in Tokyo, Japan. We compared five self-reported health outcomes between allotment gardeners and non-gardener controls: perceived general health, subjective health complaints, body mass index (BMI), mental health and social cohesion. Accounting for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, regression models revealed that allotment gardeners, compared to non-gardeners, reported better perceived general health, subjective health complaints, mental health and social cohesion. BMI did not differ between gardeners and non-gardeners. Neither frequency nor duration of gardening significantly influenced reported health outcomes. Our results highlight that regular gardening on allotment sites is associated with improved physical, psychological and social health. With the recent escalation in the prevalence of chronic diseases, and associated healthcare costs, this study has a major implication for policy, as it suggests that urban allotments have great potential for preventative healthcare.

  20. Health Benefits of Urban Allotment Gardening: Improved Physical and Psychological Well-Being and Social Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Soga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With an ever-increasing urban population, promoting public health and well-being in towns and cities is a major challenge. Previous research has suggested that participating in allotment gardening delivers a wide range of health benefits. However, evidence from quantitative analyses is still scarce. Here, we quantify the effects, if any, of participating in allotment gardening on physical, psychological and social health. A questionnaire survey of 332 people was performed in Tokyo, Japan. We compared five self-reported health outcomes between allotment gardeners and non-gardener controls: perceived general health, subjective health complaints, body mass index (BMI, mental health and social cohesion. Accounting for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, regression models revealed that allotment gardeners, compared to non-gardeners, reported better perceived general health, subjective health complaints, mental health and social cohesion. BMI did not differ between gardeners and non-gardeners. Neither frequency nor duration of gardening significantly influenced reported health outcomes. Our results highlight that regular gardening on allotment sites is associated with improved physical, psychological and social health. With the recent escalation in the prevalence of chronic diseases, and associated healthcare costs, this study has a major implication for policy, as it suggests that urban allotments have great potential for preventative healthcare.

  1. Health Benefits of Urban Allotment Gardening: Improved Physical and Psychological Well-Being and Social Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Masashi; Cox, Daniel T. C.; Yamaura, Yuichi; Gaston, Kevin J.; Kurisu, Kiyo; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2017-01-01

    With an ever-increasing urban population, promoting public health and well-being in towns and cities is a major challenge. Previous research has suggested that participating in allotment gardening delivers a wide range of health benefits. However, evidence from quantitative analyses is still scarce. Here, we quantify the effects, if any, of participating in allotment gardening on physical, psychological and social health. A questionnaire survey of 332 people was performed in Tokyo, Japan. We compared five self-reported health outcomes between allotment gardeners and non-gardener controls: perceived general health, subjective health complaints, body mass index (BMI), mental health and social cohesion. Accounting for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, regression models revealed that allotment gardeners, compared to non-gardeners, reported better perceived general health, subjective health complaints, mental health and social cohesion. BMI did not differ between gardeners and non-gardeners. Neither frequency nor duration of gardening significantly influenced reported health outcomes. Our results highlight that regular gardening on allotment sites is associated with improved physical, psychological and social health. With the recent escalation in the prevalence of chronic diseases, and associated healthcare costs, this study has a major implication for policy, as it suggests that urban allotments have great potential for preventative healthcare. PMID:28085098

  2. The state of hormonal contraception today: established and emerging noncontraceptive health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Karla; Westhoff, Carolyn

    2011-10-01

    In the 50 years since the advent of combined oral contraceptives the amount of estrogen in oral contraceptives dropped from over 100 mcg to less than 30 mcg. Many noncontraceptive health benefits have emerged that decrease mortality and improve quality of life. Some of the immediate benefits include improvement of menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea, reduction in premenstrual dysphoric disorder symptoms, and decreased acne. As an effective birth control method oral contraceptives also decrease pregnancy-related deaths by preventing pregnancy. After the reproductive years, previous use of oral contraceptives continues to be beneficial, reducing the risk of death from ovarian and endometrial cancer. All these benefits have held up over time whereas cardiovascular risks have lessened because of the decrease in oral contraceptive pill dosage. Decreased ovarian cyst formation is an example of benefit with higher-dose oral contraceptive formulations that no longer holds true with low-dose pills.

  3. Mental health and impairment in disability benefits. Studies applying linkages between health surveys and administrative registries

    OpenAIRE

    Øverland, Simon Nygaard

    2007-01-01

    Objective: An increasing number of people in Norway and most other western countries leave the workforce earlier than retirement age and depend on disability benefits for income security. There is no consensus concerning which factors may serve as an immediate explanation for this trend. The scientific community can at present not provide research based information on the general causes and consequences of disability benefits. This leaves those who must make decisions in this f...

  4. Factors Determining Satisfaction with Daily Life of Elderly A-bomb Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Mine, Mariko; Okumura, Yutaka; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yokota, Kenichi

    1993-01-01

    From the analysis of questionnaires to elderly A-bomb survivors of over 65 years old, we analysed factors which determined satisfaction with daily life. Analysed categories were housing condition, life style, occupational status, health condition and family status. From the analysis, to be an A-bomb survivor was not a factor for satisfaction with daily life, and it became clear that living in a rented room, not satisfying one's job and low income were serious factors which kept elderly people...

  5. A cost-efficiency and health benefit approach to improve urban air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, A I; Ferreira, J; Silveira, C; Relvas, H; Duque, L; Roebeling, P; Lopes, M; Costa, S; Monteiro, A; Gama, C; Sá, E; Borrego, C; Teixeira, J P

    2016-11-01

    When ambient air quality standards established in the EU Directive 2008/50/EC are exceeded, Member States are obliged to develop and implement Air Quality Plans (AQP) to improve air quality and health. Notwithstanding the achievements in emission reductions and air quality improvement, additional efforts need to be undertaken to improve air quality in a sustainable way - i.e. through a cost-efficiency approach. This work was developed in the scope of the recently concluded MAPLIA project "Moving from Air Pollution to Local Integrated Assessment", and focuses on the definition and assessment of emission abatement measures and their associated costs, air quality and health impacts and benefits by means of air quality modelling tools, health impact functions and cost-efficiency analysis. The MAPLIA system was applied to the Grande Porto urban area (Portugal), addressing PM10 and NOx as the most important pollutants in the region. Four different measures to reduce PM10 and NOx emissions were defined and characterized in terms of emissions and implementation costs, and combined into 15 emission scenarios, simulated by the TAPM air quality modelling tool. Air pollutant concentration fields were then used to estimate health benefits in terms of avoided costs (external costs), using dose-response health impact functions. Results revealed that, among the 15 scenarios analysed, the scenario including all 4 measures lead to a total net benefit of 0.3M€·y(-1). The largest net benefit is obtained for the scenario considering the conversion of 50% of open fire places into heat recovery wood stoves. Although the implementation costs of this measure are high, the benefits outweigh the costs. Research outcomes confirm that the MAPLIA system is useful for policy decision support on air quality improvement strategies, and could be applied to other urban areas where AQP need to be implemented and monitored.

  6. [Health benefits and demerits of calcium nutrition or supplementation in older people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Masataka

    2015-10-01

    The benefit of calcium nutrition for health has been believed for a long time. In fact, higher calcium intake is associated with reduction of blood pressure, rate of bone loss after menopause and mild risk reduction of fracture. Since calcium intake from food has not been achieved to be the recommended level, calcium supplementation is widely used especially in the US. However, calcium supplementation has been reported to increase in vascular events, recently. On the other hand, calcium nutrition from foods have not been reported any harmful effect on health. Therefore, calcium effects on health seemed to be composite effects of other nutrients taking together with calcium.

  7. The Benefit Aftereffects of ACA--Accelerating Toward a New Health Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Greg; Thompson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    While the Affordable Care Act (ACA) focused largely on improving access to health care coverage for the uninsured, its broader and longer-term influence may have been its impact on accelerating key trends and strategies that major employers and other stakeholders have been targeting for years. This article looks at some of these trends, where we were pre-ACA and how ACA (through benefit mandates, shared responsibility penalties, Cadillac plan tax, health information technology, accountable care organizations, etc.) has helped to accelerate and refocus efforts. In addition, the public exchange paradigm has given rise to a private exchange movement that is helping further accelerate the transformation of the New Health Economy.

  8. Platycosides from the Roots of Platycodon grandiflorum and Their Health Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyakudya, Elijah; Jeong, Jong Hoon; Lee, Nam Keun; Jeong, Yong-Seob

    2014-06-01

    The extracts and pure saponins from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (PG) are reported to have a wide range of health benefits. Platycosides (saponins) from the roots of PG are characterized by a structure containing a triterpenoid aglycone and two sugar chains. Saponins are of commercial significance, and their applications are increasing with increasing evidence of their health benefits. The biological effects of saponins include cytotoxic effects against cancer cells, neuroprotective activity, antiviral activity, and cholesterol lowering effects. Saponins with commercial value range from crude plant extracts, which can be used for their foaming properties, to high purity saponins such as platycodin D, which can be used for its health applications (e.g., as a vaccine adjuvant). This review reveals that platycosides have many health benefits and have the potential to be used as a remedy against many of the major health hazards (e.g., cancer, obesity, alzheimer's) faced by populations around the world. Methods of platycoside purification and analysis are also covered in this review.

  9. Health benefits of cycle ergometer training for older adults over 70: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Walid; Schmitt, Elise; Kaltenbach, Georges; Geny, Bernard; Vogel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    As the number of older adults continues to increase worldwide, more attention is being paid to geriatric health care needs, and successful ageing is becoming an important topic in the medical literature. A preventive approach to the care of older adults is thus a priority in our aging societies. The purpose of this study was to update evidence for the health benefits of cycle ergometer training for older adults over 70. We searched online electronic databases up to September 2014 for original observational and intervention studies on the relationship between cycle ergometer training and health among older patients over 70. Twenty-five studies examined interventions aimed specifically at promoting cycling for older adults over 70. These studies reported a positive effect on the prevention of cardiovascular disease, and a significant improvement in metabolic responses. Improving functional status, muscle strength and cognitive performance are also well established. Overall, this review demonstrates a positive effect of cycle ergometer training with functional benefits and positive health outcomes for older adults over 70. Based on this evidence, clinicians can now encourage older adults to profit from the health benefits of cycle ergometer training to be able to pursue their daily activities independently.

  10. Fundamentals and health benefits of xanthohumol, a natural product derived from hops and beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Paulo J; Carvalho, Daniel O; Cruz, José M; Guido, Luís F; Barros, Aquiles A

    2009-05-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in phenolic compounds and their presumed role in the prevention of various degenerative diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Xanthohumol, a prenylated chalcone from hops and beer, is among the phenolic compounds which have received the most attention in recent years. This compound has a range of interesting biological properties that may have therapeutic utility. Based on the health-promoting properties of xanthohumol, the production of a beer enriched in this substance would be of huge interest to the brewing industry, for the benefits this could bring to consumer's health. This paper reviews recent and important data with respect to the health benefits or biological activities of xanthohumol and beer. In addition, an overview of the chemistry and biotechnological aspects of xanthohumol is presented.

  11. What are the health benefits of active travel? A systematic review of trials and cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda E Saunders

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasing active travel (primarily walking and cycling has been widely advocated for reducing obesity levels and achieving other population health benefits. However, the strength of evidence underpinning this strategy is unclear. This study aimed to assess the evidence that active travel has significant health benefits. METHODS: The study design was a systematic review of (i non-randomised and randomised controlled trials, and (ii prospective observational studies examining either (a the effects of interventions to promote active travel or (b the association between active travel and health outcomes. Reports of studies were identified by searching 11 electronic databases, websites, reference lists and papers identified by experts in the field. Prospective observational and intervention studies measuring any health outcome of active travel in the general population were included. Studies of patient groups were excluded. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies from 12 countries were included, of which six were studies conducted with children. Five studies evaluated active travel interventions. Nineteen were prospective cohort studies which did not evaluate the impact of a specific intervention. No studies were identified with obesity as an outcome in adults; one of five prospective cohort studies in children found an association between obesity and active travel. Small positive effects on other health outcomes were found in five intervention studies, but these were all at risk of selection bias. Modest benefits for other health outcomes were identified in five prospective studies. There is suggestive evidence that active travel may have a positive effect on diabetes prevention, which may be an important area for future research. CONCLUSIONS: Active travel may have positive effects on health outcomes, but there is little robust evidence to date of the effectiveness of active transport interventions for reducing obesity. Future evaluations of such

  12. Benefit sharing and access to essential health care: a happy marriage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Doris; Chennells, Roger

    2008-03-01

    In May 2003, one of the most important benefit sharing agreements to date was signed in South Africa. The South African San Council and the South African Centre for Scientific and Industrial Research agreed to share the benefits derived from genetic research on the Hoodia plant. Payments to the San Council started in 2005 and could reach 1.3 million US Dollars per year for approximately 15 years. Members of the San community in Southern Africa are exposed to serious poverty, resulting in malnutrition and avoidable illnesses. The question we are interested in is: could benefit sharing in compliance with the Convention on Biological Diversity be a partial solution to lack of access to essential health care? In the first part of the paper, we shall briefly introduce the legal background of benefit sharing and the San case. In the second part of the paper, we shall argue that benefit sharing and access to essential health care should not be formally linked. We shall substantiate our claim by introducing practical, normative and so-called 'bigger picture' reasons against the link.

  13. Air pollution-related health and climate benefits of clean cookstove programs in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, Susan C.; Henze, Daven K.; Lacey, Forrest; Irfan, Ans; Kinney, Patrick; Kleiman, Gary; Pillarisetti, Ajay

    2017-02-01

    Approximately 95% of households in Mozambique burn solid fuels for cooking, contributing to elevated indoor and outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and subsequent health and climate impacts. Little is known about the potential health and climate benefits of various approaches for expanding the use of cleaner stoves and fuels in Mozambique. We use state-of-the-science methods to provide a first-order estimation of potential air pollution-related health and climate benefits of four illustrative scenarios in which traditional cooking fires and stoves are displaced by cleaner and more efficient technologies. For rural areas, we find that a 10% increase in the number of households using forced draft wood-burning stoves could achieve >2.5 times more health benefits from reduced PM2.5 exposure (200 avoided premature deaths and 14 000 avoided disability adjusted life years, DALYs, over a three-year project lifetime) compared to natural draft stoves in the same households, assuming 70% of households use the new technology for both cases. Expanding use of LPG stoves to 10% of households in five major cities is estimated to avoid 160 premature deaths and 11 000 DALYs from reduced PM2.5 exposure for a three-year intervention, assuming 60% of households use the new stove. Advanced charcoal stoves would achieve ∽80% of the PM2.5-related health benefits of LPG stoves. Approximately 2%–5% additional health benefits would result from reduced ambient PM2.5, depending on the scenario. Although climate impacts are uncertain, we estimate that all scenarios would reduce expected climate change-related temperature increases from continued solid fuel use by 4%–6% over the next century. All results are based on an assumed adjustment factor of 0.8 to convert from laboratory-based emission reduction measurements to exposure reductions, which could be optimistic in reality given potential for continued use of the traditional stove. We conclude that cleaner cooking

  14. Pure Nuclear Fusion Bomb Propulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Winterberg, F

    2008-01-01

    Recent progress towards the non-fission ignition of thermonuclear micro-explosions raises the prospect for a revival of the nuclear bomb propulsion idea, both for the fast transport of large payloads within the solar system and the launch into earth orbit without the release of fission products into the atmosphere. To reach this goal three areas of research are of importance: 1)Compact thermonuclear ignition drivers. 2)Fast ignition and deuterium burn. 3)Space-craft architecture involving magnetic insulation and GeV electrostatic potentials

  15. Composition, properties and health benefits of indigestible carbohydrate polymers as dietary fiber: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta

    2013-10-01

    In last few decades, indigestible carbohydrates as dietary fiber have attracted interest of food scientists and technologists due to its several physiological benefits. Dietary fibers are generally of two types based on their solubility, i.e. soluble and insoluble dietary fiber. Significant physicochemical properties of dietary fiber include solubility, viscosity, water holding capacity, bulking and fermentability. Some important dietary fibers are celluloses, hemicelluloses, hydrocolloids, resistant starches and non-digestible oligosaccharides. Inclusion of these fibers in daily diet imparts several health benefits such as prevention or reduction of bowel disorders, and decrease risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

  16. Assessing the co-benefits of greenhouse gas reduction: health benefits of particulate matter related inspection and maintenance programs in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Crawford-Brown, Douglas J

    2011-04-15

    Since the 1990s, the capital city of Thailand, Bangkok has been suffering from severe ambient particulate matter (PM) pollution mainly attributable to its wide use of diesel-fueled vehicles and motorcycles with poor emission performance. While the Thai government strives to reduce emissions from transportation through enforcing policy measures, the link between specific control policies and associated health impacts is inadequately studied. This link is especially important in exploring the co-benefits of greenhouse gas emissions reductions, which often brings reduction in other pollutants such as PM. This paper quantifies the health benefits potentially achieved by the new PM-related I/M programs targeting all diesel vehicles and motorcycles in the Bangkok Metropolitan Area (BMA). The benefits are estimated by using a framework that integrates policy scenario development, exposure assessment, exposure-response assessment and economic valuation. The results indicate that the total health damage due to the year 2000 PM emissions from vehicles in the BMA was equivalent to 2.4% of Thailand's GDP. Under the business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, total vehicular PM emissions in the BMA will increase considerably over time due to the rapid growth in vehicle population, even if the fleet average emission rates are projected to decrease over time as the result of participation of Thailand in post-Copenhagen climate change strategies. By 2015, the total health damage is estimated to increase by 2.5 times relative to the year 2000. However, control policies targeting PM emissions from automobiles, such as the PM-oriented I/M programs, could yield substantial health benefits relative to the BAU scenario, and serve as co-benefits of greenhouse gas control strategies. Despite uncertainty associated with the key assumptions used to estimate benefits, we find that with a high level confidence, the I/M programs will produce health benefits whose economic impacts considerably outweigh

  17. Health benefits of primary care social work for adults with complex health and social needs: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Jules; Mercer, Stewart W; Harris, Fiona M

    2016-04-05

    The prevalence of complex health and social needs in primary care patients is growing. Furthermore, recent research suggests that the impact of psychosocial distress on the significantly poorer health outcomes in this population may have been underestimated. The potential of social work in primary care settings has been extensively discussed in both health and social work literature and there is evidence that social work interventions in other settings are particularly effective in addressing psychosocial needs. However, the evidence base for specific improved health outcomes related to primary care social work is minimal. This review aimed to identify and synthesise the available evidence on the health benefits of social work interventions in primary care settings. Nine electronic databases were searched from 1990 to 2015 and seven primary research studies were retrieved. Due to the heterogeneity of studies, a narrative synthesis was conducted. Although there is no definitive evidence for effectiveness, results suggest a promising role for primary care social work interventions in improving health outcomes. These include subjective health measures and self-management of long-term conditions, reducing psychosocial morbidity and barriers to treatment and health maintenance. Although few rigorous study designs were found, the contextual detail and clinical settings of studies provide evidence of the practice applicability of social work intervention. Emerging policy on the integration of health and social care may provide an opportunity to develop this model of care.

  18. The health effects of US unemployment insurance policy: does income from unemployment benefits prevent cardiovascular disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Walter

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Previous studies suggest that unemployment predicts increased cardiovascular disease (CVD risk, but whether unemployment insurance programs mitigate this risk has not been assessed. Exploiting US state variations in unemployment insurance benefit programs, we tested the hypothesis that more generous benefits reduce CVD risk. METHODS: Cohort data came from 16,108 participants in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS aged 50-65 at baseline interviewed from 1992 to 2010. Data on first and recurrent CVD diagnosis assessed through biennial interviews were linked to the generosity of unemployment benefit programmes in each state and year. Using state fixed-effect models, we assessed whether state changes in the generosity of unemployment benefits predicted CVD risk. RESULTS: States with higher unemployment benefits had lower incidence of CVD, so that a 1% increase in benefits was associated with 18% lower odds of CVD (OR:0.82, 95%-CI:0.71-0.94. This association remained after introducing US census regional division fixed effects, but disappeared after introducing state fixed effects (OR:1.02, 95%-CI:0.79-1.31.This was consistent with the fact that unemployment was not associated with CVD risk in state-fixed effect models. CONCLUSION: Although states with more generous unemployment benefits had lower CVD incidence, this appeared to be due to confounding by state-level characteristics. Possible explanations are the lack of short-term effects of unemployment on CVD risk. Future studies should assess whether benefits at earlier stages of the life-course influence long-term risk of CVD.

  19. The public health benefits of insulation retrofits in existing housing in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishioka Yurika

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methodological limitations make it difficult to quantify the public health benefits of energy efficiency programs. To address this issue, we developed a risk-based model to estimate the health benefits associated with marginal energy usage reductions and applied the model to a hypothetical case study of insulation retrofits in single-family homes in the United States. Methods We modeled energy savings with a regression model that extrapolated findings from an energy simulation program. Reductions of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 emissions and particle precursors (SO2 and NOx were quantified using fuel-specific emission factors and marginal electricity analyses. Estimates of population exposure per unit emissions, varying by location and source type, were extrapolated from past dispersion model runs. Concentration-response functions for morbidity and mortality from PM2.5 were derived from the epidemiological literature, and economic values were assigned to health outcomes based on willingness to pay studies. Results In total, the insulation retrofits would save 800 TBTU (8 × 1014 British Thermal Units per year across 46 million homes, resulting in 3,100 fewer tons of PM2.5, 100,000 fewer tons of NOx, and 190,000 fewer tons of SO2 per year. These emission reductions are associated with outcomes including 240 fewer deaths, 6,500 fewer asthma attacks, and 110,000 fewer restricted activity days per year. At a state level, the health benefits per unit energy savings vary by an order of magnitude, illustrating that multiple factors (including population patterns and energy sources influence health benefit estimates. The health benefits correspond to $1.3 billion per year in externalities averted, compared with $5.9 billion per year in economic savings. Conclusion In spite of significant uncertainties related to the interpretation of PM2.5 health effects and other dimensions of the model, our analysis demonstrates that a risk

  20. Can air pollution negate the health benefits of cycling and walking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tainio, Marko; de Nazelle, Audrey J; Götschi, Thomas; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Rojas-Rueda, David; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Kelly, Paul; Woodcock, James

    2016-06-01

    Active travel (cycling, walking) is beneficial for the health due to increased physical activity (PA). However, active travel may increase the intake of air pollution, leading to negative health consequences. We examined the risk-benefit balance between active travel related PA and exposure to air pollution across a range of air pollution and PA scenarios. The health effects of active travel and air pollution were estimated through changes in all-cause mortality for different levels of active travel and air pollution. Air pollution exposure was estimated through changes in background concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), ranging from 5 to 200μg/m3. For active travel exposure, we estimated cycling and walking from 0 up to 16h per day, respectively. These refer to long-term average levels of active travel and PM2.5 exposure. For the global average urban background PM2.5 concentration (22μg/m3) benefits of PA by far outweigh risks from air pollution even under the most extreme levels of active travel. In areas with PM2.5 concentrations of 100μg/m3, harms would exceed benefits after 1h 30min of cycling per day or more than 10h of walking per day. If the counterfactual was driving, rather than staying at home, the benefits of PA would exceed harms from air pollution up to 3h 30min of cycling per day. The results were sensitive to dose-response function (DRF) assumptions for PM2.5 and PA. PA benefits of active travel outweighed the harm caused by air pollution in all but the most extreme air pollution concentrations.

  1. What are fair study benefits in international health research? Consulting community members in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Njue

    Full Text Available Planning study benefits and payments for participants in international health research in low- income settings can be a difficult and controversial process, with particular challenges in balancing risks of undue inducement and exploitation and understanding how researchers should take account of background inequities. At an international health research programme in Kenya, this study aimed to map local residents' informed and reasoned views on the effects of different levels of study benefits and payments to inform local policy and wider debates in international research.Using a relatively novel two-stage process community consultation approach, five participatory workshops involving 90 local residents from diverse constituencies were followed by 15 small group discussions, with components of information-sharing, deliberation and reflection to situate normative reasoning within debates. Framework Analysis drew inductively and deductively on voice-recorded discussions and field notes supported by Nvivo 10 software, and the international research ethics literature. Community members' views on study benefits and payments were diverse, with complex contextual influences and interplay between risks of giving 'too many' and 'too few' benefits, including the role of cash. While recognising important risks for free choice, research relationships and community values in giving 'too many', the greatest concerns were risks of unfairness in giving 'too few' benefits, given difficulties in assessing indirect costs of participation and the serious consequences for families of underestimation, related to perceptions of researchers' responsibilities.Providing benefits and payments to participants in international research in low-income settings is an essential means by which researchers meet individual-level and structural forms of ethical responsibilities, but understanding how this can be achieved requires a careful account of social realities and local

  2. What Are Fair Study Benefits in International Health Research? Consulting Community Members in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njue, Maureen; Kombe, Francis; Mwalukore, Salim; Molyneux, Sassy; Marsh, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Background Planning study benefits and payments for participants in international health research in low- income settings can be a difficult and controversial process, with particular challenges in balancing risks of undue inducement and exploitation and understanding how researchers should take account of background inequities. At an international health research programme in Kenya, this study aimed to map local residents' informed and reasoned views on the effects of different levels of study benefits and payments to inform local policy and wider debates in international research. Methods and Findings Using a relatively novel two-stage process community consultation approach, five participatory workshops involving 90 local residents from diverse constituencies were followed by 15 small group discussions, with components of information-sharing, deliberation and reflection to situate normative reasoning within debates. Framework Analysis drew inductively and deductively on voice- recorded discussions and field notes supported by Nvivo 10 software, and the international research ethics literature. Community members' views on study benefits and payments were diverse, with complex contextual influences and interplay between risks of giving ‘too many’ and ‘too few’ benefits, including the role of cash. While recognising important risks for free choice, research relationships and community values in giving ‘too many’, the greatest concerns were risks of unfairness in giving ‘too few’ benefits, given difficulties in assessing indirect costs of participation and the serious consequences for families of underestimation, related to perceptions of researchers' responsibilities. Conclusions Providing benefits and payments to participants in international research in low-income settings is an essential means by which researchers meet individual-level and structural forms of ethical responsibilities, but understanding how this can be achieved requires a careful

  3. Fundamental movement skills in children and adolescents: review of associated health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Cliff, Dylan P; Barnett, Lisa M; Okely, Anthony D

    2010-12-01

    The mastery of fundamental movement skills (FMS) has been purported as contributing to children's physical, cognitive and social development and is thought to provide the foundation for an active lifestyle. Commonly developed in childhood and subsequently refined into context- and sport-specific skills, they include locomotor (e.g. running and hopping), manipulative or object control (e.g. catching and throwing) and stability (e.g. balancing and twisting) skills. The rationale for promoting the development of FMS in childhood relies on the existence of evidence on the current or future benefits associated with the acquisition of FMS proficiency. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the relationship between FMS competency and potential health benefits in children and adolescents. Benefits were defined in terms of psychological, physiological and behavioural outcomes that can impact public health. A systematic search of six electronic databases (EMBASE, OVID MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and SportDiscus®) was conducted on 22 June 2009. Included studies were cross-sectional, longitudinal or experimental studies involving healthy children or adolescents (aged 3-18 years) that quantitatively analysed the relationship between FMS competency and potential benefits. The search identified 21 articles examining the relationship between FMS competency and eight potential benefits (i.e. global self-concept, perceived physical competence, cardio-respiratory fitness [CRF], muscular fitness, weight status, flexibility, physical activity and reduced sedentary behaviour). We found strong evidence for a positive association between FMS competency and physical activity in children and adolescents. There was also a positive relationship between FMS competency and CRF and an inverse association between FMS competency and weight status. Due to an inadequate number of studies, the relationship between FMS competency and the remaining benefits was classified as

  4. 78 FR 71676 - Submission for Review: 3206-0201, Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Open Season Express...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: 3206-0201, Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Open Season Express... information collection request (ICR) 3206-0201, Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Open Season Express... Publications Team, OPM, 1900 E Street NW., Room 3316-AC, Washington, DC 20415, Attention: Cyrus S. Benson;...

  5. Health costs caused by oil extraction air emissions and the benefits from abatement: the case of Kazakhstan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netalieva, I.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The methodology and results of a cost–benefit analysis of air quality control during oil production in the Caspian Region in Kazakhstan are presented. The benefits are defined as the decrease in health costs from reduced air pollution. The health costs are the income losses which depend on the attri

  6. Dietary sources of omega 3 fatty acids: public health risks and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tur, J A; Bibiloni, M M; Sureda, A; Pons, A

    2012-06-01

    Omega 3 fatty acids can be obtained from several sources, and should be added to the daily diet to enjoy a good health and to prevent many diseases. Worldwide, general population use omega-3 fatty acid supplements and enriched foods to get and maintain adequate amounts of these fatty acids. The aim of this paper was to review main scientific evidence regarding the public health risks and benefits of the dietary sources of omega-3 fatty acids. A systematic literature search was performed, and one hundred and forty-five articles were included in the results for their methodological quality. The literature described benefits and risks of algal, fish oil, plant, enriched dairy products, animal-derived food, krill oil, and seal oil omega-3 fatty acids.

  7. Are Biophilic-Designed Site Office Buildings Linked to Health Benefits and High Performing Occupants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonia Gray

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the first phase of a longitudinal study underway in Australia to ascertain the broad health benefits of specific types of biophilic design for workers in a building site office. A bespoke site design was formulated to include open plan workspace, natural lighting, ventilation, significant plants, prospect and views, recycled materials and use of non-synthetic materials. Initial data in the first three months was gathered from a series of demographic questions and from interviews and observations of site workers. Preliminary data indicates a strong positive effect from incorporating aspects of biophilic design to boost productivity, ameliorate stress, enhance well-being, foster a collaborative work environment and promote workplace satisfaction, thus contributing towards a high performance workspace. The longitudinal study spanning over two years will track human-plant interactions in a biophilic influenced space, whilst also assessing the concomitant cognitive, social, psychological and physical health benefits for workers.

  8. Pets' Impact on Your Patients' Health: Leveraging Benefits and Mitigating Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Kate; Barton, Luisa; Darling, Marcia; Antao, Viola; Kim, Florence A; Monavvari, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Over two thirds of Americans live with pets and consider them important members of the family. Pets benefit human health (zooeyia) in 4 ways: as builders of social capital, as agents of harm reduction, as motivators for healthy behavior change, and as potential participants in treatment plans. Conversely, pets can present risks to their owners. They are potential sources of zoonotic disease and injury. Pets can also challenge a family's prioritization of financial and social resources. To activate the benefits of zooeyia and appropriately calibrate and mitigate zoonotic risk, physicians first need to know about the pets in their patients' families. Asking about pets is a simple and feasible approach to assess patients' environmental history and social capital. Asking about pets is a nonthreatening way to build rapport and demonstrates an interest in the whole family, which can improve the physician-patient therapeutic alliance. Physicians can use an interprofessional, collaborative approach with veterinarians to address zoonotic health risks and leverage zooeyia.

  9. Are biophilic-designed site office buildings linked to health benefits and high performing occupants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Tonia; Birrell, Carol

    2014-11-26

    This paper discusses the first phase of a longitudinal study underway in Australia to ascertain the broad health benefits of specific types of biophilic design for workers in a building site office. A bespoke site design was formulated to include open plan workspace, natural lighting, ventilation, significant plants, prospect and views, recycled materials and use of non-synthetic materials. Initial data in the first three months was gathered from a series of demographic questions and from interviews and observations of site workers. Preliminary data indicates a strong positive effect from incorporating aspects of biophilic design to boost productivity, ameliorate stress, enhance well-being, foster a collaborative work environment and promote workplace satisfaction, thus contributing towards a high performance workspace. The longitudinal study spanning over two years will track human-plant interactions in a biophilic influenced space, whilst also assessing the concomitant cognitive, social, psychological and physical health benefits for workers.

  10. Assessing the health benefits of improved air quality in Central and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupnick, A.J.; Harrison, K.W.; Nickell, E.J.; Toman, M.A.

    Assessments of the benefits of improvements in environmental quality in Central and Eastern Europe are needed to determine priorities for pollution abatement activities in the region. A recent study conducted by researchers at Resources for the Future suggests that the human health benefits attributable to reductions in emissions of three air pollutants in five of the region's countries are potentially large. However, the study also highlights the uncertainties surrounding measurements of decreases in adverse health effects and economic valuations of improved air quality. Attempts to account for these uncertainties yield findings that strengthen the researchers' assertion that air pollution control should be a target of environmental and economic policies in Central and Eastern Europe.

  11. Decision making for animal health and welfare: integrating risk-benefit analysis with prospect theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Helena; Lagerkvist, Carl Johan

    2014-06-01

    This study integrated risk-benefit analysis with prospect theory with the overall objective of identifying the type of management behavior represented by farmers' choices of mastitis control options (MCOs). Two exploratory factor analyses, based on 163 and 175 Swedish farmers, respectively, highlighted attitudes to MCOs related to: (1) grouping cows and applying milking order to prevent spread of existing infection and (2) working in a precautionary way to prevent mastitis occurring. This was interpreted as being based on (1) reactive management behavior on detection of udder-health problems in individual cows and (2) proactive management behavior to prevent mastitis developing. Farmers' assessments of these MCOs were found to be based on asymmetrical evaluations of risks and benefits, suggesting that farmers' management behavior depends on their individual reference point. In particular, attitudes to MCOs related to grouping cows and applying milking order to prevent the spread of mastitis once infected cows were detected were stronger in the risk domain than in the benefit domain, in accordance with loss aversion. In contrast, attitudes to MCOs related to working in a precautionary way to prevent cows from becoming infected in the first place were stronger in the benefit domain than in the risk domain, in accordance with reverse loss aversion. These findings are of practical importance for farmers and agribusiness and in public health protection work to reduce the current extensive use of antibiotics in dairy herds.

  12. Non-starter lactic acid bacteria used to improve cheese quality and provide health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settanni, Luca; Moschetti, Giancarlo

    2010-09-01

    Non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) dominate cheese microbiota during ripening. They tolerate the hostile environment well and strongly influence the biochemistry of curd maturation, contributing to the development of the final characteristics of cheese. Several NSLAB are selected on the basis of their health benefits (enhancement of intestinal probiosis, production of bioactive peptides, generation of gamma-aminobutyric acid and inactivation of antigenotoxins) and are employed in cheese-making. This review describes the ecology of NSLAB, and focuses on their application as adjunct cultures, in order to drive the ripening process and promote health advantages. The scopes of future directions of research are summarised.

  13. Health benefits of soy isoflavonoids and strategies for enhancement: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Patrick; Shetty, Kalidas

    2004-01-01

    Soybean consumption has been linked to a reduced risk for certain cancers and diseases of old age. The health benefits associated with soybean consumption have been linked to the action of isoflavonoids, the major phenolic phytochemicals found in soybean. Isoflavonoids possess numerous biological activities that may support chemoprevention through the promotion of apoptosis in diseased cells. In this study, we discuss the current state of knowledge concerning soybean isoflavonoids, their chemopreventive actions against postmenopausal health problems, cancer, and cardiovascular disease, and also biotechnology approaches toward the enrichment of soybean for isoflavonoid content.

  14. House-plant placement for indoor air purification and health benefits on asthmatics

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Some plants were placed in indoor locations frequented by asthmatics in order to evaluate the quality of indoor air and examine the health benefits to asthmatics. Methods The present study classified the participants into two groups: households of continuation and households of withdrawal by a quasi-experimental design. The households of continuation spent the two observation terms with indoor plants, whereas the households of withdrawal passed the former observation terms with ind...

  15. Does Replacing Sodium Excreted in Sweat Attenuate the Health Benefits of Physical Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Martin J; Avolio, Alberto P

    2016-08-01

    International guidelines suggest limiting sodium intake to 86-100 mmol/day, but average intake exceeds 150 mmol/day. Participants in physical activities are, however, advised to increase sodium intake before, during and after exercise to ensure euhydration, replace sodium lost in sweat, speed rehydration and maintain performance. A similar range of health benefits is attributable to exercise and to reduction in sodium intake, including reductions in blood pressure (BP) and the increase of BP with age, reduced risk of stroke and other cardiovascular diseases, and reduced risk of osteoporosis and dementia. Sweat typically contains 40-60 mmol/L of sodium, leading to approximately 20-90 mmol of sodium lost in one exercise session with sweat rates of 0.5-1.5 L/h. Reductions in sodium intake of 20-90 mmol/day have been associated with substantial health benefits. Homeostatic systems reduce sweat sodium as low as 3-10 mmol/L to prevent excessive sodium loss. "Salty sweaters" may be individuals with high sodium intake who perpetuate their "salty sweat" condition by continual replacement of sodium excreted in sweat. Studies of prolonged high intensity exercise in hot environments suggest that sodium supplementation is not necessary to prevent hyponatremia during exercise lasting up to 6 hr. We examine the novel hypothesis that sodium excreted in sweat during physical activity offsets a significant fraction of excess dietary sodium, and hence may contribute part of the health benefits of exercise. Replacing sodium lost in sweat during exercise may improve physical performance, but may attenuate the long-term health benefits of exercise.

  16. Review article: health benefits of some physiologically active ingredients and their suitability as yoghurt fortifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Fayed, A. E

    2014-01-01

    The article is concerned with health benefits of two main physiologically active ingredients namely, Isoflavones and γ-Aminobutyric acid, with emphasis on their fitness for fortification of yoghurt to be consumed as a functional food. Isoflavones (ISO) are part of the diphenol compounds, called “phytoestrogens,” which are structurally and functionally similar to estradiol, the human estrogen, but much less potent. Because of this similarity, ISO were suggested to have preventive effects for m...

  17. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Legalization of an Informal Health Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Lee Mendoza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Philippines--a developing Southeast Asian country--exemplifies the co-existence of Western-oriented, medical science and indigenous, non-allopathic practices collectively known as Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM. The purpose of this study is to determine why and how the economics and politics of CAM’s integration with biomedical science could impede the achievement of health care redistribution in developing countries like the Philippines. Approach: Representative case studies of CAM methods and content analysis of related legislation and policy initiatives were undertaken. Results: The study shed light on the problems, challenges and opportunities in addressing the misdistribution of primary and secondary health care in the Philippines. It found that subjective considerations underlie CAM’s legitimacy. These become critical when scientific validity is at issue, information exchanged is asymmetric and political consensus is not readily available. How these considerations were valued from a cost-benefit perspective shaped actual policy outcomes. Conclusion: The study suggested that proper timing, phasing and collaborative strategies are critical to CAM's institutionalization in light of confining economic conditions and political conflicts over health policy. Both objective and subjective costs and benefits of CAM methods and products should be considered in integrating the formal (biomedical and informal (CAM health sectors, particularly in developing countries where health care is largely dependent on individual or household resource-based access and competitive prowess.

  18. The benefits of e-health support for older family caregivers in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blusi, Madeleine; Dalin, Rolf; Jong, Mats

    2014-03-01

    We conducted a pragmatic, mixed methods study comparing rural family caregivers receiving e-health caregiver support (n = 35) with a control group (n = 21) receiving conventional, non-e-health, caregiver support. After 18 months, the benefits of support were evaluated using the Care Effectiveness Scale (40-items exploring the domains of preparedness, enrichment and predictability). In all domains the e-health group scored significantly higher than the control group. The adjusted difference for overall benefits was 3.0 (P = 0.02) on the scale 0-10. In addition, semi structured interviews were conducted with a sub-sample of the caregivers. For the e-health group flexibility, availability and being able to individualise the support were essential factors. All caregivers in the control group found conventional support to be beneficial, but also stressed unmet needs related to the conventional support being standardised and non-flexible. The study suggests that providers of caregiver support should offer e-health support as an alternative to conventional caregiver support, as it can be more beneficial to family caregivers.

  19. Soy foods and supplementation: a review of commonly perceived health benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Adamo, Christopher R; Sahin, Azize

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the impact of soy foods and supplements upon human health has become increasingly controversial among the general public. No one has conducted a broad evaluation of the scientific evidence supporting or refuting popular perceptions of the health effects of soy consumption. In this article, the authors have conducted a comprehensive assessment of the literature surrounding the health effects of soy consumption that are of greatest interest. This review has focused on 5 health benefits- relief of menopausal symptoms and prevention of heart disease, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and osteoporosis, and 5 health risks-increased risk of breast cancer, male hormonal and fertility problems, hypothyroidism, antinutrient content, and harmful processing by-products. Systematic reviews of human trials, prospective human trials, observational human studies, animal models, in vitro studies, and laboratory analyses of soy components were included for review. This literature review revealed that soy foods and isoflavones may provide relief from menopausal symptoms and protect against breast cancer and heart disease. Soy does not appear to offer protection against osteoporosis. The evidence on male fertility and reproductive hormones was conflicting; some studies demonstrated a deleterious impact caused by soy consumption and others showed no effect. Soy supplementation also appears to affect thyroid function in an inconsistent manner, as studies have shown both increases and decreases in the same parameters of thyroid activity. Soaking, fermentation, and heating may reduce problematic antinutrients contained in soy. The authors found that consuming moderate amounts of traditionally prepared and minimally processed soy foods may offer modest health benefits while minimizing potential for adverse health effects. However, additional studies are necessary to elucidate the variable thyroid response to soy supplementation, and more rigorous studies are required to

  20. True Morels (Morchella) - Nutritional and Phytochemical Composition, Health Benefits and Flavor: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietel, Zipora; Masaphy, Segula

    2017-03-28

    Morels are edible mushrooms appreciated worldwide for their savory flavor. Morels have been in use in traditional medicine for centuries, due to their health-related benefits, and current research demonstrated their anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory bioactivities, in addition to immunostimulatory and anti-tumor properties. In spite of the high demand for morels and their increasing economic importance, their cultivation is limited, and they are either used as wild harvested or fermented in culture, for consumption as a functional food and for food-flavoring. Morel's health benefits were attributed mainly to polysaccharides as the active compounds, and to various phytochemicals, mainly phenolic compounds, tocopherols, ascorbic acid and vitamin D. Morel's nutritional composition was reported, including sugar, amino acid, fatty and organic acid and mineral profile. Information regarding Morel's flavor is limited, and while some of their taste attributes have been described, including the role of umami taste, details about their volatile aroma profile are scarce, and it was reported to include eight carbon volatiles, the main aroma volatiles typical to most mushrooms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review presenting morels' nutritional and phytochemical composition, health benefits and flavor, and we will review the available information in current literature regarding these aspects in light of morels phenotypic plasticity.

  1. Conjugated linoleic acids as functional food: an insight into their health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Sailas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review evaluates the health benefits of the functional food, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA - a heterogeneous group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid predominantly found in milk, milk products, meat and meat products of ruminants. During the past couple of decades, hundreds of reports - principally based on in vitro, microbial, animal, and of late clinical trials on humans - have been accumulating with varying biological activities of CLA isomers. These studies highlight that CLA, apart form the classical nuclear transcription factors-mediated mechanism of action, appear to exhibit a number of inter-dependent molecular signalling pathways accounting for their reported health benefits. Such benefits relate to anti-obesitic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-atherogenic, anti-diabetagenic, immunomodulatory, apoptotic and osteosynthetic effects. On the other hand, negative effects of CLA have been reported such as fatty liver and spleen, induction of colon carcinogenesis and hyperproinsulinaemia. As far as human consumption is concerned, a definite conclusion for CLA safety has not been reached yet. Parameters such as administration of the type of CLA isomer and/or their combination with other polyunsaturated fatty acids, mode of administration (eg., as free fatty acid or its triglyceride form, liquid or solid, daily dose and duration of consumption, gender, age, or ethnic and geographical backgrounds remain to be determined. Yet, it appears from trials so far conducted that CLA are functional food having prevailing beneficial health effects for humans.

  2. Land use, transport, and population health: estimating the health benefits of compact cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Mark; Thompson, Jason; de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Ewing, Reid; Mohan, Dinesh; McClure, Rod; Roberts, Ian; Tiwari, Geetam; Giles-Corti, Billie; Sun, Xiaoduan; Wallace, Mark; Woodcock, James

    2016-12-10

    Using a health impact assessment framework, we estimated the population health effects arising from alternative land-use and transport policy initiatives in six cities. Land-use changes were modelled to reflect a compact city in which land-use density and diversity were increased and distances to public transport were reduced to produce low motorised mobility, namely a modal shift from private motor vehicles to walking, cycling, and public transport. The modelled compact city scenario resulted in health gains for all cities (for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and respiratory disease) with overall health gains of 420-826 disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) per 100 000 population. However, for moderate to highly motorised cities, such as Melbourne, London, and Boston, the compact city scenario predicted a small increase in road trauma for cyclists and pedestrians (health loss of between 34 and 41 DALYs per 100 000 population). The findings suggest that government policies need to actively pursue land-use elements-particularly a focus towards compact cities-that support a modal shift away from private motor vehicles towards walking, cycling, and low-emission public transport. At the same time, these policies need to ensure the provision of safe walking and cycling infrastructure. The findings highlight the opportunities for policy makers to positively influence the overall health of city populations.

  3. Health benefits and health claims of probiotics: bridging science and marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijkers, Ger T; de Vos, Willem M; Brummer, Robert-Jan; Morelli, Lorenzo; Corthier, Gerard; Marteau, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    Health claims for probiotics are evaluated by the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies of the European Food Safety Authority. Despite a substantial amount of basic and clinical research on the beneficial effects of probiotics, all of the evaluated claim applications thus far have received a negative opinion. With the restrictions on the use of clinical endpoints, validated biomarkers for gut health and immune health in relation to reduction in disease risk are needed. Clear-cut criteria for design as well as evaluation of future studies are needed. An open dialogue between basic and clinical scientists, regulatory authorities, food and nutrition industry, and consumers could bridge the gap between science and marketing of probiotics.

  4. Overview of the health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption for the dietetics professional: selected literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duyn, M A; Pivonka, E

    2000-12-01

    Epidemiologic evidence of a protective role for fruits and vegetables in cancer prevention is substantial. The strength of this scientific base guides US national policymaking in diet and health issues and facilitates community and local programs that address national dietary goals to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. Current scientific evidence also suggests a protective role for fruits and vegetables in prevention of coronary heart disease, and evidence is accumulating for a protective role in stroke. In addition, a new scientific base is emerging to support a protective role for fruits and vegetables in prevention of cataract formation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diverticulosis, and possibly, hypertension. This article provides an overview of the health benefits associated with fruit and vegetable consumption for each of these conditions, including brief discussions of underlying protective mechanisms, identifies key scientific findings regarding the health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, and outlines applications of these findings for dietetics professionals. The evidence reviewed provides additional support for increased consumption of a wide variety of vegetables, in particular, dark-green leafy, cruciferous, and deep-yellow-orange ones, and a wide variety of fruits, in particular, citrus and deep-yellow-orange ones. Continued attention to increasing fruit and vegetable consumption is a practical and important way to optimize nutrition to reduce disease risk and maximize good health.

  5. Health benefits and health claims of probiotics: bridging science and marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkers, G.T.; Vos, de W.M.; Brummer, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Health claims for probiotics are evaluated by the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies of the European Food Safety Authority. Despite a substantial amount of basic and clinical research on the beneficial effects of probiotics, all of the evaluated claim applications thus far have rece

  6. Probiotics, their health benefits and applications for developing healthier foods: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Ravinder; Kumar, Ashwani; Kumar, Manoj; Behare, Pradip V; Jain, Shalini; Yadav, Hariom

    2012-09-01

    In the industrialized world, functional foods have become a part of an everyday diet and are demonstrated to offer potential health benefits beyond the widely accepted nutritional effects. Currently, the most important and frequently used functional food compounds are probiotics and prebiotics, or they are collectively known as 'synbiotics'. Moreover, with an already healthy image, dairy products appear to be an excellent mean for inventing nutritious foods. Such probiotic dairy foods beneficially affect the host by improving survival and implantation of live microbial dietary supplements in the gastrointestinal flora, by selectively stimulating the growth or activating the catabolism of one or a limited number of health-promoting bacteria in the intestinal tract, and by improving the gastrointestinal tract's microbial balance. Hence, the paper reviews the current scenario of probiotics and their prospective potential applications for functional foods for better health and nutrition of the society.

  7. Emergency assistance provided abroad to insured travellers from Australia following the Bali bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat, Peter A; Leggat, Frances W

    2004-02-01

    Background. On 12 October 2002, terrorist bombs detonated in the Kuta entertainment district of Bali, Indonesia, a popular tourist destination for Australian travellers. This study was designed to investigate travel insurance claims reported by travellers from Australia requiring emergency assistance and/or aeromedical evacuation, as well as to examine the role of travel insurance and emergency assistance companies, following the Bali bombing. Methods. In 2003, all claims reported, following the Bali bombing attack on 12 October 2002, to a major Australian travel insurance company were examined for those claims that described the use of the insurer's emergency assistance contractor by travellers in Bali following the bombing. Results. Thirteen insured travellers used the emergency assistance service following the Bali bombing. Six travellers cancelled their trip to Bali. Five travellers, who were already abroad cancelled their trip to Bali and one was given evacuation assistance. One traveller required aeromedical evacuation by scheduled aircraft with glass injuries resulting from the bomb blast, and there was also assistance provided to significant others following the death of one insured traveller as a direct consequence of the bombing. Two travellers sought only claiming and policy advice and no claim was made. The mean refund, where a travel insurance claim was made, was AUD1185.09 (SD=AUD3047.31). Conclusions. This study highlights the importance of travellers taking out appropriate travel insurance, which provides for emergency assistance. Travel insurance agencies do play some role after emergencies such as the Bali bombing. This assistance involves predominantly dealing with cancellation of travellers' intended visits to the affected area, but does also involve some assistance to travellers evacuating from the crisis, including some who require aeromedical evacuation. Travellers should be advised to seek travel health advice well before departure overseas

  8. Benefits on public health from transport-related greenhouse gas mitigation policies in Southeastern European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigiannis, D A; Kontoroupis, P; Nikolaki, S; Gotti, A; Chapizanis, D; Karakitsios, S

    2017-02-01

    Climate change is a major environmental threat of our time. Cities have a significant impact on greenhouse gas emissions as most of the traffic, industry, commerce and more than 50% of world population is situated in urban areas. Southern Europe is a region that faces financial turmoil, enhanced migratory fluxes and climate change pressure. The case study of Thessaloniki is presented, one of the only two cities in Greece with established climate change action plans. The effects of feasible traffic policies in year 2020 are assessed and their potential health impact is compared to a business as usual scenario. Two types of measures are investigated: operation of underground rail in the city centre and changes in fleet composition. Potential co-benefits from reduced greenhouse gas emissions on public health by the year 2020 are computed utilizing state-of-the-art concentration response functions for PMx, NO2 and C6H6. Results show significant environmental health and monetary co-benefits when the city metro is coupled with appropriate changes in the traffic composition. Monetary savings due to avoided mortality or leukaemia incidence corresponding to the reduction in PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and C6H6 exposure will be 56.6, 45, 37.7 and 1.0 million Euros respectively. Promotion of 'green' transportation in the city (i.e. the wide use of electric vehicles), will provide monetary savings from the reduction in PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and C6H6 exposure up to 60.4, 49.1, 41.2 and 1.08 million Euros. Overall, it was shown that the respective GHG emission reduction policies resulted in clear co-benefits in terms of air quality improvement, public health protection and monetary loss mitigation.

  9. Potential human health benefits of antibiotics used in food animals: a case study of virginiamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Louis Anthony

    2005-05-01

    Risk management of food-animal antibiotics has reached a crucial juncture for public health officials worldwide. While withdrawals of animal antibiotics previously used to control animal bacterial illnesses are being encouraged in many countries, the human health impacts of such withdrawals are only starting to be understood. Increases in animal and human bacterial illness rates and antibiotic resistance levels in humans in Europe despite bans on animal antibiotics there have raised questions about how animal antibiotic use affects human health. This paper presents a quantitative human health risk and benefits assessment for virginiamycin (VM), a streptogramin antibiotic recommended for withdrawal from use in food animals in several countries. It applies a new quantitative Rapid Risk Rating Technique (RRRT) that estimates and multiplies data-driven exposure, dose-response, and consequence factors, as suggested by WHO (2003) to estimate human health impacts from withdrawing virginiamycin. Increased human health risks from more pathogens reaching consumers if VM use is terminated (6660 estimated excess campylobacteriosis cases per year in the base case) are predicted to far outweigh benefits from reduced streptogramin-resistant vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) infections in human patients (0.27 estimated excess cases per year in the base case). While lack of information about impacts of VM withdrawal on average human illnesses-per-serving of food animal meat precludes a deterministic conclusion, it appears very probable that such a withdrawal would cause many times more human illnesses than it would prevent. This qualitative conclusion appears to be robust to several scientific and modeling uncertainties.

  10. Health benefits of fruit and vegetables are from additive and synergistic combinations of phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui Hai

    2003-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease and cancer are ranked as the first and second leading causes of death in the United States and in most industrialized countries. Regular consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of cancer, cardiovascular disease, stroke, Alzheimer disease, cataracts, and some of the functional declines associated with aging. Prevention is a more effective strategy than is treatment of chronic diseases. Functional foods that contain significant amounts of bioactive components may provide desirable health benefits beyond basic nutrition and play important roles in the prevention of chronic diseases. The key question is whether a purified phytochemical has the same health benefit as does the whole food or mixture of foods in which the phytochemical is present. Our group found, for example, that the vitamin C in apples with skin accounts for only 0.4% of the total antioxidant activity, suggesting that most of the antioxidant activity of fruit and vegetables may come from phenolics and flavonoids in apples. We propose that the additive and synergistic effects of phytochemicals in fruit and vegetables are responsible for their potent antioxidant and anticancer activities, and that the benefit of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables is attributed to the complex mixture of phytochemicals present in whole foods.

  11. Perceived benefits of sharing health data between people with epilepsy on an online platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Paul; Keininger, Dorothy L; Massagli, Michael P; de la Loge, Christine; Brownstein, Catherine; Isojärvi, Jouko; Heywood, James

    2012-01-01

    An epilepsy community was developed on PatientsLikeMe.com to share data between patients to improve their outcomes by finding other patients like them. In a 14-day response period, 221 patients with epilepsy (mean age: 40 years, SD: 12, range: 17-72, 66% female) completed a survey about benefits they perceived. Prior to using the site, a third of respondents (30%) did not know anyone else with epilepsy with whom they could talk; of these, 63% now had at least one other patient with whom they could connect. Perceived benefits included: finding another patient experiencing the same symptoms (59%), gaining a better understanding of seizures (58%), and learning more about symptoms or treatments (55%). Number of benefits was associated with number of relationships with other patients, F(4,216)=8.173, P<0.001). Patients with epilepsy reported an array of perceived benefits similar to those reported by populations with other diseases. Controlled sharing of health data may have the potential to improve disease self-management of people with epilepsy.

  12. Valuing the Ozone-Related Health Benefits of Methane Emission Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarofim, Marcus C.; Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Anenberg, Susan C.

    2015-06-29

    Methane is a greenhouse gas that oxidizes to form ground-level ozone, itself a greenhouse gas and a health-harmful air pollutant. Reducing methane emissions will both slow anthropogenic climate change and reduce ozone-related mortality. We estimate the benefits of reducing methane emissions anywhere in the world for ozone-related premature mortality globally and for eight geographic regions. Our methods are consistent with those used by the U.S. Government to estimate the Social Cost of Carbon (SCC). We find that the global short- and long-term premature mortality benefits due to reduced ozone production from methane mitigation are (2011)$790 and $1775 per tonne methane, respectively. These correspond to approximately 70% and 150% of the valuation of methane’s global climate impacts using the SCC after extrapolating from carbon dioxide to methane using Global Warming Potential (GWP) estimates. Results are most sensitive to the choice of VSL and increase for emission years further in the future. Regionally, most of the global mortality benefits accrue in Asia, but 10% accrue in the United States. This methodology can be used to assess the benefits of methane emission reductions anywhere in the world, including those achieved by national and multinational policies.

  13. Assessing the benefits of OHER (Office of Health and Environmental Research) research: Three case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesse, R.J.; Callaway, J.M.; Englin, J.E.; Klan, M.S.; Nicholls, A.K.; Serot, D.E.

    1987-09-01

    This research was undertaken to estimate the societal benefits and costs of selected past research performed for the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Three case studies of representative OHER and DOE research were performed. One of these, the acid rain case study, includes research conducted elsewhere in DOE. The other two cases were the OHER marine research program and the development of high-purity germanium that is used in radiation detectors. The acid rain case study looked at the research benefits and costs of furnace sorbent injection and duct injection, technologies that might reduce acid deposition precursors. Both appear to show benefits in excess of costs. We examined in detail one of the OHER marine research program's accomplishments - the increase in environmental information used by the Outer Continental Shelf leasing program to manage bidding for off-shore oil drilling. The results of an econometric model show that environmental information of the type supported by OHER is unequivocally linked to government and industry leasing decisions. The germanium case study indicated that the benefits of germanium radiation detectors were significant.

  14. Health benefits of kimchi (Korean fermented vegetables) as a probiotic food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kun-Young; Jeong, Ji-Kang; Lee, Young-Eun; Daily, James W

    2014-01-01

    Kimchi is a traditional Korean food manufactured by fermenting vegetables with probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Many bacteria are involved in the fermentation of kimchi, but LAB become dominant while the putrefactive bacteria are suppressed during salting of baechu cabbage and the fermentation. The addition of other subingredients and formation of fermentation byproducts of LAB promote the fermentation process of LAB to eventually lead to eradication of putrefactive- and pathogenic bacteria, and also increase the functionalities of kimchi. Accordingly, kimchi can be considered a vegetable probiotic food that contributes health benefits in a similar manner as yogurt as a dairy probiotic food. Further, the major ingredients of kimchi are cruciferous vegetables; and other healthy functional foods such as garlic, ginger, red pepper powder, and so on are added to kimchi as subingredients. As all of these ingredients undergo fermentation by LAB, kimchi is regarded as a source of LAB; and the fermentative byproducts from the functional ingredients significantly boost its functionality. Because kimchi is both tasty and highly functional, it is typically served with steamed rice at every Korean meal. Health functionality of kimchi, based upon our research and that of other, includes anticancer, antiobesity, anticonstipation, colorectal health promotion, probiotic properties, cholesterol reduction, fibrolytic effect, antioxidative and antiaging properties, brain health promotion, immune promotion, and skin health promotion. In this review we describe the method of kimchi manufacture, fermentation, health functionalities of kimchi and the probiotic properties of its LAB.

  15. Mindful Climate Action: Health and Environmental Co-Benefits from Mindfulness-Based Behavioral Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Barrett

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gases from human activities are causing climate change, creating risks for people around the globe. Behaviors involving transportation, diet, energy use, and purchasing drive greenhouse gas emissions, but are also related to health and well-being, providing opportunity for co-benefits. Replacing shorter automobile trips with walking or cycling, or eating plants rather than animals, for example, may increase personal health, while also reducing environmental impact. Mindfulness-based practices have been shown to enhance a variety of health outcomes, but have not been adapted towards environmental purposes. We designed the Mindful Climate Action (MCA curriculum to help people improve their health while simultaneously lowering their carbon footprints. Combining mindfulness-based practices with the Stages of Change theory, the MCA program aims to: (1 improve personal health and well-being; (2 decrease energy use; (3 reduce automobile use; (4 increase active transport; (5 shift diet towards plant-based foods; and (6 reduce unnecessary purchasing. Mindfulness practices will foster attentional awareness, openness, and response flexibility, supporting positive behavior change. We plan to test MCA in a randomized controlled trial, with rigorous assessment of targeted outcomes. Our long-term goal is to refine and adapt the MCA program to a variety of audiences, in order to enhance public health and environmental sustainability.

  16. Mindful Climate Action: Health and Environmental Co-Benefits from Mindfulness-Based Behavioral Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Bruce; Grabow, Maggie; Middlecamp, Cathy; Mooney, Margaret; Checovich, Mary M; Converse, Alexander K; Gillespie, Bob; Yates, Julia

    2016-10-01

    Greenhouse gases from human activities are causing climate change, creating risks for people around the globe. Behaviors involving transportation, diet, energy use, and purchasing drive greenhouse gas emissions, but are also related to health and well-being, providing opportunity for co-benefits. Replacing shorter automobile trips with walking or cycling, or eating plants rather than animals, for example, may increase personal health, while also reducing environmental impact. Mindfulness-based practices have been shown to enhance a variety of health outcomes, but have not been adapted towards environmental purposes. We designed the Mindful Climate Action (MCA) curriculum to help people improve their health while simultaneously lowering their carbon footprints. Combining mindfulness-based practices with the Stages of Change theory, the MCA program aims to: (1) improve personal health and well-being; (2) decrease energy use; (3) reduce automobile use; (4) increase active transport; (5) shift diet towards plant-based foods; and (6) reduce unnecessary purchasing. Mindfulness practices will foster attentional awareness, openness, and response flexibility, supporting positive behavior change. We plan to test MCA in a randomized controlled trial, with rigorous assessment of targeted outcomes. Our long-term goal is to refine and adapt the MCA program to a variety of audiences, in order to enhance public health and environmental sustainability.

  17. Benefits of exercise on physical and mental health in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himena ZIPPENFENING

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Physical inactivity and depression are common among RA patients. Many variables are associated with different levels of mental health, including physical activity. Therefore, this study was designed to demonstrate the benefits of moderateintensity exercises on physical activity and mental health in RA patients compared to their sedentary counterparts. We also studied the correlation between physical activity and mental health variables, including depression. Methods: A total of 22 RA patients were recruited of both sexes and divided on the basis of training status into the following two groups: training group (2 men and 8 women aged 67±13 years (mean±SD and sedentary group (11 women and one man aged 67±9.8 years. The training group attended 45 minutes training sessions, three-five times a week for 6 months. All patients were taking currently treatment with at least one or more disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDS or biologic agents. Blood samples were collected from all patients in order to assess serum C-reactive protein (CRP and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR. The Disease Activity Score (DAS 28 was recorded in all subjects. Physical and mental health was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36. Results: Age, sex, disease duration, DAS28 and pain intensity (VAS were not significantly different between the groups (p>0.05. Physical and mental health outcomes significantly improved after 6 months of moderate aerobic training (p <0.05. Quality of life was better in the trained subjects, which showed a better life satisfaction and a higher level of physical and social function. In addition, we found that physical activity was negatively correlated with mental and emotional health especially in the training group (p=0.003. Conclusion: Our results indicate that higher levels of physical activity were associated with improved mental health. Moreover, physical and mental health outcomes

  18. A-bomb radiation and diseases; M proteinemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimura, Kingo (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology); Ito, Chikako

    1994-03-01

    Mass health screening was conducted in 65,483 A-bomb survivors (23,153 men and 42,336 women). Among them, 553 (0.84%) was found to have M proteinemia. The incidence of M proteinemia was higher in men (1.1%) than women (0.72%). M proteinemia was simply classified as benign monoclonal gammopathy (BMG) in 372 A-bomb survivors (67.3%), pre-myeloma (PreMM) in 81 (14.6%), myeloma (MM) in 77 (13.9%), and macroglobulinemia in 23 (4.2%). A higher incidence of M proteinemia was associated with aging; it was rapidly increased in the age-group of 70. Death was seen in 45 (8%) of all cases, frequently due to vascular disorder and cancer. Some of the BMG cases had a long process or developed either PreMM or MM. The incidence of BMG was significantly higher in the group of A-bomb survivors exposed to 100 rad or more than the control group. (N.K.).

  19. Prognostic Health Monitoring System: Component Selection Based on Risk Criteria and Economic Benefit Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binh T. Pham; Vivek Agarwal; Nancy J Lybeck; Magdy S Tawfik

    2012-05-01

    Prognostic health monitoring (PHM) is a proactive approach to monitor the ability of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) to withstand structural, thermal, and chemical loadings over the SSCs planned service lifespans. The current efforts to extend the operational license lifetime of the aging fleet of U.S. nuclear power plants from 40 to 60 years and beyond can benefit from a systematic application of PHM technology. Implementing a PHM system would strengthen the safety of nuclear power plants, reduce plant outage time, and reduce operation and maintenance costs. However, a nuclear power plant has thousands of SSCs, so implementing a PHM system that covers all SSCs requires careful planning and prioritization. This paper therefore focuses on a component selection that is based on the analysis of a component's failure probability, risk, and cost. Ultimately, the decision on component selection depend on the overall economical benefits arising from safety and operational considerations associated with implementing the PHM system.

  20. Emerging evidence of the health benefits of S-equol, an estrogen receptor β agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Richard L; Greiwe, Jeffrey S; Schwen, Richard J

    2011-08-01

    Many clinical studies have been carried out to determine the health benefits of soy protein and the isoflavones contained in soy. S-equol is not present in soybeans but is produced naturally in the gut of certain individuals, particularly Asians, by the bacterial biotransformation of daidzein, a soy isoflavone. In those intervention studies in which plasma S-equol levels were determined, a concentration of >5-10 ng/mL has been associated with a positive outcome for vasomotor symptoms, osteoporosis (as measured by an increase in bone mineral density), prostate cancer, and the cardiovascular risk biomarkers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and C-reactive protein. These studies suggest that S-equol may provide therapeutic benefits for a number of medical needs.

  1. The benefit of pets and animal-assisted therapy to the health of older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniack, E Paul; Cherniack, Ariella R

    2014-01-01

    Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health of older persons, such as relief social isolation and boredom, but these have not been formally studied. Several investigations of the effect of pets on physical health suggest animals can lower blood pressure, and dog walkers partake in more physical activity. Dog walking, in epidemiological studies and few preliminary trials, is associated with lower complication risk among patients with cardiovascular disease. Pets may also have harms: they may be expensive to care for, and their owners are more likely to fall. Theoretically, zoonotic infections and bites can occur, but how often this occurs in the context of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy is unknown. Despite the poor methodological quality of pet research after decades of study, pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy are likely to continue due to positive subjective feelings many people have toward animals.

  2. The Benefit of Pets and Animal-Assisted Therapy to the Health of Older Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Paul Cherniack

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health of older persons, such as relief social isolation and boredom, but these have not been formally studied. Several investigations of the effect of pets on physical health suggest animals can lower blood pressure, and dog walkers partake in more physical activity. Dog walking, in epidemiological studies and few preliminary trials, is associated with lower complication risk among patients with cardiovascular disease. Pets may also have harms: they may be expensive to care for, and their owners are more likely to fall. Theoretically, zoonotic infections and bites can occur, but how often this occurs in the context of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy is unknown. Despite the poor methodological quality of pet research after decades of study, pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy are likely to continue due to positive subjective feelings many people have toward animals.

  3. A Darwinian approach to Huntington's disease: subtle health benefits of a neurological disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskenazi, Benjamin R; Wilson-Rich, Noah S; Starks, Philip T

    2007-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that, unlike most autosomal dominant disorders, is not being selected against. One explanation for the maintenance of the mutant HD allele is that it is transparent to natural selection because disease symptoms typically occur subsequent to an individual's peak reproductive years. While true, this observation does not explain the population-level increase in HD. The increase in HD is at least partly the result of enhanced fitness: HD+ individuals have more offspring than unaffected relatives. This phenomenon has previously been explained as the result of elevated promiscuity of HD+ individuals. For this to be true, disease symptoms must be expressed during the otherwise asymptomatic peak reproductive years and promiscuity must increase offspring production; however, neither prediction is supported by data. Instead, new data suggest that the mutant HD allele bestows health benefits on its carriers. HD+ individuals show elevated levels of the tumor suppressor protein p53 and experience significantly less cancer than unaffected siblings. We hypothesize that the mutant HD allele elevates carriers' immune activity and thus HD+ individuals are, on average, healthier than HD- individuals during reproductive years. As health and reproductive output are positively related, data suggest a counterintuitive relationship: health benefits may lead to an increased prevalence of Huntington's disease.

  4. Health Benefits of Anthocyanins and Their Encapsulation for Potential Use in Food Systems: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Basharat; Gul, Khalid; Wani, Ali Abas; Singh, Preeti

    2016-10-01

    Anthocyanins are one of the six subgroups of large and widespread group of plant constituents known as flavonoids. These are responsible for the bright and attractive orange, red, purple, and blue colors of most fruits, vegetables, flowers and some cereal grains. More than 600 structurally distinct anthocyanins have been identified in nature. Earlier, anthocyanins were only known for their coloring properties but now interest in anthocyanin pigments has intensified because of their possible health benefits as dietary antioxidants, which help to prevent neuronal diseases, cardiovascular illnesses, cancer, diabetes, inflammation, and many such others diseases. Ability of anthocyanins to counter oxidants makes them atherosclerosis fighters. Therefore, anthocyanin-rich foods may help to boost overall health by offering an array of nutrients. However, the incorporation of anthocyanins into food and medical products is a challenging task due to their low stability toward environmental conditions during processing and storage. Encapsulation seems to be an efficient way to introduce such compounds into these products. Encapsulating agents act as a protector coat against ambient adverse conditions such as light, humidity, and oxygen. Encapsulated bioactive compounds are easier to handle and offer improved stability. The main objective of this review is to explore health benefits of anthocyanins and their extraction, characterization, encapsulation, and delivery.

  5. Tocopherols and Tocotrienols in Common and Emerging Dietary Sources: Occurrence, Applications, and Health Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Fereidoon; de Camargo, Adriano Costa

    2016-01-01

    Edible oils are the major natural dietary sources of tocopherols and tocotrienols, collectively known as tocols. Plant foods with low lipid content usually have negligible quantities of tocols. However, seeds and other plant food processing by-products may serve as alternative sources of edible oils with considerable contents of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Tocopherols are among the most important lipid-soluble antioxidants in food as well as in human and animal tissues. Tocopherols are found in lipid-rich regions of cells (e.g., mitochondrial membranes), fat depots, and lipoproteins such as low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Their health benefits may also be explained by regulation of gene expression, signal transduction, and modulation of cell functions. Potential health benefits of tocols include prevention of certain types of cancer, heart disease, and other chronic ailments. Although deficiencies of tocopherol are uncommon, a continuous intake from common and novel dietary sources of tocopherols and tocotrienols is advantageous. Thus, this contribution will focus on the relevant literature on common and emerging edible oils as a source of tocols. Potential application and health effects as well as the impact of new cultivars as sources of edible oils and their processing discards are presented. Future trends and drawbacks are also briefly covered. PMID:27775605

  6. A review of the animal models used to investigate the health benefits of soy isoflavones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Gerard M

    2006-01-01

    This review considers the recent literature in which animal models were used to investigate the purported health benefits of soy isoflavones. The main conclusions are that our animal models demonstrate minimal effects in breast, prostate, and colon cancer prevention, and that, while some cancers may respond to isoflavones, it would appear that isoflavones do not prevent further development once cancer has become established. Regarding cardiovascular health, the lipid-lowering effects of isoflavones have been established, but their efficacy may be less than original research purported. However, it may be considered a bonus of habitual soy consumption that blood cholesterol levels would be reduced somewhat. With respect to osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms, animal models do not show any consistent benefit of isoflavones in preventing osteoporosis, and calcium fortification or the use of prescribed medications are likely much better approaches to combat bone loss. However, our animal models of osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms may not be entirely representative of the human situation. Perhaps the benefit of isoflavones in cognitive skills and in delaying Alzheimer's disease is an area where they can be of some advantage. However, this field is very recent and requires much more research in both humans and animal models before any definitive benefit can be propounded. On the other hand, isoflavones in moderation are probably not dangerous, as few studies have indicated adverse effects. However, large doses have been shown to increase apoptosis and cell degeneration, and in some cancer regimes, once the cancer has progressed beyond the hormone-dependent stage, high doses of isoflavones may be contraindicated. The prospect of mega-dosing from isoflavone supplements opens a new chapter in the risk assessment of isoflavone consumption.

  7. UV spectra, bombs, and the solar atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Philip G

    2015-01-01

    A recent analysis of UV data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph {\\em IRIS} reports plasma "bombs" with temperatures near \\hot{} within the solar photosphere. This is a curious result, firstly because most bomb plasma pressures $p$ (the largest reported case exceeds $10^3$ dyn~cm$^{-2}$) fall well below photospheric pressures ($> 7\\times10^3$), and secondly, UV radiation cannot easily escape from the photosphere. In the present paper the {\\em IRIS} data is independently analyzed. I find that the bombs arise from plasma originally at pressures between $\\lta80$ and 800 dyne~cm$^{-2}$ before explosion, i.e. between $\\lta850$ and 550 km above $\\tau_{500}=1$. This places the phenomenon's origin in the low-mid chromosphere or above. I suggest that bomb spectra are more compatible with Alfv\\'enic turbulence than with bi-directional reconnection jets.

  8. The health, mental health, and well-being benefits of rape crisis counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmarland, Nicole; Alderson, Sue

    2013-11-01

    There is very little research on interventions to alleviate the distress experienced following rape. This action research project developed and piloted the "Taking Back Control" tool that measured the impact of rape crisis counseling over time. Five rape crisis centers in the North of England agreed to pilot the tool, which was administered by the client's counselor, either on Week 1 or 2, and then repeated every 6 weeks until the end of counseling. Eighty-seven clients completed at least two questionnaires. This allowed us to measure change from their first compared with their last data collection point. The most change was made in relation to the statement "I feel empowered and in control of my life," where 61% strongly/disagreed at the first data collection point compared with 31% at the last data collection point. Large shifts were also seen in relation to "I have 'flashbacks' about what happened" and "I have panic attacks." Overall, some degree of positive change was seen for all measures. This research, despite some limitations, begins to develop an evidence base for rape crisis centers to demonstrate their benefits and to assess and develop their own practice.

  9. Marketing nutrition & health-related benefits of food & beverage products: enforcement, litigation & liability issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Sarah; Pippins, Raqiyyah

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the liability risks associated with food and beverage product marketing have increased significantly, particularly with respect to nutrition and health-related product benefit claims. FDA and FTC enforcement priorities appear to have contributed to the increasing liability trends that are associated with these nutrition and health-related claims. This article examines key enforcement and litigation developments involving conventional food and beverage product marketing claims during the first 18 months of President Obama's administration: Part I considers FDA enforcement priorities and recent warning letters; Part II considers FTC enforcement priorities, warning letters, and consent orders; and Part III considers the relationship between FDA and FTC enforcement priorities and recent false advertising cases brought by private parties challenging nutrition and health-related marketing claims for food and beverage products. The article makes recommendations concerning ways in which food and beverage companies can help minimize liability risks associated with health-related marketing claims. In addition, the article suggests that federal policy reforms may be required to counter the perverse chilling effects current food liability trends appear to be having on health-related marketing claims for food and beverage products, and proposes a number of specific reforms that would help encourage the responsible use of well-substantiated marketing claims that can help foster healthy dietary practices. In view of the obesity prevention and other diet-related public health priorities of the Obama administration, the article suggests that this is an opportune time to address the apparent chilling effects increasing food liability risks are having on nutrition and health-related marketing claims for healthy food and beverage products, and potential adverse consequences for public health.

  10. The “Cadillac Tax” on Health Benefits in the United States Will Hit the Middle Class Hardest: Refuting the Myth That Health Benefit Tax Subsidies Are Regressive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhandler, Steffie; Himmelstein, David U

    2016-01-01

    U.S. employment-based health benefits are exempt from income and payroll taxes, an exemption that provided tax subsidies of $326.2 billion in 2015. Both liberal and conservative economists have denounced these subsidies as “regressive” and lauded a provision of the Affordable Care Act—the Cadillac Tax—that would curtail them. The claim that the subsidies are regressive rests on estimates showing that the affluent receive the largest subsidies in absolute dollars. But this claim ignores the standard definition of regressivity, which is based on the share of income paid by the wealthy versus the poor, rather than on dollar amounts. In this study, we calculate the value of tax subsidies in 2009 as a share of income for each income quintile and for the wealthiest Americans. In absolute dollars, tax subsidies were highest for families between the 80th and 95th percentiles of family income and lowest for the poorest 20%. However, as shares of income, subsidies were largest for the middle and fourth income quintiles and smallest for the wealthiest 0.5% of Americans. We conclude that the tax subsidy to employment-based insurance is neither markedly regressive, nor progressive. The Cadillac Tax will disproportionately harm families with (2009) incomes between $38,550 and $100,000, while sparing the wealthy.

  11. Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Bomb Increment II (SDB II) DoD Component Air Force Joint Participants Department of the Navy Responsible Office References SAR Baseline ( Production ...Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-439 Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Funding 19 Low Rate Initial Production 31 Foreign Military Sales 32 Nuclear Costs 32 Unit Cost 33 Cost Variance 36 Contracts

  12. Forecheck, backcheck, health check: the benefits of playing recreational ice hockey for adults in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Peter; Chowhan, James

    2016-11-01

    More than 1 million Canadian adults play recreational ice hockey. Compared to elite players, very little is known about the physical and health characteristics of people who play the game for fun. Analyzing data from Statistics Canada's 2011/12 Canadian Community Health Survey, the paper found that there is an association between physically active males age 35 or over who play ice hockey regularly (at least once a week) and enhanced health more so than other physically active males. While these players are larger in body size, they have significantly lower rates of diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease and report significantly higher rates of self-assessed health. Given the potential health benefits associated with this high intensity sport, the paper discusses ways in which participation can be promoted among less physically active adults and people who are new to the game or who have historically lower levels of participation including women and recent immigrants. Finally, the paper argues that compared to the very high costs associated with child and youth hockey, participation in adult recreational ice hockey is quite affordable.

  13. Cost and benefit including value of life, health and environmental damage measured in time units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Friis-Hansen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Key elements of the authors' work on money equivalent time allocation to costs and benefits in risk analysis are put together as an entity. This includes the data supported dimensionless analysis of an equilibrium relation between total population work time and gross domestic product leading...... of this societal value over the actual costs, used by the owner for economically optimizing an activity, motivates a simple risk accept criterion suited to be imposed on the owner by the public. An illustration is given concerning allocation of economical means for mitigation of loss of life and health on a ferry...

  14. Health promotion: the impact of beliefs of health benefits, social relations and enjoyment on exercise continuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, G; Wikman, J M; Jensen, C J; Schmidt, J F; Gliemann, L; Andersen, T R

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how and why participants in structured exercise intervention programs continue or stop exercising after the program is finished. We conducted four focus group interviews with four groups of middle-aged and elderly men (total n = 28) who had participated in exercise interventions involving playing either a team sport (football) or a more individually focused activity (spinning and crossfit). Our results show that different social, organizational and material structures inherent in the different activities shape the subjects' enjoyment of exercise participation, as well as their intention and ability to continue being active. In conclusion, team sport activities seem to be intrinsically motivating to the participants through positive social interaction and play. They are therefore more likely to result in exercise continuation than activities that rely primarily on extrinsic motivation such as the expectation of improved health and well-being.

  15. How to anticipate the assessment of the public health benefit of new medicines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massol, Jacques; Puech, Alain; Boissel, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The Public Health Benefit (PHB) of new medicines is a recent and French-specific criterion (October 1999 decree) which is often only partially documented in the transparency files due to a lack of timely information. At the time of the first reimbursement application for a new medicine to the "Transparency Committee", the file is exclusively based on data from randomised clinical trials. These data are generated from a global clinical development plan which was designed a long time before the new medicine's submission for reimbursement. And this plan does not systematically provide the data needed to assess the PHB. Thus, one easily understands the difficulty to anticipate and document this recent French criterion. In France, the PHB is both one of the necessary criteria for the reimbursement submission and an indicator for the national health policy management. Its assessment also helps to identify the needs and objectives of the post-registration studies (nowadays in the scope of responsibilities of the "Drug Economics Committee"). The assessment of the PHB criterion is carried through after the marketing authorization process and is an addition to it. To understand how to anticipate the assessment of the new medicines' PHB, one needs to consider how it differs from the preliminary step of the marketing authorization process. Whereas the evaluation for marketing authorization seeks to determine if the new medicine could be useful in a specific indication, the PHB assessment aims at quantifying the therapeutic benefit in a population, taking into account the reference treatments in this population. A new medicine receives a marketing authorization based on the data of the registration file which provides information on the clinical benefit of the new medicine in the populations of the trials and in the context of the trials. On the other side, the PHB looks at the effects of the new medicine at the scale of the general population, in real practice. The PHB

  16. Bombs, flyin' high. In-flight dynamics of volcanic bombs from Strombolian to Vulcanian eruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddeucci, Jacopo; Alatorre, Miguel; Cruz Vázquez, Omar; Del Bello, Elisabetta; Ricci, Tullio; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Palladino, Danilo

    2016-04-01

    Bomb-sized (larger than 64 mm) pyroclasts are a common product of explosive eruptions and a considerable source of hazard, both from directly impacting on people and properties and from wildfires associated with their landing in vegetated areas. The dispersal of bombs is mostly modeled as purely ballistic trajectories controlled by gravity and drag forces associated with still air, and only recently other effects, such as the influence of eruption dynamics, the gas expansion, and in-flight collisions, are starting to be quantified both numerically and observationally. By using high-speed imaging of explosive volcanic eruptions here we attempt to calculate the drag coefficient of free-flying volcanic bombs during an eruption and at the same time we document a wide range of in-flight processes affecting bomb trajectories and introducing deviations from purely ballistic emplacement. High-speed (500 frames per second) videos of explosions at Stromboli and Etna (Italy), Fuego (Gatemala), Sakurajima (Japan), Yasur (Vanuatu), and Batu Tara (Indonesia) volcanoes provide a large assortment of free-flying bombs spanning Strombolian to Vulcanian source eruptions, basaltic to andesitic composition, centimeters to meters in size, and 10 to 300 m/s in fly velocity. By tracking the bombs during their flying trajectories we were able to: 1) measure their size, shape, and vertical component of velocity and related changes over time; and 2) measure the different interactions with the atmosphere and with other bombs. Quantitatively, these data allow us to provide the first direct measurement of the aerodynamic behavior and drag coefficient of volcanic bombs while settling, also including the effect of bomb rotation and changes in bomb shape and frontal section. We also show how our observations have the potential to parameterize a number of previously hypothesized and /or described but yet unquantified processes, including in-flight rotation, deformation, fragmentation, agglutination

  17. Health co-benefits of climate change mitigation policies in the transport sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Caroline; Hales, Simon; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Edwards, Richard

    2014-06-01

    Theory, common sense and modelling studies suggest that some interventions to mitigate carbon emissions in the transport sector can also have substantial short-term benefits for population health. Policies that encourage active modes of transportation such as cycling may, for example, increase population physical activity and decrease air pollution, thus reducing the burden of conditions such as some cancers, diabetes, heart disease and dementia. In this Perspective we systematically review the evidence from 'real life' transport policies and their impacts on health and CO2 emissions. We identified a few studies that mostly involved personalized travel planning and showed modest increases in active transport such as walking, and reductions in vehicle use and CO2 emissions. Given the poor quality of the studies identified, urgent action is needed to provide more robust evidence for policies.

  18. Whole grains and pulses: a comparison of the nutritional and health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, Candida J; Greenway, Frank L; Finley, John W

    2014-07-23

    Nutrition plays an important role in the prevention and management of disease. Whole grain cereals contain a host of nutrients and bioactive substances that have health-promoting effects. Epidemiological evidence shows a consistent inverse association between whole grain intake and the risk of chronic disease. Despite a concerted effort by scientists, educators, and policy makers to promote the consumption of whole grains, it remains dismally short of the recommended intakes. Pulses (dried beans and peas) differ from whole grains in their structural and physicochemical properties and have varying amounts of fiber, resistant starch, vitamins, minerals, and other bioactive components; nevertheless, these food groups complement each other. Observational as well as intervention trials show that pulse consumption has beneficial effects on the prevention and management of chronic disease. The nutritional and phytochemical components of pulses coupled with those of whole grains suggest a potential synergistic effect that could provide significant health benefits.

  19. Bioactive compounds in banana and their associated health benefits - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balwinder; Singh, Jatinder Pal; Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder

    2016-09-01

    Banana is a very popular fruit in the world market and is consumed as staple food in many countries. It is grown worldwide and constitutes the fifth most important agricultural food crop in terms of world trade. It has been classified into the dessert or sweet bananas and the cooking bananas or plantains. It is either eaten raw or processed, and also as a functional ingredient in various food products. Banana contains several bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, carotenoids, biogenic amines and phytosterols, which are highly desirable in the diet as they exert many positive effects on human health and well-being. Many of these compounds have antioxidant activities and are effective in protecting the body against various oxidative stresses. In the past, bananas were effectively used in the treatment of various diseases, including reducing the risk of many chronic degenerative disorders. In the present review, historical background, cultivar classification, beneficial phytochemicals, antioxidant activity and health benefits of bananas are discussed.

  20. A systematic review of evidence for the added benefits to health of exposure to natural environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Teri M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing interest in the potential role of the natural environment in human health and well-being. However, the evidence-base for specific and direct health or well-being benefits of activity within natural compared to more synthetic environments has not been systematically assessed. Methods We conducted a systematic review to collate and synthesise the findings of studies that compare measurements of health or well-being in natural and synthetic environments. Effect sizes of the differences between environments were calculated and meta-analysis used to synthesise data from studies measuring similar outcomes. Results Twenty-five studies met the review inclusion criteria. Most of these studies were crossover or controlled trials that investigated the effects of short-term exposure to each environment during a walk or run. This included 'natural' environments, such as public parks and green university campuses, and synthetic environments, such as indoor and outdoor built environments. The most common outcome measures were scores of different self-reported emotions. Based on these data, a meta-analysis provided some evidence of a positive benefit of a walk or run in a natural environment in comparison to a synthetic environment. There was also some support for greater attention after exposure to a natural environment but not after adjusting effect sizes for pretest differences. Meta-analysis of data on blood pressure and cortisol concentrations found less evidence of a consistent difference between environments across studies. Conclusions Overall, the studies are suggestive that natural environments may have direct and positive impacts on well-being, but support the need for investment in further research on this question to understand the general significance for public health.

  1. Health benefit evaluation of the energy use scenarios in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaochuan; Yue, Wei; He, Kebin; Tong, Shilu

    2007-03-15

    Air pollution is one of the important causal factors for excess cardiorespiratory deaths and diseases. However, little information is available on health gains from clean energy usage in developing countries. In this study the expected population exposed to air pollutants was estimated under the different energy use scenarios by the year 2010, 2020 and 2030, respectively, in the urban area of Beijing, China. The concentration-response functions between air pollutants and the health endpoints were established using meta-analysis and regression models. The decreased cardiorespiratory deaths and diseases of the exposed population were predicted as the health benefits from air pollution reduction. We used daily measurements of particulate matter less than 10 mum in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10)) and sulphate dioxide (SO(2)) as air pollution indicators. The percentage of population exposed to higher level of PM(10) will be decreased significantly under the clean energy use scenario than that under the Baseline Scenario (i.e., business-as-usual scenario). Compared with the Baseline Scenario there will be, by 2010, 2020, and 2030, respectively, a decrease of 29-152, 30-212 and 39-287 acute excess deaths; and 340-1811, 356-2529 and 462-3424 chronic excess deaths associated with the reduction of PM(10) level; also a decrease of 237-331, 285-371 and 400-554 short-term excess deaths associated with the decrease of SO(2) level. Meanwhile, the number of respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions, outpatient visits to internal and paediatrics departments, total emergency room visits and asthma attacks will be remarkably reduced with the reduction of air pollution. Energy structure improvement could reduce ambient air pollution and produce substantial health benefits to the population in Beijing. These findings may have significant implications for other metropolitan cities, particularly in developing countries.

  2. The mental health benefits of regular physical activity, and its role in preventing future depressive illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanton R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Robert Stanton,1 Brenda Happell,1 Peter Reaburn2 1Institute for Health and Social Science Research, Centre for Mental Health Nursing Innovation and School of Nursing and Midwifery, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, QLD, Australia; 2School of Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, QLD, Australia Abstract: There is a large body of literature which examines the mental health benefits of physical activity. In general, studies report an inverse, dose dependent relationship between leisure-time physical activity participation, and mental health outcomes. Studies also show a positive association between maximal aerobic capacity and general well-being. More recent studies have confirmed the positive effects of physical activity participation on cognition, including the treatment and prevention of dementia. The current exercise prescription suggested for the treatment of depression is similar to that recommended to the general population for the development and maintenance of cardiorespiratory fitness. There is also strong evidence from large population level studies that long term physical activity participation reduces the risk of future depressive illness. From the available evidence, it would appear that physical activity performed at a frequency, intensity, and duration which is substantially less than that required for the development and maintenance of cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in the general population, may afford significant benefits in reducing the risk of future depressive illness. This may be particularly encouraging for people with prior depressive illness, or at high risk of future depressive illness, since this vulnerable population already faces significant barriers to physical activity participation over and above those encountered by the general population. Keywords: exercise, major depression, depressive disorder, preventive medicine

  3. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A-Z > Exercise: Benefits of Exercise: Health Benefits In This Topic Health Benefits Benefits for Everyday Life ... Try Exercise: How to Stay Active The information in this topic was provided by the National Institute ...

  4. Health-related benefits among children in the child welfare system: prevalence and determinants of basic and/or attendance benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreham Mengesha Zewdu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the prevalence and determinants of basic and/or attendance benefits among children involved with the child welfare system (CWS.Design: A register study of all children involved with CWS in Norway from 1997-2006.Participants: 96,354 children from the CWS group and 149,030 children who had never been in the CWS as a comparison group.Results: 11% of children involved with CWS received basic and/or attendance benefits compared to 3% in the comparison group. In multivariate logistic regression, the boys’ chances of ever receiving basic and/or attendance benefits were greater than the girls’ chances. The chances of receiving benefits increased nearly four to sixfold as a child becomes older. However, they decrease as the age at debut to CWS increases. It was also revealed that those children who stayed under child welfare for two or more years had an increased chance of ever receiving basic and/or attendance benefits. For children with reported behavioral disorders, the chances of basic and/or attendance benefits were nearly twofold. For children under home-based support and medication interventions, the chances of receiving basic and/or attendance benefits were greater than for children who were not under these interventions.Conclusion: Chronic health conditions that claim basic and/or attendance benefits were more prevalent among children involved with CWS than the general children’s population. This phenomenon may be explained by gender, age, age at debut to CWS, length of stay under CWS, types and reasons for interventions

  5. Effects of 20 Selected Fruits on Ethanol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-04-01

    The consumption of alcohol is often accompanied by other foods, such as fruits and vegetables. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of 20 selected fruits on ethanol metabolism to find out their potential health benefits and harmful impacts. The effects of the fruits on ethanol metabolism were characterized by the concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood, as well as activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in liver of mice. Furthermore, potential health benefits and harmful impacts of the fruits were evaluated by biochemical parameters including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Generally, effects of these fruits on ethanol metabolism were very different. Some fruits (such as Citrus limon (yellow), Averrhoa carambola, Pyrus spp., and Syzygium samarangense) could decrease the concentration of ethanol in blood. In addition, several fruits (such as Cucumis melo) showed hepatoprotective effects by significantly decreasing AST or ALT level in blood, while some fruits (such as Averrhoa carambola) showed adverse effects. The results suggested that the consumption of alcohol should not be accompanied by some fruits, and several fruits could be developed as functional foods for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder.

  6. Estimated Pollution Reduction from Wind Farms in Oklahoma and Associated Economic and Human Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Scott Greene

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, there has been a recognition of the growing need for different forms of energy outside of fossil fuels. Since the latter half of the twentieth century individuals, corporations, and governments have become increasingly aware of the effects of the emissions of carbon and other harmful pollutants on the environment. With this greater concern has come increasing activity to combat these harmful emissions by using alternative fuel sources to power homes, businesses, and cities. As can be seen from recent trends in their installed capacity, it is clear that renewable energy resources will continue to be more commonly used in the future. As renewable energy increases, a decrease in a range of harmful pollutants from the energy sector will also occur. This paper provides a case study to estimate the potential environmental and health benefits of an increased shift from fossil fuels to renewable fuels for electrical production in Oklahoma. Results illustrate and quantify the specific reduction that wind energy can and will have on air quality, as well as provide a quantification of the associated potential health benefits.

  7. Global Foodomics strategy to investigate the health benefits of dietary constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; García-Cañas, Virginia; Simó, Carolina; Celebier, Mustafa; Rocamora-Reverte, Lourdes; Gómez-Martínez, Angeles; Herrero, Miguel; Castro-Puyana, María; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Ibáñez, Elena; Ferragut, José A; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2012-07-27

    A global methodology, called Foodomics, which allows carrying out a comprehensive evaluation of the health benefits of food ingredients is presented in this work. The new methodology is based on the combination of several analytical platforms and data processing for Transcriptomics, Proteomics and Metabolomics studies, allowing the determination of changes induced by food ingredients at molecular level. Both, the whole methodological development and its potential are presented through the investigation of a case study following a hypothesis-free strategy. Namely, the chemopreventive effect of polyphenols from rosemary was examined on the total gene, protein and metabolite expression in human HT29 colon cancer cells. Conclusions on the bioactivity of polyphenols against colon cancer cells based on the results from each single platform (Transcriptomics, Proteomics or Metabolomics) are compared with the conclusions based on the integration of the whole results from the three platforms, corroborating the interest of using a global integrative strategy as Foodomics. To our knowledge, although many papers and reviews have been published on this topic, this is the first time that Transcriptomics, Proteomics and Metabolomics platforms are put together to study the health benefits from dietary ingredients against colon cancer cells at gene, protein and metabolite level. Advantages, drawbacks and current challenges of this global analytical strategy are discussed in this work. The results from our study provide new insights on the biological mechanisms involved in the cancer risk reduction properties of dietary constituents.

  8. Effects of 20 Selected Fruits on Ethanol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of alcohol is often accompanied by other foods, such as fruits and vegetables. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of 20 selected fruits on ethanol metabolism to find out their potential health benefits and harmful impacts. The effects of the fruits on ethanol metabolism were characterized by the concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood, as well as activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in liver of mice. Furthermore, potential health benefits and harmful impacts of the fruits were evaluated by biochemical parameters including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Generally, effects of these fruits on ethanol metabolism were very different. Some fruits (such as Citrus limon (yellow), Averrhoa carambola, Pyrus spp., and Syzygium samarangense) could decrease the concentration of ethanol in blood. In addition, several fruits (such as Cucumis melo) showed hepatoprotective effects by significantly decreasing AST or ALT level in blood, while some fruits (such as Averrhoa carambola) showed adverse effects. The results suggested that the consumption of alcohol should not be accompanied by some fruits, and several fruits could be developed as functional foods for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder. PMID:27043608

  9. Exaggerated Health Benefits of Physical Fitness and Activity dueto Self-selection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-17

    Background: The predicted health benefits of becomingphysically active or fit will be exaggerated if health outcomes causefitness and activity rather than the converse in prospective andcross-sectional epidemiological studies. Objective: Assess whether therelationships of adiposity to fitness and activity are explained byadiposity prior to exercising. Design: Cross-sectional study of physicalfitness (running speed during 10km foot race) and physical activity(weekly running distance) to current BMI (BMIcurrent) and BMI at thestart of running (BMIstarting) in 44,370 male and 25,252 femaleparticipants of the National Runners' Health Study. Results: BMIstartingexplained all of the association between fitness and BMIcurrent in bothsexes, but less than a third of the association between physical activityand BMIcurrent in men. In women, BMIstarting accounted for 58 percent ofthe association between BMIcurrent and activity levels. The 95thpercentile of BMIcurrent showed substantially greater declines withfitness and activity levels than the 5th percentile of BMIcurrent in men(i.e., the negative slope for 95th percentile was 2.6-fold greater thanthe 5th percentile for fitness and 3-fold greater for activity) and women(6-fold and 3.4-fold greater, respectively). At all percentiles, theregression slopes relating BMIstarting to fitness were comparable orgreater (more negative) than the slopes relating BMIcurrent to fitness,whereas the converse was true for activity. Conclusion: Self-selectionbias accounts for all of the association between fitness and adiposityand probably a portion of other health outcomes, but has less affect onassociations involving physical activity

  10. Nitrate and nitrite in the diet: how to assess their benefit and risk for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermeyer, Michael; Roth, Angelika; Guth, Sabine; Diel, Patrick; Engel, Karl-Heinz; Epe, Bernd; Fürst, Peter; Heinz, Volker; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Joost, Hans-Georg; Knorr, Dietrich; de Kok, Theo; Kulling, Sabine; Lampen, Alfonso; Marko, Doris; Rechkemmer, Gerhard; Rietjens, Ivonne; Stadler, Richard H; Vieths, Stefan; Vogel, Rudi; Steinberg, Pablo; Eisenbrand, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate is a natural constituent of the human diet and an approved food additive. It can be partially converted to nitrogen monoxide, which induces vasodilation and thereby decreases blood pressure. This effect is associated with a reduced risk regarding cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Moreover, dietary nitrate has been associated with beneficial effects in patients with gastric ulcer, renal failure, or metabolic syndrome. Recent studies indicate that such beneficial health effects due to dietary nitrate may be achievable at intake levels resulting from the daily consumption of nitrate-rich vegetables. N-nitroso compounds are endogenously formed in humans. However, their relevance for human health has not been adequately explored up to now. Nitrate and nitrite are per se not carcinogenic, but under conditions that result in endogenous nitrosation, it cannot be excluded that ingested nitrate and nitrite may lead to an increased cancer risk and may probably be carcinogenic to humans. In this review, the known beneficial and detrimental health effects related to dietary nitrate/nitrite intake are described and the identified gaps in knowledge as well as the research needs required to perform a reliable benefit/risk assessment in terms of long-term human health consequences due to dietary nitrate/nitrite intake are presented.

  11. Prebiotics and the health benefits of fiber: current regulatory status, future research, and goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownawell, Amy M; Caers, Wim; Gibson, Glenn R; Kendall, Cyril W C; Lewis, Kara D; Ringel, Yehuda; Slavin, Joanne L

    2012-05-01

    First defined in the mid-1990s, prebiotics, which alter the composition and activity of gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota to improve health and well-being, have generated scientific and consumer interest and regulatory debate. The Life Sciences Research Organization, Inc. (LSRO) held a workshop, Prebiotics and the Health Benefits of Fiber: Future Research and Goals, in February 2011 to assess the current state of the science and the international regulatory environment for prebiotics, identify research gaps, and create a strategy for future research. A developing body of evidence supports a role for prebiotics in reducing the risk and severity of GI infection and inflammation, including diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease, and ulcerative colitis as well as bowel function disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome. Prebiotics also increase the bioavailability and uptake of minerals and data suggest that they reduce the risk of obesity by promoting satiety and weight loss. Additional research is needed to define the relationship between the consumption of different prebiotics and improvement of human health. New information derived from the characterization of the composition and function of different prebiotics as well as the interactions among and between gut microbiota and the human host would improve our understanding of the effects of prebiotics on health and disease and could assist in surmounting regulatory issues related to prebiotic use.

  12. Global health benefits of mitigating ozone pollution with methane emission controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J. Jason; Fiore, Arlene M.; Horowitz, Larry W.; Mauzerall, Denise L.

    2006-03-01

    Methane (CH4) contributes to the growing global background concentration of tropospheric ozone (O3), an air pollutant associated with premature mortality. Methane and ozone are also important greenhouse gases. Reducing methane emissions therefore decreases surface ozone everywhere while slowing climate warming, but although methane mitigation has been considered to address climate change, it has not for air quality. Here we show that global decreases in surface ozone concentrations, due to methane mitigation, result in substantial and widespread decreases in premature human mortality. Reducing global anthropogenic methane emissions by 20% beginning in 2010 would decrease the average daily maximum 8-h surface ozone by 1 part per billion by volume globally. By using epidemiologic ozone-mortality relationships, this ozone reduction is estimated to prevent 30,000 premature all-cause mortalities globally in 2030, and 370,000 between 2010 and 2030. If only cardiovascular and respiratory mortalities are considered, 17,000 global mortalities can be avoided in 2030. The marginal cost-effectiveness of this 20% methane reduction is estimated to be 420,000 per avoided mortality. If avoided mortalities are valued at 1 million each, the benefit is 240 per tonne of CH4 (12 per tonne of CO2 equivalent), which exceeds the marginal cost of the methane reduction. These estimated air pollution ancillary benefits of climate-motivated methane emission reductions are comparable with those estimated previously for CO2. Methane mitigation offers a unique opportunity to improve air quality globally and can be a cost-effective component of international ozone management, bringing multiple benefits for air quality, public health, agriculture, climate, and energy. human health | mortality | tropospheric ozone | air quality

  13. Do Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems benefit local populations? Maternal care utilisation in Butajira HDSS, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesganaw Fantahun Afework

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The benefits of Health and Demographic Surveillance sites for local populations have been the topic of discussion as countries such as Ethiopia take efforts to achieve their Millennium Development Goal targets, on which they lag behind. Ethiopia's maternal mortality ratio is very high, and in the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (2011 EDHS it was estimated to be 676/100,000 live births. Recent Global Burden of Disease (GBD and estimates based on the United Nations model reported better, but still unacceptably high, figures of 497/100,000 and 420/100,000 live births for 2013. In the 2011 EDHS, antenatal care (ANC utilization was estimated at 34%, and delivery in health facilities was only 10%. Objectives: To compare maternal health service utilization among populations in a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS to non-HDSS populations in Butajira district, south central Ethiopia. Design: A community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in January and February 2012 among women who had delivered in the 2 years before the survey. Results: A total of 2,296 women were included in the study. One thousand eight hundred and sixty two (81.1% had attended ANC at least once, and 37% of the women had attended ANC at least four times. A quarter of the women delivered their last child in a health facility. Of the women living outside the HDSS areas, 715 (75.3% attended ANC at least once compared to 85.1% of women living in the HDSS areas [adjusted odds ratio (AOR 0.59; 95% CI 0.46, 0.74]. Of the women living outside the HDSS areas, only 170 (17.9% delivered in health facilities and were assisted by skilled attendants during delivery, whereas 30.0% of those living in HDSS areas delivered in health facilities (AOR 0.66; 95% CI 0.48, 0.91. Conclusion: This paper provides possible evidence that living in an HDSS site has a positive influence on maternal health. In addition, there may be a positive influence on

  14. Phospholipids in rice: significance in grain quality and health benefits: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Waters, Daniel L E; Rose, Terry J; Bao, Jinsong; King, Graham J

    2013-08-15

    Phospholipids (PLs) are a major class of lipid in rice grain. Although PLs are only a minor nutrient compared to starch and protein, they may have both nutritional and functional significance. We have systemically reviewed the literature on the class, distribution and variation of PLs in rice, their relation to rice end-use quality and human health, as well as available methods for analytical profiling. Phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and their lyso forms are the major PLs in rice. The deterioration of PC in rice bran during storage was considered as a trigger for the degradation of rice lipids with associated rancid flavour in paddy and brown rice. The lyso forms in rice endosperm represent the major starch lipid, and may form inclusion complexes with amylose, affecting the physicochemical properties and digestibility of starch, and hence its cooking and eating quality. Dietary PLs have a positive impact on several human diseases and reduce the side-effects of some drugs. As rice has long been consumed as a staple food in many Asian countries, rice PLs may have significant health benefits for those populations. Rice PLs may be influenced both by genetic (G) and environmental (E) factors, and resolving G×E interactions may allow future exploitation of PL composition and content, thus boosting rice eating quality and health benefits for consumers. We have identified and summarised the different methods used for rice PL analysis, and discussed the consequences of variation in reported PL values due to inconsistencies between methods. This review enhances the understanding of the nature and importance of PLs in rice and outlines potential approaches for manipulating PLs to improve the quality of rice grain and other cereals.

  15. National health insurance scheme: Are the artisans benefitting in Lagos state, Nigeria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Princess C Campbell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health insurance (HI can serve as a vital risk protection for families and small businesses and also increase access to priority health services. This study determined the knowledge, attitude of artisans toward HI as well as their health-seeking pattern and willingness to join the HI scheme. Methodology: This descriptive cross-sectional survey used a multistage sampling technique to recruit 260 participants, using self-designed, pretested, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Epi-info version 7.0. Chi-square test, Fisher′s exact test, and logistic regression were used for associations; the level of significance was set at 5%. Results: The respondents were predominantly male, i.e., 195 (75.0%, with a mean age of 32.36 + 6.20 years and mean income of N 29,000 + 5798.5 ($1 ~ N 161. Majority of the respondents, i.e., 226 (86.9% were not aware of HI. The overall knowledge was poor (6.5% and the main source of information was through radio/television (41.2%. Nearly, half of the respondents (33 out of 67 identified the concept of HI as a pool of contributors′ fund for only healthcare service. A high proportion of the respondents (27 out of 34 were aware of the benefits of HI, although majority, i.e., 27 (79.4% identified access to medication as the benefit. The majority of the respondents, i.e., 228 (87.7% expressed negative attitude toward the scheme; however, 76.5% were willing to join the HI scheme. Conclusion: The artisans had low awareness/poor knowledge of HI which translated to a negative attitude toward the scheme. There is need for an aggressive stakeholders′ enlightenment campaign for increasing coverage.

  16. The benefits of contemplating tragic drama on self-regulation and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Guan Soon; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E

    2016-03-01

    Although drama exposure has been examined in the context of health promotion programs, the underlying mechanisms of reflecting on drama have not been established. The degree to which drama contemplation leads to cognitive changes (increased processing, self-compassion and emotional self-efficacy) and improved well-being was examined in the present research. An experiment was conducted in which young adults (n = 148) were randomly assigned to experience and write reflectively on (i) drama via Hollywood movie clips, (ii) drama via scripts or (iii) to perform a control task. Writing content was analyzed for word use. At baseline and 4-week follow-up measures, participants self-reported self-compassion, emotional self-efficacy, physical symptoms, general health, depressed mood and anxiety. Using structural equation modeling, indirect effects of drama contemplation were found. Tragic drama exposure was associated with word use indicative of increased cognitive processing. The use of greater insight words was related to increased emotional self-efficacy, which in turn was associated with improved psychological and general health, whereas discrepancy word use was associated with increased self-compassion, which was in turn linked to better psychological well-being. Conversely, greater use of causation and certainty words was associated with a marginal decrease in self-compassion and psychological well-being. The persistence of drama has long been related to its capacity to enhance individuals' understanding of the human condition. This study helps explain the connection between reflecting on drama and benefits to self-regulation and health. Implications of drama processing as an inexpensive and accessible adjunct to health promotion interventions are discussed.

  17. Tai Ji Quan: An overview of its history, health benefits, and cultural value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucheng Guo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tai Ji Quan is considered to be a part of traditional Chinese Wushu (a martial art and comprises various styles that have evolved historically from the Chen, Yang, Wǔ, Wú, and Sun families (schools. Recent simplification of the original classic styles has made Tai Ji Quan easier to adopt in practice. Thus, the traditional legacy of using Tai Ji Quan for self-defense, mindful nurturing of well-being, and fitness enhancement has been expanded to more contemporary applications that focus on promoting physical and mental health, enhancing general well-being, preventing chronic diseases, and being an effective clinical intervention for diverse medical conditions. As the impact of Tai Ji Quan on physical performance and health continues to grow, there is a need to better understand its historical impact and current status. This paper provides an overview of the evolution of Tai Ji Quan in China, its functional utility, and the scientific evidence of its health benefits, as well as how it has been a vehicle for enhancing cultural understanding and exchanging between East and West.

  18. Key components and potential benefits of a comprehensive approach to women's musculoskeletal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldring, Anne E; Ashok, Annie P; Casey, Ellen K; Mulcahey, Mary K

    2016-11-01

    Over the last 40 years there has been a significant increase in the number of female athletes, as well as a rise in musculoskeletal injuries observed in women. There is sufficient evidence from past medical research identifying various musculoskeletal injuries and conditions that more commonly affect women, such as osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, stress fractures, and anterior cruciate ligament tears. Several women's sports medicine and musculoskeletal health programs have been developed throughout the United States in an attempt to provide more tailored care to the female athlete. The goal of a comprehensive approach to women's musculoskeletal health is to create an interdisciplinary team to facilitate treatment for a variety of injuries and related conditions. This manuscript outlines the musculoskeletal conditions that commonly affect women and highlights the various etiologies of these sex disparities. We discuss the role of interdisciplinary women's musculoskeletal health and sports medicine programs, and define the potential benefits of such an approach. Future studies should focus on assessing the outcomes of multidisciplinary women's sports medicine programs as current literature in this area is lacking.

  19. Estimating the health benefit of reducing indoor air pollution in a randomized environmental intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Roger D.; Butz, Arlene M.; Hackstadt, Amber J.; Williams, D'Ann L.; Diette, Gregory B.; Breysse, Patrick N.; Matsui, Elizabeth C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent intervention studies targeted at reducing indoor air pollution have demonstrated both the ability to improve respiratory health outcomes and to reduce particulate matter (PM) levels in the home. However, these studies generally do not address whether it is the reduction of PM levels specifically that improves respiratory health. In this paper we apply the method of principal stratification to data from a randomized air cleaner intervention designed to reduce indoor PM in homes of children with asthma. We estimate the health benefit of the intervention amongst study subjects who would experience a substantial reduction in PM in response to the intervention. For those subjects we find an increase in symptom-free days that is almost three times as large as the overall intention-to-treat effect. We also explore the presence of treatment effects amongst those subjects whose PM levels would not respond to the air cleaner. This analysis demonstrates the usefulness of principal stratification for environmental intervention trials and its potential for much broader application in this area. PMID:27695203

  20. The Relationship Between the Scope of Essential Health Benefits and Statutory Financing: An International Comparison Across Eight European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. van der Wees

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Both rising healthcare costs and the global financial crisis have fueled a search for policy tools in order to avoid unsustainable future financing of essential health benefits. The scope of essential health benefits (the range of services covered and depth of coverage (the proportion of costs of the covered benefits that is covered publicly are corresponding variables in determining the benefits package. We hypothesized that a more comprehensive health benefit package may increase user costsharing charges. Methods We conducted a desktop research study to assess the interrelationship between the scope of covered health benefits and the height of statutory spending in a sample of 8 European countries: Belgium, England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Scotland, Sweden, and Switzerland. We conducted a targeted literature search to identify characteristics of the healthcare systems in our sample of countries. We analyzed similarities and differences based on the dimensions of publicly financed healthcare as published by the European Observatory on Health Care Systems. Results We found that the scope of services is comparable and comprehensive across our sample, with only marginal differences. Cost-sharing arrangements show the most variation. In general, we found no direct interrelationship in this sample between the ranges of services covered in the health benefits package and the height of public spending on healthcare. With regard to specific services (dental care, physical therapy, we found indications of an association between coverage of services and cost-sharing arrangements. Strong variations in the volume and price of healthcare services between the 8 countries were found for services with large practice variations. Conclusion Although reducing the scope of the benefit package as well as increasing user charges may contribute to the financial sustainability of healthcare, variations in the volume and price of care seem to have

  1. Health benefits of 'grow your own' food in urban areas: implications for contaminated land risk assessment and risk management?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2009-12-21

    Abstract Compelling evidence of major health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and outdoor interaction with \\'greenspace\\' have emerged in the past decade - all of which combine to give major potential health benefits from \\'grow-your-own\\' (GYO) in urban areas. However, neither current risk assessment models nor risk management strategies for GYO in allotments and gardens give any consideration to these health benefits, despite their potential often to more than fully compensate the risks. Although urban environments are more contaminated by heavy metals, arsenic, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and dioxins than most rural agricultural areas, evidence is lacking for adverse health outcomes of GYO in UK urban areas. Rarely do pollutants in GYO food exceed statutory limits set for commercial food, and few people obtain the majority of their food from GYO. In the UK, soil contamination thresholds triggering closure or remediation of allotment and garden sites are based on precautionary principles, generating \\'scares\\' that may negatively impact public health disproportionately to the actual health risks of exposure to toxins through own-grown food. By contrast, the health benefits of GYO are a direct counterpoint to the escalating public health crisis of \\'obesity and sloth\\' caused by eating an excess of saturated fats, inadequate consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables combined with a lack of exercise. These are now amongst the most important preventable causes of illness and death. The health and wider societal benefits of \\'grow-your-own\\' thus reveal a major limitation in current risk assessment methodologies which, in only considering risks, are unable to predict whether GYO on particular sites will, overall, have positive, negative, or no net effects on human health. This highlights a more general need for a new generation of risk assessment tools that also predict overall consequences for health to more effectively guide

  2. Health benefits of traditional Chinese sports and physical activity for older adults: A systematic review of evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucheng Guo

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: There is promising evidence that traditional Chinese sports and PAs provide many health benefits for older Chinese adults. While additional scientifically rigorous research is warranted, promoting these traditional and culturally-based sports and PAs as forms of behavioral medicine in primary and secondary prevention of diseases among the aging Chinese population will help fulfill an urgent public health need.

  3. Perceived benefits and barriers and self-efficacy affecting the attendance of health education programs among uninsured primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Akiko; Nourian, Maziar M; Jess, Allison; Chernenko, Alla; Assasnik, Nushean; Ashby, Jeanie

    2016-12-01

    Lifestyle interventions have shown to be effective in improving health status, health behaviors, and self-efficacy. However, recruiting participants to health education programs and ensuring the continuity of health education for underserved populations is often challenging. The goals of this study are: to describe the attendance of health education programs; to identify stages of change to a healthy lifestyle; to determine cues to action; and to specify factors affecting perceived benefits and barriers to healthy food choices and physical activity among uninsured primary care patients. Uninsured primary care patients utilizing a free clinic (N=621) completed a self-administered survey from September to December of 2015. US born English speakers, non-US born English speakers, and Spanish speakers reported different kinds of cues to action in attending health education programs. While self-efficacy increases perceived benefits and decreases perceived barriers for physical activity, it increases both perceived benefits and perceived barriers for healthy food choices. The participants who had attended health education programs did not believe that there were benefits for healthy food choices and physical activity. This study adds to the body of literature on health education for underserved populations.

  4. Guidelines for the design, conduct and reporting of human intervention studies to evaluate the health benefits of foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welch, R.W.; Antoine, J.M.; Berta, J.L.; Bub, A.; Vries, J.de; Guarner, F.; Hasselwander, O.; Hendriks, H.; Jäkel, M.; Koletzko, B.V.; Patterson, C.C.; Richelle, M.; Skarp, M.; Theis, S.; Vidry, S.; Woodside, J.V.

    2011-01-01

    There is substantial evidence to link what we eat to the reduction of the risk of major chronic diseases and/or the improvement of functions. Thus, it is important for public health agencies and the food industry to facilitate the consumption of foods with particular health benefits by providing con

  5. Delayed umbilical cord clamping after childbirth: potential benefits to baby's health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwins C

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Christina Uwins,1 David JR Hutchon2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Croydon University Hospital, Croydon, 2Department of Obstetrics, Darlington Memorial Hospital, Darlington, UKAbstract: Early cord clamping was initially introduced as part of the package of care known as “active management of the third stage”, which was implemented to reduce postpartum hemorrhage. It has now been shown to provide no benefit to the mother and to result in harm to the neonate. The clinical trial evidence relating to delayed cord clamping compared to immediate cord clamping is presented and the physiological rationale for delayed cord clamping is discussed in this paper. Most organizations (eg World Health Organization (WHO, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG, Resuscitation Council (UK,The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO, International Confederation of Midwives, International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR and the European Resuscitation Council now advise a delay of 1–3 minutes before clamping the cord in term and preterm infants, and clinicians need to be aware of this change. Healthy neonates benefit from a more physiological and gentle transition from placental to pulmonary respiration, and we explain why this benefit should be provided to all neonates until there is any evidence to the contrary. The harm of early cord clamping is not limited to anemia and iron deficiency, and evidence for a wide range of possible harms of early cord clamping is presented. The need for resuscitation is one of the most common concerns, and ways of overcoming these concerns are described.Keywords: transition, cord clamping, hypovolemia, intraventricular hemorrhage

  6. Lignin-derived oak phenolics: a theoretical examination of additional potential health benefits of red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setzer, William N

    2011-08-01

    Lignin-derived phenolic compounds can be extracted from oak barrels during the aging of red wine, and it is hypothesized that these compounds may contribute to the health benefits of red wine by their antioxidant, radical-scavenging, or chemopreventive activities. Density functional calculations (B3LYP/6-311++G) support the radical-scavenging abilities of the oak phenolics. Sinapaldehyde, syringaldehyde, syringol, and syringylacetone all have bond dissociation energies that are lower than resveratrol and comparable to the flavonoid catechin. Molecular docking studies of the oak phenolics with known resveratrol protein targets also show that these compounds dock favorably to the protein targets. Thus, lignin-derived oak phenolics, although found in small concentrations, may contribute to the beneficial antioxidant, chemopreventive, and cardioprotective effects of red wine.

  7. Health benefits of tunneling through the Chinese environmental Kuznets curve (EKC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brajer, Victor; Mead, Robert W.; Xiao, Feng [Department of Economics, California State University, Fullerton, Fullerton, CA 92834 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, we first add to what is a growing literature on the existence and nature of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) model for developing countries, by testing for the existence of an EKC for China using a panel data set of city-specific, annual ambient levels of SO{sub 2} pollution. We find some support for both the typical inverted-U-shaped relationship and an N-shaped, cubic configuration. More significantly, we then explore the possibility of China's 'tunneling' through the EKC, by using newer, cleaner technologies, and thereby avoiding some of the environmental degradation that had often accompanied economic growth. Specifically, we estimate and economically value the health benefits realizable to Chinese cities from successful efforts to 'tunnel' under the EKC over the next generation. (author)

  8. Biological activities and potential health benefits of polysaccharides from Poria cocos and their derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yichun

    2014-07-01

    Poria cocos has a long history of medicinal use in Asian countries such as China, Japan, Korea and Thailand. It is a kind of edible and pharmaceutical mushroom. The chemical compositions of Poria cocos mainly include triterpenes, polysaccharides, steroids, amino acids, choline, histidine, etc. Great advances have been made in chemical and bioactive studies on Poria cocos polysaccharides (PCP) and their derivatives in recent decades. These PCP and their derivatives exhibit many beneficial biological activities including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiviral activities. Therefore, PCP and their derivatives have great potential for further development as therapy or adjuvant therapy for cancer, immune-modulatory and antiviral drugs. This paper presents an overview of biological activities and potential health benefits of PCP and their derivatives.

  9. "Potential health benefits of lunasin: a multifaceted soy-derived bioactive peptide".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lule, Vaibhao Kisanrao; Garg, Sheenam; Pophaly, Sarang Dilip; Hitesh; Tomar, Sudhir Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Bioactive peptides are small protein fragments derived from enzymatic hydrolysis of food proteins, fermentation with proteolytic starter cultures, and gastrointestinal digestion. These peptides have positive impacts on a number of physiological functions in living beings. Lunasin, a soy-derived bioactive peptide, is one of the most promising among them. Lunasin encoded within 2S albumin (GM2S-1) gene, identified as a novel peptide extracted from soybean seed. It is composed of 43 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 5.5 kDa. Extensive scientific studies have shown that lunasin possesses inherent antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anticancerous properties and could also play a vital role in regulating of cholesterol biosynthesis in the body. Its high bioavailability and heat stable nature allow its potential use as dietary supplement. The present review summarizes some of the potential health and therapeutic benefits of lunasin reported hitherto.

  10. Cardiorespiratory, metabolic, and biomechanical responses during functional electrical stimulation leg exercise: health and fitness benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Glen M; Hamzaid, Nur A; Fornusek, Ché

    2008-08-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES)-induced leg exercise offers the potential for individuals with lower-limb paralysis to otherwise gain some benefits conferred by leg exercise. Although its original intent is to reactivate the leg muscles to produce functional upright mobility, as a rehabilitation therapy, FES-evoked exercise increases the whole-body metabolism of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) so that they may gain general and localized health and fitness benefits. The physiological and psychosocial responses during FES-evoked cycling, standing, rowing, leg extension, or stepping have been extensively explored for over 20 years. Some of the advantages of such exercise include augmented cardiorespiratory fitness, promotion of leg blood circulation, increased activity of specific metabolic enzymes or hormones, greater muscle volume and fiber size, enhanced functional exercise capacity such as strength and endurance, and altered bone mineral density. Positive psychosocial adaptations have also been reported among SCI individuals who undergo FES exercise. This article presents a position review of the available literature on the effects of FES-evoked exercise since the earliest date until 2007, to warrant a conclusion about the current status and potential of FES-evoked exercise for paralyzed people.

  11. Recent advances in omega-3: Health Benefits, Sources, Products and Bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Peter D; McManus, Alexandra; Krail, Kevin; Sinclair, Andrew J; Miller, Matt

    2014-09-16

    The joint symposium of The Omega-3 Centre and the Australasian Section American Oil Chemists Society; Recent Advances in Omega-3: Health Benefits, Sources, Products and Bioavailability, was held November 7, 2013 in Newcastle, NSW, Australia. Over 115 attendees received new information on a range of health benefits, aquaculture as a sustainable source of supply, and current and potential new and novel sources of these essential omega-3 long-chain (LC, ≥ C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid nutrients (also termed LC omega-3). The theme of "Food versus Fuel" was an inspired way to present a vast array of emerging and ground breaking Omega-3 research that has application across many disciplines. Eleven papers submitted following from the Omega-3 Symposium are published in this Special Issue volume, with topics covered including: an update on the use of the Omega-3 Index (O3I), the effects of dosage and concurrent intake of vitamins/minerals on omega-3 incorporation into red blood cells, the possible use of the O3I as a measure of risk for adiposity, the need for and progress with new land plant sources of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6ω3), the current status of farmed Australian and New Zealand fish, and also supplements, in terms of their LC omega-3 and persistent organic pollutants (POP) content, progress with cheap carbon sources in the culture of DHA-producing single cell organisms, a detailed examination of the lipids of the New Zealand Greenshell mussel, and a pilot investigation of the purification of New Zealand hoki liver oil by short path distillation. The selection of papers in this Special Issue collectively highlights a range of forward looking and also new and including positive scientific outcomes occurring in the omega-3 field.

  12. Recent Advances in Omega-3: Health Benefits, Sources, Products and Bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Nichols

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The joint symposium of The Omega-3 Centre and the Australasian Section American Oil Chemists Society; Recent Advances in Omega-3: Health Benefits, Sources, Products and Bioavailability, was held November 7, 2013 in Newcastle, NSW, Australia. Over 115 attendees received new information on a range of health benefits, aquaculture as a sustainable source of supply, and current and potential new and novel sources of these essential omega-3 long-chain (LC, ≥C20 polyunsaturated fatty acid nutrients (also termed LC omega-3. The theme of “Food versus Fuel” was an inspired way to present a vast array of emerging and ground breaking Omega-3 research that has application across many disciplines. Eleven papers submitted following from the Omega-3 Symposium are published in this Special Issue volume, with topics covered including: an update on the use of the Omega-3 Index (O3I, the effects of dosage and concurrent intake of vitamins/minerals on omega-3 incorporation into red blood cells, the possible use of the O3I as a measure of risk for adiposity, the need for and progress with new land plant sources of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6ω3, the current status of farmed Australian and New Zealand fish, and also supplements, in terms of their LC omega-3 and persistent organic pollutants (POP content, progress with cheap carbon sources in the culture of DHA-producing single cell organisms, a detailed examination of the lipids of the New Zealand Greenshell mussel, and a pilot investigation of the purification of New Zealand hoki liver oil by short path distillation. The selection of papers in this Special Issue collectively highlights a range of forward looking and also new and including positive scientific outcomes occurring in the omega-3 field.

  13. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: food and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Dangour, Alan D; Garnett, Tara; Lock, Karen; Chalabi, Zaid; Roberts, Ian; Butler, Ainslie; Butler, Colin D; Waage, Jeff; McMichael, Anthony J; Haines, Andy

    2009-12-12

    Agricultural food production and agriculturally-related change in land use substantially contribute to greenhouse-gas emissions worldwide. Four-fifths of agricultural emissions arise from the livestock sector. Although livestock products are a source of some essential nutrients, they provide large amounts of saturated fat, which is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We considered potential strategies for the agricultural sector to meet the target recommended by the UK Committee on Climate Change to reduce UK emissions from the concentrations recorded in 1990 by 80% by 2050, which would require a 50% reduction by 2030. With use of the UK as a case study, we identified that a combination of agricultural technological improvements and a 30% reduction in livestock production would be needed to meet this target; in the absence of good emissions data from Brazil, we assumed for illustrative purposes that the required reductions would be the same for our second case study in São Paulo city. We then used these data to model the potential benefits of reduced consumption of livestock products on the burden of ischaemic heart disease: disease burden would decrease by about 15% in the UK (equivalent to 2850 disability-adjusted life-years [DALYs] per million population in 1 year) and 16% in São Paulo city (equivalent to 2180 DALYs per million population in 1 year). Although likely to yield benefits to health, such a strategy will probably encounter cultural, political, and commercial resistance, and face technical challenges. Coordinated intersectoral action is needed across agricultural, nutritional, public health, and climate change communities worldwide to provide affordable, healthy, low-emission diets for all societies.

  14. Health and economic benefits of physical activity for patients with spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller LE

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Larry E Miller,1 William G Herbert1,2 1Miller Scientific Consulting, Inc., Asheville, NC, 2Department of Human Nutrition, Foods & Exercise, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA Abstract: Spinal cord injury (SCI is a traumatic, life-disrupting event with an annual incidence of 17,000 cases in the US. SCI is characterized by progressive physical deconditioning due to limited mobility and lack of modalities to allow safe physical activity that may partially offset these deleterious physical changes. Approximately, 50% of patients with SCI report no leisure-time physical activity and 15% report leisure-time physical activity below the threshold where meaningful health benefits could be realized. Collectively, about 363,000 patients with SCI, or 65% of the entire spinal cord injured population in the US, engages in insufficient physical activity and represents a target population that could derive considerable health benefits from even modest physical activity levels. Currently, the annual direct costs related to SCI exceed US$45 billion in the US. Rehabilitation protocols and technologies aimed to improve functional mobility have potential to significantly reduce the risk of medical complications and cost associated with SCI. Patients who commence routine physical activity in the first post-injury year and experience typical motor function improvements would realize US$290,000 to US$435,000 in lifetime cost savings, primarily due to fewer hospitalizations and less reliance on assistive care. New assistive technologies that allow patients with SCI to safely engage in routine physical activity are desperately needed. Keywords: ambulation, cost, exercise, exoskeleton, paraplegia, physical activity, spinal cord injury

  15. Benefits and requirements of vitamin D for optimal health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, William B; Holick, Micael F

    2005-06-01

    Vitamin D sufficiency is required for optimal health. The conditions with strong evidence for a protective effect of vitamin D include several bone diseases, muscle weakness, more than a dozen types of internal cancers, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 diabetes mellitus. There is also weaker evidence for several other diseases and conditions. There are good reasons that vitamin D sufficiency be maintained during all stages of life, from fetal development to old age. Adequate calcium intake is also recommended. The current vitamin D requirements in the United States are based on protection against bone diseases. These guidelines are being revised upward in light of new findings, especially for soft-tissue health. The consensus of scientific understanding appears to be that vitamin D deficiency is reached for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels less than 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L), insufficiency in the range from 20-32 ng/mL, and sufficiency in the range from 33-80 ng/mL, with normal in sunny countries 54-90 ng/mL, and excess greater than 100 ng/mL. Solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiation is the primary source of vitamin D for most people. In general, the health benefits accruing from moderate UV irradiation, without erythema or excess tanning, greatly outweigh the health risks, with skin pigmentation (melanin) providing much of the protection. In the absence of adequate solar UVB irradiation due to season, latitude, or lifestyle, vitamin D can be obtained from fortified food, oily fish, vitamin D supplements, and artificial sources of UVB radiation.

  16. Accumulated versus continuous exercise for health benefit: a review of empirical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Marie H; Blair, Steven N; Murtagh, Elaine M

    2009-01-01

    Current physical activity guidelines endorse the notion that the recommended amount of daily physical activity can be accumulated in short bouts performed over the course of a day. Although intuitively appealing, the evidence for the efficacy of accumulated exercise is not plentiful. The purpose of this review was to compare the effects of similar amounts of exercise performed in either one continuous or two or more accumulated bouts on a range of health outcomes. Sixteen studies met the selection criteria for inclusion in the review, in which at least one outcome known to affect health was measured before and after continuous and accumulated exercise training interventions. Where improvements in cardiovascular fitness were noted, most studies reported no difference in the alterations between accumulated and continuous patterns of exercise. In the few studies where a normalization of blood pressure was observed from baseline to post-intervention, there appear to be no differences between accumulated and continuous exercise in the magnitude of this effect. For other health outcomes such as adiposity, blood lipids and psychological well-being, there is insufficient evidence to determine whether accumulated exercise is as effective as the more traditional continuous approach. Seven short-term studies in which at least one health-related outcome was measured during the 0- to 48-hour period after a single continuous bout of exercise and a number of short bouts of equivalent total duration were included in the review. Many of the studies of such short-term effects considered the plasma triglyceride response to a meal following either accumulated short or continuous bouts of exercise. Collectively, these studies suggest that accumulated exercise may be as effective at reducing postprandial lipaemia. Further research is required to determine if even shorter bouts of accumulated exercise (benefit and whether an accumulated approach to physical activity increases adherence

  17. AFSC/REFM: Bomb-produced age validation study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish age validation with bomb-produced radiocarbon (14C) requires a known-age Delta14C reference chronology spanning the era of a marine increase in bomb-produced...

  18. Terror, tortur og den tikkende bombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The so-called "war on terror" has renewed the interest in torture in practice as well as in theory. The philosophical debate about possible justifications for torture has to a large extent revolved about the ticking bomb scenario: would it be justified to torture a terrorist in order to prevent...... a catastrophe? I criticize arguments based on ticking bomb scenarios in two steps. First, I show that exceptional resort to torture will not be possible in the situations where it is most needed. Second, I state several pragmatic as well as principled objections against a state sanctioned or tolerated practice...

  19. Global Health Benefits from Reductions in Background Tropospheric Ozone due to Methane Emission Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J. J.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Fiore, A. M.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2005-05-01

    Increases in background ozone throughout the troposphere are partially attributed to rising anthropogenic methane concentrations, which are projected to continue to increase in the future. Because methane is long-lived and affects background ozone, controls on methane emissions would reduce surface ozone concentrations fairly uniformly around the globe. Epidemiological research indicates that exposure to ozone increases incidence of respiratory ailments and premature mortality. In addition, exposure to ozone reduces agricultural yields and damages natural ecosystems. We use the MOZART-2 global atmospheric chemistry and transport model to estimate the effects on global surface ozone of perturbations in methane emissions. We consider a baseline scenario for 2000 and the 2030 A2 scenario (emissions from the IPCC AR-4 2030 atmospheric chemistry experiments), and examine the impact on ozone of decreasing anthropogenic methane emissions relative to this baseline by 20%. Using the simulated spatially-distributed decreases in surface ozone concentrations resulting from these reductions in methane emissions, we estimate the global benefits to human health in the methane emission reduction scenario. We focus on human mortality, and consider the sensitivity of our estimates to different assumptions of health effect thresholds at low ozone concentrations.

  20. The potential health benefits of legumes as a good source of dietary fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad, Trinidad P; Mallillin, Aida C; Loyola, Anacleta S; Sagum, Rosario S; Encabo, Rosario R

    2010-02-01

    Dietary fibre has been shown to have important health implications in the prevention of risks of chronic diseases. The objective of the present study was to determine the potential health benefits of legumes as a good source of dietary fibre. Six to ten local legumes were studied as follows: cowpeas, mung beans, pole sitao, chickpeas, green peas, groundnuts, pigeon peas, kidney beans, lima beans and soyabeans. The following studies were conducted: (a) mineral availability, in vitro; (b) glycaemic index (GI) in non-diabetic and diabetic human subjects; (c) the cholesterol-lowering effect in human subjects with moderately raised serum cholesterol levels. The highest Fe availability among legumes was for lima beans (9.5 (sem 0.1)) while for Zn and Ca, the highest availability was for kidney beans (49.3 (sem 4.5)) and pigeon peas (75.1 (sem 7.1)), respectively. Groundnuts have the lowest Fe (1.3 (sem 1.1)), Zn (7.9 (sem 1.3)) and Ca (14.6 (sem 2.8)) availability. Legumes are low-GI foods ( legumes differs and may be attributed to their mineral content, mineral-mineral interaction and from their phytic and tannic acid content; legumes are considered low-GI foods and have shown potential hypocholesterolaemic effects. The above studies can be a scientific basis for considering legumes as functional foods.

  1. Potential health benefits of moderate alcohol consumption: current perspectives in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nova, E; Baccan, G C; Veses, A; Zapatera, B; Marcos, A

    2012-05-01

    The benefits of moderate amounts of alcohol for a better health and longer life expectancy compared with abstinence have been suggested by the findings of numerous studies. However, controversies have emerged regarding the influence of confounding factors and the systematic errors that might have been inadvertently disregarded in the early studies. This review includes a description of the findings of those research studies published in the last 5 years on the effects of moderate alcohol consumption on all-cause mortality, CVD and inflammation, the immune system, insulin sensitivity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cancer. Promising evidences exist from both animal studies and human clinical trials regarding intermediate end-points of CHD and insulin sensitivity, such as HDL, adiponectin or fibrinogen. However, controversies and inconsistent findings exist regarding many of these diseases and related functions and biomarkers. Further research and human randomised-controlled trials with adequate standardisation of the study conditions are necessary in order to draw a comparison between studies, establish the causal effect of moderate alcohol intake on disease protection and reach consensus on the circumstances that allow the recommendation of moderate alcohol habitual intakes as a strategy for health maintenance.

  2. The mental health benefits and costs of Sabbath observance among Orthodox Jews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dein, Simon; Loewenthal, Kate M

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to examine the perceived psychological costs and benefits of Sabbath (Shabbos) observance among 13 practising Jews, 9 UK residents and 4 US residents. Emerging themes were as follows: Shabbos as a special day, giving time to contemplate on profound issues, withdrawal and rest from mundane concerns, and deepening relationships. These aspects can potentially improve feelings of mental well-being, and were indeed often said to do so. Some difficulties were described: some found they were prone to worry more on Shabbos because of the freedom from distractions, and there were reports of the difficulties of explaining to non-Jewish work colleagues the religious need to be free from work commitments. These findings were related to the literature on religious ritual observance and generally accord with other work in anthropology and psychology of religion examining the psychological impact of ritual. Work on the mental health implications of ritual observance needs to be expanded. It has received only limited attention, and understanding has been constrained by a misleading confusion between ritual and obsessionality. Other impacts of religion on mental health are better documented and understood, and religious ritual and its impact needs further documentation and attention.

  3. Natural Products from Chinese Medicines with Potential Benefits to Bone Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Tao Che

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a progressive, systemic bone disorder characterized by loss of bone mass and microstructure, leading to reduced bone strength and increased risk of fracture. It is often associated with reduced quality of life and other medical complications. The disease is common in the aging population, particularly among postmenopausal women and patients who receive long-term steroidal therapy. Given the rapid growth of the aging population, increasing life expectancy, the prevalence of bone loss, and financial burden to the healthcare system and individuals, demand for new therapeutic agents and nutritional supplements for the management and promotion of bone health is pressing. With the advent of global interest in complementary and alternative medicine and natural products, Chinese medicine serves as a viable source to offer benefits for the improvement and maintenance of bone health. This review summarizes the scientific information obtained from recent literatures on the chemical ingredients of Chinese medicinal plants that have been reported to possess osteoprotective and related properties in cell-based and/or animal models. Some of these natural products (or their derivatives may become promising leads for development into dietary supplements or therapeutic drugs.

  4. Benefit-incidence analysis: are government health expenditures more pro-rich than we think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Adam

    2012-04-01

    Authors of benefit-incidence analyses (BIA) have to impute subsidies using assumptions about the relationship between unobserved subsidies 'captured' by the household and what can be observed at the household and aggregate levels. This paper shows that one of the two assumptions used in BIA studies to date will necessarily produce a more pro-rich (or less pro-poor) picture of government health spending than the other, depending on whether utilization is more pro-rich or pro-poor than fees paid to public providers. Both assumptions have their disadvantages, and the paper suggests a couple of alternatives that explicitly link fees paid to the costliness of care. It shows that in the most likely case where fees are distributed in a more pro-rich fashion than utilization, the two traditional assumptions will produce less pro-rich distributions of subsidies than the two new alternatives. Also considered are three complications that arise in BIA studies, including factoring in social health insurance. The paper's theoretical results are illustrated with an empirical BIA for Vietnam.

  5. Garden roof in the southwest for environmental benefits : the School of Public Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaack, K.A. [Roof Consultants Inst., Raleigh, NC (United States). Green Roof Research Committee]|[Roofing Contractors Assoc. of Texas, Pflugerville, TX (United States)]|[Gulf Coast Roof Management Inst., Houston, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    A recent roof renovation at the University of Texas Health Science Center in Houston (UTHSC) was based on the principles of sustainable development in order to create a place of health and well-being and to pursue integrated design solutions. The project addressed issues associated with the urban heat island condition, and problematic air quality in Houston. The first roofing option that was considered was Cool Roofing that would use either a white reflective surfacing or a garden roof. One of the buildings planned for roof replacement was the School of Public Health, a 10-storey structure composed of structural concrete framing. The existing roof system consisted of a spray-applied polyurethane foam roof covering applied over a gravel surfaced built-up roof membrane that was installed over a thermosetting asphaltic fill installed over a structural concrete deck. It was determined that this roof would be a good potential candidate for the installation of an extensive garden roof system. Four different mock-up samples of various extensive garden roof assemblies were constructed to test representative material types and assemblies. The subject area was divided into the following 4 quadrants in which the following systems were installed: (1) American Hydrotech system with Monolithic Membrane 6125-FR consisting of a hot-applied rubberized liquid asphalt reinforced with a polyester fabric, (2) Sarnafil G 476 system consisting of a prefabricated, fiberglass reinforced PVC thermoplastic single-ply membrane that is 80 mils thick, (3) Grace system with Procor Deck System 3R consisting of a cold-vulcanized, fluid-applied synthetic rubber membrane with a polyester reinforcing fabric, and (4) Siplast with Teranap System consisting of a two-ply SBS modified bitumen membrane composed of a smooth-surfaced modified bitumen fiberglass-reinforced base. After the installation of the growing medium, UTHSC personnel planted a variety of vegetation species and seeds in the quadrants

  6. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 Section 1546... Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign air carrier may land or take off an airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that airplane, unless...

  7. Deprivation and dental health. The benefits of a child dental health campaign in relation to deprivation as estimated by the uptake of free meals at school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, L; Wight, C; Wohlgemuth, B

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the overall effect of the 1989 Lothian dental health education campaign on 8-year-old school children's dental health knowledge and behaviour and to examine the relationship between free meals and the children's benefit from the campaign...

  8. Economic Effects of Legislations and Policies to Expand Mental Health and Substance Abuse Benefits in Health Insurance Plans: A Community Guide Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Verughese; Qu, Shuli; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Sipe, Theresa Ann; Knopf, John A.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Finnie, Ramona; Thota, Anilkrishna B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Health insurance plans have historically limited the benefits for mental health and substance abuse (MH/SA) services compared to benefits for physical health services. In recent years, legislative and policy initiatives in the U.S. have been taken to expand MH/SA health insurance benefits and achieve parity with physical health benefits. The relevance of these legislations for international audiences is also explored, particularly for the European context. Aims of the Study This paper reviews the evidence of costs and economic benefits of legislative or policy interventions to expand MH/SA health insurance benefits in the U.S. The objectives are to assess the economic value of the interventions by comparing societal cost to societal benefits, and to determine impact on costs to insurance plans resulting from expansion of these benefits. Methods The search for economic evidence covered literature published from January 1950 to March 2011 and included evaluations of federal and state laws or rules that expanded MH/SA benefits as well as voluntary actions by large employers. Two economists screened and abstracted the economic evidence of MH/SA benefits legislation based on standard economic and actuarial concepts and methods. Results The economic review included 12 studies: eleven provided evidence on cost impact to health plans, and one estimated the effect on suicides. There was insufficient evidence to determine if the intervention was cost-effective or cost-saving. However, the evidence indicates that MH/SA benefits expansion did not lead to any substantial increase in costs to insurance plans, measured as a percentage of insurance premiums. Discussion and Limitations This review is unable to determine the overall economic value of policies that expand MH/SA insurance benefits due to lack of cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit studies, predominantly due to the lack of evaluations of morbidity and mortality outcomes. This may be remedied in time when

  9. Unraveling the metabolic health benefits of fasting related to religious beliefs: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persynaki, Angeliki; Karras, Spyridon; Pichard, Claude

    2017-03-01

    Periodic fasting, under a religious aspect, has been adopted by humans for centuries as a crucial pathway of spiritual purification. Caloric restriction, with or without exclusion of certain types of food, is often a key component. Fasting varies significantly among different populations according to cultural habits and local climate conditions. Religious fasting in terms of patterns (continuous versus intermittent) and duration can vary from 1 to 200 d; thus, the positive and negative impact on health can be considerable. Advantages of religious fasting are claimed by many but have been explored mainly by a limited number of studies conducted in Buddhist, Christian, or Muslim populations. These trials indicate that religious fasting has beneficial effects on body weight and glycemia, cardiometabolic risk markers, and oxidative stress parameters. Animals exposed to a diet mimicking fasting have demonstrated weight loss as well as lowered plasma levels of glucose, triacylglycerols, and insulin growth factor-1, although lean body mass remained stable. Diabetic mice on repeated intermittent fasting had less insulin resistance that mice fed ad libitum. The long-term significance of such changes on global health remains to be explored. This review summarizes the data available with regard to benefits of fasting followed for religious reasons on human health, body anthropometry, and cardio-metabolic risk markers; aims to bridge the current knowledge gap on available evidence and suggests considerations for the future research agenda. Future studies should explore every type of religious fasting, as well as their consequences in subpopulations such as children, pregnant women, and the elderly, or patients with chronic metabolic diseases.

  10. Estimating the health benefits from natural gas use in transport and heating in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena-Carrasco, Marcelo; Oliva, Estefania; Saide, Pablo; Spak, Scott N; de la Maza, Cristóbal; Osses, Mauricio; Tolvett, Sebastián; Campbell, J Elliott; Tsao, Tsao Es Chi-Chung; Molina, Luisa T

    2012-07-01

    Chilean law requires the assessment of air pollution control strategies for their costs and benefits. Here we employ an online weather and chemical transport model, WRF-Chem, and a gridded population density map, LANDSCAN, to estimate changes in fine particle pollution exposure, health benefits, and economic valuation for two emission reduction strategies based on increasing the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) in Santiago, Chile. The first scenario, switching to a CNG public transportation system, would reduce urban PM2.5 emissions by 229 t/year. The second scenario would reduce wood burning emissions by 671 t/year, with unique hourly emission reductions distributed from daily heating demand. The CNG bus scenario reduces annual PM2.5 by 0.33 μg/m³ and up to 2 μg/m³ during winter months, while the residential heating scenario reduces annual PM2.5 by 2.07 μg/m³, with peaks exceeding 8 μg/m³ during strong air pollution episodes in winter months. These ambient pollution reductions lead to 36 avoided premature mortalities for the CNG bus scenario, and 229 for the CNG heating scenario. Both policies are shown to be cost-effective ways of reducing air pollution, as they target high-emitting area pollution sources and reduce concentrations over densely populated urban areas as well as less dense areas outside the city limits. Unlike the concentration rollback methods commonly used in public policy analyses, which assume homogeneous reductions across a whole city (including homogeneous population densities), and without accounting for the seasonality of certain emissions, this approach accounts for both seasonality and diurnal emission profiles for both the transportation and residential heating sectors.

  11. Review article: health benefits of some physiologically active ingredients and their suitability as yoghurt fortifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayed, A E

    2015-05-01

    The article is concerned with health benefits of two main physiologically active ingredients namely, Isoflavones and γ-Aminobutyric acid, with emphasis on their fitness for fortification of yoghurt to be consumed as a functional food. Isoflavones (ISO) are part of the diphenol compounds, called "phytoestrogens," which are structurally and functionally similar to estradiol, the human estrogen, but much less potent. Because of this similarity, ISO were suggested to have preventive effects for many kinds of hormone-dependent diseases. In nature, ISO usually occur as glycosides and, once deconjugated by the intestinal microflora, the ISO can be absorbed into the blood. At present, it seems convincing their possible protective actions against various cancers, osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms and high levels of blood cholesterol as well as the epidemiological evidence. Γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), it is an amino acid that has long been reported to lower blood pressure by intravenous administration in experimental animals and in human subjects. GABA is present in many vegetables and fruits but not in dairy products. GABA was reported to lower blood pressure in people with mild hypertension. It was suggested that low-dose oral GABA has a hypotensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive. Yoghurt beyond its ability to be probiotic food via its culturing with the gut strains, it could further carry more healthy benefits when it was fortified with physiological active ingredients, especially GABA versus ISO preferring, whether, bacteriologically or biochemically, a fortification level of 50 mg ISO/kg or 200 mg GABA/kg.

  12. Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janssen Ian

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose was to: 1 perform a systematic review of studies examining the relation between physical activity, fitness, and health in school-aged children and youth, and 2 make recommendations based on the findings. Methods The systematic review was limited to 7 health indicators: high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, the metabolic syndrome, obesity, low bone density, depression, and injuries. Literature searches were conducted using predefined keywords in 6 key databases. A total of 11,088 potential papers were identified. The abstracts and full-text articles of potentially relevant papers were screened to determine eligibility. Data was abstracted for 113 outcomes from the 86 eligible papers. The evidence was graded for each health outcome using established criteria based on the quantity and quality of studies and strength of effect. The volume, intensity, and type of physical activity were considered. Results Physical activity was associated with numerous health benefits. The dose-response relations observed in observational studies indicate that the more physical activity, the greater the health benefit. Results from experimental studies indicate that even modest amounts of physical activity can have health benefits in high-risk youngsters (e.g., obese. To achieve substantive health benefits, the physical activity should be of at least a moderate intensity. Vigorous intensity activities may provide even greater benefit. Aerobic-based activities had the greatest health benefit, other than for bone health, in which case high-impact weight bearing activities were required. Conclusion The following recommendations were made: 1 Children and youth 5-17 years of age should accumulate an average of at least 60 minutes per day and up to several hours of at least moderate intensity physical activity. Some of the health benefits can be achieved through an average of 30 minutes per day. [Level 2, Grade A]. 2 More vigorous

  13. Bomb apologetics: Farm Hall, August 1945

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, J. [Professor of Physics at Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken New Jersey (United States); Cassidy, D. [Professor at Hofstra University, in Hempstead, New York (United States)

    1995-08-01

    On hearing the news from Hiroshima, the incredulous internees came up with a self-serving story to explain their failures in nucleus research: To keep Hitler from winning, they had deliberately not developed the atomic bomb. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  14. Hurricane Ike versus an Atomic Bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Earl F.

    2013-01-01

    The destructive potential of one of nature's most destructive forces, the hurricane, is compared to one of human's most destructive devices, an atomic bomb. Both can create near absolute devastation at "ground zero". However, how do they really compare in terms of destructive energy? This discussion compares the energy, the…

  15. INDONESIAN SALAFISM ON JIHAD AND SUICIDE BOMBINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusli Rusli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with jihad and suicide bombings from the perspective of Indonesian salafism. It is argued that there are two different points of view related to this issue. The first is those who are affiliated with Wahhabi salafists such as those involved in Salafi-based foundations like As-Sunnah, Ihyaut Turats, al-Sofwah, Lajnah al-Khairiyah, Lajnah al-Istiqamah, and Wahdah Islamiyyah. They do not agree with suicide bombing directed to Western targets—mainly America—and its symbols. Suicide bombings are equivalent to killing oneself, and this is extremely forbidden in Islam. The second is Salafi-jihadists who have justified suicide bombing attacks to infidel targets and the symbols of tagut (false god. The reason is blowing oneself is not the same as committing suicide, for suicide is a sin. However, he is believed as carrying out “martyrdom operations”, sacrificing himself for the sake of the superior goal of defending his religion and community, while suicide is a hopeless deed performed by a person who kills himself for his own selfish reason.

  16. Medical examination of A-bomb survivors on Nagasaki A-bomb Casualty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagawa, Masuko [Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Casualty Council (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    Medical examination of A-bomb survivors was described and discussed on history, time change of examinee number, action for subjects not examined, change of prevalence, cancer examination, examination for the second generation, and education and enlightenment. Free examination of the survivors was begun in 1953 and the present casualty was made in 1958 on the law for medical care for the survivors. Systematic examination started from 1967 and the examination for the 2nd generation, from 1974. Cancer examination was from 1988. The number of the survivors was the maximum of 82,439 in 1974 and decreased to 61,388 in 1994, when the actual number of examinees, which being rather settled recently, was 32,294 and their average age was 64 y. The examination is done by tour or at the Center. Subjects receive the information of the examination twice by mail. Hematopoietic diseases like anemia, hepatic ones, metabolic and endocrinic ones like diabetes, renal impairment and others (mostly hyperlipidemia) are increasing recently. The number of examinees for cancer is increasing. Lung cancer is examined by the direct roentgenography, gastric cancer by transillumination, and other cancers like myeloma, those in large bowel, uterus and mammary gland, by the respective suitable methods. Health education and enlightenment have been conceivably effective. (H.O.)

  17. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can ... yourself. Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits and that older adults can gain a ...

  18. Role of health technology assessment in shaping the benefits package in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, Elly A; de Bont, Antoinette; van Halteren, Arnold R; Bijlmer, Rob J; Poley, Marten J

    2009-02-01

    In many countries of the Western world, the role of health technology assessment (HTA) in funding decisions of medical technologies is increasing. HTAs are expected to support decision-makers in delineating the collectively funded benefits package. To maximize their potential, it is essential that assessments are valid, reliable and timely, and that it is transparent how information provided in assessments is used in decision-making. Against this background, this article aims to review the current state of affairs regarding the use of HTA in the area of medical specialist care in The Netherlands and to evaluate strengths and weaknesses of the HTA-based system for priority setting. The reason to do so was the introduction of a new hospital financing system in The Netherlands, which allowed for expansion of the HTA system that already existed for pharmaceuticals to medical specialist care. A comprehensive account of the HTA system for medical specialist care was created using the so-called Hutton framework, followed by an exploration of its strengths and weaknesses. An important lesson to be learned from the early Dutch experiences with HTA in the area of medical specialist care is that the nature and complexity of health technologies in this area create practical problems regarding the amount and quality of available data needed to make the HTA-based system work. This hampers an unambiguous interpretation of assessment data and thus calls for stronger requirements regarding transparency and stakeholder participation. Future work focusing on the role of HTA in funding decisions is needed to provide insights in best practices for HTA systems in circumstances where a delicate balance needs to be achieved between promoting innovation, supporting effective and timely decision-making and preventing the coverage of technologies that represent a waste of resources.

  19. Phenolic compounds of green tea: Health benefits and technological application in food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    José Manuel Lorenzo; Paulo Eduardo Sichetti Munekata

    2016-01-01

    Green tea has been an important beverage for humans since ancient times, widely consumed and considered to have health benefits by traditional medicine in Asian countries. Green tea phenolic compounds are predominately composed of catechin derivatives, although other compounds such as flavonols and phenolic acids are also present in lower proportion. The bioactivity exerted by these compounds has been associated with reduced risk of severe illnesses such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Particularly, epigallocatechin gallate has been implicated in alteration mechanisms with protective effect in these diseases as indicated by several studies about the effect of green tea consumption and mechanistic explanation through in vitro and in vivo experiments. The biological activity of green tea phenolic compounds also promotes a protective effect by antioxidant mechanisms in biological and food systems, preventing the oxidative damage by acting over either precursors or reactive species. Extraction of phenolic compounds influences the antioxidant activity and promotes adequate separation from green tea leaves to enhance the yield and/or antioxidant activity. Application of green tea phenolic compounds is of great interest because the antioxidant status of the products is enhanced and provides the product with additional antioxidant activity or reduces the undesirable changes of oxidative reactions while processing or storing food.In this scenario, meat and meat products are greatly influenced by oxidative deterioration and microbial spoilage, leading to reduced shelf life. Green tea extracts rich in phenolic compounds have been applied to increase shelf life with comparable effect to synthetic compounds, commonly used by food industry. Green tea has great importance in general health in technological application, however more studies are necessary to elucidate the impact in pathways related to other diseases and food applications.

  20. Phenolic compounds of green tea:Health benefits and technological application in food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jose Manuel Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Green tea has been an important beverage for humans since ancient times, widely consumed and considered to have health benefits by traditional medicine in Asian countries. Green tea phenolic compounds are predominately composed of catechin de-rivatives, although other compounds such as flavonols and phenolic acids are also present in lower proportion. The bioactivity exerted by these compounds has been associated with reduced risk of severe illnesses such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Particularly, epigallocatechin gallate has been implicated in alteration mecha-nisms with protective effect in these diseases as indicated by several studies about the effect of green tea consumption and mechanistic explanation through in vitro and in vivo experiments. The biological activity of green tea phenolic compounds also promotes a protective effect by antioxidant mechanisms in biological and food systems, preventing the oxidative damage by acting over either precursors or reactive species. Extraction of phenolic compounds influences the antioxidant activity and promotes adequate separation from green tea leaves to enhance the yield and/or antioxidant activity. Application of green tea phenolic compounds is of great interest because the antioxidant status of the products is enhanced and provides the product with additional antioxidant activity or reduces the undesirable changes of oxidative reactions while processing or storing food. In this scenario, meat and meat products are greatly influenced by oxidative deterioration and microbial spoilage, leading to reduced shelf life. Green tea extracts rich in phenolic compounds have been applied to increase shelf life with comparable effect to synthetic compounds, commonly used by food industry. Green tea has great importance in general health in technological application, however more studies are necessary to elucidate the impact in pathways related to other diseases and food applications.

  1. Phenolic compounds of green tea: Health benefits and technological application in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Lorenzo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Green tea has been an important beverage for humans since ancient times, widely consumed and considered to have health benefits by traditional medicine in Asian countries. Green tea phenolic compounds are predominately composed of catechin derivatives, although other compounds such as flavonols and phenolic acids are also present in lower proportion. The bioactivity exerted by these compounds has been associated with reduced risk of severe illnesses such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Particularly, epigallocatechin gallate has been implicated in alteration mechanisms with protective effect in these diseases as indicated by several studies about the effect of green tea consumption and mechanistic explanation through in vitro and in vivo experiments. The biological activity of green tea phenolic compounds also promotes a protective effect by antioxidant mechanisms in biological and food systems, preventing the oxidative damage by acting over either precursors or reactive species. Extraction of phenolic compounds influences the antioxidant activity and promotes adequate separation from green tea leaves to enhance the yield and/or antioxidant activity. Application of green tea phenolic compounds is of great interest because the antioxidant status of the products is enhanced and provides the product with additional antioxidant activity or reduces the undesirable changes of oxidative reactions while processing or storing food. In this scenario, meat and meat products are greatly influenced by oxidative deterioration and microbial spoilage, leading to reduced shelf life. Green tea extracts rich in phenolic compounds have been applied to increase shelf life with comparable effect to synthetic compounds, commonly used by food industry. Green tea has great importance in general health in technological application, however more studies are necessary to elucidate the impact in pathways related to other diseases and food

  2. Economics of online structural health monitoring of wind turbines: Cost benefit analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Jeremy; Bond, Leonard J.

    2015-03-01

    Operations and maintenance (O&M) costs have an average share over the lifetime of the turbine of approximately 20%-25% of the total levelized cost per kWh of electricity produced. Online structural health monitoring (OSHM) and condition-based maintenance (CBM) of wind turbine blades has the potential to reduce O&M costs and hence reduce the overall cost of wind energy. OSHM and CBM offer the potential to improve turbine blade life cycle management, limit the number of physical inspections, and reduce the potential for missed significant defects. An OSHM system would reduce the need for physical inspections, and have inspections occur only after problem detection takes place. In the economics of wind energy, failures and unplanned outages can cause significant downtime, particularly while waiting for the manufacturing and shipping of major parts. This paper will report a review and assessment of SHM technologies and a cost benefit analysis, which will examine whether the added costs associated with an OSHM system will give an adequate return on the investment. One method in which OSHM reduces costs is, in part, by converting corrective maintenance to preventative maintenance. This paper shows that under both best and worse conditions implementing an OSHM system is cost effective in more than 50% of the trials, which have been performed. Opportunities appear to exist to improve the economic justification for implementing OSHM.

  3. Social networking in online support groups for health: how online social networking benefits patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae Eun

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of online support groups (OSGs) have embraced the features of social networking. So far, little is known about how patients use and benefit from these features. By implementing the uses-and-gratifications framework, the author conducted an online survey with current users of OSGs to examine associations among motivation, use of specific features of OSG, and support outcomes. Findings suggest that OSG users make selective use of varied features depending on their needs, and that perceptions of receiving emotional and informational support are associated more with the use of some features than others. For example, those with strong motivation for social interaction use diverse features of OSG and make one-to-one connections with other users by friending. In contrast, those with strong motivation for information seeking limit their use primarily to discussion boards. Results also show that online social networking features, such as friending and sharing of personal stories on blogs, are helpful in satisfying the need for emotional support. The present study sheds light on online social networking features in the context of health-related OSGs and provides practical lessons on how to improve the capacity of OSGs to serve the needs of their users.

  4. The key importance of soy isoflavone bioavailability to understanding health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Theresa; Price, William E; Astheimer, Lee

    2008-06-01

    Research over the past two decades has provided significant epidemiological and other evidence for the health benefits of the consumption of soy-based foods. A large number of dietary intervention studies have examined the effects of soy isoflavones on risk factors for cardiovascular disease and hormone-dependent cancers. However, these report large variability in outcome measures, very limited reproducibility between studies, and in some cases, controversy between the results of clinical trials using dietary soy or soy protein and isoflavone supplementation. This highlights a major gap in our understanding of soy isoflavone uptake, metabolism, distribution, and overall bioavailability. There are many potential factors that may influence bioavailability and a better knowledge is necessary to rationalize the inconsistencies in the intervention and clinical studies. This review focuses attention on our current state of knowledge in this area and highlights the importance of metabolism of the parent soy isoflavones and the critical role of gut microbiota on the bioavailability of these compounds and their metabolites.

  5. A community study of the psychological effects of the Omagh car bomb on adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Duffy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The main aims of the study were to assess psychological morbidity among adults nine months after a car bomb explosion in the town of Omagh, Northern Ireland and to identify predictors of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. METHOD: A questionnaire was sent to all adults in households in The Omagh District Council area. The questionnaire comprised established predictors of PTSD (such as pre-trauma personal characteristics, type of exposure, initial emotional response and long-term adverse physical or financial problems, predictors derived from the Ehlers and Clark (2000 cognitive model, a measure of PTSD symptoms and the General Health Questionnaire. RESULTS: Among respondents (n = 3131 the highest rates of PTSD symptoms and probable casesness (58.5% were observed among people who were present in the street when the bomb exploded but elevated rates were also observed in people who subsequently attended the scene (21.8% probable caseness and among people for whom someone close died (11.9%. People with a near miss (left the scene before the explosion did not show elevated rates. Exposure to the bombing increased PTSD symptoms to a greater extent than general psychiatric symptoms. Previously established predictors accounted for 42% of the variance in PTSD symptoms among people directly exposed to the bombing. Predictors derived from the cognitive model accounted for 63%. CONCLUSIONS: High rates of chronic PTSD were observed in individuals exposed to the bombing. Psychological variables that are in principle amenable to treatment were the best predictors of PTSD symptoms. Teams planning treatment interventions for victims of future bombings and other traumas may wish to take these results into account.

  6. Cost-benefit analysis of the ‘Planning Health in School’ programme to prevent children’s obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira,Margarida; Carvalho, Graça Simões de

    2016-01-01

    "9th European Public Health Conference: Parallel Sessions - Workshop: Cost-effectiveness studies in primary prevention interventions targeting children" This study evaluates the cost-benefits of the ‘Planning Health in School’ programme (PHS-pro), which was implemented for one-year in a follow-up non-randomized parallel-group trial that promoted healthy eating and active living in Portuguese children of 10-14 years. Anthropometric outcomes (height, weight, waist circumference- WC, BMI a...

  7. Functional properties of whey, whey components, and essential amino acids: mechanisms underlying health benefits for active people (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ewan; Zemel, Michael B

    2003-05-01

    Whey proteins and amino acid supplements have a strong position in the sports nutrition market based on the purported quality of proteins and amino acids they provide. Recent studies employing stable isotope methodology demonstrate the ability of whey proteins or amino acid mixtures of similar composition to promote whole body and muscle protein synthesis. Other developing avenues of research explore health benefits of whey that extend beyond protein and basic nutrition. Many bioactive components derived from whey are under study for their ability to offer specific health benefits. These functions are being investigated predominantly in tissue culture systems and animal models. The capacity of these compounds to modulate adiposity, and to enhance immune function and anti-oxidant activity presents new applications potentially suited to the needs of those individuals with active lifestyles. This paper will review the recent literature that describes functional properties of essential amino acids, whey proteins, whey-derived minerals and other compounds and the mechanisms by which they may confer benefits to active people in the context that exercise is a form of metabolic stress. The response to this stress can be positive, as with the accretion of more muscle and improved functionality or greater strength. However, overall benefits may be compromised if immune function or general health is challenged in response to the stress. From a mechanistic standpoint, whey proteins, their composite amino acids, and/or associated compounds may be able to provide substrate and bioactive components to extend the overall benefits of physical activity.

  8. A wedge-based approach to estimating health co-benefits of climate change mitigation activities in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbus, John M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Greenblatt, Jeffery B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chari, Ramya [Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ebi, Kristie L. [ClimAdapt, Inc., Los Altos, CA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    While it has been recognized that actions reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can have significant positive and negative impacts on human health through reductions in ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations, these impacts are rarely taken into account when analyzing specific policies. This study presents a new framework for estimating the change in health outcomes resulting from implementation of specific carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction activities, allowing comparison of different sectors and options for climate mitigation activities. Our estimates suggest that in the year 2020, the reductions in adverse health outcomes from lessened exposure to PM2.5 would yield economic benefits in the range of $6 to $14 billion (in 2008 USD), depending on the specific activity. This equates to between $40 and $93 per metric ton of CO2 in health benefits. Specific climate interventions will vary in the health co-benefits they provide as well as in potential harms that may result from their implementation. Rigorous assessment of these health impacts is essential for guiding policy decisions as efforts to reduce GHG emissions increase in scope and intensity.

  9. Attitudes on Barriers and Benefits of Distance Education among Mississippi Delta Allied Health Community College Faculty, Staff, and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield-Johnson, Susan; Mohn, Richard S.; Mitra, Amal K.; Young, Rebekah; McCullers, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Online distance education creates increased opportunities for continuing education and advanced training for allied health professionals living in underserved and geographically isolated areas. The purpose of this article was to explore attitudes on barriers and benefits of distance education technology among underrepresented minority allied…

  10. 45 CFR Exhibit A to Part 12 - Public Benefit Allowance for Transfer of Real Property for Health Purposes 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION DISPOSAL AND UTILIZATION OF SURPLUS REAL PROPERTY FOR PUBLIC HEALTH... Integrated research program Outpatient services Public services Training program Maximum public benefit allowance Hospitals 50 20 20 10 10 20 30 10 10 10 10 100 Clinics 50 20 20 10 10 20 30 100 Nursing Homes...

  11. Pokémon Go: Ubiquitous Computing Delivering Better Health or Co-Incidental Health Benefits from Technology Use? A Participatory Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Kwang Chien; Wong, Ming Chao; Turner, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Stimulating sustained behavioural change through information and technology has been an aim of much health informatics research. Traditional approaches use technology to mediate communications between health professionals and patients. More recent lifestyle technologies engage the patient directly with information and advice - but what of the phenomena that is Pokémon Go - does it point to another way of achieving health benefits through fun? This paper aims to explore some of the conceptual questions for health informatics stimulated by the phenomenal popularity of Pokémon Go. The paper is grounded analysis of data generated through a preliminary participatory observational study in Australia.

  12. Public health department response to mercury poisoning: the importance of biomarkers and risks and benefits analysis for chelation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Charles A

    2013-12-01

    Chelation therapy is often used to treat mercury poisoning. Public health personnel are often asked about mercury toxicity and its treatment. This paper provides a public health department response to use of a mercury-containing cosmetic in Minnesota, a perspective on two unpublished cases of chelation treatment for postulated mercury toxicity, and comments on the use of a nonsystemic treatment for removal of mercury following the Iraqi seed coat poisoning incident. Physicians should evaluate sources of exposure, biomarkers, and risks and benefits before recommending chelation therapy for their patients. Potential risks to chelation therapy and its little understood subtle or latent effects are areas of public health concern.

  13. Economic gains and health benefits from a new cigarette tax scheme in Taiwan: a simulation using the CGE model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jie-Min

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluates the impact of an increase in cigarette tax in Taiwan in terms of the effects it has on the overall economy and the health benefits that it brings. Methods The multisector computable general equilibrium (CGE model was used to simulate the impact of reduced cigarette consumption resulting from a new tax scheme on the entire economy gains and on health benefits. Results The results predict that because of the new tax scheme, there should be a marked reduction in cigarette consumption but a notable increase in health benefits that include saving between 28,125 and 56,250 lives. This could save NT$1.222~2.445 billion (where US$1 = NT$34.6 annually in life-threatening, cigarette-related health insurance expenses which exceeds the projected decrease of NT$1.275 billion in Gross Domestic Product (GDP because of reduced consumption and therefore tax revenue. Conclusion Overall, the increased cigarette excise tax will be beneficial in terms of both the health of the general public and the economy as a whole.

  14. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Baduanjin Qigong for Health Benefits: Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liye Zou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effects of practicing Baduanjin Qigong on different health outcomes. Methods. Six electronic databases were used for literature search through entering the following key words: Baduanjin Qigong, quality of life, sleep quality, and health-related outcomes. Results. Nineteen randomized controlled trials were used for meta-analysis. The aggregated results from this systematic review have shown significant benefits in favour of Baduanjin Qigong on quality of life (SMD, −0.75; 95% CI −1.26 to −0.24; P=0.004, sleep quality (SMD, −0.55; 95% CI −0.97 to −0.12; P=0.01, balance (SMD, −0.94; 95% CI −1.59 to 0.30; P=0.004, handgrip strength (SMD, -0.69; 95% CI −1.2 to −0.19; P=0.007, trunk flexibility (SMD, −0.66; 95% CI −1.13 to −0.19; P=0.006, systolic (SMD, −0.60; 95% CI −0.94 to −0.27; P=0.0004 and diastolic blood pressure (SMD, −0.46; 95% CI −0.73 to −0.20; P=0.0005, and resting heart rate (SMD, −0.87; 95% CI −1.47 to −0.27; P=0.005. The aggregated results of meta-analyses examining the effect of Baduanjin Qigong on leg power, cardiopulmonary endurance, and pulmonary function remain unclear because of a small number of studies. Conclusions. The aggregated results from this systematic review show that Baduanjin Qigong practice is beneficial for quality of life, sleep quality, balance, handgrip strength, trunk flexibility, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and resting heart rate. Further studies are necessary to confirm the effects of Baduanjin Qigong on leg power, cardiopulmonary endurance, and pulmonary function (e.g., vital capacity, while considering a long-term follow-up. Registration Number. This trial is registered with International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO: CRD42016036966.

  15. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Baduanjin Qigong for Health Benefits: Randomized Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    SasaKi, Jeffer Eidi; Xiao, Zhongjun; Fang, Qun; Zhang, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of practicing Baduanjin Qigong on different health outcomes. Methods. Six electronic databases were used for literature search through entering the following key words: Baduanjin Qigong, quality of life, sleep quality, and health-related outcomes. Results. Nineteen randomized controlled trials were used for meta-analysis. The aggregated results from this systematic review have shown significant benefits in favour of Baduanjin Qigong on quality of life (SMD, −0.75; 95% CI −1.26 to −0.24; P = 0.004), sleep quality (SMD, −0.55; 95% CI −0.97 to −0.12; P = 0.01), balance (SMD, −0.94; 95% CI −1.59 to 0.30; P = 0.004), handgrip strength (SMD, −0.69; 95% CI −1.2 to −0.19; P = 0.007), trunk flexibility (SMD, −0.66; 95% CI −1.13 to −0.19; P = 0.006), systolic (SMD, −0.60; 95% CI −0.94 to −0.27; P = 0.0004) and diastolic blood pressure (SMD, −0.46; 95% CI −0.73 to −0.20; P = 0.0005), and resting heart rate (SMD, −0.87; 95% CI −1.47 to −0.27; P = 0.005). The aggregated results of meta-analyses examining the effect of Baduanjin Qigong on leg power, cardiopulmonary endurance, and pulmonary function remain unclear because of a small number of studies. Conclusions. The aggregated results from this systematic review show that Baduanjin Qigong practice is beneficial for quality of life, sleep quality, balance, handgrip strength, trunk flexibility, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and resting heart rate. Further studies are necessary to confirm the effects of Baduanjin Qigong on leg power, cardiopulmonary endurance, and pulmonary function (e.g., vital capacity), while considering a long-term follow-up. Registration Number. This trial is registered with International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO): CRD42016036966. PMID:28367223

  16. Patients' preference for exercise setting and its influence on the health benefits gained from exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Lars H.; Berg, Selina Kikkenborg; Christensen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess patient preference for exercise setting and examine if choice of setting influences the long-term health benefit of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation. METHODS: Patients participating in a randomised controlled trial following either heart valve surgery, or radiofrequency...... and provides similar health benefits. Whilst these findings support that patients should be given the choice between exercise-settings when initiating cardiac rehabilitation, further confirmatory evidence is needed....... ablation for atrial fibrillation were given the choice to perform a 12-week exercise programme in either a supervised centre-based, or a self-management home-based setting. Exercise capacity and physical and mental health outcomes were assessed for up to 24months after hospital discharge. Outcomes between...

  17. Life-cycle preferences over consumption and health: when is cost-effectiveness analysis equivalent to cost-benefit analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleichrodt, H; Quiggin, J

    1999-12-01

    This paper studies life-cycle preferences over consumption and health status. We show that cost-effectiveness analysis is consistent with cost-benefit analysis if the lifetime utility function is additive over time, multiplicative in the utility of consumption and the utility of health status, and if the utility of consumption is constant over time. We derive the conditions under which the lifetime utility function takes this form, both under expected utility theory and under rank-dependent utility theory, which is currently the most important nonexpected utility theory. If cost-effectiveness analysis is consistent with cost-benefit analysis, it is possible to derive tractable expressions for the willingness to pay for quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The willingness to pay for QALYs depends on wealth, remaining life expectancy, health status, and the possibilities for intertemporal substitution of consumption.

  18. The environmental and public health benefits of achieving high penetrations of solar energy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Millstein, Dev; Mai, Trieu; Macknick, Jordan; Carpenter, Alberta; Cohen, Stuart; Cole, Wesley; Frew, Bethany; Heath, Garvin

    2016-10-01

    We estimate the environmental and public health benefits that may be realized if solar energy cost reductions continue until solar power is competitive across the U.S. without subsidies. Specifically, we model, from 2015 to 2050, solar power-induced reductions to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, air pollutant emissions, and water usage. To find the incremental benefits of new solar deployment, we compare the difference between two scenarios, one where solar costs have fallen such that solar supplies 14% of the nation's electricity by 2030 and 27% by 2050, and a baseline scenario in which no solar is added after 2014. We monetize benefits, where credible methods exist to do so. We find that under these scenarios, solar power reduces GHG and air pollutants by ~10%, from 2015 to 2050, providing a discounted present value of $56-$789 billion (central value of ~$250 billion, equivalent to ~2 cents/kWh-solar) in climate benefits and $77-$298 billion (central value of $167 billion, or ~1.4 cents/kWh-solar) in air quality and public health benefits. The ranges reflect uncertainty within the literature about the marginal impact of emissions of GHG and air pollutants. Solar power is also found to reduce water withdrawals and consumption by 4% and 9%, respectively, including in many drought-prone states.

  19. Survival and health benefits of breastfeeding versus artificial feeding in infants of HIV-infected women: developing versus developed world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Louise; Aldrovandi, Grace

    2010-12-01

    Infant feeding policies for HIV-infected women in developing countries differ from policies in developed countries. This article summarizes the epidemiologic data on the risks and benefits of various infant feeding practices for HIV-infected women living in different contexts. Artificial feeding can prevent a large proportion of mother-to-child HIV transmission but also is associated with increases in morbidity and mortality among exposed-uninfected and HIV-infected children. Antiretroviral drugs can be used during lactation and reduce risks of transmission. For most of the developing world, the health and survival benefits of breastfeeding exceed the risks of HIV transmission, especially when antiretroviral interventions are provided.

  20. Effects of Framing Health Messages in Terms of Benefits to Loved Ones or Others: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget J; Hornik, Robert C

    2016-10-01

    Many health officials believe the future of public health is in prevention of infectious diseases like pandemic influenza. Vaccine promotion is becoming an increasingly important area for health communication researchers. One strategy health promoters can consider is to emphasize that getting vaccinated protects not only the self, but also loved ones, and unknown others to whom the disease could be spread. The set of experiments described here tested whether such a strategy (called "benefit-target framing") could prove useful in promoting vaccine intentions. In two experiments, subjects from an online panel were randomized to receive a vaccination message focused on the benefits either to the self, to loved ones, or to society as a whole. Outcome measures included intentions to receive the vaccine and intentions to seek more information (n = 495). Results from two virtually identical studies were pooled to maximize power. Results suggest that messages framed in terms of benefits to society were more successful than those focused on the self, but messages focused on loved ones were not different from either of the others. Possible explanations for the findings, and implications for future research, are discussed.

  1. Health benefits of traditional Chinese sports and physical activity for older adults:A systematic review of evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yucheng Guo; Haiyang Shi; Dinghai Yu; Pixiang Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Traditional Chinese sports and physical activities (PAs) have a long history and are practiced by millions of Chinese. However, relatively few systematic reviews of the scientific evidence for their health benefits, especially for older Chinese adults, have been undertaken. Evidence acquisition: Between January and March 2016, a systematic search was conducted using the CNKI and PubMed databases to identify studies published between 2000 and 2015. Studies were selected for review if they were designed specifically to evaluate the health benefits of traditional Chinese sports and PAs in adults aged 50 years and older in the Mainland of China. The studies included observational, uncontrolled, and randomized and controlled designs. Papers published without an English title or abstract were excluded. Evidence synthesis: The initial search identified a total of 229 studies. After removing duplicates and studies that did not meet the inclusion/exclusion criteria, 95 studies were selected for review. Special attention was given to studies of the most commonly practiced activities:Tai Ji Quan, Qigong, and Yangko exercises. A positive association between these types of exercise and health benefits was noted for healthy older adults and those with chronic diseases. Evidence on other types of activities was less clear due to the limited number of studies conducted. Conclusion: There is promising evidence that traditional Chinese sports and PAs provide many health benefits for older Chinese adults. While additional scientifically rigorous research is warranted, promoting these traditional and culturally-based sports and PAs as forms of behavioral medicine in primary and secondary prevention of diseases among the aging Chinese population will help fulfill an urgent public health need.

  2. Perceived Benefits of Mobile Learning Devices for Doctoral Students in a School of Allied Health Professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, J James; Gendron, T; Kupstas, P; Tartaglia, A; Will, L

    2015-01-01

    Graduate students increasingly use personal electronic devices for learning but little is known about how they evaluate their benefits as mobile learning devices (MLDs). This study surveyed students in a hybrid distance education doctoral (PhD) program about their perceptions of the benefits of MLDs. Overall, the study found a range of opinions about the value of MLDs with about one-half of respondents finding benefits. Respondents emphasized that the MLDs improved motivation and productivity and that they were helpful in reviewing course-casts of on-campus sessions. Continued research is needed on doctoral education in general and the increasing use of innovations such as MLDs.

  3. Co-benefits of Global Greenhouse Gas Mitigation for Future Air Quality and Human Health via Two Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J.; Smith, S. J.; Silva, R.; Naik, V.; Adelman, Z.; Fry, M. M.; Anenberg, S.; Zhang, Y.; Horowitz, L. W.; Lamarque, J.; Emmons, L. K.

    2012-12-01

    Global actions to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will also reduce co-emitted air pollutants, with immediate air quality benefits. Climate change itself affects air quality (e.g., via meteorology and biogenic emissions); therefore, actions to reduce GHG emissions will also influence air quality by slowing global climate change. These two mechanisms of air quality co-benefits - reducing co-emitted air pollutants and slowing climate change - have not previously been quantified in a self-consistent way. Here we simulate the co-benefits of global GHG emission reductions on air quality and human health via these two mechanisms in scenarios to 2100. Future emissions scenarios were developed by the GCAM global energy-economics model as part of the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) process. We simulate global air quality for a reference case scenario and a scenario with aggressive GHG controls internationally (RCP4.5). Future meteorology is from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory general circulation model (AM3) simulations of the RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 scenarios. Using the global chemical transport model MOZART-4, we simulate global changes in surface concentrations of ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) for RCP4.5 relative to the reference case. The two co-benefit mechanisms are isolated by simulating reference case emissions with meteorology from RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Co-benefits for future human mortality will be assessed using epidemiological concentration-response functions, and projections of future population and baseline mortality rates. Preliminary results indicate that the co-benefits of global GHG mitigation for ozone and PM2.5 are substantial globally and regionally, and that the direct co-benefits from reductions in emissions of co-emitted air pollutants exceed the co-benefits via slowing climate change. We aim to monetize the avoided mortalities as a basis for comparison with the costs of GHG mitigation.

  4. Health research improves healthcare: now we have the evidence and the chance to help the WHO spread such benefits globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanney, Stephen R; González-Block, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in the body of evidence demonstrating the benefits that come from health research. In 2014, the funding bodies for higher education in the UK conducted an assessment of research using an approach termed the Research Excellence Framework (REF). As one element of the REF, universities and medical schools in the UK submitted 1,621 case studies claiming to show the impact of their health and other life sciences research conducted over the last 20 years. The recently published results show many case studies were judged positively as providing examples of the wide range and extensive nature of the benefits from such research, including the development of new treatments and screening programmes that resulted in considerable reductions in mortality and morbidity.Analysis of specific case studies yet again illustrates the international dimension of progress in health research; however, as has also long been argued, not all populations fully share the benefits. In recognition of this, in May 2013 the World Health Assembly requested the World Health Organization (WHO) to establish a Global Observatory on Health Research and Development (R&D) as part of a strategic work-plan to promote innovation, build capacity, improve access, and mobilise resources to address diseases that disproportionately affect the world's poorest countries.As editors of Health Research Policy and Systems (HARPS), we are delighted that our journal has been invited to help inform the establishment of the WHO Global Observatory through a Call for Papers covering a range of topics relevant to the Observatory, including topics on which HARPS has published articles over the last few months, such as approaches to assessing research results, measuring expenditure data with a focus on R&D, and landscape analyses of platforms for implementing R&D. Topics related to research capacity building may also be considered. The task of establishing a Global Observatory on Health R&D to

  5. 77 FR 42914 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program and Federal Employees Dental and Vision Insurance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... equity and fairness by ensuring equal access to these benefits for LGBT Federal employees. Since OPM made... of a child; (2) Adoption of a child; (3) Acquisition of a foster child as described in Sec....

  6. The health effects of US unemployment insurance policy: Does income from unemployment benefits prevent cardiovascular disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Walter (Stefan); M.M. Glymour (Maria); M. Avendano (Mauricio)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Previous studies suggest that unemployment predicts increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but whether unemployment insurance programs mitigate this risk has not been assessed. Exploiting US state variations in unemployment insurance benefit programs, we tested the hypot

  7. 36Cl bomb peak: comparison of modeled and measured data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eichler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The extensive nuclear bomb testing of the fifties and sixties and the final tests in the seventies caused a strong 36Cl peak that has been observed in ice cores world-wide. The measured 36Cl deposition fluxes in eight ice cores (Dye3, Fiescherhorn, Grenzgletscher, Guliya, Huascarán, North GRIP, Inylchek (Tien Shan and Berkner Island were compared with an ECHAM5-HAM general circulation model simulation (1952–1972. We find a good agreement between the measured and the modeled 36Cl fluxes assuming that the bomb test produced global 36Cl input was ~80 kg. The model simulation indicates that the fallout of the bomb test produced 36Cl is largest in the subtropics and mid-latitudes due to the strong stratosphere-troposphere exchange. In Greenland the 36Cl bomb signal is quite large due to the relatively high precipitation rate. In Antarctica the 36Cl bomb peak is small but is visible even in the driest areas. The model suggests that the large bomb tests in the Northern Hemisphere are visible around the globe but the later (end of sixties and early seventies smaller tests in the Southern Hemisphere are much less visible in the Northern Hemisphere. The question of how rapidly and to what extent the bomb produced 36Cl is mixed between the hemispheres depends on the season of the bomb test. The model results give an estimate of the amplitude of the bomb peak around the globe.

  8. 36Cl bomb peak: comparison of modeled and measured data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eichler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The extensive nuclear bomb testing of the fifties and sixties and the final tests in the seventies caused a strong 36Cl peak that has been observed in ice cores world-wide. The measured 36Cl deposition fluxes in eight ice cores (Dye3, Fiescherhorn, Grenzgletscher, Guliya, Huascarán, North GRIP, Inylchek (Tien Shan and Berkner Island were compared with an ECHAM5-HAM general circulation model simulation (1952–1972. We find a good agreement between the measured and the modeled 36Cl fluxes assuming that the bomb test produced global 36Cl input was ~80 kg. The model simulation indicates that the fallout of the bomb test produced 36Cl is largest in the subtropics and mid-latitudes due to the strong stratosphere-troposphere exchange. In Greenland the 36Cl bomb signal is quite large due to the relatively high precipitation rate. In Antarctica the 36Cl bomb peak is small but is visible even in the driest areas. The model suggests that the large bomb tests in the Northern Hemisphere are visible around the globe but the later (end of sixties and early seventies smaller tests in the Southern Hemisphere are much less visible in the Northern Hemisphere. The question of how rapidly and to what extent the bomb produced 36Cl is mixed between the hemispheres depends on the season of the bomb test. The model results give an estimate of the amplitude of the bomb peak around the globe.

  9. Roots and Tuber Crops as Functional Foods: A Review on Phytochemical Constituents and Their Potential Health Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josheph Kumar, Thamilini

    2016-01-01

    Starchy roots and tuber crops play a pivotal role in the human diet. There are number of roots and tubers which make an extensive biodiversity even within the same geographical location. Thus, they add variety to the diet in addition to offering numerous desirable nutritional and health benefits such as antioxidative, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory activities. A number of bioactive constituents such as phenolic compounds, saponins, bioactive proteins, glycoalkaloids, and phytic acids are responsible for the observed effects. Many starchy tuber crops, except the common potatoes, sweet potatoes, and cassava, are not yet fully explored for their nutritional and health benefits. In Asian countries, some edible tubers are also used as traditional medicinal. A variety of foods can be prepared using tubers and they may also be used in industrial applications. Processing may affect the bioactivities of constituent compounds. Tubers have an immense potential as functional foods and nutraceutical ingredients to be explored in disease risk reduction and wellness. PMID:27127779

  10. [The benefit provided by new medicinal products in 2005-2006--the viewpoint of the French National Authority for Health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvenot, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    The French National Authority for Health (HAS) assesses the actual benefit provided by medicinal products within a defined legal framework. It provides an independent scientific opinion. It aims to ensure equity, taking into account a variety of points of view as a result of close collaboration with health professionals. In 2005-2006, the mean time to process requests by the Transparency Committee was 100 days (median 77 days) and faster than in previous years. Over 30% of new medicinal products undergoing a first assessment or an assessment for an extension to indications were deemed to provide added value. This added value was marked for 25% of the products (i.e. an improvement in actual benefit ("ASMR") of I to III). Many of these products were orphan drugs and/or biotechnology products.

  11. Roots and Tuber Crops as Functional Foods: A Review on Phytochemical Constituents and Their Potential Health Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekara, Anoma; Josheph Kumar, Thamilini

    2016-01-01

    Starchy roots and tuber crops play a pivotal role in the human diet. There are number of roots and tubers which make an extensive biodiversity even within the same geographical location. Thus, they add variety to the diet in addition to offering numerous desirable nutritional and health benefits such as antioxidative, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory activities. A number of bioactive constituents such as phenolic compounds, saponins, bioactive proteins, glycoalkaloids, and phytic acids are responsible for the observed effects. Many starchy tuber crops, except the common potatoes, sweet potatoes, and cassava, are not yet fully explored for their nutritional and health benefits. In Asian countries, some edible tubers are also used as traditional medicinal. A variety of foods can be prepared using tubers and they may also be used in industrial applications. Processing may affect the bioactivities of constituent compounds. Tubers have an immense potential as functional foods and nutraceutical ingredients to be explored in disease risk reduction and wellness.

  12. Roots and Tuber Crops as Functional Foods: A Review on Phytochemical Constituents and Their Potential Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoma Chandrasekara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Starchy roots and tuber crops play a pivotal role in the human diet. There are number of roots and tubers which make an extensive biodiversity even within the same geographical location. Thus, they add variety to the diet in addition to offering numerous desirable nutritional and health benefits such as antioxidative, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory activities. A number of bioactive constituents such as phenolic compounds, saponins, bioactive proteins, glycoalkaloids, and phytic acids are responsible for the observed effects. Many starchy tuber crops, except the common potatoes, sweet potatoes, and cassava, are not yet fully explored for their nutritional and health benefits. In Asian countries, some edible tubers are also used as traditional medicinal. A variety of foods can be prepared using tubers and they may also be used in industrial applications. Processing may affect the bioactivities of constituent compounds. Tubers have an immense potential as functional foods and nutraceutical ingredients to be explored in disease risk reduction and wellness.

  13. The health benefits of selective taxation as an economic instrument in relation to IHD and nutrition-related cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Astrid L; Laursen, Mai-Britt; Koch, Birgit Maria;

    2013-01-01

    for the associations between various foods and relevant diseases were found through a literature search and used in the calculation of potential impact fractions. SETTING: The study was based in Denmark, estimating the health effects of a Danish selective taxation scenario. SUBJECTS: The potential health effects......OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to estimate the health benefits of selective taxation of healthy and unhealthy food commodities in relation to CVD and nutrition-related cancers. DESIGN: The potential health effects of a selective taxation scenario were estimated as changes in the burden...... of selective taxation were modelled for the adult Danish population. RESULTS: Halving the rate of value-added tax on fruit and vegetables and increasing the tax on fats would result in moderate reductions in the burden of disease from IHD, ischaemic stroke, and colorectal, lung and breast cancer (0...

  14. Roots and Tuber Crops as Functional Foods: A Review on Phytochemical Constituents and Their Potential Health Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Anoma Chandrasekara; Thamilini Josheph Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Starchy roots and tuber crops play a pivotal role in the human diet. There are number of roots and tubers which make an extensive biodiversity even within the same geographical location. Thus, they add variety to the diet in addition to offering numerous desirable nutritional and health benefits such as antioxidative, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory activities. A number of bioactive constituents such as phenolic compounds, saponins, bioactive proteins, g...

  15. Mental health benefits of long-term exposure to residential green and blue spaces: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascon, Mireia; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Martínez, David; Dadvand, Payam; Forns, Joan; Plasència, Antoni; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2015-04-22

    Many studies conducted during the last decade suggest the mental health benefits of green and blue spaces. We aimed to systematically review the available literature on the long-term mental health benefits of residential green and blue spaces by including studies that used standardized tools or objective measures of both the exposures and the outcomes of interest. We followed the PRISMA statement guidelines for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analysis. In total 28 studies were included in the systematic review. We found limited evidence for a causal relationship between surrounding greenness and mental health in adults, whereas the evidence was inadequate in children. The evidence was also inadequate for the other exposures evaluated (access to green spaces, quality of green spaces, and blue spaces) in both adults and children. The main limitation was the limited number of studies, together with the heterogeneity regarding exposure assessment. Given the increase in mental health problems and the current rapid urbanization worldwide, results of the present systematic review should be taken into account in future urban planning. However, further research is needed to provide more consistent evidence and more detailed information on the mechanisms and the characteristics of the green and blue spaces that promote better mental health. We provide recommendations for future studies in order to provide consistent and evidence-based recommendations for policy makers.

  16. Mental Health Benefits of Long-Term Exposure to Residential Green and Blue Spaces: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Gascon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies conducted during the last decade suggest the mental health benefits of green and blue spaces. We aimed to systematically review the available literature on the long-term mental health benefits of residential green and blue spaces by including studies that used standardized tools or objective measures of both the exposures and the outcomes of interest. We followed the PRISMA statement guidelines for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analysis. In total 28 studies were included in the systematic review. We found limited evidence for a causal relationship between surrounding greenness and mental health in adults, whereas the evidence was inadequate in children. The evidence was also inadequate for the other exposures evaluated (access to green spaces, quality of green spaces, and blue spaces in both adults and children. The main limitation was the limited number of studies, together with the heterogeneity regarding exposure assessment. Given the increase in mental health problems and the current rapid urbanization worldwide, results of the present systematic review should be taken into account in future urban planning. However, further research is needed to provide more consistent evidence and more detailed information on the mechanisms and the characteristics of the green and blue spaces that promote better mental health. We provide recommendations for future studies in order to provide consistent and evidence-based recommendations for policy makers.

  17. Understanding the “Black Box” of Employer Decisions about Health Insurance Benefits: The Case of Depression Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Rost

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In a randomized trial of two interventions on employer health benefit decision-making, 156 employers in the evidence-based (EB condition attended a two hour presentation reviewing scientific evidence demonstrating depression products that increase high quality treatment of depression in the workforce provide the employer a return on investment. One-hundred sixty-nine employers participating in the usual care (UC condition attended a similar length presentation reviewing scientific evidence supporting healthcare effectiveness data and information set (HEDIS monitoring. This study described the decision-making process in 264 (81.2% employers completing 12 month follow-up. The EB intervention did not increase the proportion of employers who discussed depression products with others in the company (29.2% versus 32.1%, p > 0.10, but it did significantly influence the content of the discussions that occurred. Discussion in EB companies promoted the capacity of a depression product to realize a return on investment (18.4% versus 4.7%, p = 0.05 and to improve productivity (47.4% versus 25.6%, p = 0.06 more often than discussions in UC companies. Almost half of EB and UC employers reported that return on investment has a large impact on health benefit decision-making. These results demonstrate the difficulty of influencing employer decisions about health benefits using group presentations.

  18. Radiation effect on non-cancer diseases among a-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, G.; Akahoshi, M.; Fujiwara, S.; Neriishi, K.; Yamada, M.; Hakoda, M. [Radiation Effect Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    It has been well documented in the literature that radiation induces DNA damages and increases cancer risk. Besides cancer risk, the Life Span Study (LSS) on A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki that has been conducted since 1950 by RERF demonstrated an increase in non-cancer death by cardiovascular diseases and chronic liver diseases (1). Since LSS analysis depends on death certificate, a physiological mechanism has not been elucidated how radiation increases the incidence of non-cancer diseases. In order to elucidate radiation effect on non-fatal disorders, RERF has conducted the Adult Health Study (AHS) since 1958 where 23,000 A-bomb survivors have been examined every other year. This study suggested that radiation exposure about 55 years before reduced the immune response to pathogens such as HB virus and Chlamydia pneumoniae, increased the levels of serum inflammatory markers, the prevalence of chronic hepatitis/liver cirrhosis and senile cataract, and the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Our colleagues reported a dose-dependent decrease in the CD4 T cell number among A-bomb survivors (2,3). Since chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are causative of atherogenic cardiovascular diseases or cataract, we speculate a decrease in the immune response to pathogens, at least in part, is one of the mechanisms that A-bomb exposure increased non-cancer diseases. When the levels of inflammatory marker, C-reactive protein (CRP), were analyzed among subjects with evidence of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection, significantly higher levels of CRP were associated with antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae in those subjects receiving >1Gy than those receiving <5mGy. It is well known that high CRP is one of the risk factors of arteriosclerosis (4,5). Thus, A-bomb exposure seems to augment inflammatory response to pathogens, though of which mechanisms are not clear now.

  19. Media's role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, E Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2014-01-07

    We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), -2.36, 3.23], but lower nationwide when compared with Boston (b = -2.21; SE = 1.07; 95% CI, -4.31, -0.12). Adjusting for prebombing mental health (collected prospectively), demographics, and prior collective stress exposure, six or more daily hours of bombing-related media exposure in the week after the bombings was associated with higher acute stress than direct exposure to the bombings (continuous acute stress symptom total: media exposure b = 15.61 vs. direct exposure b = 5.69). Controlling for prospectively collected prebombing television-watching habits did not change the findings. In adjusted models, direct exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the Sandy Hook School shootings were both significantly associated with bombing-related acute stress; Superstorm Sandy exposure wasn't. Prior exposure to similar and/or violent events may render some individuals vulnerable to the negative effects of collective traumas. Repeatedly engaging with trauma-related media content for several hours daily shortly after collective trauma may prolong acute stress experiences and promote substantial stress-related symptomatology. Mass media may become a conduit that spreads negative consequences of community trauma beyond directly affected communities.

  20. Factors influencing the burden of health care financing and the distribution of health care benefits in Ghana, Tanzania and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macha, Jane; Harris, Bronwyn; Garshong, Bertha; Ataguba, John E; Akazili, James; Kuwawenaruwa, August; Borghi, Josephine

    2012-03-01

    In Ghana, Tanzania and South Africa, health care financing is progressive overall. However, out-of-pocket payments and health insurance for the informal sector are regressive. The distribution of health care benefits is generally pro-rich. This paper explores the factors influencing these distributions in the three countries. Qualitative data were collected through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with insurance scheme members, the uninsured, health care providers and managers. Household surveys were also conducted in all countries. Flat-rate contributions contributed to the regressivity of informal sector voluntary schemes, either by design (in Tanzania) or due to difficulties in identifying household income levels (in Ghana). In all three countries, the regressivity of out-of-pocket payments is due to the incomplete enforcement of exemption and waiver policies, partial or no insurance cover among poorer segments of the population and limited understanding of entitlements among these groups. Generally, the pro-rich distribution of benefits is due to limited access to higher level facilities among poor and rural populations, who rely on public primary care facilities and private pharmacies. Barriers to accessing health care include medical and transport costs, exacerbated by the lack of comprehensive insurance coverage among poorer groups. Service availability problems, including frequent drug stock-outs, limited or no diagnostic equipment, unpredictable opening hours and insufficient skilled staff also limit service access. Poor staff attitudes and lack of confidence in the skills of health workers were found to be important barriers to access. Financing reforms should therefore not only consider how to generate funds for health care, but also explicitly address the full range of affordability, availability and acceptability barriers to access in order to achieve equitable financing and benefit incidence patterns.

  1. Health benefits of wine: don't expect resveratrol too much.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Limin; Xiao, Lingyun; Wang, Yihai; Li, Haifeng; Huang, Zebo; He, Xiangjiu

    2014-08-01

    Moderate consumption of red wine reduces the risk of heart disease and extends lifespan, which these healthy benefits are often attributed to its high antioxidant content. The relative contributions of wine polyphenols in healthy benefits were studied in this study. Among all wine polyphenols, caffeic acid was the richest one, while gallic acid showed the highest free radical scavenging activity. There was no significant difference between the prime red wine and the red wine adding 10-fold resveratrol on neuroprotective effects on SH-SY5Y cell line. The contribution percentage of resveratrol to the antioxidant activity of red wine was less than other tested polyphenols. It suggested that resveratrol may be negligible with respect to healthy benefits of red wine.

  2. The inverse benefit law: how drug marketing undermines patient safety and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Howard; Light, Donald W

    2011-03-01

    Recent highly publicized withdrawals of drugs from the market because of safety concerns raise the question of whether these events are random failures or part of a recurring pattern. The inverse benefit law, inspired by Hart's inverse care law, states that the ratio of benefits to harms among patients taking new drugs tends to vary inversely with how extensively the drugs are marketed. The law is manifested through 6 basic marketing strategies: reducing thresholds for diagnosing disease, relying on surrogate endpoints, exaggerating safety claims, exaggerating efficacy claims, creating new diseases, and encouraging unapproved uses. The inverse benefit law highlights the need for comparative effectiveness research and other reforms to improve evidence-based prescribing.

  3. 78 FR 12833 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Essential Health Benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ..., Medicaid consultations, and meetings with tribal leaders and representatives, health insurance issuers... election of the state. Summary of Regulatory Changes For the reasons described in the proposed rule...

  4. Consumers' health risk-benefit perception of seafood and attitude toward the marine environment: Insights from five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Silke; Sioen, Isabelle; Pieniak, Zuzanna; De Henauw, Stefaan; Maulvault, Ana Luisa; Reuver, Marieke; Fait, Gabriella; Cano-Sancho, German; Verbeke, Wim

    2015-11-01

    This research classifies European consumers into segments based on their health risk-benefit perception related to seafood consumption. The profiling variables of these segments are seafood consumption frequency, general attitude toward consuming fish, confidence in control organizations, attitude toward the marine environment, environmental concern and socio-demographics. A web-based survey was performed in one western European country (Belgium), one northern European country (Ireland) and three southern European countries (Italy, Portugal and Spain), resulting in a total sample of 2824 participants. A cluster analysis was performed based on risk-benefit perception related to seafood and the profiles of the segments were determined by a robust 2-way ANOVA analysis accounting for country effects. Although this study confirms consumers' positive image of consuming seafood, gradients are found in health risk-benefit perception related to seafood consumption. Seafood consumption frequency is mainly determined by country-related traditions and habits related to seafood rather than by risk-benefit perceptions. Segments with a higher benefit perception, irrespective of their level of risk perception, show a more positive attitude toward consuming seafood and toward the marine environment; moreover, they report a higher concern about the marine environment and have a higher involvement with seafood and with the marine environment. Consequently, information campaigns concentrating on pro-environmental behavior are recommended to raise the involvement with seafood and the marine environment as this is associated with a higher environmental concern. This research underpins that in such information campaigns a nationally differentiated rather than a pan-European or international information strategy should be aimed for because of significant cultural differences between the identified segments.

  5. Suicide bomb attack causing penetrating craniocerebral injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manzar Hussain; Muhammad Ehsan Bari

    2013-01-01

    Penetrating cerebral injuries caused by foreign bodies are rare in civilian neurosurgical trauma,although there are various reports of blast or gunshot injuries in warfare due to multiple foreign bodies like pellets and nails.In our case,a 30-year-old man presented to neurosurgery clinic with signs and symptoms of right-sided weakness after suicide bomb attack.The skull X-ray showed a single intracranial nail.Small craniotomy was done and the nail was removed with caution to avoid injury to surrounding normal brain tissue.At 6 months' follow-up his right-sided power improved to against gravity.

  6. The Manhattan Project: Making the atomic bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosling, F.G.

    1994-09-01

    This article is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of US government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  7. Economic evaluations of health technologies: insights into the measurement and valuation of benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Bobinac (Ana)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractEconomic evaluations have been applied in the field of healthcare for several decades with the principle aim of improving the economic efficiency of resource allocation, i.e., help maximizing benefits from available (and constrained) resources. Broadly speaking, “economic evaluation is t

  8. Networking between occupational health services, client enterprises and other experts: difficulties, supporting factors and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltomäki, Päivi; Husman, Kaj

    2002-01-01

    This study explores difficulties, supporting factors and benefits of networking to studied enterprises and other network partners (focus on OHS and client enterprises). The study also explores social capital as a resource produced in network relations, and trust as a core dimension of social capital, and trust as a binding element in networking. The study is a mixed methods research (both qualitative and quantitative research materials). The most important supporting factors were: committed and active focus person, teamwork skills, long relationships, familiarity, trust and two-way communication in co-operation, shared goals, norms and values, an equal cost and benefit ratio, and the high quality of services. The biggest problems were the lack of skills to operate in the network and difficulties in maintaining the network, weak communication, lack of confidence, inconvenient size or composition of the network, overlapping information, cliques, nodes and missing links. The benefits were versatile: knowledge and skills accumulate, the network multiplies resources, fluency of co-operation, innovations, commitment and trust increase, good practices expand, and moreover, the quality, many-sidedness and appropriateness of operations improve. Networking is beneficial but demanding. There are many limitations. Networks are not equal for every network partner (inequality in cost and benefit ratio). Networks produce social capital for participants. Successful networking requires trust relations between network partners.

  9. 32 CFR 728.31 - Eligible beneficiaries and health benefits authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the member; so long as the relationship of husband and wife is not terminated by a final divorce or... one pair of nonstandard spectacles, are authorized when required to satisfy patient needs. Two pairs... divorce becomes final. This includes loss of maternity care benefits for wives who are pregnant at...

  10. 29 CFR 2590.712 - Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Disorders (DSM), the most current version of the ICD, or State guidelines). Substance use disorder benefits... independent standards of current medical practice (for example, the most current version of the DSM, the most...)(v) of this section prohibiting separately accumulating cumulative financial requirements...

  11. 45 CFR 146.136 - Parity in mental health and substance use disorder benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Disorders (DSM), the most current version of the ICD, or State guidelines). Substance use disorder benefits... independent standards of current medical practice (for example, the most current version of the DSM, the most...)(v) of this section prohibiting separately accumulating cumulative financial requirements...

  12. Evaluation of benefit to patients of training mental health professionals in suicide guidelines: cluster randomised trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurs, D.P. de; Groot, M.H. de; Keijser, J. de; Duijn, E. van; Winter, R.F.P. de; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Randomised studies examining the effect on patients of training professionals in adherence to suicide guidelines are scarce. Aims: To assess whether patients benefited from the training of professionals in adherence to suicide guidelines. Method: In total 45 psychiatric departments were

  13. Do doctors benefit from their profession?--A survey of medical practitioners' health promotion and health safety practices.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, M

    1998-12-01

    Three hundred Irish Medical Organisation members were surveyed on health promotion and health and safety issues. 64.7% responded (65.3 males; 33.7% < thirty-five years). Over half (54.9%) were aware of the safety legislation and very few reported available occupational health services. A majority wanted more such services. Nearly all believed health promotion was important yet only 35.2% always availed of opportunities to give such advice. 36.3% were often stressed, particularly at work. Alcohol was sometimes or frequently used to cope by around half of respondents. Although less than half (47.7%) used whole milk, one third usually or always added salt to their food. 15.5% took no weekly aerobic exercise but 42.0% claimed to do so three times weekly. 11.4 were current smokers. A third of women had never had a cervical smear. We conclude doctors require adequate occupational health services.

  14. Scientific Opinion on health benefits of seafood (fish and shellfish consumption in relation to health risks associated with exposure to methylmercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Following a request from the European Commission to address the risks and benefits as regards fish/seafood consumption related to relevant beneficial substances (e.g. nutrients such as n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and the contaminant methylmercury, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver a Scientific Opinion on health benefits of seafood consumption in relation to health risks associated with exposure to methylmercury. In the present Opinion, the NDA Panel has reviewed the role of seafood in European diets and evaluated the beneficial effects of seafood consumption in relation to health outcomes and population subgroups that have been identified by the FAO/WHO Joint Expert Consultation on the Risks and Benefits of Fish Consumption and/or the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the context of a risk assessment related to the presence of mercury and methylmercury in food as relevant for the assessment. These included the effects of seafood consumption during pregnancy on functional outcomes of children’s neurodevelopment and the effects of seafood consumption on cardiovascular disease risk in adults. The Panel concluded that consumption of about 1‑2 servings of seafood per week and up to 3‑4 servings per week during pregnancy has been associated with better functional outcomes of neurodevelopment in children compared to no consumption of seafood. Such amounts have also been associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease mortality in adults and are compatible with current intakes and recommendations in most of the European countries considered. These associations refer to seafood per se andinclude beneficial and adverse effects of nutrients and non-nutrients (i.e. including contaminants such as methylmercury contained in seafood. No additional benefits on neurodevelopmental outcomes and no benefit on coronary heart disease mortality risk might be expected at higher intakes.

  15. The Benefits of Dispositional Mindfulness in Physical Health: A Longitudinal Study of Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Megan J.; Mermelstein, Liza C.; Edwards, Katie M.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the relationship between dispositional mindfulness, health behaviors (e.g., sleep, eating, and exercise), and physical health. Participants: Participants included 441 college women. Methods: Women completed self-report surveys at the beginning and end of a 10-week academic quarter. The study was conducted over 5…

  16. CALCULATION OF PER PARCEL PROBABILITY FOR DUD BOMBS IN GERMANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Tavakkoli Sabour

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Unexploded aerial Bombs, also known as duds or unfused bombs, of the bombardments in the past wars remain explosive for decades after the war under the earth’s surface threatening the civil activities especially if dredging works are involved. Interpretation of the aerial photos taken shortly after bombardments has been proven to be useful for finding the duds. Unfortunately, the reliability of this method is limited by some factors. The chance of finding a dud on an aerial photo depends strongly on the photography system, the size of the bomb and the landcover. On the other hand, exploded bombs are considerably better detectable on aerial photos and confidently represent the extent and density of a bombardment. Considering an empirical quota of unfused bombs, the expected number of duds can be calculated by the number of exploded bombs. This can help to have a better calculation of cost-risk ratio and to classify the areas for clearance. This article is about a method for calculation of a per parcel probability of dud bombs according to the distribution and density of exploded bombs. No similar work has been reported in this field by other authors.

  17. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight... upon receiving information that an act or suspected act of air piracy has been committed, the...

  18. Probing Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes): a bitter mushroom with amazing health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Priya; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Khajuria, Robinka

    2013-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi or Reishi) is known as a bitter mushroom with remarkable health benefits. The active constituents found in mushrooms include polysaccharides, dietary fibers, oligosaccharides, triterpenoids, peptides and proteins, alcohols and phenols, mineral elements (such as zinc, copper, iodine, selenium, and iron), vitamins, and amino acids. The bioactive components found in the G. lucidum mushroom have numerous health properties to treat diseased conditions such as hepatopathy, chronic hepatitis, nephritis, hypertension, hyperlipemia, arthritis, neurasthenia, insomnia, bronchitis, asthma, gastric ulcers, atherosclerosis, leukopenia, diabetes, anorexia, and cancer. In spite of the voluminous literature available, G. lucidum is used mostly as an immune enhancer and a health supplement, not therapeutically. This review discusses the therapeutic potential of G. luidum to attract the scientific community to consider its therapeutic application where it can be worth pursuing.

  19. Evaluation of the mental health benefits of yoga in a secondary school: a preliminary randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Hickey-Schultz, Lynn; Cohen, Deborah; Steiner, Naomi; Cope, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate potential mental health benefits of yoga for adolescents in secondary school. Students were randomly assigned to either regular physical education classes or to 11 weeks of yoga sessions based upon the Yoga Ed program over a single semester. Students completed baseline and end-program self-report measures of mood, anxiety, perceived stress, resilience, and other mental health variables. Independent evaluation of individual outcome measures revealed that yoga participants showed statistically significant differences over time relative to controls on measures of anger control and fatigue/inertia. Most outcome measures exhibited a pattern of worsening in the control group over time, whereas changes in the yoga group over time were either minimal or showed slight improvements. These preliminary results suggest that implementation of yoga is acceptable and feasible in a secondary school setting and has the potential of playing a protective or preventive role in maintaining mental health.

  20. The Long-Term Health Implications of Marital Disruption: Divorce, Work Limits, and Social Security Disability Benefits Among Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Kenneth A; Tamborini, Christopher R; Reznik, Gayle L

    2015-10-01

    We provide new evidence on the long-term impact of divorce on work disability among U.S. men. Using data from the 2004 Survey of Income and Program Participation linked to U.S. Social Security Administration records, we assess the relationship between divorce and subsequent self-reports of work limitations and the receipt of federal disability benefits. The examination of self-reports and administrative records of medically qualified benefits provides dual confirmation of key relationships. We compare men who experienced a marital dissolution between 1975 and 1984 with continuously married men for 20 years following divorce using fixed-effects and propensity score matching models, and choose a sample to help control for selection into divorce. On average, we find that divorce is not associated with an increased probability of self-reported work limitations or receipt of disability benefits over the long run. However, among those who do not remarry, we do find that divorce increases men's long-term probability of both self-reported work limitations and federal disability benefit receipt. Lack of marital resources may drive this relationship. Alternative estimates that do not control for selection into divorce demonstrate that selection bias can substantially alter findings regarding the relationship between marital status changes and subsequent health.

  1. The right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress: in search of state obligations in relation to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Yvonne

    2011-11-01

    After having received little attention over the past decades, one of the least known human rights--the right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications--has had its dust blown off. Although included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)--be it at the very end of both instruments -this right hardly received any attention from States, UN bodies and programmes and academics. The role of science in societies and its benefits and potential danger were discussed in various international fora, but hardly ever in a human rights context. Nowadays, within a world that is increasingly turning to science and technology for solutions to persistent socio-economic and development problems, the human dimension of science also receives increased attention, including the human right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications. This contribution analyses the possible legal obligations of States in relation to the right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications, in particular as regards health.

  2. H-alpha features with hot onsets. I. Ellerman bombs

    CERN Document Server

    Rutten, R J

    2016-01-01

    Ellerman bombs are transient brightenings of the wings of the Balmer lines that uniquely mark reconnection in the solar photosphere. They are also bright in strong Ca II and ultraviolet lines and in ultraviolet continua, but they are not visible in the optical continuum and the Na I D and Mg I b lines. These discordant visibilities invalidate all published Ellerman bomb modeling. I argue that the assumption of Saha-Boltzmann lower-level populations is informative to estimate bomb-onset opacities for these diverse diagnostics, even and especially for H-alpha, and employ such estimates to gauge the visibilities of Ellerman bomb onsets in all of them. They constrain Ellerman bomb formation to temperatures 10,000 - 20,000 K and hydrogen densities around 10^15 cm^-3. Similar arguments likely hold for H-alpha visibility in other transient phenomena with hot and dense onsets.

  3. Energy drinks: review of performance benefits, health concerns, and use by military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lucas A; Foster, David; McDowell, Jackie C

    2014-04-01

    Energy drinks (EDs) are highly caffeinated beverages usually containing herbal ingredients promoted and consumed for purported improvements in attention and athletic performance. The popularity of EDs among adolescents and young adults has steadily increased for more than a decade. Reports suggest U.S. military populations consume EDs with greater frequency as compared to age-matched civilian populations. This article reviews the literature and outlines the current body of evidence evaluating the human performance benefits and potential harms associated with ED use.

  4. Introduction of Routine Obstetric Ultrasound in an Urban Health Center: Results and Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Angeline Pricilla

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Maternal morbidity and mortality can be reduced by early detection of missed abortion, placenta previa, twin pregnancy, and molar pregnancy by routine obstetric ultrasound at booking visit. Routine obstetric ultrasound at the first and second trimesters had obvious benefits in confirming the expected date of delivery in a community where remembering the last menstrual period was not a priority. Introduction of this procedure helped in appropriate management of post-term pregnancies.

  5. New insights into the benefits of exercise for muscle health in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemo Munters, Li; Alexanderson, Helene; Crofford, Leslie J; Lundberg, Ingrid E

    2014-07-01

    With recommended treatment, a majority with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) develop muscle impairment and poor health. Beneficial effects of exercise have been reported on muscle performance, aerobic capacity and health in chronic polymyositis and dermatomyositis and to some extent in active disease and inclusion body myositis (IBM). Importantly, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicate that improved health and decreased clinical disease activity could be mediated through increased aerobic capacity. Recently, reports seeking mechanisms underlying effects of exercise in skeletal muscle indicate increased aerobic capacity (i.e. increased mitochondrial capacity and capillary density, reduced lactate levels), activation of genes in aerobic phenotype and muscle growth programs, and down regulation in genes related to inflammation. Altogether, exercise contributes to both systemic and within-muscle adaptations demonstrating that exercise is fundamental to improve muscle performance and health in IIM. There is a need for RCTs to study effects of exercise in active disease and IBM.

  6. The Health Benefits and Challenges of Exercise Training in Persons Living with Schizophrenia: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Donna J.; Warburton, Darren E.R.; Bredin, Shannon S.D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In addition to the hallmark cognitive and functional impairments mounting evidence indicates that schizophrenia is also associated with an increased risk for the development of secondary complications, in particular cardio-metabolic disease. This is thought to be the result of various factors including physical inactivity and the metabolic side effects of psychotropic medications. Therefore, non-pharmacological approaches to improving brain health, physical health, and overall wel...

  7. Bioactive sterols from marine resources and their potential benefits for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Van Ta, Quang

    2012-01-01

    Bioactive agents from marine resources have shown their valuable health beneficial effects. Therefore, increase knowledge on novel functional ingredients with biological activities from marine animal and microbe has gained much attention. Sterols are recognized as potential in development functional food ingredients and pharmaceutical agents. Marine resources, with a great diversity, can be a very interesting natural resource of sterols. This chapter focuses on biological activities of marine animal and microbe sterols with potential health beneficial applications in functional foods and pharmaceuticals.

  8. Culinary herbs and spices: their bioactive properties, the contribution of polyphenols and the challenges in deducing their true health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Elizabeth I; Chohan, Magali

    2014-10-22

    Herbs and spices have been used for both culinary and medicinal purposes for centuries. Over the last decade, research into their role as contributors of dietary polyphenols, known to possess a number of properties associated with reducing the risk of developing chronic non-communicable diseases, has increased. However, bearing in mind how these foods are consumed, normally in small quantities and in combination with other foods, it is unclear what their true benefit is from a health perspective. The aim of this review is to use the literature to discuss how preparative and digestive processes, bioavailability and interactions between foods may influence the bioactive properties of these foods, and whether or not polyphenols are responsible for these properties. Furthermore, this review aims to highlight the challenges that need to be addressed so as to determine the true benefits of these foods and the mechanisms of action that underpin their purported efficacy.

  9. The benefits of anthropological approaches for health promotion research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumeich, A; Weijts, W; Reddy, P; Meijer-Weitz, A

    2001-04-01

    In recent years health education practitioners have been looking for ways to extend the social psychological analysis of human behavior with approaches that focus on the cultural and social context of human behavior. In this article the value of the 'thick description' approach, borrowed from anthropology, is explored by examples from the Caribbean and South Africa. It demonstrates that an anthropological approach has much to offer as a basis for sound interventions for understanding human behavior. However, although an anthropological approach offers valuable starting points for interventions, its broad scope exceeds the traditional goals of health education (changing health beliefs, health counseling). Interventions will not aim at informing individuals, but at improving cultures. They may concern the change of basic cultural and social structures such as gender roles. To limit the risk of ethnocentrism, adequate ways need to be developed to make optimal use of the information thick description offers, while avoiding ethnocentrism. The article ends with a discussion concerning the assets of a dialogical approach towards health promotion. A dialogue between health promoters and their target population may help solve the problem of ethnocentrism in broadly scoped interventions.

  10. Finger millet (Ragi, Eleusine coracana L.): a review of its nutritional properties, processing, and plausible health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobana, S; Krishnaswamy, K; Sudha, V; Malleshi, N G; Anjana, R M; Palaniappan, L; Mohan, V

    2013-01-01

    Finger millet or ragi is one of the ancient millets in India (2300 BC), and this review focuses on its antiquity, consumption, nutrient composition, processing, and health benefits. Of all the cereals and millets, finger millet has the highest amount of calcium (344mg%) and potassium (408mg%). It has higher dietary fiber, minerals, and sulfur containing amino acids compared to white rice, the current major staple in India. Despite finger millet's rich nutrient profile, recent studies indicate lower consumption of millets in general by urban Indians. Finger millet is processed by milling, malting, fermentation, popping, and decortication. Noodles, vermicilli, pasta, Indian sweet (halwa) mixes, papads, soups, and bakery products from finger millet are also emerging. In vitro and in vivo (animal) studies indicated the blood glucose lowering, cholesterol lowering, antiulcerative, wound healing properties, etc., of finger millet. However, appropriate intervention or randomized clinical trials are lacking on these health effects. Glycemic index (GI) studies on finger millet preparations indicate low to high values, but most of the studies were conducted with outdated methodology. Hence, appropriate GI testing of finger millet preparations and short- and long-term human intervention trials may be helpful to establish evidence-based health benefits.

  11. Different Oils and Health Benefit Statements Affect Physicochemical Properties, Consumer Liking, Emotion, and Purchase Intent: A Case of Sponge Cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonnakasem, Naratip; Pujols, Kairy Dharali; Chaiwanichsiri, Saiwarun; Laohasongkram, Kalaya; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2016-01-01

    Effects of different oils on physicochemical properties, consumer liking, emotion, and purchase intent of sponge cakes were evaluated. Three healthy oils (extra virgin coconut oil, EVCO; extra virgin olive oil, EVOO; rice bran oil, RBO) compared with butter (the control), were used at 20% (w/w, wheat flour basis) in sponge cake formulations. Five positive (calm, good, happy, pleased, satisfied) and 3 negative (guilty, unsafe, worried) emotion terms, selected from the EsSense Profile(®) with slight modification using an online (N = 234) check-all-that-apply questionnaire, were used for consumer testing. Consumers (N = 148) evaluated acceptability of 9 sensory attributes on a 9-point hedonic scale, 8 emotion responses on a 5-point rating scale, and purchase intent on a binomial scale. Overall liking, emotion, and purchase intent were evaluated before compared with after health benefit statement of oils had been given to consumers. Overall liking and positive emotion (except calm) scores of sponge cake made with EVCO were higher than those made with EVOO and RBO. Specific volume, expansion ratio, and moisture content of control, EVCO, and EVOO were not significantly different, but higher than RBO sponge cake. JAR results showed that sponge cake made with RBO had the least softness that was reflected by the highest hardness (6.61 to 9.69 compared with. 12.76N). Oil (EVCO/EVOO/RBO) health benefit statement provided to consumer significantly increased overall liking, positive emotion, and purchase intent scores while decreased negative emotion scores. Overall liking and pleased emotion were critical attributes influencing purchase intent (odds ratio = 2.06 to 3.75), whereas calm and happy became not critical after health benefit statement had been given.

  12. Impact of the Boston Marathon Bombing and Its Aftermath on Refugees and Survivors of Torture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwowarczyk, Linda; Rous, Dana; Mancuso, Anna; Flinton, Kathleen; Hastings, Erica; Forbush, Leigh; Shepherd, Amy

    2016-08-01

    On April 15, 2013, Boston residents and guests gathered for the Boston Marathon. Two explosives at the finish line killed three people and injured hundreds of others. As part of our clinical encounters, patients of the Boston Center for Refugee Health & Human Rights were asked about the marathon bombing. We were concerned about the high level of armed security as many of our patients had been detained in their countries of origin. Eighty patients seen between April 16 and July 7, 2013 were asked about their experience of the Boston Marathon bombing and its aftermath. A retrospective chart review was undertaken and data analyzed using Atlas.ti & SPSS. Approximately 86 % of those interviewed were reminded of their past trauma. The following themes emerged: triggering and trauma related symptoms, content specific cognitive schemas, recognition of the universality of violence, fears of discrimination, issues surrounding safety, and specific concerns of Muslims.

  13. Proceedings of 42nd Research Society for the Late Effects of the A-Bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Hideo [Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Casualty Council Health Management and Promotion Center (Japan); Nakane, Yoshibumi [Nagasaki Univ. Graduate School of Bio-medicine (Japan); Suzuki, Gen [Radiation Effect Research Foundation, Hiroshima (JP)] [and others

    2002-03-01

    This issue is the collection of study papers presented in the meeting in the title: the special review lecture concerning the epidemiological evidences of multiple myeloma examination in A-bomb survivors (12-year study), the symposium concerning the medical care of A-bomb survivors in 21st century (5 presentations of medical care for the aged survivors, psychiatric approach and psychological care, future clinical studies and survivors' children in RERF, epidemiological study on the late effect of A-bomb radiation, and international cooperation of medical care in Semipalatinsk), and 51 general presentations. The general presentations included 1 article concerning external dose estimation in Ust-Kamenogorsk city, 7, the health care and management of the survivors, 9, cancer and its risk assessment (lung, uterine, stomach, liver and bone marrow), 1, arteriosclerosis, 10, health physics studies in relation to Semipalatinsk and/or Chernobyl (mainly on thyroid cancer), 2, experimental animal studies of thyroid cancer and malformation, 9, genomic studies like gene rearrangement, REV1 SNPs, function analysis and regeneration medicine, and 12, histological and cytological studies concerning DNA/RNA extraction, gene expression, signal transduction and immune system. (K.H.)

  14. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition and health benefits: The Robin Hood effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses two distinct, yet related, mechanisms of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibition: Calorie restriction mimicry (CRM and pro-ketogenic effect, which may explain their cardiovascular benefits. We term these adaptive CRM and pro-ketogenic effects of SGLT2 inhibition, the Robin Hood hypothesis. In English history, Robin Hood was a "good person," who stole from the rich and helped the poor. He supported redistribution of resources as he deemed fit for the common good. In a similar fashion, SGLT2 inhibition provides respite to the overloaded glucose metabolism while utilizing lipid stores for energy production.

  15. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition and health benefits: The Robin Hood effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay; Jain, Arpit; Ved, Jignesh; Unnikrishnan, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses two distinct, yet related, mechanisms of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition: Calorie restriction mimicry (CRM) and pro-ketogenic effect, which may explain their cardiovascular benefits. We term these adaptive CRM and pro-ketogenic effects of SGLT2 inhibition, the Robin Hood hypothesis. In English history, Robin Hood was a “good person,” who stole from the rich and helped the poor. He supported redistribution of resources as he deemed fit for the common good. In a similar fashion, SGLT2 inhibition provides respite to the overloaded glucose metabolism while utilizing lipid stores for energy production. PMID:27730088

  16. Overcoming Language Barriers in Health Care: Costs and Benefits of Interpreter Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Elizabeth A.; Shepard, Donald S.; Suaya, Jose A.; Stone, Esta-Lee

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the impact of interpreter services on the cost and the utilization of health care services among patients with limited English proficiency. Methods. We measured the change in delivery and cost of care provided to patients enrolled in a health maintenance organization before and after interpreter services were implemented. Results. Compared with English-speaking patients, patients who used the interpreter services received significantly more recommended preventive services, made more office visits, and had more prescriptions written and filled. The estimated cost of providing interpreter services was $279 per person per year. Conclusions. Providing interpreter services is a financially viable method for enhancing delivery of health care to patients with limited English proficiency. PMID:15117713

  17. The alkaline diet: is there evidence that an alkaline pH diet benefits health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry K

    2012-01-01

    This review looks at the role of an alkaline diet in health. Pubmed was searched looking for articles on pH, potential renal acid loads, bone health, muscle, growth hormone, back pain, vitamin D and chemotherapy. Many books written in the lay literature on the alkaline diet were also reviewed and evaluated in light of the published medical literature. There may be some value in considering an alkaline diet in reducing morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases and further studies are warranted in this area of medicine.

  18. The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline pH Diet Benefits Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry K. Schwalfenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This review looks at the role of an alkaline diet in health. Pubmed was searched looking for articles on pH, potential renal acid loads, bone health, muscle, growth hormone, back pain, vitamin D and chemotherapy. Many books written in the lay literature on the alkaline diet were also reviewed and evaluated in light of the published medical literature. There may be some value in considering an alkaline diet in reducing morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases and further studies are warranted in this area of medicine.

  19. Phlorotannins from Ecklonia cava (Phaeophyceae): biological activities and potential health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesekara, Isuru; Yoon, Na Young; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    The importance of bioactive derivatives as functional ingredients has been well recognized due to their valuable health beneficial effects. Therefore, isolation and characterization of novel functional ingredients with biological activities from seaweeds have gained much attention. Ecklonia cava Kjellman is an edible seaweed, which has been recognized as a rich source of bioactive derivatives mainly, phlorotannins. These phlorotannins exhibit various beneficial biological activities such as antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, antihypertensive, matrix metalloproteinase enzyme inhibition, hyaluronidase enzyme inhibition, radioprotective, and antiallergic activities. This review focuses on biological activities of phlorotannins with potential health beneficial applications in functional foods, pharmaceuticals, and cosmeceuticals.

  20. Great Lakes waters: radiation dose commitments, potential health effects, and cost-benefit considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainsworth, E.J.

    1977-07-01

    In 1972, a Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement was signed by the United States and Canadian Governments. It was stipulated that the operation and effectiveness of the agreement were to be reviewed comprehensively in 1977. Aspects of the agreement concern nondegradation of Great Lakes waters and maintenance of levels of radioactivity or other potential pollutants at levels considered as low as practicable. A refined radioactivity objective of one millirem is proposed in the Water Quality Agreement. The implications of adoption of this objective are not known fully. The Division of Environmental Impact Studies was commissioned by ERDA's Division of Technology Overview to summarize the information available on the current levels of radioactivity in Great Lakes waters, compute radiation-dose commitment (integrated dose over 50 years after consumption of 2.2 liters of water of one year), and to comment on the feasibility and cost-benefit considerations associated with the refined one-millirem objective. Current levels of radioactivity in the waters of Lakes Michigan, Ontario, Erie, and Huron result in dose commitments in excess of 1 mrem for whole body and 6 mrem for bone. Future projections of isotope concentrations in Great lakes water indicate similar dose commitments for drinking water in the year 2050. Reduction of the levels of radioactivity in Great Lakes waters is not feasible, but cost-benefit considerations support removal of /sup 226/Ra and /sup 90/Sr through interceptive technology before water consumption. Adoption of the one-millirem objective is not propitious.

  1. The Use of Portfolios in Coordinated School Health Programs: Benefits and Challenges to Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Seraphine Pitt; Torrens, Anna; George, Valerie; Brown, Kelli McCormack

    2007-01-01

    Background: Coordinated school health programs (CSHP) frequently struggle with how to adequately evaluate implementation. The CSHP framework provides flexibility in how it is implemented; however, this flexibility makes it a challenge to effectively evaluate. Portfolios have been used as a technique for evaluating progress and achievement. This…

  2. 78 FR 64873 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program and Federal Employees Dental and Vision Insurance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife, and that the term ``spouse'' referred only to a person of the opposite sex who is a husband or wife. Thus, the availability of same-sex... health insurance coverage for children under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Public...

  3. How good is the Prevent model for estimating the health benefits of prevention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Prevent is a public health model for estimating the effect on mortality of changes in exposure to risk factors. When the model is tested by simulating a development that has already taken place, the results may differ considerably from the actual situation. The purpose of this study is to test th...

  4. Features and Benefits of Online Counselling: Trinity College Online Mental Health Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Derek

    2009-01-01

    Universities have a responsibility to develop appropriate interventions to respond to the mental health needs of their students. Students' use of technology is an integral part of how they communicate and relate to the world; it is reasonable to consider engaging the internet and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for mental health…

  5. Volunteering in Middle and Later Life: Is Health a Benefit, Barrier or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunqing; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2006-01-01

    The positive association between volunteering and health has been widely interpreted as evidence of the salutary effect of volunteering during adulthood. Using three waves of data from a national survey, this study uses structural equation models to examine the relationships among volunteering, functional limitations, and depressive symptoms…

  6. Nutritional value, bioactive compounds, and health benefits of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce is one of the most popularly consumed vegetables worldwide but its nutritional value has been underestimated. Lettuce is low in calories and fat but high in fiber. Moreover, lettuce is high in potassium but low in sodium. Lettuce is also a good source of health-beneficial bioactive compounds...

  7. Towards microbial fermentation metabolites as markers for health benefits of prebiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeke, Kristin A.; Boobis, Alan R.; Chiodini, Alessandro; Edwards, Christine A.; Franck, Anne; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Nauta, Arjen; Raes, Jeroen; Tol, Van Eric A.F.; Tuohy, Kieran M.

    2015-01-01

    Available evidence on the bioactive, nutritional and putative detrimental properties of gut microbial metabolites has been evaluated to support a more integrated view of how prebiotics might affect host health throughout life. The present literature inventory targeted evidence for the physiologic

  8. Social media in the health-care setting: benefits but also a minefield of compliance and other legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Richard E; McNeese, Libra G; Feld, Lauren D; Feld, Andrew D

    2014-08-01

    Throughout the past 20 years, the rising use of social media has revolutionized health care as well as other businesses. It allows large groups of people to create and share information, ideas, and experiences through online communications, and develop social and professional contacts easily and inexpensively. Our Gastroenterology organizations, among others, have embraced this technology. Although the health-care benefits may be many, social media must be viewed through a legal lens, recognizing the accompanying burdens of compliance, ethical, and litigation issues. Theories of liability and risk continue to evolve as does the technology. Social media usage within the medical community is fraught with potential legal issues, requiring remedial responses to meet patients' needs and comply with current laws, while not exposing physicians to medical malpractice and other tort risks.

  9. Benefits and harms of general health checks- lifelong learning in general practice: how to read and use scientific literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arreskov, Anne Beiter; Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Nielsen, Kirsten Lykke

    the paper using the method of critical appraisal. Session content The didactic method used in the workshop is mostly small group activities with eight participants and two tutors in each group. The participants will receive two scientific papers: the BMJ-version of the Cochrane review about general health......Abstract title: Benefits and harms of general health checks - lifelong learning in general practice: how to read and use scientific literature Objectives After this workshop the participants will know the basics of how to read a systematic literature review and interpret a meta-analysis and be able...... to assess if: • the research valid? • what are the results? • should we apply the research in our practice? Background GPs often experience difficulties in keeping up-to-date, and at times feel they reach the outer boundaries of their knowledge. The practice of medicine in which the busy physician finds...

  10. Health benefits of the potato affected by domestic cooking: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jinhu; Chen, Jianchu; Ye, Xingqian; Chen, Shiguo

    2016-07-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L) is an important food crop worldwide and a good source of vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber as well as phytochemicals, which benefits human body as nutrients supplementary and antioxidants. However, cooked potato is also considered as a high-glycemic-index food because of its high content of rapidly digestible starch, long-term consumption of which will increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes. Domestic cooking (boiling, frying, steaming, etc.) are usually adopted before potato consumption. The chemical, physical and enzyme modifications that occur during cooking will alter the potato's antioxidant capacity and digestibility, which subsequently affected on the bioavailability of phytochemicals and the postprandial glycemic response of the human body. We reviewed the recent publications on the effects of domestic cooking on the nutrition, phytochemicals and the glycemic index changes of the cooked potato. Furthermore, the possible mechanisms underlying these changes were discussed, and additional implications and future research goals were suggested.

  11. The Potentialities of the Atomic Bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bradbury, Norris E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-07

    Since the first use of an atomic bomb on August 5 [sic], 1945, over the city of Hiroshima, Japan, there has been a continual flood of speculation and discussion concerning the effect of this new weapon on military technology. Much of this speculation and discussion has been intelligent and fruitful; much, I regret to say, has had neither of these characteristics. The enormity of the device, in terms of potential destruction and loss of life, and the practical necessity to surround the technical facts with full security restrictions have only combined to make the problem more difficult. At the same time, it is imperative that policymaking personnel in charge of long range national planning know the basic facts concerning atomic weapons and have these facts in a reasonable perspective. This document describes these potentialities in detail.

  12. Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) as a Food Supplement: Health-Promoting Benefits of Fructooligosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Brunno F. R.; de Moura, Nelci A.; Almeida, Ana P. S.; Dias, Marcos C.; Sivieri, Kátia; Barbisan, Luís F.

    2016-01-01

    Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius), a perennial plant of the family Asteraceae native to the Andean regions of South America, is an abundant source of fructooligosaccharides (FOS). This comprehensive review of the literature addressed the role of yacon supplementation in promoting health and reducing the risk of chronic diseases. According to several preclinical and clinical trials, FOS intake favors the growth of health-promoting bacteria while reducing pathogenic bacteria populations. Moreover, the endproducts of FOS fermentation by the intestinal microbiota, short chain fatty acids (SCFA), act as substrates or signaling molecules in the regulation of the immune response, glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism. As a result, glycemic levels, body weight and colon cancer risk can be reduced. Based on these findings, most studies reviewed concluded that due to their functional properties, yacon roots may be effectively used as a dietary supplement to prevent and treat chronic diseases. PMID:27455312

  13. The break of medical confidentiality for the benefit of public health: a controversial topic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papageorgiou Ε.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This paper refers to the decision made by the Greek Government to publish photographs and personal data of HIV positive sex workers on the grounds of protecting public health. Method: Initially, the law and theoretical background of medical confidentiality and its break were reviewed and then the conditions and data that led to the specific decision made by the Greek Authorities were investigated. Also the contribution of NGOs in the prevention of Public Health was studied. Conclusion: The survey showed that in this particular case the break of confidentiality was excessive and biased due to the origin and illegal activity of the women. A proper solution to the HIV/AIDS outbreak would be the intensification of prevention. In this sector, NGOs can and should play an active role considering that the primary care in Greece, especially during the economic crisis, shows organizational and operational weaknesses.

  14. Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius as a Food Supplement: Health-Promoting Benefits of Fructooligosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunno F. R. Caetano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius, a perennial plant of the family Asteraceae native to the Andean regions of South America, is an abundant source of fructooligosaccharides (FOS. This comprehensive review of the literature addressed the role of yacon supplementation in promoting health and reducing the risk of chronic diseases. According to several preclinical and clinical trials, FOS intake favors the growth of health-promoting bacteria while reducing pathogenic bacteria populations. Moreover, the endproducts of FOS fermentation by the intestinal microbiota, short chain fatty acids (SCFA, act as substrates or signaling molecules in the regulation of the immune response, glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism. As a result, glycemic levels, body weight and colon cancer risk can be reduced. Based on these findings, most studies reviewed concluded that due to their functional properties, yacon roots may be effectively used as a dietary supplement to prevent and treat chronic diseases.

  15. Biological activities and potential health benefits of fucoxanthin derived from marine brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Pangestuti, Ratih

    2011-01-01

    The importance of marine algae as sources of functional ingredients has been well recognized due to their valuable health beneficial effects. Therefore, isolation and investigation of novel bioactive ingredients with biological activities from marine algae have attracted great attention. Among functional ingredients identified from marine algae, fucoxanthin has received particular interest. Fucoxanthin has been attributed with extraordinary potential for protecting the organism against a wide range of diseases and has considerable potential and promising applications in human health. Fucoxanthin has been reported to exhibit various beneficial biological activities such as antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiobesity, and neuroprotective activities. In this chapter, the currently available scientific literatures regarding the most significant activities of fucoxanthin are summarized.

  16. Benefits of Health and Wellness Education in the Adult Population in México, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Hernández Vázquez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents advances in understanding the influence of Mexican education on the perceptions of the adult population regarding their health. The analysis forms part of the oecd conceptual model for understanding the connections between education and social—but not economic—outcomes. Data from the 2006 National Survey on Health and Nutrition is employed to build a logistic model. The study confirmed the idea that people tend to feel healthier as their educational level rises, regardless of their economic condition, ethnicity, age, gender or whether they reside in a rural or urban area. The findings also showed that education is the single most positive influence on the perception of feeling healthy, more so even than economic situation.

  17. Residential High-Speed Internet Among Those Likely to Benefit From an Online Health Insurance Marketplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Michel H; Gonzales, Gilbert; Blewett, Lynn; Fried, Brett; Karaca-Mandic, Pinar

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the 2013 American Community Survey, we found that 24.3 million people (about 1 in 4) who were either eligible for Medicaid/Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) or appeared likely to shop for Qualified Health Plan (QHP) lacked residential high-speed Internet. Specifically, 28.6% or 18.9 million people eligible for Medicaid/CHIP and 17.1% or 5.5 million people who appeared likely to shop for a QHP did not have high-speed Internet in the home. For both the Medicaid/CHIP eligible and those likely to shop for a QHP, the proportion of people living in households without Internet varied substantially by race, geography, and other socio-demographic characteristics.

  18. Residential High-Speed Internet Among Those Likely to Benefit From an Online Health Insurance Marketplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel H. Boudreaux PhD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using data from the 2013 American Community Survey, we found that 24.3 million people (about 1 in 4 who were either eligible for Medicaid/Children’s Health Inusrance Program (CHIP or appeared likely to shop for Qualified Health Plan (QHP lacked residential high-speed Internet. Specifically, 28.6% or 18.9 million people eligible for Medicaid/CHIP and 17.1% or 5.5 million people who appeared likely to shop for a QHP did not have high-speed Internet in the home. For both the Medicaid/CHIP eligible and those likely to shop for a QHP, the proportion of people living in households without Internet varied substantially by race, geography, and other socio-demographic characteristics.

  19. Report on the results of the tenth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Jun [Hiroshima Prefectural Medical Association (Japan); Ohta, Nobuhiro; Sasaki, Hideo [and others

    1996-01-01

    The 10th medical examination of A-bomb survivors resident in North America was conducted from 6 June to 6 July 1995 in L.A., S.F., Seattle, Wailuku, and Honolulu. Since this is the 10th medical examination, results of the previous examination are summarized. With the exclusion of 55 whose death has been confirmed, the total registered number of A-bomb survivors resident in North America is 1,043. The examinees in the present examination amounted to 463 (48 of them are the children of A-bomb survivors), 26 of whom are newly registered survivors. The mean age of the examinees in 64 years. The proportion of those having US nationality gradually increased and reached 62% at the time of the 10th examination, while that of those who have Japanese nationality and permanent US residency rights decreased to 30%. When the examination program was initiated, A-bomb survivors resident in 15 states of the US, but now, in Canada and 31 states of the US. About 90% of these survivors reside along the west coast of the US including Hawaii. The number of holders of A-bomb survivor`s health handbook has increased year after year, reaching 612. When the holders in North-America visit Japan for medical treatment, they are treated similarly with their counterparts in Japan. The major subjective symptoms are complete exhaustion or fatigue, heat intolerance, loss of vigor, and numbness or tingling. The prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus and the proportion of abnormal ECG findings has been increasing with the age. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia was high and that of low HDL cholesterolemia was low. A significant difference was observed between the A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and North America. Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, ischemic heart disease, and diabetes mellitus were observed mainly. Diseased of specific places were not observed. (H.O.).

  20. The Health Benefits and Challenges of Exercise Training in Persons Living with Schizophrenia: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna J. Lang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In addition to the hallmark cognitive and functional impairments mounting evidence indicates that schizophrenia is also associated with an increased risk for the development of secondary complications, in particular cardio-metabolic disease. This is thought to be the result of various factors including physical inactivity and the metabolic side effects of psychotropic medications. Therefore, non-pharmacological approaches to improving brain health, physical health, and overall well-being have been promoted increasingly. Methods: We report on the health-related physical fitness (body composition, blood pressure, heart rate, and aerobic fitness and lipid profile of persons living with schizophrenia and effective means to address the challenges of exercise training in this population. Results: There was a markedly increased risk for cardio-metabolic disease in 13 persons living with schizophrenia (Age = 31 ± 7 years including low aerobic fitness (76% ± 34% of predicted, reduced HDL (60% of cohort, elevated resting heart rate (80% of cohort, hypertension (40% of cohort, overweight and obesity (69% of cohort, and abdominal obesity (54% of cohort. Individualized exercise prescription (3 times/week was well tolerated, with no incidence of adverse exercise-related events. The exercise adherence rate was 81% ± 21% (Range 48%–100%, and 69% of the participants were able to complete the entire exercise training program. Exercise training resulted in clinically important changes in physical activity, aerobic fitness, exercise tolerance, blood pressure, and body composition. Conclusion: Persons living with schizophrenia appear to be at an increased risk for cardio-metabolic disease. An individualized exercise program has shown early promise for the treatment of schizophrenia and the various cognitive, functional, and physiological impairments that ultimately affect health and well-being.