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Sample records for bolster medical professionalism

  1. Making medical records professional(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, A

    1987-07-01

    In 1986 a joint medical records project group was set up by the Institute of Health Services Management, the Association of Health Care Information and Medical Records Officers and the NHS Training Authority, with Mr Vic Peel as chairman. The group was supported by Arthur Andersen & Co, management consultants. The following is a shortened and edited version of an interim report drafted for the group by Dr Alastair Mason. It is intended for discussion and does not yet represent the definitive views of the sponsoring bodies.

  2. Professional identity in medical students: pedagogical challenges to medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ian; Cowin, Leanne S; Johnson, Maree; Young, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Professional identity, or how a doctor thinks of himself or herself as a doctor, is considered to be as critical to medical education as the acquisition of skills and knowledge relevant to patient care. This article examines contemporary literature on the development of professional identity within medicine. Relevant theories of identity construction are explored and their application to medical education and pedagogical approaches to enhancing students' professional identity are proposed. The influence of communities of practice, role models, and narrative reflection within curricula are examined. Medical education needs to be responsive to changes in professional identity being generated from factors within medical student experiences and within contemporary society.

  3. Nurturing Medical Professionalism in the Surgical Community

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    teaching community in a Kenyan context on how ... buttressed by the Mezirow's theory of transformative learning, especially .... programs with the other institutions, or like other medical ... “A career day where they bring different professionals:.

  4. How virtue ethics informs medical professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCammon, Susan D; Brody, Howard

    2012-12-01

    We argue that a turn toward virtue ethics as a way of understanding medical professionalism represents both a valuable corrective and a missed opportunity. We look at three ways in which a closer appeal to virtue ethics could help address current problems or issues in professionalism education-first, balancing professionalism training with demands for professional virtues as a prerequisite; second, preventing demands for the demonstrable achievement of competencies from working against ideal professionalism education as lifelong learning; and third, avoiding temptations to dismiss moral distress as a mere "hidden curriculum" problem. As a further demonstration of how best to approach a lifelong practice of medical virtue, we will examine altruism as a mean between the extremes of self-sacrifice and selfishness.

  5. Emergency Medicine Resident Perceptions of Medical Professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Joshua; Gatewood, Medley O; Ilgen, Jonathan S; Schaninger, Caitlin; Strote, Jared

    2016-05-01

    Medical professionalism is a core competency for emergency medicine (EM) trainees; but defining professionalism remains challenging, leading to difficulties creating objectives and performing assessment. Because professionalism is dynamic, culture-specific, and often taught by modeling, an exploration of trainees' perceptions can highlight their educational baseline and elucidate the importance they place on general conventional professionalism domains. To this end, our objective was to assess the relative value EM residents place on traditional components of professionalism. We performed a cross-sectional, multi-institutional survey of incoming and graduating EM residents at four programs. The survey was developed using the American Board of Internal Medicine's "Project Professionalism" and the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education definition of professionalism competency. We identified 27 attributes within seven domains: clinical excellence, humanism, accountability, altruism, duty and service, honor and integrity, and respect for others. Residents were asked to rate each attribute on a 10-point scale. We analyzed data to assess variance across attributes as well as differences between residents at different training levels or different institutions. Of the 114 residents eligible, 100 (88%) completed the survey. The relative value assigned to different professional attributes varied considerably, with those in the altruism domain valued significantly lower and those in the "respect for others" and "honor and integrity" valued significantly higher (p<0.001). Significant differences were found between interns and seniors for five attributes primarily in the "duty and service" domain (p<0.05). Among different residencies, significant differences were found with attributes within the "altruism" and "duty and service" domains (p<0.05). Residents perceive differences in the relative importance of traditionally defined professional attributes and this may

  6. Viewpoint: the elephant in medical professionalism's kitchen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafferty, Fred

    2006-10-01

    The rise of the corporation within health care during the 1980s and early 1990s was met by organized medicine with a deluge of editorials, articles, and books that identified a singular enemy--commercialism--and depicted it as corrosive of, and antithetical to, medical professionalism. Medicine's ire proved prognostic as scores of highly publicized corporate-medical scandals began to crater the landscape of a rapidly emerging "medical marketplace." Medicine's main weapon in this counteroffensive was a renewed call to medical professionalism. Numerous organizations hosted conferences and underwrote initiatives to define, measure, and ultimately inculcate professionalism as a core medical competency. Nonetheless, an examination of medicine's overall response to the threat of commercialism reveals inconsistencies and schisms between these praiseworthy efforts and a parallel absence of action at the community practitioner and peer-review levels. The most recent salvo in this war on commercialism is a policy proposal by influential medical leaders who call for an end to the market incentives linking academic health centers and medical schools with industry. These forthright proposals nevertheless appear once again not to address the heartbeat of professional social control: community-based peer review, including a vigorous and proactive role by state medical boards. The author concludes by examining the implications of a professionalism bereft of peer review and explores the societal-level responsibilities of organized medicine to protect, nurture, and expand the role of the physician to maintain the values and ideals of professionalism against the countervailing social forces of the free market and bureaucracy.

  7. Medical professionalism: a tale of two doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrindo, Tristan; Groves, James E

    2011-01-01

    The AMA's social media guidelines provide physicians with some basic rules for maintaining professional boundaries when engaging in online activities. Left unanswered are questions about how these guidelines are to be implemented by physicians of different generations. By examining the issues of privacy and technological skill through the eyes of digital natives and digital immigrants, the challenges associated with medical e-professionalism become clear.

  8. Ethics of medical records and professional communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recupero, Patricia R

    2008-01-01

    In child and adolescent psychiatry, medical records and professional communications raise important ethical concerns for the treating or consulting clinician. Although a distinction may be drawn between internal records (eg, medical records and psychotherapy notes) and external communications (eg, consultation reports and correspondence with pediatricians), several ethical principles apply to both types of documentation; however, specific considerations may vary, depending upon the context in which the records or communications were produced. Special care is due with regard to thoroughness and honesty, collaboration and cooperation, autonomy and dignity of the patient, confidentiality of the patient and family members, maintaining objectivity and neutrality, electronic communications media, and professional activities (eg, political advocacy). This article reviews relevant ethical concerns for child and adolescent psychiatrists with respect to medical records and professional communications, drawing heavily from forensic and legal sources, and offers additional recommendations for further reading for clarification and direction on ethical dilemmas.

  9. Emergency Medicine Resident Perceptions of Medical Professionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Jauregui

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical professionalism is a core competency for emergency medicine (EM trainees; but defining professionalism remains challenging, leading to difficulties creating objectives and performing assessment. Because professionalism is dynamic, culture-specific, and often taught by modeling, an exploration of trainees’ perceptions can highlight their educational baseline and elucidate the importance they place on general conventional professionalism domains. To this end, our objective was to assess the relative value EM residents place on traditional components of professionalism. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional, multi-institutional survey of incoming and graduating EM residents at four programs. The survey was developed using the American Board of Internal Medicine’s “Project Professionalism” and the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education definition of professionalism competency. We identified 27 attributes within seven domains: clinical excellence, humanism, accountability, altruism, duty and service, honor and integrity, and respect for others. Residents were asked to rate each attribute on a 10-point scale. We analyzed data to assess variance across attributes as well as differences between residents at different training levels or different institutions. Results: Of the 114 residents eligible, 100 (88% completed the survey. The relative value assigned to different professional attributes varied considerably, with those in the altruism domain valued significantly lower and those in the “respect for others” and “honor and integrity” valued significantly higher (p<0.001. Significant differences were found between interns and seniors for five attributes primarily in the “duty and service” domain (p<0.05. Among different residencies, significant differences were found with attributes within the “altruism” and “duty and service” domains (p<0.05. Conclusion: Residents perceive differences in

  10. Bushido and Medical Professionalism in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Rebecca; Busari, Jamiu; Dornan, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Medical professionalism has become a core topic in medical education. As it has been considered mostly from a Western perspective, there is a need to examine how the same or similar concepts are reflected in a wider range of cultural contexts. To gain insights into medical professionalism concepts in Japanese culture, the authors compare the tenets of a frequently referenced Western guide to professionalism (the physician charter proposed by the American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation, American College of Physicians Foundation, and the European Federation of Internal Medicine) with the concepts of Bushido, a Japanese code of personal conduct originating from the ancient samurai warriors. The authors also present survey evidence about how a group of present-day Japanese doctors view the values of Bushido. Cultural scholars have demonstrated Bushido’s continuing influence on Japanese people today. The authors explain the seven main virtues of Bushido (e.g., rectitude), describe the similarities and differences between Bushido and the physician charter, and speculate on factors that may account for the differences, including the influence of religion, how much the group versus the individual is emphasized in a culture, and what emphasis is given to virtue-based versus duty-based ethics. The authors suggest that for those who are teaching and practicing in Japan today, Bushido’s virtues are applicable when considering medical professionalism and merit further study. They urge that there be a richer discussion, from the viewpoints of different cultures, on the meaning of professionalism in today’s health care practice. PMID:24556758

  11. The views of Medical Students on professionalism in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fam Med). Senior Lecturer, Department of Family Medicine ... Keywords: Medical Professionalism, Patient welfare, Autonomy, Social justice, .... unenviable position of having to balance professionalism and ... Physicians should work actively.

  12. Teaching Conflict: Professionalism and Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, K J

    2015-12-01

    Resistance by physicians, medical researchers, medical educators, and medical students to pharmaceutical industry influence in medicine is often based on the notion that physicians (guided by the ethics of their profession) and the industry (guided by profit) are in conflict. This criticism has taken the form of a professional movement opposing conflict of interest (COI) in medicine and medical education and has resulted in policies and guidelines that frame COI as the problem and outline measures to address this problem. In this paper, I offer a critique of this focus on COI that is grounded in a broader critique of neo-liberalism, arguing it individualizes the relationship between physicians and industry, too neatly delineates between the two entities, and reduces the network of social, economic, and political relations to this one dilemma.

  13. Medical Professionals Designing Hospital Management Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byg, Vibeke

    Health care administration in many OECD countries has undergone substantial changes in recent years as a consequence of NPM reforms, rising costs, the pace of technological innovation, heightened competition for patients and resources, quality of managed care and demographic shifts. Hospitals...... especially have been reformed due to the high proportion of resources they absorb and the apparent difficulty of prioritizing and coordinating health care within hospitals. There is abundant research literature on the topic of reforming hospital management models. Lacking from the literature, however......, is insight into how we can understand and explain how medical professionals adapt hospital management over time in relation to changing hospital management models that are global in their influence in hospital organizations. The aim of this dissertation is to understand and explain how medical professionals...

  14. Burnout syndrome: understanding of medical teaching professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Jaqueline Brito Vidal Batista; Thaíza Ferreira Costa; Jocerlânia Maria Dias de Morais; Eveline de Oliveira Barros; Patrícia Serpa de Souza Batista; Márcia Adriana Dias Meirelles Moreira; Jessyka Cibelly Minervina da Costa Silva; Débora Rodrigues Alves de Lima; Ana Hévila Marinho Bezerra; Irany Carvalho da Silva

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the understanding of medical teaching professionals about Burnout Syndrome. This is a qualitative, exploratory study, consisting of ten teaching physicians, who work at the hospital of a higher education institution. The data were collected from May to June 2013, through a form with questions pertinent to the proposed research objective, after approval by the Research Ethics Committee (Protocol No. 84022), and analyzed qualitatively, through the content analysi...

  15. [Medical professionalism-on social responsibilities viewed from historical perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jang Han

    2015-03-01

    What is medical professionalism and does it matter to the patients? Medical professionals take responsibility for their judgements and the consequences that ensue. Traditionally medical professionalism is defined as a set of values, behaviors, and relationships which support the trust the public has in doctors. The public is well aware that absence of professionalism is harmful to their interests. However, the exercise of medical professionalism is endangered by the political and cultural environment. The values of professionalism have been changed throughout the medical history and the meaning of it was also changed according to social theories. Traditional medical professionalism was based on the virtue of autonomy, self-regulation and competency etc. However, in the new millenium era, the meaning of professionalism has changed under the concept of responsibility which includes the classical virtues. The meaning of professionalism nowadays is only based on the structure and conflicting theories which cannot solve all the issues surrounding professionalism in medical practice. The conditions of medical practice are critical determinants for the future of professionalism. The interaction between doctor and patient is central to the medical care, and medical professionalism has roots in almost every aspect of medical care. I argue that doctors have responsibility to act according to the values which have been determined by the medical profession, history and surrounding society. The new millennium medical professionalism which based on the responsibility could initiate a public dialogue about the role of the doctor in creating a fairer society.

  16. Perspective: Medical education in medical ethics and humanities as the foundation for developing medical professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukas, David J; McCullough, Laurence B; Wear, Stephen

    2012-03-01

    Medical education accreditation organizations require medical ethics and humanities education to develop professionalism in medical learners, yet there has never been a comprehensive critical appraisal of medical education in ethics and humanities. The Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education (PRIME) I Workshop, convened in May 2010, undertook the first critical appraisal of the definitions, goals, and objectives of medical ethics and humanities teaching. The authors describe assembling a national expert panel of educators representing the disciplines of ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. This panel was tasked with describing the major pedagogical goals of art, ethics, history, and literature in medical education, how these disciplines should be integrated with one another in medical education, and how they could be best integrated into undergraduate and graduate medical education. The authors present the recommendations resulting from the PRIME I discussion, centered on three main themes. The major goal of medical education in ethics and humanities is to promote humanistic skills and professional conduct in physicians. Patient-centered skills enable learners to become medical professionals, whereas critical thinking skills assist learners to critically appraise the concept and implementation of medical professionalism. Implementation of a comprehensive medical ethics and humanities curriculum in medical school and residency requires clear direction and academic support and should be based on clear goals and objectives that can be reliably assessed. The PRIME expert panel concurred that medical ethics and humanities education is essential for professional development in medicine.

  17. Professional Training of Junior Medical Staff: European Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliasova, Yuliia

    2017-01-01

    The article covers current problems of professional training of junior medical staff. The main disadvantages of Ukrainian system of medical education that impede the intention of improving quality of professional training of junior medical staff have been analyzed. European experience in organizing medical education, namely, in Great Britain,…

  18. Burnout syndrome: understanding of medical teaching professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Brito Vidal Batista

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the understanding of medical teaching professionals about Burnout Syndrome. This is a qualitative, exploratory study, consisting of ten teaching physicians, who work at the hospital of a higher education institution. The data were collected from May to June 2013, through a form with questions pertinent to the proposed research objective, after approval by the Research Ethics Committee (Protocol No. 84022, and analyzed qualitatively, through the content analysis technique (Bardin. Among the 10 participants in the study, eight had adequate knowledge about Burnout Syndrome, while others showed insufficient knowledge. From the empirical material analysis, five thematic categories emerged: Syndrome characterized by physical and psychological exhaustion due to work stress; Physical and psychological signs and symptoms of Burnout Syndrome; Burnout syndrome and its implications for the worker’s health; The most vulnerable workers who develop Burnout Syndrome and Relation of Burnout Syndrome to the work of the teaching physician. The study showed that most participants in the research adequately understand Burnout Syndrome, but the subject is still little explored in academia. Therefore, intervention measures are necessary with the professionals of the risk group and new studies that contribute to expand the knowledge about that syndrome, aiming to improve the quality of life of the workers. Keywords: Worker’s Health; Professional Exhaustion; Doctors; Professors; Work Conditions.   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3823/2397

  19. Medical professionalism and the social contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Lynette

    2011-01-01

    Conceptions of professionalism in medicine draw on social contract theory; its strengths and weaknesses play out in how we reason about professionalism. The social contract metaphor may be a heuristic device prompting reflection on social responsibility, and as such is appealing: it encourages reasoning about privilege and responsibility, the broader context and consequences of action, and diverse perspectives on medical practice. However, when this metaphor is elevated to the status of a theory, it has well-known limits: the assumed subject position of contractors engenders blind spots about privilege, not critical reflection; its tendency to dress up the status quo in the trappings of a theoretical agreement may limit social negotiation; its attempted reconciliation of social obligation and self-interest fosters the view that ethics and self-interest should coincide; it sets up false expectations by identifying appearance and reality in morality; and its construal of prima facie duties as conditional misdirects ethical attention in particular situations from current needs to supposed past agreements or reciprocities. Using philosophical ideas as heuristic devices in medical ethics is inevitable, but we should be conscious of their limitations. When they limit the ethical scope of debate, we should seek new metaphors.

  20. Professional autonomy and the normative structure of medical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogland, Jan; Jochemsen, Henk

    2000-01-01

    Professional autonomy is often described as a claim of professionals that has to serve primarily their own interests. However, it can also be seen as an element of a professional ideal that can function as a standard for professional, i.e. medical practice. This normative understanding of the

  1. Professional deontology and medical practice in prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Guerrero, J; Vera-Remartínez, E J

    2015-01-01

    To study the knowledge on professional deontology amongst doctors in prisons. Descriptive, transversal and multi-centre study. Labour, collegiate, social, demographic and deontological variables were collected. A descriptive analysis of the variables was performed. A bivariate analysis was made by binary logistic regression models, attending to the odds ratio, and assuming a 95% confidence interval. Data was processed by SPSS v.20 software. 118 doctors replied. 68 men (57.6%), with an average age of 51 years (50-53). 100 know about the Deontology Committee (84.7%), but just 77 (65.3%) know its functions properly. 42 (35.6%) know about the existence of the Deontological Code, and 37 (31.3%) have read and apply it. Those who made a correct definition of deontology do find more deontological issues in their daily work [23(46.9%) vs. 18(26.1%); OR: 2.506; IC95%: 1.153-5.451; p=0.020] and would denounce a colleague more often to the Medical Association [40(81.6%) vs. 42 (60.9%); OR: 2.857; IC95%: 1.197-6.819; p=0.018]. Older ones know more about the deontology commissions' functions [54(73%) vs. 23(52.3%); OR: 2.465; IC95%: 1.127-5.394; p=0.024] and have already denounced situations to the Medical Association [27(36.5% vs. 5(11.4%); OR: 4.481; IC95%: 1.577-12.733; p=0.005], but think that a different Care Ethics Committee is unnecessary [57(77%) vs. 42(95.5%); OR: 0.160; IC95%: 0.035- 0.729; p=0.018]. Prison doctors know little about what professional deontology really is. This knowledge increases with age in the profession and is associated with an increased perception of deontological issues in daily practice.

  2. Developing a Physician׳s Professional Identity Through Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Kenneth E; Abercrombie, Caroline L

    2017-02-01

    Professionalism represents a fundamental characteristic of physicians. Professional organizations have developed professionalism competencies for physicians and medical students. The aim of teaching medical professionalism is to ensure the development of a professional identity in medical students. Professional identity formation is a process developed through teaching principles and appropriate behavioral responses to the stresses of being a physician. Addressing lapses and critical reflection is an important part of the educational process. The "hidden curriculum" within an institution plays an important role in professional identity formation. Assessment of professionalism involves multiple mechanisms. Steps in remediating professionalism lapses include (1) initial assessment, (2) diagnosis of problems and development of an individualized learning plan, (3) instruction encompassing practice, feedback and reflection and (4) reassessment and certification of competence. No reliable outcomes data exist regarding the effectiveness of different remediation strategies. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationships between medical student burnout, empathy, and professionalism climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazeau, Chantal M L R; Schroeder, Robin; Rovi, Sue; Boyd, Linda

    2010-10-01

    Medical student burnout is prevalent, and there has been much discussion about burnout and professionalism in medical education and the clinical learning environment. Yet, few studies have attempted to explore relationships between those issues using validated instruments. Medical students were surveyed at the beginning of their fourth year using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy-Student Version, and the Professionalism Climate Instrument. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, and Spearman correlation analysis was performed. Scores indicative of higher medical student burnout were associated with lower medical student empathy scores and with lower professionalism climate scores observed in medical students, residents, and faculty. Investigators observed relationships between medical student burnout, empathy, and professionalism climate. These findings may have implications for the design of curriculum interventions to promote student well-being and professionalism.

  4. Professional deontology and medical practice in prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. García-Guerrero

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the knowledge on professional deontology amongst doctors in prisons. Materials and Method: Descriptive, transversal and multi-centre study. Labour, collegiate, social, demographic and deontological variables were collected. A descriptive analysis of the variables was performed. A bivariate analysis was made by binary logistic regression models, attending to the odds ratio, and assuming a 95% confidence interval. Data was processed by SPSS v.20 software. Results: 118 doctors replied. 68 men (57.6%, with an average age of 51 years (50-53. 100 know about the Deontology Committee (84.7%, but just 77 (65.3% know its functions properly. 42 (35.6% know about the existence of the Deontological Code, and 37 (31.3% have read and apply it. Those who made a correct definition of deontology do find more deontological issues in their daily work [23(46.9% vs. 18(26.1%; OR: 2.506; IC95%: 1.153-5.451; p=0.020] and would denounce a colleague more often to the Medical Association [40(81.6% vs. 42 (60.9%; OR: 2.857; IC95%: 1.197-6.819; p=0.018]. Older ones know more about the deontology commissions' functions [54(73% vs. 23(52.3%; OR: 2.465; IC95%: 1.127-5.394; p=0.024] and have already denounced situations to the Medical Association [27(36.5% vs. 5(11.4%; OR: 4.481; IC95%: 1.577-12.733; p=0.005], but think that a different Care Ethics Committee is unnecessary [57(77% vs. 42(95.5%; OR: 0.160; IC95%: 0.035- 0.729; p=0.018]. Conclusions: Prison doctors know little about what professional deontology really is. This knowledge increases with age in the profession and is associated with an increased perception of deontological issues in daily practice.

  5. Themes in the history of medical professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Rosemary A

    2002-11-01

    Professionalism in medicine is an ambiguous term. Discussions are hampered by understandings of the past that are counterproductive to today s debates. Three decades of criticism of physicians as self-interested and arrogant, and of professional organizations as unfairly monopolistic have shaken the confidence of professional leaders and their constituents in their ability to act as a positive social force, and left the concept of professional autonomy without a useful meaning. Inherited assumptions about conflict between the profession, government and the market have encouraged organizational policies to fight familiar enemies for short-term gains, rather than reinvent professionalism as a social force or seek new strategic alliances. This article stresses the importance of distancing the present from the past in re-inventing professionalism for the future, and lists eight fundamental goals.

  6. Passionate Virtue: Conceptions of Medical Professionalism in Popular Romance Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Medical romance fiction is a subgenre of popular romance fiction that features medical professionals in their work environment. This essay explores the way professionalism is portrayed in popular medical romance fiction written during the early twenty-first century, a period of significant disruption in both the public image and self-understanding of organized medicine. I analyze a selection of contemporary medical romance novels, published between 2008 and 2012, demonstrating that medical romance fiction is a form of public intervention in apparently insular debates over medical professionalism. I conclude that they promote "nostalgic professionalism," a vision of physicians as a select group of highly educated, self-regulated experts who provide, with a caring and altruistic attitude, a vitally important service to society, while at the same time generating implicit critiques of it.

  7. Nurturing Medical Professionalism in the Surgical Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The teaching of professionalism worldwide is changing for effectiveness. Our aim was to explore the reflection of the surgical teaching community in a Kenyan context on how professionalism can be effectively inculcated through the socio-cultural concept of activity theory. Methods: A sequential mixed-methods ...

  8. Foreign Experience in Mastering Medical Professional Terminology by Foreign Students at Medical Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homonyuk, Olena; Avramenko, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Professional broadcasting of future medical foreign workers in the medical sector is a compulsory component of their professional readiness. The diversity of professional broadcasting functions of foreign students, the skillful use of the entire range of speech functionality, its external expressive attributability of speech; these are the most…

  9. Teaching and Assessing Professionalism in Medical Learners and Practicing Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Mueller

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Professionalism is a core competency of physicians. Clinical knowledge and skills (and their maintenance and improvement, good communication skills, and sound understanding of ethics constitute the foundation of professionalism. Rising from this foundation are behaviors and attributes of professionalism: accountability, altruism, excellence, and humanism, the capstone of which is professionalism. Patients, medical societies, and accrediting organizations expect physicians to be professional. Furthermore, professionalism is associated with better clinical outcomes. Hence, medical learners and practicing physicians should be taught and assessed for professionalism. A number of methods can be used to teach professionalism (e.g. didactic lectures, web-based modules, role modeling, reflection, interactive methods, etc.. Because of the nature of professionalism, no single tool for assessing it among medical learners and practicing physicians exists. Instead, multiple assessment tools must be used (e.g. multi-source feedback using 360-degree reviews, patient feedback, critical incident reports, etc.. Data should be gathered continuously throughout an individual’s career. For the individual learner or practicing physician, data generated by these tools can be used to create a “professionalism portfolio,” the totality of which represents a picture of the individual’s professionalism. This portfolio in turn can be used for formative and summative feedback. Data from professionalism assessments can also be used for developing professionalism curricula and generating research hypotheses. Health care leaders should support teaching and assessing professionalism at all levels of learning and practice and promote learning environments and institutional cultures that are consistent with professionalism precepts.

  10. Shiraz medical students’ perceptions of their colleagues’ professional behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEHRDAD ASKARIAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, development of professionalism is a critical aim of medical schools. Studies have demonstrated that medical students’ perceived level of professionalism is inadequate worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the medical students’ perceptions of their colleagues’ professional behavior. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study with 280 medical students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in their fifth to seventh year of study as the sample. The study was performed during one month in 2013, using stratified random sampling method. The instrument of the study was the Persian version of the questionnaire of the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM.The questionnaire includes demographic information, questions about the meaning of the professionalism, history of medical ethics education programs and 12 behavioral questions. The data were analyzed using student t-test and Pearson correlation test. The significance level was set as 0.05. Results: Forty percent of respondents did not know the meaning of professionalism. The mean±SD score of behavioral questions was 5.91±1.2 on a scale from 0 to 10. The mean±SD score of excellence questions was 4.94±1.7. It was 7.05±1.9 for ‘honor/integrity’, and 6.07±2.1 for ‘altruism/respect’ questions. There was a significant association between gender and excellence score (p=0.007. Conclusion: Medical students assessed their colleagues’ professional behavior as poor. They did not have proper information about professionalism. Medical students are future general practitioners and respecting medical ethics by them is very important in a perfect health system. Universities should emphasize the importance of teaching professionalism to medical students and faculty members, using innovative education methods.

  11. Welcome to professional courtesy discounts: the medical community's pandora's box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, A D

    1998-01-01

    Recent government regulations on fraud and abuse have transformed the tradition of professional courtesy discounts into a legal minefield threatening to explode on the uninformed medical provider. This paper offers an understanding of the issues involved and provider options.

  12. Insurance of professional responsibility at medical aid rendering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abyzova N.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the necessity of adoption of professional responsibility insurance act into the public health service. It is considered as the basic mechanism of compensation in case of damage to a patient at medical aid rendering

  13. Medical professionalism: an experimental look at physicians’ Facebook profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph W. Clyde

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of social networking services (SNS is on the rise. While many users sign in for personal purposes, it is not uncommon for professionals to connect over SNSs with clients, students, and patients. Methods: The present study used an experimental approach to examine how medical doctors’ SNS profiles impacted potential patients’ impressions of professionalism. Participants (N=250 students were randomly assigned to view one of six Facebook profiles. Profiles were populated with 1 solely professional material, 2 personal material that was strictly healthy, or 3 personal material that included unhealthy behavior. Profiles portrayed a male or female physician resulting in a total of six experimental conditions. Medical professionalism was measured with the First Impressions of Medical Professionalism (FIMP scale, specifically developed for this study. Results: There was a large and statistically significant main effect for profile type, F(2, 250=54.77, p<0.001, ηp2=0.31. Post hoc tests indicated that personal profiles that contained healthy behavior were rated as most professional followed by profiles with strictly professional content. Personal unhealthy profiles were rated as least professional. Additionally, female profiles consistently received higher professionalism ratings across all three profile types [F(1, 250=5.04, p=0.026, ηp2=0.02]. Conclusion: Our results suggest that a physician's SNS profile affects a patient's perception of that physician's medical professionalism. A personal, healthy profile may augment a patient's perception of that physician's character virtues if the profile content upholds the decorum of the medical field.

  14. Twelve Tips for teaching medical professionalism at all levels of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eraky, Mohamed Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Review of studies published in medical education journals over the last decade reveals that teaching medical professionalism is essential, yet challenging. According to a recent Best Evidence in Medical Education (BEME) guide, there is no consensus on a theoretical or practical model to integrate the teaching of professionalism into medical education. The aim of this article is to outline a practical manual for teaching professionalism at all levels of medical education. Drawing from research literature and author's experience, Twelve Tips are listed and organised in four clusters with relevance to (1) the context, (2) the teachers, (3) the curriculum, and (4) the networking. With a better understanding of the guiding educational principles for teaching medical professionalism, medical educators will be able to teach one of the most challenging constructs in medical education.

  15. Professional representation and the free-lance medical illustrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, K N; Daugherty, J

    1994-01-01

    We researched factors related to the success or failure in working relationships between free-lance medical illustrators and artist's representatives. In the fall of 1992, surveys were mailed to 230 medical illustrators; 105 (46%) completed surveys were returned. Respondents were divided into three categories: 1) medical illustrators currently represented, 2) medical illustrators previously represented, and 3) medical illustrators who had never been represented. Comparisons made among illustrators from the three groups included business practices, clientele, experience, and self-promotion techniques. These comparisons revealed notable differences and similarities between the three groups and were subsequently analyzed to identify the characteristics of medical illustrators who would benefit from professional representation.

  16. Participation and Progression: New Medical Graduates Entering Professional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Margaret; Lawson, Mary; Jones, Alison

    2011-01-01

    The first year of practice after medical school is considered to be an essential part of becoming a medical practitioner in Australia. Previous qualitative investigations have investigated a number of significant aspects of this early stage of professional development. This qualitative study explores experiences and developing professional…

  17. Medical students' professional identity development in an early nursing attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmich, Esther; Derksen, Els; Prevoo, Mathieu; Laan, Roland; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Koopmans, Raymond

    Objectives The importance of early clinical experience for medical training is well documented. However, to our knowledge there are no studies that assess the influence of very early nursing attachments on the professional development and identity construction of medical students. Working as an

  18. Medical students' professional identity development in an early nursing attachment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmich, E.; Derksen, E.; Prevoo, M.; Laan, R.F.J.M.; Bolhuis, S.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The importance of early clinical experience for medical training is well documented. However, to our knowledge there are no studies that assess the influence of very early nursing attachments on the professional development and identity construction of medical students. Working as an

  19. Professional development of medical students: problems and promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, D

    1997-12-01

    Observers and critics of the medical profession, both within and without, urge that more attention be paid to the moral sensibilities, the characters, of medical students. Passing on particular moral values and actions to physicians has always been an essential core of medical training, and this call for renewal is not new in modern medicine. Some of the structures and characteristics of modern medical education, however, often work directly against the professionalism that the education espouses. For example, medical students are socialized into a hierarchy that has broad implications for relations among health care professionals, other health care workers, and patients, and academic medicine has not promoted and taught critical reflection about the values and consequences of this hierarchy. Further, behind the formal curriculum lies the "hidden curriculum" of values that are unconsciously or half-consciously passed on from the faculty and older trainees. Two resources for thinking anew about professional development for medical students are feminist standpoint theory and critical multicultural theory, each of which raises important and fundamental questions about defining the role of medicine in society and the role of the physician in medicine. The author discusses these two theories and their implications for medical education, showing how they can be used to move discussions of professional development into analysis of the widespread social consequences of how a society organizes its health care and into critical reflection on the nature of medical knowledge.

  20. [Criteria for forensic medical evaluation of professional working capacity loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapustin, A V; Tomilin, V V; Ol'khovik, V P; Panfilenko, O A; Serebriakova, V G

    2000-01-01

    The main and additional criteria used in evaluation (in percent) of loss of professional working capacity are characterized. Criteria common for forensic medical and medical social expert evaluations and differences between them are discussed. These differences are due to the fact that forensic medical expert evaluations are based on the Civil and Civil Processual Codes of the Russian Federation but not on the departamental norm-setting documents.

  1. Recognition of Core Elements of Medical Professionalism among Medical Students and Faculty Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    irdous Jahan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Medical students and future physicians have chosen to pursue a profession that requires personal integrity, compassion and a constant awareness of the commitment made by them. Professionalism includes personal behaviors, knowledge, and competency. It includes the attitudes and values one holds and that run through the profession as a whole. Medical students learn professionalism during the course by either direct teaching or experiential learning. We conducted this study to estimate the self-reported level of practice of the core elements of professionalism by medical students and medical faculty and compared the two groups. Methods: One-hundred and nine students and 83 faculty members of Oman Medical College completed a professionalism questionnaire. The survey questions related to core elements of professionalism and were grouped under professional knowledge, professional skills, professional attitude, and qualities essential for professionalism. Results: The response rate was 65.6% (109 of 166 among students and 75.5% (83 of 110 from faculty members. Response to the questions on professional skills between the student and faculty group was significantly different (p < 0.001. Similarly, there was a significant difference in the responses related to professional attitude between the student and faculty group (p < 0.001. Students and faculty members have a significant difference in opinion regarding up to date knowledge of basic and clinical sciences and clinical competency (p = 0.024. Similarly, significant differences in opinion regarding up to date knowledge of basic and clinical sciences and clinical competency in clinical and basic sciences faculty members (p = 0.001. Students identified good communication skills (82.6%, and faculty staff identified up to date professional knowledge (62.7% as the most important aspect of professionalism. Conclusions: Both students and teaching faculty agreed that the top most professional

  2. Professional reading and the Medical Radiation Science Practitioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanahan, Madeleine; Herrington, Anthony; Herrington, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Updating professional knowledge is a central tenet of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) and professional reading is a common method health practitioners use to update their professional knowledge. This paper reports the level of professional reading by Medical Radiation Science (MRS) practitioners in Australia and examines organisational support for professional reading. Materials and Methods: Survey design was used to collect data from MRS practitioners. A questionnaire was sent to 1142 Australian practitioners, which allowed self-report data to be collected on the length of time practitioners engage in professional reading and the time workplaces allocate to practitioners for professional reading. Results: Of the 362 MRS practitioners who returned the survey, 93.9% engaged in professional reading on a weekly basis. In contrast, only 28.9% of respondents reported that their workplace allocates time for professional reading to practitioners. MRS practitioners employed in universities engaged in higher levels of reading than their colleagues employed in clinical workplaces (p < 0.01) and more university workplaces allocated time for professional reading to their employees than clinical workplaces (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences for clinical practitioners in level of reading across geographic, organisational and professional demographic factors. Significant differences in workplace allocation of time for professional reading in clinical workplaces were evident for health sector (p < 0.01); work environment (p < 0.01); geographic location (p < 0.01) and area of specialisation (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The vast majority of respondent MRS practitioners engage in professional reading to update their professional knowledge. This demonstrates an ongoing commitment at the individual practitioner level for updating professional knowledge. Updating professional knowledge is an organisational as well as an individual practitioner issue. Whilst

  3. Professional reading and the Medical Radiation Science Practitioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanahan, Madeleine, E-mail: mshanahan@rmit.edu.a [School of Medical Science, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria (Australia); Herrington, Anthony [Head, School of Regional, Remote and eLearning (RRE), Curtin University, Perth (Australia); Herrington, Jan [School of Education, Murdoch University, Perth (Australia)

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: Updating professional knowledge is a central tenet of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) and professional reading is a common method health practitioners use to update their professional knowledge. This paper reports the level of professional reading by Medical Radiation Science (MRS) practitioners in Australia and examines organisational support for professional reading. Materials and Methods: Survey design was used to collect data from MRS practitioners. A questionnaire was sent to 1142 Australian practitioners, which allowed self-report data to be collected on the length of time practitioners engage in professional reading and the time workplaces allocate to practitioners for professional reading. Results: Of the 362 MRS practitioners who returned the survey, 93.9% engaged in professional reading on a weekly basis. In contrast, only 28.9% of respondents reported that their workplace allocates time for professional reading to practitioners. MRS practitioners employed in universities engaged in higher levels of reading than their colleagues employed in clinical workplaces (p < 0.01) and more university workplaces allocated time for professional reading to their employees than clinical workplaces (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences for clinical practitioners in level of reading across geographic, organisational and professional demographic factors. Significant differences in workplace allocation of time for professional reading in clinical workplaces were evident for health sector (p < 0.01); work environment (p < 0.01); geographic location (p < 0.01) and area of specialisation (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The vast majority of respondent MRS practitioners engage in professional reading to update their professional knowledge. This demonstrates an ongoing commitment at the individual practitioner level for updating professional knowledge. Updating professional knowledge is an organisational as well as an individual practitioner issue. Whilst

  4. Medical laboratory professional's perceptions of continuous medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa Alyaemni

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Most laboratory technicians in our study reported favourable perceptions of CME programmes, feeling that they increased professional confidence and competency. We recommend that core competencies be integrated into credentialing using profession-specific CME in a workplace setting. In addition, MLTs should be involved in designing the programmes as well. Further studies in a multicentre institution are needed to analyse the difference in perception among those who have attended CME and those who have not.

  5. Using movies to teach professionalism to medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Klemenc-Ketiš, Zalika; Kersnik, Janko

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Professionalism topics are usually not covered as a separate lesson within formal curriculum, but in subtler and less officially recognized educational activities, which makes them difficult to teach and assess. Interactive methods (e.g. movies) could be efficient teaching methods but are rarely studied. The aims of this study were: 1) to test the relevance and usefulness of movies in teaching professionalism to fourth year medical students and, 2) to assess the impact of ...

  6. Transforming medical professionalism to fit changing health needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starfield Barbara

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The professional organization of medical work no longer reflects the changing health needs caused by the growing number of complex and chronically ill patients. Key stakeholders enforce coordination and remove power from the medical professions in order allow for these changes. However, it may also be necessary to initiate basic changes to way in which the medical professionals work in order to adapt to the changing health needs. Discussion Medical leaders, supported by health policy makers, can consciously activate the self-regulatory capacity of medical professionalism in order to transform the medical profession and the related professional processes of care so that it can adapt to the changing health needs. In doing so, they would open up additional routes to the improvement of the health services system and to health improvement. This involves three consecutive steps: (1 defining and categorizing the health needs of the population; (2 reorganizing the specialty domains around the needs of population groups; (3 reorganizing the specialty domains by eliminating work that could be done by less educated personnel or by the patients themselves. We suggest seven strategies that are required in order to achieve this transformation. Summary Changing medical professionalism to fit the changing health needs will not be easy. It will need strong leadership. But, if the medical world does not embark on this endeavour, good doctoring will become merely a bureaucratic and/or marketing exercise that obscures the ultimate goal of medicine which is to optimize the health of both individuals and the entire population.

  7. [The problems of professional competence in the complementary professional forensic medical expertise programs of advanced training and professional requalification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadymov, A B; Fominykh, S A; Dik, V P

    This article reports the results of the analysis of the new tendencies and normatives of the working legislation in the field of additional professional education in the speciality of «forensic medical expertise» and the application of the competency-based approach to the training of specialists in the framework of professional requalification and advanced training programs. Special attention is given to the problems of organization of the educational process and the elaboration of additional training programs based on the competency approach to the training of specialists at the Department of Forensic Medicine and Law with the professor V.N. Kryukov Course of Advanced Professional Training and Professional Requalification of Specialists at the state budgetary educational Institution of higher professional education «Altai State Medical University», Russian Ministry of Health. The study revealed the problems pertaining to the development of professional competencies in the framework of educational programs for the professional requalification and advanced training in the speciality «forensic medical expertise». The authors propose the legally substantiated approaches to the solution of these problems.

  8. An evolving perspective on physical activity counselling by medical professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Steven; Schippers, Mandy

    2012-04-23

    Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for many chronic conditions and a leading cause of premature mortality. An increasing proportion of adults worldwide are not engaging in a level of physical activity sufficient to prevent or alleviate these adverse effects. Medical professionals have been identified as potentially powerful sources of influence for those who do not meet minimum physical activity guidelines. Health professionals are respected and expected sources of advice and they reach a large and relevant proportion of the population. Despite this potential, health professionals are not routinely practicing physical activity promotion. Medical professionals experience several known barriers to physical activity promotion including lack of time and lack of perceived efficacy in changing physical activity behaviour in patients. Furthermore, evidence for effective physical activity promotion by medical professionals is inconclusive. To address these problems, new approaches to physical activity promotion are being proposed. These include collaborating with community based physical activity behaviour change interventions, preparing patients for effective brief counselling during a consultation with the medical professional, and use of interactive behaviour change technology. It is important that we recognise the latent risk of physical inactivity among patients presenting in clinical settings. Preparation for improving patient physical activity behaviours should commence before the consultation and may include physical activity screening. Medical professionals should also identify suitable community interventions to which they can refer physically inactive patients. Outsourcing the majority of a comprehensive physical activity intervention to community based interventions will reduce the required clinical consultation time for addressing the issue with each patient. Priorities for future research include investigating ways to promote successful referrals

  9. Erosion of Digital Professionalism During Medical Students' Core Clinical Clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaghimi, Arash; Olszewski, Aleksandra E; Bell, Sigall K; Roberts, David H; Crotty, Bradley H

    2017-05-03

    The increased use of social media, cloud computing, and mobile devices has led to the emergence of guidelines and novel teaching efforts to guide students toward the appropriate use of technology. Despite this, violations of professional conduct are common. We sought to explore professional behaviors specific to appropriate use of technology by looking at changes in third-year medical students' attitudes and behaviors at the beginning and conclusion of their clinical clerkships. After formal teaching about digital professionalism, we administered a survey to medical students that described 35 technology-related behaviors and queried students about professionalism of the behavior (on a 5-point Likert scale), observation of others engaging in the behavior (yes or no), as well as personal participation in the behavior (yes or no). Students were resurveyed at the end of the academic year. Over the year, perceptions of what is considered acceptable behavior regarding privacy, data security, communications, and social media boundaries changed, despite formal teaching sessions to reinforce professional behavior. Furthermore, medical students who observed unprofessional behaviors were more likely to participate in such behaviors. Although technology is a useful tool to enhance teaching and learning, our results reflect an erosion of professionalism related to information security that occurred despite medical school and hospital-based teaching sessions to promote digital professionalism. True alteration of trainee behavior will require a cultural shift that includes continual education, better role models, and frequent reminders for faculty, house staff, students, and staff. ©Arash Mostaghimi, Aleksandra E Olszewski, Sigall K Bell, David H Roberts, Bradley H Crotty. Originally published in JMIR Medical Education (http://mededu.jmir.org), 03.05.2017.

  10. Using movies to teach professionalism to medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Kersnik, Janko

    2011-08-23

    Professionalism topics are usually not covered as a separate lesson within formal curriculum, but in subtler and less officially recognized educational activities, which makes them difficult to teach and assess. Interactive methods (e.g. movies) could be efficient teaching methods but are rarely studied. The aims of this study were: 1) to test the relevance and usefulness of movies in teaching professionalism to fourth year medical students and, 2) to assess the impact of this teaching method on students' attitudes towards some professionalism topics. This was an education study with qualitative data analysis in a group of eleven fourth year medical students from the Medical School of University Maribor who attended an elective four month course on professionalism. There were 8 (66.7%) female students in the group. The mean age of the students was 21.9 ± 0.9 years. The authors used students' written reports and oral presentations as the basis for qualitative analysis using thematic codes. Students recognised the following dimensions in the movie: communication, empathy, doctors' personal interests and palliative care. It also made them think about their attitudes towards life, death and dying. The controlled environment of movies successfully enables students to explore their values, beliefs, and attitudes towards features of professionalism without feeling that their personal integrity had been threatened. Interactive teaching methods could become an indispensible aid in teaching professionalism to new generations.

  11. Using movies to teach professionalism to medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemenc-Ketis Zalika

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Professionalism topics are usually not covered as a separate lesson within formal curriculum, but in subtler and less officially recognized educational activities, which makes them difficult to teach and assess. Interactive methods (e.g. movies could be efficient teaching methods but are rarely studied. The aims of this study were: 1 to test the relevance and usefulness of movies in teaching professionalism to fourth year medical students and, 2 to assess the impact of this teaching method on students' attitudes towards some professionalism topics. Method This was an education study with qualitative data analysis in a group of eleven fourth year medical students from the Medical School of University Maribor who attended an elective four month course on professionalism. There were 8 (66.7% female students in the group. The mean age of the students was 21.9 ± 0.9 years. The authors used students' written reports and oral presentations as the basis for qualitative analysis using thematic codes. Results Students recognised the following dimensions in the movie: communication, empathy, doctors' personal interests and palliative care. It also made them think about their attitudes towards life, death and dying. Conclusions The controlled environment of movies successfully enables students to explore their values, beliefs, and attitudes towards features of professionalism without feeling that their personal integrity had been threatened. Interactive teaching methods could become an indispensible aid in teaching professionalism to new generations.

  12. Wanted: role models - medical students’ perceptions of professionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byszewski Anna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transformation of medical students to become medical professionals is a core competency required for physicians in the 21st century. Role modeling was traditionally the key method of transmitting this skill. Medical schools are developing medical curricula which are explicit in ensuring students develop the professional competency and understand the values and attributes of this role. The purpose of this study was to determine student perception of professionalism at the University of Ottawa and gain insights for improvement in promotion of professionalism in undergraduate medical education. Methods Survey on student perception of professionalism in general, the curriculum and learning environment at the University of Ottawa, and the perception of student behaviors, was developed by faculty and students and sent electronically to all University of Ottawa medical students. The survey included both quantitative items including an adapted Pritzker list and qualitative responses to eight open ended questions on professionalism at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa. All analyses were performed using SAS version 9.1 (SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC, USA. Chi-square and Fischer’s exact test (for cell count less than 5 were used to derive p-values for categorical variables by level of student learning. Results The response rate was 45.6% (255 of 559 students for all four years of the curriculum. 63% of the responses were from students in years 1 and 2 (preclerkship. Students identified role modeling as the single most important aspect of professionalism. The strongest curricular recommendations included faculty-led case scenario sessions, enhancing interprofessional interactions and the creation of special awards to staff and students to “celebrate” professionalism. Current evaluation systems were considered least effective. The importance of role modeling and information on how to report lapses and breaches was

  13. Medical professional responsibility for postvasectomy pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Blasco, C; Arimany-Manso, J; Gómez-Durán, E L; Martin Fumadó, C; Piqueras-Bartolomé, M; Capdevila-Querol, S; Laborda-Rodriguez, A

    2016-01-01

    The follow-up of patients postvasectomy is frequently limited to a seminogram at 3months if azoospermia is observed. This study evaluates a series of cases of complaints for postvasectomy pregnancy to establish follow-up recommendations that increase the clinical safety and reduce the risk of complaints. We reviewed the database of the Department of Professional Responsibility of the Council of the College of Physicians of Catalonia, finding 28 complaints for postvasectomy pregnancy between 1992 and 2011. We analysed the clinical and legal variables of the cases. A total of 13 extrajudicial complaints (46.43%), 13 civil lawsuits (46.43%) and 2 criminal lawsuits (7.14%) were recorded. Only 10 cases had a signed document of informed consent specific to vasectomy. In 26 cases, the data from the spermogram was available. A single spermogram was conducted in 20 cases (76.92%), 2 spermograms were conducted in 4 cases (15.38%) and none were performed in 2 cases (7.69%). For 9 of the cases (45%) where only a single spermogram was performed, the test was performed before 3months postvasectomy. In 17 cases (65.38%), the result of the last spermogram was azoospermia, and 3 cases had oligospermia (11.54%). There were 2 failures of interpretation of the spermogram (7.69%) and 2 of normospermia (7.69%). In 2 cases, a spermogram was not performed (7.69%). Pregnancy occurred between 4 and 50 months after the intervention. In 12 cases (42.86%), it was considered that the practitioner was responsible. It is recommended that physicians emphasise (during the patient information stage) the possibility of spontaneous recanalisation and to request 2 spermograms, whose result should be azoospermia. Performing the test in the 3months after vasectomy is risky, as is basing the waiting time on the number of ejaculations. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Medical professionalism on television: student perceptions and pedagogical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Roslyn; Wilson, Ian; Langendyk, Vicki

    2014-11-01

    Previous research has pointed to the role television can play in informing health practices and beliefs. Within the academic setting in particular, some educators have raised concerns about the influence of medical dramas on students. Less research, however, draws on the perspectives of students, and this study therefore explores medical students' perceptions of medical practice and professionalism in popular medical television programmes. Qualitative data from surveys of Australian undergraduate medical students showed that students perceived professionalism in dichotomous ways, with three main themes: cure-care, where a doctor's skill is either technical or interpersonal; work-leisure, where a doctor is either dedicated to work or personal life; and clinical-administration, where work is either direct patient care or administration. There continue to be imagined divisions between curing and caring for students, who express concerns about balancing work and leisure, and expectations that doctors should have little administrative work. Given students were able to identify these important contemporary issues around professionalism on television, there is pedagogical value in using popular images of the medical world in medical education. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Your professionalism is not my professionalism: congruence and variance in the views of medical students and faculty about professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Kamran; Roff, Sue; Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2016-11-08

    Medical professionalism is an essential aspect of medical education and practice worldwide and it must be adopted according to different social and cultural contexts. We examined the current congruence and variance in the perception of professionalism in undergraduate medical students and faculty members in one medical school in Saudi Arabia. The target population was first year to final year medical students of College of Medicine, King Saud University. Out of a total of 1431 students at College of Medicine 750 students (52 %) participated in the study. Fifty faculty members from clinical and non-clinical departments of the College of Medicine were randomly selected for this study and all participated in the study. The respondents recorded their responses through the Bristol online survey system, using a bilingual (English and Arabic) version of the Dundee Polyprofessionalism Inventory I: Academic integrity, which has 34 items. There are 17 lapses (50 % of the total) in professional behaviour where none of the faculty recommend the ignore sanction while students recommended a variable ignore sanction in a range of 6-29 % for different behaviours. Students and faculty recommended similar sanctions for 5 lapses (14.7 % of the total) in professional behaviours. Furthermore, there is statistically significant two level difference between the sanctions approved by faculty and students in the recommended sanctions for 12 lapses (35 % of the total (p < 0.050). These results raised concerns in relation to the students' understanding of professionalism. It is therefore, important to enhance their learning around the attributes of medical professionalism.

  16. Facebook and the professional behaviours of undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Jayne; O'Sullivan, Helen

    2010-06-01

    The rapid growth and accessibility of social networking websites has fundamentally changed the way people manage information about their personal and professional lives. In particular, it has been suggested that interaction in virtual communities erodes elements of responsibility, accountability and social trust that build traditionally meaningful communities. The purpose of this study was to investigate how undergraduate medical students use the social network website Facebook, and to identify any unprofessional behaviour displayed online. A voluntary anonymous online survey was devised by the University of Liverpool, and emailed to students. Question topics included the use of Facebook, privacy settings, groups relating to the course and professional behaviours. Results were input to spss for analysis. The response rate was 31 per cent (n = 56). The majority of respondents did have a Facebook account and admitted there were photos they found embarrassing on the site. Over half of the respondents reported they had seen unprofessional behaviour by their colleagues on Facebook. Although students say that they are aware of the UK's General Medical Council (GMC) guidance, unprofessional behaviour is still demonstrated on the site. This research highlights the issue of social networking websites and professionalism amongst medical students. Further guidance from the GMC and medical schools should remind students that images and information placed on social networking sites is in the public domain, and could impact upon their professional reputation and identity. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2010.

  17. When do medical students become professionals? | Williams | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Essential characteristics of student professionalism are commitment, honesty, discretion, co-operation, participation, diligence and temperance. Students need to know how to deal with unprofessional behaviour, whether their own or other students' or teachers'. Medical schools must have comprehensive programmes for ...

  18. What causes patients to trust medical professionals? Insights from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trust in medical professionals is an important aspect of demand for health care in South Sudan, without which many patients may never attempt to access clinics and hospitals. This qualitative research study used in-depth biographical interviews to explore family health histories according to the experiences of South ...

  19. The medical-industrial complex, professional medical associations, and continuing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofferman, Jerome

    2011-12-01

    Financial relationships among the biomedical industries, physicians, and professional medical associations (PMAs) can be professional, ethical, mutually beneficial, and, most importantly, can lead to improved medical care. However, such relationships, by their very nature, present conflicts of interest (COIs). One of the greatest concerns regarding COI is continuing medical education (CME), especially because currently industry funds 40-60% of CME. COIs have the potential to bias physicians in practice, educators, and those in leadership positions of PMAs and well as the staff of a PMA. These conflicts lead to the potential to bias the content and type of CME presentations and thereby influence physicians' practice patterns and patient care. Physicians are generally aware of the potential for bias when industry contributes funding for CME, but they are most often unable to detect the bias. This may because it is very subtle and/or the educators themselves may not realize that they have been influenced by their relationships with industry. Following Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education guidelines and mandating disclosure that is transparent and complete have become the fallback positions to manage COIs, but such disclosure does not really mitigate the conflict. The eventual and best solutions to ensure evidence-based education are complete divestment by educators and leaders of PMAs, minimal and highly controlled industry funding of PMAs, blind pooling of any industry contributions to PMAs and CME, strict verification of disclosures, clear separation of marketing from education at CME events, and strict oversight of presentations for the presence of bias. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Distributive justice and the harm to medical professionals fighting epidemics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Andreas; Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2017-01-01

    The exposure of doctors, nurses and other medical professionals to risks in the context of epidemics is significant. While traditional medical ethics offers the thought that these dangers may limit the extent to which a duty to care is applicable in such situations, it has less to say about what we......, cure and care for the vulnerable, luck egalitarianism seems to imply that their claim of justice to medical attention in case of infection is weak or non-existent. The article demonstrates how a recent interpretation of luck egalitarianism offers a solution to this problem. Redefining luck...

  1. Professionalism among multicultural medical students in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahman, Mahera; Alsalehi, Shahd; Husain, Zahra S M; Nair, Satish C; Carrick, Frederick Robert

    2017-01-01

    Moral competencies and ethical practices of medical professionals are among the desired outcomes of academic training. Unfortunately, academic dishonesty and misconduct are reported from medical colleges across the world. This study investigates the level of academic dishonesty/misconduct among multicultural medical students. The aim of this study is to investigate the level of academic dishonesty/misconduct among multicultural medical students. Validated and customized version of Dundee Polyprofessionalism Inventory-1 detailing lapses of professionalism in undergraduate health professions education was used to determine the perceived prevalence and self-reported lapses of academic integrity in this study. This study shows that the majority (458/554, 83%) of medical students have admitted to acts of academic dishonesty mentioned in the questionnaire. Approximately 42% (231/554) of the students have given proxy for attendance and 71% of them considered this as an offense. Similarly, 12% (66/554) have copied from the record books of others, and 86% (477/554) have considered it unethical. In addition, 5% (28/554) of the students revealed forging a teacher's signature in their record or logbooks, with 16% (91/554) of them reporting that they have seen others forge signatures. This is the first multi-center, multi-cultural and multi-ethnic study involving a large number of participants that addresses academic professionalism among medical students in the Middle East. Certainly, the paucity of data limits definitive conclusions about the best approach to prevent academic misconduct in the UAE medical schools. Yet, the results of our study are anticipated not only to benefit the UAE but also to find application in the Arab world, with similar medical school programs, values, culture and tradition.

  2. Medical students' preparedness for professional activities in early clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Josefin; Maaz, Asja; Hitzblech, Tanja; Holzhausen, Ylva; Peters, Harm

    2017-08-22

    Sufficient preparedness is important for transitions to workplace participation and learning in clinical settings. This study aims to analyse medical students' preparedness for early clerkships using a three-dimensional, socio-cognitive, theory-based model of preparedness anchored in specific professional activities and their supervision level. Medical students from a competency-based undergraduate curriculum were surveyed about preparedness for 21 professional activities and level of perceived supervision during their early clerkships via an online questionnaire. Preparedness was operationalized by the three dimensions of confidence to carry out clerkship activities, being prepared through university teaching and coping with failure by seeking support. Factors influencing preparedness and perceived stress as outcomes were analysed through step-wise regression. Professional activities carried out by the students (n = 147; 19.0%) and their supervision levels varied. While most students reported high confidence to perform the tasks, the activity-specific analysis revealed important gaps in preparation through university teaching. Students regularly searched for support in case of difficulty. One quarter of the variance of each preparedness dimension was explained by self-efficacy, supervision quality, amount of prior clerkship experience and nature of professional activities. Preparedness contributed to predicting perceived stress. The applied three-dimensional concept of preparedness and the task-specific approach provided a detailed and meaningful view on medical students' workplace participation and experiences in early clerkships.

  3. [Professionalism: Values and competences in specialized medical training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, N; Alcaraz, J; Gavagnach, M; Kazan, R; Arévalo, A; Rodríguez-Carballeira, M

    To determine the perception of healthcare professionals (tutors, residents and teaching collaborators) involved in specialist medical training on the core values and skills to develop their tasks. A tailor-made questionnaire aimed at healthcare professionals in 9health care centres and a referral hospital. Questionnaire: 4 sections and 51 variables (scale 1-10). A total of 287 professionals participated, which included 97% tutors (n=59), 38% residents (n=61), and 56% others (97 teaching collaborators and 70 not associated with teaching). The alfa Cronbach coefficient was 0.945. Best rated values were work compliance (8.7 points), ethics in professional practice (8.6 points), and respect for their team (8.3 points). The best rated competence was communication with patients and families (8.1 points), followed by self-motivating leadership (7.9 points), and the practical application of medical and healthcare theoretical knowledge (7.8 points). The values received, on average, 0.7 points above competences (95% CI: 0.5-0.9). There were no differences between tutors and residents, although differences were found between doctors and nurses, and between males and females. Most of the professionals (tutors, residents, and teaching collaborators) share the same perception of the values and competencies that influence their professional development. This perception was influenced by the professional category and gender, but not age or working in a hospital or primary health care. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Professionalism, professionalization, expertise and compassion: a qualitative study of medical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Susan P; Dalgarno, Nancy

    2017-01-23

    Formal and informal medical curricula convey expectations about professionalization, that is, the development of physician identity, and also about professionalism. This study examined whether, in general, junior residents experienced any dissonance between these roles and focused particularly on how they negotiated conflicts between compassion, self-care, duty and medical expertise. In 2015, purposive sampling was used to select 21 first-year residents at a Canadian medical school. Participants listened to a 5-min audio-recording narrated in either male or female voice. Facing compassion fatigue after three obstetrical disasters over less than 2 days the resident narrator asks to go home. Participants reacted in writing to questions about this request and relevant teaching/modelling. Responses were analyzed using a qualitative, exploratory, thematic research design. Four themes were identified: i) empathy, self-doubt and fear of weakness, ii) the need for support from and communication with physicians and others, iii) education received, and iv) professionalization outranks professionalism. Participants agreed that under the circumstances the narrator's care, compassion and request were appropriate. Never the less, many grappled with feeling that asking to be relieved of work demonstrated weakness and a shirking of responsibility. Respondents had received no formal teaching about balancing compassion for patients or self with professional duty. Preceptors' informal teaching and modeling valorized scientific disengagement above all else. What emerged was participants' drive to become detached clinicians who set aside emotional responses and interactions that could impede and be incompatible with professionalization. However, participants also recognized and lamented what was lost in such a transformation. In the transition from student to practitioner, trainees' views and the modeling they receive shift emotion and compassion, whether for self or patients, from

  5. An evolving perspective on physical activity counselling by medical professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPhail Steven

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for many chronic conditions and a leading cause of premature mortality. An increasing proportion of adults worldwide are not engaging in a level of physical activity sufficient to prevent or alleviate these adverse effects. Medical professionals have been identified as potentially powerful sources of influence for those who do not meet minimum physical activity guidelines. Health professionals are respected and expected sources of advice and they reach a large and relevant proportion of the population. Despite this potential, health professionals are not routinely practicing physical activity promotion. Discussion Medical professionals experience several known barriers to physical activity promotion including lack of time and lack of perceived efficacy in changing physical activity behaviour in patients. Furthermore, evidence for effective physical activity promotion by medical professionals is inconclusive. To address these problems, new approaches to physical activity promotion are being proposed. These include collaborating with community based physical activity behaviour change interventions, preparing patients for effective brief counselling during a consultation with the medical professional, and use of interactive behaviour change technology. Summary It is important that we recognise the latent risk of physical inactivity among patients presenting in clinical settings. Preparation for improving patient physical activity behaviours should commence before the consultation and may include physical activity screening. Medical professionals should also identify suitable community interventions to which they can refer physically inactive patients. Outsourcing the majority of a comprehensive physical activity intervention to community based interventions will reduce the required clinical consultation time for addressing the issue with each patient. Priorities for future research

  6. The sunshine act and medical publications: Guidance from professional medical associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toroser, Dikran; DeTora, Lisa; Cairns, Angela; Juneja, Renu; Georgieva, Anna; Weigel, Al; Pepitone, Kim

    2015-01-01

    To review guidance from professional medical associations to physicians on the Sunshine Act, with a focus on industry support for medical publications. Using 'Sunshine Act' as a search term, we searched PubMed (dates February 2013 to November 2014) and the 'grey literature' using Google and Google Scholar. Online information was extracted from websites of pre-identified professional medical associations. Some professional medical associations have published peer-reviewed recommendations, position statements or general advice on their websites and in journals around the Sunshine Act. Associations also provided broad online educational resources for physicians. There was universal agreement between peer-reviewed publications, including guidelines, for the need for full transparency and disclosure of industry support. Surveys by some professional associations showed variance in opinion on the forecasted impact of the Sunshine Act on physician-industry relationships. There was scarce information specifically related to reporting requirements for industry-supported medical publications. There is a shortage of information for physicians from professional associations regarding the Sunshine Act and support for medical publications. Due to the lack of clear guidance regarding support for publications, there are presently varying interpretations of the Sunshine Act. The literature debates the potential impact of the Sunshine Act and expresses some concerns that physician-enabled innovation in drug development may be hindered.

  7. Satisfaction amid professional challenges: International medical graduates in rural Tasmania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Terry

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background At the time of recruitment, migration, and placement, international medical graduates (IMGs encounter professional challenges. These challenges may include a loss of status and professional identity, professional isolation in rural practice, restrictions on medical practice, and social isolation. Understanding the nature of these challenges may facilitate the recruitment, placement, and success of international medical graduates within rural Tasmania. Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the experiences, challenges,and barriers that IMGs encounter as they work and live in rural Tasmania. Methods The study used a mixed-methods design where data were collected using a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews across the south, north, and northwest of Tasmania. IMGs were recruited through purposive snowball and convenience sampling. Results A total of 105 questionnaires were returned (response rate 30.0per cent and 23semi-structured interviews were conducted with IMGs across Tasmania. Questionnaire participants indicated that the majority of IMGs are satisfied in their current employment; however, interview participants indicated there were a number of barriers to practising medicine in Tasmania as well as factors that would influence ongoing employment in the state. Despite these challenges, professional support was recognised as a key contributor to professional satisfaction, particularly among IMGs who had just arrived. Conclusion The study contributes to the current knowledge and understanding of IMGs who live and work in rural areas. The study shows that there are high levels of satisfaction among IMGs with their current position; however, the research also provides insight into the complexities and factors that impact IMGs as they work and live within rural areas such as Tasmania. This study offers an understanding for policy to improve greater retention of IMGs across rural areas.

  8. Social and physiological peculiarities and professional orientation of medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Toussova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes personality features, self-regulation patterns and professional orientation of medical students. It represents the results of the study conducted among the fourth year students. The sample is characterized with high enough behavior regulation, extraversion, high learning potential, flexible thinking, following intuition and personal opinion in profession choice. High anxiety as personality feature and stress vulnerability is typical for female students; independence tendency is typical for male students.

  9. ELearning acceptance in hospitals: continuing medical education of healthcare professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, Larissa; Cantoni, Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    ELearning provides healthcare professionals an interesting alternative of participating to Continuing Medical Education (CME) activities. It offers the possibility to attend courses at a distance, and it allows creating personal learning schedules without needing to leave the job or the family. Hospitals can choose to organize CME activities for their employees and therefore may also opt to offer eLearning activities. The research studies eLearning acceptance in the CME of healthcare p...

  10. Professionalism perspectives among medical students of a novel medical graduate school in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Mainul; Zulkifli, Zainal; Haque, Seraj Zohurul; Kamal, Zubair M; Salam, Abdus; Bhagat, Vidya; Alattraqchi, Ahmed Ghazi; Rahman, Nor Iza A

    2016-01-01

    Defining professionalism in this constantly evolving world is not easy. How do you measure degrees of benevolence and compassion? If it is so obvious to our profession, what professionalism is, then why is it so difficult to teach it to medical students and residents? Today's definition of medical professionalism is evolving - from autonomy to accountability, from expert opinion to evidence-based medicine, and from self-interest to teamwork and shared responsibility. However, medical professionalism is defined as the basis for the trust in the patient-physician relationship, caring and compassion, insight, openness, respect for patient dignity, confidentiality, autonomy, presence, altruism, and those qualities that lead to trust-competence, integrity, honesty, morality, and ethical conduct. The purpose of this study is to explore professionalism in terms of its fundamental elements among medical students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA). This was a cross-sectional study carried out on medical students of UniSZA. The study population included preclinical and clinical medical students of UniSZA from Year I to Year V of academic session 2014/2015. The simple random sampling technique was used to select the sample. Data were collected using a validated instrument. The data were then compiled and analyzed using SPSS Version 21. Out of 165 questionnaires distributed randomly among Year I to Year V medical students of UniSZA, 144 returned, giving a response rate of 87%. Among the study participants, 38% (54) and 62% (90) were males and females, respectively. The grand total score was 170.92±19.08. A total of 166.98±20.15 and 173.49±18.09 were the total professionalism score of male and female study participants, respectively, with no statistically significant (P=0.61) differences. This study found almost similar levels of familiarity with all fundamental issues of professionalism with no statistically (P>0.05) significant differences. Medical faculty members

  11. The theory of planned behaviour in medical education: a model for integrating professionalism training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Ray; Elder, William; Hustedde, Carol; Milam, Andrea; Joyce, Jennifer

    2008-08-01

    Teaching and evaluating professionalism remain important issues in medical education. However, two factors hinder attempts to integrate curricular elements addressing professionalism into medical school training: there is no common definition of medical professionalism used across medical education, and there is no commonly accepted theoretical model upon which to integrate professionalism into the curriculum. This paper proposes a definition of professionalism, examines this definition in the context of some of the previous definitions of professionalism and connects this definition to the attitudinal roots of professionalism. The problems described above bring uncertainty about the best content and methods with which to teach professionalism in medical education. Although various aspects of professionalism have been incorporated into medical school curricula, content, teaching and evaluation remain controversial. We suggest that intervening variables, which may augment or interfere with medical students' implementation of professionalism knowledge, skills and, therefore, attitudes, may go unaddressed. We offer a model based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), which describes the relationships of attitudes, social norms and perceived behavioural control with behaviour. It has been used to predict a wide range of behaviours, including doctor professional behaviours. Therefore, we propose an educational model that expands the TPB as an organisational framework that can integrate professionalism training into medical education. We conclude with a discussion about the implications of using this model to transform medical school curricula to develop positive professionalism attitudes, alter the professionalism social norms of the medical school and increase students' perceived control over their behaviours.

  12. Perspective: Medical professionalism and medical education should not involve commitments to political advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddle, Thomas S

    2011-03-01

    It is increasingly suggested that political advocacy is a core professional responsibility for physicians. The author argues that this is an error. Advocacy on behalf of societal goals, even those goals as unexceptionable as the betterment of human health, is inevitably political. Claims that political advocacy are a professional responsibility are mistaken, the author argues, because (1) civic virtues are outside the professional realm, (2) even if civic virtues were professionally obligatory, it is unclear that civic participation is necessary for such virtue, and (3) the profession of medicine ought not to require any particular political stance of its members. Claims that academic health centers should systematically foster advocacy are also deeply problematic. Although advocacy may coexist alongside the core university activities of research and education, insofar as it infects those activities, advocacy is likely to subvert them, as advocacy seeks change rather than knowledge. And official efforts on behalf of advocacy will undermine university aspirations to objectivity and neutrality.American society has conferred remarkable success and prosperity on its medical profession. Physicians are deserving of such success only insofar as they succeed in offering society excellence and dedication in professional work. Mandatory professional advocacy must displace such work but cannot substitute for it. The medical profession should steadfastly resist attempts to add advocacy to its essential professional commitments.

  13. A study to enhance medical students’ professional decision-making, using teaching interventions on common medications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Wilcock

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To create sustained improvements in medical students’ critical thinking skills through short teaching interventions in pharmacology. Method: The ability to make professional decisions was assessed by providing year-4 medical students at a UK medical school with a novel medical scenario (antenatal pertussis vaccination. Forty-seven students in the 2012 cohort acted as a pretest group, answering a questionnaire on this novel scenario. To improve professional decision-making skills, 48 students from the 2013 cohort were introduced to three commonly used medications, through tutor-led 40-min teaching interventions, among six small groups using a structured presentation of evidence-based medicine and ethical considerations. Student members then volunteered to peer-teach on a further three medications. After a gap of 8 weeks, this cohort (post-test group was assessed for professional decision-making skills using the pretest questionnaire, and differences in the 2-year groups analysed. Results: Students enjoyed presenting on medications to their peers but had difficulty interpreting studies and discussing ethical dimensions; this was improved by contextualising information via patient scenarios. After 8 weeks, most students did not show enhanced clinical curiosity, a desire to understand evidence, or ethical questioning when presented with a novel medical scenario compared to the previous year group who had not had the intervention. Students expressed a high degree of trust in guidelines and expert tutors and felt that responsibility for their own actions lay with these bodies. Conclusion: Short teaching interventions in pharmacology did not lead to sustained improvements in their critical thinking skills in enhancing professional practice. It appears that students require earlier and more frequent exposure to these skills in their medical training.

  14. A study to enhance medical students’ professional decision-making, using teaching interventions on common medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcock, Jane; Strivens, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Aim To create sustained improvements in medical students’ critical thinking skills through short teaching interventions in pharmacology. Method The ability to make professional decisions was assessed by providing year-4 medical students at a UK medical school with a novel medical scenario (antenatal pertussis vaccination). Forty-seven students in the 2012 cohort acted as a pretest group, answering a questionnaire on this novel scenario. To improve professional decision-making skills, 48 students from the 2013 cohort were introduced to three commonly used medications, through tutor-led 40-min teaching interventions, among six small groups using a structured presentation of evidence-based medicine and ethical considerations. Student members then volunteered to peer-teach on a further three medications. After a gap of 8 weeks, this cohort (post-test group) was assessed for professional decision-making skills using the pretest questionnaire, and differences in the 2-year groups analysed. Results Students enjoyed presenting on medications to their peers but had difficulty interpreting studies and discussing ethical dimensions; this was improved by contextualising information via patient scenarios. After 8 weeks, most students did not show enhanced clinical curiosity, a desire to understand evidence, or ethical questioning when presented with a novel medical scenario compared to the previous year group who had not had the intervention. Students expressed a high degree of trust in guidelines and expert tutors and felt that responsibility for their own actions lay with these bodies. Conclusion Short teaching interventions in pharmacology did not lead to sustained improvements in their critical thinking skills in enhancing professional practice. It appears that students require earlier and more frequent exposure to these skills in their medical training. PMID:26051556

  15. Professionalism perspectives among medical students of a novel medical graduate school in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haque M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mainul Haque,1 Zainal Zulkifli,2 Seraj Zohurul Haque,3 Zubair M Kamal,4 Abdus Salam,5 Vidya Bhagat,2 Ahmed Ghazi Alattraqchi,2 Nor Iza A Rahman2 1Unit of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine and Defense Health, National Defense University of Malaysia, Kem Sungai Besi, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Jalan Sultan Mahmud, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia; 3School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital & Medical School, Dundee, UK; 4Sleep Research Unit, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada; 5Department of Medical Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: Defining professionalism in this constantly evolving world is not easy. How do you measure degrees of benevolence and compassion? If it is so obvious to our profession, what professionalism is, then why is it so difficult to teach it to medical students and residents? Today’s definition of medical professionalism is evolving – from autonomy to accountability, from expert opinion to evidence-based medicine, and from self-interest to teamwork and shared responsibility. However, medical professionalism is defined as the basis for the trust in the patient–physician relationship, caring and compassion, insight, openness, respect for patient dignity, confidentiality, autonomy, presence, altruism, and those qualities that lead to trust-competence, integrity, honesty, morality, and ethical conduct. The purpose of this study is to explore professionalism in terms of its fundamental elements among medical students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA. This was a cross-sectional study carried out on medical students of UniSZA. The study population included preclinical and clinical medical students of UniSZA from Year I to Year V of academic session 2014/2015. The simple random sampling technique was used to select the sample. Data were

  16. Preclinical medical students’ understandings of academic and medical professionalism: visual analysis of mind maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Charlotte E

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Several studies have begun to explore medical students’ understandings of professionalism generally and medical professionalism specifically. Despite espoused relationships between academic (AP) and medical professionalism (MP), previous research has not yet investigated students’ conceptualisations of AP and MP and the relationships between the two. Objectives The current study, based on innovative visual analysis of mind maps, therefore aims to contribute to the developing literature on how professionalism is understood. Methods We performed a multilayered analysis of 98 mind maps from 262 first-year medical students, including analysing textual and graphical elements of AP, MP and the relationships between AP and MP. Results The most common textual attributes of AP were learning, lifestyle and personality, while attributes of MP were knowledge, ethics and patient-doctor relations. Images of books, academic caps and teachers were used most often to represent AP, while images of the stethoscope, doctor and red cross were used to symbolise MP. While AP-MP relations were sometimes indicated through co-occurring text, visual connections and higher-order visual metaphors, many students struggled to articulate the relationships between AP and MP. Conclusions While the mind maps’ textual attributes shared similarities with those found in previous research, suggesting the universality of some professionalism attributes, our study provides new insights into students’ conceptualisations of AP, MP and AP-MP relationships. We encourage medical educators to help students develop their understandings of AP, MP and AP-MP relationships, plus consider the feasibility and value of mind maps as a source of visual data for medical education research. PMID:28821520

  17. [Urological diseases most frequently involved in medical professional liability claims].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Blasco, César; Gómez-Durán, Esperanza L; Arimany-Manso, Josep; Pera-Bajo, Francisco

    2014-03-01

    Clinical safety and medical professional liability are international major concerns, especially in surgical specialties such as urology. This article analyzes the claims filed at the Council of Medical Colleges of Catalonia between 1990 and 2012, exploring urology procedures. The review of the 173 cases identified in the database highlighted the importance of surgical procedures (74%). Higher frequencies related to scrotal-testicular pathology (34%), especially testicular torsion (7.5%) and vasectomy (19.6%), and prostate pathology (26 %), more specifically the surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (17.9%). Although urology is not among the specialties with the higher frequency of claims, there are special areas of litigation in which it is advisable to implement improvements in clinical safety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Medical students' professional identity development in an early nursing attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Esther; Derksen, Els; Prevoo, Mathieu; Laan, Roland; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Koopmans, Raymond

    2010-07-01

    The importance of early clinical experience for medical training is well documented. However, to our knowledge there are no studies that assess the influence of very early nursing attachments on the professional development and identity construction of medical students. Working as an assistant nurse while training to be a doctor may offer valuable learning experiences, but may also present the student with difficulties with respect to identity and identification issues. The aim of the present study was to describe first-year medical students' perceptions of nurses, doctors and their own future roles as doctors before and after a nursing attachment. A questionnaire containing open questions concerning students' perceptions of nurses, doctors and their own future roles as doctors was administered to all Year 1 medical students (n=347) before and directly after a 4-week nursing attachment in hospitals and nursing homes. We carried out two confirmatory focus group interviews. We analysed the data using qualitative and quantitative content analyses. The questionnaire was completed by 316 students (response rate 91%). Before starting the attachment students regarded nurses as empathic, communicative and responsible. After the attachment students reported nurses had more competencies and responsibilities than they had expected. Students' views of doctors were ambivalent. Before and after the attachment, doctors were seen as interested and reliable, but also as arrogant, detached and insensible. However, students maintained positive views of their own future roles as doctors. Students' perceptions were influenced by age, gender and place of attachment. An early nursing attachment engenders more respect for the nursing profession. The ambivalent view of doctors needs to be explored further in relation to students' professional development. It would seem relevant to attune supervision to the age and gender differences revealed in this study.

  19. Glossary of technical terms for the medical technology professionals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Felipe García Rodríguez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The current work is a glossary of technical terms in English language for Medical Health Professionals, has been prepared due to the lack of technical lexicon the students have during and after their university studies, that is, the students have a deficit of technical words which limits their professional competence and accountability. This shortage limits them and makes it a great laboring challenge if they have to work overseas in English-speaking countries. The glossary comprises the main and necessary words which are needed for this type of professional in their field of action. These graduates have a solid knowledge and comprehension of biological, biochemical and biophysical fundamentals in their mother tongue but they do not have the necessary elements in the target language to operate properly. It is a need that they can work appropriately in the spheres of prevention, promotion and health recovery to support a diagnosis, a treatment and a management not only in their mother tongue but in English for their future work.

  20. Workplace violence and influencing factors among medical professionals in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Siying; Zhu, Wei; Li, Huangyuan; Lin, Shaowei; Chai, Wenli; Wang, Xiaorong

    2012-11-01

    Workplace violence has attracted increasing public attention over the past few decades in China. This study was conducted to evaluate the frequency of workplace violence in healthcare settings by various job titles and hospital departments, and to explore the related risk factors among Chinese medical professionals. A total of 2,464 medical professionals in 12 hospitals of two provinces were surveyed by using a stratified cluster sampling method. The Chinese version of the Workplace Violence Scale was used to measure the frequencies of workplace violence, classified as physical assault, emotional abuse, threat of assault, verbal sexual harassment and sexual assault experienced by the subjects over the previous 12 months. A structured questionnaire was administered to collect information on potentially influencing factors for workplace violence. Multivariate analysis was applied to determine the risk factors for workplace violence. About 50% of study subjects reported at least one type of workplace violence. The rates of experiencing two episodes or more of physical assault, emotional abuse, threat of assault, verbal sexual harassment, and sexual assault were 11%, 26%, 12%, 3%, and 1%, respectively. Identified risk factors for workplace violence included working in the departments of psychiatry, emergency, pediatrics and surgery, male gender, divorce/widowed status, long working hours (≥10 hr/day), and night shift. The study suggested that workplace violence occurs commonly in Chinese healthcare settings. Effective intervention strategies targeting workplace violence should be formulated in terms of major risk factors. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Team-based assessment of professional behavior in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raee, Hojat; Amini, Mitra; Momen Nasab, Ameneh; Malek Pour, Abdolrasoul; Jafari, Mohammad Morad

    2014-07-01

    Self and peer assessment provides important information about the individual's performance and behavior in all aspects of their professional environment work. The aim of this study is to evaluate the professional behavior and performance in medical students in the form of team based assessment. In a cross-sectional study, 100 medical students in the 7(th) year of education were randomly selected and enrolled; for each student five questionnaires were filled out, including one self-assessment, two peer assessments and two residents assessment. The scoring system of the questionnaires was based on seven point Likert scale.  After filling out the questions in the questionnaire, numerical data and written comments provided to the students were collected, analyzed and discussed. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of the questionnaires was assessed. A p<0.05 was considered as significant level. Internal consistency was acceptable (Cronbach's alpha 0.83). Interviews revealed that the majority of students and assessors interviewed found the method acceptable. The range of scores was 1-6 (Mean±SD=4.39±0.57) for the residents' assessment, 2-6 (Mean±SD= 4.49±0.53) for peer assessment, and 3-7 (Mean±SD=5.04±0.32) for self-assessment. There was a significant difference between self assessment and other methods of assessment. This study demonstrates that a team-based assessment is an acceptable and feasible method for peer and self-assessment of medical students' learning in a clinical clerkship, and has some advantages over traditional assessment methods. Further studies are needed to focus on the strengths and weaknesses.

  2. Team-based assessment of professional behavior in medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOJAT RAEE

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducrion: Self and peer assessment provides important information about the individual’s performance and behavior in all aspects of their professional environment work. The aim of this study is to evaluate the professional behavior and performance in medical students in the form of team based assessment. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 100 medical students in the 7th year of education were randomly selected and enrolled; for each student five questionnaires were filled out, including one self-assessment, two peer assessments and two residents assessment. The scoring system of the questionnaires was based on seven point Likert scale. After filling out the questions in the questionnaire, numerical data and written comments provided to the students were collected, analyzed and discussed. Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha of the questionnaires was assessed. A p<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Internal consistency was acceptable (Cronbach’s alpha 0.83. Interviews revealed that the majority of students and assessors interviewed found the method acceptable. The range of scores was 1-6 (Mean±SD=4.39±0.57 for the residents' assessment, 2-6 (Mean±SD=4.49±0.53 for peer assessment, and 3-7 (Mean±SD=5.04±0.32 for self-assessment. There was a significant difference between self assessment and other methods of assessment. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a team-based assessment is an acceptable and feasible method for peer and self-assessment of medical students’ learning in a clinical clerkship, and has some advantages over traditional assessment methods. Further studies are needed to focus on the strengths and weaknesses.

  3. Patients' assessment of professionalism and communication skills of medical graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadel, Fatima T; Hattab, Abdulla S

    2014-02-11

    Professionalism and communication skills constitute important components of the integral formation of physicians which has repercussion on the quality of health care and medical education. The objective of this study was to assess medical graduates' professionalism and communication skills from the patients' perspective and to examine its association with patients' socio-demographic variables. This is a hospital based cross-sectional study. It involved 315 patients and 105 medical graduates selected by convenient sampling method. A modified and validated version of the American Board of Internal Medicine's (ABIM) Patient Assessment survey questionnaire was used for data collection through a face to face interview. Data processing and analysis were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) 16.0. Mean, frequency distribution, and percentage of the variables were calculated. A non-parametric Kruskal Wallis test was applied to verify whether the patients' assessment was influenced by variables such as age, gender, education, at a level of significance, p ≤ 0.05. Female patients constituted 46% of the sample, whereas males constituted 54%. The mean age was 36 ± 16. Patients' scoring of the graduate's skills ranged from 3.29 to 3.83 with a mean of 3.64 on a five-point Likert scale. Items assessing the "patient involvement in decision-making" were assigned the minimum mean values, while items dealing with "establishing adequate communication with patient" assigned the maximum mean values. Patients, who were older than 45 years, gave higher scores than younger ones (p communication skills at a good level. Patients' age and educational level were significantly associated with the rating level.

  4. Factor Analysis of Teacher Professional Development in Chinese Military Medical Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Juan-Juan; Chen, Gang; Wang, Zhen-Wei; Liu, Wei-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose: Teacher professional development potentially enhances teachers' professional morale, knowledge, skills and autonomy, which helps improve the quality of education. The military medical university is an important medical education institution in China; however, studies of teacher professional development within military…

  5. Medical professionalism from a socio-cultural perspective: Evaluating medical residents communicative attitudes during the medical encounter in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    K Ganasegeran; SAR Al-Dubai

    2014-01-01

    Context: The practice of medicine requires good communication skills to foster excellent rapport in doctor patient relationship. Reports on communication skills learning attitude among medical professionals are key essentials toward improving patient safety and quality of care. Aims: We aimed to determine factors affecting communication skills learning attitudes among medical residents in Malaysia. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional survey, in a Malaysian public health hospital. Materials a...

  6. Perinatal asphyxia and medical professional liability: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Verzeletti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of medical professional liability, obstetrics is one of the most involved medical specialties because the unfavorable outcome of a pregnancy is difficult to accept for parents, who tend to reduce it to inappropriate care that occurred during pregnancy or birth. 32 cases of perinatal asphyxia were evaluated by the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Brescia during the period between 1999 and 2014 (13 in Civil Court and 19 in Penal Court. 9 out of the 32 pregnancies were twins, so the considerations were carried out on a total of 41 fetuses/newborns. Profiles of inadequacy were identified in 66% of cases (85% of the cases evaluated in Civil Court; 53% of the cases evaluated in Penal Court. The existence of a causal relationship between the medical conduct and the onset of asphyxia was recognized in 79% of civil cases and in 38% of penal cases. There is a “greater rigor” in the verification of causal relationship and malpractice profiles in penal cases compared to civil ones: this is in harmony with the most recent Italian Court decisions, characterized by compelling suspect’s protection in the presence of a reasonable doubt in criminal matters and by victim’s protection in civil ones.

  7. Medication therapy management clinic: perception of healthcare professionals in a University medical center setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the overall perception and utilization of the pharmacist managed medication therapy management (MTM clinic services, by healthcare professionals in a large, urban, university medical care setting.Methods: This was a cross-sectional, anonymous survey sent to 195 healthcare professionals, including physicians, nurses, and pharmacists at The University of Illinois Outpatient Care Center to determine their perception and utilization of the MTM clinic. The survey consisted of 12 questions and was delivered through a secure online application. Results: Sixty-two healthcare professionals (32% completed the survey. 82% were familiar with the MTM clinic, and 63% had referred patients to the clinic. Medication adherence and disease state management was the most common reason for referral. Lack of knowledge on the appropriate referral procedure was the prominent reason for not referring patients to the MTM clinic. Of the providers that were aware of MTM services, 44% rated care as ‘excellent’, 44% as ‘good’, 5% as ‘fair’, and 0% stated ‘poor’. Strengths of MTM clinic identified by healthcare providers included in-depth education to patients, close follow-up, and detailed medication reconciliation provided by MTM clinic pharmacists. Of those familiar with MTM clinic, recommendations included; increase marketing efforts to raise awareness of the MTM clinic service, create collaborative practice agreements between MTM pharmacists and physicians, and ensure that progress notes are more concise.Conclusion: In a large, urban, academic institution MTM clinic is perceived as a valuable resource to optimize patient care by providing patients with in-depth education as it relates to their prescribed medications and disease states. These identified benefits of MTM clinic lead to frequent patient referrals specifically for aid with medication adherence and disease state management.

  8. Medical professionalism from a socio-cultural perspective: evaluating medical residents communicative attitudes during the medical encounter in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganasegeran, K; Al-Dubai, S A R

    2014-01-01

    The practice of medicine requires good communication skills to foster excellent rapport in doctor patient relationship. Reports on communication skills learning attitude among medical professionals are key essentials toward improving patient safety and quality of care. We aimed to determine factors affecting communication skills learning attitudes among medical residents in Malaysia. Cross-sectional survey, in a Malaysian public health hospital. A total of 191 medical residents across medical and surgical based rotations were included. We assessed the validated communication skills attitude scale among medical residents from different rotations. Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS®) (version 16.0, IBM, Armonk, NY) was used. Cronbach's alpha was used to test the internal consistency of the scale. Descriptive analysis was conducted for all variables. Bivariate analysis was employed across the socio-demographic variables. Majority of the residents believed that communication skills training should be made compulsory in Malaysia (78.5%). Medical residents agreed that acquiring good communication skills is essential to be a good doctor. However, the majority cited time pressures for not being able to learn communication skills. Significant differences in communication skills learning attitude scores were found between Malays and Chinese. The majority of medical residents had a positive attitude toward communication skills learning. Socio-demographic factors influenced communication skills learning attitude among medical residents. Incorporating communicative skills modules during hospital Continuous Medical Education for medical residents is essential to cultivate communicative skills attitudes for effective doctor-patient relationship during the routine medical encounters.

  9. Guidelines for Professional Training of Junior Medical Staff in the Context of European Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnova, Myroslava

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with outlining guidelines for improving professional training of junior medical staff based on European experience. Consequently, guidelines and recommendations on enhancing the efficiency of medical education in general and junior medical specialists' professional training, in particular, published by European Union of Medical…

  10. 'Part of the team': professional identity and social exclusivity in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Roslyn; Peters, Kath; Koch, Jane; Wilson, Ian

    2011-12-01

    Medical students must develop not only their professional identity but also inclusive social attitudes for effective medical practice in the future. This study explores the elements that contribute to medical students' sense of professional identity and investigates the concept of social exclusivity and how this might relate to students' development of their identity as medical professionals. The study is based on qualitative data gathered in telephone interviews with 13 medical students enrolled in Years 1 or 3 at an undergraduate medical school at a university in Australia. The questions were open-ended and asked students about their experiences in medical school, sense of identity and social connections. Two main components contributed to a strong sense of professional identity in medical students: professional inclusivity and social exclusivity. Students experienced professional inclusivity when they attended clinical placements and when they were treated as future medical professionals by lecturers, doctors and patients. Social exclusivity was demonstrated by participants' perceptions of themselves as socially separate from non-medical students and isolated from students in other disciplines. Students described a sense of peer unity and a shared sense of identity as medical students within the medical school. It is important to understand how students develop their sense of identity as medical professionals and the ways in which medical education and clinical placements can influence this professional identity. Although this study noted a very strong sense of social exclusivity in its findings, there were also high levels of intra-discipline inclusivity. These results suggest that there is a reciprocal and reinforcing relationship between student experiences of professional inclusivity and social exclusivity that creates a defined sense of professional identity. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  11. Genomics education for medical professionals - the current UK landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Ingrid; Subramanian, Deepak N; Burton, Hilary

    2016-08-01

    Genomics education in the UK is at an early stage of development, and its pace of evolution has lagged behind that of the genomics research upon which it is based. As a result, knowledge of genomics and its applications remains limited among non-specialist clinicians. In this review article, we describe the complex landscape for genomics education within the UK, and highlight the large number and variety of organisations that can influence, direct and provide genomics training to medical professionals. Postgraduate genomics education is being shaped by the work of the Health Education England (HEE) Genomics Education Programme, working in conjunction with the Joint Committee on Genomics in Medicine. The success of their work will be greatly enhanced by the full cooperation and engagement of the many groups, societies and organisations involved with medical education and training (such as the royal colleges). Without this cooperation, there is a risk of poor coordination and unnecessary duplication of work. Leadership from an organisation such as the HEE Genomics Education Programme will have a key role in guiding the formulation and delivery of genomics education policy by various stakeholders among the different disciplines in medicine. © 2016 Royal College of Physicians.

  12. Why Pull the Arrow When You Cannot See the Target? Framing Professionalism Goals in Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukas, David J; Volpe, Rebecca L

    2018-04-24

    Professionalism is essential for a successful physician-patient relationship and widely acknowledged as an intrinsic and important component of medical education for learners at all levels, from medical school to residency to continuing medical education. The problem is defining the educational endpoints for learners and then determining how to assess these outcomes. This Invited Commentary focuses on what medical educators can and should do to refine the vision of professionalism in medical education. The authors propose a multi-step process in which learners, educators, and the public are engaged in articulating clearly and definitively the endpoints of professionalism education.

  13. Assessing medical students' perceptions of patient safety: the medical student safety attitudes and professionalism survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Joshua M; Etchegaray, Jason M; Williams, S Tyler; Berger, David H; Bell, Sigall K; Thomas, Eric J

    2014-02-01

    To develop and test the psychometric properties of a survey to measure students' perceptions about patient safety as observed on clinical rotations. In 2012, the authors surveyed 367 graduating fourth-year medical students at three U.S. MD-granting medical schools. They assessed the survey's reliability and construct and concurrent validity. They examined correlations between students' perceptions of organizational cultural factors, organizational patient safety measures, and students' intended safety behaviors. They also calculated percent positive scores for cultural factors. Two hundred twenty-eight students (62%) responded. Analyses identified five cultural factors (teamwork culture, safety culture, error disclosure culture, experiences with professionalism, and comfort expressing professional concerns) that had construct validity, concurrent validity, and good reliability (Cronbach alphas > 0.70). Across schools, percent positive scores for safety culture ranged from 28% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13%-43%) to 64% (30%-98%), while those for teamwork culture ranged from 47% (32%-62%) to 74% (66%-81%). They were low for error disclosure culture (range: 10% [0%-20%] to 27% [20%-35%]), experiences with professionalism (range: 7% [0%-15%] to 23% [16%-30%]), and comfort expressing professional concerns (range: 17% [5%-29%] to 38% [8%-69%]). Each cultural factor correlated positively with perceptions of overall patient safety as observed in clinical rotations (r = 0.37-0.69, P safety behavioral intent item. This study provided initial evidence for the survey's reliability and validity and illustrated its applicability for determining whether students' clinical experiences exemplify positive patient safety environments.

  14. Medical professionalism from a socio-cultural perspective: Evaluating medical residents communicative attitudes during the medical encounter in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ganasegeran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The practice of medicine requires good communication skills to foster excellent rapport in doctor patient relationship. Reports on communication skills learning attitude among medical professionals are key essentials toward improving patient safety and quality of care. Aims: We aimed to determine factors affecting communication skills learning attitudes among medical residents in Malaysia. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional survey, in a Malaysian public health hospital. Materials and Methods: A total of 191 medical residents across medical and surgical based rotations were included. We assessed the validated communication skills attitude scale among medical residents from different rotations. Statistical Analysis: Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS® (version 16.0, IBM, Armonk, NY was used. Cronbach′s alpha was used to test the internal consistency of the scale. Descriptive analysis was conducted for all variables. Bivariate analysis was employed across the socio-demographic variables. Results: Majority of the residents believed that communication skills training should be made compulsory in Malaysia (78.5%. Medical residents agreed that acquiring good communication skills is essential to be a good doctor. However, the majority cited time pressures for not being able to learn communication skills. Significant differences in communication skills learning attitude scores were found between Malays and Chinese. Conclusion: The majority of medical residents had a positive attitude toward communication skills learning. Socio-demographic factors influenced communication skills learning attitude among medical residents. Incorporating communicative skills modules during hospital Continuous Medical Education for medical residents is essential to cultivate communicative skills attitudes for effective doctor-patient relationship during the routine medical encounters.

  15. Fungal contamination in white medical coats of dentistry professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benicio Barros Brandão

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The white medical coats used by health professionals may serve as a source of infection in health services because it is a potential vehicle for transmission of microorganisms. There are several studies that warn of the inherent dangers in bacterial contamination in lab coats, but there are few reports of fungal contamination in this personal protection equipment. Aims: The study aims to identify fungi in dental lab coats. Method: Samples were collected from ten dentists from a dentistry-school clinic of a higher education institution of Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, using sterile swab, soaked in saline contained in a test tube. Each sample was inoculated on chloramphenicol-containing Saboroud Dextrose agar and incubated at room temperature for fungal growth. Phenotypic and biochemical methods were used to identify the colonies. Results: Fungal growth was observed in all samples of the lab coats, and 19 isolates were counted. The genera Cladosporium and Aspergillus were the most frequent in this study. The results emphasize the role of fungi as contaminants in lab coats; and, as an effective means of transmission of pathogens in the community. Conclusions: This study suggests a methodology for the proper washing and decontamination of the lab coat and advocates the need to implement more rigid norms in concern to the use of lab coats, as well as educational campaigns to guide dentists about the correct use of this Personal Protection Equipment (PPE. Keywords: Individual Protection Equipment. Fungi. Cross infection.

  16. Entrustable Professional Activities for Pathology: Recommendations From the College of American Pathologists Graduate Medical Education Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Cindy B; Domen, Ronald E; Conran, Richard M; Hoffman, Robert D; Post, Miriam D; Brissette, Mark D; Gratzinger, Dita A; Raciti, Patricia M; Cohen, David A; Roberts, Cory A; Rojiani, Amyn M; Kong, Christina S; Peterson, Jo Elle G; Johnson, Kristen; Plath, Sue; Powell, Suzanne Zein-Eldin

    2017-01-01

    Competency-based medical education has evolved over the past decades to include the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Accreditation System of resident evaluation based on the Milestones project. Entrustable professional activities represent another means to determine learner proficiency and evaluate educational outcomes in the workplace and training environment. The objective of this project was to develop entrustable professional activities for pathology graduate medical education encompassing primary anatomic and clinical pathology residency training. The Graduate Medical Education Committee of the College of American Pathologists met over the course of 2 years to identify and define entrustable professional activities for pathology graduate medical education. Nineteen entrustable professional activities were developed, including 7 for anatomic pathology, 4 for clinical pathology, and 8 that apply to both disciplines with 5 of these concerning laboratory management. The content defined for each entrustable professional activity includes the entrustable professional activity title, a description of the knowledge and skills required for competent performance, mapping to relevant Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Milestone subcompetencies, and general assessment methods. Many critical activities that define the practice of pathology fit well within the entrustable professional activity model. The entrustable professional activities outlined by the Graduate Medical Education Committee are meant to provide an initial framework for the development of entrustable professional activity-related assessment and curricular tools for pathology residency training.

  17. Cultural Complementarity : Reshaping Professional and Organizational Logics in Developing Frontline Medical Leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordegraaf, Mirko; Schneider, Magriet; Boselie, Paul; van Rensen, E.L.J.

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of clinical management, new skills of medical doctors stand out, including leadership skills. Medical doctors organize medical work and improve patient care. The training of frontline leadership skills, however, is weakly developed in residency programmes. Medical professional cultures

  18. Awareness of medico-legal issues among medical and dental college health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Senthilkumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The changing doctor-patient relationship and commercialization of modem medical practice has affected the practice of medicine. The fundamental values of medicine insist that the doctors should be aware about the various medico-legal issues which help in proper recording of medical management details. Aim: To evaluate the knowledge on Medico-legal Issues among Medical and Dental College Health Professionals of Meenakshi University (MAHER, Tamilnadu. Materials & Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among health professionals of Meenakshi University (MAHER, Tamilnadu. A total o f320 health professionals (163 medical and 157 dental participated in the study. A structured, closed ended, self-administered questionnaire was used for collection of data. Chi-square test was used to compare the awareness of medico-legal issues between medical and dental health professionals. Results: Among the 320 health professionals, 87.4% of medical and 76.1% of dental professionals were aware about the informed consent, 18.8% of medical and 5.7% of dental professionals had awareness about COPRA and only 14.3% of medical and 7.6% of dental professionals had awareness regarding the Medico-legal programs/courses. Conclusions: The results illustrated that the participants had little awareness on medico-legal issues. Hence there is an urgent need to update the understanding of these issues to be on a legally safer side.

  19. Professional identity formation in the transition from medical school to working life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Lasson, Lydia; Just, Eva; Stegeager, Nikolaj W.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The transition from student to medical doctor is challenging and stressful to many junior doctors. To practice with confidence and professionalism the junior doctors have to develop a strong professional identity. Various suggestions on how to facilitate formation of professional ident...... and acting as a doctor), adoption to medical culture, career planning and managing a healthy work/life-balance. Further studies in different contexts are recommended as well as studies using other methods to test the results of this qualitative study....

  20. A qualitative thematic content analysis of medical students' essays on professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So-Youn; Shon, Changwoo; Kwon, Oh Young; Yoon, Tai Young; Kwon, Ivo

    2017-05-03

    Physicians in both Western and Eastern countries are being confronted by changes in health care delivery systems and medical professionalism values. The traditional concept of "In-Sul" (benevolent art) and the modern history of South Korea have led to cultural differences between South Korea and other countries in conceptualizing medical professionalism; thus, we studied medical students' perceptions of professionalism as described in essays written on this topic. In 2014, we asked 109 first-year medical students who were enrolled in a compulsory ethics course to anonymously write a description of an instance of medical professionalism that they had witnessed, as well as reflecting on their own professional context. We then processed 105 valid essays using thematic content analysis with computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software. Thematic analysis of the students' essays revealed two core aspects of professionalism in South Korea, one focused on respect for patients and the other on physicians' accountability. The most common theme regarding physician-patient relationships was trust. By contrast, distributive justice was thought to be a non-essential aspect of professionalism. In Western countries, physicians tend to promote justice in the health care system, including fair distribution of medical resources; however, we found that medical students in South Korea were more inclined to emphasize doctors' relationships with patients. Medical educators should develop curricular interventions regarding medical professionalism to meet the legitimate needs of patients in their own culture. Because professionalism is a dynamic construct of culture, medical educators should reaffirm cultural context-specific definitions of professionalism for development of associated curricula.

  1. [Realities and professional expectations of medical students attending Guinea Bissau's medical school in 2007 school year].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronteira, Inês; Rodrigues, Amabélia; Pereira, Camilo; Silva, Augusto P; Mercer, Hugo; Dussault, Guilles; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    In Guinea Bissau, the majority of university level professionals are still being trained abroad and most of them do not return to their country. This was a major incentive for creating Guinea Bissau's Medical School. An observational, cross-sectional, analytic study was conducted on the second trimester of 2007 to characterize the socio-demographic, familial and educational profile of medical students, their satisfaction levels, difficulties and expectations concerning the medicine course. A questionnaire was used and a response rate of 63% achieved (81 students). Data was analyzed using SPSS v.17 for descriptive statistics. Students are very committed to their education. They tend to decide to take the medicine course early in their lives and are influenced by their relatives. They choose to be medical doctors because they like it but also for altruistic reasons and the desire to save lives. Although many face financial and material difficulties, they tend to have success in their academic live. They live with their parents, do not have children and some have side jobs to provide for extra income to help with their education. They expect their education to make them good doctors in any part of the world and want to work simultaneously in the public (to serve their country and pay their debt to the State) and in the private sector (to enhance their income). The large majority wants to work in a hospital, in Bissau, and to be a pediatrician or obstetrician. They have unreasonably high expectations concerning their future income as medical doctors.

  2. A scoping review of medical professionalism research published in the Chinese language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Chinese Medical Doctors Association (CMDA adopted the Charter of Medical Professionalism in the New Millennium (Charter and published the Chinese Medical Doctor Declaration (Declaration. This is an important step to re-building medical professionalism in China at a time when the commercialization of health care has led to a decline in physician accountability and public trust in the profession. In response, authors have begun to examine and promote medical professionalism in China. This study aims to present the key research themes, identify research gaps and offer recommendations from reviewing the increasing pool of Chinese-language literature on medical professionalism. Methods A scoping review of Chinese language papers was conducted using the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (including China Academic Journals Full-text Database, China Doctoral Dissertations Full-text Database, Masters’ Theses Full-text Database, China Core Newspapers Full-text Database, and China Yearbooks Full-text Database (CNKI database. Results Four major research themes were identified in Chinese discourse: (1 teaching professionalism, (2 practicing professionalism, (3 conceptualizing professionalism and (4 assessing professionalism. Overall, authors were concerned with the cultivation of humanism in physicians and emphasized the importance of communication skills to improve the physician-patient relationship in China. They explored the role of traditional Chinese values, such as Confucian and Taoist values, as well as the Communist Party’s political values, in promoting professional behaviour. Conclusions Authors demonstrate increasing interest in medical professionalism in China. The literature is of variable quality and further empirical studies are required in order to evaluate teaching interventions and guide professionalism assessment. A common professionalism framework is absent and could be developed with consideration to

  3. A preliminary survey of professionalism teaching practices in anatomy education among Indian Medical Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Ilavenil; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah; Nalinakumari, Sheela Das

    2017-09-01

    Professionalism and ethics have gained widespread recognition as competencies to be fulfilled, taught, and assessed within medical education. The role of the anatomy course in developed nations has evolved over time and now encompasses multiple domains, including knowledge, skills, and the inculcation of professionalism and ethics. The Medical Council of India recently recommended the integration of professionalism teaching in undergraduate medical curricula. The authors investigated whether the initial orientation lectures and instructions given by faculty at the outset of undergraduate medical anatomy courses throughout India served a "hidden curriculum" regarding professionalism practices, and whether these orientation messages could serve as an early exposure to medical professionalism and ethics for medical students. An online survey was carried out among 102 anatomy faculty members across India requesting details about specific professionalism protocols and instructions regarding behavior in the dissection hall that are routinely given to preclinical students, as well as the importance that they placed on professional behavior. It was found that most faculty members regularly instruct students regarding expected behavior during the anatomy course, including dissection practices. These instructions stress attributes of professionalism like humanism, accountability, and honesty. However, there needs to be a more concentrated effort by educators to prohibit such unprofessional practices like dissection hall photography, and better information is required regarding biomedical waste disposal. Despite the absence of clear guidelines for professionalism teaching in medical education in India, the existing framework of anatomy education provides an opportunity to introduce the concept of professionalism to the first-year medical student. This opportunity may provide an early foundation for designing a professionalism-integrated curriculum. Anat Sci Educ 10: 433

  4. The challenge of promoting professionalism through medical ethics and humanities education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukas, David J; McCullough, Laurence B; Wear, Stephen; Lehmann, Lisa S; Nixon, Lois LaCivita; Carrese, Joseph A; Shapiro, Johanna F; Green, Michael J; Kirch, Darrell G

    2013-11-01

    Given recent emphasis on professionalism training in medical schools by accrediting organizations, medical ethics and humanities educators need to develop a comprehensive understanding of this emphasis. To achieve this, the Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education (PRIME) II Workshop (May 2011) enlisted representatives of the three major accreditation organizations to join with a national expert panel of medical educators in ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. PRIME II faculty engaged in a dialogue on the future of professionalism in medical education. The authors present three overarching themes that resulted from the PRIME II discussions: transformation, question everything, and unity of vision and purpose.The first theme highlights that education toward professionalism requires transformational change, whereby medical ethics and humanities educators would make explicit the centrality of professionalism to the formation of physicians. The second theme emphasizes that the flourishing of professionalism must be based on first addressing the dysfunctional aspects of the current system of health care delivery and financing that undermine the goals of medical education. The third theme focuses on how ethics and humanities educators must have unity of vision and purpose in order to collaborate and identify how their disciplines advance professionalism. These themes should help shape discussions of the future of medical ethics and humanities teaching.The authors argue that improvement of the ethics and humanities-based knowledge, skills, and conduct that fosters professionalism should enhance patient care and be evaluated for its distinctive contributions to educational processes aimed at producing this outcome.

  5. Advanced medical students' experiences and views on professionalism at Kuwait University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abdulrazzaq, Dalia; Al-Fadhli, Amani; Arshad, Andleeb

    2014-07-23

    Professionalism is a core competency in the medical profession worldwide. Numerous studies investigate how this competency is taught and learned. However, there are few reports on the students' views and experiences with professionalism especially in the Arab world. Our aim was to explore the experiences and views of Kuwait final-year medical students on professionalism. This was a questionnaire study of final-year medical students at Kuwait University (n = 95). Open- and close-ended questions were used to determine the students' experiences and views on: definition, teaching, learning, and assessment of professionalism. Eighty-five of the students completed the questionnaire (89.5%). A total of 252 attributes defining professionalism were listed by our respondents. The majority (98.0%) of these attributes were categorized under the CanMEDS theme describing professionalism as commitment to patients, profession, and society through ethical practice. The most helpful methods in learning about professionalism for the students were contact with positive role models, patients and families, and with their own families, relatives and peers. The students' rating of the quality and quantity of teaching professionalism in the institution was quite variable. Despite this, 68.2% of the students felt very or somewhat comfortable explaining the meaning of medical professionalism to junior medical students. Almost half of the students felt that their education had always or sometimes helped them deal with professionally-challenging situations. Majority (77.6%) of the students thought that their academic assessments should include assessment of professionalism and should be used as a selection criterion in their future academic careers (62.3%). Most of the students discussed and sought advice regarding professionally-challenging situations from their fellow medical students and colleagues. Seventy-five (88.2%) students did not know which organizational body in the institution

  6. Professional development and exposure to geriatrics: medical student perspectives from narrative journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Renée R; Farrell, Timothy W; Campbell, Susan E; Nanda, Aman; Wetle, Terrie

    2015-01-01

    Teaching professionalism is an important goal in American medical education. With the aging of the U.S. population, it is critical to understand how medical students develop professional behaviors when caring for older adults. Exposure to geriatrics and older patients can enhance students' professional development with patients of all ages and across different specialties. Medical students learn explicit and implicit messages during their education. In addition to helping to evaluate curricula, reflective journaling encourages individual development and helps in revealing how medical students become professionals. In this study, medical student volunteers described their responses to new geriatrics content in their curriculum, encounters with older patients in clinical settings, and their evolving physician identities. Multidisciplinary team analysis elicited 10 themes regarding: evaluation of geriatrics within the curriculum, recognition of geriatrics principles, and attitudes regarding aging and professional development over time. This article focuses on the impact of geriatrics exposure on students' professional development, revealing ways that students think about professionalism and older patients. Medical educators should consider journaling to help foster and gauge students' professional development.

  7. (Re-)reading medical trade catalogs: the uses of professional advertising in British medical practice, 1870-1914.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Claire L

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how medical practitioners read, used, and experienced medical trade catalogs in late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century Britain. Reader responses to the catalog, a book-like publication promoting medical tools, appliances, and pharmaceuticals, have been chronically understudied, as have professional reading practices within medicine more generally. Yet, evidence suggests that clinicians frequently used the catalog and did so in three main ways: to order medical products, to acquire new information about these products, and to display their own product endorsements and product designs. The seemingly widespread nature of these practices demonstrates an individual and collective professional desire to improve medical practice and highlights the importance of studying professional reading practices in the cultural history of medicine.

  8. Professionalism in its time and place: some implications for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Tim J; Moore, Maryleigh; Flynn, Eleanor M

    2012-07-29

    Professionalism is fundamental to good medical practice but is multifaceted so observing that a person is professional in some areas will not guarantee that person would be professional in others. Most definitions of professionalism include a commitment to self-monitor and to improve; some personal virtues; and effective relationships with colleagues, patients and people who are important to those patients. In addition, it is suggested that expectations of professionalism may alter depending on context, both of time and place. Societal expectations relating to professionalism are likely to change over time and our expectations of individuals may alter according to the stage of training. The environment (the workplace, one's colleagues, the work tasks) is also highly influential on the manifestation of professional behaviours. The medical profession's social contract in relation to professionalism will always need to be updated. The effect of time and place means that searching for innate or stable elements of professionalism, in order to predict subsequent behaviours, is therefore difficult. This has implications for the selection, education and assessment of medical students. The focus should be on how to build adaptability and resilience to contextual influences; to identify those elements of professionalism that can be learnt; and build systems of assessment that reflect professionalism's multifaceted and contextual aspects.

  9. Transforming educational accountability in medical ethics and humanities education toward professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukas, David J; Kirch, Darrell G; Brigham, Timothy P; Barzansky, Barbara M; Wear, Stephen; Carrese, Joseph A; Fins, Joseph J; Lederer, Susan E

    2015-06-01

    Effectively developing professionalism requires a programmatic view on how medical ethics and humanities should be incorporated into an educational continuum that begins in premedical studies, stretches across medical school and residency, and is sustained throughout one's practice. The Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education National Conference on Medical Ethics and Humanities in Medical Education (May 2012) invited representatives from the three major medical education and accreditation organizations to engage with an expert panel of nationally known medical educators in ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. This article, based on the views of these representatives and their respondents, offers a future-tense account of how professionalism can be incorporated into medical education.The themes that are emphasized herein include the need to respond to four issues. The first theme highlights how ethics and humanities can provide a response to the dissonance that occurs in current health care delivery. The second theme focuses on how to facilitate preprofessional readiness for applicants through reform of the medical school admission process. The third theme emphasizes the importance of integrating ethics and humanities into the medical school administrative structure. The fourth theme underscores how outcomes-based assessment should reflect developmental milestones for professional attributes and conduct. The participants emphasized that ethics and humanities-based knowledge, skills, and conduct that promote professionalism should be taught with accountability, flexibility, and the premise that all these traits are essential to the formation of a modern professional physician.

  10. Creating a Framework for Medical Professionalism: An Initial Consensus Statement From an Arab Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Razig, Sawsan; Ibrahim, Halah; Alameri, Hatem; Hamdy, Hossam; Haleeqa, Khaled Abu; Qayed, Khalil I; Obaid, Laila O; Al Fahim, Maha; Ezimokhai, Mutairu; Sulaiman, Nabil D; Fares, Saleh; Al Darei, Maitha Mohammed; Shahin, Nhayan Qassim; Al Shamsi, Noora Abdulla Omran; Alnooryani, Rashed Arif; Al Falahi, Salama Zayed

    2016-05-01

    Background Medical professionalism has received increased worldwide attention, yet there is limited information on the applicability and utility of established Western professionalism frameworks in non-Western nations. Objective We developed a locally derived consensus definition of medical professionalism for the United Arab Emirates (UAE), which reflects the cultural and social constructs of the UAE and the Middle East. Methods We used a purposive sample of 14 physicians working in the UAE as clinical and education leaders. This expert panel used qualitative methods, including the world café, nominal group technique, the Delphi method, and an interpretive thematic analysis to develop the consensus statement. Results The expert panel defined 9 attributes of medical professionalism. There was considerable overlap with accepted Western definitions, along with important differences in 3 aspects: (1) the primacy of social justice and societal rights; (2) the role of the physician's personal faith and spirituality in guiding professional practices; and (3) societal expectations for professional attributes of physicians that extend beyond the practice of medicine. Conclusions Professionalism is a social construct influenced by cultural and religious contexts. It is imperative that definitions of professionalism used in the education of physicians in training and in the assessment of practicing physicians be formulated locally and encompass specific competencies relevant to the local, social, and cultural context for medical practice. Our goal was to develop a secular consensus statement that encompasses culture and values relevant to professionalism for the UAE and the Arab region.

  11. Creating a Framework for Medical Professionalism: An Initial Consensus Statement From an Arab Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Razig, Sawsan; Ibrahim, Halah; Alameri, Hatem; Hamdy, Hossam; Haleeqa, Khaled Abu; Qayed, Khalil I.; Obaid, Laila O.; Al Fahim, Maha; Ezimokhai, Mutairu; Sulaiman, Nabil D.; Fares, Saleh; Al Darei, Maitha Mohammed; Shahin, Nhayan Qassim; Al Shamsi, Noora Abdulla Omran; Alnooryani, Rashed Arif; Al Falahi, Salama Zayed

    2016-01-01

    Background Medical professionalism has received increased worldwide attention, yet there is limited information on the applicability and utility of established Western professionalism frameworks in non-Western nations. Objective We developed a locally derived consensus definition of medical professionalism for the United Arab Emirates (UAE), which reflects the cultural and social constructs of the UAE and the Middle East. Methods We used a purposive sample of 14 physicians working in the UAE as clinical and education leaders. This expert panel used qualitative methods, including the world café, nominal group technique, the Delphi method, and an interpretive thematic analysis to develop the consensus statement. Results The expert panel defined 9 attributes of medical professionalism. There was considerable overlap with accepted Western definitions, along with important differences in 3 aspects: (1) the primacy of social justice and societal rights; (2) the role of the physician's personal faith and spirituality in guiding professional practices; and (3) societal expectations for professional attributes of physicians that extend beyond the practice of medicine. Conclusions Professionalism is a social construct influenced by cultural and religious contexts. It is imperative that definitions of professionalism used in the education of physicians in training and in the assessment of practicing physicians be formulated locally and encompass specific competencies relevant to the local, social, and cultural context for medical practice. Our goal was to develop a secular consensus statement that encompasses culture and values relevant to professionalism for the UAE and the Arab region. PMID:27168882

  12. Science, consumerism and bureaucracy: the new legitimations of medical professionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Stephen; Mcdonald, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues that the means by which the profession of medicine has to legitimise itself in the context of state‐provided health services is changing in a way that may be summarised in Weberian terms as a shift from substantive to formal rationality. The traditional model for such legitimations, evident in the UK over the last 50 years, relied heavily on professional interpretation of emergent patient needs, on professional pragmatism as a means of coping with resource limitations, on un...

  13. Essential professional duties for the sub-Saharan medical/dental graduate: An Association of Medical Schools of Africa initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olapade-Olaopa, E O; Sewankambo, N; Iputo, J E; Rugarabamu, P; Amlak, A H; Mipando, M; Monekosso G L

    2016-09-01

    BACKGROUND - Globally, human resources for health are being optimized to address the increasing health burden and concomitant increased demands on health professionals. These demands are even more exacting in Sub-SaharanAfrica considering the shortage of health care workers, especially physicians. The noteworthy efforts at deploying task-shifting to address this situation not-withstanding, the situation also signals the need to re-define the objectives of medical instruction to ensure effective and contemporary medical practice in a mostly physician-led health workforce across the sub-continent. In this regard, medical and dental graduates must be educated to perform certain minimum essential professional duties competently. Essential Professional Duties are locally relevant professional activities of international standard that represent identifiable outcomes against which the effectiveness of physicians in a specific community can be measured to ensure social accountability. PROCEDURE AND PRODUCT - The Association of Medical Schools of Africa has developed the 'Essential Professional Duties for sub-Saharan medical and dental graduates' to ensure these physicians provide safe and effective contemporary medical/dental practice on the sub-continent. The duties have been grouped into those required for basic patient care, basic administrative skills, basic emergency care, communication, inter-professional relationships, self-directed learning and social responsibilities. Their relevance and suitability have been evaluated prior to their adoption by the Association. CONCLUSION; These Essential Physician Duties have been developed to serve as targets for health professionals training instruments and thus give direction to health system strategies. It is hoped that they will be adopted by medical and dental schools across sub-,. Saharan Africa.

  14. Medical Humanitarianism Under Atmospheric Violence: Health Professionals in the 2013 Gezi Protests in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aciksoz, Salih Can

    2016-06-01

    During the 2013 Gezi protests in Turkey, volunteering health professionals provided on-site medical assistance to protesters faced with police violence characterized by the extensive use of riot control agents. This led to a government crackdown on the medical community and the criminalization of "unauthorized" first aid amidst international criticisms over violations of medical neutrality. Drawing from ethnographic observations, in-depth interviews with health care professionals, and archival research, this article ethnographically analyzes the polarized encounter between the Turkish government and medical professionals aligned with social protest. I demonstrate how the context of "atmospheric violence"-the extensive use of riot control agents like tear gas-brings about new politico-ethical spaces and dilemmas for healthcare professionals. I then analyze how Turkish health professionals framed their provision of health services to protestors in the language of medical humanitarianism, and how the state dismissed their claims to humanitarian neutrality by criminalizing emergency care. Exploring the vexed role that health workers and medical organizations played in the Gezi protests and the consequent political contestations over doctors' ethical, professional, and political responsibilities, this article examines challenges to medical humanitarianism and neutrality at times of social protest in and beyond the Middle East.

  15. Altruism: Should it be Included as an Attribute of Medical Professionalism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Harris

    2018-03-01

    Next steps: For many, the future of the medical profession lies in abandoning altruism as part of its defining qualities and adopting a new ethical definition of professionalism that fits with the complexities of modern society

  16. The formation of professional identity in medical students: considerations for educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, John

    2012-01-01

    Medical education is about more than acquiring an appropriate level of knowledge and developing relevant skills. To practice medicine students need to develop a professional identity--ways of being and relating in professional contexts. This article conceptualises the processes underlying the formation and maintenance of medical students' professional identity drawing on concepts from social psychology. A multi-dimensional model of identity and identity formation, along with the concepts of identity capital and multiple identities, are presented. The implications for educators are discussed. Identity formation is mainly social and relational in nature. Educators, and the wider medical society, need to utilise and maximise the opportunities that exist in the various relational settings students experience. Education in its broadest sense is about the transformation of the self into new ways of thinking and relating. Helping students form, and successfully integrate their professional selves into their multiple identities, is a fundamental of medical education.

  17. Developing Continuing Professional Education in the Health and Medical Professions through Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, Elizabeth J.; Wojnar, Margaret; Sinz, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on how to negotiate power and interest among multiple stakeholders to develop continuing professional education programs as graduate study for those in the health and medical professions.

  18. Evaluating Explicit and Implicit Stigma of Mental Illness in Mental Health Professionals and Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Kopera, Maciej; Suszek, Hubert; Bonar, Erin; Myszka, Maciej; Gmaj, Bart?omiej; Ilgen, Mark; Wojnar, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated explicit and implicit attitudes towards people with mental illness among medical students (non-professionals) with no previous contact with mentally ill patients and psychiatrists and psychotherapists (professionals) who had at least 2?years of professional contact with mentally ill patients. Explicit attitudes where assessed by self-report. Implicit attitudes were measured with the Go/No-Go Association Task, a variant of the Implicit Association Test that does not requ...

  19. A Preliminary Survey of Professionalism Teaching Practices in Anatomy Education among Indian Medical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Ilavenil; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah; Nalinakumari, Sheela Das

    2017-01-01

    Professionalism and ethics have gained widespread recognition as competencies to be fulfilled, taught, and assessed within medical education. The role of the anatomy course in developed nations has evolved over time and now encompasses multiple domains, including knowledge, skills, and the inculcation of professionalism and ethics. The Medical…

  20. Six Values Never to Silence: Jewish Perspectives on Nazi Medical Professionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob M. Kolman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An ideological case study based on medical profession norms during the Third Reich will be used to exemplify the importance of diversity in the manifestations of professional ethics. The German professional medical community banned their Jewish colleagues from treating German citizens. This included legally mandated employment discrimination and outright censure which led to a professional ethic devoid of diverse voices. While the escalation to the T-4 program and medicalized genocide was influenced by many causes, the intentional, ethnocentric-based exclusion of voices was an important contributing element to the chronicled degradation of societal mores. For illustration, six core Jewish values—life, peace, justice, mercy, scholarship, and sincerity of intention—will be detailed for their potential to inspire health-care professionals to defend and protect minorities and for readers to think critically about the role of medical professionalism in Third Reich society. The Jewish teachings highlight the inherent professional obligations physicians have toward their patients in contrast to the Third Reich’s corruption of patient-centered professionalism. More fundamentally, juxtaposing Jewish and Nazi teachings exposes the loss of perspective when a profession’s identity spurns diversity. To ensure respect for persons in all vulnerable minorities, the first step is addressing professional inclusion of minority voices.

  1. Six Values Never to Silence: Jewish Perspectives on Nazi Medical Professionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolman, Jacob M.; Miller, Susan M.

    2018-01-01

    An ideological case study based on medical profession norms during the Third Reich will be used to exemplify the importance of diversity in the manifestations of professional ethics. The German professional medical community banned their Jewish colleagues from treating German citizens. This included legally mandated employment discrimination and outright censure which led to a professional ethic devoid of diverse voices. While the escalation to the T-4 program and medicalized genocide was influenced by many causes, the intentional, ethnocentric-based exclusion of voices was an important contributing element to the chronicled degradation of societal mores. For illustration, six core Jewish values—life, peace, justice, mercy, scholarship, and sincerity of intention—will be detailed for their potential to inspire health-care professionals to defend and protect minorities and for readers to think critically about the role of medical professionalism in Third Reich society. The Jewish teachings highlight the inherent professional obligations physicians have toward their patients in contrast to the Third Reich’s corruption of patient-centered professionalism. More fundamentally, juxtaposing Jewish and Nazi teachings exposes the loss of perspective when a profession’s identity spurns diversity. To ensure respect for persons in all vulnerable minorities, the first step is addressing professional inclusion of minority voices. PMID:29406846

  2. Six Values Never to Silence: Jewish Perspectives on Nazi Medical Professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolman, Jacob M; Miller, Susan M

    2018-01-29

    An ideological case study based on medical profession norms during the Third Reich will be used to exemplify the importance of diversity in the manifestations of professional ethics. The German professional medical community banned their Jewish colleagues from treating German citizens. This included legally mandated employment discrimination and outright censure which led to a professional ethic devoid of diverse voices. While the escalation to the T-4 program and medicalized genocide was influenced by many causes, the intentional, ethnocentric-based exclusion of voices was an important contributing element to the chronicled degradation of societal mores. For illustration, six core Jewish values-life, peace, justice, mercy, scholarship, and sincerity of intention-will be detailed for their potential to inspire health-care professionals to defend and protect minorities and for readers to think critically about the role of medical professionalism in Third Reich society. The Jewish teachings highlight the inherent professional obligations physicians have toward their patients in contrast to the Third Reich's corruption of patient-centered professionalism. More fundamentally, juxtaposing Jewish and Nazi teachings exposes the loss of perspective when a profession's identity spurns diversity. To ensure respect for persons in all vulnerable minorities, the first step is addressing professional inclusion of minority voices.

  3. The Importance of the Medical Record: A Critical Professional Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Elizabeth; Patel, Nachiket; Chandrasekaran, Krishnaswamy; Tajik, A Jamil; Paterick, Timothy E

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive, detailed documentation in the medical record is critical to patient care and to a physician when allegations of negligence arise. Physicians, therefore, would be prudent to have a clear understanding of this documentation. It is important to understand who is responsible for documentation, what is important to document, when to document, and how to document. Additionally, it should be understood who owns the medical record, the significance of the transition to the electronic medical record, problems and pitfalls when using the electronic medical record, and how the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act affects healthcare providers and health information technology.

  4. Conflict of interest and professional medical associations: the North American Spine Society experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofferman, Jerome A; Eskay-Auerbach, Marjorie L; Sawyer, Laura S; Herring, Stanley A; Arnold, Paul M; Muehlbauer, Eric J

    2013-08-01

    Recently the financial relationships between industry and professional medical associations have come under increased scrutiny because of the concern that industry ties may create real or perceived conflicts of interest. Professional medical associations pursue public advocacy as well as promote medical education, develop clinical practice guidelines, fund research, and regulate professional conduct. Therefore, the conflicts of interest of a professional medical association and its leadership can have more far-reaching effects on patient care than those of an individual physician. Few if any professional medical associations have reported their experience with implementing strict divestment and disclosure policies, and among the policies that have been issued, there is little uniformity. We describe the experience of the North American Spine Society (NASS) in implementing comprehensive conflicts of interest policies. A special feature article. We discuss financial conflicts of interest as they apply to professional medical associations rather than to individual physicians. We describe the current policies of disclosure and divestment adopted by the NASS and how these policies have evolved, been refined, and have had no detrimental impact on membership, attendance at annual meetings, finances, or leadership recruitment. No funding was received for this work. The authors report no potential conflict-of-interest-associated biases in the text. The NASS has shown that a professional medical association can manage its financial relationships with industry in a manner that minimizes influence and bias. The NASS experience can provide a template for other professional medical associations to help manage their own possible conflicts of interest issues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The impact of social media on medical professionalism: a systematic qualitative review of challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami-Kordkheili, Fatemeh; Wild, Verina; Strech, Daniel

    2013-08-28

    The rising impact of social media on the private and working lives of health care professionals has made researchers and health care institutions study and rethink the concept and content of medical professionalism in the digital age. In the last decade, several specific policies, original research studies, and comments have been published on the responsible use of social media by health care professionals. However, there is no systematic literature review that analyzes the full spectrum of (1) social media-related challenges imposed on medical professionalism and (2) social media-related opportunities to both undermine and improve medical professionalism. The aim of this systematic qualitative review is to present this full spectrum of social media-related challenges and opportunities. We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed (restricted to English and German literature published between 2002 and 2011) for papers that address social media-related challenges and opportunities for medical professionalism. To operationalize "medical professionalism", we refer to the 10 commitments presented in the physicians' charter "Medical professionalism in the new millennium" published by the ABIM Foundation. We applied qualitative text analysis to categorize the spectrum of social media-related challenges and opportunities for medical professionalism. The literature review retrieved 108 references, consisting of 46 original research studies and 62 commentaries, editorials, or opinion papers. All references together mentioned a spectrum of 23 broad and 12 further-specified, narrow categories for social media-related opportunities (n=10) and challenges (n=13) for medical professionalism, grouped under the 10 commitments of the physicians' charter. The accommodation of the traditional core values of medicine to the characteristics of social media presents opportunities as well as challenges for medical professionalism. As a profession that is entitled to self

  6. The education and training of professionals. The perspective of the Spanish Society of Medical Physics (SEFM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eudaldo, T.; Millan, E.; Paredes, M.C.; Vano, E.; Peinado, F.; Nunez de Villavicencio, C.; Mateos, J.C.; Pena, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. First, to revise some European Communities' recommendations regarding qualification, education and training of professionals involved in ionisation radiation practices, to respond to the Directive 97/43 EURATOM. And then, as Medical Physicists are directly concerned with these practices, to describe how the Spanish Society of Medical Physics deals with the challenge of improving the competence of Medical Physicists in order to assure the best patient protection against ionisation radiation. Therefore, to achieve the first aim, the point of view of the European Federation of Organisations on Medical Physics (EFOMP) concerning the introduction of the 'Medical Physics Expert' and their guidelines for Continuous Professional Development are reviewed, as well as the point of view of European Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (ESTRO) in professional education matters. Referring to the second aim, after succeeding in the recognition of the Medical Physics Speciality in Spain in 1997, the SEFM is now promoting the Continuous Education and Training of their specialists through its Education Committee (Comision de Docencia de la SEFM), so that they can cope with all new professional challenges. Moreover, a number of SEFM members are also involved in education matters to others professionals: Medicine students, nurses, Radiation Technologists, etc. In conclusion, the SEFM has always been aware of the importance of specialisation and continuous education of all professionals involved in radiation ionisation practices, as a way to contribute to guarantee the best radiation protection to the patients. (author)

  7. Continuous professional training of medical laboratory scientists in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Training and re-training of healthcare workers is pivotal to improved service delivery. Objective. To determine the proportion of practising medical laboratory scientists with in-service training in Benin City, Nigeria and areas covered by these programmes. Methods. Medical laboratory scientists from Benin City ...

  8. Rasch Analysis of Professional Behavior in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, R.; Verhulst, S. J.; Roberts, N. K.; Dorsey, J. K.

    2015-01-01

    The use of students' "consumer feedback" to assess faculty behavior and improve the process of medical education is a significant challenge. We used quantitative Rasch measurement to analyze pre-categorized student comments listed by 385 graduating medical students. We found that students differed little with respect to the number of…

  9. Perception of professionalism among first year medical students in OIU

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Material and methods: The first year medical students at the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Omdurman Islamic University were taught the Human Rights declaration issued by the United Nations in Dec 1948, The Principals of Islamic Human Rights, basics of medical ethics and the Doctors Figh and University ...

  10. 78 FR 18990 - Medical Professionals Recruitment and Continuing Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... have experience hosting healthcare forums and meetings combining modern medicine and traditional... care by promoting education in the medical disciplines, honoring traditional healing principles and... and/or biomedical research. Foster forums where modern medicine combines with traditional healing to...

  11. Medical Professionals and Parents: A Linguistic Analysis of Communication Across Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannen, Deborah; Wallat, Cynthia

    1986-01-01

    This study analyzes videotaped conversations between various family members of a child with cerebral palsy and medical professionals. The conversations are examined for information elaboration and condensation, information negotiation, as well as methodological benefits. The medical interviews elicited new information in various contexts and…

  12. The essential role of medical ethics education in achieving professionalism: the Romanell Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrese, Joseph A; Malek, Janet; Watson, Katie; Lehmann, Lisa Soleymani; Green, Michael J; McCullough, Laurence B; Geller, Gail; Braddock, Clarence H; Doukas, David J

    2015-06-01

    This article-the Romanell Report-offers an analysis of the current state of medical ethics education in the United States, focusing in particular on its essential role in cultivating professionalism among medical learners. Education in ethics has become an integral part of medical education and training over the past three decades and has received particular attention in recent years because of the increasing emphasis placed on professional formation by accrediting bodies such as the Liaison Committee on Medical Education and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Yet, despite the development of standards, milestones, and competencies related to professionalism, there is no consensus about the specific goals of medical ethics education, the essential knowledge and skills expected of learners, the best pedagogical methods and processes for implementation, and optimal strategies for assessment. Moreover, the quality, extent, and focus of medical ethics instruction vary, particularly at the graduate medical education level. Although variation in methods of instruction and assessment may be appropriate, ultimately medical ethics education must address the overarching articulated expectations of the major accrediting organizations. With the aim of aiding medical ethics educators in meeting these expectations, the Romanell Report describes current practices in ethics education and offers guidance in several areas: educational goals and objectives, teaching methods, assessment strategies, and other challenges and opportunities (including course structure and faculty development). The report concludes by proposing an agenda for future research.

  13. Nurturing professionalism and humanism in the 21st century medical professional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Rajput, MD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to redefine physician excellence through promoting professionalism with humanism to meet the needs of a diverse generational and cultural society. My goal is to bring together and advance concepts that cultivate emotional and social intelligence to complement the clinical skills required for the effective practice of medicine in the complex milieu of the 21st century

  14. Social network utilization (Facebook) & e-Professionalism among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaid, Masood; Khan, Muhammad Hassaan; Bhutto, Shahzadi Nisar

    2015-01-01

    To find out the frequency and contents of online social networking (Facebook) among medical students of Dow University of Health Sciences. The sample of the study comprised of final year students of two medical colleges of Dow University of Health Sciences - Karachi. Systematic search for the face book profiles of the students was carried out with a new Facebook account. In the initial phase of search, it was determined whether each student had a Facebook account and the status of account as ''private'' ''intermediate'' or ''public'' was also sought. In the second phase of the study, objective information including gender, education, personal views, likes, tag pictures etc. were recorded for the publicly available accounts. An in depth qualitative content analysis of the public profiles of ten medical students, selected randomly with the help of random number generator technique was conducted. Social networking with Facebook is common among medical students with 66.9% having an account out of a total 535 students. One fifth of profiles 18.9% were publicly open, 36.6% profiles were private and 56.9% were identified to have an intermediate privacy setting, having customized settings for the profile information. In-depth analysis of some public profiles showed that potentially unprofessional material mostly related to violence and politics was posted by medical students. The usage of social network (Facebook) is very common among students of the university. Some unprofessional posts were also found on students' profiles mostly related to violence and politics.

  15. Transplant ethics under scrutiny - responsibilities of all medical professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trey, Torsten; Caplan, Arthur L; Lavee, Jacob

    2013-02-01

    In this text, we present and elaborate ethical challenges in transplant medicine related to organ procurement and organ distribution, together with measures to solve such challenges. Based on internationally acknowledged ethical standards, we looked at cases of organ procurement and distribution practices that deviated from such ethical standards. One form of organ procurement is known as commercial organ trafficking, while in China the organ procurement is mostly based on executing prisoners, including killing of detained Falun Gong practitioners for their organs. Efforts from within the medical community as well as from governments have contributed to provide solutions to uphold ethical standards in medicine. The medical profession has the responsibility to actively promote ethical guidelines in medicine to prevent a decay of ethical standards and to ensure best medical practices.

  16. Transplant ethics under scrutiny – responsibilities of all medical professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trey, Torsten; Caplan, Arthur L.; Lavee, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    In this text, we present and elaborate ethical challenges in transplant medicine related to organ procurement and organ distribution, together with measures to solve such challenges. Based on internationally acknowledged ethical standards, we looked at cases of organ procurement and distribution practices that deviated from such ethical standards. One form of organ procurement is known as commercial organ trafficking, while in China the organ procurement is mostly based on executing prisoners, including killing of detained Falun Gong practitioners for their organs. Efforts from within the medical community as well as from governments have contributed to provide solutions to uphold ethical standards in medicine. The medical profession has the responsibility to actively promote ethical guidelines in medicine to prevent a decay of ethical standards and to ensure best medical practices. PMID:23444249

  17. Gendered Pedagogic Identities and Academic Professionalism in Greek Medical Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouroufli, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Feminist scholarship has considered how pedagogical identities and emotions are implicated in the gender politics of belonging and othering in higher education. This paper examines how gendered and embodied pedagogy is mobilised in Greek medical schools to construct notions of the ideal academic and assert women's position women in Academic…

  18. Ethics and professionalism in medical physics: A survey of AAPM members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Naim; Armato, Samuel G.; Giger, Maryellen L.; Serago, Christopher F.; Ross, Lainie F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess current education, practices, attitudes, and perceptions pertaining to ethics and professionalism in medical physics. Methods: A link to a web-based survey was distributed to the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) e-mail membership list, with a follow-up e-mail sent two weeks later. The survey included questions about ethics/professionalism education, direct personal knowledge of ethically questionable practices in clinical care, research, education (teaching and mentoring), and professionalism, respondents’ assessment of their ability to address ethical/professional dilemmas, and demographics. For analysis, reports of unethical or ethically questionable practices or behaviors by approximately 40% or more of respondents were classified as “frequent.” Results: Partial or complete responses were received from 18% (1394/7708) of AAPM members. Overall, 60% (827/1377) of the respondents stated that they had not received ethics/professionalism education during their medical physics training. Respondents currently in training were more likely to state that they received instruction in ethics/professionalism (80%, 127/159) versus respondents who were post-training (35%, 401/1159). Respondents’ preferred method of instruction in ethics/professionalism was structured periodic discussions involving both faculty and students/trainees. More than 90% (1271/1384) supported continuing education in ethics/professionalism and 75% (1043/1386) stated they would attend ethics/professionalism sessions at professional/scientific meetings. In the research setting, reports about ethically questionable authorship assignment were frequent (approximately 40%) whereas incidents of ethically questionable practices about human subjects protections were quite infrequent (5%). In the clinical setting, there was frequent recollection of incidents regarding lack of training, resources and skills, and error/incident reporting. In the educational setting

  19. Cinemeducation: A pilot student project using movies to help students learn medical professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumlertgul, Nuttha; Kijpaisalratana, Naruchorn; Pityaratstian, Nuttorn; Wangsaturaka, Danai

    2009-07-01

    Using movies has been accepted worldwide as a tool to help students learn medical professionalism. In the second year, a group of medical students conducted the "Cinemeducation" project to promote professionalism in the "Medical Ethics and Critical Thinking" course. Five movies with professionalism issues were screened with 20-30 students attending each session. After the show, participants then were asked to reflect on what they had learned in terms of professionalism. Two students led group discussion emphasizing questioning and argumentation for 60 min. Additional learning issues emerging from each session were also explored in more depth and arranged into a report. In the Cinemeducation Project, medical students have learned five main ethical issues in each film, which were the doctor-patient relationship, informed consent and clinical trials in patients, management of genetic disorders, patient management, and brain death and organ transplantation. In addition to issues of professionalism, they also developed critical thinking and moral reasoning skills. Using a case-based scenario in movies has proven to be an effective and entertaining method of facilitating students with learning on professionalism.

  20. Cultural similarities and differences in medical professionalism: a multi-region study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandratilake, Madawa; McAleer, Sean; Gibson, John

    2012-03-01

    Over the last two decades, many medical educators have sought to define professionalism. Initial attempts to do so were focused on defining professionalism in a manner that allowed for universal agreement. This quest was later transformed into an effort to 'understand professionalism' as many researchers realised that professionalism is a social construct and is culture-sensitive. The determination of cultural differences in the understanding of professionalism, however, has been subject to very little research, possibly because of the practical difficulties of doing so. In this multi-region study, we illustrate the universal and culture-specific aspects of medical professionalism as it is perceived by medical practitioners. Forty-six professional attributes were identified by reviewing the literature. A total of 584 medical practitioners, representing the UK, Europe, North America and Asia, participated in a survey in which they indicated the importance of each of these attributes. We determined the 'essentialness' of each attribute in different geographic regions using the content validity index, supplemented with kappa statistics. With acceptable levels of consensus, all regional groups identified 29 attributes as 'essential', thereby indicating the universality of these professional attributes, and six attributes as non-essential. The essentialness of the rest varied by regional group. This study has helped to identify regional similarities and dissimilarities in understandings of professionalism, most of which can be explained by cultural differences in line with the theories of cultural dimensions and cultural value. However, certain dissonances among regions may well be attributable to socio-economic factors. Some of the responses appear to be counter-cultural and demonstrate practitioners' keenness to overcome cultural barriers in order to provide better patient care. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  1. Medical revalidation as professional regulatory reform: Challenging the power of enforceable trust in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendlove, Zoey

    2018-05-01

    For more than two decades, international healthcare crises and ensuing political debates have led to increasing professional governance and regulatory policy reform. Governance and policy reforms, commonly representing a shift from embodied trust in professionals to state enforceable trust, have challenged professional power and self-regulatory privileges. However, controversy remains as to whether such policies do actually shift the balance of power and what the resulting effects of policy introduction would be. This paper explores the roll-out and operationalisation of revalidation as medical regulatory reform within a United Kingdom National Health Service hospital from 2012 to 2013, and its impact upon professional power. Revalidation policy was subject to the existing governance and management structures of the organisation, resulting in the formal policy process being shaped at the local level. This paper explores how the disorganised nature of the organisation hindered rather than facilitated robust processes of professional governance and regulation, fostering formalistic rather than genuine professional engagement with the policy process. Formalistic engagement seemingly assisted the medical profession in retaining self-regulatory privileges whilst maintaining professional power over the policy process. The paper concludes by challenging the concept of state enforceable trust and the theorisation that professional groups are effectively regulated and controlled by means of national and organisational objectives, such as revalidation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Digital Ethnography of Medical Students who Use Twitter for Professional Development.

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    Chretien, Katherine C; Tuck, Matthew G; Simon, Michael; Singh, Lisa O; Kind, Terry

    2015-11-01

    While researchers have studied negative professional consequences of medical trainee social media use, little is known about how medical students informally use social media for education and career development. This knowledge may help future and current physicians succeed in the digital age. We aimed to explore how and why medical students use Twitter for professional development. This was a digital ethnography. Medical student "superusers" of Twitter participated in the study The postings ("tweets") of 31 medical student superusers were observed for 8 months (May-December 2013), and structured field notes recorded. Through purposive sampling, individual key informant interviews were conducted to explore Twitter use and values until thematic saturation was reached (ten students). Three faculty key informant interviews were also conducted. Ego network and subnetwork analysis of student key informants was performed. Qualitative analysis included inductive coding of field notes and interviews, triangulation of data, and analytic memos in an iterative process. Twitter served as a professional tool that supplemented the traditional medical school experience. Superusers approached their use of Twitter with purpose and were mindful of online professionalism as well as of being good Twitter citizens. Their tweets reflected a mix of personal and professional content. Student key informants had a high number of followers. The subnetwork of key informants was well-connected, showing evidence of a social network versus information network. Twitter provided value in two major domains: access and voice. Students gained access to information, to experts, to a variety of perspectives including patient and public perspectives, and to communities of support. They also gained a platform for advocacy, control of their digital footprint, and a sense of equalization within the medical hierarchy. Twitter can serve as a professional tool that supplements traditional education. Students

  3. Graduate medical education in humanism and professionalism: a needs assessment survey of pediatric gastroenterology fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Katharine C; Kesselheim, Jennifer C; Herrick, Daniel B; Woolf, Alan D; Leichtner, Alan M

    2014-01-01

    The deterioration of humanism and professionalism during graduate medical training is an acknowledged concern, and programs are required to provide professionalism education for pediatric fellows. We conducted a needs assessment survey in a national sample of 138 first- and second-year gastroenterology fellows (82% response rate). Most believed that present humanism and professionalism education met their needs, but this education was largely informal (eg, role modeling). Areas for formal education desired by >70% included competing demands of clinical practice versus research, difficult doctor-patient relationships, depression/burnout, angry parents, medical errors, work-life balance, and the patient illness experience. These results may guide curricula to formalize humanism and professionalism education in pediatric gastroenterology fellowships.

  4. Working styles of medicine professionals in emergency medical service

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    Lazarević Marija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Transactional analysis is a personality and communication theory established by psychiatrist Eric Berne, at the end of the fifties. Counter script is the way of life in accordance with parental imperative. The person with a counter-script has a compulsion to fulfill the required task in order to avoid the disaster of ban. There are five drivers that are considered essential, and these are: 'Be perfect!', 'Be strong!', 'Hurry up!', 'Please others!' and 'Work hard!' Objective: a Determination of the most dominant driver in this medical service. b Because of the specifics of this job which requires speed and humanity, the emphasis will be on doublet: 'Hurry up!' and 'Please others!' Method: The study was conducted on a group of subjects employed in a general service with medical emergency. The instrument used in the study was Julie Hay's questionnaire for diagnosing the working styles. Results: Statistical research was conducted on a sample of 30 subjects employed in the emergency medical service. Availability of all afore mentioned drivers was tested. The research hypotheses were formulated as follows: H0: The driver is not present among the employees in this service; H1: The driver is present among the employees in this service. Calculated value of the t-statistics for the driver 'Hurry up!' is 1.398; for the driver 'Be perfect!' 3.616; for the driver 'Please others!' 11.693; for the driver 'Work hard!' -0.673; and for the driver 'Be strong!' 3.880. Since the realizable value of the t-statistics for the drivers: 'Be perfect!' and 'Please others!' and 'Be strong!' is bigger than the critical value 1.699, and p<0.05 we reject the null hypothesis and we accept the alternative hypothesis on the significance level of 95%. For the drivers 'Hurry up!' and 'Work hard!' the values of t-statistics are lower than the critical value 1.699 for significance level of 95%, so the alternative hypothesis are not acceptable. Conclusion: The results of

  5. Mediatized Business Models impairing the Professional Autonomy of Medical Professions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfadenhauer, Michaela; Kirschner, Heiko

    2018-01-01

    With the emergence and spread of digital media, more business models foster and empower client participation in medical professions. With services and products ranging from rating platforms to apps targeting self-diagnosis, these businesses transform the client–practitioner relationship yet risk...... undermining a central pillar of professions – autonomy. Practitioners have to take legal actions against these business models, making visible the frictional interplay among the involved actors. This development calls for an analytical understanding of how this technology-induced cultural change affects...

  6. Special considerations in the medical management of professional basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingard, S A

    1993-04-01

    The NBA basketball players are among the finest athletes in the world. That along with the increased popularity of the NBA has put a premium on the health of the players. The course of the season puts tremendous stress and strain on players. As medical illnesses occur, the physician may feel increased pressure to put the ill player back into the line-up. One cannot let the pressure for the player to return to activity interfere with good medical practice. At times, it is difficult to allow for the natural course of an illness, however, as discussed in this article, sometimes this is exactly what needs to be done. The temptation to overtreat is also seen in some team physicians. This too must be avoided. Along with proper treatment, there is the need for education of the athletes both in social interactions and in diet and life-style. Then we, as team physicians, can sit back and enjoy the performance on the court.

  7. Ethical challenges for medical professionals in middle manager positions: a debate article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnoor, Joerg; Heyde, Christoph-Eckhard; Ghanem, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Demographic changes increase the financing needs of all social services. This change also generates new and complex demands on the medical staff. Accordingly, medical professionals in middle management positions hold a characteristic sandwich position between top management and the operational core. This sandwich position often constitutes new challenges. In the industrial field, the growing importance of the middle management for the company's success has already been recognized. Accordingly, the growing demand on economy urges an analysis for the medical field. While there are nearly no differences in the nature of the tasks of medical middle manager in the areas of strategy, role function, performance pressure and qualifications compared to those tasks of the industrial sector, there are basic differences as well. Especially the character of "independence" of the medical profession and its ethical values justifies these differences. Consequently, qualification of medical professionals may not be solely based on medical academic career. It is also based on the personal ability or potential to lead and to manage. Above all, the character of "independence" of the medical profession and its ethical values justifies medical action that is based on the patient's well-being and not exclusively on economic outcomes. In the future, medical middle managers are supposed to achieve an optimized balance between a patient-centered medicine and economic measures. It will be a basic requirement that middle managers accept their position and the resultant tasks putting themselves in a more active position. Because of that, middle managers can become "value-added bridge-builders".

  8. STRUCTURE OF READINESS OF MEDICAL COLLEGE STUDENTS FOR PROFESSIONAL SELF-DEVELOPMENT

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    Кирило Соцький

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects the analysis of the existing approaches to interpretation of the notion of selfdevelopment in psychological and pedagogical literature. It has been determined, that professional and personal self-development is carried out with the help of mechanisms of self-knowledge, self-organization, self-education, self-esteem, self-control. The research also presents the clarified essence and structure of the readiness of medical college students for professional self-development. Value, motivational, cognitive, operating, and volitional components have been singled out. Factors and stages of intending medical employees’ selfdevelopment have been substantiated in the article.

  9. Professional medical organizations and commercial conflicts of interest: ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Howard

    2010-01-01

    The American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) has recently been criticized for accepting a large corporate donation from Coca-Cola to fund patient education on obesity prevention. Conflicts of interest, whether individual or organizational, occur when one enters into arrangements that reasonably tempt one to put aside one's primary obligations in favor of secondary interests, such as financial self-interest. Accepting funds from commercial sources that seek to influence physician organizational behavior in a direction that could run counter to the public health represents one of those circumstances and so constitutes a conflict of interest. Most of the defenses offered by AAFP are rationalizations rather than ethical counterarguments. Medical organizations, as the public face of medicine and as formulator of codes of ethics for their physician members, have special obligations to adhere to high ethical standards.

  10. MEDICAL PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY IN VIH CONTAGION AFTER BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS

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    R. Ortiz de Lejarazu Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARYIn Spain a million and a half blood transfusions by year are carried out, that supposes between 2 and 10 cases of infection of VIH by year. The present state of science invites to do something more with tests to detect other virological and immunological markers, in order to identify seronegative carriers and thus avoid HIV transmission by them. We must consider the possibility to incur in professional responsibilities if we do not report adequate of this risk or if we do not provide patients all the cares that require, according to the state of the science so called lex artis.RESUMENEn España se realizan un millón y medio de transfusiones de sangre al año, lo que supone un riesgo de entre 2 y 10 casos de infección de VIH a través de las mismas. El estado actual de la ciencia invita a hacer algo más pudiéndose ampliar los estudios de marcadores víricos e inmunológicos, para identificar a portadores seronegativos y así tratar de evitar la transmisión del virus de inmunodeficiencia humana a través de ellos. Debemos considerar la posibilidad de incurrir en responsabilidades profesionales si no informamos adecuadamente de este riesgo o si no proporcionamos a los pacientes todos los cuidados que requieren, según el estado actual de la ciencia, lo que denominamos lex artis.

  11. Medical Professionalism: the Effects of Sociodemographic Diversity and Curricular Organization on the Attitudinal Performance of Medical Students

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    Wilton Silva dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Socioeconomic and demographic diversity in the educational environment and the development of professional attitudes enhance the quality of health care delivery. Despite the importance of diversity for equity and accessibility to health care, its repercussions for students’ attitudinal learning have not been adequately evaluated. Purpose: Evaluate the influence of academic sociodemographic diversity and curricular organization in the development of professional attitudes in different phases of the undergraduate medical curriculum. Method: In 2012, the attitudinal performance of 310 socioeconomically diverse medical students was evaluated by the administration of a five-point professional attitudes scale. The participants were at different points in their education at a Brazilian public school of medicine in Brasília, Federal District. The scale comprised 6 factors: communication, ethics, professional excellence, self-assessment, beliefs, social determinants; and a general factor called medical professionalism and was validated for the purpose of this research. The reliability coefficients (aCronbach ranged from 0.65 to 0.87, according to different scale dimensions. Student diversity was analyzed according to differences in gender, age, religious affiliation, system of student selection and socioeconomic background. Results: The authors observed a decline in the mean attitude scores during the clinical phase compared to the preclinical phase of the curriculum. Female students displayed more positive attitudes than male students, and the students who declared a religious affiliation recorded higher attitude scores compared to those who declared themselves atheist, agnostic or non-religious. There was no correlation between family income or the system of student selection and the students’ attitude scores. The students who had attended public schools expressed a greater interest in working in the public health system

  12. Professional formation and deformation: repression of personal values and qualities in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabow, Michael W; Evans, Carrie N; Remen, Rachel N

    2013-01-01

    During medical training, students gain professional competence but may lose elements of personal humanity. Little is known about what personal qualities or values students themselves experience to be at risk or surrendered during medical school. Medical students participating in the Healer's Art elective in the United States and internationally during 2008--2009 were asked to reflect, identify, and draw a part of themselves that they were wary about revealing, not comfortable showing, or felt may be diminished in medical school and label this part with a word. Using a team-based qualitative approach, these words were categorized into common themes and the themes analyzed using descriptive and chi-square statistics. Words from 673 students from 31 medical schools were analyzed. Most students were female (58.7%) and in their first year (86.3%). Eleven themes were identified: spirituality, emotional engagement, identity/self-expression, freedom/spontaneity, relationships, self-care, creativity, negative emotions, values, other, and joy/happiness. The most common individual words used were creativity, family, balance, freedom, love, peace, compassion, relationships, and reflection. There were only rare differences in distributions of themes across gender, year in school, school size, or school nationality. An international cadre of Healer's Art students identified core personal qualities and values that they may not reveal or feel may be diminished in medical school. Medical training involves not only professional formation but exposure to professional deformation as well. Educators must attend to both gains in professional competence and the personal qualities and values that are at risk in the course of professional development.

  13. [SWOT-ANALYSIS OF PROFESSIONAL-PERSONAL COMPETENCE OF ECONOMISTS IN MEDICAL ORGANIZATIONS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issayev, T; Masalimova, A; Magzumova, R

    2018-03-01

    In modern conditions, there is a tendency to replace the qualification approach of assessing economists in medical organizations - competence. The purpose of the study was to identify the professional and personal abilities of economists in medical organizations to actively participate in the management decisions of the medical organization in the transition from public administration to the right of economic management. The study was carried out in 3 stages. At the first stage, the degree of influence of the experience of the economist, the frequency of training and its burden on the profitability of the medical organization was analyzed. At the second stage - the personal evaluation of the respondents by psychodiagnostic methods (memory, attention, the level of the person's orientation, self-esteem, the level of personal claims). At the third stage, the data of professional behavior and personal evaluation were summarized in the table of SWOT-analysis factors, for determining the personnel strategy of development of economists in medical organizations. The sample size was 43 respondents, which amounted to 10.3% of the participation of medical organizations. The results of the SWOT analysis of the personal and professional qualities of medical economists in medical organizations showed the predominance of weaknesses in corporate competencies among medical economists over strong ones, while personal opportunities prevail over risks. In general, the professional-personal SWOT analysis showed the prevalence of the possibilities of medical economists (Ps=5,3) over threats (Ps = 4,9), strong (Ps = 4,4) and weak sides (Ps = 3,8). At the same time, the force of influence does not suffice: the length of work for profitability (r = -0.3, p economist to employees on the growth of the specific weight of paid services (r = 0.001, p economists on the profitability of the medical organization (r = 0.7, peconomists, the higher the profitability, showed our results in the studied

  14. Effect of Professional Ethics on Reducing Medical Errors from the Viewpoint of Faculty Members in Medical School of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

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    Fatemeh Donboli Miandoab

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professionalism and adherence to ethics and professional standards are among the most important topics in medical ethics that can play a role in reducing medical errors. This paper examines and evaluates the effect of professional ethics on reducing medical errors from the viewpoint of faculty members in the medical school of the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: in this cross-sectional descriptive study, faculty members of the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences were the statistical population from whom 105 participants were randomly selected through simple random sampling. A questionnaire was used, to examine and compare the self-assessed opinions of faculty members in the internal, surgical, pediatric, gynecological, and psychiatric departments. The questionnaires were completed by a self-assessment method and the collected data was analyzed using SPSS 21. Results: Based on physicians’ opinions, professional ethical considerations and its three domains and aspects have a significant role in reducing medical errors and crimes. The mean scores (standard deviations of the managerial, knowledge and communication skills and environmental variables were respectively 46.7 (5.64, 64.6 (8.14 and 16.2 (2.97 from the physicians’ viewpoints. The significant factors with highest scores on the reduction of medical errors and crimes in all three domains were as follows: in the managerial skills variable, trust, physician’s sense of responsibility against the patient and his/her respect for patients’ rights; in the knowledge and communication skills domain, general competence and eligibility as a physician and examination and diagnosis skills; and, last, in the environmental domain, the sufficiency of trainings in ethical issues during education and their satisfaction with basic needs. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this research, attention to the improvement of communication, management and environment skills should

  15. Sustainability of professionals' adherence to clinical practice guidelines in medical care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ament, Stephanie M C; de Groot, Jeanny J A; Maessen, José M C; Dirksen, Carmen D; van der Weijden, Trudy; Kleijnen, Jos

    2015-12-29

    To evaluate (1) the state of the art in sustainability research and (2) the outcomes of professionals' adherence to guideline recommendations in medical practice. Systematic review. Searches were conducted until August 2015 in MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Guidelines International Network (GIN) library. A snowball strategy, in which reference sections of other reviews and of included papers were searched, was used to identify additional papers. Studies needed to be focused on sustainability and on professionals' adherence to clinical practice guidelines in medical care. Studies had to include at least 2 measurements: 1 before (PRE) or immediately after implementation (EARLY POST) and 1 measurement longer than 1 year after active implementation (LATE POST). The search retrieved 4219 items, of which 14 studies met the inclusion criteria, involving 18 sustainability evaluations. The mean timeframe between the end of active implementation and the sustainability evaluation was 2.6 years (minimum 1.5-maximum 7.0). The studies were heterogeneous with respect to their methodology. Sustainability was considered to be successful if performance in terms of professionals' adherence was fully maintained in the late postimplementation phase. Long-term sustainability of professionals' adherence was reported in 7 out of 18 evaluations, adherence was not sustained in 6 evaluations, 4 evaluations showed mixed sustainability results and in 1 evaluation it was unclear whether the professional adherence was sustained. (2) Professionals' adherence to a clinical practice guideline in medical care decreased after more than 1 year after implementation in about half of the cases. (1) Owing to the limited number of studies, the absence of a uniform definition, the high risk of bias, and the mixed results of studies, no firm conclusion about the sustainability of professionals' adherence to guidelines in medical practice can be drawn

  16. The Use of Professionalism Scenarios in the Medical School Interview Process: Faculty and Interviewee Perceptions

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    James Kleshinski, MD

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of professionalism scenarios on the medical school admissions process from applicant and faculty perspectives. Specifically, do completing professionalism scenarios as part of the medical school interview process have an impact on both the interviewee’s and the faculty’s perception of the process and outcome?Method: Ninety-one faculty interviewed 199 applicants from January 2007 through April 2007 at The University of Toledo College of Medicine. All applicants were asked one standard professionalism scenario in each of their two interviews. A total of six scenarios were used for the entire interviewing season in rotation every two months. A survey was administered by an admissions office staff member to both the interviewed applicants as well as faculty who conducted interviews about how these scenarios impacted their interview experience.Results: Asking applicants to respond to professionalism scenarios during the interview was described as having a positive influence on their interview experience. This was also associated with leaving an impression on the applicant about what our institution values in its students and contributed an element of personal reflection about what will be expected of them in the medical profession. Applicants more often reported that asking questions about professionalism was an important aspect of the interview than did faculty. Overall, there was an association between the interviewer’s perception of the applicant’s response and the interviewer’s assessment of professionalism.Conclusions: Professionalism scenarios can be a worthwhile tool for use in the admissions process. The interview process should encourage participation from faculty who value this as an important component in the evaluation of an applicant. Determinants of faculty perception of the role of assessing professionalism in the interview process should be investigated in future

  17. Emotional Burnout, Perceived Sources of Job Stress, Professional Fulfillment, and Engagement among Medical Residents in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Perianayagam, Wilson; Rampal, Krishna Gopal

    2013-01-01

    This study was the first to explore factors associated with emotional burnout (EB) among medical residents in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a universal sample of 205 medical residents in a Malaysian general hospital. The self-administered questionnaire used consisted of questions on sociodemographics and work characteristics, sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, engagement, and EB. EB was measured using the emotional exhaustion subscale, the Maslach Burnout In...

  18. Developing the professional competence of future doctors in the instructional setting of higher medical educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morokhovets, Halyna Yu; Lysanets, Yuliia V

    The main objectives of higher medical education is the continuous professional improvement of physicians to meet the needs dictated by the modern world both at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. In this respect, the system of higher medical education has undergone certain changes - from determining the range of professional competences to the adoption of new standards of education in medicine. The article aims to analyze the parameters of doctor's professionalism in the context of competence-based approach and to develop practical recommendations for the improvement of instruction techniques. The authors reviewed the psycho-pedagogical materials and summarized the acquired experience of teachers at higher medical institutions as to the development of instruction techniques in the modern educational process. The study is based on the results of testing via the technique developed by T.I. Ilyina. Analytical and biblio-semantic methods were used in the paper. It has been found that the training process at medical educational institution should be focused on the learning outcomes. The authors defined the quality parameters of doctors' training and suggested the model for developing the professional competence of medical students. This model explains the cause-and-effect relationships between the forms of instruction, teaching techniques and specific components of professional competence in future doctors. The paper provides practical recommendations on developing the core competencies which a qualified doctor should master. The analysis of existing interactive media in Ukraine and abroad has been performed. It has been found that teaching the core disciplines with the use of latest technologies and interactive means keeps abreast of the times, while teaching social studies and humanities to medical students still involves certain difficulties.

  19. Exploring reflective 'critical incident' documentation of professionalism lapses in a medical undergraduate setting

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    McLachlan John C

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring professionalism in undergraduate medical students is a difficult process, and no one method has currently emerged as the definitive means of assessment in this field. Student skills in reflection have been shown to be highly important in the development of professional behaviours. By studying student reflections on lapses in professional judgement, recorded as 'critical incidents', it is possible to explore themes which are significant for the development of professional behaviour in an undergraduate setting. Methods We examined critical incident reporting combined with optional written student reflection as a method for exploring professionalism in undergraduate medical students. 228 students split between Year 1 and 2 of one academic year of undergraduate medicine were studied retrospectively and a grounded theory approach to analysis was employed. Results This year generated 16 critical incident reports and corresponding student reflections, all of which were considered. In addition to identifying the nature of the critical incidents, 3 principal themes emerged. These were the impact and consequences of the report having been made, student reactions to the events (both positive and negative, and student responses regarding future actions. Conclusion This study indicates that unprofessional behaviour can be identified and challenged by both the faculty and the students involved, and suggests that positive behavioural changes might be made with the aim of preventing future occurrences. We provide a low cost approach of measuring and recording professional behaviour.

  20. Abdominal compression during endoscopy (the Bolster technique) demonstrates hidden Schatzki rings (with videos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouhourian, Caroline; Bonis, Peter A; Guelrud, Moises

    2016-05-01

    Schatzki rings are found in the distal esophagus, are associated with hiatal hernias, and present with intermittent dysphagia to solid foods. They can be identified by radiology (GI series or barium swallow studies) or endoscopy. Rings are not always visualized during endoscopy in patients in whom they are suspected clinically. The Bolster technique involves application of epigastric abdominal pressure, which offers the potential to reveal a Schatzki ring that is otherwise obscured within a reduced hiatal hernia. The aim of this study was to determine whether the Bolster technique improves endoscopic detection of Schatzki rings. We reviewed 30 symptomatic patients with a history of a Schatzki ring in a tertiary care center. The Bolster technique was applied to patients in whom the ring was not visible during standard endoscopy. The main outcome measurement was identification of the Schatzki ring after the Bolster technique. A Schatzki ring was visible during standard endoscopy in 26 of the 30 patients. In the remaining 4, the ring was visible only after the application of the Bolster technique. The Bolster technique is a simple maneuver that can increase detection rates of Schatzki rings during endoscopy. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Structural-functional model of medical students’ professional-applied physical training

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    A.V. Petryshyn

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to work out and experimentally prove model of professional-applied physical training of medical higher educational establishments’ students. Material: in the research 80 students participated. In questioning physical education instructors of medical higher education establishments (n=20 participated. Results: influence of students’ professionally important characteristics on general physical fitness indicators and functional state has been shown. Directions of students’ physical fitness parameters’ individual diagnostic and control over physical education effectiveness have been offered. Volumes of physical exercises in the structure of training have been found: special training (15-20% and competition exercises (20-30%. Conclusions: the need in raising the level of professionally important for students’ abilities has been noted: speed power, static power endurance, power endurance, coordination of arms’ movements, static balance.

  2. An Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of an Advising Survey for Medical and Professional Program Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth D.; Gonzalez, Liara M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a newly developed instrument intended to measure faculty competence as it pertains to their role as advisors, particularly in medical and professional programs. A total of 166 students completed the Faculty Advisor's Skills and Behaviors Inventory (FASBI). The psychometric…

  3. Dermatopathology and Social Media: A Survey of 131 Medical Professionals From 29 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlquist, Erin; Lee, Nathan E; Shalin, Sara C; Goodman, Michael; Gardner, Jerad M

    2018-02-01

    - Use of social media in the medical profession is an increasingly prevalent and sometimes controversial practice. Many doctors believe social media is the future and embrace it as an educational and collaborative tool. Others maintain reservations concerning issues such as patient confidentiality, and legal and ethical risks. - To explore the utility of social media as an educational and collaborative tool in dermatopathology. - We constructed 2 identical surveys containing questions pertaining to the responders' demographics and opinions regarding the use of social media for dermatopathology. The surveys were available on Twitter and Facebook for a period of 10 days. - The survey was completed by 131 medical professionals from 29 different countries: the majority (81%, 106 of 131) were 25 to 45 years of age. Most replied that they access Facebook or Twitter several times a day (68%, 89 of 131) for both professional and social purposes (77%, 101 of 131). The majority agreed that social media provides useful and relevant information, but stated limitations they would like addressed. - Social media is a powerful tool with the ability to instantaneously share dermatopathology with medical professionals across the world. This study reveals the opinions and characteristics of the population of medical professionals currently using social media for education and collaboration in dermatopathology.

  4. Taiwanese Medical Students' Narratives of Intercultural Professionalism Dilemmas: Exploring Tensions between Western Medicine and Taiwanese Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ming-Jung; Gosselin, Katherine; Chandratilake, Madawa; Monrouxe, Lynn V.; Rees, Charlotte E.

    2017-01-01

    In an era of globalization, cultural competence is necessary for the provision of quality healthcare. Although this topic has been well explored in non-Western cultures within Western contexts, the authors explore how Taiwanese medical students trained in Western medicine address intercultural professionalism dilemmas related to tensions between…

  5. Examining Sense of Community among Medical Professionals in an Online Graduate Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye O. Lewis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the number of online degree programs continues to grow, one of the greatest challenges is developing a sense of community among learners who do not convene at the same time and place. This study examined the sense of community among medical professionals in an online graduate program for healthcare professionals. We took the sample from a fully online program delivered jointly by a state university and a local children's hospital in the Midwest. We administered Rovai's Classroom Community Survey with 11 additional demographic questions. We also utilized online interviews to further explore students’ understanding of sense of community. A bi-factor model was fitted to the online sense of community survey data. Using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA we identified potential group differences. The qualitative data were analyzed thematically in a recursive and iterative process. Study results suggested that a dominant factor existed: sense of community with two sub-domain factors including sense of learning and sense of connectedness. No significant differences in sense of community with regard to gender, native language, or area of medical practice were detected. However, results showed a difference in sense of community between the three courses examined. This study is the first to examine the sense of community among online medical professionals. Since our findings are in contrast to those of previous studies, this opens the door to additional studies around the possible differences between the community characteristics and needs of medical professionals as online students.

  6. Problems of elderly patients on inhalation therapy: Difference in problem recognition between patients and medical professionals

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    Daiki Hira

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Elderly patients are apt to assume that they “understand well”, therefore, in order to recognize and close the perception gap between elderly patients and medical professionals, it is necessary to provide them with more aggressive (frequent instructions on inhalation therapy.

  7. Relevance of the Rationalist-Intuitionist Debate for Ethics and Professionalism in Medical Education

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    Leffel, G. Michael; Mueller, Ross A. Oakes; Curlin, Farr A.; Yoon, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite widespread pedagogical efforts to modify discrete behaviors in developing physicians, the professionalism movement has generally shied away from essential questions such as what virtues characterize the good physician, and how are those virtues formed? Although there is widespread adoption of medical ethics curricula, there is still no…

  8. Understanding the role of the qualified professional: a comparison of medical and dental students' attitudes.

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    Widdifield, H; Ryan, C A; O'Sullivan, E

    2006-10-01

    The Royal College of Physicians & Surgeons of Canada developed a competency framework to assist future specialists in responding to challenges as health care providers. The CANMEDs project described 7 essential roles of Specialist Physicians include Health Advocate, Manager, Scholar, Medical Expert, Professional, Communicator and Collaborator (HMSEPC(2)). The object of the current study was to investigate whether medical students and dental students in Ireland recognised these responsibilities as essential to a qualified doctor/dentist. Ninety-eight medical and forty-six dental students (year 1 and year 4) were asked to mind map the responsibilities of qualified doctors/dentists. The comments on the mind map were applied to one of the 7 CANMED roles. There were 484 comments from 128 students. Students had the greatest number of responses referring to the Medical and Dental Expert (257, 30.4%) and Professional (227, 26.9%) roles. This was followed by Communicator (130, 15.4%), Scholar (107, 12.7%) and Health Advocate (82, 9.7%) roles. There were relatively few responses relating to Manager (12, 1.4%) and Collaborator (i.e. teamwork) roles (30, 3.6%). There were no differences in responses between Dental Students and Medical Students and between 1 st year and 4th year students. Similarly there were no differences between the responses of Irish students (n =95; 68%) and International students (n =45; 32%) Students are aware of their responsibilities as Medical or Dental experts (diagnostic and therapeutic skills) for ethical and effective patient care (professional role). They are somewhat aware of the Communicator (therapeutic relationships and effective listening), Scholar (personal continuing education strategies) and Health Advocate (contribute to improved community health) roles. In general they have little concept of the importance of Management skills (utilising resources effectively), and of Collaboration (teamwork and consulting effectively with other

  9. Medical professionalism in China and the United States: a transcultural interpretation.

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    Nie, Jing-Bao; Smith, Kirk L; Cong, Yali; Hu, Linying; Tucker, Joseph D

    2015-01-01

    As in other societies, medical professionalism in the Peoples' Republic of China has been rapidly evolving. One of the major events in this process was the endorsement in 2005 of the document, "Medical Professionalism in the New Millennium: A Physician Charter," by the Chinese Medical Doctor Association (hereafter, the Charter)(1). More recently, a national survey, the first on such a large scale, was conducted on Chinese physicians' attitudes toward the fundamental principles and core commitments put forward in the Charter. Based on empirical findings from that study and comparing them to the published results of a similar American survey, the authors offer an in-depth interpretation of significant cross-cultural differences and important transcultural commonalities. The broader historical, socio-economic, and ethical issues relating to salient Chinese cultural practices such as family consent, familism (the custom of deferring decisions to family members), and the withholding of medical information, as well as controversial topics such as not respecting patients' autonomy, are examined. The Chinese Survey found that Chinese physicians supported the principles of the Charter in general. Here we argue that Chinese culture and traditional medical ethics are broadly compatible with the moral commitments demanded by modern medical professionalism. Methodologically and theoretically-recognizing the problems inherent in the hoary but still popular habit of dichotomizing cultures and in relativism-a transcultural approach is adopted that gives greater (due) weight to the internal moral diversity present within every culture, the common ground shared by different cultures, and the primacy of morality. Genuine cross-cultural dialogue, including a constructive Chinese-American dialogue in the area of medical professionalism, is not only possible, but necessary. Copyright 2015 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  10. Health inequalities, physician citizens and professional medical associations: an Australian case study

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    Naccarella Lucio

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As socioeconomic health inequalities persist and widen, the health effects of adversity are a constant presence in the daily work of physicians. Gruen and colleagues suggest that, in responding to important population health issues such as this, defining those areas of professional obligation in contrast to professional aspiration should be on the basis of evidence and feasibility. Drawing this line between obligation and aspiration is a part of the work of professional medical colleges and associations, and in doing so they must respond to members as well as a range of other interest groups. Our aim was to explore the usefulness of Gruen's model of physician responsibility in defining how professional medical colleges and associations should lead the profession in responding to socioeconomic health inequalities. Methods We report a case study of how the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners is responding to the issue of health inequalities through its work. We undertook a consultation (80 interviews with stakeholders internal and external to the College and two focus groups with general practitioners and program and policy review of core programs of College interest and responsibility: general practitioner training and setting of practice standards, as well as its work in public advocacy. Results Some strategies within each of these College program areas were seen as legitimate professional obligations in responding to socioeconomic health inequality. However, other strategies, while potentially professional obligations within Gruen's model, were nevertheless contested. The key difference between these lay in different moral orientations. Actions where agreement existed were based on an ethos of care and compassion. Actions that were contested were based on an ethos of justice and human rights. Conclusion Colleges and professional medical associations have a role in explicitly leading a debate about values

  11. Professional Ethics and Organizational Commitment Among the Education Department Staff of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

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    Ali Imani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Concepts such as organizational commitment and employees’ and managers’ ethics provide decision-makers and policy makers with potentially useful information which can result in increasing organizational efficiency and effectiveness. This study aimed to explore the relationship between professional ethics and organizational commitment among the staff working in the education departments of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015. The study population consisted of all staff working as educational experts in the education departments of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (N = 65. Data collection instruments used in this study were two standard questionnaires on professional ethics and organizational commitment. SPSS software version 21 was used to analyze the data. Results: According to the results, mean scores obtained for professional ethics and organizational commitment were (91.57± 9.13 (95% CI, 89.23-93.91 and (64.89 ± 10.37 (95% CI, 62.2367.54, respectively. A significant relationship was observed between professional ethics and organizational commitment among the educational experts working in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (correlation coefficient = 0.405 (P = 0.001 (at 95% confidence level. Furthermore, there was a significant relationship between professional ethics and work experience (P = 0.043. The highest level of professional ethics observed was associated with those participants having a work experience of ranging from 6 to 10 years. Individuals with fulltime employment scored the highest in organizational commitment. Conclusion: Educational experts possessed a high level of professional ethics. The finding provides the grounds for promoting organizational commitment, which will lead to higher levels of organizational effectiveness.

  12. Moving beyond nostalgia and motives: towards a complexity science view of medical professionalism.

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    Hafferty, Frederic W; Levinson, Dana

    2008-01-01

    Modern-day discourse on medical professionalism has largely been dominated by a "nostalgic" view, emphasizing individual motives and behaviors. Shaped by a defining conflict between commercialism and professionalism, this discourse has unfolded through a series of waves, the first four of which are discovery, definition, assessment, and institutionalization. They have unfolded in a series of highly interactive and overlapping sequences that extend into the present. The fifth wave-linking structure and agency-which is nascent, proposes to shift our focus on professionalism from changing individuals to modifying the underlying structural and environmental forces that shape social actors and actions. The sixth wave-complexity science-is more incubatory in nature and seeks to recast social actors, social structures, and environmental factors as interactive, adaptive, and interdependent. Moving towards such a framing is necessary if medicine is to effectively reestablish professionalism as a core principle.

  13. A Study of the Relationship Between Nurses’ Professional Self-Concept and Professional Ethics in Hospitals Affiliated to Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Iran

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    Parandavar, Nehleh; Rahmanian, Afifeh; Jahromi, Zohreh Badiyepeymaie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Commitment to ethics usually results in nurses’ better professional performance and advancement. Professional self-concept of nurses refers to their information and beliefs about their roles, values, and behaviors. The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between nurses’ professional self-concept and professional ethics in hospitals affiliated to Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This cross sectional-analytical study was conducted in 2014. The 270 participants were practicing nurses and head-nurses at the teaching hospitals of Peimanieh and Motahari in Jahrom University of Medical Science. Sampling was based on sencus method. Data was collected using Cowin's Nurses’ self-concept questionnaire (NSCQ) and the researcher-made questionnaire of professional ethics. Results: The average of the sample's professional self-concept score was 6.48±0.03 out of 8. The average of the sample's commitment to professional ethics score was 4.08±0.08 out of 5. Based on Pearson's correlation test, there is a significant relationship between professional ethics and professional self-concept (P=0.01, r=0.16). Conclusion: In view of the correlation between professional self-concept and professional ethics, it is recommended that nurses’ self-concept, which can boost their commitment to ethics, be given more consideration. PMID:26573035

  14. A Study of the Relationship Between Nurses' Professional Self-Concept and Professional Ethics in Hospitals Affiliated to Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parandavar, Nehleh; Rahmanian, Afifeh; Badiyepeymaie Jahromi, Zohreh

    2015-07-31

    Commitment to ethics usually results in nurses' better professional performance and advancement. Professional self-concept of nurses refers to their information and beliefs about their roles, values, and behaviors. The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between nurses' professional self-concept and professional ethics in hospitals affiliated to Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. This cross sectional-analytical study was conducted in 2014. The 270 participants were practicing nurses and head-nurses at the teaching hospitals of Peimanieh and Motahari in Jahrom University of Medical Science. Sampling was based on sencus method. Data was collected using Cowin's Nurses' self-concept questionnaire (NSCQ) and the researcher-made questionnaire of professional ethics. The average of the sample's professional self-concept score was 6.48±0.03 out of 8. The average of the sample's commitment to professional ethics score was 4.08±0.08 out of 5. Based on Pearson's correlation test, there is a significant relationship between professional ethics and professional self-concept (P=0.01, r=0.16). In view of the correlation between professional self-concept and professional ethics, it is recommended that nurses' self-concept, which can boost their commitment to ethics, be given more consideration.

  15. An Analysis of the Populations of the Air Force's Medical and Professional Officer Corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Edward G; Massey, Hugh G; Mele, Judith D; Mundell, Benjamin F

    2012-01-01

    Since the advent of the all-volunteer force, one of the foremost personnel challenges of the U.S. Air Force has been recruiting and retaining an adequate number of medical and professional officers in the Air Force's seven medical and professional officer corps: the Biomedical Sciences Corps (BSC), the Chaplain Corps, the Dental Corps, the Judge Advocate General (JAG) Corps (attorneys), the Medical Corps (physicians), the Medical Service Corps (MSC), and the Nurse Corps. For each of these corps, there are highly similar jobs in the private sector, so attracting and retaining these corps' officers is a constant challenge. This article analyzes all seven Air Force medical and professional officer corps and their relative statuses with regard to end strengths, accession levels, promotion flow, and attrition since the late 1970s. The authors find that recent accession and retention trends have been most adverse in the Air Force's Nurse Corps, while the MSC and the JAG Corps appear to have the most stable populations.

  16. Health Care Professional Factors Influencing Shared Medical Decision Making in Korea

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    Kae-Hwa Jo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Till date, the medical decision-making process in Korea has followed the paternalist model, relying on the instructions of physicians. However, in recent years, shared decision making at the end-of-life between physicians and nurses is now emphasized in Korea. The purpose of this study was conducted to explore how health care professionals’ characteristics, attitude toward dignified dying, and moral sensitivity affect their shared medical decision making. The design was descriptive survey. This study was undertaken in two university hospitals in two metropolitan cities, South Korea. The participants were 344 nurses and 80 physicians who work at university hospitals selected by convenience sampling method. Data were collected from January 10 through March 20, 2014 using the Dignified Dying Scale, Moral Sensitivity Scale, and Shared Medical Decision-Making Scale. Shared medical decision making, attitude toward dignified dying, moral sensitivity, age, and working experience had a significant correlation with each other. The factors affecting shared medical decision making of Korean health care professionals were moral sensitivity and attitude toward dignified dying. These variables explained 22.4% of the shared medical decision making. Moral sensitivity and a positive attitude toward dignified dying should be promoted among health care professionals as a part of an educational program for shared medical decision making.

  17. "Doctor Jazz": Lessons that medical professionals can learn from jazz musicians.

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    van Ark, Allard E; Wijnen-Meijer, Marjo

    2018-04-24

    The worlds of a physician and a jazz musician seem entirely different. Various studies, however, relating the concepts behind jazz music to medical practice and education, have been published. The aim of this essayistic review is to summarize previously described concepts behind jazz music and its required artistic skills that could be translated to medicine, encouraging doctors, medical students and medical educators to see their professional environment from a different perspective. A systematic search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, and ERIC databases, combining keywords with regard to jazz, medicine and medical education. Background information concerning jazz music and several jazz musicians was retrieved through an additional nonsystematic search using Google Scholar. Lessons with regard to improvisational skills, both in communication with patients and in a technical context, communication skills, leadership, interprofessional teamwork and coping with errors are presented. Doctors and medical students could learn various lessons from jazz music performance and jazz musicians. The potential and the possibilities of implementing jazz into the medical curriculum, in order to contribute to the development of professional skills and attitudes of medical students, could be explored further.

  18. Professional identity formation: creating a longitudinal framework through TIME (Transformation in Medical Education).

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    Holden, Mark D; Buck, Era; Luk, John; Ambriz, Frank; Boisaubin, Eugene V; Clark, Mark A; Mihalic, Angela P; Sadler, John Z; Sapire, Kenneth J; Spike, Jeffrey P; Vince, Alan; Dalrymple, John L

    2015-06-01

    The University of Texas System established the Transformation in Medical Education (TIME) initiative to reconfigure and shorten medical education from college matriculation through medical school graduation. One of the key changes proposed as part of the TIME initiative was to begin emphasizing professional identity formation (PIF) at the premedical level. The TIME Steering Committee appointed an interdisciplinary task force to explore the fundamentals of PIF and to formulate strategies that would help students develop their professional identity as they transform into physicians. In this article, the authors describe the task force's process for defining PIF and developing a framework, which includes 10 key aspects, 6 domains, and 30 subdomains to characterize the complexity of physician identity. The task force mapped this framework onto three developmental phases of medical education typified by the undergraduate student, the clerkship-level medical student, and the graduating medical student. The task force provided strategies for the promotion and assessment of PIF for each subdomain at each of the three phases, in addition to references and resources. Assessments were suggested for student feedback, curriculum evaluation, and theoretical development. The authors emphasize the importance of longitudinal, formative assessment using a combination of existing assessment methods. Though not unique to the medical profession, PIF is critical to the practice of exemplary medicine and the well-being of patients and physicians.

  19. Transforming practice organizations to foster lifelong learning and commitment to medical professionalism.

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    Frankford, D M; Patterson, M A; Konrad, T R

    2000-07-01

    Practice organizations will increasingly engage in activities that are the functional equivalents of continuing medical education. The authors maintain that if these activities are properly structured within practice organizations, they can become powerful engines of socialization to enhance physicians' lifelong learning and commitment to medical professionalism. They propose that this promise can be realized if new or reformed practice organizations combine education and service delivery and institutionalize processes of individual and collective reflection. The resulting "institutions of reflective practice" would be ones of collegial, experiential, reflective lifelong learning concerning the technical and normative aspects of medical work. They would extend recent methods of medical education such as problem-based learning into the practice setting and draw on extant methods used in complex organizations to maximize the advantages and minimize the disadvantages that practice organizations typically present for adult learning. As such, these institutions would balance the potentially conflicting organizational needs for, on the one hand, (1) self-direction, risk taking, and creativity; (2) specialization; and (3) collegiality; and, on the other hand, (4) organizational structure, (5) coordination of division of labor, and (6) hierarchy. Overall, this institutionalization of reflective practice would enrich practice with education and education with practice, and accomplish the ideals of what the authors call "responsive medical professionalism." The medical profession would both contribute and be responsive to social values, and medical work would be valued intrinsically and as central to practitioners' self-identity and as a contribution to the public good.

  20. Iraqi health system in kurdistan region: medical professionals' perspectives on challenges and priorities for improvement.

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    Shabila, Nazar P; Al-Tawil, Namir G; Tahir, Rebaz; Shwani, Falah H; Saleh, Abubakir M; Al-Hadithi, Tariq S

    2010-11-30

    The views of medical professionals on efficiency of health system and needs for any changes are very critical and constitute a cornerstone for any health system improvement. This is particularly relevant to Iraqi Kurdistan case as the events of the last few decades have significantly devastated the national Iraqi health system while the necessity for adopting a new health care system is increasingly recognized since 2004. This study aims to examine the regional health system in Iraqi Kurdistan from medical professionals' perspectives and try to define its problems and priorities for improvement. A survey questionnaire was developed and administered to a convenience sample of 250 medical professionals in Erbil governorate. The questionnaire included four items; rating of the quality of services and availability of resources in the health institutions, view on different aspects of the health system, the perceived priority needs for health system improvement and gender and professional characteristics of the respondents. The response rate to the survey was 83.6%. A high proportion of respondents rated the different aspects of services and resources in the health institutions as weak or very weak including the availability of the required quantity and quality of medicines (68.7%), the availability of sufficient medical equipment and investigation tools (68.7%), and the quality of offered services (65.3%). Around 72% of respondents had a rather negative view on the overall health system. The weak role of medical research, the weak role of professional associations in controlling the system and the inefficient health education were identified as important problems in the current health system (87.9%, 87.1% and 84.9%, respectively). The priority needs of health system improvement included adoption of social insurance for medical care of the poor (82%), enhancing the role of family medicine (77.2%), adopting health insurance system (76.1%) and periodic scientific

  1. Medical Ethics Code: an Analysis from Ethical-Disciplinary Cases Against Medical Professionals within the Specialty of Psychiatry

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    Giselle Crosara Gracindo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the nature of infractions committed by doctors working within the field of psychiatry, between 2010 and 2016, from the scope of appeals within ethical-disciplinary cases judged at the Plenary Tribunal of the Federal Medical Council, based on the medical ethics code, and to list some elements that make it possible to outline the professional profile of those involved. Method: This was a document-based investigation in the form of a retrospective and descriptive study. Data were gathered using the Federal Medical Council (CFM database and from consultation of judgments issued by the Plenary Body of the Medical Ethics Tribunal (TSEM, of the CFM. The investigation used a sample consisting of 206 appeals and 19 referrals, totaling 224 appeals by doctors who underwent trials. We took into account cases judged between April 13, 2010 and August 3, 2016. Three databases were used in the investigation: cases (224; doctors facing charges (191 and cases/penalties (146. Based on the records of the 191 doctors charged, the ethical-disciplinary cases of seven doctors working in psychiatry were analyzed specifically for the present study, whether or not they had a specialist title. Characterization of infractions committed encompassed references to the articles of the medical ethics code most frequently infringed in the field of psychiatry, along with a survey of the motives for these infractions and some characteristics relating to these professionals’ profile. Results: Among the findings from this investigation, infractions of the articles of the medical ethics code can be highlighted, such as article 30 “[...] Use of the profession to corrupt customs and to commit or favor crime [...]” and article 40 “[...] Taking advantage of situations arising from the doctor-patient relationship to obtain physical, emotional, financial or any other advantage [...]”. The professional profile of those involved in these cases was also shown

  2. The limits of social justice as an aspect of medical professionalism.

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    Huddle, Thomas S

    2013-08-01

    Contemporary accounts of medical ethics and professionalism emphasize the importance of social justice as an ideal for physicians. This ideal is often specified as a commitment to attaining the universal availability of some level of health care, if not of other elements of a "decent minimum" standard of living. I observe that physicians, in general, have not accepted the importance of social justice for professional ethics, and I further argue that social justice does not belong among professional norms. Social justice is a norm of civic rather than professional life; professional groups may demand that their members conform to the requirements of citizenship but ought not to require civic virtues such as social justice. Nor should any such requirements foreclose reasonable disagreement as to the content of civic norms, as requiring adherence to common specifications of social justice would do. Demands for any given form of social justice among physicians are unlikely to bear fruit as medical education is powerless to produce this virtue.

  3. Professional, structural and organisational interventions in primary care for reducing medication errors.

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    Khalil, Hanan; Bell, Brian; Chambers, Helen; Sheikh, Aziz; Avery, Anthony J

    2017-10-04

    Medication-related adverse events in primary care represent an important cause of hospital admissions and mortality. Adverse events could result from people experiencing adverse drug reactions (not usually preventable) or could be due to medication errors (usually preventable). To determine the effectiveness of professional, organisational and structural interventions compared to standard care to reduce preventable medication errors by primary healthcare professionals that lead to hospital admissions, emergency department visits, and mortality in adults. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, three other databases, and two trial registries on 4 October 2016, together with reference checking, citation searching and contact with study authors to identify additional studies. We also searched several sources of grey literature. We included randomised trials in which healthcare professionals provided community-based medical services. We also included interventions in outpatient clinics attached to a hospital where people are seen by healthcare professionals but are not admitted to hospital. We only included interventions that aimed to reduce medication errors leading to hospital admissions, emergency department visits, or mortality. We included all participants, irrespective of age, who were prescribed medication by a primary healthcare professional. Three review authors independently extracted data. Each of the outcomes (hospital admissions, emergency department visits, and mortality), are reported in natural units (i.e. number of participants with an event per total number of participants at follow-up). We presented all outcomes as risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the GRADE tool to assess the certainty of evidence. We included 30 studies (169,969 participants) in the review addressing various interventions to prevent medication errors; four studies addressed professional interventions (8266 participants) and 26 studies described

  4. [The confrontation of sexuality in the professional practice of future physicians: the viewpoint of medical interns].

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    Salinas Urbina, Addis Abeba; Jarillo Soto, Edgar Carlos

    2013-03-01

    The subject of sexuality in academic and service institutions is perceived through predominantly biological conceptual perspectives, blurring the subjective component that is imbued in social and cultural processes. The meanings that medical staff construct around sexuality have implications in their professional development and practice. This work presents results from a qualitative study into the meaning of sexuality among medical interns from the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco. In-depth interviews were conducted with students during their community service. This group was selected because they had finished their studies and were performing an independent and autonomous professional practice. The results, which were analyzed based on Grounded Theory, revealed three dichotomies: biology vs. social construction, individual vs. professional and theoretical learning vs. experiences in the community. The most relevant aspect revealed was the antagonism found between a medical intern's biology-centered academic knowledge and the challenge posed by their patients' reproductive and sexual health needs. The interns recognize that they lack the necessary skills to face issues of sexuality in their professional practice.

  5. Medical students and professional anatomists do not perceive gender bias within imagery featuring anatomy.

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    Morgan, Susan; Plaisant, Odile; Lignier, Baptiste; Moxham, Bernard J

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies suggest that, while both medical students and professional anatomists recognize the importance of gender issues and do not wish to associate with sexism, most are unaware of the possible negative aspects of sexism within anatomy (Morgan et al. , J. Anat. 224:352-365; , Clin. Anat. 29:892-910). To further investigate this issue, we provided second year medical students at Cardiff University (n = 293) and at the University of Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité (n = 142) and professional anatomists (n = 208) with a questionnaire inviting them to address the possibility that gender factors within anatomical imagery (both historical and contemporary) hinder the dispassionate representation of anatomy. Ethical approval for the survey was obtained from the universities at both Cardiff and Paris. In the light of previous findings, the hypothesis tested was that medical students and professional anatomists do not perceive a gender bias when reflected in imagery that is based on anatomical iconography. Our survey results support this hypothesis and suggest that most students and anatomists are unaware of the possible negative aspects of sexism within the culture of anatomy. We consequently recommend that teachers of anatomy and authors of anatomical textbooks should be aware of the possibility of adverse effects on professional matters relating to equality and diversity issues when using imagery. Clin. Anat. 30:711-732, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Spanish adaptation of The Penn State College of Medicine Scale to assess professionalism in medical students.

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    Bustamante, Eliseo; Sanabria, Álvaro

    2014-01-01

    Professionalism is a subject of interest in medical schools around the world. The use of a questionnaire could be useful to assess professionalism in Colombia. To adapt The Penn State University College of Medicine Professionalism Questionnaire as a culturally valid instrument in the Spanish language. We followed recommendations from the IQOLA project and used forward and back translation with four independent translations, as well as a pilot evaluation and an evaluation of psychometric features with 250 students. We evaluated item-scale correlations and internal consistency with Chronbach's alpha test and conducted a principal components factor analysis. Global Cronbach's alpha was 0.86, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy was 0.83, and Bartlett's test of sphericity had a p >0.00001. We found six factors that explained 93% of the total variance and four new factors emerged in the factor analysis, while eight items had high uniqueness. The Penn State University College of Medicine Scale measures professionalism attitudes in medical students with good reliability. However, the structure of the scale demonstrated differences when used in the Latin American medical student population.

  7. Levels of empathy and professional ethics in candidates to Medical Graduate School

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    José Luis Jiménez-López

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The current perception of a dehumanized medical attention and its low quality has questioned the empathic capacity and ethics of the health professionals. The research in this field reports variations in this attributes along the doctors’ education. Objective: to explore the global levels of empathy and professional ethics, as well as the levels of each component of both attributes in a sample of applicants to a medical graduate program. Methodology: 65 residents that applied for graduation studies in a very specialized medical unit were included. As part of the application process, they answered the Cognitive and Affective Empathy Test and the Professional Ethical Attitudes Scale. Results: The average scores of the sample got Average in empathy and Optimal in professional ethics. The comparison by gender, specialty and competences showed less affective and better ethical competence in women, more cognitive empathy in surgical specialties, and in general an absence of correlation between the two variables and specifically by competence. Conclusions: The importance of measuring the specific competences of each attribute is highlighted given that the variation in specific competences impact in different aspects the doctor’s education, as the specialty choice, the student selection, the development of academic programs and the adequate learning about the construction of an effective relation doctor-patient. © Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Sociales

  8. The Development and Impact of a Social Media and Professionalism Course for Medical Students.

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    Gomes, Alexandra W; Butera, Gisela; Chretien, Katherine C; Kind, Terry

    2017-01-01

    Inappropriate social media behavior can have detrimental effects on students' future opportunities, but medical students are given little opportunity to reflect upon ways of integrating their social media identities with their newly forming professional identities. In 2012, a required educational session was developed for 1st-year medical students on social media and professional identity. Objectives include identifying professionalism issues and recognizing positive social media use. The 2-hour large-group session uses student-generated social media examples to stimulate discussion and concludes with an expert panel. Students complete a postsession reflection assignment. The required social media session occurs early in the 1st year and is part of the Professionalism curriculum in The George Washington University School of Medicine. Reflection papers are graded for completion. The study began in 2012 and ran through 2014; a total of 313/505 participants (62%) volunteered for the study. Assessment occurred through qualitative analysis of students' reflection assignments. Most students (65%, 203/313) reported considering changes in their social media presence due to the session. The analysis revealed themes relating to a broader understanding of online identity and opportunities to enhance careers. In a 6-month follow-up survey of 76 students in the 2014 cohort who completed the entire survey, 73 (94%) reported some increase in awareness, and 48 (64%) made changes to their social media behavior due to the session (response rate = 76/165; 46%), reflecting the longer term impact. Opportunities for discussion and reflection are essential for transformational learning to occur, enabling understanding of other perspectives. Incorporating student-submitted social media examples heightened student interest and engagement. The social media environment is continually changing, so curricular approaches should remain adaptable to ensure timeliness and relevance. Including

  9. Request for HIV serology in primary care: A survey of medical and nursing professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichiule-Castañeda, Myrian; Domínguez-Berjón, M Felicitas; Esteban-Vasallo, María D; García-Riolobos, Carmen; Álvarez-Castillo, M Carmen; Astray-Mochales, Jenaro

    2018-01-15

    In the Community of Madrid there is 42.7% late HIV diagnosis. Primary care is the gateway to the health system and the frequency of serological tests requested by these professionals is unknown. The objectives were to establish the frequency of requests for HIV serology by medical and nursing primary care professionals in the Community of Madrid and the factors associated with these requests. An 'on-line' survey was conducted, asking professionals who participated in the evaluation study of strategies to promote early diagnosis of HIV in primary care in the Community of Madrid (ESTVIH) about the number of HIV-serology tests requested in the last 12 months. The association between HIV-serology requesting and the sociodemographic and clinical practice characteristics of the professionals was quantified using adjusted odds ratios (aOR) according to logistic regression. 264 surveys (59.5% physicians). Eighty-two point two percent of medical and 18.7% of nursing professionals reported requesting at least one HIV-serology in the last 12 months (median: 15 and 2 HIV-serology request, respectively). The doctors associated the request with: being male (aOR: 2.95; 95% CI: 0.82-10.56), being trained in pre-post HIV test counselling (aOR: 2.42; 95% CI: 0.84-6.93) and the nurses with: age (13 years; aOR: 3.02; 95% CI: 1.07-8.52). It is necessary to promote HIV testing and training in pre-post HIV test counselling for medical and nursing professionals in primary care centres. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Professional Identity Development Through Service Learning: A Qualitative Study of First-Year Medical Students Volunteering at a Medical Specialty Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jimmy; Chretien, Katherine; Kind, Terry

    2015-11-01

    To describe the experience of medical students volunteering at a camp for children with a variety of medical conditions. Rising second-year medical students who had served as counselors for 1 week at a medical specialty camp were invited to participate. We conducted a 2-part qualitative study using on-site focus groups and follow-up individual interviews. Nine medical students participated. Students described their experience as motivating and career reinforcing. It helped them "move beyond the textbook" and deepened their commitment to serving future patients with compassion. One theme that emerged was the idea that their camp experience fostered the development of their professional identities. A 1-week, immersive community service experience at a medical specialty camp played a role in influencing the early formative professional identities of rising second-year medical students. Medical schools could use camps as a promising community service-learning experiences to foster professional identity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. The law of doctoring: a study of the codification of medical professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichter, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This essay argues that the concept of professionalism as it appears in health law is undergoing transformation as the applicable common law doctrines are increasingly being superseded by statutes and regulations. The doctor-patient relationship is being subjected to new rules of conduct intended to affirm the rights not only of patients but also of society at large. The bilateral relationship between doctor and patient has in many respects been transformed into a triadic one in which the concerns of public, as consumer and payor, are increasingly taken into account. In many respects this change has been necessary and inevitable as medicine has become a more commercial enterprise; but the change has also put traditional notions of professionalism at risk. Where professionalism is adversely affected by the process of its codification, it is incumbent upon law and policy makers to be aware of the fact. To this end, this essay first undertakes to define medical professionalism as a legal construct, and then formulates an analytic method with which to determine when professionalism is implicated and whether it is adequately accommodated by the law. The definition of professionalism the author advances is informed by concepts established in the literature of sociology, which identifies four core attributes-functional specificity, trust, disinterestedness and self-regulation. Each of these attributes is examined in turn with reference to case law selected to identify the value in question and to illustrate the nature of the change resulting from its codification.

  12. [Professional drivers and psychoactive substances consumption: results from medical surveillance at the workplace in Piedmont region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, G L; Feola, M; Rubinetto, Maria Paola; Petti, N; Rubinetto, L

    2011-01-01

    The use of psychoactive substances has been shown to be a risk factor for accidents in professional drivers. According to an approved Italian law, in order to detect dependency at the workplace the occupational health physician is called to assess the use of illicit drugs among professional drivers. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the use of psychoactive substances among professional drivers. From July to December 2008, rapid urine screening test was carried out on 198 professional drivers. All positive results from the screening stage were verified by specialized laboratories. We found 4 workers with a positive rapid urine screening test (7.1%), one of which was positive only for benzodiazepines and another positive test was not confirmed by specialized laboratory. By only considering illegal substances detected, 6.1% of the drivers tested positive. In this study, the high number of consumers among professional drivers ranged from 31 to 35 years old. Cannabis (THC) was the most frequently detected substance (seen in 10 over 12 cases,), after that was methadone (2/12 cases) and cocaine (1/12 case). We only had one case where more than one substance was found in the same subject (THC and cocaine). Five (41.7%) were former drug-addicts and public Pathological Addiction Services (Ser.T.) had previously followed them. Our results highlight the problem of drug consumption among professional drivers in Piedmont region. Health education and medical surveillance in workplace drug-testing may improve worker and third parties safety.

  13. [Effects of social origins and professional socialization on the vocational preferences of medical interns in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenk, J

    1985-01-01

    Using data from a survey of 923 medical interns in Mexico, this article analyzes preferences for type of medical activity (general or specialized practice), type of site (ambulatory or hospital), and type of medical care institution (public assistance, social security, or private). Four independent variables are examined: social origin, medical school, place of internship, and assimilation to the internship hospital. The great majority of the interns expressed a preference for specialty practice, hospitals, and social security institutions. The role of social origin was to selectively direct students into different medical schools. From then on, the structural attributes of the school itself and of the place of internship, as well as the socialization experiences that took place there, emerged as the most important determinants of career preferences. Such a process, however, tended to produce a "social specialization" of interns in terms of the role they expect to play in the medical field. It is argued that this kind of specialization has negative implications for the professional status of physicians, although it also poses a challenge to the development of innovative theories about the process of professionalization in medicine.

  14. The provision of medical care in English professional football: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Dominic; Scott-Bell, Andrea; Waddington, Ivan

    2017-12-01

    To compare the current methods of appointment, qualifications and occupational experience of club doctors and physiotherapists in English professional football with (i) those outlined in a study published in 1999, and (ii) Football Association (FA) medical regulations. Qualitative. Postal questionnaire survey of (head) doctors and physiotherapists at each of the clubs in the English Premiership, Championship and Football Leagues 1 and 2. Response rates of 35.8% and 45.6% respectively were obtained. The majority of football club doctors are GPs who have sports medicine qualifications and relevant occupational experience. Time commitments vary from full time to a few hours per week. Most are appointed through personal contacts rather than job advertisements and/or interview. Almost all football clubs have a chartered physiotherapist, many of whom have a postgraduate qualification. They work full time and long hours. Most are appointed through personal contacts rather than job advertisements. They are frequently interviewed but not always by someone qualified to judge their professional expertise. Football club medical provision has become more extensive and increasingly professional over the last 10-20years, with better qualified, more career-oriented and more formally contracted staff. It is likely that clinical autonomy has subsequently increased. However recruitment procedures still need to be improved, especially in relation to advertising vacancies, interviewing candidates, and including medical personnel on interview panels. In two aspects clubs appear not to be compliant with current FA medical regulations. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Professional exposure of medical workers: radiation levels, radiation risk and personal dose monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Guang

    2005-01-01

    The application of radiation in the field of medicine is the most active area. Due to the rapid and strong development of intervention radiology at present near 20 years, particularly, the medical workers become a popularize group which most rapid increasing and also receiving the must high of professional exposure dose. Because, inter alias, radiation protection management nag training have not fully follow up, the aware of radioactive protection and appropriate approach have tot fully meet the development and need, the professional exposure dose received by medical workers, especially those being engaged in intervention radiology, are more higher, as well as have not yet fully receiving the complete personal dose monitoring, the medical workers become the population group which should be paid the most attention to. The writer would advice in this paper that all medical workers who being received a professional radiation exposure should pay more attention to the safety and healthy they by is strengthening radiation protection and receiving complete personal dose monitoring. (authors)

  16. Does the inclusion of 'professional development' teaching improve medical students' communication skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background This study investigated whether the introduction of professional development teaching in the first two years of a medical course improved students' observed communication skills with simulated patients. Students' observed communication skills were related to patient-centred attitudes, confidence in communicating with patients and performance in later clinical examinations. Methods Eighty-two medical students from two consecutive cohorts at a UK medical school completed two videoed consultations with a simulated patient: one at the beginning of year 1 and one at the end of year 2. Group 1 (n = 35) received a traditional pre-clinical curriculum. Group 2 (n = 47) received a curriculum that included communication skills training integrated into a 'professional development' vertical module. Videoed consultations were rated using the Evans Interview Rating Scale by communication skills tutors. A subset of 27% were double-coded. Inter-rater reliability is reported. Results Students who had received the professional development teaching achieved higher ratings for use of silence, not interrupting the patient, and keeping the discussion relevant compared to students receiving the traditional curriculum. Patient-centred attitudes were not related to observed communication. Students who were less nervous and felt they knew how to listen were rated as better communicators. Students receiving the traditional curriculum and who had been rated as better communicators when they entered medical school performed less well in the final year clinical examination. Conclusions Students receiving the professional development training showed significant improvements in certain communication skills, but students in both cohorts improved over time. The lack of a relationship between observed communication skills and patient-centred attitudes may be a reflection of students' inexperience in working with patients, resulting in 'patient-centredness' being an abstract concept

  17. Does the inclusion of 'professional development' teaching improve medical students' communication skills?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubacki Angela M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated whether the introduction of professional development teaching in the first two years of a medical course improved students' observed communication skills with simulated patients. Students' observed communication skills were related to patient-centred attitudes, confidence in communicating with patients and performance in later clinical examinations. Methods Eighty-two medical students from two consecutive cohorts at a UK medical school completed two videoed consultations with a simulated patient: one at the beginning of year 1 and one at the end of year 2. Group 1 (n = 35 received a traditional pre-clinical curriculum. Group 2 (n = 47 received a curriculum that included communication skills training integrated into a 'professional development' vertical module. Videoed consultations were rated using the Evans Interview Rating Scale by communication skills tutors. A subset of 27% were double-coded. Inter-rater reliability is reported. Results Students who had received the professional development teaching achieved higher ratings for use of silence, not interrupting the patient, and keeping the discussion relevant compared to students receiving the traditional curriculum. Patient-centred attitudes were not related to observed communication. Students who were less nervous and felt they knew how to listen were rated as better communicators. Students receiving the traditional curriculum and who had been rated as better communicators when they entered medical school performed less well in the final year clinical examination. Conclusions Students receiving the professional development training showed significant improvements in certain communication skills, but students in both cohorts improved over time. The lack of a relationship between observed communication skills and patient-centred attitudes may be a reflection of students' inexperience in working with patients, resulting in 'patient-centredness' being

  18. The training and professional expectations of medical students in Angola, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fronteira Inês

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the professional expectations of medical students during the 2007-2008 academic year at the public medical schools of Angola, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique, and to identify their social and geographical origins, their professional expectations and difficulties relating to their education and professional future. Methods Data were collected through a standardised questionnaire applied to all medical students registered during the 2007-2008 academic year. Results Students decide to study medicine at an early age. Relatives and friends seem to have an especially important influence in encouraging, reinforcing and promoting the desire to be a doctor. The degree of feminization of the student population differs among the different countries. Although most medical students are from outside the capital cities, expectations of getting into medical school are already associated with migration from the periphery to the capital city, even before entering medical education. Academic performance is poor. This seems to be related to difficulties in accessing materials, finances and insufficient high school preparation. Medical students recognize the public sector demand but their expectations are to combine public sector practice with private work, in order to improve their earnings. Salary expectations of students vary between the three countries. Approximately 75% want to train as hospital specialists and to follow a hospital-based career. A significant proportion is unsure about their future area of specialization, which for many students is equated with migration to study abroad. Conclusions Medical education is an important national investment, but the returns obtained are not as efficient as expected. Investments in high-school preparation, tutoring, and infrastructure are likely to have a significant impact on the success rate of medical schools. Special attention should be given

  19. Quest for professionalism: a biography of the North American Medical and Surgical Journal (1826-31).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, S M

    2011-08-01

    This is the biography of a deceased medical journal, the North American Medical and Surgical Journal, born in 1826 in Philadelphia. It was a publication of the Philadelphia Chapter of the Kappa Lambda Society. In the prospectus of the North American Medical and Surgical Journal the promoters observed that a well-conducted journal would achieve the object of elevating the medical profession to its legitimate rank which up to that time had been the recipient of low public opinion. The Journal hoped to inculcate 'a higher standard of excellence not merely in the professional or ministrative but also in the ethical relations and duties of physicians'. After several successful and productive years it passed into history in October 1831, the victim of financial difficulty.

  20. New trends of short-term humanitarian medical volunteerism: professional and ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Ramin; Junck, Emily

    2013-10-01

    Short-term humanitarian medical volunteerism has grown significantly among both clinicians and trainees over the past several years. Increasingly, both volunteers and their respective institutions have faced important challenges in regard to medical ethics and professional codes that should not be overlooked. We explore these potential concerns and their risk factors in three categories: ethical responsibilities in patient care, professional responsibility to communities and populations, and institutional responsibilities towards trainees. We discuss factors increasing the risk of harm to patients and communities, including inadequate preparation, the use of advanced technology and the translation of Western medicine, issues with clinical epidemiology and test utility, difficulties with the principles of justice and clinical justice, the lack of population-based medicine, sociopolitical effects of foreign aid, volunteer stress management, and need for sufficient trainee supervision. We review existing resources and offer suggestions for future skill-based training, organisational responsibilities, and ethical preparation.

  1. The current and future role of the medical oncologist in the professional care for cancer patients: a position paper by the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, R A; Schäfer, R; Califano, R; Eckert, R; Coleman, R; Douillard, J-Y; Cervantes, A; Casali, P G; Sessa, C; Van Cutsem, E; de Vries, E; Pavlidis, N; Fumasoli, K; Wörmann, B; Samonigg, H; Cascinu, S; Cruz Hernández, J J; Howard, A J; Ciardiello, F; Stahel, R A; Piccart, M

    2014-01-01

    The number of cancer patients in Europe is rising and significant advances in basic and applied cancer research are making the provision of optimal care more challenging. The concept of cancer as a systemic, highly heterogeneous and complex disease has increased the awareness that quality cancer care should be provided by a multidisciplinary team (MDT) of highly qualified healthcare professionals. Cancer patients also have the right to benefit from medical progress by receiving optimal treatment from adequately trained and highly skilled medical professionals. Built on the highest standards of professional training and continuing medical education, medical oncology is recognised as an independent medical specialty in many European countries. Medical oncology is a core member of the MDT and offers cancer patients a comprehensive and systemic approach to treatment and care, while ensuring evidence-based, safe and cost-effective use of cancer drugs and preserving the quality of life of cancer patients through the entire 'cancer journey'. Medical oncologists are also engaged in clinical and translational research to promote innovation and new therapies and they contribute to cancer diagnosis, prevention and research, making a difference for patients in a dynamic, stimulating professional environment. Medical oncologists play an important role in shaping the future of healthcare through innovation and are also actively involved at the political level to ensure a maximum contribution of the profession to Society and to tackle future challenges. This position paper summarises the multifarious and vital contributions of medical oncology and medical oncologists to today's and tomorrow's professional cancer care.

  2. Predicting medical professionals' intention to allow family presence during resuscitation: A cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Meng-Kuan; Aritejo, Bayu Aji; Tang, Jing-Shia; Chen, Chien-Liang; Chuang, Chia-Chang

    2017-05-01

    Family presence during resuscitation is an emerging trend, yet it remains controversial, even in countries with relatively high acceptance of family presence during resuscitation among medical professionals. Family presence during resuscitation is not common in many countries, and medical professionals in these regions are unfamiliar with family presence during resuscitation. Therefore, this study predicted the medical professionals' intention to allow family presence during resuscitation by applying the theory of planned behaviour. A cross-sectional survey. A single medical centre in southern Taiwan. Medical staffs including physicians and nurses in a single medical centre (n=714). A questionnaire was constructed to measure the theory of planned behaviour constructs of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, and behavioural intentions as well as the awareness of family presence during resuscitation and demographics. In total, 950 questionnaires were distributed to doctors and nurses in a medical centre. Among the 714 valid questionnaires, only 11 participants were aware of any association in Taiwan that promotes family presence during resuscitation; 94.7% replied that they were unsure (30.4%) or that their unit did not have a family presence during resuscitation policy (74.8%). Regression analysis was performed to predict medical professionals' intention to allow family presence during resuscitation. The results indicated that only positive attitudes and subjective norms regarding family presence during resuscitation and clinical tenure could predict the intention to allow family presence during resuscitation. Because Family presence during resuscitation practice is not common in Taiwan and only 26.19% of the participants agreed to both items measuring the intention to allow family presence during resuscitation, we recommend the implementation of a family presence during resuscitation education program that will enhance the positive beliefs

  3. Medical library downsizing administrative, professional, and personal strategies for coping with change

    CERN Document Server

    Schott, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Learn how to stay ahead of the game when budgets and staff are cut Medical Library Downsizing: Administrative, Professional, and Personal Strategies for Coping with Change explores corporate downsizing and other company-wide events as they relate to medical librarians in their organization. This training manual is designed to help librarians prepare for a new era where shrinking budgets, inflated journal costs, and the increasing demand for new and expensive services now put salaries and jobs at risk. While focused on health care issues, this book will appeal to a general library audience and

  4. Assessing the Development of Medical Students' Personal and Professional Skills by Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yielder, Jill; Moir, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of a new domain of learning for Personal and Professional Skills in the medical program at the University of Auckland in New Zealand has involved the compilation of a portfolio for assessment. This departure from the traditional assessment methods predominantly used in the past has been challenging to design, introduce, and maintain as a relevant and authentic assessment method. We present the portfolio format along with the process for its introduction and appraise the challenges, strengths, and limitations of the approach within the context of the current literature. We then outline a cyclical model of evaluation used to monitor and fine-tune the portfolio tasks and implementation process, in response to student and assessor feedback. The portfolios have illustrated the level of insight, maturity, and synthesis of personal and professional qualities that students are capable of achieving. The Auckland medical program strives to foster these qualities in its students, and the portfolio provides an opportunity for students to demonstrate their reflective abilities. Moreover, the creation of a Personal and Professional Skills domain with the portfolio as its key assessment emphasizes the importance of reflective practice and personal and professional development and gives a clear message that these are fundamental longitudinal elements of the program.

  5. Assessing the Development of Medical Students’ Personal and Professional Skills by Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yielder, Jill; Moir, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of a new domain of learning for Personal and Professional Skills in the medical program at the University of Auckland in New Zealand has involved the compilation of a portfolio for assessment. This departure from the traditional assessment methods predominantly used in the past has been challenging to design, introduce, and maintain as a relevant and authentic assessment method. We present the portfolio format along with the process for its introduction and appraise the challenges, strengths, and limitations of the approach within the context of the current literature. We then outline a cyclical model of evaluation used to monitor and fine-tune the portfolio tasks and implementation process, in response to student and assessor feedback. The portfolios have illustrated the level of insight, maturity, and synthesis of personal and professional qualities that students are capable of achieving. The Auckland medical program strives to foster these qualities in its students, and the portfolio provides an opportunity for students to demonstrate their reflective abilities. Moreover, the creation of a Personal and Professional Skills domain with the portfolio as its key assessment emphasizes the importance of reflective practice and personal and professional development and gives a clear message that these are fundamental longitudinal elements of the program. PMID:29349315

  6. Medical student professionalism narratives: a thematic analysis and interdisciplinary comparative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Aaron W; Malone, Matthew; Kman, Nicholas E; Caterino, Jeffrey M; Khandelwal, Sorabh

    2011-08-12

    Professionalism development is influenced by the informal and hidden curriculum. The primary objective of this study was to better understand this experiential learning in the setting of the Emergency Department (ED). Secondarily, the study aimed to explore differences in the informal curriculum between Emergency Medicine (EM) and Internal Medicine (IM) clerkships. A thematic analysis was conducted on 377 professionalism narratives from medical students completing a required EM clerkship from July 2008 through May 2010. The narratives were analyzed using established thematic categories from prior research as well as basic descriptive characteristics. Chi-square analysis was used to compare the frequency of thematic categories to prior research in IM. Finally, emerging themes not fully appreciated in the established thematic categories were created using grounded theory. Observations involving interactions between attending physician and patient were most abundant. The narratives were coded as positive 198 times, negative 128 times, and hybrid 37 times. The two most abundant narrative themes involved manifesting respect (36.9%) and spending time (23.7%). Both of these themes were statistically more likely to be noted by students on EM clerkships compared to IM clerkships. Finally, one new theme regarding cynicism emerged during analysis. This analysis describes an informal curriculum that is diverse in themes. Student narratives suggest their clinical experiences to be influential on professionalism development. Medical students focus on different aspects of professionalism depending on clerkship specialty.

  7. Professional approaches in clinical judgements among senior and junior doctors: implications for medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilhammar Ewa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical experience has traditionally been highly valued in medical education and clinical healthcare. On account of its multi-faceted nature, clinical experience is mostly difficult to articulate, and is mainly expressed in clinical situations as professional approaches. Due to retirement, hospitals in Scandinavia will soon face a substantial decrease in the number of senior specialist doctors, and it has been discussed whether healthcare will suffer an immense loss of experienced-based knowledge when this senior group leaves the organization. Both senior specialists and junior colleagues are often involved in clinical education, but the way in which these two groups vary in professional approaches and contributions to clinical education has not been so well described. Cognitive psychology has contributed to the understanding of how experience may influence professional approaches, but such studies have not included the effect of differences in position and responsibilities that junior and senior doctors hold in clinical healthcare. In the light of the discussion above, it is essential to describe the professional approaches of senior doctors in relation to those of their junior colleagues. This study therefore aims to describe and compare the professional approaches of junior and senior doctors when making clinical judgements. Methods Critical incident technique was used in interviews with nine senior doctors and nine junior doctors in internal medicine. The interviews were subjected to qualitative content analysis. Result Senior and junior doctors expressed a variety of professional approaches in clinical judgement as follows: use of theoretical knowledge, use of prior experience of cases and courses of events, use of ethical and moral values, meeting and communicating with the patient, focusing on available information, relying on their own ability, getting support and guidance from others and being directed by the

  8. Professional burnout among medical students: Systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erschens, Rebecca; Keifenheim, Katharina Eva; Herrmann-Werner, Anne; Loda, Teresa; Schwille-Kiuntke, Juliane; Bugaj, Till Johannes; Nikendei, Christoph; Huhn, Daniel; Zipfel, Stephan; Junne, Florian

    2018-04-14

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aim to summarize the available evidence on the prevalence of professional burnout among medical students. The review was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. Databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed articles, reporting burnout among medical students published between 2000 and 2017. The meta-analysis was conducted on the available data on burnout rates in medical students measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-HSS). Fifty-eight out of 3006 studies were found eligible for inclusion. Twelve of these studies met the criteria for meta-analysis. Weighted mean values for the three sub-dimensions of the MBI-HSS were M = 22.93 (SD = 10.25) for Emotional Exhaustion, M = 8.88 (SD = 5.64) for Depersonalization, and M = 35.11 (SD = 8.03) for Personal Accomplishment. Prevalence rates for professional burnout ranged from 7.0% to 75.2%, depending on country-specific factors, applied instruments, cutoff-criteria for burnout symptomatology. This review underlines the burden of burnout among medical students. Future research should explicitly focus on specific context factors and student group under investigation. Such efforts are necessary to control for context-dependent confounders in research on medical students' mental health impairment to enable more meaningful comparisons and adequate prevention strategies.

  9. Visible Facebook profiles and e-professionalism in undergraduate medical students in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Setu; Singh, Satendra; Dhaliwal, Upreet

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess medical students' presence on Facebook and the extent of their visible activity, with particular reference to online professionalism. This was a cross-sectional study including all medical students enrolled in the University College of Medical Sciences, University of Delhi, India during the period of the study, which was conducted from 2011 to 2012. After approval by the Institutional Ethical Committee, the full names of all students were obtained from our institution. After creating a fictitious profile, Facebook was searched for students' profiles, and those found were examined for visible content and unprofessional behaviour. Of 611 students, 477 (78.1%) had detectable Facebook profiles. Out of 477 profiles, date of birth, address, email, phone number, religion, and political views were rarely shared; sexual orientation and relationship status were displayed on approximately one third of the profiles; and an identifiable profile picture (80.3%), field of study (51.6%), and institution (86.2%) were commonly shared . The visible content included friend lists (88.7%), photo albums (36.1%), and associations with diverse groups and pages (97.1%). Five profiles (1.05%) displayed unprofessional content, including one profile photograph depicting alcohol consumption, one association with groups relating to excessive alcohol consumption, two profiles containing sexually explicit language, and one association with a sexist page. Most of our students use Facebook's privacy settings to hide some content from others. Unprofessional content was rarely visible from a stranger's profile. However, even when hidden from strangers, unprofessional behaviour is still unprofessional behaviour. As Facebook is an integral part of life, it is important for medical educators and students to understand the implications and importance of e-professionalism. Professionalism curricula should address e-professionalism.

  10. The impact of social media and technology on professionalism in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essary, Alison C

    2011-01-01

    The use of social media is the norm among the digital native generation, with 75% of the Millennial Generation connected through Facebook. For students in medical education who struggle to distinguish between personal and professional boundaries, social media provides yet another challenge. Incidents of unprofessional conduct and academic dismissal have been reported. Administration, faculty, and students would benefit from clear policies and procedures, case scenarios of social media violations, and suggestions for using social media wisely.

  11. Visible Facebook profiles and e-professionalism in undergraduate medical students in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to assess medical students’ presence on Facebook and the extent of their visible activity, with particular reference to online professionalism. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study including all medical students enrolled in the University College of Medical Sciences, University of Delhi, India during the period of the study, which was conducted from 2011 to 2012. After approval by the Institutional Ethical Committee, the full names of all students were obtained from our institution. After creating a fictitious profile, Facebook was searched for students’ profiles, and those found were examined for visible content and unprofessional behaviour. Results: Of 611 students, 477 (78.1%) had detectable Facebook profiles. Out of 477 profiles, date of birth, address, email, phone number, religion, and political views were rarely shared; sexual orientation and relationship status were displayed on approximately one third of the profiles; and an identifiable profile picture (80.3%), field of study (51.6%), and institution (86.2%) were commonly shared . The visible content included friend lists (88.7%), photo albums (36.1%), and associations with diverse groups and pages (97.1%). Five profiles (1.05%) displayed unprofessional content, including one profile photograph depicting alcohol consumption, one association with groups relating to excessive alcohol consumption, two profiles containing sexually explicit language, and one association with a sexist page. Conclusion: Most of our students use Facebook’s privacy settings to hide some content from others. Unprofessional content was rarely visible from a stranger’s profile. However, even when hidden from strangers, unprofessional behaviour is still unprofessional behaviour. As Facebook is an integral part of life, it is important for medical educators and students to understand the implications and importance of e-professionalism. Professionalism curricula should address e-professionalism

  12. Visible Facebook profiles and e-professionalism in undergraduate medical students in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setu Gupta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to assess medical students’ presence on Facebook and the extent of their visible activity, with particular reference to online professionalism. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study including all medical students enrolled in the University College of Medical Sciences, University of Delhi, India during the period of the study, which was conducted from 2011 to 2012. After approval by the Institutional Ethical Committee, the full names of all students were obtained from our institution. After creating a fictitious profile, Facebook was searched for students’ profiles, and those found were examined for visible content and unprofessional behaviour. Results: Of 611 students, 477 (78.1% had detectable Facebook profiles. Out of 477 profiles, date of birth, address, email, phone number, religion, and political views were rarely shared; sexual orientation and relationship status were displayed on approximately one third of the profiles; and an identifiable profile picture (80.3%, field of study (51.6%, and institution (86.2% were commonly shared . The visible content included friend lists (88.7%, photo albums (36.1%, and associations with diverse groups and pages (97.1%. Five profiles (1.05% displayed unprofessional content, including one profile photograph depicting alcohol consumption, one association with groups relating to excessive alcohol consumption, two profiles containing sexually explicit language, and one association with a sexist page. Conclusion: Most of our students use Facebook’s privacy settings to hide some content from others. Unprofessional content was rarely visible from a stranger’s profile. However, even when hidden from strangers, unprofessional behaviour is still unprofessional behaviour. As Facebook is an integral part of life, it is important for medical educators and students to understand the implications and importance of e-professionalism. Professionalism curricula should address e-professionalism.

  13. Competency-based medical education and continuing professional development: A conceptualization for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockyer, Jocelyn; Bursey, Ford; Richardson, Denyse; Frank, Jason R; Snell, Linda; Campbell, Craig

    2017-06-01

    Competency-based medical education (CBME) is as important in continuing professional development (CPD) as at any other stage of a physician's career. Principles of CBME have the potential to revolutionize CPD. Transitioning to CBME-based CPD will require a cultural change to gain commitment from physicians, their employers and institutions, CPD providers, professional organizations, and medical regulators. It will require learning to be aligned with professional and workplace standards. Practitioners will need to develop the expertise to systematically examine their own clinical performance data, identify performance improvement opportunities and possibilities, and develop a plan to address areas of concern. Health care facilities and systems will need to produce data on a regular basis and to develop and train CPD educators who can work with physician groups. Stakeholders, such as medical regulatory authorities who are responsible for licensing physicians and other standard-setting bodies that credential and develop maintenance-of-certification systems, will need to change their paradigm of competency enhancement through CPD.

  14. Parent and medical professional willingness to enroll children in a hypothetical pediatric optic neuritis treatment trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy eWaldman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial and subsequent studies have had a tremendous impact on the treatment and prognosis of optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis in adults. The results of these studies have been extrapolated to children; however, pediatric data are sparse. Using the method of prospective preference assessment, the willingness of parents and medical professionals to enroll children in a hypothetical Pediatric Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial was assessed using a mock consent form and questionnaire. A 3-arm trial was proposed: 1 intravenous corticosteroids, 2 high-dose oral corticosteroids, and 3 an oral placebo. The forms were completed by 198 parents and 49 physicians. After reviewing the hypothetical scenario, trial design, risks and benefits, and alternatives to the study, 21% of parents would enroll their children in the trial whereas 98% of medical professionals would enroll their patients. With medical professional recommendation, 43% of parents would enroll their children. The manner in which this hypothetical trial was presented to parents, specifically with respect to the recommendation of their child’s health care team, influenced a parent’s willingness to participate.

  15. Capacity building in nutrition science: revisiting the curricula for medical professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimaria-Ghalili, Rose Ann; Edwards, Marilyn; Friedman, Gerald; Jaferi, Azra; Kohlmeier, Martin; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Lenders, Carine; Palmer, Carole; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2013-12-01

    The current nutrition education curricula for students in U.S. medical schools, and schools of other health professions, such as nursing and oral health, do not provide enough opportunity to gain knowledge of the interactions among micro- and macronutrients, their role in maintaining optimal body functions, factors that interfere with these interactions, or, importantly, how to integrate this knowledge into medical practice. There is a need to better prepare healthcare professionals for identifying nutrition risk and managing hospitalized patients, especially those with chronic conditions, using an interprofessional, team-based approach. A major goal of this report is to revisit current nutrition training programs for physicians and other healthcare professionals in order to explore opportunities for providing healthcare providers with the essential tools of preventative and therapeutic nutrition intervention strategies. The issues addressed include whether a consensus exists on how to integrate basic and applied nutrition into the general healthcare professional curriculum, and if so, at which stages of training and at what depth should these integrations occur; how nutrition education is dealt with and achieved throughout all the health professions; and whether current nutrition education models are sufficient. To help address these issues, the report will review current nutrition education practices-their strengths and weaknesses-as well as evaluate promising new initiatives, and offer proposals for new directions for nutrition education training of future generation of medical practitioners. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. Opinions of students from a Brazilian medical school regarding online professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Paulo Novis; de Castro, Naara Alethéa Azael

    2014-05-01

    Unprofessional online behavior by medical students or physicians may damage individual careers, and the reputation of institutions and the medical profession. What is considered unprofessional online behavior, however, is not clearly defined and may vary in different cultures. To determine the frequency with which students from a Brazilian Medical School come across ten given examples of unprofessional online behavior by medical students or physicians, and gather the opinions of participants regarding the appropriateness of these behaviors. A cross-sectional survey of 350 students from the Medical School of Bahia, Brazil. Only those who had a profile in social media were included in the final analyses. 336/350 (96.0%) medical students kept a profile in social media. Only 13.5% reported having discussions about online professionalism during ethics classes. They reported witnessing the investigated examples of unprofessional online behavior with varying frequencies, ranging from 13.7% for "violation of patient's privacy" to 85.4% for "photos depicting consumption of alcoholic beverages". Most participants felt neutral about posting "pictures in bathing suits", whereas the vast majority rated "violation of patient's privacy" as totally inappropriate. When presented with a case vignette illustrating violation of patients' privacy (publication of pictures of hospitalized children or neonates in social media), however, most participants felt neutral about it. Participants considered all investigated examples of unprofessional online behavior more inappropriate if carried out by doctors rather than by students. Medical students are witnessing a high frequency of unprofessional online behavior by their peers and physicians. Most investigated behaviors were considered inappropriate, especially if carried out by physicians. Participants were not able to recognize the publication of pictures of hospitalized children or neonates in social media as cases of violation of

  17. Orienting to Medicine: Scripting Professionalism, Hierarchy, and Social Difference at the Start of Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Sienna R; Scott, Rebekah; Blackwood, Kristy

    2018-04-23

    Nascent medical students' first view into medical school orients them toward what is considered important in medicine. Based on ethnography conducted over 18 months at a New England medical school, this article explores themes which emerged during a first-year student orientation and examines how these scripts resurface across a four-year curriculum, revealing dynamics of enculturation into an institution and the broader profession. We analyze orientation activities as discursive and embodied fields which serve "practical" purposes of making new social geographies familiar, but which also frame institutional values surrounding "soft" aspects of medicine: professionalism; dynamics of hierarchy and vulnerability; and social difference. By examining orientation and connecting these insights to later, discerning educational moments, we argue that orientation reveals tensions between the overt and hidden curricula within medical education, including what being a good doctor means. Our findings are based on data from semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and participant-observation in didactic and clinical settings. This article answers calls within medical anthropology and medical education literature to recognize implicit values at play in producing physicians, unearthing ethnographically how these values are learned longitudinally via persisting gaps between formal and hidden curricula. Assumptions hidden in plain sight call for ongoing medical education reform.

  18. Phronesis as an ideal in professional medical ethics: some preliminary positionings and problematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjánsson, Kristján

    2015-10-01

    Phronesis has become a buzzword in contemporary medical ethics. Yet, the use of this single term conceals a number of significant conceptual controversies based on divergent philosophical assumptions. This paper explores three of them: on phronesis as universalist or relativist, generalist or particularist, and natural/painless or painful/ambivalent. It also reveals tensions between Alasdair MacIntyre's take on phronesis, typically drawn upon in professional ethics discourses, and Aristotle's original concept. The paper offers these four binaries as a possible analytical framework for classifying and evaluating accounts of phronesis in the medical ethics literature. It argues that to make sense of phronesis as a putative ideal in professional medical ethics--for example, with the further aim of crafting interventions to cultivate phronesis in medical ethics education--the preliminary question of which conception of phronesis is most serviceable for the aim in question needs to be answered. The paper identifies considerable lack of clarity in the current discursive field on phronesis and suggests how that shortcoming can be ameliorated.

  19. Learning medical English: A prerequisite for successful academic and professional education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosavljević Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present specificities of the English language teaching necessary for successful education and professional training of medical students. In contemporary globalized world the English language has become the basic language of communication in all scientific fields including the field of medical science. It is well established that Medical English teaching should primarily focus on stable linguistic competence in English that is created by means of content and context based curriculum, thus preparing students for active use of English upon graduation. In order to achieve this it is very important that English language teaching be based on specific real situations in which the language is to be used. In addition, students should be encouraged to adapt practical skills applicable in specific future professional setting. Medical English teaching represents constant challenge for teachers because they need to be flexible, open to new approaches and methods, make decisions and adapt themselves to constant changes. In addition, long-term learning is at the core of higher education, and being equal partners, both students and teachers should be aware that education is a two-way process.

  20. Aerobic Bacteria in the Diaphragmatic Portion of Stethoscope of Medical Professionals of Tertiary Care Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bham, G; Bhandari, J; Neupane, M R; Dawadi, R; Pradhan, P

    2015-01-01

    Hospital environment is a reservoir of wide varieties of microorganisms which are frequently reported colonizing in medical equipment. Stethoscopes are essential tools and of universal use in the medical profession, which might be a source of spreading nosocomial infections. This research project was conducted with an aim to assess the presence of aerobic bacteria in the stethoscope of the medical doctors working at Patan Hospital and students of Patan Academy of Health Sciences. It is a cross sectional study based on structured questionnaire and sample assessment from the stethoscope of doctors and students of Patan Hospital and Patan Academy of Health Sciences. The stethescopes used by the doctors of five major departments of Patan Hospital and students of clinical years were included in this study. Total of 99 stethoscope owned by different level of professionals (positions) and different departments were examined for bacterial contamination. Out of them, 36 were found to be considerably contaminated. Single strain of bacteria was grown from a single stethoscope. Among them 34 were Gram positive and remaining were Gram negative. Out of 34 gram postive bacteria, 29 were identified as Staphylococcus aureus, six were identified as Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus and remaining were Gram positive bacilli. There is presence of aerobic bacteria in diaphragmatic portion of stethoscope of medical professional of which the gram positives were the commonest.

  1. Relevance of the rationalist-intuitionist debate for ethics and professionalism in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffel, G Michael; Oakes Mueller, Ross A; Curlin, Farr A; Yoon, John D

    2015-12-01

    Despite widespread pedagogical efforts to modify discrete behaviors in developing physicians, the professionalism movement has generally shied away from essential questions such as what virtues characterize the good physician, and how are those virtues formed? Although there is widespread adoption of medical ethics curricula, there is still no consensus about the primary goals of ethics education. Two prevailing perspectives dominate the literature, constituting what is sometimes referred to as the "virtue/skill dichotomy". The first perspective argues that teaching ethics is a means of providing physicians with a skill set for analyzing and resolving ethical dilemmas. The second perspective suggests that teaching ethics is a means of creating virtuous physicians. The authors argue that this debate about medical ethics education mirrors the Rationalist-Intuitionist debate in contemporary moral psychology. In the following essay, the authors sketch the relevance of the Rationalist-Intuitionist debate to medical ethics and professionalism. They then outline a moral intuitionist model of virtuous caring that derives from but also extends the "social intuitionist model" of moral action and virtue. This moral intuitionist model suggests several practical implications specifically for medical character education but also for health science education in general. This approach proposes that character development is best accomplished by tuning-up (activating) moral intuitions, amplifying (intensifying) moral emotions related to intuitions, and strengthening (expanding) intuition-expressive, emotion-related moral virtues, more than by "learning" explicit ethical rules or principles.

  2. Professional Stress and Burnout in U.S. Military Medical Personnel Deployed to Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Amy B; Adrian, Amanda L; Hemphill, Marla; Scaro, Nicole H; Sipos, Maurice L; Thomas, Jeffrey L

    2017-03-01

    Studies of medical staff members have consistently documented high levels of burnout compared to those in other professions. Although there are studies of burnout in military medical staff, there are gaps in understanding the experience of medical staff while they are deployed and few occupationally-related factors associated with decreased burnout have been identified in this population. To assess work-related variables accounting for burnout over and above rank, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and professional stressors in the deployed environment. U.S. military medical staff members were surveyed in Afghanistan. The survey assessed burnout (emotional exhaustion and depersonalization), PTSD symptoms, perception of professional stressors, self-care behaviors, taking care of team members (team care), general leadership, and health-promoting leadership. Participants provided informed consent under a protocol approved by the institutional review board at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, and coordinated through the Washington Headquarters Service and the Joint Casualty Care Research Team located in Afghanistan. A total of 344 individuals provided their consent (83.3%) and completed the survey. Correlations found significant positive relationships between perception of professional stressors and levels of burnout. Significant negative correlations were found between burnout and self-care, team care, general leadership, and health-promoting leadership. Regression analyses found self-care and team care accounted for less burnout even after controlling for rank, PTSD symptoms, and professional stressors. Health-promoting leadership accounted for less burnout even after controlling for these same covariates and general leadership as well. Although a cross-sectional survey, results provide three specific directions for reducing burnout in deployed medical staff. By emphasizing self-care, team care, and health-promoting leadership, policy makers

  3. [Aesthetic medicine and aspects related to liability, medical professional and social law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    There are no special legal arrangements for the field of aesthetic medicine; rather, the general medico-legal regulations apply although they raise specific questions as far as aesthetic medicine is concerned. Legally, a contract exists between physician and patient which is also applicable to aesthetic medicine. This means that the physician owes the patient only the provision of a proper, non-defective service, but does not need to guarantee that it actually leads to the desired outcome. Before performing a medically non-indicated procedure the physician is obliged to provide the patient with particularly thorough information about this procedure. Various problems and issues are raised by the advertising limitations for medical professionals and the maintenance of the boundaries confining the special field of aesthetic medicine. Medically indicated procedures are suitable for statutory reimbursement if the patient suffers from "physical disfigurement" or somatic complaints that lead to considerable impairment and if there are no other, cheaper treatment options available.

  4. Continuous professional competence (CPC) for emergency medical technicians in Ireland: educational needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Shane; Cullen, Walter; Dunne, Colum

    2013-12-17

    As in other countries, the Irish Regulator for Pre-Hospital practitioners, the Pre-Hospital Emergency Care Council (PHECC), will introduce a Continuous Professional Competence (CPC) framework for all Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs), Paramedics and Advanced Paramedics (APs). This framework involves EMTs participating in regular and structured training to maintain professional competence and enable continuous professional developments. To inform the development of this framework, this study aimed to identify what EMTs consider the optimum educational outcomes and activity and their attitude towards CPC. All EMTs registered in Ireland (n = 925) were invited via email to complete an anonymous online survey. Survey questions were designed based on Continuous Professional Development (CPD) questionnaires used by other healthcare professions. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed. Response rate was 43% (n = 399). 84% of participants had been registered in Ireland for less than 24 months, while 59% had been registered EMTs for more than one year. Outcomes were: evidence of CPC should be a condition for EMT registration in Ireland (95%), 78% believed that EMTs who do not maintain CPC should be denied the option to re-register. Although not required to do so at the time of survey, 69% maintained a professional portfolio and 24% had completed up to 20 hours of CPC activities in the prior 12 months. From a list of 22 proposed CPC activities, 97% stated that practical scenario-based exercises were most relevant to their role. E-learning curricula without practical components were considered irrelevant (32%), but the majority of participants (91%) welcomed access to e-learning when supplemented by related practical modules. EMTs are supportive of CPC as a key part of their professional development and registration. Blended learning, which involves clinical and practical skills and e-learning, is the optimum approach.

  5. [Criminal claims about medical professional liability in the Instituto de Medicina Legal of Lima, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Sandoval, Cleyber; Arones-Guevara, Shermany; Carrera-Palao, Rosa; Casana-Jara, Kelly; Colque-Jaliri, Tomasa

    2013-07-01

    To determine the characteristics of the criminal complaints claining medical professional liability, based on the expert reports issued by the Forensic Examination Division of Lima, Peru. A cross-sectional study was carried out, which included all the expert reports issued between 2005 and 2010 at the Forensic Examination Division of Lima, Peru. A descriptive analysis of each of the variables was performed. 60.3% (495/821) of the criminal complaints for medical professional liability were valued as being in accordance with the lex artis while 16.8% (138/821) were not in accordance with the lex artis. In 13% (107/821) of the cases, conclusions could not be drawn;in 9.9% (81/821) of the cases, the conclusions in the expert report did not include an valuations of the medical act.The cases in which the injury was attributed to the process of the disease itself accounted for 80.9% (502/620), and those in which in the injury was considered a result of the health care received were 19.0% (118/620). The distribution of the cause of the injury based on accordance with the lex artis showed significant differences. In our country, the number of claims for claimed medical liability is increasing, predominantly in relation to surgical specialties, where a medical act is more likely to be considered not in accordance with the lex artis. In addition, in a significant percentage of cases, no conclusions are drawn about the medical act.

  6. Accuracy of Professional Self-Reports: Medical Student Self-Report and the Scoring of Professional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter Lagha, Regina Anne

    2014-01-01

    Self-report is currently used as an indicator of professional practice in a variety of fields, including medicine and education. Important to consider, therefore, is the ability of self-report to accurately capture professional practice. This study investigated how well professionals' self-reports of behavior agreed with an expert observer's…

  7. Sports reporting: a comprehensive review of the medical literature regarding North American professional sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhni, Eric C; Buza, John A; Byram, Ian; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2014-05-01

    The increased physical demands of professional athletes predispose this patient population to a unique set of injuries typically not seen in the general population. This systematic literature review investigates the nature of injury reporting (both orthopedic and nonorthopedic conditions) in the medical literature of professional athletes in the National Football League (NFL), Major League Baseball (MLB), the National Basketball Association (NBA), and the National Hockey League (NHL). Rigorous reporting of sports injuries helps clinicians better understand disease mechanisms relevant to specific sports. The nature of injury reporting will differ within each professional sport and reflect the anatomic emphasis of each sport. An electronic literature search of all publications addressing injuries and medical conditions among professional athletes in the NFL, MLB, NBA, and NHL was conducted using the Pubmed/Medline, Scopus, and Embase databases through January 2013. Retrieved publications were categorized by journal type, medical type, and area of focus. A total of 536 publications met all inclusion criteria. There were a higher number of articles regarding the NFL (n = 211) and MLB (n = 216) when compared with the NBA (n = 34) or NHL (n = 75). The NFL had significantly more articles addressing nonorthopedic injuries/medical issues than were found with the MLB, NBA, or NHL (109 vs 75, 14, 41, respectively). Both the NFL (33 of 109, 30%) and NHL (6 of 41, 15%) had a relatively high percentage of articles regarding concussions/neurology, and MLB had a relatively high percentage of articles dedicated to vascular medicine (13 of 65, 20%). The proportion of publications dedicated to the knee/lower leg were highest in the NFL (29 of 102, 28%) and NBA (9 of 20, 45%), those dedicated to the shoulder/elbow were highest in MLB (113 of 151, 75%), and those dedicated to the hip/pelvis were highest in the NHL (16 of 34, 47%). The number and type of publications vary among the 4

  8. Concussion knowledge and management practices among coaches and medical staff in Irish professional rugby teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraas, M R; Coughlan, G F; Hart, E C; McCarthy, C

    2015-06-01

    Self-reported concussion rates among U-20 and elite rugby union players in Ireland are 45-48%. Half of these injuries go unreported. Accurate knowledge of concussion signs and symptoms and appropriate management practices among coaches and medical staff is important to improve the welfare of players. Examine concussion knowledge among coaches, and management techniques among medical staff of professional Irish rugby teams. Surveys were administered to 11 coaches and 12 medical staff at the end of the 2010-2011 season. Coaches demonstrated an accurate knowledge of concussion with a good understanding of concussion-related symptoms. Medical staff reported using a variety of methods for assessing concussion and making return-to-play decisions. Reliance on subjective clinical methods was evident, with less reliance on objective postural stability performance. Overall, the coaches in this investigation have accurate knowledge of concussion and medical staff use effective techniques for managing this injury. On-going education is needed to assist coaches in identifying concussion signs and symptoms. It is recommended that medical staff increase their reliance on objective methods for assessment and return-to-play decision making.

  9. Characteristics of nursing professionals and the practice of ecologically sustainable actions in the medication processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia de Oliveira Furukawa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: to verify the correlation between the characteristics of professionals and the practice of sustainable actions in the medication processes in an ICU, and to determine if interventions such as training and awareness can promote sustainable practices performed by nursing staff in the hospital. Methods: before-and-after design study using Lean Six Sigma methodology, applied in an intensive care unit. Nursing staff were observed regarding the practice of ecologically sustainable actions during medication processes (n = 324 cases for each group (pre and post-intervention through a data collection instrument. The processes analyzed involved 99 professionals in the pre-intervention phase and 97 in the post-intervention phase. Data were analyzed quantitatively and the association of variables was accomplished by means of statistical inference, according to the nature of the related variables. Results: the education level was the only characteristic that showed to be relevant to an increase in sustainable practices, with a statistically significant difference (p = 0.002. When comparing before and after the intervention, there was an increase in environmentally friendly actions with statistically significant differences (p = 0.001. Conclusions: the results suggest that institutions should encourage and invest in formal education, as well as training of health professionals to promote sustainable practices in the hospital.

  10. Online virtual patients - A driver for change in medical and healthcare professional education in developing countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, David; Borgstein, Eric; Grant, Mary E; Begg, Michael

    2009-08-01

    The development of online virtual patients has proved to be an effective vehicle for pedagogical and technological skills transfer and capacity building for medical and healthcare educators in Malawi. A project between the University of Edinburgh and the University of Malawi has delivered more than 20 collaboratively developed, virtual patients, contextualised for in-country medical and healthcare education and, more significantly, a cadre of healthcare professionals skilled in developing digital resources and integrating these into their emerging curricula. The process of engaging with new approaches to teaching and delivering personalised, context sensitive content via a game-informed, technology-supported process has contributed to the ability of healthcare educators in Malawi to drive pedagogical change, meet the substantial challenges of delivering new curricula, cope with increasing student numbers and promote teacher professional development. This initial phase of the project has laid the foundation for a broader second phase that focuses on promoting curriculum change, developing educational infrastructure and in-country capacity to create, and integrate digital resources into education and training across multi-professional groups and across educational levels.

  11. REGULATION OF AUSTRALIAN MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS AND NATIONAL SECURITY: LESSONS FROM THREE CASE STUDIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas; McKenna, Michael; Rayner, Johanna; Hawes, Jazmin

    2016-03-01

    In recent times, Australia's national security concerns have had controversial impacts on regulation of Australian medical practitioners in areas related to immigration detention. This column explores three recent case studies relevant to this issue. The first involves the enactment of the Australian Border Force Act 2015 (Cth), which has a significant impact on the regulation of medical professionals who work with people in immigration detention. The second involves the decision of the High Court of Australia in Plaintiff M68/2015 v Minister for Immigration and Border Protection [2016] HCA 1 that an amendment to Australian federal legislation justified sending children back to immigration detention centres in Papua New Guinea and Nauru. This legislation was previously heavily criticised by the Australian Human Rights Commissioner. The third concerns the deregistration of Tareq Kamleh, an Australian doctor of German-Palestinian heritage who came to public attention on ANZAC Day 2015 with his appearance online in a propaganda video for the Islamic State terrorist organisation al-Dawla al-Islamyia fil Iraq wa'al Sham, also known as Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) or Daesh. Australia's professional regulatory system should presumptively respect professional virtues, such as loyalty to the relief of individual patient suffering, when dealing with doctors (whether in Australia or ISIS-occupied Syria) working under regimes whose principles appear inconsistent with those of ethics and human rights.

  12. The importance of using the dosimeter in medical professionals in the hemodynamic service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Francisca A. de; Victor Filho, Edgard; Silva, Carla V. da; Santos, Tayline T. dos; Guerra, Decio C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the medical exposure to ionizing radiation of X type in a interventional radiology service, of an university hospital, making a correlation with the importance of using dosimeters for monitoring the effective dose in individuals occupationally exposed (IOE). It was performed an analysis of radiation doses in two stages: the first there was not guidance on the need of using dosimeters; in the second time the professionals performed all procedures carrying the dosimeter. The result showed an average effective dose of professionals / year of 8.60 mSv at first moment, against a dose of 27.41 mSv in the second time after the routine of use the dosimeters, surpassing, in this second phase, the annual dose rate allowed by current radiation protection legislation, which calls for 20 mSv / year for professional. The comparison result in an increase of effective dose of professionals in nearly 300%. It is concluded that the implementation a continuing education project, including awareness of the importance in daily use dosimeter, shows up as a solution for optimizing the dose of these occupationally exposed individuals

  13. Internet resources for dentistry: government and medical sites for the dental professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, G F

    2000-02-15

    As society transitions deeper into the Information Age, Information Technology has become a critical tool that supports all facets of the global economy. The Internet, via the World-Wide Web (WWW), has become a major component of business operations for corporate and educational organizational entities. An estimated 10,000 or more health-related websites are providing information for both consumers and healthcare professionals. In addition to private and state-supported institutions being present on the Internet, the federal government has moved rapidly toward disseminating information electronically, with significant utilization of the WWW as the technological vehicle. All branches of the US Government and federal-related agencies are now represented on the Internet in an effort to deliver content to their end users, primarily the public. The intent of this article is to complement the previous publication, "Internet Resources for Dentistry: Utilization of the Internet to Support Professional Growth, Decision Making, and Patient Care," by presenting dental healthcare professionals with information on additional governmental and medical "Internet" sites. In addition, healthcare professionals must arm themselves with more than just access itself, but also the ability to critically judge the quality of information retrieved from the WWW.

  14. How we designed and implemented teaching, training, and assessment of professional behaviour at VUmc School of Medical Sciences Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, M.; Peerdeman, S.; Kleinveld, J.; Kusurkar, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Training of doctors in The Netherlands seeks to develop clinical competences including professional behaviour. Behaving as a professional is not just a desirable trait but a clearly stated requirement for doctors and medical students. Results: We designed an educational theme,

  15. Emotional Burnout, Perceived Sources of Job Stress, Professional Fulfillment, and Engagement among Medical Residents in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Abdo Radman Al-Dubai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was the first to explore factors associated with emotional burnout (EB among medical residents in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a universal sample of 205 medical residents in a Malaysian general hospital. The self-administered questionnaire used consisted of questions on sociodemographics and work characteristics, sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, engagement, and EB. EB was measured using the emotional exhaustion subscale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI. Mean (±SD age of the respondents was 26.5 (±1.6. The most common source of job stress was “fear of making mistakes.” Most of the participants were dissatisfied with the increase of residentship period from one year to two years. A high level of EB was reported by 36.6% of the respondents. In multivariate analysis, the most important correlates of EB were sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, and engagement. A high prevalence of EB was found among medical residents. Sociodemographic characteristics, performance pressure, and satisfaction with policies were significantly associated with EB. Although this study was limited by its cross-sectional design, its findings posit a sufficient foundation to relevant authorities to construct, amend, and amalgamate existing and future policies.

  16. Critical Thoughts About the Core Entrustable Professional Activities in Undergraduate Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupat, Edward

    2018-03-01

    The Core Entrustable Professional Activities for Entering Residency (Core EPAs) have taken a strong hold on undergraduate medical education (UME). This Perspective questions their value added and considers the utility of the Core EPAs along two separate dimensions: (1) the ways they change the content and focus of the goals of UME; and (2) the extent to which entrustable professional activity (EPA)-based assessment conforms to basic principles of measurement theory as practiced in the social sciences. Concerning content and focus, the author asks whether the 13 Core EPAs frame UME too narrowly, putting competencies into the background and overlooking certain aspirational, but important and measurable, objectives of UME. The author also discusses the unevenness of EPAs in terms of their breadth and their developmental status as core activities. Regarding measurement and assessment, the author raises concerns that the EPA metric introduces layers of inference that may cause distortions and hinder accuracy and rater agreement. In addition, the use of weak anchors and multidimensional scales is also of concern. The author concludes with a proposal for reframing the Core EPAs and Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies into broadly defined sets of behaviors, referred to as "Tasks of Medicine," and calls for the development of a systematic and longitudinal research agenda. The author asserts that "slowing down when you should" applies to medical education as well as patient care, and calls for a reevaluation of the Core EPAs before further commitment to them.

  17. Evaluation of a personal and professional development module in an undergraduate medical curriculum in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramnarayan Komattil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at evaluating the personal and professional development (PPD module in the undergraduate medical curriculum in Melaka Manipal Medical College, India. PPD hours were incorporated in the curriculum. A team of faculty members and a faculty coordinator identified relevant topics and students were introduced to topics such as medical humanities, leadership skills, communication skills, ethics, professional behavior, and patient narratives. The module was evaluated using a prevalidated course feedback questionnaire which was administered to three consecutive batches of students from March 2011 to March 2013. To analyze faculty perspectives, one to one in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted by the coordinators with faculty members who conducted the PPD classes. Analysis of the course feedback form revealed that majority (80% of students agreed that the module was well prepared and was "highly relevant" to the profession. Faculty found the topics new and interdisciplinary and there was a sense of sharing responsibility and workload by the faculty. PPD modules are necessary components of the curriculum and help to mould students while they are still acquiescent as they assume their roles as doctors of the future.

  18. Medical education as moral formation: an Aristotelian account of medical professionalsim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinghorn, Warren A

    2010-01-01

    The medical professionalism movement, bolstered by many influential medical organizations and institutions, has in the last decade produced a number of conceptual definitions of professionalism and a number of concrete proposals for its measurement and teaching. These projects, however laudable, are misguided when they treat professionalism as a unitary descriptive concept rather than as a contested and therefore primarily evaluative one; when they conceive professionalism as a domain of medical practice separable in principle from other domains; and when they treat professionalism as, in principle, a specifiable goal or product of sufficiently well designed educational curricula. The logic of professionalism-as-product corresponds to the logic of techne (art or practical skill) in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics. Aristotle provides a cogent argument, however, that the moral excellences denoted by "professionalism" cannot be "produced" or even prespecified in the concrete; rather, they must be acquired through long practice under the careful concrete guidance of teachers who themselves embody these moral excellences. Phronesis (practical wisdom) rather than techne must therefore be the guiding logic of educational initiatives in medical professional formation, with particular emphasis on close mentorship and on the moral character both of students and of those who teach them.

  19. Health professionals as mobile content creators: teaching medical students to develop mHealth applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Ken

    2014-10-01

    Patient access to health information and patient-provider communication is integral to medicine, and can be facilitated by mobile applications ("apps"). Traditionally, student training in mobile Health (mHealth) has focussed on health professionals as consumers of information, with negative impacts on the quality and value of medical apps. This study focuses on teaching medical students to develop their own medical apps. At Sultan Qaboos University, Oman, an app development environment, iBuildApp, was taught to medical students and used to develop their first apps. Students were surveyed on their perceptions of the project. Of the 166 students, 107 (64.5%) completed the survey. There was an increase in the perceived need for such learning, apps were aimed primarily at patients, and previous programming experience was the strongest influencer of a positive experience. A majority (77.6%) wanted more sophisticated development environments in spite of their apparent struggles. The impact of previous experience is similar to other studies; the perceived value and focus on patient apps is indicative of an awareness of patients' use of the devices not reflected in all literature. It is possible to teach medical students the fundamentals of app design so that they may contribute to app development in the future.

  20. Enhancing medical students' reflectivity in mentoring groups for professional development - a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Gabriele; Pankoke, Nina; Goldblatt, Hadass; Hofmann, Marzellus; Zupanic, Michaela

    2017-07-14

    Professional competence is important in delivering high quality patient care, and it can be enhanced by reflection and reflective discourse e.g. in mentoring groups. However, students are often reluctant though to engage in this discourse. A group mentoring program involving all preclinical students as well as faculty members and co-mentoring clinical students was initiated at Witten-Herdecke University. This study explores both the attitudes of those students towards such a program and factors that might hinder or enhance how students engage in reflective discourse. A qualitative design was applied using semi-structured focus group interviews with preclinical students and semi-structured individual interviews with mentors and co-mentors. The interview data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Students' attitudes towards reflective discourse on professional challenges were diverse. Some students valued the new program and named positive outcomes regarding several features of professional development. Enriching experiences were described. Others expressed aversive attitudes. Three reasons for these were given: unclear goals and benefits, interpersonal problems within the groups hindering development and intrapersonal issues such as insecurity and traditional views of medical education. Participants mentioned several program setup factors that could enhance how students engage in such groups: explaining the program thoroughly, setting expectations and integrating the reflective discourse in a meaningful way into the curriculum, obliging participation without coercion, developing a sense of security, trust and interest in each other within the groups, randomizing group composition and facilitating group moderators as positive peer and faculty role models and as learning group members. A well-designed and empathetic setup of group mentoring programs can help raise openness towards engaging in meaningful reflective discourse. Reflection on and communication of

  1. [Health care waste management of potentially infectious medical waste by healthcare professionals in a private medical practice: a study of practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunot, Alain; Thompson, Céline

    2010-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 278 health professionals (GPs and specialists, dentists, physical therapists and nurses) in a private medical practice in Paris to study the medical waste management practices related to the production and disposal of potentially hazardous health care waste. With the exception of physical therapists, most professionals produced medical waste (72% to 96,2% according to occupation), with a monthly median of 3 liters (inter-quartile range 1-15 liters). All sharp objects and needles were separated and 91% of them eliminated via a specific process for that sector. These percentages were respectively 84% and 69% concerning contaminated waste that was neither needles or used for cutting. 48% of the professionals reported the existence of documents that could track the disposal of their medical waste. To improve practice, professionals cited collection on-site at the office (74%) and reliability of the contracted service provider to collect the waste (59%). The study showed that health professionals need information on the regulations regarding potentially infectious medical waste, in particular on the traceability of its elimination. They also noted the lack of clarity and precision with regard to the definition of risk of infection: 31,7% of professionals only declare the production of sharp or cutting waste without having specified criteria for risk of infection.

  2. [Establishment of an electronic medical record in a psychiatric hospital: evolution of professionals' perceptions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, L; Renaud, M-H; Baumstarck-Barrau, K; Fieschi, M; Samuelian, J-C

    2010-06-01

    The potential benefits of the application of an electronic medical record (EMR) in medical care are well recognized. However, if these benefits are to be accomplished, professionals must adopt and utilize EMR as a part of their practice. The aim of this study was to assess the evolution of the health care professionals' opinions of EMR and their use on a period of 1 year in a French Public Psychiatric Hospital. Our institution is a 204-bed psychiatric hospital, employing 328 professionals and comprising three sectors: six units of complete hospitalisation (102 beds), one unit of week hospitalisation (15 beds), one unit of emergency (seven beds) and one unit of night hospitalisation (15 beds). Three extrahospital structures include the day hospitalisation (65 places), the medicopsychological centres (CMP) and the part-time therapeutic reception centres (CATTP) of the three sectors. We conducted face-to-face, semi-structured interviews with health care professionals of a public psychiatric hospital on two occasions: 1 month after the establishment of the EMR (t0) and one year later (t1). All the solicited people agreed to participate in the investigation. The interviews were conducted until no new ideas emerged in the content analysis performed in real time, comprising 60 care professionals at t0 (10 psychiatrists, 42 nurses and eight paramedical professionals) and 55 at t1 (six psychiatrists, 42 nurses and seven paramedical professionals). Content analysis was performed by two members of the steering committee who were skilled in textual analysis. A descriptive analysis was also performed. The variables were described by proportions and means. The proportions were compared using the Chi-squared test or Fisher exact test where appropriate. A two-tailed p-value of greater than 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS version. The proportion of EMR use remained stable and high (respectively 97% in 2007

  3. Continuing medical education and pharmaceutical industry involvement: An evaluation of policies adopted by Canadian professional medical associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnier, Adrienne; Lexchin, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Professional medical associations (PMAs) play a crucial role in providing accredited continuing medical education (CME) to physicians. Funding from the pharmaceutical industry may lead to biases in CME. This study examines publicly available policies on CME, adopted by Canadian PMAs as of December 2015. Policies were evaluated using an original scoring tool comprising 21 items, two questions about PMAs' general and CME funding from industry, and three enforcement measures. We assessed 236 policies adopted by Canadian PMAs (range, 0 to 32). Medical associations received summative scores that ranged from 0% to 49.2% of the total possible points (maximum score = 63). Twenty-seven associations received an overall score of 0%. The highest mean scores were achieved in the areas of industry involvement in planning CME activities (mean: 1.1/3), presence of a review process for topics of CME activities (mean: 1.1/3), content review for balanced information (mean: 1.1/3), and responsibility of distribution of funds (mean: 1.0/3). The lowest mean scores were achieved in the areas of awards (mean: 0.0/3), industry personnel, representatives, and employees (mean: 0.1/3), distribution of industry-funded educational materials at CME activities (mean: 0.1/3), and distinction between marketing and educational materials (mean: 0.1/3). These results suggest that Canadian PMAs' publicly available policies on industry involvement in CME are generally weak or non-existent; therefore, the accredited CME that is provided to Canadian physicians may be viewed as open to bias. We encourage all Canadian medical associations to strengthen their policies to avoid the potential for industry influence in CME.

  4. The vicious circle of patient-physician mistrust in China: health professionals' perspectives, institutional conflict of interest, and building trust through medical professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jing-Bao; Cheng, Yu; Zou, Xiang; Gong, Ni; Tucker, Joseph D; Wong, Bonnie; Kleinman, Arthur

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the phenomenon of patient-physician mistrust in China, a qualitative study involving 107 physicians, nurses and health officials in Guangdong Province, southern China, was conducted through semi-structured interviews and focus groups. In this paper we report the key findings of the empirical study and argue for the essential role of medical professionalism in rebuilding patient-physician trust. Health professionals are trapped in a vicious circle of mistrust. Mistrust (particularly physicians' distrust of patients and their relatives) leads to increased levels of fear and self-protection by doctors which exacerbate difficulties in communication; in turn, this increases physician workloads, adding to a strong sense of injustice and victimization. These factors produce poorer healthcare outcomes and increasingly discontented and angry patients, escalate conflicts and disputes, and result in negative media coverage, all these ultimately contributing to even greater levels of mistrust. The vicious circle indicates not only the crisis of patient-physician relationship but the crisis of medicine as a profession and institution. Underlying the circle is the inherent conflict of interest in the healthcare system by which health professionals and hospitals have become profit-driven. This institutional conflict of interest seriously compromises the fundamental principle of medical professionalism-the primacy of patient welfare-as well as the traditional Chinese ideal of "medicine as the art of humanity". Patient trust can be restored through rectifying this institutional conflict of interest and promoting medical professionalism via a series of recommended practical measures. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Between professional autonomy and economic orientation - The medical profession in a changing health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälble, Karl

    2005-02-17

    The current discussions surrounding the German health care system are being determined and defined by the concepts of "profitability", "efficiency" and "saving". These concepts also determine the demands made on this system and have had an effect on the medical profession. The economy's growing influence on physicians' decision-making and the increasing necessity to look at and regulate services under economic aspects arising from the need to save costs are seen by the medical profession as a threat to its autonomous conduct and freedom to make decisions, in other words it sees it as a danger to its medical orientation. Conflicts between medical autonomy and economic orientation in physicians' conduct are therefore already foreseeable, as are conflicts between medicine and economy in regards to who has the power to define the terms of the public health system. This article will outline the area of conflict based on the available literature. It will discuss how the political and economic regulatory attempts affect the medical profession's autonomous conduct. It will also discuss which conflicts of conduct emerge for physicians, what types of solutions the medical profession tends to develop as a reaction, and whether or not this tension between medical and economic orientation can be resolved in an acceptable way. This article should first outline the changed economic and political basic conditions and the attempts to reform the German health care system, using this as a starting point. Following this, it will explore the significance professional autonomy acquires within the concept of profession from the point of view of the sociology of professions. With this in mind, the third part of this article will describe and analyze the effects of advanced economization on the medical profession's autonomous conduct, which has long been regarded as uncontested. This part of the article will also describe and analyze the medical profession's strategies it uses to defend

  6. Between professional autonomy and economic orientation — The medical profession in a changing health care system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälble, Karl

    2005-01-01

    The current discussions surrounding the German health care system are being determined and defined by the concepts of "profitability", "efficiency" and "saving". These concepts also determine the demands made on this system and have had an effect on the medical profession. The economy's growing influence on physicians' decision-making and the increasing necessity to look at and regulate services under economic aspects arising from the need to save costs are seen by the medical profession as a threat to its autonomous conduct and freedom to make decisions, in other words it sees it as a danger to its medical orientation. Conflicts between medical autonomy and economic orientation in physicians' conduct are therefore already foreseeable, as are conflicts between medicine and economy in regards to who has the power to define the terms of the public health system. Objective: This article will outline the area of conflict based on the available literature. It will discuss how the political and economic regulatory attempts affect the medical profession's autonomous conduct. It will also discuss which conflicts of conduct emerge for physicians, what types of solutions the medical profession tends to develop as a reaction, and whether or not this tension between medical and economic orientation can be resolved in an acceptable way. Methodology: This article should first outline the changed economic and political basic conditions and the attempts to reform the German health care system, using this as a starting point. Following this, it will explore the significance professional autonomy acquires within the concept of profession from the point of view of the sociology of professions. With this in mind, the third part of this article will describe and analyze the effects of advanced economization on the medical profession's autonomous conduct, which has long been regarded as uncontested. This part of the article will also describe and analyze the medical profession

  7. Between professional values, social regulations and patient preferences: medical doctors' perceptions of ethical dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringedal, Berit; Isaksson Rø, Karin; Magelssen, Morten; Førde, Reidun; Aasland, Olaf Gjerløv

    2018-04-01

    We present and discuss the results of a Norwegian survey of medical doctors' views on potential ethical dilemmas in professional practice. The study was conducted in 2015 as a postal questionnaire to a representative sample of 1612 doctors, among which 1261 responded (78%). We provided a list of 41 potential ethical dilemmas and asked whether each was considered a dilemma, and whether the doctor would perform the task, if in a position to do so. Conceptually, dilemmas arise because of tensions between two or more of four doctor roles: the patient's advocate, a steward of societal interests, a member of a profession and a private individual. 27 of the potential dilemmas were considered dilemmas by at least 50% of the respondents. For more than half of the dilemmas, the anticipated course of action varied substantially within the professional group, with at least 20% choosing a different course than their colleagues, indicating low consensus in the profession. Doctors experience a large range of ethical dilemmas, of which many have been given little attention by academic medical ethics. The less-discussed dilemmas are characterised by a low degree of consensus in the profession about how to handle them. There is a need for medical ethicists, medical education, postgraduate courses and clinical ethics support to address common dilemmas in clinical practice. Viewing dilemmas as role conflicts can be a fruitful approach to these discussions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Management of medical confidentiality in English professional football clubs: some ethical problems and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, I; Roderick, M

    2002-04-01

    To examine the ways in which confidential matters are dealt with in the context of the relationship between the club doctor (or physiotherapist) and the player as patient in English professional football clubs. Semistructured tape recorded interviews with 12 club doctors, 10 club physiotherapists, and 27 current and former players. A questionnaire was also sent to 90 club doctors; 58 were returned. There is among club doctors and physiotherapists no commonly held code of ethics governing how much and what kind of information about players may properly be passed on to managers; associated with this, there is considerable variation from one club to another in terms of the amount and kind of information passed on to managers. In some clubs, medical staff attempt to operate more or less on the basis of the rules governing confidentiality that apply in general practice, but in other clubs, medical staff are more ready to pass on personal information about players. In some situations, this raises serious ethical questions. Guidelines dealing with confidentiality in practitioner-patient relationships in medical practice have long been available and have recently been restated, specifically in relation to the practice of sports medicine, by the British Olympic Association, the British Medical Association, and the Football Association. This is a welcome first step. However, if the guidelines are to have an impact on practice, detailed consideration needs to be given to ensuring their effective implementation; if this is to be achieved, consideration also needs to be given to identifying those aspects of the culture and organisation of professional football clubs that may hinder the full and effective implementation of those guidelines.

  9. [Medical professionals on the subject of their core values: the importance of practice-based stories and intrinsic motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witman, Yolande; van den Kerkhof, Peter C M; Braat, Didi D M

    2013-01-01

    In the current system for guaranteeing quality of care, emphasis is placed firmly on external control of professionals. We looked for a way to appeal to the intrinsic motivation of medical professionals and to discover what they mean by 'good work'. This was achieved with the aid of reflective sessions using the toolkit 'Good Work': in four sessions three different groups of medical professionals (medical department chairs, residents and interns) from a Dutch university hospital reflected on the topics 'excellence', 'moral responsibility' and 'personal engagement'. The participants exchanged practice-based stories during the sessions. The most important theme was moral responsibility, with its accompanying dilemmas. The sessions gave rise to feelings of mutual acknowledgement, recognition, inspiration and motivation. Sharing meaningful practice-based stories can be considered as a 'moment of learning', strengthening professional identity and stimulating intrinsic motivation. More space for this form of reflection might restore the balance with external control systems.

  10. Factors that influence spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions: a model centralized in the medical professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdeiro, María T; Polonia, Jorge; Gestal-Otero, Juan J; Figueiras, Adolfo

    2004-11-01

    The spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) through the yellow card and made concrete by the knowledge and attitudes of doctors, has been rousing a great deal of bibliographical interest in recent years. However, there does not seem to be any actual revision in the theme on which the theoretical models that explain the process of decision in reporting are proposed. In this work an explanatory model of the factors that condition reporting is proposed and a revision of the literature on the subject has also been carried out. The proposed model is centralized in the medical professional and it considers the habit of reporting as the result of the doctor's formation and his interaction with the environment. The combination of knowledge-attitudes-practices and the theory of the satisfaction of needs seemed very adequate for ADR systematization. The results also indicate that, to improve the participation of health professionals in surveillance systems through spontaneous reporting, it might be necessary to design combined strategies that modify both intrinsic (knowledge, attitudes) and extrinsic (relationship between health professionals and their patients, the national health system and pharmaceutical companies) factors.

  11. Asian/Pacific Islander women in medical education: personal and professional challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, D

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify the complex issues facing Asian/Pacific Islander (API) women students at one Midwestern medical school as they subjectively experience their medical training. Of particular interest was how students navigated family influences, career planning, and ethnic and gender stereotypes. Sixty-five percent of the students reported that their parents exerted various degrees of encouragement or pressure to enter medicine. The remaining students said that the decision was entirely theirs (20%) or that the decision had been made for them (15%). Many reported the larger Asian "community" as a source of influence. A slight majority of students thought they were perceived by faculty as being "quiet," often too quiet. With only 1 exception, all of the students believed that their cultural identity influenced their specialty choice. Stressors reported by students centered on competition, achievement, and formation of intimate relationships (i.e., dating). Medical educators who provide personal and professional support for API women students should be keenly aware of the career, gender, and family issues that emerge at the intersection of API and Euro-American cultures. Faculty development should include an educational component on issues of concern to API students, men and women. Faculty also need to wrestle with the cultural values of "modesty, respect for authority, public self-consciousness, and other directness" as they intersect with assertion as a primary value found in Euro-American culture in general and in medical education in particular.

  12. Profile and professional expectations of medical students in Mozambique: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fronteira Inês

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This paper compares the socioeconomic profile of medical students registered at the Faculty of Medicine of Universidade Eduardo Mondlane (FM-UEM, Maputo, for the years 1998/99 and 2007/08. Case study The objective is to describe the medical students' social and geographical origins, expectations and perceived difficulties regarding their education and professional future. Data were collected through questionnaires administered to all medical students. Discussion and evaluation The response rate in 1998/99 was 51% (227/441 and 50% in 2007/08 (484/968. The main results reflect a doubling of the number of students enrolled for medical studies at the FM-UEM, associated with improved student performance (as reflected by failure rates. Nevertheless, satisfaction with the training received remains low and, now as before, students still identify lack of access to books or learning technology and inadequate teacher preparedness as major problems. Conclusions There is a high level of commitment to public sector service. However, students, as future doctors, have very high salary expectations that will not be met by current public sector salary scales. This is reflected in an increasing degree of orientation to double sector employment after graduation.

  13. Profile and professional expectations of medical students in Mozambique: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrinho, Paulo; Fronteira, Inês; Sidat, Mohsin; da Sousa, Fernando; Dussault, Gilles

    2010-09-21

    This paper compares the socioeconomic profile of medical students registered at the Faculty of Medicine of Universidade Eduardo Mondlane (FM-UEM), Maputo, for the years 1998/99 and 2007/08. The objective is to describe the medical students' social and geographical origins, expectations and perceived difficulties regarding their education and professional future. Data were collected through questionnaires administered to all medical students. The response rate in 1998/99 was 51% (227/441) and 50% in 2007/08 (484/968).The main results reflect a doubling of the number of students enrolled for medical studies at the FM-UEM, associated with improved student performance (as reflected by failure rates). Nevertheless, satisfaction with the training received remains low and, now as before, students still identify lack of access to books or learning technology and inadequate teacher preparedness as major problems. There is a high level of commitment to public sector service. However, students, as future doctors, have very high salary expectations that will not be met by current public sector salary scales. This is reflected in an increasing degree of orientation to double sector employment after graduation.

  14. Proceedings from the 9th Annual Meeting of International Society for Medical Publication Professionals Roundtable Session: key insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcoe, Donna; Juneja, Renu; Scott, Gayle Nicholas; Sridharan, Kanaka; Williams-Hughes, Celeste

    2014-03-01

    During the 9th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Medical Publication Professionals (ISMPP, April 29-May 1, 2013 in Baltimore, MD), ∼650 participants attended two of 13 available roundtable sessions. Participants included medical publication professionals from industry, communication agencies, and journals. DISCUSSION TOPICS: Roundtable participants discussed how to best interpret and implement various guidances, such as Good Publication Practices 2 (GPP2), the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) guidelines, and the Physician Payment Sunshine Act. The impact of and compliance with Corporate Integrity agreements (CIAs) on medical publication planning practices was debated. Roundtable participants also discussed ways of advancing both advocacy for the medical publication professional field and internal and external collaborations. The development of review manuscripts, publications from regions newly emerging in publication planning, medical devices publications, and real-world experience publications were discussed. Participants also considered the benefits and uncertainties of new technologies in medical publications such as multimedia and social media. This is the first ever article to be published following the well-attended ISMPP roundtable sessions. The objective of this manuscript is to summarize key learnings that will aid continued discussions about challenges and opportunities facing medical publication professionals.

  15. Formation and Development of the Pre-Professional Training System of Foreign Medical Applicants in Ukraine (Historical and Educational Aspect)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskurkina, Iana

    2014-01-01

    The growing number of foreign applicants looking forward to getting education in Ukrainian medical universities makes us find the ways how to improve and make effective the pre-professional training system of foreign medical applicants for further education. The article deals with the issues of the history of formation and development of the…

  16. Preventing work disability among employees with rheumatoid arthritis: what medical professionals can learn from the patients' perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varekamp, Inge; Haafkens, Joke A.; Detaille, Sarah I.; Tak, Paul P.; van Dijk, Frank J. H.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the perspectives of employees with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with those of medical professionals regarding what persons with RA need to prevent work disability. METHODS: Concept mapping was conducted in a group session with 21 employees and by mail with 17 medical

  17. How empathic are vegan medical professionals compared to others? Leads from a paper-pencil-survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Christian S; Michalsen, Andreas; Holler, Sophie; Murthy, Vijayendra S; Cramer, Holger

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this survey was to examine differences in personality profiles among 198 vegan (n = 64; 32.3%), vegetarian (n = 78; 39.4%) and omnivore (n = 55; 27.8%) medical professionals. Outcomes were motives for the nutritional approaches, WHO QoL-BREF, Big Five SOEP Inventory, Portraits Value Questionnaire, and Empathizing Scale. Regarding motives for particular diets, omnivores rated influence of guardians (p vegans and vegetarians. Vegans and vegetarians consumed less coffee (p = 0.007) and alcohol compared to omnivores (p = 0.017). The duration of adhering to a specific diet was significantly shorter in vegans. Data suggest that vegan medical professionals do not differ from vegetarians or omnivores regarding empathy, values or personality traits. Differences to a related internet sample were observed for a number of outcomes. Given the small sample size and potential selection bias through the specific subpopulation attending a plant-based nutrition conference, further studies are warranted to confirm these results. Particularly, potential reciprocities between empathy and individual nutritional choices deserve further attention.

  18. Vertical integration in medical settings: A brief introduction to its potential effects on professional psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumerall, S W; Oehlert, M E; Trent, D D

    1995-12-01

    Vertical integration in medical settings typically involves the merging of independent physicians, physician groups, and hospitals to render an organized health care network. Such systems are considered to be vertical, as they may allow for a seamless continuation of services throughout the range of needs a patient may require. Mergers often result in the redefining of professional services offered in the acquired facility or across the network. As such, mergers have the potential of adversely impacting psychological practices. Professional psychology needs to take a proactive stance in this changing health care landscape. Research regarding empirically validated treatments and effects of psychological interventions on overall health-care costs needs to be properly disseminated to health care administrators to assure their knowledge of the utility of psychological services in the medical setting. Training psychologists to assume leadership positions in health-care institutions, gaining representation on hospital staff boards, and linking psychologists and physicians through collaborative training, to provide improved care, may allow for psychology to influence health care delivery.

  19. Trusting early learners with critical professional activities through emergency medical technician certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Judith; Bird, Jeffrey; Ginzburg, Samara B; Kwiatkowski, Thomas; Papasodero, Vincent; Rennie, William; Schlegel, Elisabeth; Ten Cate, Olle; Willey, Joanne M

    2018-03-08

    Two dominant themes face medical education: developing integrated curricula and improving the undergraduate medical education (UME) to graduate medical education (GME) transition. An innovative solution to both of these challenges at the Zucker School of Medicine has been the application of the cognitive apprenticeship framework in requiring emergency medical technician (EMT) certification during the first course in medical school as the core on which to build an integrated curriculum and provide entrustable clinical skills. Beginning with the Class of 2011, student feedback about the short-term impact of the experience was collected annually. In addition, perceptions of near graduates and alumni were surveyed in 2017 to explore the long-term impact of the experience. Theme analysis was conducted via inductive coding. Both first-year and more experienced learners report the value of the EMT curriculum as an integrated component of the first course of medical school. Reported positive long-term impacts included the first-hand observation of social determinants of health and interprofessionalism. Negative comments by early learners focused on course logistics, whereas older learners recalled the variability of clinical experiences during ambulance runs. The integration of the EMT curriculum as a core component of the first course serves multiple purposes: 1) it provides the foundation of a spiral learning approach; 2) it contextualizes the basic sciences within clinical practice; 3) it provides opportunities for students to engage in authentic clinical activities under the guidance of mentors; 4) it introduces students to the interdisciplinary nature of medicine; and 5) it serves as the first entrustable professional activity (EPA) for our students.

  20. Adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, and professional burnout among medical laboratory scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robakowska, Marlena; Tyrańska-Fobke, Anna; Walkiewicz, Maciej; Tartas, Małgorzata

    2018-05-22

    The goal of this paper is to verify the correlations between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism and the selected demographic and job characteristics vs. professional burnout among medical laboratory scientists in Poland. The study group consisted of 166 laboratory scientists. The Polish Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism Questionnaire (Szczucka) was used for testing perfectionism. The Oldenburg Burnout Inventory was used for examining burnout syndrome. Adaptive perfectionism was positively and maladaptive perfectionism was negatively correlated with both aspects of professional burnout: the disengagement from work and exhaustion. What is more, maladaptive perfectionism was correlated negatively with age and work experience. People in relationships have a higher level of disengagement and a higher level of exhaustion than single ones. The results of hierarchical regression analyses have revealed, after having controlled selected demographic and job factors, that a significant predictor of disengagement is the high level of adaptive perfectionism and low level of maladaptive perfectionism. In addition, a significant predictor of high level of exhaustion is the low level of maladaptive perfectionism. Professional burnout among medical laboratory scientists is of a specific nature. The "healthier" perfectionism they reveal, the higher level of burnout they present. In this profession, lower risk of burnout is represented by those who are characterized by the lack of confidence in the quality of their actions and a negative reaction to their own imperfections associated with imposed social obligation to be perfect. The individuals pursuing their internal high standards experience burnout faster. Med Pr 2018;69(3):253-260. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  1. Corruption or professional dignity: An ethical examination of the phenomenon of "red envelopes" (monetary gifts) in medical practice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Wang, Lijie; Yang, Chengshang

    2018-03-01

    In the medical practice in China, giving and taking "red envelopes" (monetary gifts) is a common phenomenon although few openly admit it. This paper, based on our empirical study including data collected from interviews and questionnaires with medical professionals and patients, attempts to explore why "red envelopes" have become a serious problem in the physician-patient relationship and how the situation can be improved. Previous studies show that scholars tend to correlate the spread of "red envelopes" in health care sector to the commercialization trend, the general erosion of traditional values, and the lowering of the moral level in the medical field. However, in this paper, the authors argue that medical professionals' choice of taking "red envelopes" is actually more a way to compensate for their problematic self-image and marred dignity in real practice. Medical professionals in China as a whole are in an embarrassing situation where the work pressure and income, and the sense of pride that used to be part of their profession are not comparable to each other. Under this circumstance, we believe that the effective way to deal with the "red envelopes" issue does not lie solely in introducing more stringent regulations or granting medical professionals higher payments, but rather in protecting and enhancing the professional dignity of all those working in healthcare. And on top of that, there must also be effort to cultivate a more favorable moral environment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. [Social psychological determinants of the formation of medical students' professional identity. Possibilities of development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csörsz, Ilona

    2011-03-20

    Systematic observations regarding techniques of medical career-socialization has hardly ever appeared in Hungarian technical literature yet. Focusing on the need for practical medical training the author elaborated a career-socialization program consisting of a three-level, three-branch training technique. This consisted of a Junior Bálint-group, an imaginative visualization technique, and an expressive, drama-pedagogical working method completed with a projective technique. This career-socialization program focuses on the physician's personality, capability-expansion in relationship management, and practicing a set of professional behavior-roles. During the empirical observations connected to the work the author examined medical students' patient-representation, their relation to the patients, and the development of the physician's professional character. Within the frames of this three-level, three-branch training technique program it enables us to observe which training technique is able to reveal all those psychological qualities that can contribute to the conformation of the representations, thus to the process of career-socialization in the most effective way. The content-analyses of the cases of Junior Bálint-groups (n = 60) revealed that the most frequent problems are fear of intimacy, of bodily contact, communication with patients in a chronic or terminal state, and the fear of medical practice. The content-analyses of imaginary patient-images (n = 62) with Rorschach-signs confirmed that the psychological burdens mentioned above are the most serious problems for medical students. The process-, and content-analyses of drama-games, the integrative healing contact training groups (n = 74) showed that group work primarily intensifies the relationship responsiveness, the ability to adopt the other's (the patient's) viewpoints, and enables an involuntary and distressless identification with the patient and the physician, both agents in the healing relationship

  3. Multidimensional representations: The knowledge domain of germs held by students, teachers and medical professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rua, Melissa Jo

    The present study examined the understandings held by 5th, 8th, and 11th-grade students, their teachers and medical professionals about germs. Specifically, this study describes the content and structure of students' and adults' conceptions in the areas of germ contraction, transmission, and treatment of infectious and non-infectious diseases caused by microorganisms. Naturalistic and empirical research methods were used to investigate participants' conceptions. Between and within group similarities were found using data from concept maps on the topic "flu," drawings of germs, a 20 word card sort related to germs and illness, and a semi-structured interview. Concept maps were coded according to techniques by Novak and Gowan (1984). Drawings of germs were coded into four main categories (bacteria, viruses, animal cell, other) and five subcategories (disease, caricature, insect, protozoa, unclassified). Cluster patterns for the card sorts of each group were found using multidimensional scaling techniques. Six coding categories emerged from the interview transcripts: (a) transmission, (b) treatment, (c) effect of weather on illness, (d) immune response, (e) location of germs, and (f) similarities and differences between bacteria and viruses. The findings showed students, teachers and medical professionals have different understandings about bacteria and viruses and the structures of those understandings vary. Gaps or holes in the participants knowledge were found in areas such as: (a) how germs are transmitted, (b) where germs are found, (c) how the body transports and uses medicine, (d) how the immune system functions, (e) the difference between vaccines and non-prescription medicines, (f) differences that exist between bacteria and viruses, and (g) bacterial resistance to medication. The youngest students relied heavily upon personal experiences with germs rather than formal instruction when explaining their conceptions. As a result, the influence of media was

  4. PROFESSIONALISM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    should not be a goal but a point in time which. 2 marks the ... and medical, educational and psychological personnel are .... note the prescription given by St. Paul to the. Romans: “Be ... you have had the princely privilege of being brought up ...

  5. Views of patients and professionals about electronic multicompartment medication devices: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jill; Bond, Christine; Kinnear, Moira; McKinstry, Brian

    2016-10-17

    To explore the perceived acceptability, advantages and disadvantages of electronic multicompartment medication devices. Qualitative study using 8 focus groups and 10 individual semistructured interviews. Recordings were transcribed and analysed thematically. Strategies were employed to ensure the findings were credible and trustworthy. Community pharmacists (n=11), general practitioners (n=9), community nurses (n=12) and social care managers (n=8) were recruited from the National Health Service (NHS) and local authority services. Patients (n=15) who were current conventional or electronic multicompartment medication device users or had medication adherence problems were recruited from community pharmacies. 3 informal carers participated. Electronic multicompartment medication devices which prompt the patient to take medication may be beneficial for selected individuals, particularly those with cognitive impairment, but who are not seriously impaired, provided they have a good level of dexterity. They may also assist individuals where it is important that medication is taken at fixed time intervals. These are likely to be people who are being supported to live alone. No single device suited everybody; smaller/lighter devices were preferred but their usefulness was limited by the small number/size of storage compartments. Removing medications was often challenging. Transportability was an important factor for patients and carers. A carer's alert if medication is not taken was problematic with multiple barriers to implementation and no consensus as to who should receive the alert. There was a lack of enthusiasm among professionals, particularly among pharmacists, due to concerns about responsibility and funding for devices as well as ensuring devices met regulatory standards for storage and labelling. This study provides indicators of which patients might benefit from an electronic multicompartment medication device as well as the kinds of features to consider when

  6. Emotional burnout, perceived sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, and engagement among medical residents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Perianayagam, Wilson; Rampal, Krishna Gopal

    2013-01-01

    This study was the first to explore factors associated with emotional burnout (EB) among medical residents in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a universal sample of 205 medical residents in a Malaysian general hospital. The self-administered questionnaire used consisted of questions on sociodemographics and work characteristics, sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, engagement, and EB. EB was measured using the emotional exhaustion subscale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Mean (±SD) age of the respondents was 26.5 (±1.6). The most common source of job stress was "fear of making mistakes." Most of the participants were dissatisfied with the increase of residentship period from one year to two years. A high level of EB was reported by 36.6% of the respondents. In multivariate analysis, the most important correlates of EB were sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, and engagement. A high prevalence of EB was found among medical residents. Sociodemographic characteristics, performance pressure, and satisfaction with policies were significantly associated with EB. Although this study was limited by its cross-sectional design, its findings posit a sufficient foundation to relevant authorities to construct, amend, and amalgamate existing and future policies. Nothing will sustain you more potently than the power to recognize in your humdrum routine, as perhaps it may be thought, the true poetry of life-the poetry of the common place, of the common man, of the plain, toil-worn woman, with their loves and their joys, their sorrows and their grief.SirWilliam Osler, Aphorisms from the Student Life (Aequanimitas, 1952).

  7. "I have the right to a private life": medical students' views about professionalism in a digital world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Shelley; Lai, Krista; Walton, Jennifer M; Kirwan, Paul; White, Jonathan S

    2013-10-01

    Social media site use is ubiquitous, particularly Facebook. Postings on social media can have an impact on the perceived professionalism of students and practitioners. In this study, we explored the attitudes and understanding of undergraduate medical students towards professionalism, with a specific focus on online behaviour. A volunteer sample of students (n = 236) responded to an online survey about understanding of professionalism and perceptions of professionalism in online environments. Respondents were encouraged to provide free text examples and to elaborate on their responses through free text comments. Descriptive analyzes and emergent themes analysis were carried out. Respondents were nearly unanimous on most questions of professionalism in the workplace, while 43% felt that students should act professionally at all times (including free time). Sixty-four free text comments revealed three themes: "free time is private time";" professionalism is unrealistic as a way of life"; and "professionalism should be a way of life". Our findings indicate a disconnect between what students report of what they understand of professionalism, and what students feel is appropriate and inappropriate in both online and real life behaviour. Curriculum needs to target understanding of professionalism in online and real environments and communicate realistic expectations for students.

  8. Mapping the Demand for Serious Games in Postgraduate Medical Education Using the Entrustable Professional Activities Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graafland, Maurits; Ten Cate, Olle; van Seventer, Jan-Pieter; Schraagen, Jan Maarten C; Schijven, Marlies P

    2015-10-01

    Serious games are potentially powerful tools for residency training and increasingly attract attention from medical educators. At present, serious games have little evidence-based relations with competency-based medical education, which may impede their incorporation into residency training programs. The aim of this study was to identify highly valued entrustable professional activities (EPAs) to support designers in the development of new, serious games built on a valid needs-assessment. All 149 licensed medical specialists from seven specialties in one academic hospital participated in seven different Delphi expert panels. They filled out a two-round Delphi survey, aimed at identifying the most valuable EPAs in their respective curricula. Specialists were asked to name the most highly valued EPA in their area in the first Delphi round. In the second round, the generated responses were presented and ranked according to priority by the medical specialists. Sixty-two EPAs were identified as valuable training subjects throughout five specialties. Eleven EPAs--"management of trauma patient," "chest tube placement," "laparoscopic cholecystectomy," "assessment of vital signs," "airway management," "induction of general anesthesia," "assessment of suicidal patient," "psychiatric assessment," "gastroscopy," "colonoscopy," and "resuscitation of emergency patients"--were consistently given a high score. The future medical specialist is an active learner, comfortable with digital techniques and learning strategies such as serious gaming. In order to maximize the impact and acceptance of new serious games, it is vital to select the most relevant training subjects. Although some serious games have already targeted top-priority EPAs, plenty of opportunities remain.

  9. Homeopathy as elective in undergraduate medical education − an opportunity for teaching professional core skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Bianca; Krémer, Brigitte; Werwick, Katrin; Herrmann, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The evaluation of medical students' perceptions regarding an elective study course in Homeopathy in which small groups have participated annually for six years, at the Institute for General Practice and Family Medicine at the Otto Von Guericke University, Magdeburg. The course was assessed in terms of concept, delivery, and influence on students' professional development. Methodology: Since the autumn term of 2008/09, three group discussions have been conducted with thirty of the course participants (3 total electives). These discussions were semi-structured and guided by central topics; the analysis was qualitative and guided by content. Results: The overall concept and implementation of the course were very successful. The main learning themes, that is, an emphasis on a more holistic and individual view of patients and the importance of a cooperative partnership between doctor and patient, were positively rated, regardless of the students' attitudes towards homeopathy. Their assessment was based on their previous experience and a comparison with conventional medical education. Conclusion: Homeopathy as an elective subject is not only useful for acquiring specific knowledge in integrative medicine, but also important as a means of developing physicians' core skills that are often not well considered in conventional medical education. PMID:24575158

  10. Accreditation of professionals for radiological protection in medical and dental radiology at Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Teogenes A. da; Pereira, Elton G.; Alonso, Thessa C.; Guedes, Elton C.; Goncalves, Elaine C.; Nogueira, Maria Angela A.

    2000-01-01

    The role of the CDTN/CNEN as far as the radiological protection services in the medical and dental radiology has changed a lot due to the new Regulatory Directives. The CDTN/CNEN was recognized as the regional reference center for providing not only radiological survey services, but to coordinate an accreditation procedure for professional persons to be accepted by the State Regulatory Authorities to work at Minas Gerais. All the new activities were formalized in a Cooperation Agreement between the CDTN/CNEN and the Regulatory Authority. This paper describes the accreditation procedure for candidates, the adopted requirements, the intercomparison results among measuring instruments and the main achievements during the first year of the Agreement. (author)

  11. Sir William Burnett (1779-1861), professional head of the Royal Naval Medical Department and entrepreneur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Christopher

    2004-08-01

    Sir William Burnett (1779-1861) had an active career as a Royal Navy surgeon in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, including service at the battles of St Vincent, the Nile and Trafalgar. From 1822 to 1855 he was professional head of the Royal Naval Medical Department, when he provided effective leadership in a time of great change. Although his official work earned him the reputation of a "hard-working, unimaginative, somewhat harsh man", his correspondence shows a very humane centre under the official carapace. His official performance and reputation were both eroded towards the end of his career by his determined promotion of zinc chloride, for which he held lucrative patents.

  12. The roles of veterinary, medical and environmental professionals to achieve ONE HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Pal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the WHO- “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity”. The good health is the fundamental right of all the people on earth. The concept of ‘One Medicine’ coined by Calvin W. Schwabe evolves towards ’One Health’ which comprises collaborative efforts of multiple disciplines to achieve perfect health of people, animals, and our environment. ‘One Health’ deals with the challenges at the intersection of animal, human and environment health including the infectious diseases, the global food crises, and climate change due to global warming. The cordial and active association of various disciplines such as medicine, veterinary, public health, environment, wildlife, ecology, and food hygiene is highly emphasized in order to achieve the goal of ‘One Health’. This mini-review describes brief history of ‘one health’, the roles of veterinary, medical and environmental professionals, and developing collaboration with various concern professionals to achieve ‘one health’. In addition, the selected achievements of ‘one health’ in the past 10 years have been described along with the challenges ahead for the successful implementation of such concept.

  13. Awareness on organ transplantation among health care professionals and medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedul Karim Ahmad

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This cross sectional study was conducted in different medical college hospitals of Dhaka city during the months of Jan-March 2009. The objective of this study was to find out the awareness level on organ transplantation amongst the teachers, doctors and nurses working in these medical college hospitals and 1st to 5th year students. A structured questionnaire was given to the respondents. The total number of respondents was 462 of which 103 (22.3% were doctors, 268 (58% were medical students and 91 (19.7% were nurses. Among the study group 31.4% knew that there was an organ transplantation law in Bangladesh and 16.5% said that there was no such law whereas 52.2% had no idea whatsoever about the law. Of the respondents 33.8% were willing to donate their organs after death, 41.6% did not want to donate and 24.2% were not sure. This study revealed that there was a lack of understanding regarding the religious views on organ transplantation. Only 37.1% of respondents thought that were was no religious objection to organ transplantation whereas 27.1% felt that there was religious objection while 35.7% were not sure. The study shows that there is significant lack of awareness regarding organ transplantation issues among the health care professionals and medical students in Bangladesh. The dictates of religion on this matter were also not clear to most of the respondents. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2009; 3(2: 55-58

  14. Assessing medical professionalism: A systematic review of instruments and their measurement properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Honghe; Liu, Yang; Wen, Deliang

    2017-01-01

    Background Over the last three decades, various instruments were developed and employed to assess medical professionalism, but their measurement properties have yet to be fully evaluated. This study aimed to systematically evaluate these instruments’ measurement properties and the methodological quality of their related studies within a universally acceptable standardized framework and then provide corresponding recommendations. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycINFO was conducted to collect studies published from 1990–2015. After screening titles, abstracts, and full texts for eligibility, the articles included in this study were classified according to their respective instrument’s usage. A two-phase assessment was conducted: 1) methodological quality was assessed by following the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist; and 2) the quality of measurement properties was assessed according to Terwee’s criteria. Results were integrated using best-evidence synthesis to look for recommendable instruments. Results After screening 2,959 records, 74 instruments from 80 existing studies were included. The overall methodological quality of these studies was unsatisfactory, with reasons including but not limited to unknown missing data, inadequate sample sizes, and vague hypotheses. Content validity, cross-cultural validity, and criterion validity were either unreported or negative ratings in most studies. Based on best-evidence synthesis, three instruments were recommended: Hisar’s instrument for nursing students, Nurse Practitioners’ Roles and Competencies Scale, and Perceived Faculty Competency Inventory. Conclusion Although instruments measuring medical professionalism are diverse, only a limited number of studies were methodologically sound. Future studies should give priority to systematically improving the performance of existing

  15. Sexism within anatomy as perceived by professional anatomists and in comparison with the perceptions of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Susan; Plaisant, Odile; Lignier, Baptiste; Moxham, Bernard J

    2016-10-01

    Two hundred and eight professional anatomists responded to a questionnaire inviting them to address the possibility that social/gender factors hinder the dispassionate representation of anatomy. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from Cardiff University. The results of the survey provided comparisons with the attitudes of medical students that have previously been reported (Morgan et al., 2014). Although a few differences were discerned between females and males in our surveys and between anatomists and medical students, overall our findings suggest that, while both professional anatomists and medical students recognize the importance of gender issues and do not wish to associate with sexism, most are unaware of the possible negative aspects of sexism within anatomy. We recommend that teachers of anatomy should become more aware of the possibility of adverse effects on professional matters relating to equality and diversity issues. Clin. Anat. 29:892-910, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. An assessment of key health indicators among emergency medical services professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studnek, Jonathan R; Bentley, Melissa; Crawford, J Mac; Fernandez, Antonio R

    2010-01-01

    Ensuring the health and productivity of emergency medical services (EMS) professionals is important. However, there has been no known national baseline assessment of the health and wellness of EMS professionals in the United States. According to Healthy People 2010, top indicators of personal health include physical activity, body mass index (BMI), and smoking prevalence. The objectives of this study included quantifying existing health conditions and describing key health indicators among EMS professionals. It was hypothesized that work-life characteristics were associated with existing health conditions and key health indicators. Data utilized for this analysis were obtained from a 2007 questionnaire included in biennial national recertification packets. This questionnaire utilized validated items from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the Longitudinal EMT Attributes and Demographics Study (LEADS). Along with common demographic characteristics, items inquired about existing health conditions (diabetes, asthma, hypertension, myocardial infarction, angina, stroke, and/or high blood cholesterol level), general health, physical activity, and smoking status. Descriptive analyses were performed utilizing chi-square tests, and logistic regression was utilized to describe associations between existing health conditions and the key health indicators. There were 58,435 individuals who became recertified in 2007, with 30,560 (52%) returning questionnaires. Individuals with missing data were removed, leaving 19,960 individual records. There were 4,681 (23.5%) individuals who reported at least one existing health condition. The mean BMI for the study participants was 27.69 kg/m(2). There were 5,742 (28.8%) individuals classified as having normal weight and 5,146 (25.8%) who were obese. The overwhelming majority of individuals did not meet the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations for physical activity (15,022, 75.3%). There

  17. Cognitive impairment is undetected in medical inpatients: a study of mortality and recognition amongst healthcare professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torisson Gustav

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detecting cognitive impairment in medical inpatients is important due to its association with adverse outcomes. Our aim was to study recognition of cognitive impairment and its association with mortality. Methods 200 inpatients aged over 60 years were recruited at the Department of General Internal Medicine at University Hospital MAS in Malmö, Sweden. The MMSE (Mini-Mental State Examination and the CDT (Clock-Drawing Test were performed and related to recognition rates by patients, staff physicians, nurses and informants. The impact of abnormal cognitive test results on mortality was studied using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Results 55 patients (28% had no cognitive impairment while 68 patients (34% had 1 abnormal test result (on MMSE or CDT and 77 patients (39% had 2 abnormal test results. Recognition by healthcare professionals was 12% in the group with 1 abnormal test and 44-64% in the group with 2 abnormal test results. In our model, cognitive impairment predicted 12-month mortality with a hazard ratio (95% CI of 2.86 (1.28-6.39 for the group with 1 abnormal cognitive test and 3.39 (1.54-7.45 for the group with 2 abnormal test results. Conclusions Cognitive impairment is frequent in medical inpatients and associated with increased mortality. Recognition rates of cognitive impairment need to be improved in hospitals.

  18. Using a Curricular Vision to Define Entrustable Professional Activities for Medical Student Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Karen E; Boscardin, Christy; Fulton, Tracy B; Lucey, Catherine; Oza, Sandra; Teherani, Arianne

    2015-09-01

    The new UCSF Bridges Curriculum aims to prepare students to succeed in today's health care system while simultaneously improving it. Curriculum redesign requires assessment strategies that ensure that graduates achieve competence in enduring and emerging skills for clinical practice. To design entrustable professional activities (EPAs) for assessment in a new curriculum and gather evidence of content validity. University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine. Nineteen medical educators participated; 14 completed both rounds of a Delphi survey. Authors describe 5 steps for defining EPAs that encompass a curricular vision including refining the vision, defining draft EPAs, developing EPAs and assessment strategies, defining competencies and milestones, and mapping milestones to EPAs. A Q-sort activity and Delphi survey involving local medical educators created consensus and prioritization for milestones for each EPA. For 4 EPAs, most milestones had content validity indices (CVIs) of at least 78 %. For 2 EPAs, 2 to 4 milestones did not achieve CVIs of 78 %. We demonstrate a stepwise procedure for developing EPAs that capture essential physician work activities defined by a curricular vision. Structured procedures for soliciting faculty feedback and mapping milestones to EPAs provide content validity.

  19. Preserving professional credibility: grounded theory study of medical trainees' requests for clinical support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Tara J T; Regehr, Glenn; Baker, G Ross; Lingard, Lorelei

    2009-02-09

    To develop a conceptual framework of the influences on medical trainees' decisions regarding requests for clinical support from a supervisor. Phase 1: members of teaching teams in internal and emergency medicine were observed during regular clinical activities (216 hours) and subsequently completed brief interviews. Phase 2: 36 in depth interviews were conducted using videotaped vignettes to probe tacit influences on decisions to request support. Data collection and analysis used grounded theory methods. Three teaching hospitals in an urban setting in Canada. 124 members of teaching teams on general internal medicine wards and in the emergency department, comprising 31 attending physicians, 57 junior and senior residents, 28 medical students, and eight nurses. Purposeful sampling to saturation was conducted. Trainees' decisions about whether or not to seek clinical support were influenced by three issues: the clinical question (clinical importance, scope of practice), supervisor factors (availability, approachability), and trainee factors (skill, desire for independence, evaluation). Trainees perceived that requesting frequent/inappropriate support threatened their credibility and used rhetorical strategies to preserve credibility. These strategies included building a case for the importance of requests, saving requests for opportune moments, making a plan before requesting support, and targeting requests to specific team members. Trainees consider not only clinical implications but also professional credibility when requesting support from clinical supervisors. Exposing the complexity of this process provides the opportunity to make changes to training programmes to promote timely supervision and provides a framework for further exploration of the impact of clinical training on quality of care of patients.

  20. Professional medical associations and their relationships with industry: a proposal for controlling conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, David J; McDonald, Walter J; Berkowitz, Carol D; Chimonas, Susan C; DeAngelis, Catherine D; Hale, Ralph W; Nissen, Steven E; Osborn, June E; Scully, James H; Thomson, Gerald E; Wofsy, David

    2009-04-01

    Professional medical associations (PMAs) play an essential role in defining and advancing health care standards. Their conferences, continuing medical education courses, practice guidelines, definitions of ethical norms, and public advocacy positions carry great weight with physicians and the public. Because many PMAs receive extensive funding from pharmaceutical and device companies, it is crucial that their guidelines manage both real and perceived conflict of interests. Any threat to the integrity of PMAs must be thoroughly and effectively resolved. Current PMA policies, however, are not uniform and often lack stringency. To address this situation, the authors first identified and analyzed conflicts of interest that may affect the activities, leadership, and members of PMAs. The authors then went on to formulate guidelines, both short-term and long-term, to prevent the appearance or reality of undue industry influence. The recommendations are rigorous and would require many PMAs to transform their mode of operation and perhaps, to forgo valuable activities. To maintain integrity, sacrifice may be required. Nevertheless, these changes are in the best interest of the PMAs, the profession, their members, and the larger society.

  1. Exploring behavioural determinants relating to health professional reporting of medication errors: a qualitative study using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqubaisi, Mai; Tonna, Antonella; Strath, Alison; Stewart, Derek

    2016-07-01

    Effective and efficient medication reporting processes are essential in promoting patient safety. Few qualitative studies have explored reporting of medication errors by health professionals, and none have made reference to behavioural theories. The objective was to describe and understand the behavioural determinants of health professional reporting of medication errors in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This was a qualitative study comprising face-to-face, semi-structured interviews within three major medical/surgical hospitals of Abu Dhabi, the UAE. Health professionals were sampled purposively in strata of profession and years of experience. The semi-structured interview schedule focused on behavioural determinants around medication error reporting, facilitators, barriers and experiences. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF; a framework of theories of behaviour change) was used as a coding framework. Ethical approval was obtained from a UK university and all participating hospital ethics committees. Data saturation was achieved after interviewing ten nurses, ten pharmacists and nine physicians. Whilst it appeared that patient safety and organisational improvement goals and intentions were behavioural determinants which facilitated reporting, there were key determinants which deterred reporting. These included the beliefs of the consequences of reporting (lack of any feedback following reporting and impacting professional reputation, relationships and career progression), emotions (fear and worry) and issues related to the environmental context (time taken to report). These key behavioural determinants which negatively impact error reporting can facilitate the development of an intervention, centring on organisational safety and reporting culture, to enhance reporting effectiveness and efficiency.

  2. May I see your ID, please? An explorative study of the professional identity of undergraduate medical education leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Kristina; Josephson, Anna; Reeves, Scott; Nordquist, Jonas

    2017-02-01

    The mission of undergraduate medical education leaders is to strive towards the enhancement of quality of medical education and health care. The aim of this qualitative study is, with the help of critical perspectives, to contribute to the research area of undergraduate medical education leaders and their identity formation; how can the identity of undergraduate medical education leaders be defined and further explored from a power perspective? In this explorative study, 14 educational leaders at a medical programme in Scandinavia were interviewed through semi-structured interviews. The data was analysed through Moustakas' structured, phenomenological analysis approach and then pattern matched with Gee's power-based identity model. Educational leaders identify themselves more as mediators than leaders and do not feel to any larger extent that their professional identity is authorised by the university. These factors potentially create difficulties when trying to communicate with medical teachers, often also with a weaker sense of professional identity, about medical education. The perceptions of the professional identity of undergraduate medical education leaders provide us with important notions on the complexities on executing their important mission to develop medical education: their perceptions of ambiguity towards the process of trying to lead teachers toward educational development and a perceived lack of authorisation of their work from the university level. These are important flaws to observe and correct when improving the context in which undergraduate medical education leaders are trying to develop and improve undergraduate medical programmes. A practical outcome of the results of this study is the facilitation of design of faculty development programmes for educational leaders in undergraduate medial education.

  3. Continuing professional development training needs of medical laboratory personnel in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasvosve, Ishmael; Ledikwe, Jenny H; Phumaphi, Othilia; Mpofu, Mulamuli; Nyangah, Robert; Motswaledi, Modisa S; Martin, Robert; Semo, Bazghina-Werq

    2014-08-18

    Laboratory professionals are expected to maintain their knowledge on the most recent advances in laboratory testing and continuing professional development (CPD) programs can address this expectation. In developing countries, accessing CPD programs is a major challenge for laboratory personnel, partly due to their limited availability. An assessment was conducted among clinical laboratory workforce in Botswana to identify and prioritize CPD training needs as well as preferred modes of CPD delivery. A self-administered questionnaire was disseminated to medical laboratory scientists and technicians registered with the Botswana Health Professions Council. Questions were organized into domains of competency related to (i) quality management systems, (ii) technical competence, (iii) laboratory management, leadership, and coaching, and (iv) pathophysiology, data interpretation, and research. Participants were asked to rank their self-perceived training needs using a 3-point scale in order of importance (most, moderate, and least). Furthermore, participants were asked to select any three preferences for delivery formats for the CPD. Out of 350 questionnaires that were distributed, 275 were completed and returned giving an overall response rate of 79%. The most frequently selected topics for training in rank order according to key themes were (mean, range) (i) quality management systems, most important (79%, 74-84%); (ii) pathophysiology, data interpretation, and research (68%, 52-78%); (iii) technical competence (65%, 44-73%); and (iv) laboratory management, leadership, and coaching (60%, 37-77%). The top three topics selected by the participants were (i) quality systems essentials for medical laboratory, (ii) implementing a quality management system, and (iii) techniques to identify and control sources of error in laboratory procedures. The top three preferred CPD delivery modes, in rank order, were training workshops, hands-on workshops, and internet-based learning

  4. Essential learning tools for continuing medical education for physicians, geneticists, nurses, allied health professionals, mental health professionals, business administration professionals, and reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) fellows: the Midwest Reproductive Symposium International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Gretchen G; Jeelani, Roohi; Beltsos, Angeline; Kearns, William G

    2018-04-01

    Essential learning tools for continuing medical education are a challenge in today's rapidly evolving field of reproductive medicine. The Midwest Reproductive Symposium International (MRSi) is a yearly conference held in Chicago, IL. The conference is targeted toward physicians, geneticists, nurses, allied health professionals, mental health professionals, business administration professionals, and reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) fellows engaged in the practice of reproductive medicine. In addition to the scientific conference agenda, there are specific sessions for nurses, mental health professionals, and REI fellows. Unique to the MRSi conference, there is also a separate "Business Minds" session to provide education on business acumen as it is an important element to running a department, division, or private clinic.

  5. Developing pre-qualification inter-professional education for nursing and medical students: sampling student attitudes to guide development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morison, Sue; Boohan, Mairead; Moutray, Marianne; Jenkins, John

    2004-03-01

    Teamwork and collaboration are regarded as important goals for health and social care education and inter-professional education (IPE) the vehicle to achieve this. However, there is debate concerning the best strategies for implementation, location and delivery of IPE. This exploratory study was undertaken to anticipate some of the problems of implementing a pre-qualification IPE programme for Children's Branch nursing students and medical students undertaking a Paediatrics module and to identify strategies to maximise success. A modified version of the readiness for inter-professional learning scale (RIPLS), including additional open-ended questions, was used with a convenient, purposeful sample of 20 medical and 10 nursing students. Both groups regarded learning team-working skills as important. Medical students regarded IPE as a means to learn about team-work and professional roles otherwise they indicated a preference for a discipline-based approach. Both groups were found to have acquired a strong sense of their own professional role. Both perceived IPE as disadvantageous if it impeded their own professional learning. Results also highlighted the importance of class size, stage of learning, appropriate skills and subject in IPE planning. We conclude that a small exploratory study can provide a useful guide for programme planning and additional qualitative data can enable a more comprehensive explanation of results.

  6. Learning professionalism during the third year of medical school in a 9-month-clinical rotation in rural Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Therese; Halaas, Gwen Wagstrom; Brooks, Kathleen D

    2009-11-01

    Professionalism is now an explicit part of the medical school curricula. To examine the components that are part of developing professionalism during the Rural Physician Associate Program (RPAP) experience, a 9-month rotation in a rural community during the third year of medical school. Two researchers analysed 3 years of essays for themes. IRB approval was obtained. Themes were organized using Van de Camp's model of professionalism. Students described how patients taught them about illnesses, the affects on their lives and the lives of their families. Preceptors role-modelled how to relate to patients with compassion and respect (Professionalism Towards the Patient). As a member of the health care team, clinic and hospital staff taught students how to be a good team member (Towards Other Health Care Professionals). Shadowing preceptors in their roles as physicians and community members, students learned about their responsibilities to the community (Towards the Public). Multiple opportunities for self-evaluation and reflection taught students to know themselves and find balance between work responsibilities and their personal lives (Towards Oneself). The RPAP appears to create a supportive learning environment that incorporates psychological safety, appreciation of differences, openness to new ideas and time for reflection - an ideal environment for developing professionalism.

  7. The Association of Readiness for Interprofessional Learning with empathy, motivation and professional identity development in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Cora L F; Wilschut, Janneke A; Isik, Ulviye; van der Burgt, Stéphanie M E; Croiset, Gerda; Kusurkar, Rashmi A

    2018-06-07

    The Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale is among the first scales developed for measurement of attitude towards interprofessional learning (IPL). However, the conceptual framework of the RIPLS still lacks clarity. We investigated the association of the RIPLS with professional identity, empathy and motivation, with the intention of relating RIPLS to other well-known concepts in healthcare education, in an attempt to clarify the concept of readiness. Readiness for interprofessional learning, professional identity development, empathy and motivation of students for medical school, were measured in all 6 years of the medical curriculum. The association of professional identity development, empathy and motivation with readiness was analyzed using linear regression. Empathy and motivation significantly explained the variance in RIPLS subscale Teamwork & Collaboration. Gender and belonging to the first study year had a unique positive contribution in explaining the variance of the RIPLS subscales Positive and Negative Professional Identity, whereas motivation had no contribution. More compassionate care, as an affective component of empathy, seemed to diminish readiness for IPL. Professional Identity, measured as affirmation or denial of the identification with a professional group, had no contribution in the explanation of the variance in readiness. The RIPLS is a suboptimal instrument, which does not clarify the 'what' and 'how' of IPL in a curriculum. This study suggests that students' readiness for IPE may benefit from a combination with the cognitive component of empathy ('Perspective taking') and elements in the curriculum that promote autonomous motivation.

  8. Impact of partial participation in integrated family planning training on medical knowledge, patient communication and professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinauer, Jody E; Turk, Jema K; Preskill, Felisa; Devaskar, Sangita; Freedman, Lori; Landy, Uta

    2014-04-01

    Obstetrics and gynecology residency programs are required to provide access to abortion training, but residents can opt out of participating for religious or moral reasons. Quantitative data suggest that most residents who opt out of doing abortions participate and gain skills in other aspects of the family planning training. However, little is known about their experience and perspective. Between June 2010 and June 2011, we conducted semistructured interviews with current and former residents who opted out of some or all of the family planning training at ob-gyn residency programs affiliated with the Kenneth J. Ryan Residency Training Program in Abortion and Family Planning. Residents were either self-identified or were identified by their Ryan Program directors as having opted out of some training. The interviews were transcribed and coded using modified grounded theory. Twenty-six physicians were interviewed by telephone. Interviewees were from geographically diverse programs (35% Midwest, 31% West, 19% South/Southeast and 15% North/Northeast). We identified four dominant themes about their experience: (a) skills valued in the family planning training, (b) improved patient-centered care, (c) changes in attitudes about abortion and (d) miscommunication as a source of negative feelings. Respondents valued the ability to partially participate in the family planning training and identified specific aspects of their training which will impact future patient care. Many of the effects described in the interviews address core competencies in medical knowledge, patient care, communication and professionalism. We recommend that programs offer a spectrum of partial participation in family planning training to all residents, including residents who choose to opt out of doing some or all abortions. Learners who morally object to abortion but participate in training in family planning and abortion, up to their level of comfort, gain clinical and professional skills. We

  9. A Measure of Barriers Toward Medical Disclosure Among Health Professionals in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghloul, Ashraf Ahmad; Elsergany, Moetaz; Mosallam, Rasha

    2018-03-01

    There has been a growing awareness that patients are subject to injuries that can be prevented as a direct consequence of health care. Error disclosure is an effective technique to restore the lost trust with the health care system. The current study aimed to develop a valid and reliable scale to determine the factors facilitating the disclosure of health professionals in health organizations. This study had a cross-sectional design that consisted of 722 responses (response rate of 68.3%) from 1 private and 1 public hospital in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. The data collection tool included 23 items rated on a Likert scale ranging from 5, strongly agree, to 1, strongly disagree.The internal consistency was established through calculating the split-half reliability for part 1 (12 items), which had a Cronbach coefficient of 0.65, and part 2 (11 items), which had a Cronbach coefficient of 0.62. Scale validity was assessed with the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy, which had a value of 0.62, and the Bartlett test of sphericity (approximated χ = 13012.2, P = 0.0001) supported the factorability of the correlation matrix. The varimax rotation revealed 5 components that explained 77.8% of the total variance. The varimax rotation revealed 21 items loaded on the following 5 factors: fear of disclosure and provider image consequences (factor 1), apology (factor 2), organizational culture toward patient safety (factor 3), professional ethics and transparency (factor 4), as well as patient and provider education (factor 5). The disclosure of medical mistakes requires preliminary considerations to effectively and compassionately disclose these events to patients. The validity and reliability of the results support the use of this scale at hospitals as part of the health care providers' disclosure processes.

  10. Entrustable Professional Activities for Entering Residency: Establishing Common Osteopathic Performance Standards in the Transition From Medical School to Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basehore, Pamela M; Mortensen, Luke H; Katsaros, Emmanuel; Linsenmeyer, Machelle; McClain, Elizabeth K; Sexton, Patricia S; Wadsworth, Nicole

    2017-11-01

    Entrustable professional activities (EPAs) are measurable units of observable professional practice that can be entrusted to an unsupervised trainee. They were first introduced as a method of operationalizing competency-based medical education in graduate medical education. The American Association of Medical Colleges subsequently used EPAs to establish the core skills that medical students must be able to perform before they enter residency training. A recently published guide provides descriptions, guidelines, and rationale for implementing and assessing the core EPAs from an osteopathic approach. These osteopathically informed EPAs can allow schools to more appropriately assess a learner's whole-person approach to a patient, in alignment with the philosophy of the profession. As the single accreditation system for graduate medical education moves forward, it will be critical to integrate EPAs into osteopathic medical education to demonstrate entrustment of medical school graduates. The authors describe the collaborative process used to establish the osteopathic considerations added to EPAs and explores the challenges and opportunities for undergraduate osteopathic medical education.

  11. Promoting professional behaviour in undergraduate medical, dental and veterinary curricula in the Netherlands: evaluation of a joint effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Luijk, S.J.; Gorter, R.C.; van Mook, W.N.K.A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: From 2002 onwards, a nationwide working group of representatives from all medical (8), dental (3) and veterinary medicine (1) schools collaborated in order to develop and implement recommendations for teaching and assessing professional behaviour. Aim: The aim of this article is to

  12. Clinical medical students’ experiences of unprofessional behaviour and how these should inform approaches to teaching of professionalism

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abu, Ozotu Rosemary

    2016-08-01

    This mixed method research explores unprofessional behaviour experienced by clinical Medical students, during clinical training in Ireland; with a view to obtaining learning points that inform future design of modules on Professionalism. It also looks at the impact of these on students and the relationship between gender\\/ethnicity and students’ experiences of these behaviours.

  13. Knowledge in Radiation Protection: a Survey of Professionals in Medical Imaging, Radiation Therapy and Nuclear Medicine Units in Yaounde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongolo-Zogo, P.; Nguehouo, M.B.; Yomi, J.; Nko'o Amven, S.

    2013-01-01

    Medical use of ionizing radiation is now the most common radiation source of the population at the global level. The knowledge and practices of health professionals working with X-rays determine the level and quality of implementation of internationally and nationally recommended measures for radiation protection of patients and workers. The level of implementation and enforcement of international recommendations in African countries is an issue of concern due to weak laws and regulations and regulatory bodies. We report the results of a cross-sectional survey of health professionals working with ionizing radiation in Yaounde, the capital city of Cameroon. More than 50% of these professionals have a moderate level of knowledge of the norms and principles of radiation protection and more than 80% have never attended a continuing professional development workshop on radiation protection. (authors)

  14. Oral health knowledge, attitude and practices among health professionals in King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdul Baseer

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Oral health knowledge among the health professionals working in KFMC, Riyadh was lower than what would be expected of these groups, which had higher literacy levels in health care, but they showed a positive attitude toward professional dental care.

  15. Humanities mini-course curricula for midcareer health professionals at the Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kimberly R; George, Daniel R

    2012-08-01

    The field of medical humanities has traditionally focused on medical students and, more recently, on premedical undergraduates. Comparatively little formal humanities pedagogy has been dedicated to midcareer health professionals. To address this lack, the Department of Humanities at the Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine and the Milton S. Hershey Medical Center designed eight annual humanities mini-courses for faculty and staff throughout the college and medical center.These mini-courses fell into four categories: reading, reflection, and discussion; creative expression; technology; and ethics. They were geared toward midcareer health professionals who were seeking new intellectual and creative stimulation and variety in daily routine. They also provided humanities faculty the opportunity to devote attention to topics that capitalize on their professional training and that interest them personally.Participants indicated a high degree of satisfaction with the mini-courses for four principal reasons: (1) learning the tools and methodologies of a new discipline or domain other than biomedicine, (2) using their minds and training in uncustomary ways, (3) forming new alliances with colleagues (which served to lessen the sense of professional isolation), and (4) enjoying a respite from the stressful flow of the workday. Humanities faculty facilitators provided more mixed responses but agreed that conducting the mini-courses had been a positive overall experience.Although this article provides a foundational framework for the development of a humanities mini-course series, the authors encourage others to replicate these curricula in other medical settings as an important step toward a robust pedagogy designed for midcareer health care professionals.

  16. Attitudes on cost-effectiveness and equity: a cross-sectional study examining the viewpoints of medical professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, David G; Wong, Gordon X; Martin, David T; Tybor, David J; Kim, Jennifer; Lasker, Jeffrey; Mitty, Roger; Salem, Deeb

    2017-08-01

    To determine the attitudes of physicians and trainees in regard to the roles of both cost-effectiveness and equity in clinical decision making. In this cross-sectional study, electronic surveys containing a hypothetical decision-making scenario were sent to medical professionals to select between two colon cancer screening tests for a population. Three Greater Boston academic medical institutions: Tufts University School of Medicine, Tufts Medical Centre and Lahey Hospital and Medical Centre. 819 medical students, 497 residents-in-training and 671 practising physicians were contacted electronically using institutional and organisational directories. Stratified opinions of medical providers and trainee subgroups regarding cost-effectiveness and equity. A total of 881 respondents comprising 512 medical students, 133 medical residents-in-training and 236 practising physicians completed the survey (total response rate 44.3%). Thirty-six per cent of medical students, 44% of residents-in-training and 53% of practising physicians favoured the less effective and more equitable screening test. Residents-in-training (OR 1.49, CI 1.01 to 2.21; p=0.044) and practising physicians (OR 2.12, CI 1.54 to 2.92; pmedical students. Moreover, female responders across all three cohorts favoured the more equitable screening test to a greater degree than did male responders (OR 1.70, CI 1.29 to 2.24; pmedical professionals place on equity. Among medical professionals, practising physicians appear to be more egalitarian than residents-in-training, while medical students appear to be most utilitarian and cost-effective. Meanwhile, female respondents in all three cohorts favoured the more equitable option to a greater degree than their male counterparts. Healthcare policies that trade off equity in favour of cost-effectiveness may be unacceptable to many medical professionals, especially practising physicians and women. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated

  17. Basic life support: knowledge and attitude of medical/paramedical professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshana, Shrestha; Kh, Batajoo; Rm, Piryani; Mw, Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Basic life support (BLS), a key component of the chain of survival decreases the arrest - cardiopulmonary resuscitation interval and increases the rate of hospital discharge. The study aimed to explore the knowledge of and attitude towards basic life support (BLS) among medical/paramedical professionals. An observational study was conducted by assessing response to self prepared questionnaire consisting of the demographic information of the medical/paramedical staff, their personnel experience/attitude and knowledge of BLS based on the 2005 BLS Guidelines of European Resuscitation Council. After excluding incomplete questionnaires, the data from 121 responders (27 clinical faculty members, 21 dental and basic sciences faculty members, 29 house officers and 44 nurses and health assistants) were analyzed. Only 9 (7.4%) of the 121 responders answered ≥11, 53 (43%) answered 7-10, and 58 (48%) answered basic sciences faculty members attained a least mean score of 4.52 ±2.13 (P<0.001). Those who had received cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training within 5 years obtained a highest mean score of 8.62±2.49, whereas those who had the training more than 5 years back or no training obtained a mean score of 5.54±2.38 and 6.1±2.29 respectively (P=0.001). Those who were involved in resuscitation frequently had a higher median score of 8 in comparison to those who were seldom involved or not involved at all (P<0.001). The average health personnel in our hospital lack adequate knowledge in CPR/BLS. Training and experience can enhance knowledge of CPR of these personnel. Thus standard of CPR/BLS training and assessment are recommended at our hospital.

  18. Leadership development in a professional medical society using 360-degree survey feedback to assess emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Paul J; Robbins, Benjamin; Schwaitzberg, Steven D; Harmon, Larry

    2017-09-01

    The current research evaluated the potential utility of a 360-degree survey feedback program for measuring leadership quality in potential committee leaders of a professional medical association (PMA). Emotional intelligence as measured by the extent to which self-other agreement existed in the 360-degree survey ratings was explored as a key predictor of leadership quality in the potential leaders. A non-experimental correlational survey design was implemented to assess the variation in leadership quality scores across the sample of potential leaders. A total of 63 of 86 (76%) of those invited to participate did so. All potential leaders received feedback from PMA Leadership, PMA Colleagues, and PMA Staff and were asked to complete self-ratings regarding their behavior. Analyses of variance revealed a consistent pattern of results as Under-Estimators and Accurate Estimators-Favorable were rated significantly higher than Over-Estimators in several leadership behaviors. Emotional intelligence as conceptualized in this study was positively related to overall performance ratings of potential leaders. The ever-increasing roles and potential responsibilities for PMAs suggest that these organizations should consider multisource performance reviews as these potential future PMA executives rise through their organizations to assume leadership positions with profound potential impact on healthcare. The current findings support the notion that potential leaders who demonstrated a humble pattern or an accurate pattern of self-rating scored significantly higher in their leadership, teamwork, and interpersonal/communication skills than those with an aggrandizing self-rating.

  19. Factors associated with physical activity promotion by allied and other non-medical health professionals: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisford, Paul; Winzenberg, Tania; Venn, Alison; Schultz, Martin; Aitken, Dawn; Cleland, Verity

    2018-05-21

    To identify factors associated with non-medical health professionals' engagement in physical activity (PA) promotion. Five electronic databases were searched for studies including practising health professionals (excluding medical doctors), a PA promotion practice measure, a test of association between potential influencing factors and PA promotion practice, and written in English. Two researchers independently screened studies and extracted data. Extracted data were synthesized in a tabular format with a narrative summary (thematic analysis). Thirty studies involving 7734 non-medical health professionals were included. Self-efficacy in PA promotion, positive beliefs in the benefits of PA, assessing patients' PA, and PA promotion training were the main factors associated with engaging in PA promotion. Lack of remuneration was not associated. Common study limitations included a lack of information on non-responders, data collection by survey only and limited reliability or validity testing of measurements. There are common factors influencing PA promotion, but the absence of studies from some health professions, limitations related to study measures, and the lack of randomised controlled intervention trials highlights the need for further research. The factors identified may prove useful for guiding the development of strategies to encourage greater engagement in PA promotion by health professionals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of training and structured medication review on medication appropriateness in nursing home residents and on cooperation between health care professionals: the InTherAKT study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlknecht, Angelika; Nestler, Nadja; Bauer, Ulrike; Schüßler, Nadine; Schuler, Jochen; Scharer, Sebastian; Becker, Ralf; Waltering, Isabel; Hempel, Georg; Schwalbe, Oliver; Flamm, Maria; Osterbrink, Jürgen

    2017-01-18

    Pharmacotherapy in residents of nursing homes is critical due to the special vulnerability of this population. Medical care and interprofessional communication in nursing homes are often uncoordinated. As a consequence, polypharmacy and inappropriate medication use are common and may lead to hospitalizations and health hazards. The aim of this study is to optimize communication between the involved professional groups by specific training and by establishing a structured medication review process, and to improve medication appropriateness and patient-relevant health outcomes for residents of nursing homes. The trial is designed as single-arm study. It involves 300 nursing home residents aged ≥ 65 years and the members of the different professional groups practising in nursing home care (15-20 general practitioners, nurses, pharmacists). The intervention consists of interprofessional education on safe medication use in geriatric patients, and a systematic interprofessional therapy check (recording, reviewing and adapting the medication of the participating residents by means of a specific online platform). The intervention period is divided into two phases; total project period is 3 years. Primary outcome measure is the change in medication appropriateness according to the Medication Appropriateness Index. Secondary outcomes are cognitive performance, occurrence of delirium, agitation, tendency of falls, total number of drugs, number of potentially dangerous drug-drug interactions and appropriateness of recorded analgesic therapy regimens according to the Medication Appropriateness Index. Data are collected at t 0 (before the start of the intervention), t 1 (after the first intervention period) and t 2 (after the second intervention period). Cooperation and communication between the professional groups are investigated twice by qualitative interviews. The project aims to establish a structured system for monitoring of drug therapy in nursing home residents

  1. Medical professional perception, attitude, knowledge, and experience about child abuse and neglect in Bagalkot district of north Karnataka: A survey report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S V Kirankumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze medical professional, perception, attitude, knowledge, and experience about child abuse and neglect in Bagalkot district, north Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: Two hundred medical professional, working in both public and private sectors in the province were interviewed by a single operator. Descriptive analyses were carried out by using the obtained data. Results: Medical professional′s perception about child abuse and neglect (CAN is low and these professionals have poor attitude and knowledge toward CAN in accordance with the code of conduct and law. The available information and education is also poor. Conclusions: The results obtained from the study showed that there is lack of knowledge and poor attitude and perception about CAN among medical professionals that prevents them from detecting and identifying suspected cases. Continuing medical education is required to enhance the ability of professionals to detect CAN cases.

  2. Practice Stories in Natural Resource Management Continuing Professional Education: Springboards for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stummann, Cathy Brown

    2014-01-01

    The use of stories from professional experience in continuing professional education has been on the rise in many fields, often aimed at bolstering capacity through sharing professional knowledge and/or supporting reflective practice. Practice stories are also suggested to be beneficial in supporting professional learning of new concepts. These…

  3. Relations between professional medical associations and healthcare industry, concerning scientific communication and continuing medical education: a policy statement from the European Society of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Physicians have an ethical duty to keep up-to-date with current knowledge. Professional medical associations such as the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) support these obligations. In Europe, the costs of continuing medical education (CME) are insufficiently supported from governments and employers; however, medical associations have been criticized for accepting alternative financial support from industry. Medical education and training in research include learning how to assess the quality and reliability of any information. There is some risk of bias in any form of scientific communication including intellectual, professional, and financial and it is essential that in particular, the latter must be acknowledged by full disclosure. It is essential that there is strong collaboration between basic and clinical researchers from academic institutions on the one hand, with engineers and scientists from the research divisions of device and pharmaceutical companies on the other. This is vital so that new diagnostic methods and treatments are developed. Promotion of advances by industry may accelerate their implementation into clinical practice. Universities now frequently exhort their academic staff to protect their intellectual property or commercialize their research. Thus, it is not commercial activity or links per se that have become the target for criticism but the perceived influence of commercial enterprises on clinical decision-making or on messages conveyed by professional medical organizations. This document offers the perspective of the ESC on the current debate, and it recommends how to minimize bias in scientific communications and CME and how to ensure proper ethical standards and transparency in relations between the medical profession and industry. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier España.

  4. Relations between professional medical associations and the health-care industry, concerning scientific communication and continuing medical education: a policy statement from the European Society of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Physicians have an ethical duty to keep up-to-date with current knowledge. Professional medical associations such as the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) support these obligations. In Europe, the costs of continuing medical education (CME) are insufficiently supported from governments and employers; however, medical associations have been criticized for accepting alternative financial support from industry. Medical education and training in research include learning how to assess the quality and reliability of any information. There is some risk of bias in any form of scientific communication including intellectual, professional, and financial and it is essential that in particular, the latter must be acknowledged by full disclosure. It is essential that there is strong collaboration between basic and clinical researchers from academic institutions on the one hand, with engineers and scientists from the research divisions of device and pharmaceutical companies on the other. This is vital so that new diagnostic methods and treatments are developed. Promotion of advances by industry may accelerate their implementation into clinical practice. Universities now frequently exhort their academic staff to protect their intellectual property or commercialize their research. Thus, it is not commercial activity or links per se that have become the target for criticism but the perceived influence of commercial enterprises on clinical decision-making or on messages conveyed by professional medical organizations. This document offers the perspective of the ESC on the current debate, and it recommends how to minimize bias in scientific communications and CME and how to ensure proper ethical standards and transparency in relations between the medical profession and industry.

  5. A role for doctors in assisted dying? An analysis of legal regulations and medical professional positions in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosshard, G; Broeckaert, B; Clark, D; Materstvedt, L J; Gordijn, B; Müller-Busch, H C

    2008-01-01

    To analyse legislation and medical professional positions concerning the doctor's role in assisted dying in western Europe, and to discuss their implications for doctors. This paper is based on country-specific reports by experts from European countries where assisted dying is legalised (Belgium, The Netherlands), or openly practiced (Switzerland), or where it is illegal (Germany, Norway, UK). Laws on assisted dying in The Netherlands and Belgium are restricted to doctors. In principle, assisted suicide (but not euthanasia) is not illegal in either Germany or Switzerland, but a doctor's participation in Germany would violate the code of professional medical conduct and might contravene of a doctor's legal duty to save life. The Assisted Dying for the Terminally Ill Bill proposed in the UK in 2005 focused on doctors, whereas the Proposal on Assisted Dying of the Norwegian Penal Code Commission minority in 2002 did not. Professional medical organisations in all these countries except The Netherlands maintain the position that medical assistance in dying conflicts with the basic role of doctors. However, in Belgium and Switzerland, and for a time in the UK, these organisations dropped their opposition to new legislation. Today, they regard the issue as primarily a matter for society and politics. This "neutral" stance differs from the official position of the Royal Dutch Medical Association which has played a key role in developing the Dutch practice of euthanasia as a "medical end-of-life decision" since the 1970s. A society moving towards an open approach to assisted dying should carefully identify tasks to assign exclusively to medical doctors, and distinguish those possibly better performed by other professions.

  6. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of the Impact of Adoption of a Mobile Application for the Assessment of Professionalism in Medical Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendán, Juan C; Castiglioni, Analia; Johnson, Teresa R; Eakins, Mike; Verduin, Marcia L; Asmar, Abdo; Metcalf, David; Hernandez, Caridad

    2017-11-01

    Capturing either lapses or excellence in behaviors related to medical professionalism is difficult. The authors report a mixed-methods analysis of a novel mobile platform for assessing medical professionalism in a training environment. A mobile Web-based platform to facilitate professionalism assessment in a situated clinical setting (Professional Mobile Monitoring of Behaviors [PROMOBES]) was developed. A professionalism framework consisting of six domains (reliability, adaptability, peer relationships, upholding principles, team relationships, and scholarship) encompassing 25 subelements underpins the reporting structure. This pilot study involved 26 faculty supervising 93 medical trainees at two sites from January 12 to August 8, 2016. Notable professionalism behaviors were linked to the framework domains and elements; narrative details about incidences were captured on mobile devices. Surveys gauged the technological functionality and impact of PROMOBES on faculty assessment of professionalism. Qualitative focus groups were employed to elucidate user experience. Although users anticipated PROMOBES's utility would be for reporting lapses in professionalism, 94.7% of reports were for commendation. Comfort assessing professionalism (P = .04) and recognition of the reporting procedures for professionalism-related concerns (P = .01) improved. PROMOBES attained high acceptance ratings. Focus group analysis revealed that the explicit connection to the professionalism framework was powerful; similarly, the near real-time reporting capability, multiple observer inputs, and positive feedback facilitation were strengths. Making the professionalism framework visible and accessible via a mobile platform significantly strengthens faculty knowledge and behaviors regarding assessment. The strong desire to capture positive behaviors was an unexpected finding.

  7. Attitude of medical professionals regarding controversial issues in kidney donation/transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a dire need to evaluate new strategies to bridge the wide kidney demand-supply gap. The current study examined the attitude of medical professionals regarding controversial issues pertaining to transplantation. A questionnaire, presenting controversial issues related to kidney transplantation, in an agree-disagree format with supporting reasons, was employed. The research was exploratory. Data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The sample comprised 140 doctors from Mumbai (mean = 38.1 years, standard deviation = 17.95; Males = 44.3%, Females = 55.7%. Whereas 47.1% of the participants felt that live donors should be given incentives for kidney donation, others (52.9% disagreed, fearing commercialization and illegal activities. The eligibility of patients with HIV/hepatitis for a transplant was denied by 52.9% because of poor outcomes, with the others (47.1% maintaining that these individuals too had a right to live. A substantial majority (90.7% of the participants maintained that organ donors should be given priority in the event of a future need for an organ because their previous humane act should be rewarded (47.1%. Most of the participants (91.4% felt that individuals from the higher socioeconomic strata should not receive preference for kidney transplantation. A majority (77.1% of them were also against kidney selling getting legalized. Compulsory possession of a donor card elicited mixed responses, with some accepting (56.4%, but others rejecting (43.6% this idea as donation was perceived to be a voluntary act (33.6%. While compulsory kidney donation found favor with 44.3%, it found disfavor with others (55.7%. This study will benefit transplant healthcare personnel to formulate new policies in relation to kidney donation/transplantation.

  8. Unproven stem cell-based interventions & physicians' professional obligations; a qualitative study with medical regulatory authorities in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzeczny, Amy; Clark, Marianne

    2014-10-14

    The pursuit of unproven stem cell-based interventions ("stem cell tourism") is an emerging issue that raises various concerns. Physicians play different roles in this market, many of which engage their legal, ethical and professional obligations. In Canada, physicians are members of a self-regulated profession and their professional regulatory bodies are responsible for regulating the practice of medicine and protecting the public interest. They also provide policy guidance to their members and discipline members for unprofessional conduct. We conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with representatives from six different provincial Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons in Canada to discuss their experiences and perspectives regarding stem cell tourism. Our focus was on exploring how different types of physician involvement in this market would be viewed by physicians' professional regulatory bodies in Canada. When considering physicians' professional obligations, participants drew analogies between stem cell tourism and other areas of medical tourism as well as with some aspects of complementary alternative medicine where existing policies, codes of ethics and regulations provide some guidance. Canadian physicians are required to act in the best interests of their patients, respect patient autonomy, avoid conflicts of interest and pursue evidence-based practice in accordance with accepted standards of care. Physicians who provide unproven treatments falling outside the standard of care, not in the context of an approved research protocol, could be subject to professional discipline. Other types of problematic conduct include referrals involving financial conflict of interest and failure to provide urgent medically necessary care. Areas of ambiguity include physicians' obligations when asked for information and advice about seeking unproven medical treatments, in terms of providing non-urgent follow-up care, and when asked to support efforts to go abroad by

  9. Pharmacist characteristics, medication use perceptions, and professional satisfaction: a first national survey in the state of Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maguy Saffouh El Hajj

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Maguy Saffouh El Hajj1, Nadir Kheir1, Manal Zaidan2, Peter J Jewesson11College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; 2Pharmacy Department, Al Amal Cancer Centre, Doha, QatarPurpose: To characterize the professional demographics, opinions about the medication use process, perceived public satisfaction with pharmacy services, and professional satisfaction of pharmacists practicing in the state of Qatar.Materials and methods: The study was designed as a hypothesis-generating, online, anonymous, opinion survey of practicing pharmacists in Qatar.Results: Two hundred and sixty-four survey accesses were recorded during the 6-week study period, and 250 surveys containing responses to one or more questions were included in the analysis. Eighty-four percent of respondents reported graduating at least 5 years prior to the survey, and 86% held a baccalaureate degree in pharmacy as their highest degree. The most common source of the highest degree was one of five countries (Egypt, Jordan, India, Sudan, or Pakistan. Forty-five percent of respondents were working in a hospital setting, and 33% were in a community pharmacy. The lowest incidence of agreement across the 10 drug procurement and distribution process statements was observed for the adequacy of medication supplies statements (33% of all respondents. The highest incidence of agreement across the eight medication use process statements was for the statement pertaining to infrequent dispensing errors (68%, and the lowest incidence of agreement was observed for the statement pertaining to the adequacy of patient monitoring (30%. The pharmacist was chosen as the best candidate to resolve perceived unmet medication needs for four of eight statements, whereas physicians were most frequently chosen for three of the four remaining statements. Respondents' perceptions regarding patient satisfaction with the different elements of the medication use process revealed that the lowest incidence of agreement

  10. A survey of front-line paramedics examining the professional relationship between paramedics and physician medical oversight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Christopher R; Tavares, Walter; Virkkunen, Ilkka; Kämäräinen, Antti

    2018-03-01

    Paramedicine is often dependent on physician medical directors and their associated programs for direction and oversight. A positive relationship between paramedics and their oversight physicians promotes safety and quality care while a strained or ineffective one may threaten these goals. The objective of this study was to explore and understand the professional relationship between paramedics and physician medical oversight as viewed by front-line paramedics. All active front-line paramedics from four municipal paramedic services involving three medical oversight groups in Ontario were invited to complete an online survey. Five hundred and four paramedics were invited to participate in the study, with 242 completing the survey (48% response rate); 66% male, 76% primary care paramedics with an average of 13 (SD=9) years of experience. Paramedics had neutral or positive perceptions regarding their autonomy, opportunities to interact with their medical director, and medical director understanding of the prehospital setting. Paramedics perceived medical directives as rigid and ambiguous. A significant amount of respondents reported a perception of having provided suboptimal patient care due to fear of legal or disciplinary consequences. Issues of a lack of support for critical thinking and a lack of trust between paramedics and medical oversight groups were often raised. Paramedic perceptions of physician medical oversight were mixed. Concerning areas identified were perceptions of ambiguous written directives and concerns related to the level of trust and support for critical thinking. These perceptions may have implications for the system of care and should be explored further.

  11. Education, training and continuing professional development for the medical physicist - The EFOMP view in relation to EC Council directives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, I.L.

    2001-01-01

    The European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics, EFOMP, is an umbrella organisation for National Medical Physics Organisations. One of the main objectives of EFOMP is to harmonise and promote the best practice of Medical Physics within Europe. To accomplish this goal, EFOMP has presented various recommendations and guidelines in a number of Policy Statements, unanimously adopted by EFOMP Member Organisations. Policy Statement No 9, 'Radiation Protection of the Patient in Europe: The Training of the Medical Physics Expert in Radiation Physics or Radiation Technology', is the EFOMP response to the Medical Exposure Directive, 97/43/Euratom. Here EFOMP presents its recommendations on the role and the competence requirements of the Medical Physics Expert, defined in this Directive, together with recommendations on education, training and Continuing Professional Development. The previous Directive 96/29/Euratom, the Basic Safety Standards Directive, defines a 'Qualified Expert' in the radiation protection of workers and the general public. EFOMP has an ongoing discussion on the interpretation of the competence requirements of the Qualified Expert in medical practice. The EFOMP approach to achieve harmonisation in the qualification of the Medical Physicist is to encourage the establishment of education and training schemes according to EFOMP recommendations. (author)

  12. Medical students' experiences of their own professional development during three clinical terms: a prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalén, Susanne; Lachmann, Hanna; Varttinen, Maria; Möller, Riitta; Bexelius, Tomas S; Ponzer, Sari

    2017-02-27

    A modern competency-based medical education is well implemented globally, but less is known about how the included learning activities contribute to medical students' professional development. The aim of this study was to explore Swedish medical students' perceptions of the offered learning activities and their experiences of how these activities were connected to their professional development as defined by the CanMEDS framework. A prospective mixed method questionnaire study during three terms (internal medicine, scientific project, and surgery) in which data were collected by using contextual activity sampling system, i.e., the students were sent a questionnaire via their mobile phones every third week. All 136 medical students in the 6th of 11 terms in the autumn of 2012 were invited to participate. Seventy-four students (54%) filled in all of the required questionnaires (4 per term) for inclusion, the total number of questionnaires being 1335. The questionnaires focused on the students' experiences of learning activities, especially in relation to the CanMEDS Roles, collaboration with others and emotions (positive, negative, optimal experiences, i.e., "flow") related to the studies. The quantitative data was analysed statistically and, for the open-ended questions, manifest inductive content analysis was used. Three of the CanMEDs Roles, Medical Expert, Scholar, and Communicator, were most frequently reported while the four others, e.g., the role Health Advocate, were less common. Collaboration with students from other professions was most usual during the 8th term. Positive emotions and experience of "flow" were most often reported during clinical learning activities while the scientific project term was connected with more negative emotions. Our results showed that it is possible, even during clinical courses, to visualise the different areas of professional competence defined in the curriculum and connect these competences to the actual learning activities

  13. [Medical empathy of physicians-in-training who are enrolled in professional training programs. A comparative intercultural study in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; San-Martín, Montserrat; Alcorta-Garza, Adelina; Vivanco, Luis

    2016-11-01

    To characterise some of the environmental factors that are sensitive to cultural influence, and are involved in the development of medical empathy in Spanish and Latin American physicians-in-training. Cross-sectional study using questionnaires. Primary care and specialized medicine centres of the Healthcare System of La Rioja, Logroño, Spain. Physicians-in-training MAIN MEASUREMENTS: : Empathy was measured using the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy, version for healthcare professionals (JSE-HP). Socio-demographic, academic, and professional background information was collected. A total of 104 residents (67 from Spain and 32 from Latin America) answered and returned the questionnairess. The JSE-HP showed adequate psychometric properties. The empathy mean score of Spanish group was higher than that of the Latin American group (P=.01). Differences in the development of empathy were associated with: the development of professional models (P<.001), the positive encounter with other professionals (P=.001), and with a continuing medical education (P=.008). Some factors involved in the development of empathy that are sensitive to cultural influence have been characterised. The development of future research areas is suggested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Development and evaluation of an innovative model of inter-professional education focused on asthma medication use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia Z; Stuart, Meg; Mackson, Judith; Cvetkovski, Biljana; Sainsbury, Erica; Armour, Carol; Mavritsakis, Sofia; Mendrela, Gosia; Travers-Mason, Pippa; Williamson, Margaret

    2014-04-07

    Inter-professional learning has been promoted as the solution to many clinical management issues. One such issue is the correct use of asthma inhaler devices. Up to 80% of people with asthma use their inhaler device incorrectly. The implications of this are poor asthma control and quality of life. Correct inhaler technique can be taught, however these educational instructions need to be repeated if correct technique is to be maintained. It is important to maximise the opportunities to deliver this education in primary care. In light of this, it is important to explore how health care providers, in particular pharmacists and general medical practitioners, can work together in delivering inhaler technique education to patients, over time. Therefore, there is a need to develop and evaluate effective inter-professional education, which will address the need to educate patients in the correct use of their inhalers as well as equip health care professionals with skills to engage in collaborative relationships with each other. This mixed methods study involves the development and evaluation of three modules of continuing education, Model 1, Model 2 and Model 3. A fourth group, Model 4, acting as a control.Model 1 consists of face-to-face continuing professional education on asthma inhaler technique, aimed at pharmacists, general medical practitioners and their practice nurses.Model 2 is an electronic online continuing education module based on Model 1 principles.Model 3 is also based on asthma inhaler technique education but employs a learning intervention targeting health care professional relationships and is based on sociocultural theory.This study took the form of a parallel group, repeated measure design. Following the completion of continuing professional education, health care professionals recruited people with asthma and followed them up for 6 months. During this period, inhaler device technique training was delivered and data on patient inhaler technique

  15. How we developed an effective e-learning module for medical students on using professional interpreters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikram, Umar Z.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Suurmond, Jeanine

    2015-01-01

    Language barriers may lead to poorer healthcare services for patients who do not speak the same language as their care provider. Despite the benefits of professional interpreters, care providers tend to underuse professional interpretation. Evidence suggests that students who received training on

  16. Opinions and practices of medical rehabilitation professionals regarding prayer and meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberger, Nancy E; Matheis, Robert J; Shiflett, Samuel C; Cotter, Ann C

    2002-02-01

    To assess the attitudes and practices of professionals in the field of physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) regarding prayer and meditation. A national mail survey that included questions about the use of a number of complementary and alternative therapies. The survey was mailed to 7,479 physicians, nurses, physical therapists, and occupational therapists who specialize in PM&R, and 1221 (17%) returned completed surveys. Although the majority of respondents endorsed prayer as a legitimate health care practice, there was greater belief in the benefits of meditation. Older respondents were more likely to recommend meditation to their patients and more likely to meditate themselves. Gender differences that were observed in opinions and practices are better interpreted as differences in professional specialty. In general, nurses and occupational therapists responded more positively toward meditation and prayer than did physicians and physical therapists. Personal use of a technique was the strongest predictor of professional behaviors. Attitude was a stronger predictor of professional use or referral for prayer than meditation, but correlations between attitude and behavior were generally weak for both techniques. Despite their acceptance of these techniques, the vast majority of rehabilitation professionals did not refer their patients for meditation or religious consultation. Although there were significant relationships among beliefs, and personal and professional behaviors regarding these techniques, a large part of the variance in professional behaviors was not accounted for by age, gender, opinion, or personal behavior, indicating that other influences exert a stronger effect on professional practice decisions.

  17. [Second wave of the French drug harmonisation programme to prevent medication errors: overall appreciation of healthcare professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhamou, D; Nacry, R; Journois, D; Auroy, Y; Durand, D; Arnoux, A; Olier, L; Castot, A

    2012-01-01

    Medication errors are a significant cause of severe healthcare-associated complications. In December 2006, the French Health Products Agency (Afssaps) has issued a protocol to harmonise labeling of injectable drugs vials. In 2007, a first change was launched for four drugs and was followed in 2008-2009 by a second wave concerning 42 active drugs. The present study describes how healthcare professionals have perceived this change and their overall appreciation of the drug harmonisation programme. A survey using an electronic questionnaire was distributed to medical and non-medical professionals in anaesthesia and intensive care and pharmacists in a representative sample of 200 French hospitals. The harmonisation procedure was felt as being overall satisfactory by 53% of professionals who had responded but it was recognised that the new procedure is associated with improved readability and understanding of drug dosage. The use of colour coding was also well accepted by the personnel of clinical units. Respondents expressed significant criticisms regarding both the communication plan and the way the plan was implemented locally in hospitals. Old and new labeling coexisted in 66% of responding hospitals and many respondents described being aware of errors or near-misses that were considered related to the transition. For many important topics, pharmacists had views that were significantly different from clinicians. This national survey describing the perception of healthcare professionals regarding the new harmonisation procedure for injectable drugs highlighted some progress but also a number of deficiencies, notably regarding communication and implementation of the change in clinical units. This survey will be used by the French Health Products Agency to improve future steps of the long-lasting campaign against medication errors. Copyright © 2011 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Determinants of professional distortion development in medical personnel, teachers and psychologists, working in the industrial disaster zone

    OpenAIRE

    Leonova, Anna B.; Zlokazova, Tatyana A.; Kachina, Anastasiya A.; Kuznetsova, Alla S.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents research results regarding the determinants and individual predictors of professional distortions in the medical personnel, teachers, and psychologists who were involved in long-term programs of human relief assistance after a catastrophic accident at the Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station. The research aim was to analyze the factors influencing the increase in and the accumulation of occupational stress in the groups investigated. The stress studied was cau...

  19. Characteristics of nursing professionals and the practice of ecologically sustainable actions in the medication processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Patricia de Oliveira; Cunha, Isabel Cristina Kowal Olm; Pedreira, Mavilde da Luz Gonçalves; Marck, Patricia Beryl

    2017-06-08

    to verify the correlation between the characteristics of professionals and the practice of sustainable actions in the medication processes in an ICU, and to determine if interventions such as training and awareness can promote sustainable practices performed by nursing staff in the hospital. before-and-after design study using Lean Six Sigma methodology, applied in an intensive care unit. Nursing staff were observed regarding the practice of ecologically sustainable actions during medication processes (n = 324 cases for each group (pre and post-intervention)) through a data collection instrument. The processes analyzed involved 99 professionals in the pre-intervention phase and 97 in the post-intervention phase. Data were analyzed quantitatively and the association of variables was accomplished by means of statistical inference, according to the nature of the related variables. the education level was the only characteristic that showed to be relevant to an increase in sustainable practices, with a statistically significant difference (p = 0.002). When comparing before and after the intervention, there was an increase in environmentally friendly actions with statistically significant differences (p = 0.001). the results suggest that institutions should encourage and invest in formal education, as well as training of health professionals to promote sustainable practices in the hospital. verificar la correlación entre las características de los profesionales y la práctica de acciones sustentables en los procesos de medicación en una UTI y determinar si intervenciones como capacitación y concientización logran promover la práctica de acciones sustentables por el equipo de enfermería en el hospital. estudio antes y después usando la metodología Lean Seis Sigma, aplicada en una unidad de terapia intensiva. El equipo de enfermería fue observado referente a la práctica de acciones ecológicamente sustentables durante los procesos de medicación (n = 324 casos

  20. Coping with medical error: a systematic review of papers to assess the effects of involvement in medical errors on healthcare professionals' psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirriyeh, Reema; Lawton, Rebecca; Gardner, Peter; Armitage, Gerry

    2010-12-01

    Previous research has established health professionals as secondary victims of medical error, with the identification of a range of emotional and psychological repercussions that may occur as a result of involvement in error.2 3 Due to the vast range of emotional and psychological outcomes, research to date has been inconsistent in the variables measured and tools used. Therefore, differing conclusions have been drawn as to the nature of the impact of error on professionals and the subsequent repercussions for their team, patients and healthcare institution. A systematic review was conducted. Data sources were identified using database searches, with additional reference and hand searching. Eligibility criteria were applied to all studies identified, resulting in a total of 24 included studies. Quality assessment was conducted with the included studies using a tool that was developed as part of this research, but due to the limited number and diverse nature of studies, no exclusions were made on this basis. Review findings suggest that there is consistent evidence for the widespread impact of medical error on health professionals. Psychological repercussions may include negative states such as shame, self-doubt, anxiety and guilt. Despite much attention devoted to the assessment of negative outcomes, the potential for positive outcomes resulting from error also became apparent, with increased assertiveness, confidence and improved colleague relationships reported. It is evident that involvement in a medical error can elicit a significant psychological response from the health professional involved. However, a lack of literature around coping and support, coupled with inconsistencies and weaknesses in methodology, may need be addressed in future work.

  1. Nurturing professional identity through a community based education program: medical students experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisa Ahmad, MSc

    2018-04-01

    لوعي المجتمعي ذو الصلة الثقافية والاجتماعية والسياسية. وكانت النتائج الإيجابية لبرنامج دراسة حالة المجتمع والأسرة هي رعاية مهارات البحث، المتعلقة باستخدام علم الأوبئة وطرق البحث. الاستنتاجات: تشير النتائج إلى أن برنامج دراسة حالة المجتمع والأسرة عزز تطوير الهوية المهنية بين طلاب الطب. البيانات الحالية سلطت الضوء وقدمت أفكارا على أهمية دمج التعليم القائم على المجتمع في منهج الطب لإعداد أطباء المستقبل. Abstract: Objectives: Community-based education (CBE has an impact on the types of medical students produced at the end of medical training. However, its impact on professional identity development (PID has not been clearly understood. This study thus explores the effect of the CBE program on PID. Methods: A qualitative phenomenological study was conducted on a group of Universiti Sains Malaysia medical students who had finished the Community and Family Case Study (CFCS program. Data were gathered through focused group discussions and student reflective journals. Participants were sampled using the maximal variation technique of purposive sampling. Three steps of thematic analysis using the Atlasti software were employed to identify categories, subthemes, and themes. Results: Personal, role, social, and research identities were generated that contribute to the PID of medical students through the CFCS program. The results indicate that the CFCS program nurtured personal identity through the development of professional skills, soft skills, and personal values. Pertaining to role identity, this is related to patient care in terms of primary care and interprofessional awareness. Pertaining to social identity, the obvious feature was community

  2. The shield of professional status: Comparing internationally educated nurses' and international medical graduates' experiences of discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiterman, Elena; Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn

    2015-11-01

    This article examines the intersecting roles of gender, ethnicity, and professional status in shaping the experiences of internationally educated health professionals in Canada. The article is based on 140 semi-structured qualitative interviews with internationally trained nurses and physicians who came to Canada within past 10 years with the intention to practice their profession. Describing the challenging process of professional integration in Canada, our participants highlighted incidents of discrimination they experienced along the way. Although some of the participants from both professional groups experienced racial discrimination, the context of those experiences differed. Physicians rarely reported instances of discrimination in communication with patients or nurses. Instead, they were concerned with instances of discrimination within their own professional group. Nurses, on the other hand, reported discrimination at the hands of patients and their families as well as racialization by physicians, management, and other nurses. We conclude our article with a reflection on the role that gender and professional status play in shaping the experiences of ethnic discrimination of internationally educated health professionals. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. The effect of professional culture on intrinsic motivation among physicians in an academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    Today, most healthcare organizations aim to manage professionals' motivation through monetary incentives, such as pay for performance. However, addressing motivation extrinsically can involve negative effects, such as disturbed teamwork, gaming the system, and crowd-out of intrinsic motivation. To offset these side effects, it is crucial to support professionals' intrinsic motivation actively, which is largely determined by enjoyment- and obligation-based social norms that derive from professionals' culture. For this study, a professional culture questionnaire was designed and validated, the results of which uncovered three factors: relationship to work, relationship to colleagues, and relationship to organization. These factors served as independent variables for regression analyses. Second, Amabile's validated work preference inventory was used to measure intrinsic motivation as a dependent variable. The regression analysis was controlled for sex, age, and experience. The study revealed that relationship to work had the strongest (and a positive) impact on intrinsic motivation in general and on Amabile's intrinsic subscales, enjoyment and challenge. Relationship to organization had a negative impact on intrinsic motivation and both subscales, and relationship to colleagues showed a low positive significance for the intrinsic scale only. Healthcare organizations have mostly focused on targeting professionals' extrinsic motivation. However, managing dimensions of professional culture can help support professionals' intrinsic motivation without incurring the side effects of monetary incentives.

  4. Mapping the Demand for Serious Games in Postgraduate Medical Education Using the Entrustable Professional Activities Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, Maurits; ten Cate, Olle; van Seventer, Jan-Pieter; Schraagen, Jan Maarten C.; Schijven, Marlies P.

    2015-01-01

    Serious games are potentially powerful tools for residency training and increasingly attract attention from medical educators. At present, serious games have little evidence-based relations with competency-based medical education, which may impede their incorporation into residency training

  5. Mapping the demand for serious games in postgraduate medical education using the entrustable professional activities framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, M.; Cate, O. ten; Seventer, J.P. van; Schraagen, J.M.C.; Schijven, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective : Serious games are potentially powerful tools for residency training and increasingly attract attention from medical educators. At present, serious games have little evidence-based relations with competency-based medical education, which may impede their incorporation into residency

  6. Mapping the Demand for Serious Games in Postgraduate Medical Education Using the Entrustable Professional Activities Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, Maurits; Ten Cate, Olle; Van Seventer, Jan Pieter; Schraagen, Jan Maarten C.; Schijven, Marlies P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Serious games are potentially powerful tools for residency training and increasingly attract attention from medical educators. At present, serious games have little evidence-based relations with competency-based medical education, which may impede their incorporation into residency

  7. Mapping the demand for Serious Games in Postgraduate Medical Education Using the Entrustable Professional Activities Framework.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, M.; ten Cate, TJ; Schraagen, J. M C; van Seventer, A.H.J.; Schijven, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Serious games are potentially powerful tools for residency training and increasingly attract attention from medical educators. At present, serious games have little evidence-based relations with competency-based medical education, which may impede their incorporation into residency

  8. Scientific profile and professional responsibility of Court-appointed Medical Technical Consultants in Italy: time for a specific educational curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Andrea Alberto

    2014-08-20

    Court-appointed Technical Consultants (CTCs) are fundamental figures in the Italian judicial system. CTCs are experts appointed by judges in order to supplement their activities by ascertaining, collecting and analyzing facts concerning the specific subject of a lawsuit. These experts formulate opinions, gather motivations and perform checks to provide clear, objective and irrefutable answers to the questions posed by judges. With direct reference to the medical field, while police doctors (specialists in forensic medicine) follow an academic, dedicated, well-structured educational curriculum, the University specialty school in Forensic Medicine, other medical CTCs, though not infrequently luminaries with one or many medical specialties and professional acknowledgments, may have no specific legal-medicine and juridical expertise, precisely because a similar expertise is not formally required of them. In the light of these considerations, in Italy some professionals of the legal world, and of the health context too, have proposed for medical CTCs targeted educational pathways, which would provide these experts with formal specific qualifications. In synthesis and in conclusion, a full knowledge and a rigorous respect of the rules of legal proceedings emerge as increasingly important characteristics for current and future Court-appointed Technical Consultants, together with a specific educational curriculum.

  9. Get on your boots: preparing fourth-year medical students for a career in surgery, using a focused curriculum to teach the competency of professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultman, Charles S; Connolly, Annamarie; Halvorson, Eric G; Rowland, Pamela; Meyers, Michael O; Mayer, David C; Drake, Amelia F; Sheldon, George F; Meyer, Anthony A

    2012-10-01

    Few educational programs exist for medical students that address professionalism in surgery, even though this core competency is required for graduate medical education and maintenance of board certification. Lapses in professional behavior occur commonly in surgical disciplines, with a negative effect on the operative team and patient care. Therefore, education regarding professionalism should begin early in the surgeon's formative process, to improve behavior. The goal of this project was to enhance the attitudes and knowledge of medical students regarding professionalism, to help them understand the role of professionalism in a surgical practice. We implemented a 4-h seminar, spread out as 1-h sessions over the course of their month-long rotation, for 4th-year medical students serving as acting interns (AIs) in General Surgery, a surgical subspecialty, Obstetrics/Gynecology, or Anesthesia. Teaching methods included lecture, small group discussion, case studies, and journal club. Topics included Cognitive/Ethical Basis of Professionalism, Behavioral/Social Components of Professionalism, Managing Yourself, and Leading While You Work. We assessed attitudes about professionalism with a pre-course survey and tracked effect on learning and behavior with a post-course questionnaire. We asked AIs to rate the egregiousness of 30 scenarios involving potential lapses in professionalism. A total of 104 AIs (mean age, 26.5 y; male to female ratio, 1.6:1) participated in our course on professionalism in surgery. Up to 17.8% of the AIs had an alternate career before coming to medical school. Distribution of intended careers was: General Surgery, 27.4%; surgical subspecialties, 46.6%; Obstetrics/Gynecology, 13.7%; and Anesthesia, 12.3%. Acting interns ranked professionalism as the third most important of the six core competencies, after clinical skills and medical knowledge, but only slightly ahead of communication. Most AIs believed that professionalism could be taught and

  10. Research and Teaching: Think before (and after) You Speak: Practice and Self-Reflection Bolster Oral Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Eleanor; Bravo, Adriana; Porzecanski, Ana Luz; Burks, Romi L.; Linder, Joshua; Langen, Tom; Fernandez, Denny; Ruby, Douglas; Bynum, Nora

    2016-01-01

    In this study, conservation biology faculty and practitioners from across the United States designed classroom exercises and teaching interventions intended to bolster oral communication skills. Through repeated oral presentation assignments integrated into course requirements, the authors examined individual student learning gains via…

  11. The impact of holiday eating cues on self-regulatory bolstering for dieters and non-dieters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Chrissy M; Vallen, Beth

    2014-01-01

    Two studies examined the hypothesis that the presence vs. absence of holiday food cues leads dieters to bolster self-regulatory resources and reduce consumption of a snack food. Study 1 evaluated snack-food consumption on a holiday vs. a non-holiday and in Study 2, the proposed underlying mechanism--the bolstering of self-regulatory resources when facing holiday-related cues--was explored. Study 1 followed a quasi-experimental design in which participants (N = 152) consumed candies either on a holiday or a non-holiday. Dieting behaviour was measured and the main outcome measure was consumption quantity. In Study 2, a true experiment, participants (N = 110) read primes associated with holiday eating, holiday history or a neutral topic. Self-regulatory bolstering was assessed as the main outcome measure. Study 1 showed that dieters consume more of a food item on an ordinary day relative to a holiday; the consumption patterns of non-dieters did not vary based on holiday cues. Study 2 demonstrated that dieters, but not non-dieters, bolster self-regulatory resources to a greater extent in the presence vs. absence of a holiday food cue. Dieters are better equipped to defend their diet-related goals when facing strong holiday-related temptations than weaker, everyday temptations.

  12. Vacuum-assisted closure device as a split-thickness skin graft bolster in the burn population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltzman, Joshua T; Bell, Derek E

    2014-01-01

    The vacuum-assisted closure device (VAC) is associated with improved wound healing outcomes. Its use as a bolster device to secure a split-thickness skin graft has been previously demonstrated; however, there is little published evidence demonstrating its benefits specifically in the burn population. With use of the VAC becoming more commonplace, its effect on skin graft take and overall time to healing in burn patients deserves further investigation. Retrospective review of burn registry database at a high-volume level I trauma center and regional burn center during a 16-month period was performed. Patients who had a third-degree burn injury requiring a split-thickness skin graft and who received a VAC bolster were included. Data points included age, sex, burn mechanism, burn location, grafted area in square centimeters, need for repeat grafting, percent graft take, and time to complete reepithelialization. Sixty-seven patients were included in the study with a total of 88 skin graft sites secured with a VAC. Age ranged from skin graft in the burn population. The observed rate of zero returns to the operating room for repeat grafting was especially encouraging. Its ability to conform to contours of the body and cover large surface areas makes it especially useful in securing a graft. This method of bolstering results in decreased repeat grafting and minimal graft loss, thus decreasing morbidity compared with conventional bolster dressings.

  13. The European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics Policy Statement No. 10.1: Recommended Guidelines on National Schemes for Continuing Professional Development of Medical Physicists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofides, Stelios; Isidoro, Jorge; Pesznyak, Csilla; Cremers, Florian; Figueira, Rita; van Swol, Christiaan; Evans, Stephen; Torresin, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Continuing Professional Development (CPD) is vital to the medical physics profession if it is to embrace the pace of change occurring in medical practice. As CPD is the planned acquisition of knowledge, experience and skills required for professional practice throughout one's working life it promotes excellence and protects the profession and public against incompetence. Furthermore, CPD is a recommended prerequisite of registration schemes (Caruana et al. 2014) and is implied in the Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM (EU BSS) and the International Basic Safety Standards (BSS). It is to be noted that currently not all national registration schemes require CPD to maintain the registration status necessary to practise medical physics. Such schemes should consider adopting CPD as a prerequisite for renewing registration after a set period of time. This EFOMP Policy Statement, which is an amalgamation and an update of the EFOMP Policy Statements No. 8 and No. 10, presents guidelines for the establishment of national schemes for CPD and activities that should be considered for CPD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The development of vaccination perspectives among chiropractic, naturopathic and medical students: a case study of professional enculturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtry, Angus; Wilson, Kumanan; Clarkin, Chantalle; Walji, Rishma; Kilian, Brendan C; Kilian, Carney C; Lohfeld, Lynne; Alolabi, Bashar; Hagino, Carol; Busse, Jason W

    2015-12-01

    An important influence on parents' decisions about pediatric vaccination (children under 6 years of age) is the attitude of their health care providers, including complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) providers. Very limited qualitative research exists, however, on how attitudes towards vaccination develop among healthcare professionals in-training. We explored perspective development among three groups of students: medical, chiropractic, and naturopathic. We conducted focus group sessions with participants from each year of study at three different healthcare training programs in Ontario, Canada. Semi-structured and open-ended questions were used to elicit dynamic interaction among participants and explore how they constructed their attitudes toward vaccination at the beginning and part way through their professional training. Analyses of verbatim transcripts of audiotaped interviews were conducted both inductively and deductively using questions structured by existing literature on learning, professional socialization and interprofessional relations. We found five major themes and each theme was illustrated with representative quotes. Numerous unexpected insights emerged within these themes, including students' general open-mindedness towards pediatric vaccination at the beginning of their training; the powerful influence of both formal education and informal socialization; uncritical acceptance of the vaccination views of senior or respected professionals; students' preference for multiple perspectives rather than one-sided, didactic instruction; the absence of explicit socio-cultural tensions among professions; and how divergences among professional students' perspectives result from differing emphases with respect to lifestyle, individual choice, public health and epidemiological factors-rather than disagreement concerning the biomedical evidence. This last finding implies that their different perspectives on pediatric vaccination may be complementary

  15. Barriers to reporting child maltreatment: do emergency medical services professionals fully understand their role as mandatory reporters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynne, Ellen Grace; Gifford, Elizabeth J; Evans, Kelly E; Rosch, Joel B

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment is underreported in the United States and in North Carolina. In North Carolina and other states, mandatory reporting laws require various professionals to make reports, thereby helping to reduce underreporting of child maltreatment. This study aims to understand why emergency medical services (EMS) professionals may fail to report suspicions of maltreatment despite mandatory reporting policies. A web-based, anonymous, voluntary survey of EMS professionals in North Carolina was used to assess knowledge of their agency's written protocols and potential reasons for underreporting suspicion of maltreatment (n=444). Results were based on descriptive statistics. Responses of line staff and leadership personnel were compared using chi-square analysis. Thirty-eight percent of respondents were unaware of their agency's written protocols regarding reporting of child maltreatment. Additionally, 25% of EMS professionals who knew of their agency's protocol incorrectly believed that the report should be filed by someone other than the person with firsthand knowledge of the suspected maltreatment. Leadership personnel generally understood reporting requirements better than did line staff. Respondents indicated that peers may fail to report maltreatment for several reasons: they believe another authority would file the report, including the hospital (52.3%) or law enforcement (27.7%); they are uncertain whether they had witnessed abuse (47.7%); and they are uncertain about what should be reported (41.4%). This survey may not generalize to all EMS professionals in North Carolina. Training opportunities for EMS professionals that address proper identification and reporting of child maltreatment, as well as cross-agency information sharing, are warranted.

  16. Awareness and enforcement of guidelines for publishing industry-sponsored medical research among publication professionals: the Global Publication Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Elizabeth; Woolley, Karen; Adshead, Viv; Cairns, Angela; Fullam, Josh; Gonzalez, John; Grant, Tom; Tortell, Stephanie

    2014-04-19

    To gather information about current practices and implementation of publication guidelines among publication professionals working in or for the pharmaceutical industry. Web-based survey publicised via email and social media to members of the International Society for Medical Publication Professionals (ISMPP) and other organisations from November 2012 to February 2013. 469 individuals involved in publishing industry-sponsored research in peer-reviewed journals, mainly working in pharmaceutical or device companies ('industry', n=144), communication agencies ('agency', n=238), contract research organisations (CRO, n=15) or as freelancers (n=34). Most respondents (78%) had worked on medical publications for ≥5 years and 62% had a PhD/MD. Over 90% of industry, agency and CRO respondents routinely refer to Good Publication Practice (GPP2) and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors' Uniform Requirements. Most respondents (78% industry, 79% agency) received mandatory training on ethical publication practices. Over 90% of respondents' companies had publication guidelines or policies and required medical writing support to be acknowledged in publications (96% industry, 99% agency). Many industry respondents used publication management tools to monitor compliance with company guidelines and about half (46%) stated that their company had formal publication audits. Fewer agencies audited adherence to guidelines but 20% of agency respondents reported audits of employees and 6% audits of freelancers. Of concern, 37% of agency respondents reported requests from authors or sponsors that they believed were unethical, although 93% of these requests were withdrawn after respondents explained the need for compliance with guidelines. Most respondents' departments (63% industry, 58% agency, 60% CRO) had been involved in publishing studies with negative or inconclusive results. Within this sample, most publication professionals working in or for industry were aware of

  17. Awareness and enforcement of guidelines for publishing industry-sponsored medical research among publication professionals: the Global Publication Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Elizabeth; Woolley, Karen; Adshead, Viv; Cairns, Angela; Fullam, Josh; Gonzalez, John; Grant, Tom; Tortell, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To gather information about current practices and implementation of publication guidelines among publication professionals working in or for the pharmaceutical industry. Design/setting Web-based survey publicised via email and social media to members of the International Society for Medical Publication Professionals (ISMPP) and other organisations from November 2012 to February 2013. Participants 469 individuals involved in publishing industry-sponsored research in peer-reviewed journals, mainly working in pharmaceutical or device companies (‘industry’, n=144), communication agencies (‘agency’, n=238), contract research organisations (CRO, n=15) or as freelancers (n=34). Most respondents (78%) had worked on medical publications for ≥5 years and 62% had a PhD/MD. Results Over 90% of industry, agency and CRO respondents routinely refer to Good Publication Practice (GPP2) and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors’ Uniform Requirements. Most respondents (78% industry, 79% agency) received mandatory training on ethical publication practices. Over 90% of respondents’ companies had publication guidelines or policies and required medical writing support to be acknowledged in publications (96% industry, 99% agency). Many industry respondents used publication management tools to monitor compliance with company guidelines and about half (46%) stated that their company had formal publication audits. Fewer agencies audited adherence to guidelines but 20% of agency respondents reported audits of employees and 6% audits of freelancers. Of concern, 37% of agency respondents reported requests from authors or sponsors that they believed were unethical, although 93% of these requests were withdrawn after respondents explained the need for compliance with guidelines. Most respondents’ departments (63% industry, 58% agency, 60% CRO) had been involved in publishing studies with negative or inconclusive results. Conclusions Within this sample

  18. Relationship of creative projects in anatomy to medical student professionalism, test performance and stress: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Johanna; Nguyen, Vincent P; Mourra, Sarah; Boker, John R; Ross, Marianne; Thai, Trung M; Leonard, Robert J

    2009-11-03

    The anatomy course offers important opportunities to develop professionalism at an early stage in medical education. It is an academically significant course that also engenders stress in some students. Over a three-year period, 115 of 297 students completed creative projects. Thirty-four project completers and 47 non-completers consented to participate in the study. Projects were analyzed for professionalism themes using grounded theory. A subset of project completers and non-completers were interviewed to determine their views about the stress of anatomy and medical school, as well as the value of the creative projects. We also compared test performance of project completers and non-completers. Projects completed early in the course often expressed ambivalence about anatomy, whereas later projects showed more gratitude and sense of awe. Project completers tended to report greater stress than noncompleters, but stated that doing projects reduced stress and caused them to develop a richer appreciation for anatomy and medicine. Project completers performed significantly lower than non-completers on the first written exam (pre-project). Differences between groups on individual exams after both the first and second creative project were nonsignificant. For some students, creative projects may offer a useful way of reflecting on various aspects of professionalism while helping them to manage stress.

  19. Relationship of creative projects in anatomy to medical student professionalism, test performance and stress: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thai Trung M

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anatomy course offers important opportunities to develop professionalism at an early stage in medical education. It is an academically significant course that also engenders stress in some students. Methods Over a three-year period, 115 of 297 students completed creative projects. Thirty-four project completers and 47 non-completers consented to participate in the study. Projects were analyzed for professionalism themes using grounded theory. A subset of project completers and non-completers were interviewed to determine their views about the stress of anatomy and medical school, as well as the value of the creative projects. We also compared test performance of project completers and non-completers. Results Projects completed early in the course often expressed ambivalence about anatomy, whereas later projects showed more gratitude and sense of awe. Project completers tended to report greater stress than noncompleters, but stated that doing projects reduced stress and caused them to develop a richer appreciation for anatomy and medicine. Project completers performed significantly lower than non-completers on the first written exam (pre-project. Differences between groups on individual exams after both the first and second creative project were nonsignificant. Conclusion For some students, creative projects may offer a useful way of reflecting on various aspects of professionalism while helping them to manage stress.

  20. A professional development model for medical laboratory scientists working in the microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerson, Megan H; Pulido, Lila; Garza, Melinda N; Ali, Faheem A; Greenhill, Brandy; Einspahr, Christopher L; Yarsa, Joseph; Sood, Pramilla K; Hu, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine is committed to providing the best pathology and medicine through: state-of-the art techniques, progressive ground-breaking research, education and training for the clinical diagnosis and research of cancer and related diseases. After surveying the laboratory staff and other hospital professionals, the Department administrators and Human Resource generalists developed a professional development model for Microbiology to support laboratory skills, behavior, certification, and continual education within its staff. This model sets high standards for the laboratory professionals to allow the labs to work at their fullest potential; it provides organization to training technologists based on complete laboratory needs instead of training technologists in individual areas in which more training is required if the laboratory needs them to work in other areas. This model is a working example for all microbiology based laboratories who want to set high standards and want their staff to be acknowledged for demonstrated excellence and professional development in the laboratory. The PDM model is designed to focus on the needs of the laboratory as well as the laboratory professionals.

  1. Medical education for equity in health: a participatory action research involving persons living in poverty and healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudon, Catherine; Loignon, Christine; Grabovschi, Cristina; Bush, Paula; Lambert, Mireille; Goulet, Émilie; Boyer, Sophie; De Laat, Marianne; Fournier, Nathalie

    2016-04-12

    Improving the knowledge and competencies of healthcare professionals is crucial to better address the specific needs of persons living in poverty and avoid stigmatization. This study aimed to explore the needs and expectations of persons living in poverty and healthcare professionals in terms of medical training regarding poverty and its effects on health and healthcare. We conducted a participatory action research study using photovoice, a method using photography, together with merging of knowledge and practice, an approach promoting dialogue between different sources of knowledge. Nineteen healthcare professionals and persons from an international community organization against poverty participated in the study. The first phase included 60 meetings and group sessions to identify the perceived barriers between persons living in poverty and healthcare teams. In the second phase, sub-committees deployed action plans in academic teaching units to overcome barriers identified in the first phase. Data were analysed through thematic analysis, using NVivo, in collaboration with five non-academic co-researchers. Four themes in regard to medical training were highlighted: improving medical students' and residents' knowledge on poverty and the living conditions of persons living in poverty; improving their understanding of the reality of those people; improving their relational skills pertaining to communication and interaction with persons living in poverty; improving their awareness and capacity for self-reflection. At the end of the second phase, actions were undertaken such as improving knowledge of the living conditions of persons living in poverty by posting social assistance rates, and tailoring interventions to patients' reality by including sociodemographic information in electronic medical records. Our findings also led to a participatory research project aiming to improve the skills and competency of residents and health professionals in regard to the quality of

  2. Why medical professionals have no moral claim to conscientious objection accommodation in liberal democracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuklenk, Udo; Smalling, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    We describe a number of conscientious objection cases in a liberal Western democracy. These cases strongly suggest that the typical conscientious objector does not object to unreasonable, controversial professional services-involving torture, for instance-but to the provision of professional services that are both uncontroversially legal and that patients are entitled to receive. We analyse the conflict between these patients' access rights and the conscientious objection accommodation demanded by monopoly providers of such healthcare services. It is implausible that professionals who voluntarily join a profession should be endowed with a legal claim not to provide services that are within the scope of the profession's practice and that society expects them to provide. We discuss common counterarguments to this view and reject all of them. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Burnout syndrome in medical professionals: a manifestation of chronic stress with counterintuitive passive characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptacek, Radek; Stefano, George B; Kuzelova, Hana; Raboch, Jiri; Harsa, Pavel; Kream, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    By operational criteria, burnout appears to be a multifaceted behavioral syndrome consisting of maladaptive individual responses subsequent to prolonged stressful situations. Given the intense physical and cognitive demands of providing high quality healthcare to a wide spectrum of patients, healthcare professionals are particularly susceptible to developing burnout syndrome, a notable phenomenon that has gleaned significant societal attention in recent years. Clearly, widespread manifestation of burnout by health care professionals represents a serious potential threat to the overall quality of patient care and to the realization of positive outcomes to multiple treatment strategies. It will most certainly engender a serious negative impact on the economic viability of the entire healthcare system. Presently, our brief review focuses on current research efforts to 1) provide precise behavioral and psychiatric diagnostic criteria for burnout syndrome in healthcare professionals, 2) identify potential etiological factors and ongoing stressors, and 3) outline an integrative approach for treatment and prevention.

  4. Professional medical writing support and the quality of randomised controlled trial reporting: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattrell, William T; Hopewell, Sally; Young, Kate; Farrow, Paul; White, Richard; Wager, Elizabeth; Winchester, Christopher C

    2016-02-21

    Authors may choose to work with professional medical writers when writing up their research for publication. We examined the relationship between medical writing support and the quality and timeliness of reporting of the results of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Cross-sectional study. Primary reports of RCTs published in BioMed Central journals from 2000 to 16 July 2014, subdivided into those with medical writing support (n=110) and those without medical writing support (n=123). Proportion of items that were completely reported from a predefined subset of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) checklist (12 items known to be commonly poorly reported), overall acceptance time (from manuscript submission to editorial acceptance) and quality of written English as assessed by peer reviewers. The effect of funding source and publication year was examined. The number of articles that completely reported at least 50% of the CONSORT items assessed was higher for those with declared medical writing support (39.1% (43/110 articles); 95% CI 29.9% to 48.9%) than for those without (21.1% (26/123 articles); 95% CI 14.3% to 29.4%). Articles with declared medical writing support were more likely than articles without such support to have acceptable written English (81.1% (43/53 articles); 95% CI 67.6% to 90.1% vs 47.9% (23/48 articles); 95% CI 33.5% to 62.7%). The median time of overall acceptance was longer for articles with declared medical writing support than for those without (167 days (IQR 114.5-231 days) vs 136 days (IQR 77-193 days)). In this sample of open-access journals, declared professional medical writing support was associated with more complete reporting of clinical trial results and higher quality of written English. Medical writing support may play an important role in raising the quality of clinical trial reporting. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go

  5. Determinants of professional distortion development in medical personnel, teachers and psychologists, working in the industrial disaster zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonova, Anna B.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents research results regarding the determinants and individual predictors of professional distortions in the medical personnel, teachers, and psychologists who were involved in long-term programs of human relief assistance after a catastrophic accident at the Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station. The research aim was to analyze the factors influencing the increase in and the accumulation of occupational stress in the groups investigated. The stress studied was caused by strong emotional tension in 3 months of intensive work after the accident. The extraordinary situation served as a challenge, a kind of “strength test” for individual adaptation, which led to the manifestation of extreme adaptation options (destructive and constructive forms and allowed us to clarify the factors that contributed to their development. The research showed that, in this situation, psychological (in particular, emotional resources and individual coping characteristics played a determinative role in professional adaptation.

  6. On-the-job training of health professionals for electronic health record and electronic medical record use: A scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina L. Younge

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of electronic health records (EHRs or electronic medical records (EMRs is well documented in health informatics literature yet, very few studies focus primarily on how health professionals in direct clinical care are trained for EHR or EMR use. Purpose: To investigate how health professionals in direct clinical care are trained to prepare them for EHR or EMR use. Methods: Systematic searches were conducted in CINAHL, EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed and ISI WoS and, the Arksey and O’Malley scoping methodological framework was used to collect the data and analyze the results. Results: Training was done at implementation, orientation and post-implementation. Implementation and orientation training had a broader scope while post-implementation training focused on proficiency, efficiency and improvement. The multiplicity of training methods, types and levels of training identified appear to suggest that training is more effective when a combination of training methods are used.

  7. Emerging Roles for Librarians in the Medical School Curriculum and the Impact on Professional Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Anne M

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the impact on professional identity for health sciences librarians participating in the curriculum revision and development process. A qualitative survey, designed to examine the current roles, values, and self-identification of health sciences librarians involved in curricular revision, was conducted. The respondents discussed how they had participated in the planning, implementation, and rollout phases of revised curricula. They identified skills and values essential to successful participation and described the impact of expanded professional relationships on new identities as educators, change agents, and problem solvers. The study may add to the knowledge base of skills and attitudes needed for successful practice in these newly emerging roles.

  8. Medical students' experiences of professional lapses and patient rights abuses in a South African health sciences faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivian, Lauraine M H; Naidu, Claudia S; Keikelame, Mpoe J; Irlam, James

    2011-10-01

    To elicit South African medical students' experiences of witnessing patient rights abuses and professional lapses during their clinical training in order to inform an appropriate and effective response. During June and July 2009 at the University of Cape Town Faculty of Health Sciences, the authors surveyed 223 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-year medical students in selected clinical rotations concerning abuses they had observed. Volunteers were later interviewed individually. The authors coded interview transcripts for key themes using a constant-comparative grounded theory approach. Of 223 students surveyed, 183 (82%) responded, 130 (71%) of whom reported witnessing patient rights abuses and professional lapses, including physical abuse (38%), verbal abuse (37%), disrespect for patients' dignity (25%), and inadequately informing patients about their treatment (25%). Students attributed abuse to stressed health workers, overburdened facilities, and disempowered patients. Most students who witnessed abuse (59%) did not actively respond, and 64% of survey respondents felt unprepared or uncertain about challenging abuses in the future. Interviews with 28 students yielded detailed accounts of the abuses witnessed and of students' emotional reactions, coping strategies, and responses. Most students did not report abuses; they feared reprisal or doubted it would make a difference. This study demonstrates the disjunction between what these students were taught about human rights and ethics and what they witnessed in clinical settings. The high prevalence of patient rights abuses experienced by these students highlights the need to align medical ethics and human rights with medico-legal protocols in theory and clinical practice.

  9. Medical ward round competence in internal medicine - an interview study towards an interprofessional development of an Entrustable Professional Activity (EPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfel, Teresa; Beltermann, Esther; Lottspeich, Christian; Vietz, Elisa; Fischer, Martin R; Schmidmaier, Ralf

    2016-07-11

    The medical ward round is a central but complex activity that is of relevance from the first day of work. However, difficulties for young doctors have been reported. Instruction of ward round competence in medical curricula is hampered by the lack of a standardized description of the procedure. This paper aims to identify and describe physicians' tasks and relevant competences for conducting a medical ward round on the first day of professional work. A review of recent literature revealed known important aspects of medical ward rounds. These were used for the development of a semi-structured interview schedule. Medical ward round experts working at different hospitals were interviewed. The sample consisted of 14 ward physicians (M = 8.82 years of work experience) and 12 nurses (M = 14.55 years of work experience) working in different specializations of internal medicine. All interviews were audiotaped, fully transcribed, and analyzed using an inductive-deductive coding scheme. Nine fields of competences with 18 related sub-competences and 62 observable tasks were identified as relevant for conducting a medical ward round. Over 70 % of the experts named communication, collaborative clinical reasoning and organization as essential competences. Deeper analysis further unveiled the importance of self-management, management of difficult situations, error management and teamwork. The study is the first to picture ward round competences and related tasks in detail and to define an EPA "Conducting an internal medicine ward round" based on systematic interprofessional expert interviews. It thus provides a basis for integration of ward round competences in the medical curricula in an evidence based manner and gives a framework for the development of instructional intervention studies and comparative studies in other medical fields.

  10. Students attitude towards professional development of radiographers in Medical College 'J. Filaretova', Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boninska, N.; Borisova, I.; Djambazova, D.; Grozdanov, Z.; Gagova, P.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of the given study is to establish the attitude towards professional development of the students at the Medical College in Sofia. An anonymous survey was undertaken in April, 2015. the 71 students who participated were all x-ray technician students, who are either in 1st, 2nd or 3rd year of study. Documentary and sociological method and analysis were used in order to process the results. The results were illustrated and presented graphically in various tables and charts. The analysis displays that 91% of the participants have stated that the educational level in the Medical College in Sofia is effective, which aids their professional development. Despite the fact that 23.9 % of the participants are worried about working in an environment of ionizing radiation, 80.3% of the participants are determined that they will practice the given profession. The research shows that the 47.9% of the participants have stated that the economic status of the profession is “great”, and 26.8% have stated that it is “satisfactory”, which is one of the main reasons for a possible realization abroad (54.9% of the participants). only 11.3% have stated that, if possible, they would change their choice of profession, which is mainly because they would like to have the opportunity to build upon their bachelor's degree, but they are unable to do so. The choice of realization is pursuant with the professional training, skills and personal attributes of the individual. For our education, it is essential that key competencies and social skills are formed, as they are vital contributing factors in the individual realization in both educational and professional environments

  11. Utilizing intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity to bolster agricultural and forest productivity under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspinwall, Michael J; Loik, Michael E; Resco de Dios, Victor; Tjoelker, Mark G; Payton, Paxton R; Tissue, David T

    2015-09-01

    Climate change threatens the ability of agriculture and forestry to meet growing global demands for food, fibre and wood products. Information gathered from genotype-by-environment interactions (G × E), which demonstrate intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity (the ability of a genotype to alter its phenotype in response to environmental change), may prove important for bolstering agricultural and forest productivity under climate change. Nonetheless, very few studies have explicitly quantified genotype plasticity-productivity relationships in agriculture or forestry. Here, we conceptualize the importance of intraspecific variation in agricultural and forest species plasticity, and discuss the physiological and genetic factors contributing to intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity. Our discussion highlights the need for an integrated understanding of the mechanisms of G × E, more extensive assessments of genotypic responses to climate change under field conditions, and explicit testing of genotype plasticity-productivity relationships. Ultimately, further investigation of intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity in agriculture and forestry may prove important for identifying genotypes capable of increasing or sustaining productivity under more extreme climatic conditions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Turkish students' perceptions of professionalism at the beginning and at the end of medical education: a cross-sectional qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavas, Mustafa Volkan; Demirören, Meral; Koşan, Ayşen Melek Aytuğ; Karahan, Süleyman Tuna; Yalim, Neyyire Yasemin

    2015-01-01

    Medical students' perceptions of professionalism might reflect the impact of the current educational processes on their professional identity development. This study focuses on Ankara University Faculty of Medicine students' perceptions of 'good doctor' along with the factors effective on the formation of these perceptions. Six focus groups with 59 medical students from Grade-1 and Grade-6 were held. The transcripts of discussions were analyzed thematically. Results regarding 'being a good physician' mostly mirrored the findings of previous studies framing the medical professionalism concept. The thematic pattern of the discussions on the relation between professional development and medical education suggests that students suffer from a gradual erosion of perception during medical education. That the education cannot either change the person for the better or might downgrade the person instead of improving her/him were shared by participants from both grades. Students consider clinical practice and role models two main variables determining the person's qualification as a professional. The formal and hidden programs determine the quality and efficacy of the professional education together. Attempts to restructure medical education must recognize the reciprocal dynamics between these two components and, thus, should carefully work out the practical aspect of the educational processes.

  13. Factors associated with medication information in diabetes care: differences in perceptions between patients and health care professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Längst G

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gerda Längst,1 Hanna Marita Seidling,2,3 Marion Stützle,2,3 Dominik Ose,1 Ines Baudendistel,1 Joachim Szecsenyi,1 Michel Wensing,1,4 Cornelia Mahler1 1Department of General Practice and Health Services Research, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 2Cooperation Unit Clinical Pharmacy, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 3Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacoepidemiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 4Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Scientific Institute for Quality of Healthcare, Nijmegen, the Netherlands Purpose: This qualitative study in patients with type 2 diabetes and health care professionals (HCPs aimed to investigate which factors they perceive to enhance or impede medication information provision in primary care. Similarities and differences in perspectives were explored.Methods: Eight semistructured focus groups were conducted, four with type 2 diabetes patients (n=25 and four with both general practitioners (n=13 and health care assistants (n=10. Sessions were audio and video recorded, transcribed verbatim, and subjected to computer-aided qualitative content analysis.Results: Diabetes patients and HCPs broadly highlighted similar factors as enablers for satisfactory medication information delivery. Perceptions substantially differed regarding impeding factors. Both patients and HCPs perceived it to be essential to deliver tailored information, to have a trustful and continuous patient–provider relationship, to regularly reconcile medications, and to provide tools for medication management. However, substantial differences in perceptions related to impeding factors included the causes of inadequate information, the detail required for risk-related information, and barriers to medication reconciliation. Medication self-management was a prevalent topic among patients, whereas HCPs’ focus was on fulfilling therapy and medication management responsibilities

  14. Community medicine in the medical curriculum: a statistical analysis of a professional examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, M J; Murdoch, R M; Stewart, G T

    1984-01-01

    This paper analyses the examination results of two cohorts of medical students at the University of Glasgow. It discusses the usefulness of Scottish higher grades as predictors of ability to pass examinations in medicine. Further correlations are made between the results from community medicine and other fourth- and fifth-year medical school examinations.

  15. SU-E-E-03: Shared Space Fosters Didactic and Professional Learning Across Professions for Medical and Physics Residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieterich, S; Perks, J; Fragoso, R

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Medical Physicists and Radiation Oncologists are two professions who should be working as a team for optimal patient care, yet lack of mutual understanding about each others respective role and work environment creates barriers To improve collaboration and learning, we designed a shared didactic and work space for physics and radiation oncology residents to maximize interaction throughout their professional training. Methods: Physician and Physics residents are required to take the same didactic classes, including journal clubs and respective seminars. The residents also share an office environment among the seven physician and two physic residents. Results: By maximizing didactic overlap and sharing office space, the two resident groups have developed a close professional relationship and supportive work environment. Several joint research projects have been initiated by the residents. Awareness of physics tasks in the clinic has led to a request by the physician residents to change physics didactics, converting the physics short course into a lab-oriented course for the medical residents which is in part taught by the physics residents. The physics seminar is given by both residency groups; increased motivation and interest in learning about physics has led to several medical resident-initiated topic selections which generated lively discussion. The physics long course has changed toward including more discussion among residents to delve deeper into topics and study beyond what passing the boards would require. A supportive work environment has developed, embedding the two physics residents into a larger residents group, allowing them to find mentor and peers more easily. Conclusion: By creating a shared work and didactic environment, physician and physics residents have improved their understanding of respective professional practice. Resident-initiated changes in didactic practice have led to improved learning and joint research. A strong social

  16. SU-E-E-03: Shared Space Fosters Didactic and Professional Learning Across Professions for Medical and Physics Residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieterich, S; Perks, J; Fragoso, R [UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Medical Physicists and Radiation Oncologists are two professions who should be working as a team for optimal patient care, yet lack of mutual understanding about each others respective role and work environment creates barriers To improve collaboration and learning, we designed a shared didactic and work space for physics and radiation oncology residents to maximize interaction throughout their professional training. Methods: Physician and Physics residents are required to take the same didactic classes, including journal clubs and respective seminars. The residents also share an office environment among the seven physician and two physic residents. Results: By maximizing didactic overlap and sharing office space, the two resident groups have developed a close professional relationship and supportive work environment. Several joint research projects have been initiated by the residents. Awareness of physics tasks in the clinic has led to a request by the physician residents to change physics didactics, converting the physics short course into a lab-oriented course for the medical residents which is in part taught by the physics residents. The physics seminar is given by both residency groups; increased motivation and interest in learning about physics has led to several medical resident-initiated topic selections which generated lively discussion. The physics long course has changed toward including more discussion among residents to delve deeper into topics and study beyond what passing the boards would require. A supportive work environment has developed, embedding the two physics residents into a larger residents group, allowing them to find mentor and peers more easily. Conclusion: By creating a shared work and didactic environment, physician and physics residents have improved their understanding of respective professional practice. Resident-initiated changes in didactic practice have led to improved learning and joint research. A strong social

  17. Barriers to Care for Depressed Older People: Perceptions of Aged Care among Medical Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P.; Davison, Tanya; Mellor, David; George, Kuruvilla

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated barriers to detection of depression among older people. Focus groups were conducted with 21 professional carers, 4 nurses, 10 general practitioners, and 7 aged care managers. The results demonstrated that care for older people is primarily focused on physical care. Further, staff resources, a lack of continuity of care,…

  18. The Informal Curriculum: A Case Study on Tutor Reflexivity, Corporate Agency and Medical Professionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Professionalism is a focus for student learning in many disciplines. It is known, furthermore, that interpersonal interactions between staff and students constitute an informal curriculum that has a significant influence on students. But the origins of this informal curriculum are not fully apparent. This article offers a multiple case study that…

  19. Medical Complications of the Critically Ill Newborn: A Review for Early Intervention Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Theresa C.; Blackman, James A.

    1998-01-01

    Provides early-intervention professionals with a basic familiarity and understanding of some of the newest technologies employed in the neonatal intensive care units for neonates with respiratory distress syndrome, persistent fetal circulation, retinopathy of prematurity, intraventricular hemorrhage, and periventricular leukomalacia. Early…

  20. Response to Arshad's letter on the assessment of professional behaviour in undergraduate medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schönrock-Adema, Johanna; Heijne-Penninga, Marjolein; Duijn, Marijtje A.J. van; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    Editor – We would like to thank our colleague for his letter concerning our paper.1 The concern about the transferability of our findings outside the Netherlands represents a very important issue. Your correspondents main reason for concern is that the Dutch definition of professional behaviour, and

  1. Basic radiation protection education and training for medical professionals; Georgian experience and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todua, F.; Nadareishvili, D.; Ormotsadze, G.; Sanikidze, T.

    2016-01-01

    The level of knowledge provided by the Tbilisi State Medical University (TSMU) standard curriculum modules in 'Medical physics' and 'Radiation risk estimates' was assessed as was the learning outcome of modern standards elective course in 'Radiation protection'. Two groups of medical students were examined: Group 1: 5 y students, participants in elective course 'Radiobiology and radiogenic health risk' and Group 2: 1-2 y students, participants in winter and summer schools. Students were tested before and after training courses with the same tests questionnaire. The results of the tests showed the necessity for improvement of the educational curriculum. The changes needed are the inclusion of a basic radiobiological course in the curricula of the faculty of medicine and expansion of the medical physics course through a more detailed presentation of medical imaging methods. (authors)

  2. Integrating Quality Improvement and Continuing Professional Development at an Academic Medical Center: A Partnership Between Practice Plan, Hospital, and Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Barbara; England, Dawn; Riley, William; Jacobs-Halsey, Ginny; Webb, Corinne; Daniels, Bobbi

    2016-01-01

    While quality improvement (QI) initiatives can be a highly effective means for improving health care delivery in academic medical centers (AMCs), many health care professionals are not formally trained in basic QI methodology, engaging clinicians in QI activities can be challenging, and there is often a lack of integration and coordination among QI functions (eg, Departments of Quality and Safety, Continuing Professional Development). In our AMC, we undertook a collaborative approach to achieve better vertical and horizontal integration of our QI education efforts. This article provides a case example describing our organizational context, what was done, and with what effect and makes our example and lessons learned available to others. We developed a new educational QI program that was jointly planned and implemented by a group comprising major QI stakeholders. This project was intended to create horizontal organizational linkages between continuing professional development, clinicians, the hospital, and QI department and produce QI activities that aligned with the strategic objectives of senior management. The group developed and implemented a curriculum based on Lean methodology and concepts from the Institute for Health Care Improvement Model for Improvement. Two cohorts (27 teams) completed the training and planned and implemented QI projects. All projects were aligned with organizational quality, safety, and patient experience goals. The majority of projects met their aim statements. This case description provides an example of successful horizontal integration of an AMCs' QI functions to disseminate knowledge and implement meaningful QI aligned with strategic objectives (vertical integration).

  3. A Virtual Emergency Telemedicine Serious Game in Medical Training: A Quantitative, Professional Feedback-Informed Evaluation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaidou, Iolie; Antoniades, Athos; Constantinou, Riana; Marangos, Charis; Kyriacou, Efthyvoulos; Bamidis, Panagiotis; Dafli, Eleni; Pattichis, Constantinos S

    2015-06-17

    Serious games involving virtual patients in medical education can provide a controlled setting within which players can learn in an engaging way, while avoiding the risks associated with real patients. Moreover, serious games align with medical students' preferred learning styles. The Virtual Emergency TeleMedicine (VETM) game is a simulation-based game that was developed in collaboration with the mEducator Best Practice network in response to calls to integrate serious games in medical education and training. The VETM game makes use of data from an electrocardiogram to train practicing doctors, nurses, or medical students for problem-solving in real-life clinical scenarios through a telemedicine system and virtual patients. The study responds to two gaps: the limited number of games in emergency cardiology and the lack of evaluations by professionals. The objective of this study is a quantitative, professional feedback-informed evaluation of one scenario of VETM, involving cardiovascular complications. The study has the following research question: "What are professionals' perceptions of the potential of the Virtual Emergency Telemedicine game for training people involved in the assessment and management of emergency cases?" The evaluation of the VETM game was conducted with 90 professional ambulance crew nursing personnel specializing in the assessment and management of emergency cases. After collaboratively trying out one VETM scenario, participants individually completed an evaluation of the game (36 questions on a 5-point Likert scale) and provided written and verbal comments. The instrument assessed six dimensions of the game: (1) user interface, (2) difficulty level, (3) feedback, (4) educational value, (5) user engagement, and (6) terminology. Data sources of the study were 90 questionnaires, including written comments from 51 participants, 24 interviews with 55 participants, and 379 log files of their interaction with the game. Overall, the results were

  4. Balancing your personal and professional lives: help for busy medical practice employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura Sachs

    2008-01-01

    It is extremely difficult for most people to balance work and home life. This is especially true of employees who work in fast-paced medical practices where they are on the go all day. Each medical practice employee must find his or her own way to balance work and life, but fortunately, the process can usually be boiled down to some basics. This article outlines a strategy for establishing the top five priorities in the medical practice employee's life. It suggests that medical practice personnel can develop and use a personal mission statement as a life guide. This article also suggests specific strategies medical practice employees can use to protect and make the best use of their private time. It provides examples of how medical practice personnel have changed their lives by dropping unnecessary activities from their daily schedules. Finally, this article offers guidance about getting children to help working parents balance their work and private lives, 10 additional tips for work/life balance, a work/life balance self-assessment quiz, and a template the medical practice employee can use to create a customized personal mission statement.

  5. How do health service professionals consider human factors when purchasing interactive medical devices? A qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Christopher James; Blandford, Ann

    2017-03-01

    We present findings of a UK study into how those involved in purchasing interactive medical devices go about evaluating usability, the challenges that arise, and opportunities for improvement. The study focused on procurement of infusion devices because these are used by various professionals across healthcare. A semi-structured interview study was carried out involving a range of stakeholders (20 in total) involved in or impacted by medical device procurement. Data was analysed using thematic analysis, a qualitative method designed to support the identification, analysis and reporting of patterns. In principle, health service purchasing was found to accommodate consideration of equipment usability. In practice, the evaluation process was driven primarily by engineering standards; assessment of local needs did not accommodate substantive assessment of usability; and choice was limited by the availability of equipment on the marketplace. We discuss ways in which purchasing could be improved through techniques that account for social circumstances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. How to Fairly Allocate Scarce Medical Resources: Ethical Argumentation under Scrutiny by Health Professionals and Lay People.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pius Krütli

    Full Text Available Societies are facing medical resource scarcities, inter alia due to increased life expectancy and limited health budgets and also due to temporal or continuous physical shortages of resources like donor organs. This makes it challenging to meet the medical needs of all. Ethicists provide normative guidance for how to fairly allocate scarce medical resources, but legitimate decisions require additionally information regarding what the general public considers to be fair. The purpose of this study was to explore how lay people, general practitioners, medical students and other health professionals evaluate the fairness of ten allocation principles for scarce medical resources: 'sickest first', 'waiting list', 'prognosis', 'behaviour' (i.e., those who engage in risky behaviour should not be prioritized, 'instrumental value' (e.g., health care workers should be favoured during epidemics, 'combination of criteria' (i.e., a sequence of the 'youngest first', 'prognosis', and 'lottery' principles, 'reciprocity' (i.e., those who provided services to the society in the past should be rewarded, 'youngest first', 'lottery', and 'monetary contribution'.1,267 respondents to an online questionnaire were confronted with hypothetical situations of scarcity regarding (i donor organs, (ii hospital beds during an epidemic, and (iii joint replacements. Nine allocation principles were evaluated in terms of fairness for each type of scarcity along 7-point Likert scales. The relationship between demographic factors (gender, age, religiosity, political orientation, and health status and fairness evaluations was modelled with logistic regression.Medical background was a major predictor of fairness evaluations. While general practitioners showed different response patterns for all three allocation situations, the responses by lay people were very similar. Lay people rated 'sickest first' and 'waiting list' on top of all allocation principles-e.g., for donor organs 83

  7. How to Fairly Allocate Scarce Medical Resources: Ethical Argumentation under Scrutiny by Health Professionals and Lay People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krütli, Pius; Rosemann, Thomas; Törnblom, Kjell Y; Smieszek, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Societies are facing medical resource scarcities, inter alia due to increased life expectancy and limited health budgets and also due to temporal or continuous physical shortages of resources like donor organs. This makes it challenging to meet the medical needs of all. Ethicists provide normative guidance for how to fairly allocate scarce medical resources, but legitimate decisions require additionally information regarding what the general public considers to be fair. The purpose of this study was to explore how lay people, general practitioners, medical students and other health professionals evaluate the fairness of ten allocation principles for scarce medical resources: 'sickest first', 'waiting list', 'prognosis', 'behaviour' (i.e., those who engage in risky behaviour should not be prioritized), 'instrumental value' (e.g., health care workers should be favoured during epidemics), 'combination of criteria' (i.e., a sequence of the 'youngest first', 'prognosis', and 'lottery' principles), 'reciprocity' (i.e., those who provided services to the society in the past should be rewarded), 'youngest first', 'lottery', and 'monetary contribution'. 1,267 respondents to an online questionnaire were confronted with hypothetical situations of scarcity regarding (i) donor organs, (ii) hospital beds during an epidemic, and (iii) joint replacements. Nine allocation principles were evaluated in terms of fairness for each type of scarcity along 7-point Likert scales. The relationship between demographic factors (gender, age, religiosity, political orientation, and health status) and fairness evaluations was modelled with logistic regression. Medical background was a major predictor of fairness evaluations. While general practitioners showed different response patterns for all three allocation situations, the responses by lay people were very similar. Lay people rated 'sickest first' and 'waiting list' on top of all allocation principles-e.g., for donor organs 83.8% (95% CI

  8. SU-F-P-33: Combining Research and Professional Practice in the Clinical Setting: A Medical Physicist Personal Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Tarjuelo, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To initiate a discussion on the current and evolving role of Medical Physicists based on author’s professional and research experience in patient safety and quality control. Methods: Several professionals of the departments of Medical Physics and Radiation Oncology, chiefly devoted to clinical tasks, began a research program on patient safety and quality control in a framework provided by the implementation of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT). We performed studies on virtual simulation for IORT, in vivo dosimetry, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), statistical process control (SPC), and receiver operating characteristics of dosimetric equipment. This was done with the support of our research foundation and different grants while continuing with our departmental clinical routine involving about 1600 annual treatments with two linacs and different brachytherapy techniques. Results: We published 5 papers in international journals in the last two years. This author conducted a doctoral research which resulted in a dissertation in 2015. The extra time spent after treatments was essential to succeed. Funding and support achieved via our foundation played a crucial role; but this would have not been possible without punctual external mentoring and partnership. FMEA conclusions were able to be implemented only with staff commitment; however, conclusions concerning equipment cannot be easily communicated to manufacturers. These tasks required extra training in the appropriated methods. Conclusion: Research needed the support of a dedicated foundation, which would have been very difficult to obtain with the sole participation of our departments. FMEA and SPC results may need engagement of staff and manufacturers, respectively, hard to achieve without strong recommendations or even a regulatory framework. All these fields need evolution of Medical Physicists’ roles and additional training. Devotion to both clinical tasks and research could be unfeasible

  9. SU-F-P-33: Combining Research and Professional Practice in the Clinical Setting: A Medical Physicist Personal Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Tarjuelo, J [Consorcio Hospitalario Provincial de Castello, Castello de la Plana (Spain)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To initiate a discussion on the current and evolving role of Medical Physicists based on author’s professional and research experience in patient safety and quality control. Methods: Several professionals of the departments of Medical Physics and Radiation Oncology, chiefly devoted to clinical tasks, began a research program on patient safety and quality control in a framework provided by the implementation of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT). We performed studies on virtual simulation for IORT, in vivo dosimetry, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), statistical process control (SPC), and receiver operating characteristics of dosimetric equipment. This was done with the support of our research foundation and different grants while continuing with our departmental clinical routine involving about 1600 annual treatments with two linacs and different brachytherapy techniques. Results: We published 5 papers in international journals in the last two years. This author conducted a doctoral research which resulted in a dissertation in 2015. The extra time spent after treatments was essential to succeed. Funding and support achieved via our foundation played a crucial role; but this would have not been possible without punctual external mentoring and partnership. FMEA conclusions were able to be implemented only with staff commitment; however, conclusions concerning equipment cannot be easily communicated to manufacturers. These tasks required extra training in the appropriated methods. Conclusion: Research needed the support of a dedicated foundation, which would have been very difficult to obtain with the sole participation of our departments. FMEA and SPC results may need engagement of staff and manufacturers, respectively, hard to achieve without strong recommendations or even a regulatory framework. All these fields need evolution of Medical Physicists’ roles and additional training. Devotion to both clinical tasks and research could be unfeasible

  10. How do medical educators design a curriculum that facilitates student learning about professionalism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Glenn; Wang, Shaoyu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study analyses the ways in which curriculum reform facilitated student learning about professionalism. Methods Design-based research provided the structure for an iterative approach to curriculum change which we undertook over a 3 year period. The learning environment of the Personal and Professional Development Theme (PPD) was analysed through the sociocultural lens of Activity Theory. Lave and Wenger’s and Mezirow’s learning theories informed curriculum reform to support student development of a patient-centred and critically reflective professional identity. The renewed pedagogical outcomes were aligned with curriculum content, learning and teaching processes and assessment, and intense staff education was undertaken. We analysed qualitative data from tutor interviews and free-response student surveys to evaluate the impact of curriculum reform. Results Students’ and tutors’ reflections on learning in PPD converged on two principle themes - ‘Developing a philosophy of medicine’ and ‘Becoming an ethical doctor’- which corresponded to the overarching PPD theme aims of communicative learning. Students and tutors emphasised the importance of the unique learning environment of PPD tutorials for nurturing personal development and the positive impact of the renewed assessment programme on learning. Conclusions A theory-led approach to curriculum reform resulted in student engagement in the PPD curriculum and facilitated a change in student perspective about the epistemological foundation of medicine. PMID:26845777

  11. Constitutional limits on federal legislation practically compelling medical employment: Wong v Commonwealth; Selim v Professional Services Review Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas

    2009-10-01

    A recent decision by the High Court of Australia (Wong v Commonwealth; Selim v Professional Services Review Committee (2009) 236 CLR 573) (the PSR case) has not only clarified the scope of the Australian constitutional prohibition on "any form of civil conscription" in relation to federal legislation concerning medical or dental services (s 51xxiiiA), but has highlighted its importance as a great constitutional guarantee ensuring the mixed State-federal and public-private nature of medical service delivery in Australia. Previous decisions of the High Court have clarified that the prohibition does not prevent federal laws regulating the manner in which medical services are provided. The PSR case determined that the anti-overservicing provisions directed at bulk-billing general practitioners under Pt VAA of the Health Insurance Act 1973 (Cth) did not offend the prohibition. Importantly, the High Court also indicated that the s 51(xxiiiA) civil conscription guarantee should be construed widely and that it would invalidate federal laws requiring providers of medical and dental services (either expressly or by practical compulsion) to work for the federal government or any specified State, agency or private industrial employer. This decision is likely to restrict the capacity of any future federal government to restructure the Australian health care system, eg by implementing recommendations from the National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission for either federal government or private corporate control of presently State-run public hospitals.

  12. The Contribution of Death-Related Experiences to Health Care Providers' Attitudes toward Dying Patients: II. Medical and Nursing Students with No Professional Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Sandor B.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared attitudes toward care of dying patients of beginning medical and nursing students with no professional death-related experience. On five of six attitude measures, female nursing students expressed more positive attitude than either male or female medical students. Hours of death-and-dying coursework and general life experience exerted…

  13. Acceptance by laypersons and medical professionals of the personalized eHealth platform, eHealthMonitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebel, Lena; Kolominsky-Rabas, Peter; Schaller, Sandra; Siudyka, Jakub; Sierpinski, Radoslaw; Papapavlou, Dimitrios; Simeonidou, Aliki; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Sedlmayr, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Often, eHealth services are not accepted because of factors such as eHealth literacy or trust. Within this study, eHealthMonitor was evaluated in three European countries (Germany, Greece, and Poland) by medical professionals and laypersons with respect to numerous acceptance factors. Questionnaires were created on the basis of factors from literature and with the help of scales which have already been validated. A qualitative survey was conducted in Germany, Poland, and Greece. The eHealth literacy of all participants was medium/high. Laypersons mostly agreed that they could easily become skillful with eHealthMonitor and that other people thought that they should use eHealthMonitor. Amongst medical professionals, a large number were afraid that eHealthMonitor could violate their privacy or the privacy of their patients. Overall, the participants thought that eHealthMonitor was a good concept and that they would use it. The main hindrances to the use of eHealthMonitor were found in trust issues including data privacy. In the future, more research on the linkage of all measured factors is needed, for example, to address the question of whether highly educated people tend to mistrust eHealth information more than people with lower levels of education.

  14. Training reproductive health professionals in a post-conflict environment: exploring medical, nursing, and midwifery education in Mogadishu, Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalahow, Abdiasis; Hassan, Mariam; Foster, Angel M

    2017-11-01

    Following two decades of civil war, Somalia recently entered the post-conflict rebuilding phase that has resulted in the rapid proliferation of higher education institutions. Given the high maternal mortality ratio, the federal government has identified the reproductive health education of health service professionals as a priority. Yet little is known about the coverage of contraception, abortion, pregnancy, childbirth, and sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) in medicine, nursing, or midwifery. In 2016, we conducted a multi-methods study to understand the reproductive health education and training landscape and identify avenues by which development of the next generation of health service professionals could be improved. Our study comprised two components: interviews with 20 key informants and 7 focus group discussions (FGDs) with 48 physicians, nurses, midwives, and medical students. Using the transcripts, memos, and field notes, we employed a multi-phased approach to analyse our data for content and themes. Our findings show that reproductive health education for medical and nursing students is inconsistent and significant content gaps, particularly in abortion and SGBV, exist. Students have few clinical training opportunities and the overarching challenges plaguing higher education in Somalia also impact health professions programmes in Mogadishu. There is currently a window of opportunity to develop creative strategies to improve the breadth and depth of evidence-based education and training, and multi-stakeholder engagement and the promotion of South-South exchanges appear warranted.

  15. Professional burnout in European young oncologists: results of the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Young Oncologists Committee Burnout Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S; Califano, R; Corral, J; de Azambuja, E; De Mattos-Arruda, L; Guarneri, V; Hutka, M; Jordan, K; Martinelli, E; Mountzios, G; Ozturk, M A; Petrova, M; Postel-Vinay, S; Preusser, M; Qvortrup, C; Volkov, M N M; Tabernero, J; Olmos, D; Strijbos, M H

    2017-07-01

    Burnout in health care professionals could have serious negative consequences on quality of patient care, professional satisfaction and personal life. Our aim was to investigate the burnout prevalence, work and lifestyle factors potentially affecting burnout amongst European oncologists ≤40 (YOs). A survey was conducted using the validated Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and additional questions exploring work/lifestyle factors. Statistical analyses were carried out to identify factors associated with burnout. Total of 737 surveys (all ages) were collected from 41 European countries. Countries were divided into six regions. Results from 595 (81%) YOs were included (81% medical oncologists; 52% trainees, 62% women). Seventy-one percent of YOs showed evidence of burnout (burnout subdomains: depersonalization 50%; emotional exhaustion 45; low accomplishment 35%). Twenty-two percent requested support for burnout during training and 74% reported no hospital access to support services. Burnout rates were significantly different across Europe (P women (60% versus 45% P = 0.0001) and low accomplishment was highest in the 26-30 age group (P balance, access to support services, living alone and inadequate vacation time remained independent burnout factors (P balance, access to support services and adequate vacation time may reduce burnout levels. Raising awareness, support and interventional research are needed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. [THE PROFESSIONAL MEDICAL SELF-APPRAISAL OF GRADUATES OF COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOLS OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, Yu M; Bitrebaeva, D M; Baildinova, K J; Lepesova, S J; Dauletiarova, M A

    2015-01-01

    The human resources play a decisive role in support of effective functioning of any health care system. The study was carried out to analyze characteristics offormation ofprofessional self-appraisal of graduates of comprehensive schools of the Republic of Kazakhstan choosing medical specialties. The study was organized in city of Pavlodar and the Pavlodarskaia oblast of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The sample included 447 schoolchildren of 9-10 classes, 25 workers of 3 urban and 1 rural schools, 12 lecturers of medical university. The questionnaire survey was applied. The statistical processing of data was implemented using SPSS v.20 software. It is established that medicine became a popular profession because it was chosen by 22% of schoolchildren. Out of them, only 37.4% belonged among personality type "human-human" corresponding to medical specialties. The childhood dream became main cause of choosing medicine among 55.6% of schoolchildren. The second place took perspective of employment and third place--insistent advice of parents (13.1% and 7.1% correspondingly). Only 31.3% of schoolchildren were aware of specificity of medical specialties and 52.5% had independent experience of initial medical care provision. The additional training is considered by 72.7% of schoolchildren as necessary for entering medical university. The workers of schools and medical university 65.5% and 66.7% limit themselves by once-only activities. The vocational guidance activities implemented in comprehensive schools of the Republic of Kazakhstan can be significantly ameliorated. The possibility of implementing personality type test is to be considered. The application of innovative methods of vocational guidance is to be considered too.

  17. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF RAILWAYS BOLSTER-BEAM UNDER COMMERCIAL OPERATION CONDITIONS: OVER-TRACTION AND OVER-BRAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald M. MARTINOD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for the operation of railway systems are closely related to the increase of the commercial demand; as a consequence, the performance of the structural elements of railways changes. The present paper focuses on a study of the structural behaviour of bolster-beams under commercial operation conditions of railway systems, specifically in the dynamic conditions generated in events of over-traction and over-braking on the vehicle running. The proposed work is constructed based on the following phases: (i analysis of the kinematics of the vehicle; (ii development of numerical models, a model based on the multibody theory, and a Finite Elements model; (iii development of experimental field tests; and (iv development of simulations for a detailed analysis of the structural behaviour for a study of the strain distribution in the main bolster-beam. This study is applied to a particular case of a railway system that provides commercial service to passengers.

  18. Professional Practice of Medical Training in the E-Learning System: The Conceptual Model Based on a Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohrehsadat Mirmoghtadaie

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: In education of medical science courses, there has been a growing orientation towards replacing traditional teaching in with E-learning education. Since the modern system of education is based on self-directed learning, e-learning requires special powers to deal with new-emerging challenges and professionally encounter the learning environment. The purpose of the present research is to explain and provide a conceptual model for professional competency in this system.Methods: In this review, different internet and library resources, indexed in Scirus, Pre Quest, Scopus, IEEE, SID, Magiran, Eric, Taylor and Francis, and Google Scholar from 1990 to 2015 were searched using the following keywords: function, manner, ethics, conduct disposition, netiquette, values, academic fraud, moral professionalism, and behavior ine-learning in combination and separately. The Critical Review methodology and Carnwell and Randolph structures were used. The most recent and richest resources that were more relevant to the issue were selected and their information was extracted.Results: Among review of 98 articles, documents of 34 relevant and valid articles were extracted. Based on the results, Digital Literacy, study skills, Cyber Ethics, and Netiquette were considered the main components of scientific and ethical competency in e-learning. 40 components were included in these dimensions.Conclusions: Although there is general interest in e-learning, the target population (learners are not prepared to use such an environment and require strong support. In this paper, we provided a summarized scheme and conceptual pattern fore-learners to move towards promotion of learning.Keywords: PROFESSIONAL FUNCTION, E-LEARNER, E-LEARNING, CRITICAL REVIEW

  19. THE OCCUPATIONAL STRESS ON HEALTH’S PROFESSIONALS TO LEGAL MEDICAL INSTITUTE LEONIDIO RIBEIRO, FEDERAL DISTRICT - BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Quaresma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Occupational stress is defined as a psychological syndrome resulting in chronic interpersonal stressors at work and characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. It is observed that the pressures generated by continuous social and economic changes have made the individual more vulnerable to psychosomatic and organic pathologies. As a condition with high incidence rate you have, the stress has a negative impact on occupational life of the individual. This study was conducted on health-care workers of the LMI (Legal Medical Institute of the Federal District, Brazil; who work in the areas of anatomy, nursing, laboratory, radiology and medicine and is justified by the development of professional activities. The methodology used in this article was a descriptive study with a qualitative and quantitative approach as a tool for data collection was used a structured questionnaire with closed questions about the activities that will evoke stress on work activities. Fourty-nine per cent have more than 10 years of service time and 54.7 % (n = 53, rank among medium and high load stress suffering. The answers on the elements that are evocative of stress, 75 % think that 'deal with the pain of the family', with 51 % and 'removal of corpses in hard-to access/dangerous', with 24%, the most important stressors. We can consider that the occupational stress experienced by professionals in DF, Brazil, LMI should not be ignored by the institution , since its employees are subject to a great physical and mental load, which, if ignored even for short periods, may, at some point, lead to depletion of capacity for work, causing losses in the professional quality of life and, consequently, reduced the productivity of the institution as a result of increased absence professional.

  20. Medical students' and facilitators' experiences of an Early Professional Contact course: active and motivated students, strained facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Below, Bernhard; Hellquist, Gunilla; Rödjer, Stig; Gunnarsson, Ronny; Björkelund, Cecilia; Wahlqvist, Mats

    2008-12-02

    Today, medical students are introduced to patient contact, communication skills, and clinical examination in the preclinical years of the curriculum with the purpose of gaining clinical experience. These courses are often evaluated from the student perspective. Reports with an additional emphasis on the facilitator perspective are scarce. According to constructive alignment, an influential concept from research in higher education, the learning climate between students and teachers is also of great importance. In this paper, we approach the learning climate by studying both students' and facilitators' course experiences.In 2001, a new "Early Professional Contact" longitudinal strand through term 1-4, was introduced at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. General practitioners and hospital specialists were facilitators.The aim of this study was to assess and analyse students' and clinical facilitators' experiences of the Early Professional Contact course and to illuminate facilitators' working conditions. Inspired by a Swedish adaptation of the Course Experience Questionnaire, an Early Professional Contact Questionnaire was constructed. In 2003, on the completion of the first longitudinal strand, a student and facilitator version was distributed to 86 students and 21 facilitators. In the analysis, both Chi-square and the Mann-Whitney tests were used. Sixty students (70%) and 15 facilitators (71%) completed the questionnaire. Both students and facilitators were satisfied with the course. Students reported gaining iiration for their future work as doctors along with increased confidence in meeting patients. They also reported increased motivation for biomedical studies. Differences in attitudes between facilitators and students were found. Facilitators experienced a greater workload, less reasonable demands and less support, than students. In this project, a new Early Professional Contact course was analysed from both student and facilitator

  1. Medical students' and facilitators' experiences of an Early Professional Contact course: Active and motivated students, strained facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsson Ronny

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Today, medical students are introduced to patient contact, communication skills, and clinical examination in the preclinical years of the curriculum with the purpose of gaining clinical experience. These courses are often evaluated from the student perspective. Reports with an additional emphasis on the facilitator perspective are scarce. According to constructive alignment, an influential concept from research in higher education, the learning climate between students and teachers is also of great importance. In this paper, we approach the learning climate by studying both students' and facilitators' course experiences. In 2001, a new "Early Professional Contact" longitudinal strand through term 1–4, was introduced at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. General practitioners and hospital specialists were facilitators. The aim of this study was to assess and analyse students' and clinical facilitators' experiences of the Early Professional Contact course and to illuminate facilitators' working conditions. Methods Inspired by a Swedish adaptation of the Course Experience Questionnaire, an Early Professional Contact Questionnaire was constructed. In 2003, on the completion of the first longitudinal strand, a student and facilitator version was distributed to 86 students and 21 facilitators. In the analysis, both Chi-square and the Mann-Whitney tests were used. Results Sixty students (70% and 15 facilitators (71% completed the questionnaire. Both students and facilitators were satisfied with the course. Students reported gaining iiration for their future work as doctors along with increased confidence in meeting patients. They also reported increased motivation for biomedical studies. Differences in attitudes between facilitators and students were found. Facilitators experienced a greater workload, less reasonable demands and less support, than students. Conclusion In this project, a new Early

  2. [Medical fault or professional negligence? Case studies in two recovery nutrition centers in Niger].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halidou Doudou, M; Manzo, M L; Guero, D

    2014-12-01

    In developing countries such as Niger, the risk of medical malpractice is ubiquitous in health, jeopardizing patient safety. The aim of this work was to contribute to patients' safety and respect of code of ethics and conduct in the exercise of the medical profession. The reported cases involved two children under 5 years who were admitted to nutrition rehabilitation centers, died as a result of medical malpractice. In Niger, there are no statistics on this phenomenon and a few cases found have always been considered "accident" or "fate." The establishment of an observatory collections of such information should improve their frequency, consequences and propose a prevention plan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Medical reasons behind player departures from male and female professional tennis competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okholm Kryger, Katrine; Dor, Frédéric; Guillaume, Marion; Haida, Amal; Noirez, Philippe; Montalvan, Bernard; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    The number of retirements, withdrawals, and "lucky losers" (the replacement of a player who withdraws before the start of the tournament by a losing player from the qualifying round) from professional tennis tournaments has increased, but the reasons behind such departures have not yet been analyzed. An official consensus statement has been conducted to allow a general categorization of injuries in tennis. To determine the reasons for departure and injury rates in professional tennis. Descriptive epidemiology study. All reasons for departures were collected from official Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) and Women's Tennis Association (WTA) web pages. All tournaments apart from the 4 major competitions (the Australian Open, French Open, Wimbledon, and US Open) were included for the period 2001-2012 for men and women. Personal data, tournament information, surface, match setting, date, and reason were obtained for each departure scenario. Variations in departure and injury rates were seen throughout the season. Women left and were injured significantly more than men. Women mainly left because of thigh injuries, whereas men left mainly because of back injuries. Playing surface only had an influence on the risk of lower back injuries. Only women's departures were affected by the tournament round. A high number of departures from tournaments have occurred during the past 10 years on the ATP and WTA circuits. Injuries were the main reasons of these departures, regardless of the type of departure and player sex. The back and thigh were the main locations of injuries for men and women, respectively. © 2014 The Author(s).

  4. Professional career management and personal development for the employees of the Romanian medical system

    OpenAIRE

    Mirica Dumitrescu Catalina-Oana

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to inform as many persons as possible on the present situation of doctors in Romania, to present more theoretical and practical elements that lead to the development of a sustainable career in the Romanian medical system. So I tried to get as much information about the current situation of the medical system, to obtain a certain confirmation of what was said by those working in the system. Gradually, I found out about the hospital problems, the insufficient budg...

  5. Professional career management and personal development for the employees of the Romanian medical system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirica Dumitrescu Catalina-Oana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to inform as many persons as possible on the present situation of doctors in Romania, to present more theoretical and practical elements that lead to the development of a sustainable career in the Romanian medical system. So I tried to get as much information about the current situation of the medical system, to obtain a certain confirmation of what was said by those working in the system. Gradually, I found out about the hospital problems, the insufficient budget allocated annually by the mismanagement, media campaigns of doctor denigration, the increasingly precarious health conditions of Romanians, the colossal businesses of the pharmaceutical industry, the heavily discussed and postponed Health Law, that managed to pull a lot of people in the street, and many other items that are not only intended to sound an alarm regarding the condition of medical workers in Romania. Besides the researches and the relationships on the medical education status, the situation of available positions, the distribution of doctors, their salaries, the legal and ethical operating framework, I undertook also a study among physicians (especially those being at their early career to find out the elements that led them to choose this career and what is the current situation of medical career in Romania. For this, I chose questions that reflect the doctors’ satisfaction at workplace and how performance is influenced by the satisfaction level obtained from the medical services provided in the Romanian healthcare facilities. The study had both expected results, already knowing the current situation, but also unexpected, given the expectations of doctors. In more detail, there is a large number of young doctors that before thinking about work at a prestigious hospital abroad, think to what extent the current workplace in Romania offers support for family, pension, holidays etc. Thus, we considered appropriate to bring up within the paper

  6. Professional realization of the graduated in 2014 radiographers in Medical College “J. Filaretova” –, Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagova, P.; Boninska, N.; Yovchev, D.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: The interest of the X-ray technician students to this profession appears in the beginning of their education. From the first year onwards parallel to their own goals, specific characteristics and the desire to work in the sphere of healthcare, they demonstrate and develop skills for practicing the studied profession. The aim of the presentation is to demonstrate the professional realization of the graduated X-ray technicians and their adaptation to the services they perform. Documentary and sociologic methods are applied. A questionnaire study is made in December 2014. thirty-two students, graduated this year in Medical College “J. Filaretova” - Sofia, are assayed. The study shows that 75% of the questioned graduates in the specialty “X-ray technician” are implemented in the healthcare system immediately after their graduation. the professional knowledge acquired in the Medical College is assessed as “effective” by 75% of them and 96 % report that they have not had problems their adaptation to practical activity. The willingness for upgrading their education shows serious attitude towards profession. 84% of the respondents demonstrate desire to continue their development in the sphere of healthcare. The basic training is on the required academic level. the teaching, educational practice and the free time organization of the trainees are on a high level. The questioned indicate as a problem that they have no possibility of upgrading the educational degree in the same profession, in which they are trained, however, as their colleagues in other professions, graduated Medical College – Sofia, have

  7. Aequilibrium prudentis: on the necessity for ethics and policy studies in the scientific and technological education of medical professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Misti Ault; Giordano, James

    2013-04-23

    The importance of strong science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education continues to grow as society, medicine, and the economy become increasingly focused and dependent upon bioscientific and technological innovation. New advances in frontier sciences (e.g., genetics, neuroscience, bio-engineering, nanoscience, cyberscience) generate ethical issues and questions regarding the use of novel technologies in medicine and public life. In light of current emphasis upon science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education (at the pre-collegiate, undergraduate, graduate, and professional levels), the pace and extent of advancements in science and biotechnology, the increasingly technological orientation and capabilities of medicine, and the ways that medicine - as profession and practice - can engage such scientific and technological power upon the multi-cultural world-stage to affect the human predicament, human condition, and perhaps nature of the human being, we argue that it is critical that science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education go beyond technical understanding and directly address ethical, legal, social, and public policy implications of new innovations. Toward this end, we propose a paradigm of integrative science, technology, ethics, and policy studies that meets these needs through early and continued educational exposure that expands extant curricula of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics programs from the high school through collegiate, graduate, medical, and post-graduate medical education. We posit a synthetic approach that elucidates the historical, current, and potential interaction of scientific and biotechnological development in addition to the ethico-legal and social issues that are important to educate and sustain the next generation of medical and biomedical professionals who can appreciate, articulate, and address the realities of scientific and biotechnological progress given the shifting

  8. Research Equity: A Capacity Building Workshop of Research Methodology for Medical Health Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Bhardwaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research is a cornerstone for knowledge generation, which in turns requires capacity building for its tools and techniques. Despite having a vast infrastructure in India the research in medical science has been carried out in limited and focused institutions. In order to build the capacity in carrying out research activities a five-day planning workshop was conducted at state run medical college. Total 22 medical faculty members participated in the workshop with average public health experience of 12 years (range: 5–25 years. The knowledge was assessed objectively by multiple-choice questionnaire. The mean score increased from 6.7 to 7.9 from pre- to posttest. About seventy-percent participants showed improvement, whereas 21.0% showed deterioration in the knowledge and the rest showed the same score. Apart from knowledge skills also showed improvement as total 12 research projects were generated and eight were approved for funding by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR, New Delhi. It can be concluded that a supportive environment for research can be built with the technical assistance.

  9. Perceptions of Continuing Medical Education, Professional Development, and Organizational Support in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younies, Hassan; Berham, Belal; Smith, Pamela C.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: This paper investigates the views of health care providers on continuous medical education (CME). To our knowledge, this is one of the first surveys to examine perspectives of CME in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods: A 6-part questionnaire focused on the following areas of CME: the workshop leaders/trainers, the training…

  10. [Futile medical care and euthanasia in the opinion of professional nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renn-Zurek, Agnieszka

    2014-03-01

    Futile medical care and euthanasia are hard to assess unequivocally and are becoming a frequent topic of social discussion. The problem requires both ethical and moral consideration as well as legal regulations. As a medical issue it has got both its supporters and opponents. The aim of the study was to evaluate of nurses' attitudes and knowledge concerning euthanasia and persistend therapy. The survey group included 183 nurses aged 30-58. The diagnostic method poll was applied, the technique used was a questionnaire. Among the nurses participating in the survey, 83% is against providing futile medical care when it is known that it will not bring any effect, while increasing the suffering and prolonging dying. 45% of the respondents consider euthanasia unacceptable, 41% think that euthanasia could be performed in cases in which patient's suffering cannot be relieved. 49% of the surveyed think that euthanasia should remain strictly prohibited by the Polish law, while 31% think that Polish legal system should legalize euthanasia. The nurses are aware that futile medical care for terminally ill and dying patients does not lead to successful treatment but instead it prolongs dying and suffering, at the same time resulting in extremely high financial costs. In most cases they are advocates of its discontinuing. The surveyed nurses differ in their approach towards euthanasia, some of them supporting the idea, the other--opposing it. Most of them express the opinion that euthanasia should be forbidden in the Polish law and their personal approach towards euthanasia is negative.

  11. Toward a more professional and practical medical education: a novel Central European approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexel, Heinz; Vonbank, Alexander; Fraunberger, Peter; Riesen, Walter F; Saely, Christoph H

    2015-01-01

    We here present an innovative curriculum for a complete medical education that conforms to the current European Bologna system of academic training. The curriculum aims at raising doctors who are excellently prepared for clinical work over as short a time as 5 years; it provides a comprehensive, yet shorter than usual, education that strongly pronounces the importance of increasing the students' practical clinical competences and rigorously excludes superfluous contents. The curriculum encompasses 52 modules, 32 at the bachelor's and 20 at the master's level. Already at the level of the bachelor degree, full employability is given; the students finish the master's course as medical doctors optimally prepared to manage patients at the level of postgraduate medical education. The structure of the curriculum is modular; each modular component is essential for medical education and contains an average of five European Credit Transfer System credits, amounting to 150 hours of education. Depending on the subspecialty, the courses include lectures, seminars, practical laboratory training, and clinical training at varying quantities. In addition to attendance times, sufficient time slots are prepared for self-study in lectures, seminars, and practical work. With our curriculum, we provide an easily applicable backbone for a modern course of medicine that can be installed also at smaller academic institutions.

  12. Healthcare professionals' perceptions on the emotional impact of having an inadequate response to antidepressant medications: survey and prospective patient audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mago, Rajnish; Fagiolini, Andrea; Weiller, Emmanuelle; Weiss, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    Despite the availability of effective antidepressants, about half of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) display an inadequate response to their initial treatment. A large patient survey recently reported that 29.8% of MDD patients experiencing an inadequate treatment response felt frustrated about their medication and 19.2% were frustrated with their healthcare provider. This survey and chart audit evaluated healthcare professionals' (HCP) views on the emotional impact of having an inadequate response to antidepressant medication. HCPs who frequently treat patients with MDD completed a survey and chart audit of their MDD patients currently experiencing an inadequate response to antidepressant treatment. 287 HCPs completed 1336 chart audits. HCPs reported that 38% of their patients were trusting/accepting of their MDD medications and 41% of their patients trusted/felt confident with their healthcare provision. Conversely, HCPs reported that 11% of their patients were frustrated with their medication and 5% with their healthcare benefits. HCPs cited impact on daily life (53%) and treatment issues (lack of efficacy and side effects; 50%) as the main drivers for their patients' feelings of frustration. When HCPs recognized patients' feelings of frustration, the top concerns of the HCPs were worsening of symptoms (43%) and non-compliance (41%). This survey and chart audit highlights the emotional burden associated with inadequate responses to MDD treatment in addition to persistent symptoms. Differences between the views of the HCPs and patients are highlighted and suggest that HCPs may underestimate the full impact that having to try numerous medications has on their patients.

  13. Profile and professional expectations of medical students from 11 Latin American countries: the Red-LIRHUS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Pereyra-Elías, Reneé; Montenegro-Idrogo, Juan José; Mejia, Christian R; Inga-Berrospi, Fiorella; Mezones-Holguín, Edward

    2017-04-20

    Latin America is undergoing a human resource crisis in health care in terms of labor shortage, misdistribution and poor orientation to primary care. Workforce data are needed to inform the planning of long-term strategies to address this problem. This study aimed to evaluate the academic and motivational profile, as well as the professional expectations, of Latin American medical students. We conducted an observational, cross-sectional, multi-country study evaluating medical students from 11 Spanish-speaking countries in 2011-2012. Motivations to study medicine, migration intentions, intent to enter postgraduate programs, and perceptions regarding primary care were evaluated via a self-administered questionnaire. Outcomes were measured with pilot-tested questions and previously validated scales. A total of 11,072 valid surveys from 63 medical schools were gathered and analyzed. This study describes the profile and expectations of the future workforce being trained in Latin America. The obtained information will be useful for governments and universities in planning strategies to improve their current state of affairs regarding human resources for health care professions.

  14. Good practice recommendations - medical-professional control of internal exposure to radionuclides in nuclear base installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berard, Philippe; Blanchin, Nicolas; Fottorino, Robert; Gonin, Michele; Quesne, Benoit; Agrinier, Anne-Laure; Bourgaut, Laurent; Blanchardon, Eric; Challeton de Vathaire, Cecile; Franck, Didier; Piechowski, Jean; Fritsch, Paul; Poncy, Jean-Luc

    2011-07-01

    The first part of this voluminous report presents the context and method of definition of recommendations for a clinical practice and comprises a literature review of national, European and international recommendations, standards and work-group reports. The second part develops recommendations under four main themes: assessment of the committed effective dose (objectives, implementation, communication, traceability and archiving), control programs, dosimetric estimation based on results, and health risk and taking into care by the occupational physician. The authors adopted the same structure for each sub-theme or issue: target extract of regulatory and standard requirements and international recommendations, analysis of literature and of data from professional practices, opinion of the work-group, and graded recommendations with respect to the proof level

  15. Clinical communication skills and professionalism education are required from the beginning of medical training - a point of view of family physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Camila Ament Giuliani Dos Santos; Franco, Renato Soleiman; Lopes, José Mauro Ceratti; Severo, Milton; Ferreira, Maria Amélia

    2018-03-20

    The Brazilian undergraduate medical course is six years long. As in other countries, a medical residency is not obligatory to practice as a doctor. In this context, this paper aims to clarify what and when competencies in communication and professionalism should be addressed, shedding light on the role of university, residency and post-residency programmes. Brazilian family physicians with diverse levels of medical training answered a questionnaire designed to seek a consensus on the competencies that should be taught (key competencies) and when students should achieve them during their medical training. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and correlation tests. A total of seventy-four physicians participated; nearly all participants suggested that the students should achieve communication and professionalism competencies during undergraduate study (twenty out of thirty competencies - 66.7%) or during residency (seven out of thirty competencies - 23.33%). When competencies were analysed in domains, the results were that clinical communication skills and professionalism competencies should be achieved during undergraduate medical education, and interpersonal communication and leadership skills should be reached during postgraduate study. The authors propose that attainment of clinical communication skills and professionalism competencies should be required for undergraduate students. The foundation for Leadership and Interpersonal Abilities should be particularly formed at an undergraduate level and, furthermore, mastered by immersion in the future workplace and medical responsibilities in residency.

  16. [The attitude of the nursing students of Public Higher Medical Professional School in Opole towards the smoking problems in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtal, Mariola; Kurpas, Donata; Bielska, Dorota; Steciwko, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has been main reason of the Polish society health hazard and one of the most widespread unhealthy element of the human life style. Aim of the study is to evaluate the attitude of the nursing students of Public Higher Medical Professional School in Opole towards the smoking problems in Poland. Most of respondents considered the nicotinism problem in Poland as very important--3 of them evaluate importance of problem on the scale of 0 - 10, estimated it from 8, 9 and 10 points. 74.3% of respondents support the opinion to put the total injunction from smoking at public areas into practice. According to respondents, the most effective forms to express a non-smoking lifestyle is to promote the idea of the total injunction from smoking at public areas and the promotion of the nonsmoking people at the mass media.

  17. Gender, money and professional identity: medical social work and the coming of the British National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, George Campbell

    2018-01-01

    The arrival of the British National Health Service (NHS) in 1948 heralded significant changes for all health workers, but the establishment of a 'free' health service was especially meaningful for the hospital almoners-or medical social workers, as they were starting to be known-who had previously been responsible for the assessment and collection of patient payments. It was on this basis they had gained a foothold in the hospital, capitalising on gendered assumptions of financial understanding and behaviour. Yet what might have caused an identity crisis was embraced. This was a dual strategy of both repositioning the profession in alignment with the planned NHS and of asserting an enhanced professional status by distancing themselves from the handling of payment. It was an episode in the history of this distinctly female profession that speaks to women's historic relationship with money.

  18. Web-based social media for professional medical education: Perspectives of senior stakeholders in the nursing home sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitching, Fiona; Winbolt, Margaret; MacPhail, Aleece; Ibrahim, Joseph E

    2015-12-01

    Participatory web-based platforms, including social media, have been recognised as valuable learning tools in healthcare education for over a decade. Use of these platforms is now widespread in tertiary education. It is less widely accepted as a tool for continuing professional education and development at the industry level. This study explores perspectives of senior stakeholders in the nursing home sector to explore perceived benefits, barriers and risks for use in professional education. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews of 'high level' clinical and executive staff from a cross section of nursing home stakeholder organisations. Established printed educational material (PEM) was used as a case study for adaptation to web-based social applications. Questions were designed to gather information about the interviewee's views on the potential to apply PEM to programs such as blogs, Twitter and YouTube to deliver education and aid communication in the sector. Twelve participants from eleven stakeholder organisations took part in the study. Most participants were cautious about the use of social media programs in continuing professional education. Participants described the benefits (contemporary information, delivered rapidly, varying formats) and barriers (credibility of information, potential misinterpretation, sector demographics, time constraints) to uptake of these programs. The majority of participants preferred formal e-learning programs to web-based social media applications. Reservations expressed about the use of social media, such as accuracy, legal and privacy risks to the organisation reflected those previously expressed by the broader medical community. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A qualitative assessment of practitioner perspectives post-introduction of the first Continuous Professional Competence (CPC) guidelines for emergency medical technicians in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Knox, Shane

    2015-01-01

    In November 2013, the Irish Regulator for emergency medical technicians (EMTs) introduced the first mandatory requirement for registrants to demonstrate evidence of continuous professional development (CPD)\\/continuous professional competence (CPC). This qualitative study assessed the experience of practitioners with CPC-related materials provided to them by the Regulator in addition to identifying perceived or encountered practical challenges and suggested improvements six months following introduction of the requirement.

  20. Development of health inter-professional telemedicine practice through simulation scenario training with students of physiotherapy-, occupational therapy-, medical laboratory technology, and nursing education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nortvig, Anne-Mette; Vestergaard, Kitt

    . Aims: The purpose of the project was • to develop practice oriented competences related to telemedicine in an inter-professional and a cross-sectoral context among health professional students of physiotherapy-, occupational therapy-, medical laboratory technology-, and nursing education. • to motivate...... and retain male students by the use of simulation training that involves technology. Methodology: The project was settled as a cross-professional telemedicine course on health educations. Nursing students (N=20) and physiotherapy students (N=34) participated actively and the scenarios were filmed and enacted...

  1. The art of medicine: arts-based training in observation and mindfulness for fostering the empathic response in medical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazulak, Joyce; Sanaee, May; Frolic, Andrea; Knibb, Nicole; Tesluk, Eve; Hughes, Edward; Grierson, Lawrence E M

    2017-09-01

    Empathy is an essential attribute for medical professionals. Yet, evidence indicates that medical learners' empathy levels decline dramatically during medical school. Training in evidence-based observation and mindfulness has the potential to bolster the acquisition and demonstration of empathic behaviours for medical learners. In this prospective cohort study, we explore the impact of a course in arts-based visual literacy and mindfulness practice ( Art of Seeing ) on the empathic response of medical residents engaged in obstetrics and gynaecology and family medicine training. Following this multifaceted arts-based programme that integrates the facilitated viewing of art and dance, art-making, and mindfulness-based practices into a practitioner-patient context, 15 resident trainees completed the previously validated Interpersonal Reactivity Index, Compassion, and Mindfulness Scales. Fourteen participants also participated in semistructured interviews that probed their perceived impacts of the programme on their empathic clinical practice. The results indicated that programme participants improved in the Mindfulness Scale domains related to self-confidence and communication relative to a group of control participants following the arts-based programme. However, the majority of the psychometric measures did not reveal differences between groups over the duration of the programme. Importantly, thematic qualitative analysis of the interview data revealed that the programme had a positive impact on the participants' perceived empathy towards colleagues and patients and on the perception of personal and professional well-being. The study concludes that a multifaceted arts-based curriculum focusing on evidence-based observation and mindfulness is a useful tool in bolstering the empathic response, improving communication, and fostering professional well-being among medical residents. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  2. Assessing the Medication Adherence App Marketplace From the Health Professional and Consumer Vantage Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayer, Lindsey E; Shilling, Rebecca; Van Valkenburg, Madalyn; Martin, Bradley C; Gubbins, Paul O; Hadden, Kristie; Heldenbrand, Seth

    2017-04-19

    Nonadherence produces considerable health consequences and economic burden to patients and payers. One approach to improve medication nonadherence that has gained interest in recent years is the use of smartphone adherence apps. The development of smartphone adherence apps has increased rapidly since 2012; however, literature evaluating the clinical app and effectiveness of smartphone adherence apps to improve medication adherence is generally lacking. The aims of this study were to (1) provide an updated evaluation and comparison of medication adherence apps in the marketplace by assessing the features, functionality, and health literacy (HL) of the highest-ranking adherence apps and (2) indirectly measure the validity of our rating methodology by determining the relationship between our app evaluations and Web-based consumer ratings. Two independent reviewers assessed the features and functionality using a 4-domain rating tool of all adherence apps identified based on developer claims. The same reviewers downloaded and tested the 100 highest-ranking apps including an additional domain for assessment of HL. Pearson product correlations were estimated between the consumer ratings and our domain and total scores. A total of 824 adherence apps were identified; of these, 645 unique apps were evaluated after applying exclusion criteria. The median initial score based on descriptions was 14 (max of 68; range 0-60). As a result, 100 of the highest-scoring unique apps underwent user testing. The median overall user-tested score was 31.5 (max of 73; range 0-60). The majority of the user tested the adherence apps that underwent user testing reported a consumer rating score in their respective online marketplace. The mean consumer rating was 3.93 (SD 0.84). The total user-tested score was positively correlated with consumer ratings (r=.1969, P=.04). More adherence apps are available in the Web-based marketplace, and the quality of these apps varies considerably. Consumer

  3. An innovative educational approach to professional development of medical laboratory scientists in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magowe MK

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mabel KM Magowe,1 Jenny H Ledikwe,2,3 Ishmael Kasvosve,1 Robert Martin,2 Kabo Thankane,3 Bazghina-werq Semo2,31Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana; 2Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA; 3Botswana International Training and Education Center for Health, Gaborone, BotswanaPurpose: To address the shortage of laboratory scientists in Botswana, an innovative, one-year academic bridging program was initiated at the University of Botswana, to advance diploma-holding laboratory technicians towards becoming laboratory scientists holding Bachelor’s degrees. An evaluation was conducted, which described the outcomes of the program and the lessons learned from this novel approach to meeting human resource needs.Methods: This was a cross-sectional, mixed-methods evaluation. Qualitative interviews were conducted with graduates of the Bachelor of Science (BSc Medical Laboratory Sciences (MLS bridging program, along with the graduates’ current supervisors, and key informants who were involved in program development or implementation. The quantitative data collected included a written questionnaire, completed by program graduates, with a retrospective pre-test/post-test survey of graduates’ confidence, in terms of key laboratory competencies.Results: The BSc MLS bridging program produced thirty-three laboratory scientists over 3 years. There was a significant increase in confidence among graduates, for specified competencies, after the program (P<0.05. Graduates reported acquiring new skills and, often, accepting new responsibilities at their former workplace, particularly in relationship to leadership and management. Five graduates enrolled in advanced degree programs. Most graduates assumed increased responsibility. However, only two graduates were promoted after completing the training program. The lessons learned include: the importance of stakeholder involvement, the need for

  4. Professional identity formation in the transition from medical school to working life: a qualitative study of group-coaching courses for junior doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lasson, Lydia; Just, Eva; Stegeager, Nikolaj; Malling, Bente

    2016-06-24

    The transition from student to medical doctor is challenging and stressful to many junior doctors. To practice with confidence and professionalism the junior doctors have to develop a strong professional identity. Various suggestions on how to facilitate formation of professional identity have been offered including the possible positive effect of group-coaching courses. The purpose of this study was to explore how group-coaching might facilitate professional identity formation among junior doctors in the transition period. Group-coaching courses comprising three whole-day sessions and five 2 h sessions during a period of 4 months were offered to junior doctors in the first years after graduation. The purpose was to support the participants' professional development, ability to relate to patients, relatives and staff and career development. The coaches in this study had a background as health professionals combined with coaching educations. Data was obtained through observations, open-ended questionnaires and interviews. A generic thematic analysis was applied. Forty-five doctors participated in six coaching groups. The three main themes emerging in the sessions were: Adoption to medical culture, career planning, and work/life-balance. The junior doctors found the coaching intervention highly useful in order to cope with these challenges. Furthermore, the group was a forum where the junior doctors could share thoughts and feelings with colleagues without being afraid that this would endanger their professional career. Many found new ways to respond to everyday challenges mainly through a new awareness of patterns of thinking and feeling. The participants found that the group-coaching course supported their professional identity formation (thinking, feeling and acting as a doctor), adoption to medical culture, career planning and managing a healthy work/life-balance. Further studies in different contexts are recommended as well as studies using other methods to

  5. Professionalism in plastic surgery: attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors in medical students compared to surgeons in training and practice--one, but not the same.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultman, Charles Scott; Wagner, Ida Janelle

    2015-06-01

    Professionalism is now recognized as a core competency of surgical education and is required for certification and licensure. However, best teaching methods remain elusive, because (1) ethical standards are not absolute, and (2) learning and teaching styles vary considerably-both of which are influenced by cultural and generational forces. We sought to compare attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors in fourth year medical students, compared to surgeons in training and practice, focusing on issues related to professionalism in plastic surgery. Fourth year medical students participating in a capstone course (n = 160), surgical residents (n = 219), and attending surgeons (n = 99) at a single institution were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding surgical professionalism. Participants (1) identified components of professionalism, (2) cited examples of unprofessional behavior, (3) ranked the egregiousness of 30 scenarios, and (4) indicated best educational practices. Cohorts were compared using t test and χ, with statistical significance assigned to P values less than 0.05. Compared to surgeons in training or practice, medical students were younger (27.8 vs 38.0 years, P ethics" as the defining component of professionalism. Respondents from both groups agreed that professionalism could be taught, learned, and assessed. Surgeons (94.3%) had observed unprofessional behavior, as did 88.0% of students; "poor anger management," "dishonesty," and "bullying" were the most common examples. Compared to students, however, surgeons were more likely to witness substance and physical abuse (P company whose product the surgeon uses" (33% vs 13%, P behavioral aspects of professionalism. The fact that some clearly egregious behaviors are not viewed as unethical by individual students, trainees, and surgeons, and that such behavior continues to be observed, indicates the need to improve our efforts in promoting professionalism in plastic surgery.

  6. Medical laboratory technician professional pathologies: a 2006-2016 literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougnet, Richard; Loddé, Brice; Uguen, Marie; Sawicki, Bénédicte; Pougnet, Laurence

    2017-12-01

    The trade of laboratory technician (TL) exposes to many risks to health, because of biological or chemical or physical exposures. But the TL occupation is constantly evolving, the techniques are constantly changing. The purpose of this article is to take stock of the occupational TL pathologies which were recently described in the literature. This is a literature review, based on Medline® and Scopus® medical databases, on publications between 01/01/2006 and 31/12/2016. The research was conducted in French and English. Only articles about TL in Hospital or Teaching Hospital were selected. Twenty-eight articles were studied. The main infectious pathology described was brucellosis and a case of meningitis was studied. The cutaneous allergies reported concerned sensitization to certain solvents. There was no allergy to latex. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) were studied in 4 articles. The main MSDs were low back pain and neck pain. Several articles have alerted on the occurrence of burnout syndrome (BO). However, no prevalence studies were conducted over the period studied. In conclusion, TL can present many occupational pathologies. Few articles studied the prevalence of MSD and BO.

  7. Ethical, legal and professional issues arising from social media coverage by UK Helicopter Emergency Medical Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Sarah; Adcock, Christopher; Steel, Alistair

    2016-01-01

    Social media (SoMe) are gaining increasing acceptance among, and use by, healthcare service deliverers and workers. UK Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) use SoMe to deliver service information and to fundraise, among other purposes. This article examines UK HEMS use of SoMe between January and February 2014 to determine the extent of adoption and to highlight trends in use. The database of the Association of Air Ambulances, crosschecked with UK Emergency Aviation, was used to identify flying, charitable UK HEMS. This search identified 28 UK HEMS, of which 24 services met the criteria for selection for review. Using information harvested from the public domain, we then systematically documented SoMe use by the services. SoMe use by UK HEMS is extensive but not uniform. All selected UK HEMS maintained websites with blogs, as well as Facebook, Twitter, Wikipedia and JustGiving profiles, with the majority of services using Ebay for Charity, LinkedIn and YouTube. Some HEMS also held a presence on Pinterest, Google+, Instagram and Flickr, with a minority of services maintaining their own Rich Site Summary (RSS) feed. The SoMe adopted, while varied, allowed for increased, and different forms of, information delivery by HEMS to the public, often in real time. Such use, though, risks breaching patient confidentiality and data protection requirements, especially when information is viewed cumulatively across platforms. There is an urgent need for the continued development of guidance in this unique setting to protect patients while UK HEMS promote and fundraise for their charitable activities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Survey of practices around pharmaceutical company funding for continuing professional development among medical oncologists and trainees in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeh Chen; Kroon, René; Koczwara, Bogda; Haines, Ian; Francis, Kay; Millward, Michael; Kefford, Richard; Olver, Ian; Mileshkin, Linda

    2017-08-01

    The completion of continuing professional development (CPD) is mandatory for medical oncologists and trainees (MO&T). Pharmaceutical companies may fund some CPD activities, but there is increasing debate about the potential for conflicts of interest (COI). To assess current practices around funding to attend CPD activities. An electronic survey was distributed to Australian MO&T. The survey asked questions about current practices, institutional policies and perceptions about attending CPD funded by pharmaceutical companies. The design looked at comparing responses between MO&T as well as their understanding of and training around institutional and ethical process. A total of 157 of 653 (24%) responses was received, the majority from MO (76%). Most CPD activities attended by MO&T were self-funded (53%), followed by funding from institutions (19%), pharmaceutical companies (16%) and salary award (16%). Most institutions allowed MO&T to receive CPD funding from professional organisations (104/157, 66%) or pharmaceutical companies (90/157, 57%). A minority of respondents (13/157, 8%) reported that the process to use pharmaceutical funds had been considered by an ethics committee. Although 103/157 (66%) had received pharmaceutical funding for CPD, most (109/157, 69%) reported never receiving training about potential COI. The lack of education was more noticeable among trainees (odds ratio (OR) 8.61, P = 0.02). MO&T acknowledged the potential bias towards a pharmaceutical product (P = 0.05) but believed there was adequate separation between themselves and pharmaceutical companies (P < 0.01). Majority of CPD attended by MO&T is self-funded. There is lack of clarity in institutional policies regarding external funding support for CPD activities. Formal education about potential COI is lacking. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  9. Online medical professionalism: patient and public relationships: policy statement from the American College of Physicians and the Federation of State Medical Boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnan, Jeanne M; Snyder Sulmasy, Lois; Worster, Brooke K; Chaudhry, Humayun J; Rhyne, Janelle A; Arora, Vineet M

    2013-04-16

    User-created content and communications on Web-based applications, such as networking sites, media sharing sites, or blog platforms, have dramatically increased in popularity over the past several years, but there has been little policy or guidance on the best practices to inform standards for the professional conduct of physicians in the digital environment. Areas of specific concern include the use of such media for nonclinical purposes, implications for confidentiality, the use of social media in patient education, and how all of this affects the public's trust in physicians as patient-physician interactions extend into the digital environment. Opportunities afforded by online applications represent a new frontier in medicine as physicians and patients become more connected. This position paper from the American College of Physicians and the Federation of State Medical Boards examines and provides recommendations about the influence of social media on the patient-physician relationship, the role of these media in public perception of physician behaviors, and strategies for physician-physician communication that preserve confidentiality while best using these technologies.

  10. Functioning assessment vs. conventional medical assessment : a comparative study on health professionals' clinical decision-making and the fit with patient's own perspective of health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stallinga, Hillegonda A.; Roodbol, Petrie F.; Annema, Coby; Jansen, Gerard J.; Wynia, Klaske

    Aims and objectives. To compare a functioning assessment based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) with a conventional medical assessment, in terms of their respective consequences for health professionals' clinical decision-making and the fit with

  11. Patients' rights in an underserved Nigerian environment: A cross-sectional study of attitude and practice orientation of medical professionals in Abia State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Uche Pascal Iloh

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSION: The level of awareness of patient's rights was very high but did not translate to comparative overall positive attitude and practice orientation. Patient rights should be the focus of intensive continuing medical education and professional development in addition to greater administrative and governmental support, especially in developing economies where there are limited options to safeguard patients' rights.

  12. [Professional competence of the graduates of the clinical residency and internship in the speciality 31.08.10 'forensic medical expertise'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, A V; Romanenko, G Kh; Makarov, I Yu; Zharov, V V; Bereznikov, A V

    The objective of the present study was the definition of the basic professional competences of the graduates of the clinical residency and internship in the speciality 31.08.10 'forensic medical expertise'. The program for the acquirement of the basic knowledge, skills, and professional competences needed to be trained in the speciality 31.08.10 'forensic medical expertise' has been elaborated in the framework of the more extensive program for the clinical residency and internship intended for the training of the highly qualified specialists in this discipline. The preliminary list of basic professional competences of a graduate from the clinical residency and internship has been formulated in accordance with the program for the training of a competitive and highly qualified forensic medical experts. The practical professional activities are considered to be an indispensable component of the training and educational process for a future forensic medical expert. It is believed that the strengthening of this training component will greatly contribute to the improvement of the quality of training of such specialists.

  13. Clarifying the learning experiences of healthcare professionals with in situ and off-site simulation-based medical education: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorensen, J.L.; Navne, L.E.; Martin, H.M.; Ottesen, B.; Albrecthsen, C.K.; Pedersen, B.W.; Kjaergaard, H.; Vleuten, C. van der

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine how the setting in in situ simulation (ISS) and off-site simulation (OSS) in simulation-based medical education affects the perceptions and learning experience of healthcare professionals. DESIGN: Qualitative study using focus groups and content analysis. PARTICIPANTS:

  14. Medical students and personal smartphones in the clinical environment: the impact on confidentiality of personal health information and professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kim; Morra, Dante; Lo, Vivian; Quan, Sherman D; Abrams, Howard; Wu, Robert C

    2014-05-22

    Smartphones are becoming ubiquitous in health care settings. The increased adoption of mobile technology such as smartphones may be attributed to their use as a point-of-care information source and to perceived improvements in clinical communication and efficiency. However, little is known about medical students' use of personal smartphones for clinical work. The intent of the study was to examine final-year medical students' experience with and attitudes toward using personal mobile technology in the clinical environment, with respect to the perceived impact on patient confidentiality and provider professionalism. Cross-sectional surveys were completed by final-year medical students at the University of Toronto. Respondents were asked about the type of personal mobile phone they use, security features on their personal phone, experiences using their personal phone during clinical rotations, and attitudes about using their personal phone for clinical work purposes. The overall response rate was 45.4% (99/218). Smartphone ownership was prevalent (98%, 97/99) with the majority (86%, 85/99) of participants using their personal phones for patient-related communication during clinical rotations. A total of 26% (26/99) of participants reported not having any type of security feature on their personal phone, 94% (90/96) of participants agreed that using their personal phone for clinical work makes them more efficient, and 86% (82/95) agreed that their personal phone allows them to provide better patient care. Although 68% (65/95) of participants believe that the use of personal phones for patient-related communication with colleagues poses a risk to the privacy and confidentiality of patient health information, 22% (21/96) of participants still use their personal phone to text or email identifiable patient data to colleagues. Our findings suggest that the use of personal smartphones for clinical work by medical students is prevalent. There is a need to more fully address

  15. [Professional dysphonia and its risk factors in the material of the outpatient clinic of the Department of Otolaryngology, Medical Academy of Białystok].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosztyła-Hojna, Bozena; Rogowski, Marek; Ruczaj, Jan; Pepiński, Witold

    2004-01-01

    Occurrence of professional dysphonia was analysed in a group of 309 patients treated in the Phoniatric Outpatient Clinic, Department of Otolaryngology, Medical Academy in Białystok through the period of 1999-2001. In a group of professional voice users female teachers of primary schools and lower secondary schools predominated. Obtained results were compared with those from a group of 65 persons of other occupations. In the both groups other harmful factors affecting the voice organ were excluded. The clinical assessment included subjective and objective laryngological examination using videolaryngostroboscopy. The clinical material was evaluated in a view of functional and organic disorders of the voice organ. Early occurrence and aggravation of functional changes in the larynx was recorded in non professional voice users in the course of their seniority. In professional patients organic changes were more common and occurred earlier than functional disorders. Severity of dysphonia was related to the larynx pathology, especially of a functional character.

  16. A simple intervention to reinforce awareness of tanning bed use and skin cancer in non-medical skin care professionals in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Angie T; Chang, Anne Lynn S; Cockburn, Myles; Peng, David H

    2012-11-01

    (i) To assess the baseline knowledge of non-medical skin care professionals (estheticians, cosmetologists, massage therapists) on tanning bed use and its association with melanoma; and (ii) to provide preliminary evidence of the potential impact of a fast and simple educational intervention on tanning beds and melanoma on the awareness of non-medical skin care professionals towards skin cancer prevention. A pre-intervention survey was administered to non-medical skin care professional at salons or spas in Southern California to assess baseline knowledge on tanning and skin cancer. This was followed immediately by a 10-minute oral presentation on tanning bed use and its association with melanoma. One month later, a post-intervention survey was distributed to individuals who attended the initial oral presentation. Significant changes pre- and post-intervention were found in non-medical skin care professionals' answer responses to the following: (i) increased speaking to clients about cancer risk with tanning bed use 42-66% (OR 2.44; 95% CI 1.39, 4.30)]; (ii) decreased personal tanning bed use (23-15% [OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.37, 1.00]); and (iii) decreased belief that tanning beds are an excellent cosmetic tool (29-20% [OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.38, 0.96]). This study provides preliminary evidence that non-medical skin care professionals could be an important source of primary prevention information for reducing the burden of melanoma. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  17. An Account of ... William Cullen: John Thomson and the Making of a Medical Biography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttleton, David E

    2014-01-01

    John Thomson's An Account of the Life, Lectures and Writings of William Cullen (1832; 1859) remains a primary source for the career of the most influential academic physician in eighteenth-century Scotland and is also a significant work of medical history. But this multi-authored text, begun around 1810 by the academic surgeon, John Thomson, but only completed in 1859 by Dr David Craigie, has its own complex history. This chapter addresses what this history can reveal about the development of medical biography as a literary genre. It argues that the Account is a hybrid work shaped by a complex array of practical, domestic, intellectual, and professional pressures, as Thomson, in seeking to bolster his own career, was caught between the demands of Cullen's children for a traditional "Life" and his own more theoretical and socio-cultural interests.

  18. Bolstering the Evidence Base for Integrating Abortion and HIV Care: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Manski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV-positive women have abortions at similar rates to their HIV-negative counterparts, yet little is known about clinical outcomes of abortion for HIV-positive women or the best practices for abortion provision. To fill that gap, we conducted a literature review of clinical outcomes of surgical and medication abortion among HIV-positive women. We identified three studies on clinical outcomes of surgical abortion among HIV-positive women; none showed significant differences in infectious complications by HIV status. A review of seven articles on similar gynecological procedures found no differences in complications by HIV status. No studies evaluated medication abortion among HIV-positive women. However, we did find that previously expressed concerns regarding blood loss and vomiting related to medication abortion for HIV-positive women are unwarranted based on our review of data showing that significant blood loss and vomiting are rare and short lived among women. We conclude that although there is limited research that addresses clinical outcomes of abortion for HIV-positive women, existing data suggest that medication and surgical abortion are safe and appropriate. Sexual and reproductive health and HIV integration efforts must include both options to prevent maternal mortality and morbidity and to ensure that HIV-positive women and women at risk of HIV can make informed reproductive decisions.

  19. Reducing the time-lag between onset of chest pain and seeking professional medical help: a theory-based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baxter Susan K

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests that there are a number of factors which can be associated with delay in a patient seeking professional help following chest pain, including demographic and social factors. These factors may have an adverse impact on the efficacy of interventions which to date have had limited success in improving patient action times. Theory-based methods of review are becoming increasingly recognised as important additions to conventional systematic review methods. They can be useful to gain additional insights into the characteristics of effective interventions by uncovering complex underlying mechanisms. Methods This paper describes the further analysis of research papers identified in a conventional systematic review of published evidence. The aim of this work was to investigate the theoretical frameworks underpinning studies exploring the issue of why people having a heart attack delay seeking professional medical help. The study used standard review methods to identify papers meeting the inclusion criterion, and carried out a synthesis of data relating to theoretical underpinnings. Results Thirty six papers from the 53 in the original systematic review referred to a particular theoretical perspective, or contained data which related to theoretical assumptions. The most frequently mentioned theory was the self-regulatory model of illness behaviour. Papers reported the potential significance of aspects of this model including different coping mechanisms, strategies of denial and varying models of treatment seeking. Studies also drew attention to the potential role of belief systems, applied elements of attachment theory, and referred to models of maintaining integrity, ways of knowing, and the influence of gender. Conclusions The review highlights the need to examine an individual’s subjective experience of and response to health threats, and confirms the gap between knowledge and changed behaviour. Interventions face

  20. The American Medical Association's Section on Surgery: The Beginnings of the Organization, Professionalization, and Specialization of Surgery in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkow, Ira

    2017-01-01

    To explore the founding of the American Medical Association's Section on Surgery in 1859 and how it represented, on a national basis, the beginnings of organized surgery and the formal start of the professionalization and specialization of surgery in the United States. The broad social process of organization, professionalization, and specialization that began for various disciplines in America in the mid-19th century was a reaction to emerging economic, political, and scientific influences including industrialization, urbanization, and technology. For surgeons or, at least, those men who performed surgical operations, the efforts toward group organization provided a means to promote their skills and restrict competition. An analysis of the published literature, and unpublished documents relating to the creation of the American Medical Association's Section on Surgery. During the 1850s and through the 1870s, a time when surgery was still not considered a separate branch of medicine, the organization of the American Medical Association's Section on Surgery provided the much needed encouragement to surgeons in their quest for professional and specialty recognition. The establishment of the American Medical Association's Section on Surgery in 1859 helped shape the nationwide future of the craft, in particular, surgery's rise as a specialty and profession.

  1. Psychological Health of First-Year Health Professional Students in a Medical University in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadayam G Gomathi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the psychological health of first-year health professional students and to study sources of student stress. Methods: All first-year students (N = 125 of the Gulf Medical University (GMU in Ajman, United Arab Emirates (UAE, were invited to participate in a voluntary, anonymous, self-administered, questionnaire-based survey in January 2011. Psychological health was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire, with items related to academic, psychosocial and health domains was used to identify sources of stress. Pearson’s chi-squared test and the Mann-Whitney U-test were used for testing the association between psychological morbidity and sources of stress. Results: A total of 112 students (89.6% completed the survey and the overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was found to be 33.6%. The main academic-related sources of stress were ‘frequency of exams’, ‘academic workload’, and ‘time management’. Major psychosocial stressors were ‘worries regarding future’, ‘high parental expectations’, ‘anxiety’, and ‘dealing with members of the opposite sex’. Health-related issues were ‘irregular eating habits’, ‘lack of exercise’, and ‘sleep-related problems’. Psychological morbidity was not significantly associated with any of the demographic factors studied. However, total stress scores and academics-related domain scores were significantly associated with psychological morbidity. Conclusion: Psychological morbidity was seen in one in three first-year students attending GMU. While worries regarding the future and parental expectations were sources of stress for many students, psychological morbidity was found to be significantly associated with only the total stress and the academic-related domain scores.

  2. Medical marijuana patient counseling points for health care professionals based on trends in the medical uses, efficacy, and adverse effects of cannabis-based pharmaceutical drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Jayesh R; Forrest, Benjamin D; Freeman, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a review of the medical uses, efficacy, and adverse effects of the three approved cannabis-based medications and ingested marijuana. A literature review was conducted utilizing key search terms: dronabinol, nabilone, nabiximols, cannabis, marijuana, smoke, efficacy, toxicity, cancer, multiple sclerosis, nausea, vomiting, appetite, pain, glaucoma, and side effects. Abstracts of the included literature were reviewed, analyzed, and organized to identify the strength of evidence in medical use, efficacy, and adverse effects of the approved cannabis-based medications and medical marijuana. A total of 68 abstracts were included for review. Dronabinol's (Marinol) most common medical uses include weight gain, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), and neuropathic pain. Nabiximol's (Sativex) most common medical uses include spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuropathic pain. Nabilone's (Cesamet) most common medical uses include CINV and neuropathic pain. Smoked marijuana's most common medical uses include neuropathic pain and glaucoma. Orally ingested marijuana's most common medical uses include improving sleep, reducing neuropathic pain, and seizure control in MS. In general, all of these agents share similar medical uses. The reported adverse effects of the three cannabis-based medications and marijuana show a major trend in central nervous system (CNS)-related adverse effects along with cardiovascular and respiratory related adverse effects. Marijuana shares similar medical uses with the approved cannabis-based medications dronabinol (Marinol), nabiximols (Sativex), and nabilone (Cesamet), but the efficacy of marijuana for these medical uses has not been fully determined due to limited and conflicting literature. Medical marijuana also has similar adverse effects as the FDA-approved cannabis-based medications mainly consisting of CNS related adverse effects but also including cardiovascular and respiratory

  3. A multi-institutional study exploring the impact of positive mental health on medical students' professionalism in an era of high burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrbye, Liselotte N; Harper, William; Moutier, Christine; Durning, Steven J; Power, David V; Massie, F Stanford; Eacker, Anne; Thomas, Matthew R; Satele, Daniel; Sloan, Jeff A; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2012-08-01

    Although burnout is associated with erosion of professionalism and serious personal consequences, whether positive mental health can enhance professionalism and how it shapes personal experience remain poorly understood. The study simultaneously explores the relationship between positive mental health and burnout with professionalism and personal experience. The authors surveyed 4,400 medical students at seven U.S. medical schools in 2009 to assess mental health (categorized as languishing, moderate, and flourishing) and burnout. Additional items explored professional behaviors, beliefs, suicidal ideation, and serious thoughts of dropping out. A total of 2,682/4,400 (61%) responded. Prevalence of suicidal ideation (55/114 [48.2%], 281/1,128 [24.9%], and 127/1,409 [9.1%]) and serious thoughts of dropping out (15/114 [13.2%], 30/1,128 [2.7%], and 14/1,409 [1.0%]) decreased as mental health improved from languishing, moderate, and flourishing, respectively (all P mental health persisted independent of burnout (all P mental health improved, the prevalence of unprofessional behaviors (i.e., cheating and dishonest behaviors) also declined, whereas students' altruistic beliefs regarding physicians' responsibility toward society improved. For example, 33/113 (29.2%), 426/1,120 (38.0%), and 718/1,391 (51.6%) of students with languishing, moderate, and flourishing mental health endorsed all five altruistic professional beliefs (P mental health persisted among students with burnout, whereas fewer relationships were found among students without burnout. Findings suggest that positive mental health attenuates some adverse consequences of burnout. Medical student wellness programs should aspire to prevent burnout and promote mental health.

  4. Analyses of inter-rater reliability between professionals, medical students and trained school children as assessors of basic life support skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Stefanie; Ruhnke, Bjarne; Issleib, Malte; Daubmann, Anne; Harendza, Sigrid; Zöllner, Christian

    2016-10-07

    Training of lay-rescuers is essential to improve survival-rates after cardiac arrest. Multiple campaigns emphasise the importance of basic life support (BLS) training for school children. Trainings require a valid assessment to give feedback to school children and to compare the outcomes of different training formats. Considering these requirements, we developed an assessment of BLS skills using MiniAnne and tested the inter-rater reliability between professionals, medical students and trained school children as assessors. Fifteen professional assessors, 10 medical students and 111-trained school children (peers) assessed 1087 school children at the end of a CPR-training event using the new assessment format. Analyses of inter-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient; ICC) were performed. Overall inter-rater reliability of the summative assessment was high (ICC = 0.84, 95 %-CI: 0.84 to 0.86, n = 889). The number of comparisons between peer-peer assessors (n = 303), peer-professional assessors (n = 339), and peer-student assessors (n = 191) was adequate to demonstrate high inter-rater reliability between peer- and professional-assessors (ICC: 0.76), peer- and student-assessors (ICC: 0.88) and peer- and other peer-assessors (ICC: 0.91). Systematic variation in rating of specific items was observed for three items between professional- and peer-assessors. Using this assessment and integrating peers and medical students as assessors gives the opportunity to assess hands-on skills of school children with high reliability.

  5. The role and potentialities of the NRPI in the education of the health professionals and in the public information in the field of radiation protection in medical exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zackova, H.; Horakova, I.

    2008-01-01

    The attention is paid to the role of the National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI) in the support of the education on the pregraduate and postgraduate level. On pregraduate level the NRPI is engaged in education of the students of the Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering (FNSPE) in the field of radiation protection and radiological physics. On the postgraduate level there is an important role of NRPI in the postgraduate education of the health professionals. This education can take advantage of the more than the thirty years cooperation between NRPI and IPVZ (Institute for postgraduate medical education). In the presentation the important data and experience of the courses of radiation protection organized for health professionals will be ShOWll. In the presentation there are also presented activities of the division of medical exposures of the NRPI, which are pointing to the public information. Some typical questions, which have been addressed to NRPI are brought forward and discussed. (authors)

  6. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour to examine health professional students' behavioural intentions in relation to medication safety and collaborative practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapkin, Samuel; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Gilligan, Conor

    2015-08-01

    Safe medication practices depend upon, not only on individual responsibilities, but also effective communication and collaboration between members of the medication team. However, measurement of these skills is fraught with conceptual and practical difficulties. The aims of this study were to explore the utility of a Theory of Planned Behaviour-based questionnaire to predict health professional students' behavioural intentions in relation to medication safety and collaborative practice; and to determine the contribution of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived control to behavioural intentions. A descriptive cross-sectional survey based upon the Theory of Planned Behaviour was designed and tested. A convenience sample of 65 undergraduate pharmacy, nursing and medicine students from one semi-metropolitan Australian university were recruited for the study. Participants' behavioural intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived control to behavioural intentions in relation to medication safety were measured using an online version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour Medication Safety Questionnaire. The Questionnaire had good internal consistency with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.844. The three predictor variables of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived control accounted for between 30 and 46% of the variance in behavioural intention; this is a strong prediction in comparison to previous studies using the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Data analysis also indicated that attitude was the most significant predictor of participants' intention to collaborate with other team members to improve medication safety. The results from this study provide preliminary support for the Theory of Planned Behaviour-Medication Safety Questionnaire as a valid instrument for examining health professional students' behavioural intentions in relation to medication safety and collaborative practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Differences in Faculty and Standardized Patient Scores on Professionalism for Second-Year Podiatric Medical Students During a Standardized Simulated Patient Encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, James M; Vardaxis, Vassilios; Anwar, Noreen; Hagenbucher, Jacob

    2018-03-01

    This study examined the differences between faculty and trained standardized patient (SP) evaluations on student professionalism during a second-year podiatric medicine standardized simulated patient encounter. Forty-nine second-year podiatric medicine students were evaluated for their professionalism behavior. Eleven SPs performed an assessment in real-time, and one faculty member performed a secondary assessment after observing a videotape of the encounter. Five domains were chosen for evaluation from a validated professionalism assessment tool. Significant differences were identified in the professionalism domains of "build a relationship" ( P = .008), "gather information" ( P = .001), and share information ( P = .002), where the faculty scored the students higher than the SP for 24.5%, 18.9%, and 26.5% of the cases, respectively. In addition, the faculty scores were higher than the SP scores in all of the "gather information" subdomains; however, the difference in scores was significant only in the "question appropriately" ( P = .001) and "listen and clarify" ( P = .003) subdomains. This study showed that professionalism scores for second-year podiatric medical students during a simulated patient encounter varied significantly between faculty and SPs. Further consideration needs to be given to determine the source of these differences.

  8. Professional fulfillment and parenting work-life balance in female physicians in Basic Sciences and medical research: a nationwide cross-sectional survey of all 80 medical schools in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yuka; Uka, Takanori; Marui, Eiji

    2017-09-15

    In Japan, the field of Basic Sciences encompasses clinical, academic, and translational research, as well as the teaching of medical sciences, with both an MD and PhD typically required. In this study, it was hypothesized that the characteristics of a Basic Sciences career path could offer the professional advancement and personal fulfillment that many female medical doctors would find advantageous. Moreover, encouraging interest in Basic Sciences could help stem shortages that Japan is experiencing in medical fields, as noted in the three principal contributing factors: premature resignation of female clinicians, an imbalance of female physicians engaged in research, and a shortage of medical doctors in the Basic Sciences. This study examines the professional and personal fulfillment expressed by Japanese female medical doctors who hold positions in Basic Sciences. Topics include career advancement, interest in medical research, and greater flexibility for parenting. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was distributed at all 80 medical schools in Japan, directed to 228 female medical doctors whose academic rank was assistant professor or higher in departments of Basic Sciences in 2012. Chi-square tests and the binary logistic regression model were used to investigate the impact of parenthood on career satisfaction, academic rank, salary, etc. The survey response rate of female physicians in Basic Sciences was 54.0%. Regardless of parental status, one in three respondents cited research interest as their rationale for entering Basic Sciences, well over twice other motivations. A majority had clinical experience, with clinical duties maintained part-time by about half of respondents and particularly parents. Only one third expressed afterthoughts about relinquishing full-time clinical practice, with physicians who were parents expressing stronger regrets. Parental status had little effect on academic rank and income within the Basic Sciences, CONCLUSION

  9. SU-B-BRF-01: Professional Council Symposium: The Evolving US Healthcare Delivery Model, How Will the Medical Physics Profession Be Impacted and How Should We Respond?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halvorsen, P; Shine, K; White, G

    2014-01-01

    The United States' healthcare delivery model is undergoing significant change. Insurance and reimbursement models are rapidly evolving, federal allocations are shifting from specialty services to preventive and generalpractice services, and Accountable Care Organizations are gaining in prominence. One area of focus is on the perceived over-utilization of expensive services such as advanced imaging and, in some cases, radiation therapy. Reimbursement incentives are increasingly aimed at quality metrics, leading to an increased interest in the core concepts of High Reliability Organizations. With the shift in federal resources away from specialty services and the increasing prominence of Accountable Care Organizations, we will likely be challenged to re-assess our traditional model for delivering medical physics services. Medical physicists have a unique combination of education and training in physics principles, radiation physics applications in medicine, human anatomy, as well as safety analysis and quality control methods. An effective medical physicist recognizes that to advance the institution's mission, the medical physicist must join other professional leaders within the institution to provide clear direction and perspective for the entire team. To do that, we must first recognize the macro changes in our healthcare delivery system and candidly assess how the medical physics practice model can evolve in a prudent way to support the institution's objectives while maintaining the traditionally high level of quality and safety. This year's Professional Council Symposium will explore the many facets of the changing healthcare system and its potential impact on medical physics. Dr. Shine will provide an overview of the developing healthcare delivery and reimbursement models, with a focus on how the physician community has adapted to the changing objectives. Mr. White will describe recent changes in the reimbursement patterns for both imaging

  10. SU-B-BRF-01: Professional Council Symposium: The Evolving US Healthcare Delivery Model, How Will the Medical Physics Profession Be Impacted and How Should We Respond?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, P [Lahey Clinic, Burlington, MA (United States); Shine, K [Austin, TX (United States); White, G [Colorado Associates in Medical Phys, Colorado Springs, CO (United States)

    2014-06-15

    The United States' healthcare delivery model is undergoing significant change. Insurance and reimbursement models are rapidly evolving, federal allocations are shifting from specialty services to preventive and generalpractice services, and Accountable Care Organizations are gaining in prominence. One area of focus is on the perceived over-utilization of expensive services such as advanced imaging and, in some cases, radiation therapy. Reimbursement incentives are increasingly aimed at quality metrics, leading to an increased interest in the core concepts of High Reliability Organizations. With the shift in federal resources away from specialty services and the increasing prominence of Accountable Care Organizations, we will likely be challenged to re-assess our traditional model for delivering medical physics services. Medical physicists have a unique combination of education and training in physics principles, radiation physics applications in medicine, human anatomy, as well as safety analysis and quality control methods. An effective medical physicist recognizes that to advance the institution's mission, the medical physicist must join other professional leaders within the institution to provide clear direction and perspective for the entire team. To do that, we must first recognize the macro changes in our healthcare delivery system and candidly assess how the medical physics practice model can evolve in a prudent way to support the institution's objectives while maintaining the traditionally high level of quality and safety. This year's Professional Council Symposium will explore the many facets of the changing healthcare system and its potential impact on medical physics. Dr. Shine will provide an overview of the developing healthcare delivery and reimbursement models, with a focus on how the physician community has adapted to the changing objectives. Mr. White will describe recent changes in the reimbursement patterns for both imaging

  11. Portrayal of radiology in a major medical television series: How does it influence the perception of radiology among patients and radiology professionals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heye, T.; Merkle, E.M.; Boll, D.T.; Leyendecker, J.R.; Gupta, R.T.

    2016-01-01

    To assess how the portrayal of Radiology on medical TV shows is perceived by patients and radiology professionals. In this IRB-approved study with patient consent waived, surveys were conducted among adult patients scheduled for radiological examinations and radiology professionals. The questionnaire investigated medical TV watching habits including interest in medical TV shows, appearance of radiological examination/staff, radiology's role in diagnosis-making, and rating of the shows' accuracy in portraying radiology relative to reality. One hundred and twenty-six patients and 240 professionals (133 technologists, 107 radiologists) participated. 63.5 % patients and 63.2 % technologists rated interest in medical TV shows ≥5 (scale 1-10) versus 38.3 % of radiologists. All groups noted regular (every 2nd/3rd show) to >1/show appearance of radiological examinations in 58.5-88.2 % compared to 21.0-46.2 % for radiological staff appearance. Radiology played a role in diagnosis-making regularly to >1/show in 45.3-52.6 %. There is a positive correlation for interest in medical TV and the perception that radiology is accurately portrayed for patients (r = 0.49; P = 0.001) and technologists (r = 0.38; P = 0.001) but not for radiologists (r = 0.01). The majority of patients perceive the portrayed content as accurate. Radiologists should be aware of this cultivation effect to understand their patients' behaviour which may create false expectations towards radiological examinations and potential safety hazards. (orig.)

  12. Placement, support, and retention of health professionals: national, cross-sectional findings from medical and dental community service officers in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Abigail M; Onah, Michael; Kornik, Saul; Peacocke, Julia; Reid, Stephen

    2014-02-26

    In South Africa, community service following medical training serves as a mechanism for equitable distribution of health professionals and their professional development. Community service officers are required to contribute a year towards serving in a public health facility while receiving supervision and remuneration. Although the South African community service programme has been in effect since 1998, little is known about how placement and practical support occur, or how community service may impact future retention of health professionals. National, cross-sectional data were collected from community service officers who served during 2009 using a structured self-report questionnaire. A Supervision Satisfaction Scale (SSS) was created by summing scores of five questions rated on a three-point Likert scale (orientation, clinical advising, ongoing mentorship, accessibility of clinic leadership, and handling of community service officers' concerns). Research endpoints were guided by community service programmatic goals and analysed as dichotomous outcomes. Bivariate and multivariate logistical regressions were conducted using Stata 12. The sample population comprised 685 doctors and dentists (response rate 44%). Rural placement was more likely among unmarried, male, and black practitioners. Rates of self-reported professional development were high (470 out of 539 responses; 87%). Participants with higher scores on the SSS were more likely to report professional development. Although few participants planned to continue work in rural, underserved communities (n = 171 out of 657 responses, 25%), those serving in a rural facility during the community service year had higher intentions of continuing rural work. Those reporting professional development during the community service year were twice as likely to report intentions to remain in rural, underserved communities. Despite challenges in equitable distribution of practitioners, participant satisfaction with the

  13. Can online consumers contribute to drug knowledge? A mixed-methods comparison of consumer-generated and professionally controlled psychotropic medication information on the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Shannon; Cohen, David

    2011-07-29

    Ongoing initiatives to filter online health searches exclude consumer-generated content from search returns, though its inferiority compared with professionally controlled content is not demonstrated. The antidepressant escitalopram and the antipsychotic quetiapine have ranked over the last 5 years as top-selling agents in their respective drug classes. Both drugs have various off-label mental health and non-mental health uses, ranging from the relief of insomnia and migraines to the treatment of severe developmental disorders. Our objective was to describe the most frequently reported effects of escitalopram and quetiapine in online consumer reviews, to compare them with effects described in professionally controlled commercial health websites, and to gauge the usability of online consumer medication reviews. A stratified simple random sample of 960 consumer reviews was selected from all 6998 consumer reviews of the two drugs in 2 consumer-generated (www.askapatient.com and www.crazymeds.us) and 2 professionally controlled (www.webmd.com and www.revolutionhealth.com) health websites. Professional medication descriptions included all standard information on the medications from the latter 2 websites. All textual data were inductively coded for medication effects, and intercoder agreement was assessed. Chi-square was used to test for associations between consumer-reported effects and website origination. Consumers taking either escitalopram (n = 480) or quetiapine (n = 480) most frequently reported symptom improvement (30.4% or 146/480, 24.8% or 119/480) or symptom worsening (15.8% or 76/480, 10.2% or 49/480), changes in sleep (36% or 173/480, 60.6% or 291/480) and changes in weight and appetite (22.5% or 108/480, 30.8% or 148/480). More consumers posting reviews on consumer-generated rather than professionally controlled websites reported symptom worsening on quetiapine (17.3% or 38/220 versus 5% or 11/220, P concise yet comprehensive listing of drug effects, while

  14. Psychological maintenance as an integrated approach to prevention and correction of professional burning out of the medical staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Kucher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome of professional burning out is a complex of symptoms and signs evidenced in various negative psychic conditions at individual, interpersonal and organizational levels. It is formed owing to a long mismatch between the requirements of the professional environment and the resources of the expert. Analysis of the preventive and correctional programs as a psychological assistance showed insufficiency of such approach. Creation of preventive and correctional programs within psychological maintenance from the position of involution of professional resources, taking into account the theoretical - methodological basis (the concept, the purposes, tasks, system approach, criteria of efficiency and the subjective-personal resources of counteraction directed at activization to burning out at all stages of professional development is progressive.

  15. The difficulty of professional continuation among female doctors in Japan: a qualitative study of alumnae of 13 medical schools in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Yuka; Gruppen, Larry D; Horie, Saki; Takeuchi, Masumi; Illing, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the difficulties Japanese female doctors face in continuing professional practice. Design A qualitative study using the Kawakita Jiro method. Setting A survey conducted in 2011 of 13 private Japanese medical school alumni associations. Participants 359 female doctors. Primary outcome measures Barriers of balancing work and gender role. Results The female doctors reported that professional practice was a struggle with long working hours due to a current shortage of doctors in Japan. There was also a severe shortage of childcare facilities in the workplace. Some women appeared to have low confidence in balancing the physician's job and personal life, resulting in low levels of professional pursuit. There appeared to be two types of stereotypical gender roles, including one expected from society, stating that “child rearing is a woman's job”, and the other perceived by the women themselves, that some women had a very strong desire to raise their own children. Male doctors and some female doctors who were single or older were perceived to be less enthusiastic about supporting women who worked while raising children because these coworkers feared that they would have to perform additional work as a result of the women taking long periods of leave. Conclusions Important factors identified for promoting the continuation of professional practice among female doctors in Japan were the need to improve working conditions, including cutting back on long working hours, a solution to the shortage of nurseries, a need for the introduction of educational interventions to clarify professional responsibilities, and redefinition of the gender division of labour for male and female doctors. In addition, we identified a need to modernise current employment practices by introducing temporary posts to cover maternity leave and introducing flexible working hours during specialist training, thus supporting and encouraging more women to continue their medical

  16. The difficulty of professional continuation among female doctors in Japan: a qualitative study of alumnae of 13 medical schools in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Yuka; Gruppen, Larry D; Horie, Saki; Takeuchi, Masumi; Illing, Jan

    2015-03-27

    To investigate the difficulties Japanese female doctors face in continuing professional practice. A qualitative study using the Kawakita Jiro method. A survey conducted in 2011 of 13 private Japanese medical school alumni associations. 359 female doctors. Barriers of balancing work and gender role. The female doctors reported that professional practice was a struggle with long working hours due to a current shortage of doctors in Japan. There was also a severe shortage of childcare facilities in the workplace. Some women appeared to have low confidence in balancing the physician's job and personal life, resulting in low levels of professional pursuit. There appeared to be two types of stereotypical gender roles, including one expected from society, stating that "child rearing is a woman's job", and the other perceived by the women themselves, that some women had a very strong desire to raise their own children. Male doctors and some female doctors who were single or older were perceived to be less enthusiastic about supporting women who worked while raising children because these coworkers feared that they would have to perform additional work as a result of the women taking long periods of leave. Important factors identified for promoting the continuation of professional practice among female doctors in Japan were the need to improve working conditions, including cutting back on long working hours, a solution to the shortage of nurseries, a need for the introduction of educational interventions to clarify professional responsibilities, and redefinition of the gender division of labour for male and female doctors. In addition, we identified a need to modernise current employment practices by introducing temporary posts to cover maternity leave and introducing flexible working hours during specialist training, thus supporting and encouraging more women to continue their medical careers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  17. Willingness to work in rural areas and the role of intrinsic versus extrinsic professional motivations - a survey of medical students in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Retaining health workers in rural areas is challenging for a number of reasons, ranging from personal preferences to difficult work conditions and low remuneration. This paper assesses the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on willingness to accept postings to deprived areas among medical students in Ghana. Methods A computer-based survey involving 302 fourth year medical students was conducted from May-August 2009. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between students' willingness to accept rural postings and their professional motivations, rural exposure and family parental professional and educational status (PPES). Results Over 85% of students were born in urban areas and 57% came from affluent backgrounds. Nearly two-thirds of students reported strong intrinsic motivation to study medicine. After controlling for demographic characteristics and rural exposure, motivational factors did not influence willingness to practice in rural areas. High family PPES was consistently associated with lower willingness to work in rural areas. Conclusions Although most Ghanaian medical students are motivated to study medicine by the desire to help others, this does not translate into willingness to work in rural areas. Efforts should be made to build on intrinsic motivation during medical training and in designing rural postings, as well as favour lower PPES students for admission. PMID:21827698

  18. Willingness to work in rural areas and the role of intrinsic versus extrinsic professional motivations - a survey of medical students in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzodzomenyo Mawuli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retaining health workers in rural areas is challenging for a number of reasons, ranging from personal preferences to difficult work conditions and low remuneration. This paper assesses the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on willingness to accept postings to deprived areas among medical students in Ghana. Methods A computer-based survey involving 302 fourth year medical students was conducted from May-August 2009. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between students' willingness to accept rural postings and their professional motivations, rural exposure and family parental professional and educational status (PPES. Results Over 85% of students were born in urban areas and 57% came from affluent backgrounds. Nearly two-thirds of students reported strong intrinsic motivation to study medicine. After controlling for demographic characteristics and rural exposure, motivational factors did not influence willingness to practice in rural areas. High family PPES was consistently associated with lower willingness to work in rural areas. Conclusions Although most Ghanaian medical students are motivated to study medicine by the desire to help others, this does not translate into willingness to work in rural areas. Efforts should be made to build on intrinsic motivation during medical training and in designing rural postings, as well as favour lower PPES students for admission.

  19. Willingness to work in rural areas and the role of intrinsic versus extrinsic professional motivations - a survey of medical students in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Kotha, S Rani; Johnson, Jennifer C; Gyakobo, Mawuli; Asabir, Kwesi; Kwansah, Janet; Nakua, Emmanuel; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Snow, Rachel C; Kruk, Margaret E

    2011-08-09

    Retaining health workers in rural areas is challenging for a number of reasons, ranging from personal preferences to difficult work conditions and low remuneration. This paper assesses the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on willingness to accept postings to deprived areas among medical students in Ghana. A computer-based survey involving 302 fourth year medical students was conducted from May-August 2009. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between students' willingness to accept rural postings and their professional motivations, rural exposure and family parental professional and educational status (PPES). Over 85% of students were born in urban areas and 57% came from affluent backgrounds. Nearly two-thirds of students reported strong intrinsic motivation to study medicine. After controlling for demographic characteristics and rural exposure, motivational factors did not influence willingness to practice in rural areas. High family PPES was consistently associated with lower willingness to work in rural areas. Although most Ghanaian medical students are motivated to study medicine by the desire to help others, this does not translate into willingness to work in rural areas. Efforts should be made to build on intrinsic motivation during medical training and in designing rural postings, as well as favour lower PPES students for admission.

  20. Factors affecting job satisfaction and retention of medical laboratory professionals in seven countries of Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinucci, Francesco; Majigo, Mtebe; Wattleworth, Matthew; Paterniti, Antonio Damiano; Hossain, Mian Bazle; Redfield, Robert

    2013-08-17

    Effective implementation and sustainability of quality laboratory programmes in Sub-Saharan Africa relies on the development of appropriate staff retention strategies. Assessing the factors responsible for job satisfaction and retention is key for tailoring specific interventions aiming at improving the overall impact of health programmes. A survey was developed to assess these factors among 224 laboratorians working in the laboratory programme the University of Maryland implemented in seven Sub-Saharan African countries. Lack of professional development was the major reason for leaving the previous job for 28% of interviewees who changed jobs in the past five years. Professional development/training opportunities was indicated by almost 90% (195/224) of total interviewees as the most important or a very important factor for satisfaction at their current job. Similarly, regular professional development/opportunities for training was the highest rated incentive to remain at their current job by 80% (179/224). Laboratory professionals employed in the private sector were more likely to change jobs than those working in the public sector (P = 0.002). The findings were used for developing specific strategies for human resources management, in particular targeting professional development, aiming at improving laboratory professionals within the University of Maryland laboratory programme and hence its long-term sustainability.

  1. Multi-professional clinical medication reviews in care homes for the elderly: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial with cost effectiveness analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sach Tracey

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence demonstrates that measures are needed to optimise therapy and improve administration of medicines in care homes for older people. The aim of this study is to determine the clinical and cost effectiveness of a novel model of multi-professional medication review. Methods A cluster randomised controlled trial design, involving thirty care homes. In line with current practice in medication reviews, recruitment and consent will be sought from general practitioners and care homes, rather than individual residents. Care homes will be segmented according to size and resident mix and allocated to the intervention arm (15 homes or control arm (15 homes sequentially using minimisation. Intervention homes will receive a multi-professional medication review at baseline and at 6 months, with follow-up at 12 months. Control homes will receive usual care (support they currently receive from the National Health Service, with data collection at baseline and 12 months. The novelty of the intervention is a review of medications by a multi-disciplinary team. Primary outcome measures are number of falls and potentially inappropriate prescribing. Secondary outcome measures include medication costs, health care resource use, hospitalisations and mortality. The null hypothesis proposes no difference in primary outcomes between intervention and control patients. The primary outcome variable (number of falls will be analysed using a linear mixed model, with the intervention specified as a fixed effect and care homes included as a random effect. Analyses will be at the level of the care home. The economic evaluation will estimate the cost-effectiveness of the intervention compared to usual care from a National Health Service and personal social services perspective. The study is not measuring the impact of the intervention on professional working relationships, the medicines culture in care homes or the generic health-related quality of life of

  2. "We can see a future here": Place attachment, professional identity, and forms of capital mobilized to deliver medical education in an underserviced area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Neil; Halseth, Greg; Snadden, David