WorldWideScience

Sample records for bolometric x-ray sensors

  1. Colossal Magnetoresistive Manganite Based Fast Bolometric X-ray Sensors for Total Energy Measurements of Free Electron Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong, G J; Kolagani, R M; Adhikari, S; Mundle, R M; Cox, D W; Davidson III, A L; Liang, Y; Drury, O B; Hau-Riege, S P; Gardner, C; Ables, E; Bionta, R M; Friedrich, S

    2008-12-17

    Bolometric detectors based on epitaxial thin films of rare earth perovskite manganites have been proposed as total energy monitors for X-ray pulses at the Linac Coherent Light Source free electron laser. We demonstrate such a detector scheme based on epitaxial thin films of the perovskite manganese oxide material Nd{sub 0.67}Sr{sub x0.33}MnO{sub 3}, grown by pulsed laser deposition on buffered silicon substrates. The substrate and sensor materials are chosen to meet the conflicting requirements of radiation hardness, sensitivity, speed and linearity over a dynamic range of three orders of magnitude. The key challenge in the material development is the integration of the sensor material with Si. Si is required to withstand the free electron laser pulse impact and to achieve a readout speed three orders of magnitude faster than conventional cryoradiometers for compatibility with the Linac Coherent Light Source pulse rate. We discuss sensor material development and the photoresponse of prototype devices. This Linac Coherent Light Source total energy monitor represents the first practical application of manganite materials as bolometric sensors.

  2. Sensors for x-ray astronomy satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Fumiyoshi; Kondo, Ichiro; Nishioka, Yonero; Kameda, Yoshihiko; Kubo, Masaki.

    1980-01-01

    For the purpose of observing the cosmic X-ray, the cosmic X-ray astronomy satellite (CORSA-b, named ''Hakucho'', Japanese for cygnus,) was launched Feb. 21, 1979 by Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science, University of Tokyo. The primary objectives of the satellite are: to perform panoramic survey of the space for X-ray bursts and to perform the spectral and temporal measurement of X-ray sources. The very soft X-ray sensor for X-ray observation and the horizon sensor for spacecraft attitude sensing were developed by Toshiba Corporation under technical support by University of Tokyo and Nagoya University for ''Hakucho''. The features of these sensors are outlined in this paper. (author)

  3. Radioluminescent clad optical fibre X-ray sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitzpatrick, C.; O'Donoghue, C.; Lewis, E.; Schöbel, J.; Bastaiens, B.; Bastiaens, Hubertus M.J.; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.

    2003-01-01

    An optical fibre X-ray sensor using cladding to core coupling of radioluminescent emissions from X-ray phosphors is presented. The sensor is tested using a line source normally used in the pre-ionisation of an excimer laser and is calibrated against a pendosimeter and the emission intensity of a

  4. Study of x-ray CCD image sensor and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuyun; Li, Tianze

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we expounded the composing, specialty, parameter, its working process, key techniques and methods for charge coupled devices (CCD) twice value treatment. Disposal process for CCD video signal quantification was expatiated; X-ray image intensifier's constitutes, function of constitutes, coupling technique of X-ray image intensifier and CCD were analyzed. We analyzed two effective methods to reduce the harm to human beings when X-ray was used in the medical image. One was to reduce X-ray's radiation and adopt to intensify the image penetrated by X-ray to gain the same effect. The other was to use the image sensor to transfer the images to the safe area for observation. On this base, a new method was presented that CCD image sensor and X-ray image intensifier were combined organically. A practical medical X-ray photo electricity system was designed which can be used in the records and time of the human's penetrating images. The system was mainly made up with the medical X-ray, X-ray image intensifier, CCD vidicon with high resolution, image processor, display and so on. Its characteristics are: change the invisible X-ray into the visible light image; output the vivid images; short image recording time etc. At the same time we analyzed the main aspects which affect the system's resolution. Medical photo electricity system using X-ray image sensor can reduce the X-ray harm to human sharply when it is used in the medical diagnoses. At last we analyzed and looked forward the system's application in medical engineering and the related fields.

  5. Characterization of Scintillating X-ray Optical Fiber Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporea, Dan; Mihai, Laura; Vâţă, Ion; McCarthy, Denis; O'Keeffe, Sinead; Lewis, Elfed

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a set of tests carried out in order to evaluate the design characteristics and the operating performance of a set of six X-ray extrinsic optical fiber sensors. The extrinsic sensor we developed is intended to be used as a low energy X-ray detector for monitoring radiation levels in radiotherapy, industrial applications and for personnel dosimetry. The reproducibility of the manufacturing process and the characteristics of the sensors were assessed. The sensors dynamic range, linearity, sensitivity, and reproducibility are evaluated through radioluminescence measurements, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray imaging investigations. Their response to the operating conditions of the excitation source was estimated. The effect of the sensors design and implementation, on the collecting efficiency of the radioluminescence signal was measured. The study indicated that the sensors are efficient only in the first 5 mm of the tip, and that a reflective coating can improve their response. Additional tests were done to investigate the concentricity of the sensors tip against the core of the optical fiber guiding the optical signal. The influence of the active material concentration on the sensor response to X-ray was studied. The tests were carried out by measuring the radioluminescence signal with an optical fiber spectrometer and with a Multi-Pixel Photon Counter. PMID:24556676

  6. Beamstop with integrated X-ray sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Paul J; Cohen, Aina E; Soltis, S Michael

    2003-05-01

    A versatile beamstop with an integrated sensor has been developed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) using non-specialized components. A diameter of 1.5 mm was achieved using a commercial subminiature surface mount PIN diode (Phillips BAP64) molded into a tungsten epoxy composite cup. The cup is supported on a thin fiberglass arm with printed circuit traces to transmit the signal from the diode. The assembly has an active area of approximately 100 micro m in diameter. As the diode is encapsulated in plastic, the response diminishes with decreasing energy but is still useful at 6 keV.

  7. Development of X-ray microcalorimeters using transition edge sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukibe, M; Hirayama, F.; Tanaka, K.; Koyanagi, M.; Ohkubo, M.; Kobayashi, N.; Morooka, T.; Chinone, K.

    2000-01-01

    We are developing X-ray microcalorimeters using superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs), which can be operated at relatively high temperatures in a 3 He cryostat, and DC-SQUID current amplifiers to realize an X-ray spectroscopy with a high energy resolution and a high counting rate. The TESs are proximity bilayers of Ti and Au on SiN x membranes with 500-1000 nm thicknesses. The typical TES has a T c value of 0.4 K and a ΔT c value of 2 mK. Two types of DC-SQUID amplifiers were developed; the single stage with 200-series SQUIDs and the double stage with an input SQUID and 50-series SQUIDs. The X-ray detection experiment is in progress. (author)

  8. Transition edge sensors for bolometric applications: responsivity and saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldie, D. J.; Audley, M. D.; Glowacka, D. M.; Tsaneva, V. N.; Withington, S.

    2008-01-01

    Microstrip-coupled transition edge sensors (TESs) combined with waveguide-horn technology produce sensitive bolometric detectors with well-defined, single-mode beam patterns and excellent polarization characteristics. These devices are now being deployed for astronomical observations. In bolometric applications, where power levels are monitored, the critical parameter that characterizes the detection is the power-to-current responsivity s I (ω), where ω is the postdetection angular frequency. In real applications, such as on a ground-based telescope, the signal of interest is superimposed on a background such as the thermal emission from the atmosphere. The power emitted by the atmosphere changes slowly in time and these changes may change the responsivity of the detector. A detailed understanding of how s I (ω) changes as a function of applied power levels and how the TES response saturates is vital for accurate calibration of astronomical data. In this paper we describe measurements of the changes in the current flowing through a TES as a function of the circuit bias and the applied power. From these measurements we calculate the efficiency of the coupling of power into the TES from a closely thermally coupled microstrip termination resistor and we determine the zero frequency responsivity s I (0) as a function of both the circuit bias and power. The variation of the responsivity is compared with predictions of a small-signal model: for the case when the loop gain L I is high, when simplifying approximations to the full solution to the electrothermal equations apply; and using the electrothermal parameters of the TES, determined by impedance measurements, as inputs to the full model solution. We find good agreement between theory and measurement in both cases in the relevant regimes

  9. X-ray microcalorimeter based on superconducting transition edge sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Masashi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Damayanthi, R M Thushara; Minamikawa, Yasuhiro; Mori, Fumiakira

    2008-01-01

    We have tried to realize an X-ray imaging spectrometer based on the superconducting transition edge sensor (TES) with high energy resolution, a large pixel array, a relatively high absorption efficiency and a high count rate. Our single pixel of Ir/Au TES achieved an excellent energy resolution of 9.4 eV for 5.9 keV X-rays. We have also proposed a pixellated array of Ir-TES where we slightly modify the bias point of each pixel and identify the pixel from the response function of each pixel. Our 10-pixel device, where all pixels are parallel biased, obtained 13 eV (FWHM) at 3 keV energy resolution and 80 microm position resolution. So far, we could successfully operate a 20-pixels device. Further, we are now trying to improve the count rate and the absorption efficiency of TESes, by developing our original new TES geometry which having a radiation absorber that self-adjusts the operating temperature.

  10. Novel large-area MIS-type x-ray image sensor for digital radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameshima, Toshio; Kaifu, Noriyuki; Takami, Eiichi; Morishita, Masakazu; Yamazaki, Tatsuya

    1998-07-01

    We have developed a brand new, large-area X-ray image sensor for Digital Radiography System (DRS). The sensor utilizes a thin film transistor (TFT)/metal insulator semiconductor (MIS)-type photoelectric converter array made from hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The sensor has 2688 X 2688 pixels at a pitch of 160 micrometer. The active area is 17 inch X 17 inch. The sensor utilizes scintillator coupled to the array. The light generated by X-rays is detected by the MIS-type photoelectric converters, and the resultant signals are scanned out by switching the TFTs. The a-Si TFT/MIS-type photoelectric converter array is characterized by high signal to noise ratio (SNR) and simple fabrication process. We will describe the principle and the performance of the sensor. In addition, we will present some X-ray images of a human subject obtained with this sensor. Dynamic range of the sensor covers most of the exposure range for radiography. SNR is limited almost only by the X-ray photon noise. MTF is sufficient for digital chest radiography. X-ray images have good contrast. The experimental results and obtained images show that the brand new sensor has great advantages for replacing X-ray film. The simple fabrication process of the sensor promises high productivity and low cost of DRS.

  11. Microstructure Analysis of Bismuth Absorbers for Transition-Edge Sensor X-ray Microcalorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Daikang; Divan, Ralu; Gades, Lisa M.; Kenesei, Peter; Madden, Timothy J.; Miceli, Antonino; Park, Jun-Sang; Patel, Umeshkumar M.; Quaranta, Orlando; Sharma, Hemant; Bennett, Douglas A.; Doriese, William B.; Fowler, Joseph W.; Gard, Johnathon D.; Hays-Wehle, James P.; Morgan, Kelsey M.; Schmidt, Daniel R.; Swetz, Daniel S.; Ullom, Joel N.

    2018-03-01

    Given its large X-ray stopping power and low specific heat capacity, bismuth (Bi) is a promising absorber material for X-ray microcalorimeters and has been used with transition-edge sensors (TESs) in the past. However, distinct X-ray spectral features have been observed in TESs with Bi absorbers deposited with different techniques. Evaporated Bi absorbers are widely reported to have non-Gaussian low-energy tails, while electroplated ones do not show this feature. In this study, we fabricated Bi absorbers with these two methods and performed microstructure analysis using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction microscopy. The two types of material showed the same crystallographic structure, but the grain size of the electroplated Bi was about 40 times larger than that of the evaporated Bi. This distinction in grain size is likely to be the cause of their different spectral responses.

  12. X-raying neighbour discovery in a wireless sensor network ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In most wireless sensor networks, the nodes are often assumed to be stationary. However, network connectivity is subject to changes arising from interference in wireless communication, changes in transmission power or loss of synchronization among neighbouring network nodes. Hence, even after a sensor node is aware ...

  13. A new thermal sensor for X-ray microcalorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Eric; Labov, S.; Pfafman, T.; Goulding, F.; Landis, D.; Madden, N.; Beeman, J.

    1990-01-01

    A concept for a detector is introduced which exploits the significant temperature dependence of the dielectric constant in ferroelectric materials. The concept permits the use of a microcalorimeter without the resistive sensors which are associated with heat dissipation and increased Johnson noise in the electronic conversion circuit. General calorimeter features are listed, and the concepts related to dielectric calorimeters are discussed in terms of operational and detection advantages. The use of the device is delineated both theoretically and experimentally with the results of an operational dielectric material. The mixed-crystal quantum ferroelectric is employed and detects 6 MeV alpha particles while operating at 1.2 K in the first detection conducted. The temperature dependence of the dielectric constant in the materials allows for the elimination of resistive sensors in microcalorimeters, thereby improving the ultimate sensitivity of the instrument.

  14. Review of superconducting transition-edge sensors for x-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullom, Joel N; Bennett, Douglas A

    2015-01-01

    We present a review of emerging x-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers based on arrays of superconducting transition-edge sensors (TESs). Special attention will be given to recent progress in TES applications and in understanding TES physics. (paper)

  15. X-ray imaging characterization of active edge silicon pixel sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponchut, C; Ruat, M; Kalliopuska, J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was the experimental characterization of edge effects in active-edge silicon pixel sensors, in the frame of X-ray pixel detectors developments for synchrotron experiments. We produced a set of active edge pixel sensors with 300 to 500 μm thickness, edge widths ranging from 100 μm to 150 μm, and n or p pixel contact types. The sensors with 256 × 256 pixels and 55 × 55 μm 2 pixel pitch were then bump-bonded to Timepix readout chips for X-ray imaging measurements. The reduced edge widths makes the edge pixels more sensitive to the electrical field distribution at the sensor boundaries. We characterized this effect by mapping the spatial response of the sensor edges with a finely focused X-ray synchrotron beam. One of the samples showed a distortion-free response on all four edges, whereas others showed variable degrees of distortions extending at maximum to 300 micron from the sensor edge. An application of active edge pixel sensors to coherent diffraction imaging with synchrotron beams is described

  16. A large core polymer optical fibre sensor for x-ray dosimetry based on luminescence occurring in the cladding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitzpatrick, C.; O'Donoghue, C.; Schöbel, J.; Bastiaens, Hubertus M.J.; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.; Lewis, E.; Pendrill, D.

    2004-01-01

    An optical fibre sensor for short pulse duration x-ray dosimetry is presented. The sensor is based on luminescence generated in the cladding of a 1 mm core diameter polymer optical fibre which has been doped with a radioluminescent phosphor. On interaction with x-rays, this phosphor emits visible

  17. Design of a radiation hard silicon pixel sensor for X-ray science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwandt, Joern

    2014-06-01

    At DESY Hamburg the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (EuXFEL) is presently under construction. The EuXFEL has unique properties with respect to X-ray energy, instantaneous intensity, pulse length, coherence and number of pulses/sec. These properties of the EuXFEL pose very demanding requirements for imaging detectors. One of the detector systems which is currently under development to meet these challenges is the Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector, AGIPD. It is a hybrid pixel-detector system with 1024 x 1024 p + pixels of dimensions 200 μm x 200 μm, made of 16 p + nn + - silicon sensors, each with 10.52 cm x 2.56 cm sensitive area and 500 μm thickness. The particular requirements for the AGIPD are a separation between noise and single photons down to energies of 5 keV, more than 10 4 photons per pixel for a pulse duration of less than 100 fs, negligible pile-up at the EuXFEL repetition rate of 4.5 MHz, operation for X-ray doses up to 1 GGy, good efficiency for X-rays with energies between 5 and 20 keV, and minimal inactive regions at the edges. The main challenge in the sensor design is the required radiation tolerance and high operational voltage, which is required to reduce the so-called plasma effect. This requires a specially optimized sensor. The X-ray radiation damage results in a build-up of oxide charges and interface traps which lead to a reduction of the breakdown voltage, increased leakage current, increased interpixel capacitances and charge losses. Extensive TCAD simulations have been performed to understand the impact of X-ray radiation damage on the detector performance and optimize the sensor design. To take radiation damage into account in the simulation, radiation damage parameters have been determined on MOS capacitors and gate-controlled diodes as function of dose. The optimized sensor design was fabricated by SINTEF. Irradiation tests on test structures and sensors show that the sensor design is radiation hard and performs as

  18. Amorphous and Polycrystalline Photoconductors for Direct Conversion Flat Panel X-Ray Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim S. Karim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten to fifteen years there has been much research in using amorphous and polycrystalline semiconductors as x-ray photoconductors in various x-ray image sensor applications, most notably in flat panel x-ray imagers (FPXIs. We first outline the essential requirements for an ideal large area photoconductor for use in a FPXI, and discuss how some of the current amorphous and polycrystalline semiconductors fulfill these requirements. At present, only stabilized amorphous selenium (doped and alloyed a-Se has been commercialized, and FPXIs based on a-Se are particularly suitable for mammography, operating at the ideal limit of high detective quantum efficiency (DQE. Further, these FPXIs can also be used in real-time, and have already been used in such applications as tomosynthesis. We discuss some of the important attributes of amorphous and polycrystalline x-ray photoconductors such as their large area deposition ability, charge collection efficiency, x-ray sensitivity, DQE, modulation transfer function (MTF and the importance of the dark current. We show the importance of charge trapping in limiting not only the sensitivity but also the resolution of these detectors. Limitations on the maximum acceptable dark current and the corresponding charge collection efficiency jointly impose a practical constraint that many photoconductors fail to satisfy. We discuss the case of a-Se in which the dark current was brought down by three orders of magnitude by the use of special blocking layers to satisfy the dark current constraint. There are also a number of polycrystalline photoconductors, HgI2 and PbO being good examples, that show potential for commercialization in the same way that multilayer stabilized a-Se x-ray photoconductors were developed for commercial applications. We highlight the unique nature of avalanche multiplication in a-Se and how it has led to the development of the commercial HARP video-tube. An all solid state version of the

  19. A directly converting high-resolution intra-oral X-ray imaging sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Spartiotis, K; Schulman, T; Puhakka, K; Muukkonen, K

    2003-01-01

    A digital intra-oral X-ray imaging sensor with an active area of 3.6x2.9 cm sup 2 and consisting of six charge-integrating CMOS signal readout circuits bump bonded to one high-resistivity silicon pixel detector has been developed and tested. The pixel size is 35 mu m. The X-rays entering the sensor window are converted directly to electrical charge in the depleted detector material yielding minimum lateral signal spread and maximum image sharpness. The signal charge is collected on the gates of the input field effect transistors of the CMOS signal readout circuits. The analog signal readout is performed by multiplexing in the current mode independent of the signal charge collection enabling multiple readout cycles with negligible dead time and thus imaging with wide dynamic range. Since no intermediate conversion material of X-rays to visible light is needed, the sensor structure is very compact. The analog image signals are guided from the sensor output through a thin cable to signal processing, AD conversio...

  20. Functional characterization of planar sensors with active edges using laser and X-ray beam scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povoli, M.; Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Giacomini, G.; Hasi, J.; Oh, A.; Zorzi, N.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the functional characterization of planar sensors with active edges fabricated at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento, Italy. The measurements here reported were performed by means of laser and X-ray beam scans mainly focusing on the signal efficiency of the edge region of the devices. Results are very encouraging and show very good sensitivity up to few microns away from the device physical edge

  1. Functional characterization of planar sensors with active edges using laser and X-ray beam scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povoli, M., E-mail: povoli@disi.unitn.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Università di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento),Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Università di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento),Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Giacomini, G. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Hasi, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025-7015 (United States); Oh, A. [The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    We report on the functional characterization of planar sensors with active edges fabricated at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento, Italy. The measurements here reported were performed by means of laser and X-ray beam scans mainly focusing on the signal efficiency of the edge region of the devices. Results are very encouraging and show very good sensitivity up to few microns away from the device physical edge.

  2. Photodiode area effect on performance of X-ray CMOS active pixel sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M. S.; Kim, Y.; Kim, G.; Lim, K. T.; Cho, G.; Kim, D.

    2018-02-01

    Compared to conventional TFT-based X-ray imaging devices, CMOS-based X-ray imaging sensors are considered next generation because they can be manufactured in very small pixel pitches and can acquire high-speed images. In addition, CMOS-based sensors have the advantage of integration of various functional circuits within the sensor. The image quality can also be improved by the high fill-factor in large pixels. If the size of the subject is small, the size of the pixel must be reduced as a consequence. In addition, the fill factor must be reduced to aggregate various functional circuits within the pixel. In this study, 3T-APS (active pixel sensor) with photodiodes of four different sizes were fabricated and evaluated. It is well known that a larger photodiode leads to improved overall performance. Nonetheless, if the size of the photodiode is > 1000 μm2, the degree to which the sensor performance increases as the photodiode size increases, is reduced. As a result, considering the fill factor, pixel-pitch > 32 μm is not necessary to achieve high-efficiency image quality. In addition, poor image quality is to be expected unless special sensor-design techniques are included for sensors with a pixel pitch of 25 μm or less.

  3. Bolometric properties of reactively sputtered TiO2-x films for thermal infrared image sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Y. Ashok Kumar; Kang, In-Ku; Shin, Young Bong; Lee, Hee Chul

    2015-09-01

    A heat-sensitive layer (TiO2-x ) was successfully deposited by RF reactive magnetron sputtering for infrared (IR) image sensors at different relative mass flow of oxygen gas (R O2) levels. The deposition rate was decreased with an increase in the percentage of R O2 from 3.4% to 3.7%. TiO2-x samples deposited at room temperature exhibited amorphous characteristics. Oxygen deficiency causes a change in the oxidation state and is assumed to decrease the Ti4+ component on the surfaces of TiO2-x films. The oxygen stoichiometry (x) in TiO2-x films decreased from 0.35 to 0.05 with increasing the R O2 level from 3.4% to 3.7%, respectively. In TiO2-x -test-patterned samples, the resistivity decreased with the temperature, confirming the typical semiconducting property. The bolometric properties of the resistivity, temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR), and the flicker (1/ f) noise parameter were determined at different x values in TiO2-x samples. The rate of TCR dependency with regard to the 1/ f noise parameter is a universal bolometric parameter (β), acting as the dynamic element in a bolometer. It is high when a sample has a relatively low resistivity (0.82 Ω·cm) and a lower 1/ f noise parameter (3.16   ×   10-12). The results of this study indicate that reactively sputtered TiO2-x is a viable bolometric material for uncooled IR image sensor devices.

  4. Multi-Absorber Transition-Edge Sensors for X-Ray Astronomy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. J.; Adams, J. S.; Bandler, S. R.; Busch, S. E.; Chervenak, J. A.; Eckart, M. E.; Ewin, A. J.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kelly, D. P.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We are developing multi-absorber Transition-Edge Sensors (TESs) for applications in x-ray astronomy. These position-sensitive devices consist of multiple x-ray absorbers each with a different thermal coupling to a single readout TES. Heat diffusion between the absorbers and the TES gives rise to a characteristic pulse shape corresponding to each absorber element and enables position discrimination. The development of these detectors is motivated by a desire to maximize focal plane arrays with the fewest number of readout channels. In this contribution we report on the first results from devices consisting of nine) 65 X 65 sq. microns Au x-ray absorbers) 5 microns thick. These are coupled to a single 35 X 35 sq. microns Mo/Au bilayer TES. These devices have demonstrated full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) energy resolution of 2.1 eV at 1.5 keV) 2.5 eV at 5.9 keV and 3.3 eV at 8 keV. This is coupled with position discrimination from pulse shape over the same energy range. We use a finite-element model to reproduce the measured pulse shapes and investigate the detector non-linearity with energy) which impacts on the devices position sensitivity and energy resolution.

  5. Characterization and modeling of transition edge sensors for high resolution X-ray calorimeter arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saab, T. E-mail: tsaab@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov; Apodacas, E.; Bandler, S.R.; Boyce, K.; Chervenak, J.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Finkbeiner, F.; Hammock, C.; Kelley, R.; Lindeman, M.; Porter, F.S.; Stahle, C.K

    2004-03-11

    Characterizing and understanding, in detail, the behavior of a Transition Edge Sensor (TES) is required for achieving an energy resolution of 2 eV at 6 keV desired for future X-ray observatory missions. This paper will report on a suite of measurements (e.g. impedance and I-V among others) and simulations that were developed to extract a comprehensive set of TES parameters such as heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and R(T,I), {alpha}(T,I), and {beta}{sub i}(T,I) surfaces. These parameters allow for the study of the TES calorimeter behavior at and beyond the small signal regime.

  6. Interior Temperature Measurement Using Curved Mercury Capillary Sensor Based on X-ray Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuyue; Jiang, Xing; Lu, Guirong

    2017-07-01

    A method was presented for measuring the interior temperature of objects using a curved mercury capillary sensor based on X-ray radiography. The sensor is composed of a mercury bubble, a capillary and a fixed support. X-ray digital radiography was employed to capture image of the mercury column in the capillary, and a temperature control system was designed for the sensor calibration. We adopted livewire algorithms and mathematical morphology to calculate the mercury length. A measurement model relating mercury length to temperature was established, and the measurement uncertainty associated with the mercury column length and the linear model fitted by least-square method were analyzed. To verify the system, the interior temperature measurement of an autoclave, which is totally closed, was taken from 29.53°C to 67.34°C. The experiment results show that the response of the system is approximately linear with an uncertainty of maximum 0.79°C. This technique provides a new approach to measure interior temperature of objects.

  7. X-ray diagnostic study on the optimization of digital radiography in dentistry. Optimal exposure conditions for X-ray CCD sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakata, Toshifumi

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to reduce the patient dose by optimization of irradiation conditions of an X-ray CCD sensor in intra-oral digital radiography. The X-ray diagnosis was divided into two, high quality-of-image diagnosis and low quality-of-image diagnosis, and it optimized by using the exposure of necessary minimum for each. The image quality of CCD was evaluated using the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in order to estimate the influence of irradiation conditions. The dose based on CCD maker setting value was set up so that the highest quality of image might be obtained mostly. In low quality-of-image diagnosis, even if it reduced the dose to 13.2% of standard irradiation, SNR was 40% and interpretation was possible. In high quality-of-image diagnosis, even if it reduces the dose to 49% of standard irradiation, SNR remained 80% and there were few differences of the image with a standard. A study of the digital X-ray examination taken at the dental clinic showed high quality-of-image diagnosis was 69% and low quality-of-image one was 31%. When this optimization was performed, it was presumed that reduction of about 62% of the dose is possible. (author)

  8. Operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies on Pd-SnO2 based sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziej, Dorota; Hübner, Michael; Barsan, Nicolae; Weimar, Udo; Sikora, Marcin; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk

    2009-10-14

    SnO2 gas sensors with palladium as additive in the range of 0.2 wt% and 3 wt% were studied by in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy under idealized and real operating conditions. Simultaneously to the structural studies, measurements of the sensing properties were undertaken allowing for the determination of structure-function relationships. For this purpose a new in situ spectroscopic cell was designed which permitted on the one hand sensing on conventional screen printed 50 microm thick sensing layers and on the other hand structural analysis with X-rays provided by an insertion device at a 3rd generation synchrotron facility in fluorescence mode. Pd K-edge XANES and EXAFS results on gas sensors showed that palladium, present in an oxidized state, is finely dispersed if it is added in small quantities (0.2 wt%) while it forms clusters at higher concentrations (3 wt%). This is also reflected by the much easier reduction of palladium in the latter, higher concentrated ones. Under realistic sensing conditions (30-200 ppm H2; 10-50 ppm CO in dry and humid air at 200 and 300 degrees C) for the low additive concentration samples, no change in oxidation state was observed, i.e. palladium remained in its oxidized state. This has important consequences on the understanding and modeling of the gas sensing mechanism.

  9. X-RAY ACTIVE MATRIX PIXEL SENSORS BASEDON J-FET TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPED FOR THE LINAC COHERENT LIGHT SOURCE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARINI,G.A.; CHEN, W.; LI, Z.; REHAK, P.; SIDDONS, D.P.

    2007-10-29

    An X-ray Active Matrix Pixel Sensor (XAMPS) is being developed for recording data for the X-ray Pump Probe experiment at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Special attention has to be paid to some technological challenges that this design presents. New processes were developed and refined to address problems encountered during previous productions of XAMPS. The development of these critical steps and corresponding tests results are reported here.

  10. First results from Mo/Au transition-edge sensor X-ray calorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahle, C.K. E-mail: caroline.k.stahle@gsfc.nasa.gov; Finkbeiner, F.M.; Boyce, K.R.; Chen, T.; Figueroa Feliciano, E.; Gygax, J.D.; Kelley, R.L.; Li, M.; Mattson, B.J.; Mott, D.B.; Porter, F.S.; Stahle, C.M.; Szymkowiak, A.E.; Tralshawala, N

    2000-04-07

    Superconducting bilayers made of thin films of molybdenum and gold show promise as robust transition-edge sensor (TES) thermometers for calorimeters. We present our first X-ray results from experiments with Mo/Au TES calorimeters on silicon-nitride membranes. These results include analysis of the signal pulse shape and noise as functions of the bias point, which is varied through changing the bias voltage for operation at different places within the superconducting transition and changing the heat sink temperature relative to the transition temperature. Ultimately, we determined that the performance of our devices is limited by the slew rate of the SQUID amplifier used to measure the change in current, which restricts the choice of bias. The amplifier must be replaced before further device characterization and optimization can proceed.

  11. Optimizing Transition Edge Sensors for High-Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saab, Tarek; Bandler, Simon R.; Boyce, Kevin; Chervenak, James A.; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Iyomoto, Naoko; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Porter, Frederick S.; Sadleir, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Transition Edge Sensors (TES) have found applications as astronomical detectors ranging from the microwave to the gamma ray energy bands. Each energy band, however, imposes a different set of requirements on the TES such as energy and timing resolution, focal plane coverage, and the mechanisms by which the signal is coupled to the detector. This paper focuses on the development of TESs optimized for the 0.1-10 keV energy range at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Such detectors are suitable candidates for some of the upcoming X-ray observatories such as NeXT and Constellation-X. Ongoing efforts at producing, characterizing, and modeling such devices, as well as the latest results, are discussed

  12. Design of a GaAs X-ray imaging sensor with integrated HEMT readout circuitry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, D

    2002-01-01

    A new monolithic semi-insulating (SI) GaAs sensor design for X-ray imaging applications between 10-100keV has been proposed. Monolithic pixel detectors offer a number of advantages over hybrid bump-bonded detectors, such as high device yield, low costs and are easier to produce large scale arrays. In this thesis, an investigation is made of the use of a SI GaAs wafer as both a detector element and substrate for the epitaxially grown High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs). The design of the HEMT transistors, optimised for this application, were produced with the aid of the Silvaco 'Virtual Wafer Fab' simulation package. It was determined that the device characteristics would consist of a small positive threshold voltage, a low off-state drain current and high transconductance. The final HEMT transistor design, that would be integrated to a pixel detector, had a threshold voltage of 0.17V, an off-state leakage current of {approx}1nA and a transconductance of 7.4mS. A number of test detectors were characterised using an ion beam induced charge technique. Charge collection efficiency maps of the test detectors were produced to determine their quality as a X-ray detection material. From the results, the inhomogeneity of SI GaAs, homogeneity of epitaxial GaAs and granular nature of polycrystalline GaAs, were observed. The best of these detectors was used in conjunction with a commercial field effect transistor to produce a hybrid device. The charge switching nature of the hybrid device was shown and a sensitivity of 0.44pC/{mu}Gy mm{sup 2}, for a detector bias of 60V, was found. The functionality of the hybrid sensor was the same to that proposed for the monolithic sensor. The fabrication of the monolithic sensor, with an integrated HEMT transistor and external capacitor, was achieved. To reach the next stage of producing a monolithic sensor that integrates charge, requires further work in the design and the fabrication process. (author)

  13. Design of a GaAs X-ray imaging sensor with integrated HEMT readout circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, D.

    2002-01-01

    A new monolithic semi-insulating (SI) GaAs sensor design for X-ray imaging applications between 10-100keV has been proposed. Monolithic pixel detectors offer a number of advantages over hybrid bump-bonded detectors, such as high device yield, low costs and are easier to produce large scale arrays. In this thesis, an investigation is made of the use of a SI GaAs wafer as both a detector element and substrate for the epitaxially grown High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs). The design of the HEMT transistors, optimised for this application, were produced with the aid of the Silvaco 'Virtual Wafer Fab' simulation package. It was determined that the device characteristics would consist of a small positive threshold voltage, a low off-state drain current and high transconductance. The final HEMT transistor design, that would be integrated to a pixel detector, had a threshold voltage of 0.17V, an off-state leakage current of ∼1nA and a transconductance of 7.4mS. A number of test detectors were characterised using an ion beam induced charge technique. Charge collection efficiency maps of the test detectors were produced to determine their quality as a X-ray detection material. From the results, the inhomogeneity of SI GaAs, homogeneity of epitaxial GaAs and granular nature of polycrystalline GaAs, were observed. The best of these detectors was used in conjunction with a commercial field effect transistor to produce a hybrid device. The charge switching nature of the hybrid device was shown and a sensitivity of 0.44pC/μGy mm 2 , for a detector bias of 60V, was found. The functionality of the hybrid sensor was the same to that proposed for the monolithic sensor. The fabrication of the monolithic sensor, with an integrated HEMT transistor and external capacitor, was achieved. To reach the next stage of producing a monolithic sensor that integrates charge, requires further work in the design and the fabrication process. (author)

  14. High-resolution X-ray emission spectroscopy with transition-edge sensors: present performance and future potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlig, J.; Doriese, W. B.; Fowler, J. W.; Swetz, D. S.; Jaye, C.; Fischer, D. A.; Reintsema, C. D.; Bennett, D. A.; Vale, L. R.; Mandal, U.; O' Neil, G. C.; Miaja-Avila, L.; Joe, Y. I.; El Nahhas, A.; Fullagar, W.; Parnefjord Gustafsson, F.; Sundström, V.; Kurunthu, D.; Hilton, G. C.; Schmidt, D. R.; Ullom, J. N.

    2015-04-21

    X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) is a powerful element-selective tool to analyze the oxidation states of atoms in complex compounds, determine their electronic configuration, and identify unknown compounds in challenging environments. Until now the low efficiency of wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometer technology has limited the use of XES, especially in combination with weaker laboratory X-ray sources. More efficient energy-dispersive detectors have either insufficient energy resolution because of the statistical limits described by Fano or too low counting rates to be of practical use. This paper updates an approach to high-resolution X-ray emission spectroscopy that uses a microcalorimeter detector array of superconducting transition-edge sensors (TESs). TES arrays are discussed and compared with conventional methods, and shown under which circumstances they are superior. It is also shown that a TES array can be integrated into a table-top time-resolved X-ray source and a soft X-ray synchrotron beamline to perform emission spectroscopy with good chemical sensitivity over a very wide range of energies.

  15. Photoresponse analysis of the CMOS photodiodes for CMOS x-ray image sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Soo; Ha, Jang Ho; Kim, Han Soo; Yeo, Sun Mok

    2012-01-01

    Although in the short term CMOS active pixel sensors (APSs) cannot compete with the conventionally used charge coupled devices (CCDs) for high quality scientific imaging, recent development in CMOS APSs indicate that CMOS performance level of CCDs in several domains. CMOS APSs possess thereby a number of advantages such as simpler driving requirements and low power operation. CMOS image sensors can be processed in standard CMOS technologies and the potential of on-chip integration of analog and digital circuitry makes them more suitable for several vision systems where system cost is of importance. Moreover, CMOS imagers can directly benefit from on-going technological progress in the field of CMOS technologies. Due to these advantages, the CMOS APSs are currently being investigated actively for various applications such as star tracker, navigation camera and X-ray imaging etc. In most detection systems, it is thought that the sensor is most important, since this decides the signal and noise level. So, in CMOS APSs, the pixel is very important compared to other functional blocks. In order to predict the performance of such image sensor, a detailed understanding of the photocurrent generation in the photodiodes that comprise the CMOS APS is required. In this work, we developed the analytical model that can calculate the photocurrent generated in CMOS photodiode comprising CMOS APSs. The photocurrent calculations and photo response simulations with respect to the wavelength of the incident photon were performed using this model for four types of photodiodes that can be fabricated in standard CMOS process. n + /p - sub and n + /p - epi/p - sub photodiode show better performance compared to n - well/p - sub and n - well/p - epi/p - sub due to the wider depletion width. Comparing n + /p - sub and n + /p - epi/p - sub photodiode, n + /p - sub has higher photo-responsivity in longer wavelength because of the higher electron diffusion current

  16. A CMOS active pixel sensor system for laboratory- based x-ray diffraction studies of biological tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohndiek, Sarah E; Cook, Emily J; Arvanitis, Costas D; Olivo, Alessandro; Royle, Gary J; Clark, Andy T; Prydderch, Mark L; Turchetta, Renato; Speller, Robert D

    2008-01-01

    X-ray diffraction studies give material-specific information about biological tissue. Ideally, a large area, low noise, wide dynamic range digital x-ray detector is required for laboratory-based x-ray diffraction studies. The goal of this work is to introduce a novel imaging technology, the CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) that has the potential to fulfil all these requirements, and demonstrate its feasibility for coherent scatter imaging. A prototype CMOS APS has been included in an x-ray diffraction demonstration system. An industrial x-ray source with appropriate beam filtration is used to perform angle dispersive x-ray diffraction (ADXRD). Optimization of the experimental set-up is detailed including collimator options and detector operating parameters. Scatter signatures are measured for 11 different materials, covering three medical applications: breast cancer diagnosis, kidney stone identification and bone mineral density calculations. Scatter signatures are also recorded for three mixed samples of known composition. Results are verified using two independent models for predicting the APS scatter signature: (1) a linear systems model of the APS and (2) a linear superposition integral combining known monochromatic scatter signatures with the input polychromatic spectrum used in this case. Cross validation of experimental, modelled and literature results proves that APS are able to record biologically relevant scatter signatures. Coherent scatter signatures are sensitive to multiple materials present in a sample and provide a means to quantify composition. In the future, production of a bespoke APS imager for x-ray diffraction studies could enable simultaneous collection of the transmitted beam and scattered radiation in a laboratory-based coherent scatter system, making clinical transfer of the technique attainable

  17. MHz rate X-Ray imaging with GaAs:Cr sensors using the LPD detector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, M. C.; Booker, P.; Cline, B.; Coughlan, J.; Hart, M.; Nicholls, T.; Schneider, A.; Seller, P.; Pape, I.; Sawhney, K.; Lozinskaya, A. D.; Novikov, V. A.; Tolbanov, O. P.; Tyazhev, A.; Zarubin, A. N.

    2017-02-01

    The STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (U.K.) and Tomsk State University (Russia) have been working together to develop and characterise detector systems based on chromium-compensated gallium arsenide (GaAs:Cr) semiconductor material for high frame rate X-ray imaging. Previous work has demonstrated the spectroscopic performance of the material and its resistance to damage induced by high fluxes of X-rays. In this paper, recent results from experiments at the Diamond Light Source Synchrotron have demonstrated X-ray imaging with GaAs:Cr sensors at a frame rate of 3.7 MHz using the Large Pixel Detector (LPD) ASIC, developed by STFC for the European XFEL. Measurements have been made using a monochromatic 20 keV X-ray beam delivered in a single hybrid pulse with an instantenous flux of up to ~ 1 × 1010 photons s-1 mm-2. The response of 500 μm GaAs:Cr sensors is compared to that of the standard 500 μm thick LPD Si sensors.

  18. Eliminating the non-Gaussian spectral response of X-ray absorbers for transition-edge sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divan, Ralu [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Gades, Lisa M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Kenesei, Peter [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Madden, Timothy J. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Miceli, Antonino [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Park, Jun-Sang [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Patel, Umeshkumar M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Quaranta, Orlando [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Northwestern Univeristy, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA; Sharma, Hemant [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Bennett, Douglas A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305, USA; Doriese, William B. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305, USA; Fowler, Joseph W. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305, USA; Gard, Johnathon D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305, USA; University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA; Hays-Wehle, James P. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305, USA; Morgan, Kelsey M. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305, USA; University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA; Schmidt, Daniel R. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305, USA; Swetz, Daniel S. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305, USA; Ullom, Joel N. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305, USA; University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA

    2017-11-06

    Transition-edge sensors (TESs) as microcalorimeters for high-energy-resolution X-ray spectroscopy are often fabricated with an absorber made of materials with high Z (for X-ray stopping power) and low heat capacity (for high resolving power). Bismuth represents one of the most compelling options. TESs with evaporated bismuth absorbers have shown spectra with undesirable and unexplained low-energy tails. We have developed TESs with electroplated bismuth absorbers over a gold layer that are not afflicted by this problem and that retain the other positive aspects of this material. To better understand these phenomena, we have studied a series of TESs with gold, gold/evaporated bismuth, and gold/electroplated bismuth absorbers, fabricated on the same die with identical thermal coupling. We show that the bismuth morphology is linked to the spectral response of X-ray TES microcalorimeters. Published by AIP Publishing.

  19. Eliminating the non-Gaussian spectral response of X-ray absorbers for transition-edge sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Daikang; Divan, Ralu; Gades, Lisa M.; Kenesei, Peter; Madden, Timothy J.; Miceli, Antonino; Park, Jun-Sang; Patel, Umeshkumar M.; Quaranta, Orlando; Sharma, Hemant; Bennett, Douglas A.; Doriese, William B.; Fowler, Joseph W.; Gard, Johnathon D.; Hays-Wehle, James P.; Morgan, Kelsey M.; Schmidt, Daniel R.; Swetz, Daniel S.; Ullom, Joel N.

    2017-11-01

    Transition-edge sensors (TESs) as microcalorimeters for high-energy-resolution X-ray spectroscopy are often fabricated with an absorber made of materials with high Z (for X-ray stopping power) and low heat capacity (for high resolving power). Bismuth represents one of the most compelling options. TESs with evaporated bismuth absorbers have shown spectra with undesirable and unexplained low-energy tails. We have developed TESs with electroplated bismuth absorbers over a gold layer that are not afflicted by this problem and that retain the other positive aspects of this material. To better understand these phenomena, we have studied a series of TESs with gold, gold/evaporated bismuth, and gold/electroplated bismuth absorbers, fabricated on the same die with identical thermal coupling. We show that the bismuth morphology is linked to the spectral response of X-ray TES microcalorimeters.

  20. Charge Summing in Spectroscopic X-Ray Detectors With High-Z Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Koenig, Thomas; Cecilia, Angelica; Ballabriga, Rafael; Baumbach, Tilo; Llopart, Xavier; Fiederle, Michael; Zuber, Marcus; Hamann, Elias; Fauler, Alex; Campbell, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The spectroscopic performance of photon counting detectors is limited by the effects of charge sharing between neighboring pixels and the emission of characteristic X-rays. For these reasons, an event can be either missed or counted more than once. These effects become more and more of a concern when pixel pitches are reduced, and for the technology available so far, this meant that there would always be a trade-off between a high spatial and a high spectral resolution. In this work, we present first measurements obtained with the new Medipix3RX ASIC, which features a network of charge summing circuits establishing a communication between pixels which helps to mitigate these effects. Combined with cadmium telluride sensors, we show that this new technology is successful at improving a detector's spectroscopic capabilities even at pixel pitches as small as 55 mu m. At this pitch, we measure an energy response function similar to that observed for a pixel pitch of 165 mu m in the absence of a charge summing cir...

  1. Evaluation of the detection efficiency of an x-ray image sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulveryck, J.M.; Mouze, D.

    2000-01-01

    This work deals with the measurements of the spectral efficiency of an x-ray camera by a straightforward method, using laboratory x-ray sources. By mean of a fluorescence wavelength dispersive spectrometer (WDS), we carry out measurements in a large energy range, typically from a few keV to tenths of keV. The camera consists of a slow scan transfer device (CCD) optically coupled to a scintillator screen (Y 2 O 2 S:Eu). The spectral responsivity of the x-ray imaging detector - in ADU/keV units - is discussed. In particularly, the assumption of a linear conversion from incident x-ray energy to visible photon energy is confirmed by the experiment

  2. X-ray radiation damage studies and design of a silicon pixel sensor for science at the XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiaguo

    2013-06-15

    Experiments at the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) require silicon pixel sensors which can withstand X-ray doses up to 1 GGy. For the investigation of Xray radiation damage up to these high doses, MOS capacitors and gate-controlled diodes built on high resistivity n-doped silicon with crystal orientations left angle 100 right angle and left angle 111 right angle produced by four vendors, CiS, Hamamatsu, Canberra and Sintef have been irradiated with 12 keV X-rays at the DESY DORIS III synchrotron-light source. Using capacitance/ conductance-voltage, current-voltage and thermal dielectric relaxation current measurements, the densities of oxide charges and interface traps at the Si-SiO{sub 2} interface, and the surface-current densities have been determined as function of dose. Results indicate that the dose dependence of the oxide-charge density, the interface-trap density and the surface-current density depend on the crystal orientation and producer. In addition, the influence of the voltage applied to the gates of the MOS capacitor and the gate-controlled diode during X-ray irradiation on the oxide-charge density, the interface-trap density and the surface-current density has been investigated at doses of 100 kGy and 100 MGy. It is found that both strongly depend on the gate voltage if the electric field in the oxide points from the surface of the SiO{sub 2} to the Si-SiO{sub 2} interface. To verify the long-term stability of irradiated silicon sensors, annealing studies have been performed at 60 C and 80 C on MOS capacitors and gate-controlled diodes irradiated to 5 MGy as well, and the annealing kinetics of oxide charges and surface current were determined. Moreover, the macroscopic electrical properties of segmented sensors have slao been investigated as function of dose. It is found that the defects introduced by X-rays increase the full depletion voltage, the surface leakage current and the inter-electrode capacitance of the segmented sensor. An

  3. Low Dose X-Ray Sources and High Quantum Efficiency Sensors: The Next Challenge in Dental Digital Imaging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnav R. Mistry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s. The major challenge encountered to decrease the milliamperes (mA level in X-ray imaging systems is the quantum noise phenomena. This investigation evaluated dose exposure and image resolution of a low dose X-ray imaging (LDXI prototype comprising a low mA X-ray source and a novel microlens-based sensor relative to current imaging technologies. Study Design. A LDXI in static (group 1 and dynamic (group 2 modes was compared to medical fluoroscopy (group 3, digital intraoral radiography (group 4, and CBCT scan (group 5 using a dental phantom. Results. The Mann-Whitney test showed no statistical significance (α=0.01 in dose exposure between groups 1 and 3 and 1 and 4 and timing exposure (seconds between groups 1 and 5 and 2 and 3. Image resolution test showed group 1 > group 4 > group 2 > group 3 > group 5. Conclusions. The LDXI proved the concept for obtaining a high definition image resolution for static and dynamic radiography at lower or similar dose exposure and smaller pixel size, respectively, when compared to current imaging technologies. Lower mA at the X-ray source and high QE at the detector level principles with microlens could be applied to current imaging technologies to considerably reduce dose exposure without compromising image resolution in the near future.

  4. Integrated X-ray and charged particle active pixel CMOS sensor arrays using an epitaxial silicon sensitive region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinfelder, Stuart; Bichsel, Hans; Bieser, Fred; Matis, Howard S.; Rai, Gulshan; Retiere, Fabrice; Weiman, Howard; Yamamoto, Eugene

    2002-07-01

    Integrated CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) arrays have been fabricated and tested using X-ray and electron sources. The 128 by 128 pixel arrays, designed in a standard 0.25 micron process, use a {approx}10 micron epitaxial silicon layer as a deep detection region. The epitaxial layer has a much greater thickness than the surface features used by standard CMOS APS, leading to stronger signals and potentially better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). On the other hand, minority carriers confined within the epitaxial region may diffuse to neighboring pixels, blur images and reduce peak signal intensity. But for low-rate, sparse-event images, centroid analysis of this diffusion may be used to increase position resolution. Careful trade-offs involving pixel size and sense-node area verses capacitance must be made to optimize overall performance. The prototype sensor arrays, therefore, include a range of different pixel designs, including different APS circuits and a range of different epitaxial layer contact structures. The fabricated arrays were tested with 1.5 GeV electrons and Fe-55 X-ray sources, yielding a measured noise of 13 electrons RMS and an SNR for single Fe-55 X-rays of greater than 38.

  5. Progress in the Development of Mo-Au Transition-Edge Sensors for X-Ray Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahle, Caroline K.; Brekosky, Regis P.; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Finkbeiner, Fred M.; Gygax, John D.; Li, Mary J.; Lindeman, Mark A..; Porter, F. Scott; Tralshawalaa, Nilesh

    2000-01-01

    X-ray microcalorimeters using transition-edge sensors (TES) show great promise for use in astronomical x-ray spectroscopy. We have obtained very high energy resolution (2.8 electronvolts at 1.5 kiloelectronvolts and 3.7 electronvolts at 3.3 kiloelectronvolts) in a large, isolated TES pixel using a Mo/Au proximity-effect bilayer on a silicon nitride membrane. We will discuss the performance and our characterization of that device. In order to be truly suitable for use behind an x-ray telescope, however, such devices need to be arrayed with a pixel size and focal-plane coverage commensurate with the telescope focal length and spatial resolution. Since this requires fitting the TES and its thermal link, a critical component of each calorimeter pixel, into a far more compact geometry than has previously been investigated, we must study the fundamental scaling laws in pixel optimization. We have designed a photolithography mask that will allow us to probe the range in thermal conductance that can be obtained by perforating the nitride membrane in a narrow perimeter around the sensor. This mask will also show the effects of reducing the TES area. Though we have not yet tested devices of the compact designs, we will present our progress in several of the key processing steps and discuss the parameter space of our intended investigations.

  6. CCD [charge-coupled device] sensors in synchrotron x-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, M.G.; Naday, I.; Sherman, I.S.; Kraimer, M.R.; Westbrook, E.M.; Zaluzec, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    The intense photon flux from advanced synchrotron light sources, such as the 7-GeV synchrotron being designed at Argonne, require integrating-type detectors. Charge-coupled devices (CCDs) are well suited as synchrotron x-ray detectors. When irradiated indirectly via a phosphor followed by reducing optics, diffraction patterns of 100 cm 2 can be imaged on a 2 cm 2 CCD. With a conversion efficiency of ∼1 CCD electron/x-ray photon, a peak saturation capacity of >10 6 x rays can be obtained. A programmable CCD controller operating at a clock frequency of 20 MHz has been developed. The readout rate is 5 x 10 6 pixels/s and the shift rate in the parallel registers is 10 6 lines/s. The test detector was evaluated in two experiments. In protein crystallography diffraction patterns have been obtained from a lysozyme crystal using a conventional rotating anode x-ray generator. Based on these results we expect to obtain at a synchrotron diffraction images at the rate of ∼1 frame/s or a complete 3-dimensional data set from a single crystal in ∼2 min. 16 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  7. A comparative study of scintillator combining methods for flat-panel X-ray image sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M. S.; Lim, K. T.; Kim, G.; Cho, G.

    2018-02-01

    An X-ray transmission imaging based on scintillation detection method is the most widely used radiation technique particularly in the medical and industrial areas. As the name suggests, scintillation detection uses a scintillator as an intermediate material to convert incoming radiation into visible-light particles. Among different types of scintillators, CsI(Tl) in a columnar configuration is the most popular type used for applications that require an energy less than 150 keV due to its capability in obtaining a high spatial resolution with a reduced light spreading effect. In this study, different methods in combining a scintillator with a light-receiving unit are investigated and their relationships are given in terms of the image quality. Three different methods of combining a scintillator with a light-receiving unit are selected to investigate their performance in X-ray imaging: upward or downward oriented needles structure of CsI(Tl), coating layer deposition around CsI(Tl), and insertion of FOP. A charge-coupled device was chosen to serve as the light-receiving unit for the proposed system. From the result, the difference of needle directions in CsI(Tl) had no significant effects in the X-ray image. In contrast, deposition of the coating material around CsI(Tl) showed 17.3% reduction in the DQE. Insertion of the FOP increased the spatial resolution by 38%, however, it decreased the light yield in the acquired image by 56%. In order to have the maximum scintillation performance in X-ray imaging, not only the reflection material but also the bonding method must be considered when combining the scintillator with the light-receiving unit. In addition, the use of FOP should be carefully decided based on the purpose of X-ray imaging, e.g., image sharpness or SNR.

  8. X-ray metrology of an array of active edge pixel sensors for use at synchrotron light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plackett, R.; Arndt, K.; Bortoletto, D.; Horswell, I.; Lockwood, G.; Shipsey, I.; Tartoni, N.; Williams, S.

    2018-01-01

    We report on the production and testing of an array of active edge silicon sensors as a prototype of a large array. Four Medipix3RX.1 chips were bump bonded to four single chip sized Advacam active edge n-on-n sensors. These detectors were then mounted into a 2 by 2 array and tested on B16 at Diamond Light Source with an x-ray beam spot of 2um. The results from these tests, compared with optical metrology demonstrate that this type of sensor is sensitive to the physical edge of the silicon, with only a modest loss of efficiency in the final two rows of pixels. We present the efficiency maps recorded with the microfocus beam and a sample powder diffraction measurement. These results give confidence that this sensor technology can be used effectively in larger arrays of detectors at synchrotron light sources.

  9. Contribution to digital radiography. Study of a 2D X-ray sensor for mammography using the electrically-stimulated-luminescence effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayral, Jean-Luc

    1990-01-01

    Radiography is in a fast change period. This work describes the study and demonstration of a new type of 2D flat X-Ray sensor for mammography and delivering a digital signal. X-ray transmission study of breast tissues leads to: a-definition of X-Ray photons properties for optimized signal-to-noise ratio, and b-specifications of a 2D X-Ray sensor such as mean exposure, dynamic range and pixel size. Then the X-Ray detection processes using a direct or a delayed luminescence mechanism are reviewed. The detailed analysis of the different ways for detecting visible photons is combined with the system specifications (pixel size, image reading time) in order to characterize (from a signal-to-noise ratio aspect) an X-Ray imaging system integrating a delayed luminescence property. The imaging plate and associated luminescent material are specified by their minimum X-Ray absorption and conversion gain. The Gudden-Pohl effect, or Electrically Stimulated Luminescence (ESL) is experimentally studied and quantified under X-Ray excitation in ZnCdS: Cu, Al materials. An original UV sensitization technique opens us the way to highly reproducible results and large sensitivity. The obtained information storage time in the material is compatible with a delayed image reading. These results allow the achievement of an X-Ray imaging demonstrator integrating the ESL imaging plate, an intensified CCD sensor and the sensitization technique. First images are obtained. Further conception of real dimension X-Ray imaging system for mammography is described. (author) [fr

  10. Large area CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray imager for digital breast tomosynthesis: Analysis, modeling, and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Chumin; Kanicki, Jerzy; Konstantinidis, Anastasios C.; Patel, Tushita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Large area x-ray imagers based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology have been proposed for various medical imaging applications including digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). The low electronic noise (50–300 e − ) of CMOS APS x-ray imagers provides a possible route to shrink the pixel pitch to smaller than 75 μm for microcalcification detection and possible reduction of the DBT mean glandular dose (MGD). Methods: In this study, imaging performance of a large area (29 × 23 cm 2 ) CMOS APS x-ray imager [Dexela 2923 MAM (PerkinElmer, London)] with a pixel pitch of 75 μm was characterized and modeled. The authors developed a cascaded system model for CMOS APS x-ray imagers using both a broadband x-ray radiation and monochromatic synchrotron radiation. The experimental data including modulation transfer function, noise power spectrum, and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were theoretically described using the proposed cascaded system model with satisfactory consistency to experimental results. Both high full well and low full well (LFW) modes of the Dexela 2923 MAM CMOS APS x-ray imager were characterized and modeled. The cascaded system analysis results were further used to extract the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for microcalcifications with sizes of 165–400 μm at various MGDs. The impact of electronic noise on CNR was also evaluated. Results: The LFW mode shows better DQE at low air kerma (K a < 10 μGy) and should be used for DBT. At current DBT applications, air kerma (K a ∼ 10 μGy, broadband radiation of 28 kVp), DQE of more than 0.7 and ∼0.3 was achieved using the LFW mode at spatial frequency of 0.5 line pairs per millimeter (lp/mm) and Nyquist frequency ∼6.7 lp/mm, respectively. It is shown that microcalcifications of 165–400 μm in size can be resolved using a MGD range of 0.3–1 mGy, respectively. In comparison to a General Electric GEN2 prototype DBT system (at MGD of 2.5 m

  11. Lead iodide films as X-ray sensors tested in the mammography energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condeles, J.F.; Ghilardi Netto, T.; Mulato, M.

    2007-01-01

    We present an alternative method for the deposition of thin films of lead iodide (PbI 2 ), which is a promising semiconductor candidate for applications in medical digital radiography. The spray pyrolysis technique enables the fabrication of thick films with a deposition rate of about 3.3 As -1 . We investigate the influence of the main deposition parameters on the final properties of the films. They were substrate temperature from 150 up to 270 o C and nozzle-spray distance to substrate from 13.0 to 16.5 cm. The films were mainly investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Also, electrical characterizations were made in the dark as a function of temperature, and with the samples submitted to X-ray exposures in the energy range of mammography diagnosis

  12. Novel CMOS Analog Signal Processing Technique for Solid-State X-Ray Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Dlugosz, Rafal Tomasz; Iniewski, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Ability to peer into human body is an essential diagnostic tool in medicine. Out of the four major imaging modalities that include ultra-sound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET), nuclear medicine is gaining more widespread attention. Nuclear medicine involves measurement of radiation from inside human body using in vivo pharmaceutical tracer. X-ray computed tomography (CT) and single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) are three-dimensional (3D) ...

  13. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies on Pd doped SnO2 liquid petroleum gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phani, A. R.

    1997-10-01

    The present investigation deals with the electrical response of palladium doped tin oxide, as a means of improving the selectivity for liquid petroleum gas (LPG) in the presence of CO, CH4. The sensor element with the composition of Pd(1.5 wt %) in the base material SnO2 sintered at 800 °C, has shown a high sensitivity towards LPG with a negligible cross interference of CO and CH4 at an operating temperature of 350 °C. This greatly suggests the possibility of utilizing the sensor for the detection of LPG. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies have been carried out to determine the possible chemical species involved in the gas-solid interaction and the enhancing mechanism of the Pd doped SnO2 sensor element, towards LPG sensitivity.

  14. X-ray computed microtomography characterizes the wound effect that causes sap flow underestimation by thermal dissipation sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón-Jiménez, S; Van den Bulcke, J; Piayda, A; Van Acker, J; Cuntz, M; Rebmann, C; Steppe, K

    2018-02-01

    Insertion of thermal dissipation (TD) sap flow sensors in living tree stems causes damage of the wood tissue, as is the case with other invasive methods. The subsequent wound formation is one of the main causes of underestimation of tree water-use measured by TD sensors. However, the specific alterations in wood anatomy in response to inserted sensors have not yet been characterized, and the linked dysfunctions in xylem conductance and sensor accuracy are still unknown. In this study, we investigate the anatomical mechanisms prompting sap flow underestimation and the dynamic process of wound formation. Successive sets of TD sensors were installed in the early, mid and end stage of the growing season in diffuse- and ring-porous trees, Fagus sylvatica (Linnaeus) and Quercus petraea ((Mattuschka) Lieblein), respectively. The trees were cut in autumn and additional sensors were installed in the cut stem segments as controls without wound formation. The wounded area and volume surrounding each sensor was then visually determined by X-ray computed microtomography (X-ray microCT). This technique allowed the characterization of vessel anatomical transformations such as tyloses formation, their spatial distribution and quantification of reduction in conductive area. MicroCT scans showed considerable formation of tyloses that reduced the conductive area of vessels surrounding the inserted TD probes, thus causing an underestimation in sap flux density (SFD) in both beech and oak. Discolored wood tissue was ellipsoidal, larger in the radial plane, more extensive in beech than in oak, and also for sensors installed for longer times. However, the severity of anatomical transformations did not always follow this pattern. Increased wound size with time, for example, did not result in larger SFD underestimation. This information helps us to better understand the mechanisms involved in wound effects with TD sensors and allows the provision of practical recommendations to reduce

  15. X-ray microanalysis with transition edge sensors. The future of material analysis with scanning electron microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollerith, C.

    2006-07-05

    In current experiments and technical applications the demand for new and advanced concepts for the detection of radiation and particle is increasing. Low temperature detectors such as Transition Edge Sensors (TES) have been developed as ultrahigh-resolution radiation and particle detectors offering advantages in manifold applications. They were designed primarily for astrophysical experiments such as the dark matter search. In material analysis they have been introduced to revolutionize mass spectroscopy of biological molecules and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). EDS is the determination of the elemental constitution of samples in scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) with characteristic X-ray radiation excited by the electron beam. The use of TES detectors improves the EDS analysis of small volumes such as particles or thin layers. This is especially important for the semiconductor industry because of the continual shrinking of device size. Current structure sizes of 65 nm are already demanding new approaches in analytic methodology. In this thesis the introduction and improvement of a fully automated TES detector system in the industrial environment of a semiconductor failure analysis lab is described. This system, marketed under the trade name of 'Polaris' by the manufacturer, is based on a mechanical pulse tube cooler in combination with an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) for cooling the TES detector to its operating temperature. Several large improvements had to be made to the system during the total system integration. The energy resolution could be improved significantly thus enabling a better peak separation and the measurement of chemical shifts. Due to the small area of TES detectors compared with conventional EDS detectors the efficiency of the system proved to be too low for everyday use. A polycapillary X-ray lens was added to the system in order to solve this problem. The application of the lens, however, brought its

  16. Simulation of photon and charge transport in X-ray imaging semiconductor sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, H E; Hjelm, M; Bertilsson, K

    2002-01-01

    A fully stochastic model for the imaging properties of X-ray silicon pixel detectors is presented. Both integrating and photon counting configurations have been considered, as well as scintillator-coated structures. The model is based on three levels of Monte Carlo simulations; photon transport and absorption using MCNP, full band Monte Carlo simulation of charge transport and system level Monte Carlo simulation of the imaging performance of the detector system. In the case of scintillator-coated detectors, the light scattering in the detector layers has been simulated using a Monte Carlo method. The image resolution was found to be much lower in scintillator-coated systems due to large light spread in thick scintillator layers. A comparison between integrating and photon counting readout methods shows that the image resolution can be slightly enhanced using a photon-counting readout. In addition, the proposed model has been used to study charge-sharing effects on the energy resolution in photon counting dete...

  17. The Alpha-Proton-X-ray Spectrometer deployment mechanism: an anthropomorphic approach to sensor placement on Martian rocks and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Richard S.

    1995-05-01

    On July 4,1997, the Mars Pathfinder spacecraft lands on Mars and starts conducting technological and scientific experiments. One experiment, the Alpha-Proton-X-ray Spectrometer, uses a sensor head placed against rocks and soil to determine their composition. To guarantee proper placement, a deployment mechanism mounted on the Mars Rover aligns the sensor head to within 20 deg of the rock and soil surfaces. In carrying out its task, the mechanism mimics the action of a human hand and arm. Consisting of a flexible wrist, a parallel link arm, a brush dc motor actuator, and a revolutionary non-pyrotechnic fail-safe release device, the mechanism correctly positions the sensor head on rocks as high as 0.29 m and on targets whose surfaces are tilted as much as 45 deg from the nominal orientation of the sensor head face. The mechanism weighs less than 0.5 kg, can withstand 100 g's, and requires less than 2.8 N x m of actuation torque. The fail-safe coupler utilizes Cerrobend, a metal alloy that melts at 60 C, to fuse the actuator and the rest of the mechanism together. A film heater wrapped around the coupler melts the metal, and Negator springs drive the mechanism into its stowed position. The fail-safe actuates using 6.75 Watts for 5 minutes in the event of an actuator failure.

  18. Quantifying vertical stress transmission and compaction-induced soil structure using sensor mat and X-ray computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Schjønning, Per; Keller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Accurate estimation of stress transmission in soil and quantification of compaction-induced soil pore structure is important for efficient soil use and management. Continuum mechanics have so far mostly been applied for agricultural soils, even if topsoil structure is aggregated due to regular...... distributions, and (ii) a tactile sensor mat was employed for measuring stresses at the interface of the topsoil and subsoil columns. The resulting soil pore structure under applied stresses was quantified using X-ray CT and by air-permeability measurements. In topsoil discrete stress transmission patterns were...... continuum-like stress transmission patterns were observed. We found that continuum stress transmission patterns were well simulated with models based on the elasticity theory (e.g., Boussinesq, 1885) compared to discrete stress transmission patterns. The soil pore structure was affected by increasing...

  19. A counting pixel chip and sensor system for X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, P.; Hausmann, J.; Helmich, A.; Lindner, M.; Wermes, N. [Universitaet Bonn (Germany). Physikalisches Institut; Blanquart, L. [CNRS, Marseille (France). Centre de Physique des Particules

    1999-08-01

    Results obtained with a (photon) counting pixel imaging chip connected to a silicon pixel sensor using the bump and flip-chip technology are presented. The performance of the chip electronics is characterized by an average equivalent noise charge (ENC) below 135 e and a threshold spread of less than 35 e after individual threshold adjust, both measured with a sensor attached. First results on the imaging performance are also reported.

  20. Probing Defects in a Small Pixellated CdTe Sensor Using an Inclined Mono Energetic X-Ray Micro Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröjdh, Erik; Fröjdh, C.; Gimenez, E. N.; Krapohl, D.; Maneuski, D.; Norlin, B.; O'Shea, V.; Wilhelm, H.; Tartoni, N.; Thungström, G.; Zain, R. M.

    2013-08-01

    High quantum efficiency is important in X-ray imaging applications. This means using high-Z sensor materials. Unfortunately many of these materials suffer from defects that cause non-ideal charge transport. In order to increase the understanding of these defects, we have mapped the 3D response of a number of defects in two 1 mm thick CdTe sensors with different pixel sizes (55 μm and 110 μm) using a monoenergetic microbeam at 79 keV. The sensors were bump bonded to Timepix read out chips. Data was collected in photon counting as well as time-over-threshold mode. The time-over-threshold mode is a very powerful tool to investigate charge transport properties and fluorescence in pixellated detectors since the signal from the charge that each photon deposits in each pixel can be analyzed. Results show distorted electrical field around the defects, indications of excess leakage current and large differences in behavior between electron collection and hole collection mode. The experiments were carried out on the Extreme Conditions Beamline I15 at Diamond Light Source.

  1. Skull x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - head; X-ray - skull; Skull radiography; Head x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  2. Neck x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - neck; Cervical spine x-ray; Lateral neck x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored so that the lowest amount of radiation is used to produce the image. Pregnant women and ...

  3. Phase-sensitive X-ray imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kevin Louis

    2013-01-08

    X-ray phase sensitive wave-front sensor techniques are detailed that are capable of measuring the entire two-dimensional x-ray electric field, both the amplitude and phase, with a single measurement. These Hartmann sensing and 2-D Shear interferometry wave-front sensors do not require a temporally coherent source and are therefore compatible with x-ray tubes and also with laser-produced or x-pinch x-ray sources.

  4. Fine pitch transition-edge sensor X-ray microcalorimeters with sub-eV energy resolution at 1.5 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. J.; Adams, J. S.; Bandler, S. R.; Chervenak, J. A.; Eckart, M. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S.; Sadleir, J. E.; Smith, S. J.; Wassell, E. J.

    2015-11-01

    We are developing arrays of X-ray microcalorimeters on a 50-µm pitch that utilize transition-edge sensors as the sensor to measure the temperature rise when X-rays are absorbed. An array of this type of pixel has great potential for the study of point sources in future X-ray observatory missions. The pixels have gold absorbers with dimensions 45 × 45 × 4.2 µm3. We measured an energy resolution of 0.72 ± 0.03 eV full width at half maximum for the Al Kα complex in a subset of pixels within the array, which is the best resolution to date using a non-dispersive detector at this energy. We describe our characterization of this device including measurements of the heat capacity, thermal conductance to the heat bath, and the temperature and current sensitivity of the detector, and discuss its potential for improved performance.

  5. X-ray imaging sensor arrays on foil using solution processed organic photodiodes and organic transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, A.; Moet, D.; Steen, J.L. van der; Tripathi, A.K.; Rodriguez, F.G.; Maas, J.; Simon, M.; Reutten, W.; Douglas, A.; Raaijmakers, R.; Malinowski, P.E.; Myny, K.; Shafique, U.; Andriessen, R.; Heremans, P.; Gelinck, G.H.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate organic imaging sensor arrays fabricated on flexible plastic foil with the solution processing route for both photodiodes and thin film transistors. We used the photovoltaic P3HT:PCBM blend for fabricating the photodiodes using spin coating and pentacene as semiconductor material for

  6. Tests of small X-ray Active Matrix Pixel Sensor prototypes at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carini, G. A.; Chen, W.; Dragone, A.; Fried, J.; Jakoncic, J.; Kuczweski, A.; Li, Z.; Mead, J.; Michta, R.; Pratte, J.-F.; Rehak, P.; Siddons, D. P.

    2009-03-01

    X-ray Active Matrix Pixel Sensors (XAMPS) were designed and fabricated at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Devices based on J-FET technology were produced on 100 mm high-resistivity silicon, typically 400 μm-thick. The prototypes are square matrices with n rows and n columns with n = 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512. Each pixel of the matrix is 90 × 90 μm2 and contains a JFET switch to control the charge readout. The XAMPS is a position sensitive ionization detector made on high resistivity silicon. It consists of a pixel array detector with integrated switches. Pixels are isolated from each other by a potential barrier and the device is fully depleted by applying a high voltage bias to the junction on the entrance window of the sensor. The small features of the design presented some technological challenges fully addressed during this production. The first prototypes were tested at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) with a monochromatic beam of 8 keV and millisecond readout and exhibit good performances at room temperature.

  7. Tests of small X-ray Active Matrix Pixel Sensor prototypes at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carini, G A; Chen, W; Fried, J; Jakoncic, J; Kuczweski, A; Li, Z; Mead, J; Michta, R; Pratte, J-F; Rehak, P; Siddons, D P [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, 11973 NY (United States); Dragone, A [SLAC National Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, 94025 CA (United States)], E-mail: carini@bnl.gov

    2009-03-15

    X-ray Active Matrix Pixel Sensors (XAMPS) were designed and fabricated at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Devices based on J-FET technology were produced on 100 mm high-resistivity silicon, typically 400 {mu}m-thick. The prototypes are square matrices with n rows and n columns with n = 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512. Each pixel of the matrix is 90 x 90 {mu}m{sup 2} and contains a JFET switch to control the charge readout. The XAMPS is a position sensitive ionization detector made on high resistivity silicon. It consists of a pixel array detector with integrated switches. Pixels are isolated from each other by a potential barrier and the device is fully depleted by applying a high voltage bias to the junction on the entrance window of the sensor. The small features of the design presented some technological challenges fully addressed during this production. The first prototypes were tested at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) with a monochromatic beam of 8 keV and millisecond readout and exhibit good performances at room temperature.

  8. Fabrication of transition edge sensor X-ray microcalorimeters for Constellation-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chervenak, J.A. E-mail: james.chervenak@nasa.gov; Finkbeiner, F.M.; Stevenson, T.R.; Talley, D.J.; Brekosky, R.P.; Bandler, S.R.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Lindeman, M.A.; Kelley, R.L.; Saab, T.; Stahle, C.K

    2004-03-11

    NASA's Constellation-X (Con-X) mission is a driver for advancing low-temperature detector technologies, requiring 1000-pixel two-dimensional arrays with >95% filling fraction and quantum efficiency at 6 keV and better than 4 eV energy resolution for 1-10 keV photons. We describe a robust transition edge sensor fabrication process that can produce detector arrays with integrated absorbers approaching the specifications of Con-X. We address issues such as the methods of superconducting bilayer deposition, detector geometry definition, and absorber interface.

  9. Studying signal collection in the punch-through protection area of a silicon micro-strip sensor using a micro-focused X-ray beam

    CERN Document Server

    Poley, Anne-luise; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    For the Phase-II Upgrade of the ATLAS detector, a new, all-silicon tracker will be constructed in order to cope with the increased track density and radiation level of the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider. While silicon strip sensors are designed to minimise the fraction of dead material and maximise the active area of a sensor, concessions must be made to the requirements of operating a sensor in a particle physics detector. Sensor geometry features like the punch-through protection deviate from the standard sensor architecture and thereby affect the charge collection in that area. In order to study the signal collection of silicon strip sensors over their punch-through-protection area, ATLAS silicon strip sensors were scanned with a micro-focused X-ray beam at the Diamond Light Source. Due to the highly focused X-ray beam ($\\unit[2\\times3]{\\upmu\\text{m}}^2$) and the short average path length of an electron after interaction with an X-ray photon ($\\unit[\\leq2]{\\upmu\\text{m}}$), local signal collection i...

  10. Non-linear effects in transition edge sensors for X-ray detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandler, S.R.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Iyomoto, N.; Kelley, R.L.; Kilbourne, C.A.; Murphy, K.D.; Porter, F.S.; Saab, T.; Sadleir, J.

    2006-01-01

    In a microcalorimeter that uses a transition-edge sensor to detect energy depositions, the small signal energy resolution improves with decreasing heat capacity. This improvement remains true up to the point where non-linear and saturation effects become significant. This happens when the energy deposition causes a significant change in the sensor resistance. Not only does the signal size become a non-linear function of the energy deposited, but also the noise becomes non-stationary over the duration of the pulse. Algorithms have been developed that can calculate the optimal performance given this non-linear behavior that typically requires significant processing and calibration work-both of which are impractical for space missions. We have investigated the relative importance of the various non-linear effects, with the hope that a computationally simple transformation can overcome the largest of the non-linear and non-stationary effects, producing a highly linear 'gain' for pulse-height versus energy, and close to the best energy resolution at all energies when using a Wiener filter

  11. Application of X-Ray Sensors for In-line and Noninvasive Monitoring of Mass Flow Rate in Continuous Tablet Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Sudarshan; Troscinski, Rachel; Schmall, Nicholas; Lim, Jongmook; Nagy, Zoltan; Reklaitis, Gintaras

    2017-12-01

    The progress in continuous downstream manufacturing of oral solid doses demands effective real-time process management, with monitoring at its core. This study evaluates the feasibility of using a commercial sensor to measure the mass flow rate of the particulates, a critical process variable in continuous manufacturing. The sensor independently measures X-ray attenuation and cross-correlation velocimetry of particulate flow in real time. Steady-state flow rates of blends comprised primarily of acetaminophen and microcrystalline-cellulose are monitored using the sensor, with simultaneous weighing scale measurements, to calibrate the sensor and investigate the measurement accuracy. The free-fall flow measurement of the powder and granule blends in a conduit is linearly proportional to the X-ray attenuation. Relative standard deviations of ∼3%-7% for 1 s monitoring are observed and a measurement error of approximately 5% suggests the usability of the sensor for real-time monitoring. The sensor measurement is robust for operational variations in composition, addition of lubricant or glidant and reuse of material for PAT tool calibration. The measurement relative standard deviations depend on particulate flow dynamics at the sensor location. This requires experimental evaluation for a given material at the sensor location, to capture the flow dynamics of the particulate stream through the sensor. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cosmic x ray physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1991-01-01

    The annual progress report on Cosmic X Ray Physics for the period 1 Jan. to 31 Dec. 1990 is presented. Topics studied include: soft x ray background, new sounding rocket payload: x ray calorimeter, and theoretical studies.

  13. X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enema. What you can expect During the X-ray X-rays are performed at doctors' offices, dentists' offices, ... as those using a contrast medium. Your child's X-ray Restraints or other techniques may be used to ...

  14. Chest x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest radiography; Serial chest x-ray; X-ray - chest ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  15. Abdominal x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  16. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacconi, R.; Gursky, H.

    1974-01-01

    This text contains ten chapters and three appendices. Following an introduction, chapters two through five deal with observational techniques, mechanisms for the production of x rays in a cosmic setting, the x-ray sky and solar x-ray emission. Chapters six through ten include compact x-ray sources, supernova remnants, the interstellar medium, extragalactic x-ray sources and the cosmic x-ray background. Interactions of x rays with matter, units and conversion factors and a catalog of x-ray sources comprise the three appendices. (U.S.)

  17. WE-AB-BRA-11: Improved Imaging of Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy Seed Implants by Combining an Endorectal X-Ray Sensor with a CT Scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, J; Matthews, K; Jia, G [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To test feasibility of the use of a digital endorectal x-ray sensor for improved image resolution of permanent brachytherapy seed implants compared to conventional CT. Methods: Two phantoms simulating the male pelvic region were used to test the capabilities of a digital endorectal x-ray sensor for imaging permanent brachytherapy seed implants. Phantom 1 was constructed from acrylic plastic with cavities milled in the locations of the prostate and the rectum. The prostate cavity was filled a Styrofoam plug implanted with 10 training seeds. Phantom 2 was constructed from tissue-equivalent gelatins and contained a prostate phantom implanted with 18 strands of training seeds. For both phantoms, an intraoral digital dental x-ray sensor was placed in the rectum within 2 cm of the seed implants. Scout scans were taken of the phantoms over a limited arc angle using a CT scanner (80 kV, 120–200 mA). The dental sensor was removed from the phantoms and normal helical CT and scout (0 degree) scans using typical parameters for pelvic CT (120 kV, auto-mA) were collected. A shift-and add tomosynthesis algorithm was developed to localize seed plane location normal to detector face. Results: The endorectal sensor produced images with improved resolution compared to CT scans. Seed clusters and individual seed geometry were more discernable using the endorectal sensor. Seed 3D locations, including seeds that were not located in every projection image, were discernable using the shift and add algorithm. Conclusion: This work shows that digital endorectal x-ray sensors are a feasible method for improving imaging of permanent brachytherapy seed implants. Future work will consist of optimizing the tomosynthesis technique to produce higher resolution, lower dose images of 1) permanent brachytherapy seed implants for post-implant dosimetry and 2) fine anatomic details for imaging and managing prostatic disease compared to CT images. Funding: LSU Faculty Start-up Funding

  18. Transition-edge sensor pixel parameter design of the microcalorimeter array for the x-ray integral field unit on Athena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. J.; Adams, J. S.; Bandler, S. R.; Betancourt-Martinez, G. L.; Chervenak, J. A.; Chiao, M. P.; Eckart, M. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Miniussi, A. R.; Porter, F. S.; Sadleir, J. E.; Sakai, K.; Wakeham, N. A.; Wassell, E. J.; Yoon, W.; Bennett, D. A.; Doriese, W. B.; Fowler, J. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Morgan, K. M.; Pappas, C. G.; Reintsema, C. N.; Swetz, D. S.; Ullom, J. N.; Irwin, K. D.; Akamatsu, H.; Gottardi, L.; den Hartog, R.; Jackson, B. D.; van der Kuur, J.; Barret, D.; Peille, P.

    2016-07-01

    The focal plane of the X-ray integral field unit (X-IFU) for ESA's Athena X-ray observatory will consist of 4000 transition edge sensor (TES) x-ray microcalorimeters optimized for the energy range of 0.2 to 12 keV. The instrument will provide unprecedented spectral resolution of 2.5 eV at energies of up to 7 keV and will accommodate photon fluxes of 1 mCrab (90 cps) for point source observations. The baseline configuration is a uniform large pixel array (LPA) of 4.28" pixels that is read out using frequency domain multiplexing (FDM). However, an alternative configuration under study incorporates an 18 × 18 small pixel array (SPA) of 2" pixels in the central 36" region. This hybrid array configuration could be designed to accommodate higher fluxes of up to 10 mCrab (900 cps) or alternately for improved spectral performance (trade-offs between designs. The basis of the pixel parameter selection is discussed in the context of existing TES arrays that are being developed for solar and x-ray astronomy applications. We describe the latest results on DC biased diagnostic arrays as well as large format kilo-pixel arrays and discuss the technical challenges associated with integrating different array types on to a single detector die.

  19. High-speed imaging at high x-ray energy: CdTe sensors coupled to charge-integrating pixel array detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Julian; Tate, Mark W.; Shanks, Katherine S.; Philipp, Hugh T.; Weiss, Joel T.; Purohit, Prafull [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Chamberlain, Darol [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gruner, Sol M., E-mail: smg26@cornell.edu [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Pixel Array Detectors (PADs) consist of an x-ray sensor layer bonded pixel-by-pixel to an underlying readout chip. This approach allows both the sensor and the custom pixel electronics to be tailored independently to best match the x-ray imaging requirements. Here we describe the hybridization of CdTe sensors to two different charge-integrating readout chips, the Keck PAD and the Mixed-Mode PAD (MM-PAD), both developed previously in our laboratory. The charge-integrating architecture of each of these PADs extends the instantaneous counting rate by many orders of magnitude beyond that obtainable with photon counting architectures. The Keck PAD chip consists of rapid, 8-frame, in-pixel storage elements with framing periods <150 ns. The second detector, the MM-PAD, has an extended dynamic range by utilizing an in-pixel overflow counter coupled with charge removal circuitry activated at each overflow. This allows the recording of signals from the single-photon level to tens of millions of x-rays/pixel/frame while framing at 1 kHz. Both detector chips consist of a 128×128 pixel array with (150 µm){sup 2} pixels.

  20. High-speed imaging at high x-ray energy: CdTe sensors coupled to charge-integrating pixel array detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Julian; Tate, Mark W.; Shanks, Katherine S.; Philipp, Hugh T.; Weiss, Joel T.; Purohit, Prafull; Chamberlain, Darol; Gruner, Sol M.

    2016-01-01

    Pixel Array Detectors (PADs) consist of an x-ray sensor layer bonded pixel-by-pixel to an underlying readout chip. This approach allows both the sensor and the custom pixel electronics to be tailored independently to best match the x-ray imaging requirements. Here we describe the hybridization of CdTe sensors to two different charge-integrating readout chips, the Keck PAD and the Mixed-Mode PAD (MM-PAD), both developed previously in our laboratory. The charge-integrating architecture of each of these PADs extends the instantaneous counting rate by many orders of magnitude beyond that obtainable with photon counting architectures. The Keck PAD chip consists of rapid, 8-frame, in-pixel storage elements with framing periods <150 ns. The second detector, the MM-PAD, has an extended dynamic range by utilizing an in-pixel overflow counter coupled with charge removal circuitry activated at each overflow. This allows the recording of signals from the single-photon level to tens of millions of x-rays/pixel/frame while framing at 1 kHz. Both detector chips consist of a 128×128 pixel array with (150 µm) 2 pixels.

  1. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed x-ray exams and use a very small dose of ... of the inside of the chest. A chest x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and ...

  2. X-ray sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruen, M.; Koubsky, P.

    1977-01-01

    The history is described of the discoveries of X-ray sources in the sky. The individual X-ray detectors are described in more detail, i.e., gas counters, scintillation detectors, semiconductor detectors, and the principles of X-ray spectrometry and of radiation collimation aimed at increased resolution are discussed. Currently, over 200 celestial X-ray sources are known. Some were identified as nebulae, in some pulsations were found or the source was identified as a binary star. X-ray bursts of novae were also observed. The X-ray radiation is briefly mentioned of spherical star clusters and of extragalactic X-ray sources. (Oy)

  3. 50 μm pixel pitch wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray detector for digital breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C; Konstantinidis, A C; Zheng, Y; Anaxagoras, T; Speller, R D; Kanicki, J

    2015-12-07

    Wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensors (APSs) have been developed recently for x-ray imaging applications. The small pixel pitch and low noise are very promising properties for medical imaging applications such as digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In this work, we evaluated experimentally and through modeling the imaging properties of a 50 μm pixel pitch CMOS APS x-ray detector named DynAMITe (Dynamic Range Adjustable for Medical Imaging Technology). A modified cascaded system model was developed for CMOS APS x-ray detectors by taking into account the device nonlinear signal and noise properties. The imaging properties such as modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were extracted from both measurements and the nonlinear cascaded system analysis. The results show that the DynAMITe x-ray detector achieves a high spatial resolution of 10 mm(-1) and a DQE of around 0.5 at spatial frequencies  <1 mm(-1). In addition, the modeling results were used to calculate the image signal-to-noise ratio (SNRi) of microcalcifications at various mean glandular dose (MGD). For an average breast (5 cm thickness, 50% glandular fraction), 165 μm microcalcifications can be distinguished at a MGD of 27% lower than the clinical value (~1.3 mGy). To detect 100 μm microcalcifications, further optimizations of the CMOS APS x-ray detector, image aquisition geometry and image reconstruction techniques should be considered.

  4. 50 μm pixel pitch wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray detector for digital breast tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, C; Kanicki, J; Konstantinidis, A C; Zheng, Y; Speller, R D; Anaxagoras, T

    2015-01-01

    Wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensors (APSs) have been developed recently for x-ray imaging applications. The small pixel pitch and low noise are very promising properties for medical imaging applications such as digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In this work, we evaluated experimentally and through modeling the imaging properties of a 50 μm pixel pitch CMOS APS x-ray detector named DynAMITe (Dynamic Range Adjustable for Medical Imaging Technology). A modified cascaded system model was developed for CMOS APS x-ray detectors by taking into account the device nonlinear signal and noise properties. The imaging properties such as modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were extracted from both measurements and the nonlinear cascaded system analysis. The results show that the DynAMITe x-ray detector achieves a high spatial resolution of 10 mm −1 and a DQE of around 0.5 at spatial frequencies  <1 mm −1 . In addition, the modeling results were used to calculate the image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR i ) of microcalcifications at various mean glandular dose (MGD). For an average breast (5 cm thickness, 50% glandular fraction), 165 μm microcalcifications can be distinguished at a MGD of 27% lower than the clinical value (∼1.3 mGy). To detect 100 μm microcalcifications, further optimizations of the CMOS APS x-ray detector, image aquisition geometry and image reconstruction techniques should be considered. (paper)

  5. Chromatic X-ray imaging with a fine pitch CdTe sensor coupled to a large area photon counting pixel ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellazzini, R.; Spandre, G.; Brez, A.; Minuti, M.; Pinchera, M.; Mozzo, P.

    2013-02-01

    An innovative X-ray imaging sensor based on Chromatic Photon Counting technology with intrinsic digital characteristics is presented. The system counts individually the incident X-ray photons and selects them according to their energy to produce two color images per exposure. The energy selection occurs in real time and at radiographic imaging speed (GHz global counting rate). Photon counting, color mode and a very fine spatial resolution (more than 10 LP/mm at MTF50) allow to obtain a high ratio between image quality and absorbed dose. The individual building block of the imaging system is a two-side buttable semiconductor radiation detector made of a thin pixellated CdTe crystal coupled to a large area VLSI CMOS pixel ASIC. Modules with 1, 2, 4, and 8 block units have been built. The largest module has 25 × 2.5 cm2 sensitive area. Results and images obtained from testing different modules are presented.

  6. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sell, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    A diagnostic x-ray device, readily convertible between conventional radiographic and tomographic operating modes, is described. An improved drive system interconnects and drives the x-ray source and the imaging device through coordinated movements for tomography

  7. X-ray - skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003381.htm X-ray - skeleton To use the sharing features on this ... Degenerative bone conditions Osteomyelitis Risks There is low radiation exposure. X-rays machines are set to provide the smallest ...

  8. Dental x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - teeth; Radiograph - dental; Bitewings; Periapical film; Panoramic film; Digital image ... dentist's office. There are many types of dental x-rays. Some of them are: Bitewing. Shows the crown ...

  9. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a ... posted: How to Obtain and Share ...

  10. X-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-rays are a form of ionizing radiation that can penetrate the body to form an image on ... will be shades of gray depending on density. X-rays can provide information about obstructions, tumors, and other ...

  11. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed ...

  12. Flash X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    Generation of quasi-monochromatic X-ray by production of weakly ionized line plasma (flash X-ray), high-speed imaging by the X-ray and high-contrast imaging by the characteristic X-ray absorption are described. The equipment for the X-ray is consisted from the high-voltage power supply and condenser, turbo molecular pump, and plasma X-ray tube. The tube has a long linear anticathode to produce the line plasma and flash X-ray at 20 kA current at maximum. X-ray spectrum is measured by the imaging plate equipped in the computed radiography system after diffracted by a LiF single crystal bender. Cu anticathode generates sharp peaks of K X-ray series. The tissue images are presented for vertebra, rabbit ear and heart, and dog heart by X-ray fluoroscopy with Ce anticathode. Generation of K-orbit characteristic X-ray with extremely low bremsstrahung is to be attempted for medical use. (N.I.)

  13. Influence of Nb Doping Concentration on Bolometric Properties of RF Magnetron Sputtered Nb:TiO2- x Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Y. Ashok Kumar; Shin, Young Bong; Kang, In-Ku; Lee, Hee Chul

    2018-03-01

    The present study directly addresses the improved bolometric properties by means of different Nb doping concentrations into TiO2- x films. The x-ray diffraction patterns do not display any obvious diffraction peaks, suggesting that all the films deposited at room temperature had an amorphous structure. A small binding energy shift was observed in x-ray photo electron spectroscopy due to the change of chemical composition with Nb doping concentration. All the device samples exhibit linear I- V characteristics, which attests to the formation of good ohmic contact with low contact resistance between the Nb:TiO2- x (TNO) film and the electrode (Ti) material. The performance of the bolometric material can be evaluated through the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR), and the absolute value of TCR was found to be increased from 2.54% to 2.78% with increasing the Nb doping concentration. The voltage spectral density of 1/ f noise was measured in the frequency range of 1-60 Hz and found to be decreased with increase of Nb doping concentration. As a result, for 1 at.% Nb-doped TNO sample exhibits improved bolometric properties towards the good infrared image sensor device.

  14. Influence of Nb Doping Concentration on Bolometric Properties of RF Magnetron Sputtered Nb:TiO2-x Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Y. Ashok Kumar; Shin, Young Bong; Kang, In-Ku; Lee, Hee Chul

    2017-12-01

    The present study directly addresses the improved bolometric properties by means of different Nb doping concentrations into TiO2-x films. The x-ray diffraction patterns do not display any obvious diffraction peaks, suggesting that all the films deposited at room temperature had an amorphous structure. A small binding energy shift was observed in x-ray photo electron spectroscopy due to the change of chemical composition with Nb doping concentration. All the device samples exhibit linear I-V characteristics, which attests to the formation of good ohmic contact with low contact resistance between the Nb:TiO2-x (TNO) film and the electrode (Ti) material. The performance of the bolometric material can be evaluated through the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR), and the absolute value of TCR was found to be increased from 2.54% to 2.78% with increasing the Nb doping concentration. The voltage spectral density of 1/f noise was measured in the frequency range of 1-60 Hz and found to be decreased with increase of Nb doping concentration. As a result, for 1 at.% Nb-doped TNO sample exhibits improved bolometric properties towards the good infrared image sensor device.

  15. Characterization of chromium compensated GaAs as an X-ray sensor material for charge-integrating pixel array detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J.; Tate, M. W.; Shanks, K. S.; Philipp, H. T.; Weiss, J. T.; Purohit, P.; Chamberlain, D.; Gruner, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    We studied the properties of chromium compensated GaAs when coupled to charge integrating ASICs as a function of detector temperature, applied bias and X-ray tube energy. The material is a photoresistor and can be biased to collect either electrons or holes by the pixel circuitry. Both are studied here. Previous studies have shown substantial hole trapping. This trapping and other sensor properties give rise to several non-ideal effects which include an extended point spread function, variations in the effective pixel size, and rate dependent offset shifts. The magnitude of these effects varies with temperature and bias, mandating good temperature uniformity in the sensor and very good temperature stabilization, as well as a carefully selected bias voltage.

  16. Amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistor active pixel sensor x-ray imager for digital breast tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chumin; Kanicki, Jerzy, E-mail: kanicki@eecs.umich.edu [Solid-State Electronic Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: The breast cancer detection rate for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is limited by the x-ray image quality. The limiting Nyquist frequency for current DBT systems is around 5 lp/mm, while the fine image details contained in the high spatial frequency region (>5 lp/mm) are lost. Also today the tomosynthesis patient dose is high (0.67–3.52 mGy). To address current issues, in this paper, for the first time, a high-resolution low-dose organic photodetector/amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistor (a-IGZO TFT) active pixel sensor (APS) x-ray imager is proposed for next generation DBT systems. Methods: The indirect x-ray detector is based on a combination of a novel low-cost organic photodiode (OPD) and a cesium iodide-based (CsI:Tl) scintillator. The proposed APS x-ray imager overcomes the difficulty of weak signal detection, when small pixel size and low exposure conditions are used, by an on-pixel signal amplification with a significant charge gain. The electrical performance of a-IGZO TFT APS pixel circuit is investigated by SPICE simulation using modified Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) TFT model. Finally, the noise, detective quantum efficiency (DQE), and resolvability of the complete system are modeled using the cascaded system formalism. Results: The result demonstrates that a large charge gain of 31–122 is achieved for the proposed high-mobility (5–20 cm{sup 2}/V s) amorphous metal-oxide TFT APS. The charge gain is sufficient to eliminate the TFT thermal noise, flicker noise as well as the external readout circuit noise. Moreover, the low TFT (<10{sup −13} A) and OPD (<10{sup −8} A/cm{sup 2}) leakage currents can further reduce the APS noise. Cascaded system analysis shows that the proposed APS imager with a 75 μm pixel pitch can effectively resolve the Nyquist frequency of 6.67 lp/mm, which can be further improved to ∼10 lp/mm if the pixel pitch is reduced to 50 μm. Moreover, the

  17. X-ray holography

    CERN Document Server

    Faigel, G; Belakhovsky, M; Marchesini, S; Bortel, G

    2003-01-01

    In the last decade holographic methods using hard X-rays were developed. They are able to resolve atomic distances, and can give the 3D arrangement of atoms around a selected element. Therefore, hard X-ray holography has potential applications in chemistry, biology and physics. In this article we give a general description of these methods and discuss the developments in the experimental technique. The capabilities of hard X-ray holography are demonstrated by examples.

  18. X-ray holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faigel, G.; Tegze, M.; Belakhovsky, M.; Marchesini, S.; Bortel, G.

    2003-01-01

    In the last decade holographic methods using hard X-rays were developed. They are able to resolve atomic distances, and can give the 3D arrangement of atoms around a selected element. Therefore, hard X-ray holography has potential applications in chemistry, biology and physics. In this article we give a general description of these methods and discuss the developments in the experimental technique. The capabilities of hard X-ray holography are demonstrated by examples

  19. Providing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides an apparatus for providing x-rays to an object that may be in an ordinary environment such as air at approximately atmospheric pressure. The apparatus comprises: means (typically a laser beam) for directing energy onto a target to produce x-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity at the target; a fluid-tight enclosure around the target; means for maintaining the pressure in the first enclosure substantially below atmospheric pressure; a fluid-tight second enclosure adjoining the first enclosure, the common wall portion having an opening large enough to permit x-rays to pass through but small enough to allow the pressure reducing means to evacuate gas from the first enclosure at least as fast as it enters through the opening; the second enclosure filled with a gas that is highly transparent to x-rays; the wall of the second enclosure to which the x-rays travel having a portion that is highly transparent to x-rays (usually a beryllium or plastic foil), so that the object to which the x-rays are to be provided may be located outside the second enclosure and adjacent thereto and thus receive the x-rays substantially unimpeded by air or other intervening matter. The apparatus is particularly suited to obtaining EXAFS (extended x-ray fine structure spectroscopy) data on a material

  20. An investigation of the role of defect levels on the radiation response of synthetic diamond crystals when used as sensors for the detection of mammography X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ade, Nicholas

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluates the role of defects on the performances of synthetic diamond sensors on exposure to mammography X-rays. Through systematic investigations, the main cause of instability of response of examined sensors necessitating pre-irradiation was isolated and ascribed to the presence of ambient light which has the effect of emptying shallow trapping levels. The changes in response between measurements in light and dark conditions varied from 2.8 ± 1.2% to 63.0 ± 0.3%. Sensitivities between 0.4 and 6.7nCGy -1 mm -3 determined for the sensors varied with defect levels. The study indicates that differences in crystal quality due to the presence and influence of defects would cause a discrepancy in the dosimetric performances of various diamond detectors. Once a sensor plate is selected (based on the influence of defect levels) and coupled to the probe housing with the response of the diamond sensor stabilised and appropriately shielded from ambient light, daily priming is not needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Extremity x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003461.htm Extremity x-ray To use the sharing features on this page, ... in the body Risks There is low-level radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the ...

  2. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to change into a gown. You may have some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny ...

  3. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... d like to talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x- ...

  4. The nature of surface behavior of tin oxide doped sensors: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies before and after exposure to liquid petroleum gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phani, A. R.; Manorama, S.; Rao, V. J.

    2000-06-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies have been carried out to investigate the possible chemical species involved in the gas-solid interaction and enhancing mechanism of the Pd-doped SnO2 sensor element. In the case of SnO2 and SnO2/Al2Si2O7, when the samples are exposed to liquid petroleum gas (LPG), the SnO2 is reduced to metallic Sn indicating adsorption-desorption (chemical mechanism). Whereas in the case of SnO2/Pd and SnO2/Al2Si2O7/Pd systems in addition to chemical mechanism, there is an additional contribution from the Pd, in which PdO2 and PdO are reduced to PdO and Pd, respectively, attributed to electronic mechanism. It has been observed that the electronic mechanism is more predominant than the chemical one.

  5. Three-dimensional cascaded system analysis of a 50 µm pixel pitch wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray detector for digital breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C; Vassiljev, N; Konstantinidis, A C; Speller, R D; Kanicki, J

    2017-03-07

    High-resolution, low-noise x-ray detectors based on the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology have been developed and proposed for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In this study, we evaluated the three-dimensional (3D) imaging performance of a 50 µm pixel pitch CMOS APS x-ray detector named DynAMITe (Dynamic Range Adjustable for Medical Imaging Technology). The two-dimensional (2D) angle-dependent modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were experimentally characterized and modeled using the cascaded system analysis at oblique incident angles up to 30°. The cascaded system model was extended to the 3D spatial frequency space in combination with the filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction method to calculate the 3D and in-plane MTF, NNPS and DQE parameters. The results demonstrate that the beam obliquity blurs the 2D MTF and DQE in the high spatial frequency range. However, this effect can be eliminated after FBP image reconstruction. In addition, impacts of the image acquisition geometry and detector parameters were evaluated using the 3D cascaded system analysis for DBT. The result shows that a wider projection angle range (e.g.  ±30°) improves the low spatial frequency (below 5 mm -1 ) performance of the CMOS APS detector. In addition, to maintain a high spatial resolution for DBT, a focal spot size of smaller than 0.3 mm should be used. Theoretical analysis suggests that a pixelated scintillator in combination with the 50 µm pixel pitch CMOS APS detector could further improve the 3D image resolution. Finally, the 3D imaging performance of the CMOS APS and an indirect amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film transistor (TFT) passive pixel sensor (PPS) detector was simulated and compared.

  6. X-ray metrology for ULSI structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, D. K.; Matney, K. M.; Wormington, M.

    1998-01-01

    Non-destructive X-ray metrological methods are discussed for application to both process development and process control of ULSI structures. X-ray methods can (a) detect the unacceptable levels of internal defects generated by RTA processes in large wafers, (b) accurately measure the thickness and roughness of layers between 1 and 1000 nm thick and (c) can monitor parameters such as crystallographic texture and the roughness of buried interfaces. In this paper we review transmission X-ray topography, thin film texture measurement, grazing-incidence X-ray reflectivity and high-resolution X-ray diffraction. We discuss in particular their suitability as on-line sensors for process control

  7. X-ray generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus and a method are described for producing coherent secondary x-rays that are controlled as to direction by illuminating a mixture of high z and low z gases with an intense burst of primary x-rays. The primary x-rays are produced with a laser activated plasma, and these x-rays strip off the electrons of the high z atoms in the lasing medium, while the low z atoms retain their electrons. The neutral atoms transfer electrons to highly excited states of the highly stripped high z ions giving an inverted population which produces the desired coherent x-rays. In one embodiment, a laser, light beam provides a laser spark that produces the intense burst of coherent x-rays that illuminates the mixture of high z and low z gases, whereby the high z atoms are stripped while the low z ones are not, giving the desired mixture of highly ionized and neutral atoms. Means for magnetically confining and stabilizing the plasma are disclosed for controlling the direction of the x-rays

  8. X-ray crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    X-rays diffracted from a well-ordered protein crystal create sharp patterns of scattered light on film. A computer can use these patterns to generate a model of a protein molecule. To analyze the selected crystal, an X-ray crystallographer shines X-rays through the crystal. Unlike a single dental X-ray, which produces a shadow image of a tooth, these X-rays have to be taken many times from different angles to produce a pattern from the scattered light, a map of the intensity of the X-rays after they diffract through the crystal. The X-rays bounce off the electron clouds that form the outer structure of each atom. A flawed crystal will yield a blurry pattern; a well-ordered protein crystal yields a series of sharp diffraction patterns. From these patterns, researchers build an electron density map. With powerful computers and a lot of calculations, scientists can use the electron density patterns to determine the structure of the protein and make a computer-generated model of the structure. The models let researchers improve their understanding of how the protein functions. They also allow scientists to look for receptor sites and active areas that control a protein's function and role in the progress of diseases. From there, pharmaceutical researchers can design molecules that fit the active site, much like a key and lock, so that the protein is locked without affecting the rest of the body. This is called structure-based drug design.

  9. Indus-2 X-ray lithography beamline for X-ray optics and material science applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamgaye, V. P.; Lodha, G. S.

    2014-04-01

    X-ray lithography is an ideal technique by which high aspect ratio and high spatial resolution micro/nano structures are fabricated using X-rays from synchrotron radiation source. The technique has been used for fabricating optics (X-ray, visible and infrared), sensors and actuators, fluidics and photonics. A beamline for X-ray lithography is operational on Indus-2. The beamline offers wide lithographic window from 1-40keV photon energy and wide beam for producing microstructures in polymers upto size ˜100mm × 100mm. X-ray exposures are possible in air, vacuum and He gas environment. The air based exposures enables the X-ray irradiation of resist for lithography and also irradiation of biological and liquid samples.

  10. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, S.; Stagg, L.; Lambert, T.W.; Griswa, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    A patient support system for X-ray equipment in arteriographic studies of the heart is described in detail. The support system has been designed to overcome many of the practical problems encountered in using previous types of arteriographic X-ray equipment. The support system is capable of horizontal movement and, by a series of shafts attached to the main support system, the X-ray source and image intensifier or detector may be rotated through the same angle. The system is highly flexible and details are given of several possible operational modes. (U.K.)

  11. X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetten, N.R.; Houston, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    An ionization chamber for use in determining the spatial distribution of x-ray photons in tomography systems comprises a plurality of substantially parallel, planar anodes separated by parallel, planar cathodes and enclosed in a gas of high atomic weight at a pressure from approximately 10 atmospheres to approximately 50 atmospheres. The cathode and anode structures comprise metals which are substantially opaque to x-ray radiation and thereby tend to reduce the resolution limiting effects of x-ray fluoresence in the gas. In another embodiment of the invention the anodes comprise parallel conductive bars disposed between two planar cathodes. Guard rings eliminate surface leakage currents between adjacent electrodes. 8 figures

  12. Bolometric Device Based on Fluxoid Quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Joseph A.; Kenyon, Matthew E.; Leduc, Henry G.; Day, Peter K.

    2010-01-01

    The temperature dependence of fluxoid quantization in a superconducting loop. The sensitivity of the device is expected to surpass that of other superconducting- based bolometric devices, such as superconducting transition-edge sensors and superconducting nanowire devices. Just as important, the proposed device has advantages in sample fabrication.

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  14. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Panoramic Dental X-ray Panoramic dental x-ray uses a very small ... limitations of Panoramic X-ray? What is Panoramic X-ray? Panoramic radiography , also called panoramic x-ray , is ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  17. Abdomen X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Abdomen Abdominal x-ray uses a very ... of an abdominal x-ray? What is abdominal x-ray? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  18. X-Ray Exam: Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Hip KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... darker. An X-ray technician takes the X-rays. An X-ray technician in the radiology department of a ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  20. Lumbosacral spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - lumbosacral spine; X-ray - lower spine ... The test is done in a hospital x-ray department or your health care provider's office by an x-ray technician. You will be asked to lie on the x-ray table ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  2. Scintillating ribbon x-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinchen, B.E.; Rogers, A.

    1995-01-01

    A patent in the early 1970's by Aerojet Corporation in Sacramento, CA put forth the idea of using an array of scintillating fibers for x-ray detection and imaging. In about 1975, Pratt and Whitney Aircraft in East Hartford, CT designed and manufactured an imaging system based on the patent. The device was 1.75 in thick in the direction of the x-ray beam and about 4 in. by 4 in. square. The device was used with a 8 MeV x-ray source to image and measure internal clearances within operating aircraft, gas turbines engines. There are significant advantages of fiber optic detectors in x-ray detection. However, the advantages are often outweighed by the disadvantages. Two of the advantages of scintillating fiber optic x-ray detectors are: (1) high limiting spatial frequency -- between 20 and 25 lp/mm; and (2) excellent x-ray stopping power -- they can be made thick and retain spatial resolution. In traditional fiber optic detectors the x-rays are oriented parallel to the long axis of the fiber. For the scintillating ribbon x-ray sensor, the x-rays are oriented normal to the fiber long axis. This ribbon sensor technique has a number of advantages over the two current radiographic techniques digital x-radiography and x-ray film: The main advantage the ribbon has is size and shape. It can be as thin as 0.05 in., virtually any width or length, and flexible. Once positioned in a given location, 20 to 100 square inches of the object being inspected can be imaged with a single x-ray beam sweep. It is clear that conventional digital cameras do not lend themselves to placement between walls of aircraft structures or similar items requiring x-ray inspections. A prototype scintillating ribbon x-ray sensor has been fabricated and tested by Synergistic Detector Designs. Images were acquired on corrosion test panels of aluminum fabricated by Iowa State University

  3. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiology and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray ... posted: How to Obtain and Share Your Medical Images Movement Disorders Video: The Basketball Game: An MRI ...

  4. X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    A form of x-ray tube is described which provides satisfactory focussing of the electron beam when the beam extends for several feet from gun to target. Such a tube can be used for computerised tomographic scanning. (UK)

  5. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Spotlight February is American Heart Month Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test ... x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and chest wall and may be used to ...

  6. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Medical Imaging Costs Radiology and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/ ... Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey ...

  7. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exams and use a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ... chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs ...

  8. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. For more information about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot ... Inc. (RSNA). To help ensure current and accurate information, we do not permit copying but encourage linking ...

  9. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript ... Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Radiology and You ...

  10. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. ...

  11. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... chest x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and chest wall and may be used ... diagnose and monitor treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A ...

  12. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and use a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ... x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs ...

  13. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index A-Z Spotlight March is National Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  14. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index A-Z Spotlight March is National Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month Recently posted: How to Obtain and ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  15. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index A-Z Spotlight March is National Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month Recently posted: Video: The Basketball Game: ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  16. X-Ray Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, David C.

    1998-05-01

    We provide an overview of the status of x-ray laser development worldwide with particular attention given to activities at LLNL. Since the demonstration of x-ray lasing 14 years ago there has been major progress in achieving shorter wavelengths, higher energies per pulse, higher efficiency, shorter pulse durations, etc. Original x-ray lasers used large kJ class lasers to achieve lasing in mid-Z materials with electron collisional pumping in the highly stripped ion being the most successful process for populating the upper-laser state. The two most common electron configurations for these collisional x-ray lasers are Ne-like and Ni-like ions. Through the use of prepulses and short picosecond driving pulses, transient collisional x-ray lasing schemes have been demonstrated using lasers with only a few Joules per pulse. An interesting aspect of these lasers is the time lag in reaching ionization equilibrium helps in obtaining high gain coefficients. A different approach to x-ray lasing is also being studied where lasing occurs in a singly ionized ion following innershell photoionization. The major requirement of the driving laser in this case is an ultrashort pulse duration (rise time to achieve lasing prior to collisional ionization of outershell electrons. In the area of applications, most of the work has been for single pulse experiments such as plasma and biological imaging. However, many of the new x-ray lasers achieve high average power by having a reasonable repetition rate of order 10 Hz and we briefly discuss relevant applications for these x-ray lasers. This work performed under the auspices of US DOE by LLNL under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  17. X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    samples. Another exciting application of microbeam of x-rays is in that of high pressure x-ray diffraction from small samples. Along this line, Yan...will be presented by Jonathan in February at the Physics and Chemistry of Semiconductor Interfaces conference and in March at the American Physical...VUV9 conference this summer. Jeff has also worked on developing software that makes use of the scattering factor tables for both microvax and IBM PC

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drawer under the table holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray ... extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of knee x-rays. A portable x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken ... of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray ( ... leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray is taken with the ... an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath the patient. top of page ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ... Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report Images related to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  4. X-Ray Absorption with Transmission X-Ray Microscopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, F.M.F.

    2016-01-01

    In this section we focus on the use of transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) to measure the XAS spectra. In the last decade a range of soft X-ray and hard X-ray TXM microscopes have been developed, allowing the measurement of XAS spectra with 10–100 nm resolution. In the hard X-ray range the TXM

  5. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacconi, R.; Setti, G.

    1980-01-01

    This book contains the lectures, and the most important seminars held at the NATO meeting on X-Ray astronomy in Erice, July 1979. The meeting was an opportune forum to discuss the results of the first 8-months of operation of the X-ray satellite, HEAO-2 (Einstein Observatory) which was launched at the end of 1978. Besides surveying these results, the meeting covered extragalactic astronomy, including the relevant observations obtained in other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum (ultra-violet, optical, infrared and radio). The discussion on galactic X-ray sources essentially covered classical binaries, globular clusters and bursters and its significance to extragalactic sources and to high energy astrophysics was borne in mind. (orig.)

  6. X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webley, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The object of the invention described is to provide an X-ray tube providing a scanned X-ray output which does not require a scanned electron beam. This is obtained by an X-ray tube including an anode which is rotatable about an axis, and a source of a beam of energy, for example an electron beam, arranged to impinge on a surface of the anode to generate X-radiation substantially at the region of incidence on the anode surface. The anode is rotatable about the axis to move the region of incidence over the surface. The anode is so shaped that the rotation causes the region of incidence to move in a predetermined manner relative to fixed parts of the tube so that the generated X-radiation is scanned in a predetermined manner relative to the tube. (UK)

  7. X-Ray Exam: Pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Pelvis KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Ray Exam: Hip Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  8. X-Ray Exam: Forearm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Forearm KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  9. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Foot KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  10. X-Ray Exam: Wrist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Wrist KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  11. Thoracic spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  12. X-Ray Exam: Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Finger KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  13. Subluminous X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas Padilla, M.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of the first X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, by Giacconi et al. (1962), marked the birth of X-ray astronomy. Following that discovery, many additional X-ray sources where found with the first generation of X-ray rockets and observatories (e.g., UHURU and Einstein). The short-timescale

  14. X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.; Whetten, N.R.

    1981-01-01

    An ionization chamber for use in determining the spatial distribution of x-ray photons in tomography systems comprises a plurality of substantially parallel, planar anodes separated by parallel, planar cathodes and enclosed in a gas of high atomic weight at a pressure from approximately 10 atmospheres to approximately 50 atmospheres. The cathode and anode structures comprise metals which are substantially opaque to x-ray radiation and thereby tend to reduce the resolution limiting effects of xray fluoresence in the gas. In another embodiment of the invention the anodes comprise parallel conductive bars disposed between two planar cathodes. Guard rings eliminate surface leakage currents between adjacent electrodes

  15. X-ray masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, J.C.; Satchell, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    In semiconductor manufacture, where X-ray irradiation is used, a thin silicon membrane can be used as an X-ray mask. This membrane has areas on which are patterns to define the regions to be irradiated. These regions are of antireflection material. With the thin, in the order of 3 microns, membranes used, fragility is a problem. Hence a number of ribs of silicon are formed integral with the membrane, and which are relatively thick, 5 to 10 microns. The ribs may be formed by localised deeper boron deposition followed by a selective etch. (author)

  16. Flash x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Q.; Pellinen, D.

    1976-01-01

    The complementary techniques of flash x-ray radiography (FXR) and flash x-ray diffraction (FXD) provide access to a unique domain in nondestructive materials testing. FXR is useful in studies of macroscopic properties during extremely short time intervals, and FXD, the newer technique, is used in studies of microscopic properties. Although these techniques are similar in many respects, there are some substantial differences. FXD generally requires low-voltage, line-radiation sources and extremely accurate timing; FXR is usually less demanding. Phenomena which can be profitably studied by FXR often can also be studied by FXD to permit a complete materials characterization

  17. Direct Evidence of Conformational Changes Associated with Voltage Gating in a Voltage Sensor Protein by Time-Resolved X-ray/Neutron Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The voltage sensor domain (VSD) of voltage-gated cation (e.g., Na+, K+) channels central to neurological signal transmission can function as a distinct module. When linked to an otherwise voltage-insensitive, ion-selective membrane pore, the VSD imparts voltage sensitivity to the channel. Proteins homologous with the VSD have recently been found to function themselves as voltage-gated proton channels or to impart voltage sensitivity to enzymes. Determining the conformational changes associated with voltage gating in the VSD itself in the absence of a pore domain thereby gains importance. We report the direct measurement of changes in the scattering-length density (SLD) profile of the VSD protein, vectorially oriented within a reconstituted phospholipid bilayer membrane, as a function of the transmembrane electric potential by time-resolved X-ray and neutron interferometry. The changes in the experimental SLD profiles for both polarizing and depolarizing potentials with respect to zero potential were found to extend over the entire length of the isolated VSD’s profile structure. The characteristics of the changes observed were in qualitative agreement with molecular dynamics simulations of a related membrane system, suggesting an initial interpretation of these changes in terms of the VSD’s atomic-level 3-D structure. PMID:24697545

  18. CRL X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolchevsky, N.N.; Petrov, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    A novel types of X-ray tubes with refractive lenses are proposed. CRL-R X-ray tube consists of Compound Refractive Lens- CRL and Reflection X-ray tube. CRL acts as X-ray window. CRL-T X-ray consists of CRL and Transmission X-ray tube. CRL acts as target for electron beam. CRL refractive lens acts as filter, collimator, waveguide and focusing lens. Properties and construction of the CRL X-ray tube are discussed. (authors)

  19. CRL X-RAY TUBE

    OpenAIRE

    Kolchevsky, N. N.; Petrov, P. V.

    2015-01-01

    A novel types of X-ray tubes with refractive lenses are proposed. CRL-R X-ray tube consists of Compound Refractive Lens- CRL and Reflection X-ray tube. CRL acts as X-ray window. CRL-T X-ray consists of CRL and Transmission X-ray tube. CRL acts as target for electron beam. CRL refractive lens acts as filter, collimator, waveguide and focusing lens. Properties and construction of the CRL X-ray tube are discussed.

  20. X rays and condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daillant, J.

    1997-01-01

    After a historical review of the discovery and study of X rays, the various interaction processes between X rays and matter are described: Thomson scattering, Compton scattering, X-photon absorption through photoelectric effect, and magnetic scattering. X ray sources such as the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) are described. The various X-ray applications are presented: imagery such as X tomography, X microscopy, phase contrast; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy; X-ray scattering and diffraction techniques

  1. X-ray beam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koller, T.J.; Randmer, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A method of minimizing the preferential angular absorption of the divergent beam from an X-ray generator is described. The generator consists of an X-ray shielded housing with an X-ray transmissive window symmetrically placed in radial alignment with a focal spot area on a sloped target surface of an X-ray tube in the housing. The X-ray tube may be of the stationary anode type or of the rotating anode type. (U.K.)

  2. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny ...

  3. X-ray filter for x-ray powder diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsheimer, John Jay; Conley, Raymond P.; Bouet, Nathalie C. D.; Dooryhee, Eric; Ghose, Sanjit

    2018-01-23

    Technologies are described for apparatus, methods and systems effective for filtering. The filters may comprise a first plate. The first plate may include an x-ray absorbing material and walls defining first slits. The first slits may include arc shaped openings through the first plate. The walls of the first plate may be configured to absorb at least some of first x-rays when the first x-rays are incident on the x-ray absorbing material, and to output second x-rays. The filters may comprise a second plate spaced from the first plate. The second plate may include the x-ray absorbing material and walls defining second slits. The second slits may include arc shaped openings through the second plate. The walls of the second plate may be configured to absorb at least some of second x-rays and to output third x-rays.

  4. X-ray refractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tur'yanskij, A.G.; Pirshin, I.V.

    2001-01-01

    Paper introduces a new circuit of X-ray refractometer to study angular and spectral features of refracted radiation within hard X-ray range. Refractometer incorporates two goniometers, two crystal-analyzers and three radiation detectors. The maximum distance between radiation source focal point and a receiving slit of the second goniometer is equal to 1.4 m. For the first time one obtained refraction patterns of fine-film specimens including C/Si stressed structure. Paper describes a new technique of refractometry via specimen oscillation at fixed position of a detecting device. Paper presents the measurement results of oscillation refraction patterns for specimens of melted quartz and ZnSe single crystal [ru

  5. X-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunsmuir, J.H.; Ferguson, S.R.; D'Amico, K.L.; Stokes, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe the application of a new high-resolution X-ray tomographic microscope to the study of porous media. The microscope was designed to exploit the properties of a synchrotron X-ray source to perform three dimensional tomography on millimeter sized objects with micron resolution and has been used in materials science studies with both synchrotron and conventional and synchrotron sources will be compared. In this work the authors have applied the microscope to measure the three dimensional structure of fused bead packs and berea sandstones with micron resolution and have performed preliminary studies of flow in these media with the microscope operated in a digital subtraction radiography mode. Computer graphics techniques have been applied to the data to visually display the structure of the pore body system. Tomographic imaging after flow experiments should detect the structure of the oil-water interface in the pore network and this work is ongoing

  6. X-ray Ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, R.; Zerlett, G.

    1983-01-01

    This commentary, presented as volume 2 of the Deutsches Strahlenschutzrecht (German legislation on radiation protection) deals with the legal provisions of the ordinance on the protection against harmful effects of X-radiation (X-ray Ordinance - RoeV), of March 1, 1973 (announced in BGBl.I, page 173), as amended by the ordinance on the protection against harmful effects of ionizing radiation, of October 13, 1976 (announced in BGBl. I, page 2905). Thus volume 2 completes the task started with volume 1, namely to present a comprehensive view and account of the body of laws governing radiation protection, a task which was thought useful as developments in the FRG led to regulations being split up into the X-ray Ordinance, and the Radiation Protection Ordinance. In order to present a well-balanced commentary on the X-ray Ordinance, it was necessary to discuss the provisions both from the legal and the medical point of view. This edition takes into account the Fourth Public Notice of the BMA (Fed. Min. of Labour and Social Affairs) concerning the implementation of the X-ray Ordinance of January 4, 1982, as well as court decisions and literature published in this field, until September 1982. In addition, the judgment of the Federal Constitutional Court, dated October 19, 1982, concerning the voidness of the law on government liability, and two decisions by the Federal High Court, dated November 23, 1982, concerning the right to have insight into medical reports - of great significance in practice - have been considered. This commentary therefore is up to date with current developments. (orig.) [de

  7. X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einstein, J.R.; Wei, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    We have been interested in structural elucidation by x-ray diffraction of compounds of biological interest. Understanding exactly how atoms are arranged in three-dimensional arrays as molecules can help explain the relationship between structure and functions. The species investigated may vary in size and shape; our recent studies included such diverse substances as antischistosomal drugs, a complex of cadmium with nucleic acid base, nitrate salts of adenine, and proteins

  8. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Chuji.

    1980-01-01

    A principal object of the present invention is to provide an X-ray apparatus which is such that the distance between the surface of the patient's table and the floor on which the apparatus is installed is sufficiently small in the horizontal position of the patient's table of the roentgenographical pedestal and that the rotation of the pedestal from the horizontal position to a tilted position and further to the vertical position of the table can be carried out smoothly. (auth)

  9. Producing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.; Jung, R.G.; Applebaum, D.C.; Fairand, B.P.; Gallagher, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method of producing x-rays by directing radiant energy from a laser onto a target is described. Conversion efficiency of at least about 3 percent is obtained by providing the radiant energy in a low-power precursor pulse of approximately uniform effective intensity focused onto the surface of the target for about 1 to 30 nanoseconds so as to generate an expanding unconfined coronal plasma having less than normal solid density throughout and comprising a low-density (underdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is less than the laser radiation frequency and a higher-density (overdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is greater than the laser radiation frequency and, about 1 to 30 nanoseconds after the precursor pulse strikes the target, a higher-power main pulse focused onto the plasma for about 10 -3 to 30 nanoseconds and having such power density and total energy that the radiant energy is absorbed in the underdense region and conducted into the overdense region to heat it and thus to produce x-rays therefrom with the plasma remaining substantially below normal solid density and thus facilitating the substantial emission of x-rays in the form of spectral lines arising from nonequilibrium ionization states

  10. Starspot variability as an X-ray radiation proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhypov, Oleksiy V.; Khodachenko, Maxim L.; Lammer, Helmut; Güdel, Manuel; Lüftinger, Teresa; Johnstone, Colin P.

    2018-05-01

    Stellar X-ray emission plays an important role in the study of exoplanets as a proxy for stellar winds and as a basis for the prediction of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) flux, unavailable for direct measurements, which in their turn are important factors for the mass-loss of planetary atmospheres. Unfortunately, the detection thresholds limit the number of stars with the directly measured X-ray fluxes. At the same time, the known connection between the sunspots and X-ray sources allows using of the starspot variability as an accessible proxy for the stellar X-ray emission. To realize this approach, we analysed the light curves of 1729 main-sequence stars with rotation periods 0.5 X-ray to bolometric luminosity ratio Rx. As a result, the regressions for stellar X-ray luminosity Lx(P, Teff) and its related EUV analogue LEUV were obtained for the main-sequence stars. It was shown that these regressions allow prediction of average (over the considered stars) values of log (Lx) and log (LEUV) with typical errors of 0.26 and 0.22 dex, respectively. This, however, does not include the activity variations in particular stars related to their individual magnetic activity cycles.

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissue shows up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x- ... x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken to the patient in a hospital ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were maintained on large film ... assist you in finding the most comfortable position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone ... bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special preparation. You ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can be taken to the patient in a hospital bed or the emergency room. The x-ray ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, spine, pelvis, hip, thigh, knee, leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page ... the patient standing upright, as in cases of knee x-rays. A portable x-ray machine is ...

  19. X-ray detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The object of the invention (an ionization chamber X-ray detector array for use with high speed computerised tomographic imaging apparatus) is to reduce the time required to produce a tomographic image. The detector array described determines the distribution of X-ray intensities in one or more flat, coplanar X-ray beams. It comprises three flat anode sheets parallel to the X-ray beam, a plurality of rod-like cathodes between the anodes, a detector gas between the electrodes and a means for applying a potential between the electrodes. Each of the X-ray sources is collimated to give a narrow, planar section of X-ray photons. Sets of X-ray sources in the array are pulsed simultaneously to obtain X-ray transmission data for tomographic image reconstruction. (U.K.)

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... image on photographic film or a special detector. Different parts of the body absorb the x-rays ... process is repeated. Two or three images (from different angles) will typically be taken. An x-ray ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were maintained on ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissues around or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require ... is placed beneath the patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and ...

  7. Soft X-ray Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seely, John

    1999-05-20

    The contents of this report cover the following: (1) design of the soft x-ray telescope; (2) fabrication and characterization of the soft x-ray telescope; and (3) experimental implementation at the OMEGA laser facility.

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray technologist if there is any possibility that they are pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A bone x-ray is used to: ... and x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... used for bone x-rays consists of an x-ray tube suspended over a table on which the patient ... a hospital bed or the emergency room. The x-ray tube is connected to a flexible arm that is ...

  11. X-ray Crystallography Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Edward Snell, a National Research Council research fellow at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), prepares a protein crystal for analysis by x-ray crystallography as part of NASA's structural biology program. The small, individual crystals are bombarded with x-rays to produce diffraction patterns, a map of the intensity of the x-rays as they reflect through the crystal.

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for bone x-rays consists of ... and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely available in emergency ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... X-rays are a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including the body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small ...

  14. Tunable X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, James R [Williamsburg, VA

    2011-02-08

    A method for the production of X-ray bunches tunable in both time and energy level by generating multiple photon, X-ray, beams through the use of Thomson scattering. The method of the present invention simultaneously produces two X-ray pulses that are tunable in energy and/or time.

  15. X-Ray Exam: Ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Ankle KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: Ankle What's in this article? What It Is Why ... You Have Questions Print What It Is An ankle X-ray is a safe and painless test ...

  16. X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, J.L. de.

    1976-01-01

    The seventh edition of Philips' Review of literature on X-ray diffraction begins with a list of conference proceedings on the subject, organised by the Philips' organisation at regular intervals in various European countries. This is followed by a list of bulletins. The bibliography is divided according to the equipment (cameras, diffractometers, monochromators) and its applications. The applications are subdivided into sections for high/low temperature and pressure, effects due to the equipment, small angle scattering and a part for stress, texture and phase analyses of metals and quantitative analysis of minerals

  17. Obstetric X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwachi, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Radiography of the pelvis should never be taken to diagnose early pregnancy, because of potential hazards of radiation damage to the growing foetus. the only indication occurs in the last week of pregnancy (37 weeks). Obstetric X-ray will help you answer like confirmation of malposition,multiple pregnancies; fetal abnormalities e.g. hydrocephalus, foetal disposition. The choice of radiographic projection will help give foetal presentation, disposition as well as foetal maturity. The search pattern helps you determine maternal and spine deformity, foetal spine and head , foetal presentation and any other anomalies

  18. Miniature X-Ray Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Gregory H.

    1995-01-01

    Miniature x-ray tubes proposed for use in portable instruments used to analyze minerals. Electrons from field emitter (instead of thermionic emitter) accelerated to target to generate x-rays. Fabricated from silicon wafers, micromachined field emitters (MFEs) not subject to breakage or restrictions on lifetimes, and tolerate vacuums that filaments cannot. Miniature x-ray tubes very robust, immune to shock and vibration, and permanently sealed with getter for continued pumping. Combined with solid-state x-ray detectors for analysis of x-ray fluorescence.

  19. Soft x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, D.L.; Rosen, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    One of the elusive dreams of laser physicists has been the development of an x-ray laser. After 25 years of waiting, the x-ray laser has at last entered the scientific scene, although those now in operation are still laboratory prototypes. They produce soft x rays down to about five nanometers. X-ray lasers retain the usual characteristics of their optical counterparts: a very tight beam, spatial and temporal coherence, and extreme brightness. Present x-ray lasers are nearly 100 times brighter that the next most powerful x-ray source in the world: the electron synchrotron. Although Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is widely known for its hard-x-ray laser program which has potential applications in the Strategic Defense Initiative, the soft x-ray lasers have no direct military applications. These lasers, and the scientific tools that result from their development, may one day have a place in the design and diagnosis of both laser fusion and hard x-ray lasers. The soft x-ray lasers now in operation at the LLNL have shown great promise but are still in the primitive state. Once x-ray lasers become reliable, efficient, and economical, they will have several important applications. Chief among them might be the creation of holograms of microscopic biological structures too small to be investigated with visible light. 5 figs

  20. Measurement of e+p neutral current deep inelastic scattering with a longitudinally polarised positron beam and X-ray radiation damage for silicon sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Januschek, Friederike

    2011-01-01

    The cross sections for Neutral Current e + p Deep Inelastic Scattering (NC DIS) with longitudinally polarised positron beams were measured at a centre-of-mass energy √(s)=318 GeV using the ZEUS detector at HERA. Single-differential cross sections as a function of the virtuality of the exchanged boson, Q 2 , of the inelasticity, y, and of the Bjorken scaling variable, x, and reduced cross sections (as a function of x and Q 2 ) were measured in the phase space region defined as Q 2 >185 GeV 2 , y 2 >0.004. The results, based on data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 135.5 pb -1 , are given for zero polarisation for the whole sample, as well as for both positive and negative values of the longitudinal polarisation of the positron beam. The measured cross sections are compared to the predictions of the Standard Model. The proton structure function xF 3 is measured and the interference term xF γZ 3 is extracted as a function of x at Q 2 =1500 GeV 2 by extrapolating the measurements done at different Q 2 values. The presented measurements of the polarised e + p NC DIS cross sections, the xF 3 structure function and the xF γZ 3 interference term exceed the precision of previous ZEUS measurements. The uncertainties of the Parton Density Functions (PDFs) for the gluon and the u-valence quark are expected to be reduced at high-x values when the presented results are included in the PDF fits of the proton. A study is presented to further reduce PDF uncertainties for the gluon at very high x (above 10 -1 ) through the inclusion of DIS dijet cross sections in a ZEUS-JETS-like PDF fit. An irradiation facility to study the X-ray-induced radiation damage of silicon sensors for the European XFEL was set up at HASYLAB. Nine gate-controlled diodes were irradiated with doses from 1 kGy to 1 GGy in several irradiation steps and the surface current I surf and the flatband voltage V fb were measured after each irradiation. It was found that both, I surf and V fb , strongly

  1. X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    An x-ray tube in which the x-ray origin is scanned on a circle around the patient, comprises a ring-shaped anode, an electron beam travelling along a circular path being deflected onto the anode at the desired positions. The electron beam path may be in a plane parallel to the anode and perhaps at the same radius. It may be in the same plane as a transmission target/anode and at a greater radius. The anode should extend over at least 180 0 although it may extend to 360 0 . Electrostatic means may be provided to constrain the beam to the circular path and further electrostatic means deflect it to the anode of the beam and ensure it is focused at the point of incidence. Collimators provide a planar fan-shaped beam and the anode may be shaped to attenuate side lobes of the radiation. Electrode collects electrons not deflected. The focal regions may be adjacent or otherwise. Coils may provide periodic focusing to overcome space charge dispersion and dynamic adjustment of the focusing before deflection ensures focusing at target incidence. Focusing may be absent near the deflection region, and current in the coil section near the focal region should be zero. (author)

  2. CMOS APS detector characterization for quantitative X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endrizzi, Marco, E-mail: m.endrizzi@ucl.ac.uk [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Siena, Via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare INFN, sezione di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Oliva, Piernicola [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Università di Sassari, via Piandanna 4, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, 09042 Cagliari (Italy); Golosio, Bruno [Sezione di Matematica, Fisica e Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Università di Sassari, via Piandanna 4, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, 09042 Cagliari (Italy); Delogu, Pasquale [Dipartimento di Fisica “E. Fermi”, Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare INFN, sezione di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2013-03-01

    An X-ray Imaging detector based on CMOS Active Pixel Sensor and structured scintillator is characterized for quantitative X-ray imaging in the energy range 11–30 keV. Linearity, dark noise, spatial resolution and flat-field correction are the characteristics of the detector subject of investigation. The detector response, in terms of mean Analog-to-Digital Unit and noise, is modeled as a function of the energy and intensity of the X-rays. The model is directly tested using monochromatic X-ray beams and it is also indirectly validated by means of polychromatic X-ray-tube spectra. Such a characterization is suitable for quantitative X-ray imaging and the model can be used in simulation studies that take into account the actual performance of the detector.

  3. Reverberation Mapping Quasars: X-ray and broadband SED properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merloni, A.; Simm, T.; Nandra, K.; Green, P.

    2017-10-01

    An ongoing SDSS reverberation mapping (RM) program (Shen et al. 2015) provides significantly improved black hole mass estimates for a large sample of QSOs out to redshift ˜3 in a single 7 square degree field. A recently approved large XMM-Newton program will complete the X-ray coverage of the field, contributing to a unique legacy sample of hundreds of QSOs with accurately measured bolometric luminosity, spectral energy distributions, Eddington ratios and variability properties. As illustration, we present here the X-ray spectral properties of the RM-QSOs derived from the analysis of all existing XMM-Newton and deep Chandra (AEGIS field) observations of the field. Taking advantage of the unprecedented multi-band, multi-epoch imaging and spectroscopy provided by the SDSS-RM campaign, the Pan-STARRS1 medium deep survey and the GALEX time domain survey we study in detail their instantaneous broadband spectral energy distributions to obtain accurate measures of the bolometric luminosity and to test accretion disk models. This data set allows us to dissect correlations between optical/X-ray spectral properties with black hole mass and Eddington ratio, as well as to constrain evolution of the radiative efficiency providing a first handle on black hole spin evolution in a large, statistical sample of AGN.

  4. Einstein X-ray observations of Herbig Ae/Be stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, F.; Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the X-ray emission from Herbig Ae/Be stars, using the full set of Einstein Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) observations. Of a total of 31 observed Herbig stars, 11 are confidently identified with X-ray sources, with four additonal dubious identifications. We have used maximum likelihood luminosity functions to study the distribution of X-ray luminosity, and we find that Be stars are significantly brighter in X-rays than Ae stars and that their X-ray luminosity is independent of projected rotational velocity v sin i. The X-ray emission is instead correlated with stellar bolometric luminosity and with effective temperature, and also with the kinetic luminosity of the stellar wind. These results seem to exclude a solar-like origin for the X-ray emission, a possibility suggested by the most recent models of Herbig stars' structure, and suggest an analogy with the X-ray emission of O (and early B) stars. We also observe correlations between X-ray luminosity and the emission at 2.2 microns (K band) and 25 microns, which strengthen the case for X-ray emission of Herbig stars originating in their circumstellar envelopes.

  5. X-ray table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, J.R.; Otto, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    An X-ray radiographic or fluoroscopic table is described which includes a film holder with a frame attached to a cable running over end pulleys for positioning the holder longitudinally as desired under the table top. The holder has a front opening to receive a cassette-supporting tray which can be slid out on tracks to change the cassette. A reed switch on the frame is opened by a permanent magnet on the tray only when the tray is half-way out. When the switch is closed, an electromagnet locks the pulley and the holder in place. The holder is thus automatically locked in place not only during exposure (tray in) but when the tray is out for changing the cassette. To re-position the holder, the operator pulls the tray half-out and, using the tray itself, pushes the holder along the table, the holder being counterbalanced by a weight. (author)

  6. X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redmayne, I.G.B.

    1988-01-01

    The patent concerns a warning and protection system for mobile x-ray equipment used for 'on site' radiography, so that workers in the vicinity of such a working unit can be alerted to its presence. The invention is a local repeater warning system which gives a preliminary warning that energisation of the tubehead is imminent, as well as a switch near the tubehead to abort or inhibit energisation. The latter switch allows personnel caught in the vicinity of the tubehead to prevent energisation. The preliminary warning may be flashing lamps or by a klaxon. The control unit for the equipment may include a monitoring circuit to detect failure of the warning light or klaxon. (U.K.)

  7. X-ray equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmayne, I.G.B.

    1988-01-06

    The patent concerns a warning and protection system for mobile x-ray equipment used for 'on site' radiography, so that workers in the vicinity of such a working unit can be alerted to its presence. The invention is a local repeater warning system which gives a preliminary warning that energisation of the tubehead is imminent, as well as a switch near the tubehead to abort or inhibit energisation. The latter switch allows personnel caught in the vicinity of the tubehead to prevent energisation. The preliminary warning may be flashing lamps or by a klaxon. The control unit for the equipment may include a monitoring circuit to detect failure of the warning light or klaxon. (U.K.).

  8. X-ray instrumentation in astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuhlane, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a conference devoted to x-ray instrumentation in astronomy. Special sections are: AXAF X-Ray Optical Systems; Specialized X-Ray Systems; X-Ray Optical Systems I; X-Ray Optical Systems II; Gas Filled X-Ray Detectors II; The NASA Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility; X-Ray and EUV Spectrometers; Microchannel Plates; and Solid State Detectors

  9. X-Ray Lasers 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, Sergei; Daido, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yoshiaki

    2018-01-01

    These proceedings comprise a selection of invited and contributed papers presented at the 15th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers (ICXRL 2016), held at the Nara Kasugano International Forum, Japan, from May 22 to 27, 2016. This conference was part of an ongoing series dedicated to recent developments in the science and technology of x-ray lasers and other coherent x-ray sources with additional focus on supporting technologies, instrumentation and applications.   The book showcases recent advances in the generation of intense, coherent x-rays, the development of practical devices and their applications across a wide variety of fields. It also discusses emerging topics such as plasma-based x-ray lasers, 4th generation accelerator-based sources and higher harmonic generations, as well as other x-ray generation schemes.

  10. Phonon-mediated distributed transition-edge-sensor X-ray detectors for surveys of galaxy clusters and the warm-hot interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leman, Steven W.; Brink, Paul L.; Cabrera, Blas; Castle, Joseph P.; Chakraborty, Sudeepto; Deiker, Steve; Kahn, Steve; Martinez-Galarce, Dennis S.; Stern, Robert A.; Tomada, Astrid

    2006-01-01

    We are developing a novel phonon-mediated distributed-TES X-ray detector in which X-rays are absorbed in a large germanium or silicon crystal, and the energy is read out by four distributed TESs. This design takes advantage of existing TES technology while overcoming the difficulties of designing spatially large arrays. The sum of the four TES signals will yield energy resolution of E/δE∼1000 and the partitioning of energy between the four will yield position resolution of X/δX and Y/δY∼100. These macropixels, with advances in multiplexing, could be close-packed into 30x30 arrays equivalent to imaging instruments of 10 megapixels or more. We report on our progress to date and discuss its application to galaxy cluster searches and studies of the Warm-Hot Interstellar Medium

  11. The response of silicon PNCCD sensors with aluminium on-chip filter to visible light, UV- and X-ray radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granato, Stefanie

    2012-10-18

    There are various scientific applications, from astronomical observations to free electron lasers, that make use of X-ray semiconductor detectors like PNCCDs. The PNCCD is a pixelized semiconductor detector for simultaneous X-ray imaging and spectroscopy. For the seven PNCCD cameras of the eROSITA space telescope, a radiation entrance window including an on-chip optical blocking filter has been designed. The blocking filter is a necessity to minimize electron generation by visible light and UV radiation affecting X-ray spectroscopy. A PNCCD with such a blocking filter has not been used so far in astronomy. The following work deals with the analysis of the response of PNCCDs with on-chip filter. This includes the study of photon absorption and emission processes as well as the transport of electrons inside the detector entrance window. Furthermore it comprises the experimental characterization of the detector properties regarding the attenuation of light as well as their X-ray spectral redistribution function and quantum efficiency. With the ability to reveal the involved physical processes, the PNCCD is subject of analysis and measurement device at the same time. In addition to the results of the measurements, simulations of the solid state physics inside the detector are presented. A Geant4 Monte-Carlo code is extended by the treatment of charge loss in the entrance window and is verified by comparison with experimental data. Reproducing the chain of processes from photon absorption to charge collection, this work provides a detailed understanding of the formation of PNCCD spectra. The spectral features observed in the measurements are attributed to their point of origin inside the detector volume and explained by the model. The findings of this work allow high precision analysis of spectra of silicon detectors, e.g. of the eROSITA data, based on the presented detailed spectral response model.

  12. The response of silicon PNCCD sensors with aluminium on-chip filter to visible light, UV- and X-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granato, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    There are various scientific applications, from astronomical observations to free electron lasers, that make use of X-ray semiconductor detectors like PNCCDs. The PNCCD is a pixelized semiconductor detector for simultaneous X-ray imaging and spectroscopy. For the seven PNCCD cameras of the eROSITA space telescope, a radiation entrance window including an on-chip optical blocking filter has been designed. The blocking filter is a necessity to minimize electron generation by visible light and UV radiation affecting X-ray spectroscopy. A PNCCD with such a blocking filter has not been used so far in astronomy. The following work deals with the analysis of the response of PNCCDs with on-chip filter. This includes the study of photon absorption and emission processes as well as the transport of electrons inside the detector entrance window. Furthermore it comprises the experimental characterization of the detector properties regarding the attenuation of light as well as their X-ray spectral redistribution function and quantum efficiency. With the ability to reveal the involved physical processes, the PNCCD is subject of analysis and measurement device at the same time. In addition to the results of the measurements, simulations of the solid state physics inside the detector are presented. A Geant4 Monte-Carlo code is extended by the treatment of charge loss in the entrance window and is verified by comparison with experimental data. Reproducing the chain of processes from photon absorption to charge collection, this work provides a detailed understanding of the formation of PNCCD spectra. The spectral features observed in the measurements are attributed to their point of origin inside the detector volume and explained by the model. The findings of this work allow high precision analysis of spectra of silicon detectors, e.g. of the eROSITA data, based on the presented detailed spectral response model.

  13. Topological X-Rays Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We continue our study of topological X-rays begun in Lynch ["Topological X-rays and MRI's," iJMEST 33(3) (2002), pp. 389-392]. We modify our definition of a topological magnetic resonance imaging and give an affirmative answer to the question posed there: Can we identify a closed set in a box by defining X-rays to probe the interior and without…

  14. X-RAY EMISSION FROM MAGNETIC MASSIVE STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazé, Yaël; Petit, Véronique; Rinbrand, Melanie; Owocki, Stan; Cohen, David; Ud-Doula, Asif; Wade, Gregg A.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetically confined winds of early-type stars are expected to be sources of bright and hard X-rays. To clarify the systematics of the observed X-ray properties, we have analyzed a large series of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, corresponding to all available exposures of known massive magnetic stars (over 100 exposures covering ∼60% of stars compiled in the catalog of Petit et al.). We show that the X-ray luminosity is strongly correlated with the stellar wind mass-loss rate, with a power-law form that is slightly steeper than linear for the majority of the less luminous, lower- M-dot B stars and flattens for the more luminous, higher- M-dot O stars. As the winds are radiatively driven, these scalings can be equivalently written as relations with the bolometric luminosity. The observed X-ray luminosities, and their trend with mass-loss rates, are well reproduced by new MHD models, although a few overluminous stars (mostly rapidly rotating objects) exist. No relation is found between other X-ray properties (plasma temperature, absorption) and stellar or magnetic parameters, contrary to expectations (e.g., higher temperature for stronger mass-loss rate). This suggests that the main driver for the plasma properties is different from the main determinant of the X-ray luminosity. Finally, variations of the X-ray hardnesses and luminosities, in phase with the stellar rotation period, are detected for some objects and they suggest that some temperature stratification exists in massive stars' magnetospheres

  15. The MEXSAS2 Sample and the Ensemble X-ray Variability of Quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafinelli, Roberto [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Vagnetti, Fausto; Chiaraluce, Elia [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Middei, Riccardo, E-mail: roberto.serafinelli@roma2.infn.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, Rome (Italy)

    2017-10-11

    We present the second Multi-Epoch X-ray Serendipitous AGN Sample (MEXSAS2), extracted from the 6th release of the XMM Serendipitous Source Catalog (XMMSSC-DR6), cross-matched with Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasar Catalogs DR7Q and DR12Q. Our sample also includes the available measurements for masses, bolometric luminosities, and Eddington ratios. Analyses of the ensemble structure function and spectral variability are presented, together with their dependences on such parameters. We confirm a decrease of the structure function with the X-ray luminosity, and find a weak dependence on the black hole mass. We introduce a new spectral variability estimator, taking errors on both fluxes and spectral indices into account. We confirm an ensemble softer when brighter trend, with no dependence of such estimator on black hole mass, Eddington ratio, redshift, X-ray and bolometric luminosity.

  16. X-ray filtration apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G.

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to an X-ray shielding support device. In spite of considerable development in X-ray taking techniques, a need still exists for effective shielding, inter alia, to compensate for variations in the thickness, density and the absorption properties of the object being studied. By appropriate shielding, the X-ray image produced is of sufficient detail, contrast and intensity over its entire area to constitute a useful diagnostic aid. It is also desirable to subject the patient to the smallest possible X-ray dosage. 4 figs

  17. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  18. Measurement of e{sup +}p neutral current deep inelastic scattering with a longitudinally polarised positron beam and X-ray radiation damage for silicon sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Januschek, Friederike

    2012-05-15

    The cross sections for Neutral Current e{sup +}p Deep Inelastic Scattering (NC DIS) with longitudinally polarised positron beams were measured at a centre-of-mass energy {radical}(s)=318 GeV using the ZEUS detector at HERA. Single-differential cross sections as a function of the virtuality of the exchanged boson, Q{sup 2}, of the inelasticity, y, and of the Bjorken scaling variable, x, and reduced cross sections (as a function of x and Q{sup 2}) were measured in the phase space region defined as Q{sup 2}>185 GeV{sup 2}, y<0.9 and y(1-x){sup 2}>0.004. The results, based on data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 135.5 pb{sup -1}, are given for zero polarisation for the whole sample, as well as for both positive and negative values of the longitudinal polarisation of the positron beam. The measured cross sections are compared to the predictions of the Standard Model. The proton structure function xF{sub 3} is measured and the interference term xF{sup {gamma}}{sup Z}{sub 3} is extracted as a function of x at Q{sup 2}=1500 GeV{sup 2} by extrapolating the measurements done at different Q{sup 2} values. The presented measurements of the polarised e{sup +}p NC DIS cross sections, the xF{sub 3} structure function and the xF{sup {gamma}}{sup Z}{sub 3} interference term exceed the precision of previous ZEUS measurements. The uncertainties of the Parton Density Functions (PDFs) for the gluon and the u-valence quark are expected to be reduced at high-x values when the presented results are included in the PDF fits of the proton. A study is presented to further reduce PDF uncertainties for the gluon at very high x (above 10{sup -1}) through the inclusion of DIS dijet cross sections in a ZEUS-JETS-like PDF fit. An irradiation facility to study the X-ray-induced radiation damage of silicon sensors for the European XFEL was set up at HASYLAB. Nine gate-controlled diodes were irradiated with doses from 1 kGy to 1 GGy in several irradiation steps and the surface current I

  19. X-ray emission spectroscopy. X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despujols, J.

    1992-01-01

    Principles of X-ray emission spectrometry are first recalled, then wave-length dispersive and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer are described. They are essentially designed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of elements (Z>10). Sample preparation, calibration, corrections, interferences, accuracy are reviewed. Examples of use in different industries are given. (71 refs.)

  20. Gamma detector for use with luggage X-ray systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, H.; Quam, W.

    1998-01-01

    A new gamma radiation sensor has been designed for installation on several types of luggage x-ray machines and mobile x-ray vans operated by the U.S. Customs Service and the U.S. Department of State. The use of gamma detectors on x-ray machines imposed difficulties not usually encountered in the design of gamma detectors because the spectrum of scattered x-rays, which varied from machine to machine, extended to energies significantly higher than those of the low-energy isotopic emissions. In the original design, the lower level discriminator was raised above the x-ray end point energy resulting in the loss of the americium line associated with plutonium. This reduced the overall sensitivity to unshielded plutonium by a factor of approximately 100. An improved method was subsequently developed wherein collimation was utilized in conjunction with a variable counting threshold to permit accommodation of differing conditions of x-ray scattering. This design has been shown to eliminate most of the problems due to x-ray scattering while still capturing the americium emissions. The overall sensitivity has remained quite high, though varying slightly from one model of x-ray machine to another, depending upon the x-ray scattering characteristics of each model. (author)

  1. Ultra high resolution X-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, U.; Buehler, M.; Hentig, R. von; Hertrich, T.; Phelan, K.; Wernicke, D.; Hoehne, J.

    2001-01-01

    CSP Cryogenic Spectrometers GmbH is developing cryogenic energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers based on superconducting detector technology. Superconducting sensors exhibit at least a 10-fold improvement in energy resolution due to their low energy gap compared to conventional Si(Li) or Ge detectors. These capabilities are extremely valuable for the analysis of light elements and in general for the analysis of the low energy range of the X-ray spectrum. The spectrometer is based on a mechanical cooler needing no liquid coolants and an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) stage which supplies the operating temperature of below 100 mK for the superconducting sensor. Applications include surface analysis in semiconductor industry as well material analysis for material composition e.g. in ceramics or automobile industry

  2. Silicon trench photodiodes on a wafer for efficient X-ray-to-current signal conversion using side-X-ray-irradiation mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyoshi, Tetsuya; Takane, Yuta; Iwasa, Jumpei; Sakamoto, Kenji; Baba, Akiyoshi; Arima, Yutaka

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we report a direct-conversion-type X-ray sensor composed of trench-structured silicon photodiodes, which achieves a high X-ray-to-current conversion efficiency under side X-ray irradiation. The silicon X-ray sensor with a length of 22.6 mm and a trench depth of 300 µm was fabricated using a single-poly single-metal 0.35 µm process. X-rays with a tube voltage of 80 kV were irradiated along the trench photodiode from the side of the test chip. The theoretical limit of X-ray-to-current conversion efficiency of 83.8% was achieved at a low reverse bias voltage of 25 V. The X-ray-to-electrical signal conversion efficiency of conventional indirect-conversion-type X-ray sensors is about 10%. Therefore, the developed sensor has a conversion efficiency that is about eight times higher than that of conventional sensors. It is expected that the developed X-ray sensor will be able to markedly lower the radiation dose required for X-ray diagnoses.

  3. Monitoring Instrument for X-Ray Box

    CERN Document Server

    Cifuentes Ospina, Alberto; Kuehn, Susanne; Schaepe, Steffen; CERN. Geneva. EP Department

    2017-01-01

    A humidity and temperature readout instrument has been designed and implemented in order to monitor the X-Ray Box used for testing the silicon detectors prototypes of the ITk. The sensors are connected to an Arduino Mega board equipped with 16 analog inputs and a serial port to a computer. A user-friendly software has been also designed in order to give an easy access to all measurements.

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a large photographic negative). Today, most images are digital files that are stored electronically. These stored images are easily accessible and are frequently compared to current x-ray images for diagnosis and ... the x-ray film holder or digital recording plate under the table in the area ...

  5. Chandra's X-ray Vision

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1999-07-23

    Jul 23, 1999 ... GENERAL I ARTICLE. Chandra's X-ray Vision. K P Singh. Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) is a scientific satellite (moon/ chandra), named after the Indian-born Nobel laureate. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar - one of the foremost astro- physicists of the twentieth century and popularly known as. Chandra.

  6. Traditional x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    Methods of imaging x-rays, with particular reference to medicine, are reviewed. The history and nature of x-rays, their production and spectra, contrast, shapes and fine structure, image transducers, including fluorescent screens, radiography, fluoroscopy, and image intensifiers, image detection, perception and enhancement and clinical applications are considered. (U.K.)

  7. X-ray based extensometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, E. H.; Pease, D. M.

    1988-01-01

    A totally new method of extensometry using an X-ray beam was proposed. The intent of the method is to provide a non-contacting technique that is immune to problems associated with density variations in gaseous environments that plague optical methods. X-rays are virtually unrefractable even by solids. The new method utilizes X-ray induced X-ray fluorescence or X-ray induced optical fluorescence of targets that have melting temperatures of over 3000 F. Many different variations of the basic approaches are possible. In the year completed, preliminary experiments were completed which strongly suggest that the method is feasible. The X-ray induced optical fluorescence method appears to be limited to temperatures below roughly 1600 F because of the overwhelming thermal optical radiation. The X-ray induced X-ray fluorescence scheme appears feasible up to very high temperatures. In this system there will be an unknown tradeoff between frequency response, cost, and accuracy. The exact tradeoff can only be estimated. It appears that for thermomechanical tests with cycle times on the order of minutes a very reasonable system may be feasible. The intended applications involve very high temperatures in both materials testing and monitoring component testing. Gas turbine engines, rocket engines, and hypersonic vehicles (NASP) all involve measurement needs that could partially be met by the proposed technology.

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different parts of the body absorb the x-rays in ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. ...

  10. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attekum, P.M.T.M. van.

    1979-01-01

    The methods and results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in the study of plasmons, alloys and gold compounds are discussed. After a comprehensive introduction, seven papers by the author, previously published elsewhere, are reprinted and these cover a wide range of the uses of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. (W.D.L.)

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very ... they provide little information about muscles, tendons or joints. An MRI may ...

  12. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Intra-oral dental X-ray apparatus for panoramic radiography is described in detail. It comprises a tubular target carrier supporting at its distal end a target with an inclined forward face. Image definition is improved by positioning in the path of the X-rays a window of X-ray transmitting ceramic material, e.g. 90% oxide of Be, or Al, 7% Si0 2 . The target carrier forms a probe which can be positioned in the patient's mouth. X-rays are directed forwardly and laterally of the target to an X-ray film positioned externally. The probe is provided with a detachable sleeve having V-form arms of X-ray opaque material which serve to depress the tongue out of the radiation path and also shield the roof of the mouth and other regions of the head from the X-ray pattern. A cylindrical lead shield defines the X-ray beam angle. (author)

  13. X-ray imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A novel, high-speed apparatus for use in X-ray computerised tomography is described in detail. It consists of a semi-circular array of X-ray sources, collimators and an ion chamber array for detection of the X-rays. The X-ray sources may be pulsed in salvos such that the corresponding detectors in the array are only illuminated by one source. The use of computer controlled salvos speeds up the image processing by at least a factor of two. The ion chamber array is designed to have a constant detection efficiency for varying angles of X-ray incidence. A detailed description of the detector construction and suggested gaseous fillings are given. It is claimed that the present tomographic system allows fast and accurate imaging of internal body organs and is insensitive to the blurring effects which motion of these organs tends to produce. (UK)

  14. X-Ray Tomographic Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnie Schmittberger

    2010-08-25

    Tomographic scans have revolutionized imaging techniques used in medical and biological research by resolving individual sample slices instead of several superimposed images that are obtained from regular x-ray scans. X-Ray fluorescence computed tomography, a more specific tomography technique, bombards the sample with synchrotron x-rays and detects the fluorescent photons emitted from the sample. However, since x-rays are attenuated as they pass through the sample, tomographic scans often produce images with erroneous low densities in areas where the x-rays have already passed through most of the sample. To correct for this and correctly reconstruct the data in order to obtain the most accurate images, a program employing iterative methods based on the inverse Radon transform was written. Applying this reconstruction method to a tomographic image recovered some of the lost densities, providing a more accurate image from which element concentrations and internal structure can be determined.

  15. Moving-Article X-Ray Imaging System and Method for 3-D Image Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Kenneth R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An x-ray imaging system and method for a moving article are provided for an article moved along a linear direction of travel while the article is exposed to non-overlapping x-ray beams. A plurality of parallel linear sensor arrays are disposed in the x-ray beams after they pass through the article. More specifically, a first half of the plurality are disposed in a first of the x-ray beams while a second half of the plurality are disposed in a second of the x-ray beams. Each of the parallel linear sensor arrays is oriented perpendicular to the linear direction of travel. Each of the parallel linear sensor arrays in the first half is matched to a corresponding one of the parallel linear sensor arrays in the second half in terms of an angular position in the first of the x-ray beams and the second of the x-ray beams, respectively.

  16. Galactic Starburst NGC 3603 from X-Rays to Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, A. F. J.; Corcoran, M. F.; Stevens, I. R.; Skalkowski, G.; Marchenko, S. V.; Muecke, A.; Ptak, A.; Koribalski, B. S.; Brenneman, L.; Mushotzky, R.; hide

    2002-01-01

    NGC 3603 is the most massive and luminous visible starburst region in the Galaxy. We present the first Chandra/ACIS-I X-ray image and spectra of this dense, exotic object, accompanied by deep cm-wavelength ATCA radio image at similar or less than 1 inch spatial resolution, and HST/ground-based optical data. At the S/N greater than 3 level, Chandra detects several hundred X-ray point sources (compared to the 3 distinct sources seen by ROSAT). At least 40 of these sources are definitely associated with optically identified cluster O and WR type members, but most are not. A diffuse X-ray component is also seen out to approximately 2 feet (4 pc) form the center, probably arising mainly from the large number of merging/colliding hot stellar winds and/or numerous faint cluster sources. The point-source X-ray fluxes generally increase with increasing bolometric brightnesses of the member O/WR stars, but with very large scatter. Some exceptionally bright stellar X-ray sources may be colliding wind binaries. The radio image shows (1) two resolved sources, one definitely non-thermal, in the cluster core near where the X-ray/optically brightest stars with the strongest stellar winds are located, (2) emission from all three known proplyd-like objects (with thermal and non-thermal components, and (3) many thermal sources in the peripheral regions of triggered star-formation. Overall, NGC 3603 appears to be a somewhat younger and hotter, scaled-down version of typical starbursts found in other galaxies.

  17. Semiconductor X-ray detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Barrie Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Identifying and measuring the elemental x-rays released when materials are examined with particles (electrons, protons, alpha particles, etc.) or photons (x-rays and gamma rays) is still considered to be the primary analytical technique for routine and non-destructive materials analysis. The Lithium Drifted Silicon (Si(Li)) X-Ray Detector, with its good resolution and peak to background, pioneered this type of analysis on electron microscopes, x-ray fluorescence instruments, and radioactive source- and accelerator-based excitation systems. Although rapid progress in Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs), Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs), and Compound Semiconductor Detectors, including renewed interest in alternative materials such as CdZnTe and diamond, has made the Si(Li) X-Ray Detector nearly obsolete, the device serves as a useful benchmark and still is used in special instances where its large, sensitive depth is essential. Semiconductor X-Ray Detectors focuses on the history and development of Si(Li) X-Ray Detect...

  18. Optoelectronic Picosecond Detection of Synchrotron X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, Stephen M. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2017-08-04

    The goal of this research program was to develop a detector that would measure x-ray time profiles with picosecond resolution. This was specifically aimed for use at x-ray synchrotrons, where x-ray pulse profiles have Gaussian time spreads of 50-100 ps (FWHM), so the successful development of such a detector with picosecond resolution would permit x-ray synchrotron studies to break through the pulse width barrier. That is, synchrotron time-resolved studies are currently limited to pump-probe studies that cannot reveal dynamics faster than ~50 ps, whereas the proposed detector would push this into the physically important 1 ps domain. The results of this research effort, described in detail below, are twofold: 1) the original plan to rely on converting electronic signals from a semiconductor sensor into an optical signal proved to be insufficient for generating signals with the necessary time resolution and sensitivity to be widely applicable; and 2) an all-optical method was discovered whereby the x-rays are directly absorbed in an optoelectronic material, lithium tantalate, which can then be probed by laser pulses with the desired picosecond sensitivity for detection of synchrotron x-rays. This research program has also produced new fundamental understanding of the interaction of x-rays and optical lasers in materials that has now created a viable path for true picosecond detection of synchrotron x-rays.

  19. X-ray diffraction apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padini, F.R.

    1978-01-01

    The invention provides an x-ray diffraction apparatus permitting the rotation of the divergence sit in conjunction with the rotation of the x-ray irradiated specimen, whereby the dimensions of the x-ray irradiated portion of the specimen remain substantially constant during the rotation of the specimen. In a preferred embodiment, the divergence slit is connected to a structural element linked with a second structural element connected to the specimen such that the divergence slit rotates at a lower angular speed than the specimen

  20. X-ray film calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, G.F.; Dittmore, C.H.; Henke, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of silver halide x-ray films for imaging and spectroscopy which is limited by the range of intensities that can be recorded and densitometered. Using the manufacturers processing techniques can result in 10 2-3 range in intensity recorded over 0-5 density range. By modifying the chemistry and processing times, ranges of 10 5-6 can be recorded in the same density range. The authors report on x-ray film calibration work and dynamic range improvements. Changes to the processing chemistry and the resulting changes in dynamic range and x-ray sensitivity are discussed

  1. Upsurge of X-ray astronomy 230-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    Instruments are described used for X-ray astronomy, namely X-ray detectors and X-ray telescopes. Unlike telescopes, the detectors do not comprise X-ray optics. A survey is given of the results obtained in solar and stellar X-ray astronomy and hypotheses are submitted on the origin of X radiation in the interstellar space. (J.B.)

  2. Quasimonochromatic x-ray computed tomography by the balanced filter method using a conventional x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Masatoshi

    2004-01-01

    A quasimonochromatic x-ray computed tomography (CT) system utilizing balanced filters has recently been developed for acquiring quantitative CT images. This system consisted of basic components such as a conventional x-ray generator for radiography, a stage for mounting and rotating objects, and an x-ray line sensor camera. Metallic sheets of Er and Yb were used as the balanced filters for obtaining quasimonochromatic incident x rays that include the characteristic lines of the W Kα doublet from a tungsten target. The mean energy and energy width of the quasimonochromatic x rays were determined to be 59.0 and 1.9 keV, respectively, from x-ray spectroscopic measurements using a high-purity Ge detector. The usefulness of the present x-ray CT system was demonstrated by obtaining spatial distributions of the linear attenuation coefficients of three selected samples--a 20 cm diameter cylindrical water phantom, a 3.5 cm diameter aluminum rod, and a human head phantom. The results clearly indicate that this apparatus is surprisingly effective for estimating the distribution of the linear attenuation coefficients without any correction of the beam-hardening effect. Thus, implementing the balanced filter method on an x-ray CT scanner has promise in producing highly quantitative CT images

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a large photographic negative). Today, most images are digital files that are stored electronically. These stored images ... and places the x-ray film holder or digital recording plate under the table in the area ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. A follow-up examination may also be necessary ... radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bone in the body, including the hand, wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, spine, pelvis, hip, thigh, knee, leg ( ... x-ray tube is connected to a flexible arm that is extended over the patient while an ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to produce pictures of any bone in the body. It is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones ... x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer ...

  9. Flash x-ray cinematography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, W.E.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments intended to provide an overview of the potential capabilities and limitations of flash x-ray cinematography as a diagnostic technique for a Fast Reactor Safety Test Facility are described. The results provide estimates of the x-ray pulse intensity required to obtain adequate radiographs of an array of fuel pins in a typical reactor configuration. An estimate of the upper limit on the pulse duration imposed by the reactor background radiation was also determined. X-ray cinematography has been demonstrated at a repetition rate limited only by the recording equipment on hand at the time of these measurements. These preliminary results indicate that flash x-ray cinematography of the motion of fuel in a Fast Reactor Test Facility is technically feasible

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fracture. guide orthopedic surgery, such as spine repair/fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, ... CT Exams Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... knee, leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A ... information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... will analyze the images and send a signed report to your primary care or referring physician , who ... Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report Images related to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored ...

  13. X-Ray Assembler Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Federal regulations require that an assembler who installs one or more certified components of a diagnostic x-ray system submit a report of assembly. This database...

  14. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Intra-oral dental X-ray apparatus for panoramic dental radiography is described in detail. It comprises an electron gun having an elongated tubular target carrier extending into the patient's mouth. The carrier supports an inclined target for direction of an X-ray pattern towards a film positioned externally of the patient's mouth. Image definition is improved by a focusing anode which focuses the electron beam into a sharp spot (0.05 to 0.10 mm diameter) on the target. The potential on the focusing anode is adjustable to vary the size of the spot. An X-ray transmitting ceramic (oxides of Be, Al and Si) window is positioned adjacent to the front face of the target. The electron beam can be magnetically deflected to change the X-ray beam direction. (author)

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams ... or your insurance provider to get a better understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not to expose the fetus to ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page What does ...

  17. X-Rays - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Expand Section Barium Swallow - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chest X-Ray - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of any bone in the ... of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. ... appliances, eye glasses and any metal objects or clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abnormalities. This exam requires little to no special preparation. Tell your doctor and the technologist if there ... prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special preparation. You will be asked to remove some of ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in metabolic conditions. assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft ... frequently compared to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... the baby. See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page ... procedure varies. See the Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? A bone x-ray examination itself ... available in emergency rooms, physician offices, ambulatory care centers, nursing homes and other locations, making it convenient ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... white on the x-ray, soft tissue shows up in shades of gray and air appears black. ... who will discuss the results with you. Follow-up examinations may be necessary. Your doctor will explain ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the patient in a hospital bed or the emergency room. The x-ray tube is connected to ... equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely available in emergency rooms, physician offices, ambulatory care centers, nursing homes ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different parts of the body absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. Dense ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... procedure. You may experience discomfort from the cool temperature in the examination room. You may also find ... have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and ... facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for comparison purposes. When the ... Exams Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care is taken during x-ray examinations to use the lowest radiation dose possible while producing the best images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review ...

  12. X-ray screening materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardley, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to x-ray screening materials and especially to materials in sheet form for use in the production of, for example, protective clothing such as aprons and lower back shields, curtains, mobile screens and suspended shields. The invention is based on the observation that x-ray screening materials in sheet form having greater flexiblity than the hitherto known x-ray screening materials of the same x-ray absorber content can be produced if, instead of using a single sheet of filled sheet material of increased thickness, one uses a plurality of sheets of lesser thickness together forming a laminar material of the desired thickness and one bonds the individual sheets together at their edges and, optionally, at other spaced apart points away from the edges thereby allowing one sheet to move relative to another. (U.K.)

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and how do I get ... report to your primary care or referring physician , who will discuss the results with you. Follow-up ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... no special preparation. Tell your doctor and the technologist if there is any possibility you are pregnant. ... should always inform their physician and x-ray technologist if there is any possibility that they are ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones or joint dislocation. Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to no special ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the lowest radiation dose possible while producing the best images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray ...

  17. Miniature x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebes, James E.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... examination may also be necessary so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is ... taking our brief survey: Survey Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... while the x-ray picture is taken to reduce the possibility of a blurred image. The technologist ... accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, ...

  1. Duodenal X-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheppach, W.

    1982-01-01

    The publication provides an overview of duodenal X-ray diagnostics with the aid of barium meals in 1362 patients. The introducing paragraphs deal with the topographic anatomy of the region and the methodics of X-ray investigation. The chapter entitled ''processes at the duodenum itself'' describes mainly ulcers, diverticula, congenital anomalies, tumors and inflammations. The neighbourhood processes comprise in the first place diseases having their origin at the pancreas and bile ducts. As a conclusion, endoscopic rectograde cholangio-pancreaticography and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography are pointed out as advanced X-ray investigation methods. In the annex of X-ray images some of the described phenomena are shown in exemplary manner. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in ... injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone x-ray makes images of any ... a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... radiation dose for this procedure varies. See the Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ... instead of ionizing radiation to create diagnostic images, has also been useful for injuries around joints, and ...

  6. Accelerator x-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Talman, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This first book to cover in-depth the generation of x-rays in particle accelerators focuses on electron beams produced by means of the novel Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) technology. The resulting highly brilliant x-rays are at the centre of this monograph, which continues where other books on the market stop. Written primarily for general, high energy and radiation physicists, the systematic treatment adopted by the work makes it equally suitable as an advanced textbook for young researchers.

  7. X-ray tube target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A target with an improved heat emissive surface for use in a rotating anode type x-ray tube is described. The target consists of a body having a first surface portion made of x-ray emissive material and a second surface portion made of a heat emissive material comprising at least one of hafnium boride, hafnium oxide, hafnium nitride, hafnium silicide, and hafnium aluminide. (U.K.)

  8. X-ray data processing

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Harold R.

    2017-01-01

    The method of molecular structure determination by X-ray crystallography is a little over a century old. The history is described briefly, along with developments in X-ray sources and detectors. The fundamental processes involved in measuring diffraction patterns on area detectors, i.e. autoindexing, refining crystal and detector parameters, integrating the reflections themselves and putting the resultant measurements on to a common scale are discussed, with particular reference to the most c...

  9. Neutron and X-ray Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carini, Gabriella [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Denes, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gruener, Sol [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Lessner, Elianne [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science Office of Basic Energy Sciences

    2012-08-01

    (and two computing hurdles that result from the corresponding increase in data volume) for the detector community to overcome in order to realize the full potential of BES neutron and X-ray facilities. Resolving these detector impediments will improve scientific productivity both by enabling new types of experiments, which will expand the scientific breadth at the X-ray and neutron facilities, and by potentially reducing the beam time required for a given experiment. These research priorities are summarized in the table below. Note that multiple, simultaneous detector improvements are often required to take full advantage of brighter sources. High-efficiency hard X-ray sensors: The fraction of incident particles that are actually detected defines detector efficiency. Silicon, the most common direct-detection X-ray sensor material, is (for typical sensor thicknesses) 100% efficient at 8 keV, 25%efficient at 20 keV, and only 3% efficient at 50 keV. Other materials are needed for hard X-rays. Replacement for 3He for neutron detectors: 3He has long been the neutron detection medium of choice because of its high cross section over a wide neutron energy range for the reaction 3He + n —> 3H + 1H + 0.764 MeV. 3He stockpiles are rapidly dwindling, and what is available can be had only at prohibitively high prices. Doped scintillators hold promise as ways to capture neutrons and convert them into light, although work is needed on brighter, more efficient scintillator solutions. Neutron detectors also require advances in speed and resolution. Fast-framing X-ray detectors: Today’s brighter X-ray sources make time-resolved studies possible. For example, hybrid X-ray pixel detectors, initially developed for particle physics, are becoming fairly mature X-ray detectors, with considerable development in Europe. To truly enable time-resolved studies, higher frame rates and dynamic range are required, and smaller pixel sizes are desirable. High-speed spectroscopic X-ray detectors

  10. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Center for X-Ray Optics; Soft X-Ray Imaging wit Zone Plate Lenses; Biological X-Ray microscopy; Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography for Nanoelectronic Pattern Transfer; Multilayer Reflective Optics; EUV/Soft X-ray Reflectometer; Photoemission Microscopy with Reflective Optics; Spectroscopy with Soft X-Rays; Hard X-Ray Microprobe; Coronary Angiography; and Atomic Scattering Factors

  11. The Mapping X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (MapX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, P.; Blake, D. F.; Marchis, F.; Bristow, T.; Thompson, K.

    2017-12-01

    Many planetary surface processes leave traces of their actions as features in the size range 10s to 100s of microns. The Mapping X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (MapX) will provide elemental imaging at 100 micron spatial resolution, yielding elemental chemistry at a scale where many relict physical, chemical, or biological features can be imaged and interpreted in ancient rocks on planetary bodies and planetesimals. MapX is an arm-based instrument positioned on a rock or regolith with touch sensors. During an analysis, an X-ray source (tube or radioisotope) bombards the sample with X-rays or alpha-particles / gamma-rays, resulting in sample X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). X-rays emitted in the direction of an X-ray sensitive CCD imager pass through a 1:1 focusing lens (X-ray micro-pore Optic (MPO)) that projects a spatially resolved image of the X-rays onto the CCD. The CCD is operated in single photon counting mode so that the energies and positions of individual X-ray photons are recorded. In a single analysis, several thousand frames are both stored and processed in real-time. Higher level data products include single-element maps with a lateral spatial resolution of 100 microns and quantitative XRF spectra from ground- or instrument- selected Regions of Interest (ROI). XRF spectra from ROI are compared with known rock and mineral compositions to extrapolate the data to rock types and putative mineralogies. When applied to airless bodies and implemented with an appropriate radioisotope source for alpha-particle excitation, MapX will be able to analyze biogenic elements C, N, O, P, S, in addition to the cations of the rock-forming elements >Na, accessible with either X-ray or gamma-ray excitation. The MapX concept has been demonstrated with a series of lab-based prototypes and is currently under refinement and TRL maturation.

  12. The color of X-rays Spectral X-ray computed tomography using energy sensitive pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Schioppa, Enrico Junior

    Energy sensitive X-ray imaging detectors are produced by connecting a semiconductor sensor to a spectroscopic pixel readout chip. In this thesis, the applicability of such detectors to X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is studied. A prototype Medipix based silicon detector is calibrated using X-ray fluorescence. The charge transport properties of the sensor are characterized using a high energy beam of charged particles at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN). Monochromatic X-rays at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) are used to determined the energy response function. These data are used to implement a physics-based CT projection operator that accounts for the transmission of the source spectrum through the sample and detector effects. Based on this projection operator, an iterative spectral CT reconstruction algorithm is developed by extending an Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization (OSEM) method. Subsequently, a maximum likelihood based algo...

  13. Development of Highly Reproducible and Robust Absorber Coatings for Bolometric Detector Arrays

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will develop fabrication processes to realize controlled impedance absorber coatings for bolometric sensor applications.  Although there are a variety of...

  14. Ultrafast X-ray Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neil, George

    2010-01-01

    Since before the scattering of X-rays off of DNA led to the first understanding of the double helix structure, sources of X-rays have been an essential tool for scientists examining the structure and interactions of matter. The resolution of a microscope is proportional to the wavelength of light so x-rays can see much finer structures than visible light, down to single atoms. In addition, the energy of X-rays is resonant with the core atomic levels of atoms so with appropriate wavelengths the placement of specific atoms in a large molecule can be determined. Over 10,000 scientists use synchrotron sources, storage rings of high energy electrons, each year worldwide. As an example of such use, virtually every picture of a protein or drug molecule that one sees in the scientific press is a reconstruction based on X-ray scattering of synchrotron light from the crystallized form of that molecule. Unfortunately those pictures are static and proteins work through configuration (shape) changes in response to energy transfer. To understand how biological systems work requires following the energy flow to these molecules and tracking how shape changes drive their interaction with other molecules. We'd like to be able to freeze the action of these molecules at various steps along the way with an X-ray strobe light. How fast does it have to be? To actually get a picture of a molecule in a fixed configuration requires X-ray pulses as short as 30 femtoseconds (1/30 of a millionth of a millionth of a second). To capture the energy flow through changes in electronic levels requires a faster strobe, less than 1 femtosecond And to acquire such information in smaller samples with higher accuracy demands brighter and brighter X-rays. Unfortunately modern synchrotrons (dubbed 3rd Generation Light Sources) cannot deliver such short bright pulses of X-rays. An entirely new approach is required, linear-accelerator (linac-)-based light sources termed 4th or Next Generation Light Sources

  15. X-ray Echo Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2016-02-01

    X-ray echo spectroscopy, a counterpart of neutron spin echo, is being introduced here to overcome limitations in spectral resolution and weak signals of the traditional inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) probes. An image of a pointlike x-ray source is defocused by a dispersing system comprised of asymmetrically cut specially arranged Bragg diffracting crystals. The defocused image is refocused into a point (echo) in a time-reversal dispersing system. If the defocused beam is inelastically scattered from a sample, the echo signal acquires a spatial distribution, which is a map of the inelastic scattering spectrum. The spectral resolution of the echo spectroscopy does not rely on the monochromaticity of the x rays, ensuring strong signals along with a very high spectral resolution. Particular schemes of x-ray echo spectrometers for 0.1-0.02 meV ultrahigh-resolution IXS applications (resolving power >108 ) with broadband ≃5 - 13 meV dispersing systems are introduced featuring more than 103 signal enhancement. The technique is general, applicable in different photon frequency domains.

  16. Imaging X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elvis, M.

    1990-01-01

    The launch of the High Energy Astrophysical Observatory, more appealingly called the Einstein Observatory, marked one of the most revolutionary steps taken in astrophysics this century. Its greater sensitivity compared with earlier satellites and its ability to make high spacial and spectral resolution observations transformed X-ray astronomy. This book is based on a Symposium held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, to celebrate a decade of Einstein Observatory's achievements. It discusses the contributions that this satellite has made to each area of modern astrophysics and the diversity of the ongoing work based on Einstein data. There is a guide to each of the main data bases now coming on-line to increase the availability and to preserve this valuable archive for the future. A review of NASA's next big X-ray mission, AXAF, and a visionary program for novel X-ray astronomy satellites by Riccardo Giacconi conclude this wide-ranging volume. (author)

  17. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Intra-oral X-ray apparatus which reduces the number of exposures necessary to obtain panoramic dental radiographs is described in detail. It comprises an electron gun, a tubular target carrier projecting from the gun along the beam axis and carrying at its distal end a target surrounded by a shield of X-ray opaque material. This shield extends forward and laterally of the target and has surfaces which define a wedge or cone-shaped radiation pattern delimited vertically by the root tips of the patient's teeth. A film holder is located externally of the patient's mouth. A disposable member can fit on the target carrier to depress the patient's tongue out of the radiation pattern and to further shield the roof of the mouth. The electron beam can be magnetically deflected to change the X-ray beam direction. (author)

  18. X-ray fluorescence holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kouichi; Happo, Naohisa; Hosokawa, Shinya; Hu, Wen; Matsushita, Tomohiro

    2012-03-07

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a method of atomic resolution holography which utilizes fluorescing atoms as a wave source or a monitor of the interference field within a crystal sample. It provides three-dimensional atomic images around a specified element and has a range of up to a few nm in real space. Because of this feature, XFH is expected to be used for medium-range local structural analysis, which cannot be performed by x-ray diffraction or x-ray absorption fine structure analysis. In this article, we explain the theory of XFH including solutions to the twin-image problem, an advanced measuring system, and data processing for the reconstruction of atomic images. Then, we briefly introduce our recent applications of this technique to the analysis of local lattice distortions in mixed crystals and nanometer-size clusters appearing in the low-temperature phase of a shape-memory alloy.

  19. X-ray fluorescence holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kouichi; Happo, Naohisa; Hosokawa, Shinya; Hu Wen; Matsushita, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a method of atomic resolution holography which utilizes fluorescing atoms as a wave source or a monitor of the interference field within a crystal sample. It provides three-dimensional atomic images around a specified element and has a range of up to a few nm in real space. Because of this feature, XFH is expected to be used for medium-range local structural analysis, which cannot be performed by x-ray diffraction or x-ray absorption fine structure analysis. In this article, we explain the theory of XFH including solutions to the twin-image problem, an advanced measuring system, and data processing for the reconstruction of atomic images. Then, we briefly introduce our recent applications of this technique to the analysis of local lattice distortions in mixed crystals and nanometer-size clusters appearing in the low-temperature phase of a shape-memory alloy. (topical review)

  20. Zinc oxide decorated multi-walled carbon nanotubes: their bolometric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Valdivieso, Guadalupe; Jesús Velázquez-Salazar, J.; Samaniego-Benítez, José Enrique; Joazet Ojeda-Galván, Hiram; Josefina Arellano-Jiménez, M.; Martínez-Reyna, Karí G. H.; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Navarro-Contreras, Hugo R.

    2018-03-01

    We report the synthesis of MWNT/ZnO hybrid nanostructures. A simple, affordable, chemical procedure to functionalize MWNTs with ZnO nanoparticles was performed. A significant portion of the surface of MWNTs was covered with ZnO nanoparticles; these particles formed highly porous spherical nodules of 50–150 nm in diameter, sizes that are an order of magnitude larger than similar ZnO nanonodules reported in the literature. Hence, the self-assembled nanocomposite the ZnO exhibited a large surface-to-volume ratio, which is a very advantageous property for potential catalytic applications. The resultant MWNT/ZnO nanocomposites were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and UV–vis and Raman spectroscopy. The temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of the nanocomposites was measured and reported. The average TCR value goes from ‑5.6%/K up to ‑18%/K, over temperature change intervals from 10 K to 1 K. Based on these TCR results, the nanocomposite MWNT/ZnO prepared in this work is a promising material, with potential application as a bolometric sensor.

  1. X-ray Emission from Solar Flares

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Solar flares; X-ray detectors; X-ray line emission and continuum; break energy; microflares. Abstract. Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS), the first space-borne solar astronomy experiment of India was designed to improve our current understanding of X-ray emission from the Sun in general and solar flares in ...

  2. History of x-ray astronomy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. History of x-ray astronomy. Major X-ray Missions. 1970 :UHURU: detected 339 new sources (1st sky coverage). 1978: Einstein First x-ray imaging mission (>1000 sources). 1990: ROSAT; Soft X-ray imaging mission; detected 100,000 sources (deeper sky coverage) ...

  3. X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray ... MRI): Lumbar Spine Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  4. Chest X-Ray (Chest Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Chest Chest x-ray uses a very ... limitations of Chest Radiography? What is a Chest X-ray (Chest Radiography)? The chest x-ray is the ...

  5. X-Ray Exam: Neck (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Neck KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Neck Enlarged Adenoids Croup Sinusitis Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  6. Semiconductor X-ray spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggleton, A.H.F.

    1978-02-01

    An outline is given of recent developments in particle and photon induced x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. Following a brief description of the basic mechanism of semiconductor detector operation a comparison is made between semiconductor detectors, scintillators and gas filled proportional devices. Detector fabrication and cryostat design are described in more detail and the effects of various device parameters on system performance, such as energy resolution, count rate capability, efficiency, microphony, etc. are discussed. The main applications of these detectors in x-ray fluorescence analysis, electron microprobe analysis, medical and pollution studies are reviewed

  7. Portable X-Ray Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Portable x-ray instrument developed by NASA now being produced commercially as an industrial tool may soon find further utility as a medical system. The instrument is Lixiscope - Low Intensity X-Ray Imaging Scope -- a self-contained, battery-powered fluoroscope that produces an instant image through use of a small amount of radioactive isotope. Originally developed by Goddard Space Flight Center, Lixiscope is now being produced by Lixi, Inc. which has an exclusive NASA license for one version of the device.

  8. Overutilization of x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    In this article on the overutilization of x-rays the author defines the term overutilization as excessive irradiation per unit of diagnostic information, therapeutic impact, or health outcome. Three main factors are described which lead to overutilization of x-rays: excessive radiation per film; excessive films per examination; and excessive examinations per patient. Topics discussed which influence the excessive examinations per patient are: the physician's lack of knowledge; undue dependence; lack of screening by radiologists; the physician's need for action and certainty; patient demand; reimbursement policies; institutional requirements; preventive medicine; defensive medicine; and the practice of radiology by nonradiologists

  9. X-ray data processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Harold R

    2017-10-31

    The method of molecular structure determination by X-ray crystallography is a little over a century old. The history is described briefly, along with developments in X-ray sources and detectors. The fundamental processes involved in measuring diffraction patterns on area detectors, i.e. autoindexing, refining crystal and detector parameters, integrating the reflections themselves and putting the resultant measurements on to a common scale are discussed, with particular reference to the most commonly used software in the field. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. X-ray microscopes at BESSY II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttmann, P.; Niemann, B.; Thieme, J.; Wiesemann, U.; Rudolph, D.; Schmahl, G.

    2000-01-01

    The undulator U41 at BESSY II will be used as source for X-ray microscopes. An overview of the X-ray microscopy area is presented. After finishing the construction phase a transmission X-ray microscope, a scanning transmission X-ray microscope and an X-ray test chamber will be available. The transmission X-ray microscope will allow investigations with high lateral resolution at moderate energy resolution while the scanning transmission X-ray microscope will allow high energy resolution at moderate lateral resolution of the same specimen

  11. Illumination system for X-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, W.D.

    1989-01-01

    An X-ray lithography system is described, comprising: a point source of X-Ray radiation; a wafer plane disposed in spaced relation to the point source of X-Ray radiation; a mask disposed between the point source of X-Ray radiation and the wafer plane whereby X-Ray radiation from the point source of X-ray radiation passes through the mask to the water plane; and X-Ray absorbent means mounted between the point source of X-Ray radiation and the wafer plane, the X-Ray absorbent means being of quadratically absorption from maximum absorption at the center to minimum absorption at the edge so as to have a radial absorption gradient profile to compensate for radial flux variation of the X-Ray radiation

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the table in the area of the body being imaged. When necessary, sandbags, pillows or other positioning devices will be used to help you ... have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) ... imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. top of page ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone ...

  14. X-ray tube transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An X-ray generator is described which comprises a transmission line transformer including an electrical conductor with a cavity and a second electrical conductor including helical windings disposed along a longitudinal axis within the cavity of the first conductor. The windings have a pitch which varies per unit length along the axis. There is dielectric material in the cavity for insulation and to couple electromagnetically the two conductors in response to an electric current flowing through the conductors, which have an impedance between them; this varies with distance along the axis of the helix of the second conductor. An X-ray tube is disposed along the longitudinal axis within the cavity, for radiating X-rays. The invention increases the voltage of applied voltage pulses at the remote tube-head with a transformer formed by using a spiral delay line geometry to give a tapered-impedance coaxial high voltage multiplier for pulse voltage operation. This transformer is smaller and lighter than previous designs for the same high peak voltage and power ratings. This is important because the penetration capabilities of Flash X-ray equipment increase with voltage, particularly in heavy materials such as steel. (U.K.)

  15. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, J.L. de.

    1976-01-01

    The seventh edition of Philips' Review of Literature on x-ray fluorescence spectrometry starts with a list of conference proceedings on the subject, organised by the Philips organisation at regular intervals in various European countries. It is followed by a list of bulletins. The bibliography is subdivided according to spectra, equipment, applications and absorption analysis

  16. X-Ray Diffractive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Brian; Li, Mary; Skinner, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    X-ray optics were fabricated with the capability of imaging solar x-ray sources with better than 0.1 arcsecond angular resolution, over an order of magnitude finer than is currently possible. Such images would provide a new window into the little-understood energy release and particle acceleration regions in solar flares. They constitute one of the most promising ways to probe these regions in the solar atmosphere with the sensitivity and angular resolution needed to better understand the physical processes involved. A circular slit structure with widths as fine as 0.85 micron etched in a silicon wafer 8 microns thick forms a phase zone plate version of a Fresnel lens capable of focusing approx. =.6 keV x-rays. The focal length of the 3-cm diameter lenses is 100 microns, and the angular resolution capability is better than 0.1 arcsecond. Such phase zone plates were fabricated in Goddard fs Detector Development Lab. (DDL) and tested at the Goddard 600-microns x-ray test facility. The test data verified that the desired angular resolution and throughput efficiency were achieved.

  17. X-rays from stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güdel, Manuel

    2004-07-01

    Spectroscopic studies available from Chandra and XMM-Newton play a pivotal part in the understanding of the physical processes in stellar (magnetic and non-magnetic) atmospheres. It is now routinely possible to derive densities and to study the influence of ultraviolet radiation fields, both of which can be used to infer the geometry of the radiating sources. Line profiles provide important information on bulk mass motions and attenuation by neutral matter, e.g. in stellar winds. The increased sensitivity has revealed new types of X-ray sources in systems that were thought to be unlikely places for X-rays: flaring brown dwarfs, including rather old, non-accreting objects, and terminal shocks in jets of young stars are important examples. New clues concerning the role of stellar high-energy processes in the modification of the stellar environment (ionization, spallation, etc.) contribute significantly to our understanding of the "astro-ecology" in forming planetary systems. Technological limitations are evident. The spectral resolution has not reached the level where bulk mass motions in cool stars become easily measurable. Higher resolution would also be important to perform X-ray "Doppler imaging" in order to reconstruct the 3-D distribution of the X-ray sources around a rotating star. Higher sensitivity will be required to perform high-resolution spectroscopy of weak sources such as brown dwarfs or embedded pre-main-sequence sources. A new generation of satellites such as Constellation-X or XEUS should pursue these goals.

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different ... This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation ... x-ray images are among the clearest, most detailed views of ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different ... about radiology? Share your patient story here Images ... content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams ...

  20. High resolution X ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartiromo, R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is devoted to a detailed discussion of the physical processes which are responsible for the emission spectra of H-like and He-like ion of high Z impurities in low density plasmas. The application of high resolution X-ray spectroscopy to the diagnostic of tokamak plasmas is also discussed and examples of the results obtained are presented

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will I experience during and after the procedure? Who interprets the results and how do I get them? What are the benefits vs. risks? What are the limitations of Bone X-ray ( ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest ... cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. ...

  4. X-ray image coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The invention aims at decreasing the effect of stray radiation in X-ray images. This is achieved by putting a plate between source and object with parallel zones of alternating high and low absorption coefficients for X-radiation. The image is scanned with the help of electronic circuits which decode the signal space coded by the plate, thus removing the stray radiation

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... any possibility that they are pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not to expose the fetus to ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. A Word About Minimizing ... imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy ...

  6. X-rays and magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Peter; Ohldag, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Magnetism is among the most active and attractive areas in modern solid state physics because of intriguing phenomena interesting to fundamental research and a manifold of technological applications. State-of-the-art synthesis of advanced magnetic materials, e.g. in hybrid structures paves the way to new functionalities. To characterize modern magnetic materials and the associated magnetic phenomena, polarized x-rays have emerged as unique probes due to their specific interaction with magnetic materials. A large variety of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques have been developed to quantify in an element, valence and site-sensitive way properties of ferro-, ferri-, and antiferromagnetic systems, such as spin and orbital moments, and to image nanoscale spin textures and their dynamics with sub-ns time and almost 10 nm spatial resolution. The enormous intensity of x-rays and their degree of coherence at next generation x-ray facilities will open the fsec time window to magnetic studies addressing fundamental time scales in magnetism with nanometer spatial resolution. This review will give an introduction into contemporary topics of nanoscale magnetic materials and provide an overview of analytical spectroscopy and microscopy tools based on x-ray dichroism effects. Selected examples of current research will demonstrate the potential and future directions of these techniques. (report on progress)

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest ... images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used ...

  8. Stellar X-Ray Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, J.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the stellar end-state black holes, pulsars, and white dwarfs that are X-ray sources should have polarized X-ray fluxes. The degree will depend on the relative contributions of the unresolved structures. Fluxes from accretion disks and accretion disk corona may be polarized by scattering. Beams and jets may have contributions of polarized emission in strong magnetic fields. The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) will study the effects on polarization of strong gravity of black holes and strong magnetism of neutron stars. Some part of the flux from compact stars accreting from companion stars has been reflected from the companion, its wind, or accretion streams. Polarization of this component is a potential tool for studying the structure of the gas in these binary systems. Polarization due to scattering can also be present in X-ray emission from white dwarf binaries and binary normal stars such as RS CVn stars and colliding wind sources like Eta Car. Normal late type stars may have polarized flux from coronal flares. But X-ray polarization sensitivity is not at the level needed for single early type stars.

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... time. Follow-up examinations are sometimes the best way to see if treatment is working or if a finding is stable or changed over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest way for a ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos ... to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure ...

  11. X-ray absorption holography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Miloš; Lausi, A.; Bussetto, E.; Kub, Jiří; Savoia, A.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 18 (2002), s. 185503-1 - 185503-3 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A100 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : x-ray holography Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 7.323, year: 2002

  12. Compact x-ray source and panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampayon, Stephen E [Manteca, CA

    2008-02-12

    A compact, self-contained x-ray source, and a compact x-ray source panel having a plurality of such x-ray sources arranged in a preferably broad-area pixelized array. Each x-ray source includes an electron source for producing an electron beam, an x-ray conversion target, and a multilayer insulator separating the electron source and the x-ray conversion target from each other. The multi-layer insulator preferably has a cylindrical configuration with a plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers surrounding an acceleration channel leading from the electron source to the x-ray conversion target. A power source is connected to each x-ray source of the array to produce an accelerating gradient between the electron source and x-ray conversion target in any one or more of the x-ray sources independent of other x-ray sources in the array, so as to accelerate an electron beam towards the x-ray conversion target. The multilayer insulator enables relatively short separation distances between the electron source and the x-ray conversion target so that a thin panel is possible for compactness. This is due to the ability of the plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers of the multilayer insulators to resist surface flashover when sufficiently high acceleration energies necessary for x-ray generation are supplied by the power source to the x-ray sources.

  13. An intraoral miniature x-ray tube based on carbon nanotubes for dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Hyun Nam; Raza, Hamid Saeed; Park, Han Beom; Cho, Sung Oh

    2016-01-01

    A miniature X-ray tube based on a carbon-nanotube electron emitter has been employed for the application to a dental radiography. The miniature X-ray tube has an outer diameter of 7 mm and a length of 47 mm. The miniature X-ray tube is operated in a negative high-voltage mode in which the X-ray target is electrically grounded. In addition, X-rays are generated only to the teeth directions using a collimator while X-rays generated to other directions are shielded. Hence, the X-ray tube can be safely inserted into a human mouth. Using the intra-oral X-ray tube, a dental radiography is demonstrated where the positions of an X-ray source and a sensor are reversed compared with a conventional dental radiography system. X-ray images of five neighboring teeth are obtained and, furthermore, both left and right molar images are achieved by a single X-ray shot of the miniature X-ray tube

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a putative sensor histidine kinase domain: the C-terminal domain of HksP4 from Aquifex aeolicus VF5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horita, Shoichiro; Yamanaka, Yosuke; Yamamura, Akihiro; Okada, Akitoshi; Nakayama, Jiro; Nagata, Koji; Tanokura, Masaru

    2011-01-01

    The putative sensor histidine kinase domain of the cytoplasmic protein HksP4 from the hyperthermophilic bacterium A. aeolicus VF5 was expressed, purified and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals were obtained in the presence of ATP and AMPPNP; they were found to belong to the same space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 and diffracted X-rays to 3.1 and 2.9 Å resolution, respectively. The histidine kinase domain of the cytoplasmic protein HksP4 from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus VF5, located in the C-terminal half of the protein, was expressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction-quality crystals were obtained in the presence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or adenosine 5′-(β,γ-imido)triphosphate (AMPPNP) by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as the precipitant. The crystals obtained in the presence of ATP and AMPPNP diffracted X-rays to 3.1 and 2.9 Å resolution, respectively, on BL-5A at Photon Factory (Ibaraki, Japan) and were found to belong to the same space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 80.2, b = 105.5, c = 122.0 Å and a = 81.5, b = 105.5, c = 130.9 Å, respectively. Their Matthews coefficients (V M = 2.74 and 2.51 Å 3 Da −1 , respectively) indicated that both crystals contained four protein molecules per asymmetric unit

  15. High-Resolution X-ray Emission and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, F.M.F. de

    2000-01-01

    In this review, high-resolution X-ray emission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy will be discussed. The focus is on the 3d transition-metal systems. To understand high-resolution X-ray emission and reso-nant X-ray emission, it is first necessary to spend some time discussing the X-ray absorption

  16. Applicability study of x-ray computed tomography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanai, Kenji

    2003-03-01

    Several experiments on the study of high level radioactive waste disposal indirectly measured various physical quantity in the closed test vessel by various sensor. This measurement technique on closed-system cause limit of understanding of mechanisms. Therefore, new observation technique by nondestructive technique such a X-ray computed tomography is necessary for HLW disposal study. In this work, the objective of this study are as follows; (1) to clarify the relationship between dry density of bentonite and CT number, (2) to observed infiltration behaviour of liquid in bentonite specimen using X-ray CT (3) to observed gas migration behaviour in bentonite specimen using X-ray CT. The major conclusions obtained in this study are as follows; (1) CT number of X-ray increases linearly with degree of saturation and density of bentonite specimen. (2) Infiltration behaviour of liquid in bentonite specimen can be observed by X-ray CT. (3) Gas permeability of bentonite with a dry density of 1.6 Mg/m3 is approximately 6 x 10 -20 m 2 . And, this result was almost the same with the other experimental results. But, significant difference of breakthrough phenomena was observed between this test and other experiments results. In visualization study of gas migration through bentonite, gas migration behavior through bentonite was not observed by X-ray CT. (author)

  17. CubeSAT X-ray Telescope (CubeX) for Elemental Abundance Mapping of Airless Bodies and X-ray Pulsar Navigation (XNAV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaine, S.; Hong, J.; Elvis, M.

    2017-09-01

    The CubeSAT X-ray Telescope (CubeX) is a concept for a 12U planetary X-ray telescope, which utilizes Miniature Wolter-I X-ray optics (MiXO) and a combination of X-ray CMOS and SDD sensors for the focal plane. CubeX will map the surface elemental composition of diverse airless bodies using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), which can help us to understand the formation and evolutionary history of the individual bodies and the workings of the Solar system as a whole. CubeX will also conduct a feasibility and performance test of X-ray pulsar timing based deep space navigation (XNAV), which can lower operation costs of space navigation and enable autonomous deep space navigation.

  18. X-ray cardiovascular examination apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    An X-ray source is mounted in an enclosure for angulating longitudinally about a horizontal axis. An X-ray-permeable, patient-supporting table is mounted on the top of the enclosure for executing lateral and longitudinal movements. An X-ray image-receiving device such as an X-ray image intensifier is mounted above the table on a vertically movable arm which is on a longitudinally movable carriage. Electric control means are provided for angulating the X-ray source and image intensifier synchronously as the image intensifier system is shifted longitudinally or vertically such that the central ray from the X-ray source is kept intensifier

  19. Effective X-ray beam size measurements of an X-ray tube and polycapillary X-ray lens system using a scanning X-ray fluorescence method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gherase, Mihai R., E-mail: mgherase@csufresno.edu; Vargas, Andres Felipe

    2017-03-15

    Size measurements of an X-ray beam produced by an integrated polycapillary X-ray lens (PXL) and X-ray tube system were performed by means of a scanning X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) method using three different metallic wires. The beam size was obtained by fitting the SXRF data with the analytical convolution between a Gaussian and a constant functions. For each chemical element in the wire an effective energy was calculated based on the incident X-ray spectrum and its photoelectric cross section. The proposed method can be used to measure the effective X-ray beam size in XRF microscopy studies.

  20. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    The Center for X-Ray Optics has made substantial progress during the past year on the development of very high resolution x-ray technologies, the generation of coherent radiation at x-ray wavelengths, and, based on these new developments, had embarked on several scientific investigations that would not otherwise have been possible. The investigations covered in this report are topics on x-ray sources, x-ray imaging and applications, soft x-ray spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation, advanced light source and magnet structures for undulators and wigglers

  1. X-ray diagnostic in gas discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Suhe; Wang Dalun; Cui Gaoxian; Wang Mei; Fu Yibei; Zhang Xinwei; Zhang Wushou

    1995-01-01

    X rays were observed when the anomalous phenomenon in the metal loaded with deuterium studied by the gas-discharge method. Therefore the X-ray energy spectra were measured by the absorption method, the specific X-ray approach and the NaI scintillation counter, while X-ray intensity was estimated by using 7 Li thermoluminescent foils. The X-ray average energy measured by the absorption method is 27.6 +- 2.1 keV, which is fitted within the error extent to 26.0 +-2.4 keV monoenergetic X rays measured by the NaI scintillation counter

  2. X-ray tube arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillard, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A technique for ensuring the rapid correction of both amplitude and offset errors in the deflectional movement of an electron beam along an X-ray emissive target is described. The movement is monitored at at least two positions during a sweep and differences, between the two movements and a desired movement, at these positions are combined in different proportions to produce a corrective servo signal. Such arrangements find application, for example, in computerised tomographic scanners. (author)

  3. X-ray Sensitive Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Reference 3), inorganic semiconductors (silicon [Si], cadmium zinc telluride [CdZnTe]) (Reference 4) and selenium (References 5 and 6), Ne-Xe...data showing photocurrent generation. Reports on other X-ray photoconductors, such as amorphous selenium , typically show such data (Reference 34). We...that BiI3 content does contribute to surface discharge; however, further work is warranted to measure the photocurrent. Selenium films used for

  4. Diffractive X-ray Telescopes

    OpenAIRE

    Skinner, Gerald K.

    2010-01-01

    Diffractive X-ray telescopes using zone plates, phase Fresnel lenses, or related optical elements have the potential to provide astronomers with true imaging capability with resolution several orders of magnitude better than available in any other waveband. Lenses that would be relatively easy to fabricate could have an angular resolution of the order of micro-arc-seconds or even better, that would allow, for example, imaging of the distorted space- time in the immediate vicinity of the super...

  5. Smart X-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michette, A G; Pfauntsch, S J; Sahraei, S; Shand, M; Morrison, G R; Hart, D; Vojnovic, B; Stevenson, T; Parkes, W; Dunare, C; Willingale, R; Feldman, C; Button, T; Zhang, D; Rodriguez-Sanmartin, D; Wang, H

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes reflective adaptive/active optics for applications including studies of biological radiation damage. The optics work on the polycapillary principle, but use arrays of channels in thin silicon. For optimum performance the x-rays should reflect once off a channel wall in each of two successive arrays. This reduces aberrations since then the Abbe sine condition is approximately satisfied. Adaptivity is achieved by flexing the arrays via piezo actuation, providing further aberration reduction and controllable focal length.

  6. X-Ray Crystallography Reagent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Microcapsules prepared by encapsulating an aqueous solution of a protein, drug or other bioactive substance inside a semi-permeable membrane by are disclosed. The microcapsules are formed by interfacial coacervation under conditions where the shear forces are limited to 0-100 dynes per square centimeter at the interface. By placing the microcapsules in a high osmotic dewatering solution. the protein solution is gradually made saturated and then supersaturated. and the controlled nucleation and crystallization of the protein is achieved. The crystal-filled microcapsules prepared by this method can be conveniently harvested and stored while keeping the encapsulated crystals in essentially pristine condition due to the rugged. protective membrane. Because the membrane components themselves are x-ray transparent, large crystal-containing microcapsules can be individually selected, mounted in x-ray capillary tubes and subjected to high energy x-ray diffraction studies to determine the 3-D smucture of the protein molecules. Certain embodiments of the microcapsules of the invention have composite polymeric outer membranes which are somewhat elastic, water insoluble, permeable only to water, salts, and low molecular weight molecules and are structurally stable in fluid shear forces typically encountered in the human vascular system.

  7. Aspergillosis - chest x-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... usually occurs in immunocompromised individuals. Here, a chest x-ray shows that the fungus has invaded the lung ... are usually seen as black areas on an x-ray. The cloudiness on the left side of this ...

  8. Soft x-ray Planetary Imager

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project is to prototype a soft X-ray Imager for planetary applications that has the sensitivity to observe solar system sources of soft  X-ray emission. A strong...

  9. Stabilized x-ray generator power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Subimal; Purushotham, K.V.; Bose, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence analysis are very much adopted in laboratories to determine the type and structure of the constituent compounds in solid materials, chemical composition of materials, stress developed on metals etc. These experiments need X-ray beam of fixed intensity and wave length. This can only be achieved by X-ray generator having highly stabilized tube voltage and tube current. This paper describes how X-ray tube high voltage and electron beam current are stabilized. This paper also highlights generation of X-rays, diffractometry and X-ray fluorescence analysis and their wide applications. Principle of operation for stabilizing the X-ray tube voltage and current, different protection circuits adopted, special features of the mains H.V. transformer and H.T. tank are described in this report. (author)

  10. X-ray electromagnetic application technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The investigating committee aimed at research on electromagnetic fields in functional devices and X-ray fibers for efficient coherent X-ray generation and their material science, high-precision manufacturing, particularly for X-ray electromagnetic application technology from January 2006 to December 2008. In this report, we describe our research results, in particular, on the topics of synchrotron radiation and free-electron laser, Saga Synchrotron Project, X-ray waveguides and waveguide-based lens-less hard-X-ray imaging, X-ray nanofocusing for capillaries and zone plates, dispersion characteristics in photonics crystal consisting of periodic atoms for nanometer waveguides, electromagnetic characteristics of grid structures for scattering fields of nano-meter electromagnetic waves and X-rays, FDTD parallel computing of fundamental scattering and attenuation characteristics of X-ray for medical imaging diagnosis, orthogonal relations of electromagnetic fields including evanescent field in dispersive medium. (author)

  11. Highly Multiplexible Thermal Kinetic Inductance Detectors for X-Ray Imaging Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Ulbricht, Gerhard; Mazin, Benjamin A.; Szypryt, Paul; Walter, Alex B.; Bockstiegel, Clint; Bumble, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    For X-ray imaging spectroscopy, high spatial resolution over a large field of view is often as important as high energy resolution, but current X-ray detectors do not provide both in the same device. Thermal Kinetic Inductance Detectors (TKIDs) are being developed as they offer a feasible way to combine the energy resolution of transition edge sensors with pixel counts approaching CCDs and thus promise significant improvements for many X-ray spectroscopy applications. TKIDs are a variation of...

  12. Development of quantitative x-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckman, H.W.; Dunsmuir, J.A.; D'Amico, K.L.; Ferguson, S.R.; Flannery, B.P.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have developed several x-ray microtomography systems which function as quantitative three dimensional x-ray microscopes. In this paper the authors describe the evolutionary path followed from making the first high resolution experimental microscopes to later generations which can be routinely used for investigating materials. Developing the instrumentation for reliable quantitative x-ray microscopy using synchrotron and laboratory based x-ray sources has led to other imaging modalities for obtaining temporal and spatial two dimensional information

  13. X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, S.; Sparks, C.J. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental set-up for x-ray fluorescence analysis with synchrotron radiation was built and installed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Project. X-ray spectra were taken from numerous and varied samples in order to assess the potential of synchrotron radiation as an excitation source for multielement x-ray fluorescence analysis. For many applications, the synchrotron radiation technique is shown to be superior to other x-ray fluorescence methods, especially those employing electrons and protons as excitation sources

  14. Element specific X-ray fluorescene microtomography

    OpenAIRE

    Günzler, Til Florian

    2003-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence is widely known as an element-specific scanning analytic tool. It is used in many fields of science and technology and has given major new insights into different problems. The relatively large penetration depth of x rays into matter makes them ideally suited for tomography. The combination of x-ray fluorescence analysis and scanning microtomography, hereafter called x-ray fluorescence microtomography, has been further developed and improved in this work. Employing the newl...

  15. X-ray diagnostics - benefits and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomaeus, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    The brochure on benefits and risks of X-ray diagnostics discusses the following issues: X radiation - a pioneering discovery and medical sensation, fundamentals of X radiation, frequency of X-ray examinations in Germany in relation to CT imaging, radiation doses resulting from X-ray diagnostics, benefits of X-ray diagnostics - indication and examples, risks - measures for radiation exposure reductions, avoidance of unnecessary examinations.

  16. The Beginnings of X-ray Crystallography

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    The Beginnings of X-ray Crystallography. A Profile on the Two Braggs. Those were the days when Science was hovering around the wave–particle duality. William. Henry Bragg was toying with the idea that X-rays are particles and the observation made by Max von Laue that X-rays are diffracted by crystals could indeed ...

  17. Center for X-ray Optics, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-01

    This report briefly reviews the following topics: soft-x-ray imaging; reflective optics for hard x-rays; coherent XUV sources; spectroscopy with x-rays; detectors for coronary artery imaging; synchrotron-radiation optics; and support for the advanced light source.

  18. X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg) KidsHealth / For Parents / X- ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  19. X-Rays, Pregnancy and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emitting Products and Procedures Medical Imaging Medical X-ray Imaging X-Rays, Pregnancy and You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... the decision with your doctor. What Kind of X-Rays Can Affect the Unborn Child? During most x- ...

  20. X-Ray Exam: Scoliosis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Scoliosis KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: Scoliosis What's in this article? What It Is Why ... You Have Questions Print What It Is A scoliosis X-ray is a relatively safe and painless ...

  1. Cryotomography x-ray microscopy state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2010-10-26

    An x-ray microscope stage enables alignment of a sample about a rotation axis to enable three dimensional tomographic imaging of the sample using an x-ray microscope. A heat exchanger assembly provides cooled gas to a sample during x-ray microscopic imaging.

  2. Student X-Ray Fluorescence Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzer, Homer D.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Describes the experimental arrangement for x-ray analysis of samples which involves the following: the radioisotopic x-ray disk source; a student-built fluorescence chamber; the energy dispersive x-ray detector, linear amplifier and bias supply; and a multichannel pulse height analyzer. (GS)

  3. Electron beam parallel X-ray generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, P.

    1967-01-01

    Broad X ray source produces a highly collimated beam of low energy X rays - a beam with 2 to 5 arc minutes of divergence at energies between 1 and 6 keV in less than 5 feet. The X ray beam is generated by electron bombardment of a target from a large area electron gun.

  4. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockett, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    Total reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) is a glancing x-ray analytical technique which is used primarily to measure surface metal contamination on semiconductor substrates. This is a review of Total reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) applications for silicon semiconductor processing. In addition, some comments are made about the future of TXRF, and in particular, synchrotron radiation TXRF (SR-TXRF)

  5. Automatic weld joint X-ray inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, H.U.; Linke, D.; Siems, K.D.; Kruse, H.; Schuetze, E.

    1990-01-01

    A gantry mounted robotic x-ray inspection unit has been developed for the series testing of small and medium sized welded components (pipe bends and nozzles). The unit features computer controlled positioning of the x-ray tube and x-ray image amplifier. Image quality classes 2 and even 1 could be achieved without difficulty. (author)

  6. Joint European x-ray monitor (JEM-X): x-ray monitor for ESA's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnopper, H.W.; Budtz-Joergensen, C.; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt

    1996-01-01

    JEM-X will extend the energy range of the gamma ray instruments on ESA's INTEGRAL mission (SPI, IBIS) to include the x-ray band. JEM-X will provide images with arcminute angular resolution in the 2 - 60 keV band. The baseline photon detection system consists of two identical, high pressure, imaging....... The detector sensor elements consists of microstrip plates shaped as regular octagons with a diameter of 292 mm. The basic microstrip pattern is similar to the one chosen for the HEPC/LEPC detector system on SRG. The detector position resolution will be sufficient to ensure an angular resolution for JEM-X...

  7. Pulsating X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumper, J.

    1986-01-01

    The discovery of pulsating X-ray sources in close binary systems was one of the major achievements of the Uhuru satellite. Today one knows about two dozens of these sources with pulsational periods between 69 ms and 835 s. In most cases the X-ray source orbits an early-type star of high mass having a rather large optical luminosity. There are a few exceptions: GX1+4 is associated with a late-type (M6) giant, 4U1616-67 has a comparison of very low mass (≤ 0.1 M/sub sub solar/), and Her X-1 is a borderline case, since its counterpart HZ Her is an A-F star of -- 2/sub sub solar/. It is clear that the X-ray sources in these systems are rotating magnetized neutron stars accreting from their normal companion, probably in most cases via Roche lobe overflow which leads to the formation of an accretion disk. In some cases (e.g. Vela X-1) the accretion proceeds via a stellar wind. Pulsations occur because in the immediate vicinity of the neutron star the matter is funneled by the strong magnetic field onto the polar caps where a hot and very luminous plasma is formed. Typical luminosities are huge, namely of the order of 10/sup 37/ erg/s which are radiated at effective temperatures of -- 10/sup 8/ K. Much has been learned about these systems and about neutron stars from studies of pulse arrival times and source spectra. The author briefly summarizes some of the major results and discusses some very recent results obtained with EXOSAT

  8. Astronomical imaging with the X-ray observatory Hitomi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Hitomi Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    We report an imaging capability of the Japan-led X-ray observatory Hitomi, formerly known as ASTRO-H. It carries four scientific instruments of Soft X-ray Imager (SXI: CCD camera), Hard X-ray Imager (HXI), Soft X-ray Spectrometer, and Soft Gamma-ray Detector, allowing us to perform a wide-band high-sensitive imaging spectroscopy. We highlight the specification and the performance we obtained with primarily regard to X-ray and soft gamma-ray imaging. Primary imaging instrument SXI utilizes four large-area X-ray CCDs positioned at the focal plane of Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT-I). Imaging area with a size of 62 mm square makes a largest field of view (FoV) of 38‧ square among the focal plane X-ray detectors, which enables us to observe extended objects such as clusters of galaxies and galactic supernova remnants with a single pointing in the soft X-ray band from 0.4 to 12 keV. HXI employs the hybrid sensors consisting of four layers of double-sided silicon strip detectors and a single layer of cadmium telluride double-sided strip detector covering the energy band from 5 to 80 keV. After the successful launch of Hitomi on February 17th, 2016 and the subsequent start up of all the instruments, imaging performance of both imagers are verified as expected from the ground calibration tests. The position of the active galactic nucleus of the central galaxy NGC1275 in the Perseus cluster is precisely seen by SXI, while the positional difference of line-of-sight velocity dispersion of the hot intracluster medium is measured inside by SXS. From the observation of Crab nebula, we obtain the on-pulse hard X-ray image with HXI as well as the time-averaged image in which the torus of the pulsar wind nebula can be seen.

  9. Protonium X-ray spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gotta, D

    1999-01-01

    The Lyman and Balmer transitions from antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium were studied extensively at the low-energy-antiproton ring LEAR at CERN in order to determine the strong interaction effects. A first series of experiments $9 was performed with semiconductor and gaseous X-ray detectors. In the last years of LEAR operation using a Bragg crystal spectrometer, strong interaction parameters in the 2p states of antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium were measured $9 directly. The results of the measurements support the meson-exchange models describing the medium and long range part of the nucleon-antinucleon interaction. (39 refs).

  10. X-ray intensifying screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossomaier, T.R.J.; Sangway, P.C.

    1979-01-01

    It is claimed that stabilization of X-ray intensifying screens against discolouration and hydrolysis of lanthanum or gadolinium oxyhalide phosphors can be achieved by incorporating into the phosphor/binder formulation a compound containing free epoxy groups. Suitable epoxy compounds include gamma glycidoxy trimethoxy silane and dimethyl di(m-glycidoxy methylphenyl) methane. The oxyhalide may be activated by Tb, Tm or Yb and may be mixed with other phosphors. Plasticisers and organo-tin stabilisers for the formulation are given. Many binders are specified, preferably these should not react with the free epoxy groups. (UK)

  11. The Mapping X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (MAPX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, David; Sarrazin, Philippe; Bristow, Thomas; Downs, Robert; Gailhanou, Marc; Marchis, Franck; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard; Sole, Vincente Armando; Thompson, Kathleen; hide

    2016-01-01

    MapX will provide elemental imaging at =100 micron spatial resolution over 2.5 X 2.5 centimeter areas, yielding elemental chemistry at or below the scale length where many relict physical, chemical, and biological features can be imaged and interpreted in ancient rocks. MapX is a full-frame spectroscopic imager positioned on soil or regolith with touch sensors. During an analysis, an X-ray source (tube or radioisotope) bombards the sample surface with X-rays or alpha-particles / gamma rays, resulting in sample X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). Fluoresced X-rays pass through an X-ray lens (X-ray µ-Pore Optic, "MPO") that projects a spatially resolved image of the X-rays onto a CCD. The CCD is operated in single photon counting mode so that the positions and energies of individual photons are retained. In a single analysis, several thousand frames are stored and processed. A MapX experiment provides elemental maps having a spatial resolution of =100 micron and quantitative XRF spectra from Regions of Interest (ROI) 2 centimers = x = 100 micron. ROI are compared with known rock and mineral compositions to extrapolate the data to rock types and putative mineralogies. The MapX geometry is being refined with ray-tracing simulations and with synchrotron experiments at SLAC. Source requirements are being determined through Monte Carlo modeling and experiment using XMIMSIM [1], GEANT4 [2] and PyMca [3] and a dedicated XRF test fixture. A flow-down of requirements for both tube and radioisotope sources is being developed from these experiments. In addition to Mars lander and rover missions, MapX could be used for landed science on other airless bodies (Phobos/Deimos, Comet nucleus, asteroids, the Earth's moon, and the icy satellites of the outer planets, including Europa.

  12. Method for spatially modulating X-ray pulses using MEMS-based X-ray optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Daniel; Shenoy, Gopal; Wang, Jin; Walko, Donald A.; Jung, Il-Woong; Mukhopadhyay, Deepkishore

    2015-03-10

    A method and apparatus are provided for spatially modulating X-rays or X-ray pulses using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based X-ray optics. A torsionally-oscillating MEMS micromirror and a method of leveraging the grazing-angle reflection property are provided to modulate X-ray pulses with a high-degree of controllability.

  13. Picosecond x-ray streak camera studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasyanov, Yu.S.; Malyutin, A.A.; Richardson, M.C.; Chevokin, V.K.

    1975-01-01

    Some initial results of direct measurement of picosecond x-ray emission from laser-produced plasmas are presented. A PIM-UMI 93 image converter tube, incorporating an x-ray sensitive photocathode, linear deflection, and three stages of image amplification was used to analyse the x-ray radiation emanating from plasmas produced from solid Ti targets by single high-intensity picosecond laser pulses. From such plasmas, the x-ray emission typically persisted for times of 60psec. However, it is shown that this detection system should be capable of resolving x-ray phenomena of much shorter duration. (author)

  14. Si(Li) X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xianglin; Li Zhiyong; Hong Xiuse

    1990-08-01

    The fabrication technology of the 10∼80 mm 2 Si(Li) X-ray detectors are described and some problems concerning technology and measurement are discussed. The specifications of the detectors are shown as well. The Si(Li) X-ray detector is a kind of low energy X-ray detectors. Owing to very high energy resolution, fine linearity and high detection efficiency in the range of low energy X-rays, it is widely used in the fields of nuclear physics, medicine, geology and environmental protection, etc,. It is also a kernel component for the scanning electron microscope and X-ray fluorescence analysis systems

  15. NIKOLA TESLA AND THE X-RAY

    OpenAIRE

    Rade R. Babic

    2005-01-01

    After professor Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen published his study of an x-ray discovery (Academy Bulletin, Berlin, 08. 11. 1895.), Nikola Tesla published his first study of an x-ray on the 11th of March in 1896. (X-ray, Electrical Review). Until the 11th of August in 1897 he had published ten studies on this subject. All Tesla,s x-ray studies were experimental, which is specific to his work. Studying the nature of the x-ray, he established a new medical branch-radiology. He wrote:” There’s no doubt...

  16. Diamond detectors for synchrotron radiation X-ray applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Sio, A.; Pace, E.; Cinque, G.; Marcelli, A.; Achard, J.; Tallaire, A.

    2007-01-01

    Due to its unique physical properties, diamond is a very appealing material for the development of electronic devices and sensors. Its wide band gap (5.5 eV) endows diamond based devices with low thermal noise, low dark current levels and, in the case of radiation detectors, high visible-to-X-ray signal discrimination (visible blindness) as well as high sensitivity to energies greater than the band gap. Furthermore, due to its radiation hardness diamond is very interesting for applications in extreme environments, or as monitor of high fluency radiation beams. In this work the use of diamond based detectors for X-ray sensing is discussed. On purpose, some photo-conductors based on different diamond types have been tested at the DAFNE-L synchrotron radiation laboratory at Frascati. X-ray sensitivity spectra, linearity and stability of the response of these diamond devices have been measured in order to evidence the promising performance of such devices

  17. Development of an X-ray detector using photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez G, J.; Azorin V, J. C.; Sosa A, M. A.; Ceron, P.

    2016-10-01

    Currently the radiation detectors for medical applications are very high value in the market and are difficult to access as training material. In the Sciences and Engineering Division of the Guanajuato University (Mexico) investigations are carried out related to ionizing radiations, especially with X-rays. To overcome the lack of materials has had to resort to borrowing equipment from other institutions, so its use and availability are intermittent. For these reasons is proposed to design and implement an X-ray detector for the use of the work group and the University. This work aims to build an X-ray semiconductor detector using inexpensive and affordable materials, is also proposed the use of a photodiode sensor and an Arduino analog-digital card and a LCD display showing the data. (Author)

  18. Energy weighted x-ray dark-field imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelzer, Georg; Zang, Andrea; Anton, Gisela; Bayer, Florian; Horn, Florian; Kraus, Manuel; Rieger, Jens; Ritter, Andre; Wandner, Johannes; Weber, Thomas; Fauler, Alex; Fiederle, Michael; Wong, Winnie S; Campbell, Michael; Meiser, Jan; Meyer, Pascal; Mohr, Jürgen; Michel, Thilo

    2014-10-06

    The dark-field image obtained in grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging can provide information about the objects' microstructures on a scale smaller than the pixel size even with low geometric magnification. In this publication we demonstrate that the dark-field image quality can be enhanced with an energy-resolving pixel detector. Energy-resolved x-ray dark-field images were acquired with a 16-energy-channel photon-counting pixel detector with a 1 mm thick CdTe sensor in a Talbot-Lau x-ray interferometer. A method for contrast-noise-ratio (CNR) enhancement is proposed and validated experimentally. In measurements, a CNR improvement by a factor of 1.14 was obtained. This is equivalent to a possible radiation dose reduction of 23%.

  19. Miniature x-ray point source for alignment and calibration of x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Boyle, M.J.; Glaros, S.S.

    1977-01-01

    A miniature x-ray point source of high brightness similar to that of Rovinsky, et al. is described. One version of the x-ray source is used to align the x-ray optics on the Argus and Shiva laser systems. A second version is used to determine the spatial and spectral transmission functions of the x-ray optics. The spatial and spectral characteristics of the x-ray emission from the x-ray point source are described. The physical constraints including size, intensity and thermal limitations, and useful lifetime are discussed. The alignment and calibration techniques for various x-ray optics and detector combinations are described

  20. X-ray and gamma radiography devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    When we are using this technique, we also must familiar with the device and instrument that used such as gamma projector, crawler, x-ray tubes and others. So this chapter discussed detailed on device used for radiography work. For the x-ray and gamma, their characteristics are same but the source to produce is a big different. X-ray produced from the machine meanwhile, gamma produce from the source such as Co-60 and IR-192. Both are electromagnetic waves. So, the reader can have some knowledge on what is x-ray tube, discrete x-ray and characteristic x-ray, how the machine works and how to control a machine, what is source for gamma emitter, how to handle the projector and lastly difference between x-ray and gamma. Of course this cannot be with the theory only, so detailed must be learned practically.

  1. X ray imaging microscope for cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Shealy, David L.; Brinkley, B. R.; Baker, Phillip C.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA technology employed during the Stanford MSFC LLNL Rocket X Ray Spectroheliograph flight established that doubly reflecting, normal incidence multilayer optics can be designed, fabricated, and used for high resolution x ray imaging of the Sun. Technology developed as part of the MSFC X Ray Microscope program, showed that high quality, high resolution multilayer x ray imaging microscopes are feasible. Using technology developed at Stanford University and at the DOE Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Troy W. Barbee, Jr. has fabricated multilayer coatings with near theoretical reflectivities and perfect bandpass matching for a new rocket borne solar observatory, the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA). Advanced Flow Polishing has provided multilayer mirror substrates with sub-angstrom (rms) smoothnesss for the astronomical x ray telescopes and x ray microscopes. The combination of these important technological advancements has paved the way for the development of a Water Window Imaging X Ray Microscope for cancer research.

  2. Mechanisms of x-ray emission from peeling adhesive tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, E.; Horvat, J.; Lewis, R. A.

    2010-09-01

    It has previously been reported that x-rays are emitted when adhesive tape is peeled in a vacuum but no account of the dependence of the x-ray emission on the pressure of the environment has been given to date. In this paper we present detailed experimental data on the number and angular distribution of x-ray photons as a function of pressure. We find that x-rays are emitted for pressures between p0=10-3 and p1=10-2 mBar, with ˜106 counts/(cm2 s) recorded by a 256×256 pixel2 silicon array sensor placed 35 mm from the tape. The main role of the tape is found to be the build-up of an acceleration potential sufficient to produce x-rays by bremsstrahlung of free electrons in a low-pressure gas. The source of the free electrons is the gas. Our model shows that the production rate of uncompensated tape charge and absorption of positive ions from the gas define p1. The angular distribution of the radiation shows a pressure-independent 20° wide peak in the direction perpendicular to electron motion. Ordinary bremsstrahlung cannot describe this peak.

  3. Development of a 3-D x-ray system

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, J P O

    1993-01-01

    major departure has been the introduction of a dual energy linear x-ray detector array which will allow, in general, the discrimination between organic and inorganic substances. The second design is a compromise between ease of visual inspection for human observers and optimum three-dimensional co-ordinate measurement capability. The system is part of an on going research programme into the possibility of introducing psychological depth cues into the resultant x-ray images. The research presented in this thesis was initiated to enhance the visual interpretation of complex x-ray images, specifically in response to problems encountered in the routine screening of freight by HM. Customs and Excise. This phase of the work culminated in the development of the first experimental machine. During this work the security industry was starting to adopt a new type of x-ray detector, namely the dual energy x-ray sensor. The Department of Transport made available funding to the Police Scientific Development Branch (P.S.D.B...

  4. Submicron X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDowell, Alastair; Celestre, Richard; Tamura, Nobumichi; Spolenak, Ralph; Valek, Bryan; Brown, Walter; Bravman, John; Padmore, Howard; Batterman, Boris; Patel, Jamshed

    2000-01-01

    At the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley the authors have instrumented a beam line that is devoted exclusively to x-ray micro diffraction problems. By micro diffraction they mean those classes of problems in Physics and Materials Science that require x-ray beam sizes in the sub-micron range. The instrument is for instance, capable of probing a sub-micron size volume inside micron sized aluminum metal grains buried under a silicon dioxide insulating layer. The resulting Laue pattern is collected on a large area CCD detector and automatically indexed to yield the grain orientation and deviatoric (distortional) strain tensor of this sub-micron volume. A four-crystal monochromator is then inserted into the beam, which allows monochromatic light to illuminate the same part of the sample. Measurement of diffracted photon energy allows for the determination of d spacings. The combination of white and monochromatic beam measurements allow for the determination of the total strain/stress tensor (6 components) inside each sub-micron sized illuminated volume of the sample

  5. Portable X-ray reflectometer using a low power polychromatic X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Tsunemasa; Imashuku, Susumu; Yuge, Koretaka; Kawai, Jun; Shimura, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    We developed a portable X-ray reflectometer which measures energy dispersive X-ray reflectivity using a polychromatic X-rays from a low power (a few watts) X-ray tube and a silicon drift detector. A thin Cu film on silicon substrate using the portable reflectometer was measured. A fringe pattern was shifted due to the change of the X-ray incident angle. The measured peak position of the fringe pattern was satisfactorily agreed with the calculation. (author)

  6. Full-field transmission x-ray imaging with confocal polycapillary x-ray optics

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Tianxi; MacDonald, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    A transmission x-ray imaging setup based on a confocal combination of a polycapillary focusing x-ray optic followed by a polycapillary collimating x-ray optic was designed and demonstrated to have good resolution, better than the unmagnified pixel size and unlimited by the x-ray tube spot size. This imaging setup has potential application in x-ray imaging for small samples, for example, for histology specimens.

  7. The Geometry of the Infrared and X-Ray Obscurer in a Dusty Hyperluminous Quasar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrah, Duncan; Baloković, Mislav; Stern, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    consistent with coaligned AGN obscurers in which the line of sight "skims" the torus. This is also consistent with the optical spectra, which show both coronal iron lines and broad lines in polarized but not direct light. Combining constraints from the X-ray, optical, and infrared data suggest that the AGN......We study the geometry of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) obscurer in IRAS 09104+4109, an IR-luminous, radio-intermediate FR-I source at z = 0.442, using infrared data from Spitzer and Herschel, X-ray data from NuSTAR, Swift, Suzaku, and Chandra, and an optical spectrum from Palomar. The infrared...... sime 5 × 1023 cm−2. This argues against a reflection-dominated hard X-ray spectrum, which would have implied a much higher N H and luminosity. The X-ray and infrared data are consistent with a bolometric AGN luminosity of L bol ~ (0.5–2.5) × 1047 erg s−1. The X-ray and infrared data are further...

  8. Chandra X-Rays from the Redshift 7.54 Quasar ULAS J1342+0928

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañados, Eduardo; Connor, Thomas; Stern, Daniel; Mulchaey, John; Fan, Xiaohui; Decarli, Roberto; Farina, Emanuele P.; Mazzucchelli, Chiara; Venemans, Bram P.; Walter, Fabian; Wang, Feige; Yang, Jinyi

    2018-04-01

    We present a 45 ks Chandra observation of the quasar ULAS J1342+0928 at z = 7.54. We detect {14.0}-3.7+4.8 counts from the quasar in the observed-frame energy range 0.5–7.0 keV (6σ detection), representing the most distant non-transient astronomical source identified in X-rays to date. The present data are sufficient only to infer rough constraints on the spectral parameters. We find an X-ray hardness ratio of { \\mathcal H }{ \\mathcal R }=-{0.51}-0.28+0.26 between the 0.5–2.0 keV and 2.0–7.0 keV ranges and derive a power-law photon index of {{Γ }}={1.95}-0.53+0.55. Assuming a typical value for high-redshift quasars of Γ = 1.9, ULAS J1342+0928 has a 2–10 keV rest-frame X-ray luminosity of {L}2-10={11.6}-3.5+4.3× {10}44 {erg} {{{s}}}-1. Its X-ray-to-optical power-law slope is {α }OX}=-{1.67}-0.10+0.16, consistent with the general trend indicating that the X-ray emission in the most bolometrically powerful quasars is weaker relative to their optical emission.

  9. Anomalous X-Ray Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendin, G.

    1979-01-01

    The availability of tunable synchrotron radiation has made it possible systematically to perform x-ray diffraction studies in regions of anomalous scattering near absorption edges, e.g., in order to derive phase information for crystal structure determination. An overview is given of recent experimental and theoretical work and discussion of the properties of the anomalous atomic scattering factor, with emphasis on threshold resonances and damping effects. The results are applied to a discussion of the very strong anomalous dispersion recently observed near the L3 edge in a cesium complex. Also given is an overview of elements and levels where similar behavior can be expected. Finally, the influence of solid state and chemical effects on the absorption edge structure is discussed. 64 references.

  10. Anomalous x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendin, G.

    1979-01-01

    The availability of tunable synchrotron radiation has made it possible systematically to perform x-ray diffraction studies in regions of anomalous scattering near absorption edges, e.g. in order to derive phase information for crystal structure determination. An overview is given of recent experimental and theoretical work and discuss the properties of the anomalous atomic scattering factor, with emphasis on threshold resonances and damping effects. The results are applied to a discussion of the very strong anomalous dispersion recently observed near the L 3 edge in a cesium complex. Also given is an overview of elements and levels where similar behavior can be expected. Finally, the influence of solid state and chemical effects on the absorption edge structure is discussed. 64 references

  11. Diffractive X-Ray Telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, G.K.; Skinner, G.K

    2010-01-01

    Diffractive X-ray telescopes using zone plates, phase Fresnel lenses, or related optical elements have the potential to provide astronomers with true imaging capability with resolution several orders of magnitude better than available in any other waveband. Lenses that would be relatively easy to fabricate could have an angular resolution of the order of micro arc seconds or even better, that would allow, for example, imaging of the distorted spacetime in the immediate vicinity of the supermassive black holes in the center of active galaxies What then is precluding their immediate adoption Extremely long focal lengths, very limited bandwidth, and difficulty stabilizing the image are the main problems. The history and status of the development of such lenses is reviewed here and the prospects for managing the challenges that they present are discussed atmospheric absorption

  12. X-ray imaging bilinear staggered GaAs detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achmadullin, R.A.; Dvoryankin, V.F. E-mail: vfd217@ire216.msk.su; Dvoryankina, G.G.; Dikaev, Y.M.Yu.M.; Krikunov, A.I.; Kudryashov, A.A.; Panova, T.M.; Petrov, A.G.; Telegin, A.A

    2004-09-21

    The multichannel bilinear X-ray detector based on epitaxial GaAs structures is developed to obtain a digital X-ray image. Each detector operates in photovoltaic mode without reverse bias that enables almost complete elimination of detector noise arising due to leakage currents. The sensitivity range of the epitaxial GaAs photovoltaic X-ray detector covers the effective energies from 8 to 120 keV. A maximum response of the detector operating in the short-circuit mode was observed at an energy of 35 keV and amounted to 30 {mu}A min/(Gy cm{sup 2}). The multichannel detector was made of 1024 pixels with pitch of 0.8 mm. The spatial resolution of double staggered sensor row is twice as high as the resolution of that of single sensor row with the same pitch. Measured spatial resolution is 1.2 line-pairs/mm, contrast sensitivity not worse 1% and dynamic range defined as the ratio of maximum detectable X-ray signal to electronic noise level more than 2000 are received.

  13. X-ray imaging bilinear staggered GaAs detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmadullin, R.A.; Dvoryankin, V.F.; Dvoryankina, G.G.; Dikaev, Y.M.Yu.M.; Krikunov, A.I.; Kudryashov, A.A.; Panova, T.M.; Petrov, A.G.; Telegin, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    The multichannel bilinear X-ray detector based on epitaxial GaAs structures is developed to obtain a digital X-ray image. Each detector operates in photovoltaic mode without reverse bias that enables almost complete elimination of detector noise arising due to leakage currents. The sensitivity range of the epitaxial GaAs photovoltaic X-ray detector covers the effective energies from 8 to 120 keV. A maximum response of the detector operating in the short-circuit mode was observed at an energy of 35 keV and amounted to 30 μA min/(Gy cm 2 ). The multichannel detector was made of 1024 pixels with pitch of 0.8 mm. The spatial resolution of double staggered sensor row is twice as high as the resolution of that of single sensor row with the same pitch. Measured spatial resolution is 1.2 line-pairs/mm, contrast sensitivity not worse 1% and dynamic range defined as the ratio of maximum detectable X-ray signal to electronic noise level more than 2000 are received

  14. Handbook of X-Ray Data

    CERN Document Server

    Zschornack, Günter

    2007-01-01

    This sourcebook is intended as an X-ray data reference for scientists and engineers working in the field of energy or wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometry and related fields of basic and applied research, technology, or process and quality controlling. In a concise and informative manner, the most important data connected with the emission of characteristic X-ray lines are tabulated for all elements up to Z = 95 (Americium). This includes X-ray energies, emission rates and widths as well as level characteristics such as binding energies, fluorescence yields, level widths and absorption edges. The tabulated data are characterized and, in most cases, evaluated. Furthermore, all important processes and phenomena connected with the production, emission and detection of characteristic X-rays are discussed. This reference book addresses all researchers and practitioners working with X-ray radiation and fills a gap in the available literature.

  15. Switching X-Ray Tubes Remotely

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulthuis, Ronald V.

    1990-01-01

    Convenient switch and relay circuit reduces risk of accidents. Proposed switching circuit for x-ray inspection system enables operator to change electrical connections to x-ray tubes remotely. Operator simply flips switch on conveniently-located selector box to change x-ray heads. Indicator lights on selector box show whether 160 or 320-kV head connected. Relays in changeover box provides proper voltages and coolants. Chance of making wrong connections and damaging equipment eliminated.

  16. The Livermore X-ray Laser Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    I will report on the status of x-ray laser development and its applications at Livermore. I will review some of our recent results and comment on where our future research is headed including plans for developing a compact x-ray laser users facility. Finally, I will briefly summarize the results of an X-ray Laser Applications Workshop that was held in San Francisco in January 1992

  17. X-ray data booklet. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, D. (ed.)

    1986-04-01

    A compilation of data is presented. Included are properties of the elements, electron binding energies, characteristic x-ray energies, fluorescence yields for K and L shells, Auger energies, energy levels for hydrogen-, helium-, and neonlike ions, scattering factors and mass absorption coefficients, and transmission bands of selected filters. Also included are selected reprints on scattering processes, x-ray sources, optics, x-ray detectors, and synchrotron radiation facilities. (WRF)

  18. Soft x-ray streak cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stradling, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the development and of the current state of the art in picosecond soft x-ray streak camera technology. Accomplishments from a number of institutions are discussed. X-ray streak cameras vary from standard visible streak camera designs in the use of an x-ray transmitting window and an x-ray sensitive photocathode. The spectral sensitivity range of these instruments includes portions of the near UV and extends from the subkilovolt x- ray region to several tens of kilovolts. Attendant challenges encountered in the design and use of x-ray streak cameras include the accommodation of high-voltage and vacuum requirements, as well as manipulation of a photocathode structure which is often fragile. The x-ray transmitting window is generally too fragile to withstand atmospheric pressure, necessitating active vacuum pumping and a vacuum line of sight to the x-ray signal source. Because of the difficulty of manipulating x-ray beams with conventional optics, as is done with visible light, the size of the photocathode sensing area, access to the front of the tube, the ability to insert the streak tube into a vacuum chamber and the capability to trigger the sweep with very short internal delay times are issues uniquely relevant to x-ray streak camera use. The physics of electron imaging may place more stringent limitations on the temporal and spatial resolution obtainable with x-ray photocathodes than with the visible counterpart. Other issues which are common to the entire streak camera community also concern the x-ray streak camera users and manufacturers

  19. Applications of soft x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.

    1993-01-01

    The high brightness and short pulse duration of soft x-ray lasers provide unique advantages for novel applications. Imaging of biological specimens using x-ray lasers has been demonstrated by several groups. Other applications to fields such as chemistry, material science, plasma diagnostics, and lithography are beginning to emerge. We review the current status of soft x-ray lasers from the perspective of applications, and present an overview of the applications currently being developed

  20. Arrangement for X-ray shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    X-ray screen unit consisting of a light transmissive carrier onto which scintillation material is deposited, which is able to generate light under the influence of incident X-ray irradiation, characterised in that the X-ray screen comprises a number of sectors, wherein the surface with respect to the incident X-radiation is maintained at an acute angle. (G.C.)

  1. X-ray spot film device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pury, T.; Tsen, M.L.S.; Gray, F.L.; Stehr, R.E.; Konle, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Improvements are described in an X-ray spot film device which is used in conjunction with an X-ray table to make a selected number of radiographic exposures on a single film and to perform fluoroscopic examinations. To date, the spot film devices consist of two X-ray field defining masks, one of which is moved manually. The present device is more convenient to use and speeds up the procedure. (U.K.)

  2. Atom-resolving x-ray holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, B.; Hiort, T.; Materlik, G.; Nishino, Y.; Novikov, D. V.

    2000-01-01

    The current state of atomic resolution x-ray holography is discussed on the basis of theory and experimental results. X-ray holography is theoretically described in quantum theory. Presently-used experimental implementations are shown together with the data analysis used. Reconstructions of experimental and simulated holograms are compared for a Cu 3 Au crystal structure. Rigorous experimental realizations of pure direct and reciprocal x-ray holography methods are demonstrated, and future developments and applications of the method are suggested

  3. Synchrotron x-ray microbeam characteristics for x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Atsuo; Noma, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis using a synchrotron x-ray microprobe has become an indispensable technique for non-destructive micro-analysis. One of the most important parameters that characterize the x-ray microbeam system for x-ray fluorescence analysis is the beam size. For practical analysis, however, the photon flux, the energy resolution and the available energy range are also crucial. Three types of x-ray microbeam systems, including monochromatic and continuum excitation systems, were compared with reference to the sensitivity, the minimum detection limit and the applicability to various types of x-ray spectroscopic analysis. 16 refs., 5 figs

  4. X-ray monitoring for astrophysical applications on Cubesat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, L.; Hudec, R.; Inneman, A.; Cerna, D.; Jakubek, J.; Sieger, L.; Dániel, V.; Cash, W.; Mikulickova, L.; Pavlica, R.; Belas, E.; Polak, J.

    2015-05-01

    The primary objective of the project VZLUSAT-1 is the development, manufacturing, qualification and experimental verification of products and technologies in Earth orbit (IOD - In-Orbit Demonstration). This work addresses the issue of X-ray monitoring for astrophysical applications. The proposed wide-field optical system has not been used in space yet. The proposed novel approach is based on the use of 1D "Lobster eye" optics in combination with Timepix X-ray detector in the energy range 3 - 40 keV. The proposed project includes theoretical study and a functional sample of the Timepix X-ray detector with multifoil wide-field X-ray "Lobster eye" optics. Using optics to focus X-rays on a detector is the only solution in cases the intensity of impinging X-ray radiation is below the sensitivity of the detector, e.g. while monitoring astrophysical objects in space, or phenomena in the Earth's atmosphere. On board the functions and features of Radiation Hardened Composite Housing (RHCH), Solar panels based on composite substrate and Hollow Retro Reflector Array based on composite (HRRA) will be verified. To verify the properties of the developed products the satellite is equipped by Health Monitoring system (HM). HM system includes temperature, volatiles, radiation and mechanical properties sensors. The custom ADCS algorithms are being developed within the project. Given the number of IOD experiments and the necessary power the 1U CubeSat is equipped with Composite Deployable Panels (CDP) where HM panels and additional Solar panels are located. Satellite platform is assembled from commercial parts. Mission VZLUSAT-1 is planned for 6 months with launch in 2016.

  5. Ultrashort X-ray pulse science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Alan Hap [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (US). Dept. of Physics; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    A variety of phenomena involves atomic motion on the femtosecond time-scale. These phenomena have been studied using ultrashort optical pulses, which indirectly probe atomic positions through changes in optical properties. Because x-rays can more directly probe atomic positions, ultrashort x-ray pulses are better suited for the study of ultrafast structural dynamics. One approach towards generating ultrashort x-ray pulses is by 90° Thomson scattering between terawatt laser pulses and relativistic electrons. Using this technique, the author generated ~ 300 fs, 30 keV (0.4 Å) x-ray pulses. These x-ray pulses are absolutely synchronized with ultrashort laser pulses, allowing femtosecond optical pump/x-ray probe experiments to be performed. Using the right-angle Thomson scattering x-ray source, the author performed time-resolved x-ray diffraction studies of laser-perturbated InSb. These experiments revealed a delayed onset of lattice expansion. This delay is due to the energy relaxation from a dense electron-hole plasma to the lattice. The dense electron-hole plasma first undergoes Auger recombination, which reduces the carrier concentration while maintaining energy content. Longitudinal-optic (LO) phonon emission then couples energy to the lattice. LO phonon decay into acoustic phonons, and acoustic phonon propagation then causes the growth of a thermally expanded layer. Source characterization is instrumental in utilizing ultrashort x-ray pulses in time-resolved x-ray spectroscopies. By measurement of the electron beam diameter at the generation point, the pulse duration of the Thomson scattered x-rays is determined. Analysis of the Thomson scattered x-ray beam properties also provides a novel means of electron bunch characterization. Although the pulse duration is inferred for the Thomson scattering x-ray source, direct measurement is required for other x-ray pulse sources. A method based on the laser-assisted photoelectric effect (LAPE) has been demonstrated as a

  6. Symbiotic Stars in X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, G. J. M.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Mukai, K.; Nelson, T.

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, symbiotic binary systems in which a white dwarf accretes from a red giant were thought to be mainly a soft X-ray population. Here we describe the detection with the X-ray Telescope (XRT) on the Swift satellite of 9 white dwarf symbiotics that were not previously known to be X-ray sources and one that was previously detected as a supersoft X-ray source. The 9 new X-ray detections were the result of a survey of 41 symbiotic stars, and they increase the number of symbiotic stars known to be X-ray sources by approximately 30%. Swift/XRT detected all of the new X-ray sources at energies greater than 2 keV. Their X-ray spectra are consistent with thermal emission and fall naturally into three distinct groups. The first group contains those sources with a single, highly absorbed hard component, which we identify as probably coming from an accretion-disk boundary layer. The second group is composed of those sources with a single, soft X-ray spectral component, which likely arises in a region where low-velocity shocks produce X-ray emission, i.e. a colliding-wind region. The third group consists of those sources with both hard and soft X-ray spectral components. We also find that unlike in the optical, where rapid, stochastic brightness variations from the accretion disk typically are not seen, detectable UV flickering is a common property of symbiotic stars. Supporting our physical interpretation of the two X-ray spectral components, simultaneous Swift UV photometry shows that symbiotic stars with harder X-ray emission tend to have stronger UV flickering, which is usually associated with accretion through a disk. To place these new observations in the context of previous work on X-ray emission from symbiotic stars, we modified and extended the alpha/beta/gamma classification scheme for symbiotic-star X-ray spectra that was introduced by Muerset et al. based upon observations with the ROSAT satellite, to include a new sigma classification for sources with

  7. X-ray fluorescence in geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutra, C.V.; Gomes, C.B.

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the X-ray fluorescence aplication in geology. It's showing the X-ray origin and excitation. About the instrumentation this work shows the following: X-ray tubes, colimators, analysers crystals, detectors, amplifiers, pulse height selector, and others electronic components. By X-ray fluorescente are done quantitative and qualitative geological analysis and this work shows this analysis and its detection limits. The problems determination is the example. In this work was done yet the comparative analysis of the various instrumental methods in geochemistry. (C.G.) [pt

  8. X-ray pulsar rush in 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanishi, K.; Tsujimoto, K.; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Yokogawa, J.; Koyama, K.

    1999-01-01

    We present recent remarkable topics about discoveries of X-ray pulsars. 1. Pulsations from two Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters: These pulsars have enormously strong magnetic field (B ∼ 10 15 G), thus these are called as 'magnetar', new type of X-ray pulsars. 2. New Crab-like pulsars: These discoveries lead to suggesting universality of Crab-like pulsars. 3. An X-ray bursting millisecond pulsar: This is strong evidence for the recycle theory of generating radio millisecond pulsars. 4. X-ray pulsar rush in the SMC: This indicates the younger star formation history in the SMC. (author)

  9. X-ray speckle correlation interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhower, Rachel; Materlik, Gerhard

    2000-01-01

    Speckle Pattern Correlation Interferometry (SPCI) is a well-established technique in the visible-light regime for observing surface disturbances. Although not a direct imaging technique, SPCI gives full-field, high-resolution information about an object's motion. Since x-ray synchrotron radiation beamlines with high coherent flux have allowed the observation of x-ray speckle, x-ray SPCI could provide a means to measure strains and other quasi-static motions in disordered systems. This paper therefore examines the feasibility of an x-ray speckle correlation interferometer

  10. Compound refractive X-ray lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, D.R.; Cahn, R.; Cederstrom, B.; Danielsson, M.; Vestlund, J.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for focusing X-rays. In one embodiment, his invention is a commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens. The commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a volume of low-Z material. The volume of low-Z material has a first surface which is adapted to receive X-rays of commercially-applicable power emitted from a commercial-grade X-ray source. The volume of low-Z material also has a second surface from which emerge the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which were received at the first surface. Additionally, the commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a plurality of openings which are disposed between the first surface and the second surface. The plurality of openings are oriented such that the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which are received at the first surface, pass through the volume of low-Z material and through the plurality openings. In so doing, the X-rays which emerge from the second surface are refracted to a focal point

  11. Ultrashort X-ray pulse science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, A.H.; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA

    1998-01-01

    A variety of phenomena involves atomic motion on the femtosecond time-scale. These phenomena have been studied using ultrashort optical pulses, which indirectly probe atomic positions through changes in optical properties. Because x-rays can more directly probe atomic positions, ultrashort x-ray pulses are better suited for the study of ultrafast structural dynamics. One approach towards generating ultrashort x-ray pulses is by 90 o Thomson scattering between terawatt laser pulses and relativistic electrons. Using this technique, the author generated ∼ 300 fs, 30 keV (0.4 (angstrom)) x-ray pulses. These x-ray pulses are absolutely synchronized with ultrashort laser pulses, allowing femtosecond optical pump/x-ray probe experiments to be performed. Using the right-angle Thomson scattering x-ray source, the author performed time-resolved x-ray diffraction studies of laser-perturbated InSb. These experiments revealed a delayed onset of lattice expansion. This delay is due to the energy relaxation from a dense electron-hole plasma to the lattice. The dense electron-hole plasma first undergoes Auger recombination, which reduces the carrier concentration while maintaining energy content. Longitudinal-optic (LO) phonon emission then couples energy to the lattice. LO phonon decay into acoustic phonons, and acoustic phonon propagation then causes the growth of a thermally expanded layer. Source characterization is instrumental in utilizing ultrashort x-ray pulses in time-resolved x-ray spectroscopies. By measurement of the electron beam diameter at the generation point, the pulse duration of the Thomson scattered x-rays is determined. Analysis of the Thomson scattered x-ray beam properties also provides a novel means of electron bunch characterization. Although the pulse duration is inferred for the Thomson scattering x-ray source, direct measurement is required for other x-ray pulse sources. A method based on the laser-assisted photoelectric effect (LAPE) has been

  12. X-ray microscopy in Aarhus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uggerhoej, Erik; Abraham-Peskir, Joanna V.

    2000-01-01

    The Aarhus imaging soft X-ray microscope is now a busy multi-user facility. The optical set-up will be described and project highlights discussed. a) Metal-induced structural changes in whole cells in solution. The effects of aluminum, copper, nickel and zinc on protozoa investigated by using a combination of light microscopy, confocal scanning laser microscopy and X-ray microscopy. b) Botanical studies by X-ray microscopy used to compliment electron microscopy studies. c) Sludge morphology and iron precipitation in Danish freshwater plants by combining X-ray, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy

  13. The X-ray Astronomy Recovery Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, M.; Kelley, R.

    2017-10-01

    On 25 March 2016, the Japanese 6th X-ray astronomical satellite ASTRO-H (Hitomi), launched on February 17, lost communication after a series of mishap in its attitude control system. In response to the mishap the X-ray astronomy community and JAXA analyzed the direct and root cause of the mishap and investigated possibility of a recovery mission with the international collaborator NASA and ESA. Thanks to great effort of scientists, agencies, and governments, the X-ray Astronomy Recovery Mission (XARM) are proposed. The recovery mission is planned to resume high resolution X-ray spectroscopy with imaging realized by Hitomi under the international collaboration in the shortest time possible, simply by focusing one of the main science goals of Hitomi Resolving astrophysical problems by precise high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy'. XARM will carry a 6 x 6 pixelized X-ray micro-calorimeter on the focal plane of an X-ray mirror assembly, and an aligned X-ray CCD camera covering the same energy band and wider field of view, but no hard X-ray or soft gamma-ray instruments are onboard. In this paper, we introduce the science objectives, mission concept, and schedule of XARM.

  14. Near edge x-ray spectroscopy theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    We propose to develop a quantitative theory of x-ray spectroscopies in the near edge region, within about 100 eV of threshold. These spectroscopies include XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure), photoelectron diffraction (PD), and diffraction anomalous fine structure (DAFS), all of which are important tools for structural studies using synchrotron radiation x-ray sources. Of primary importance in these studies are many-body effects, such as the photoelectron self-energy, and inelastic losses. A better understanding of these quantities is needed to obtain theories without adjustable parameters. We propose both analytical and numerical calculations, the latter based on our x-ray spectroscopy codes FEFF

  15. Detector development for x-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzer, M. A.; Herr, D. A.; Brewer, K. J.; Ojason, N.; Tarpine, H. A.

    2010-02-01

    X-ray imaging requires unique optical detector system configuration for optimization of image quality, resolution, and contrast ratio. A system is described whereby x-ray photons from multiple anode sources create a series of repetitive images on fast-decay scintillator screens, from which an intensified image is transferred to a fast phosphor on a GEN II image intensifier and collected as a cineradiographic video with high speed digital imagery. The work addresses scintillator material formulation, flash x-ray implementation, image intensification, and high speed video processing and display. Novel determination of optimal scintillator absorption, x-ray energy and dose relationships, contrast ratio determination, and test results are presented.

  16. X-ray Observations at Gaisberg Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasan Hettiarachchi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the occurrence of X-rays at ground level due to cloud-to-ground flashes of upward-initiated lightning from Gaisberg Tower, in Austria, which is located at an altitude of 1300 m. This is the first observation of X-ray emissions from upward lightning from a tower top located at high altitude. Measurements were carried out using scintillation detectors installed close to the tower top in two phases from 2011 to 2015. X-rays were recorded in three subsequent strokes of three flashes out of the total of 108 flashes recorded in the system during both phases. In contrast to the observations from downward natural or triggered lightning, X-rays were observed only within 10 µs before the subsequent return stroke. This shows that X-rays were emitted when the dart leader was in the vicinity of the tower top, hence during the most intense phase of the dart leader. Both the detected energy and the fluence of X-rays are far lower compared to X-rays from downward natural or rocket-triggered lightning. In addition to the above 108 flashes, an interesting observation of X-rays produced by a nearby downward flash is also presented. The shorter length of dart-leader channels in Gaisberg is suggested as a possible cause of this apparently weaker X-ray production.

  17. The efficacy of x-ray pelvimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, J.J. (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago); Garbaciak, J.A. Jr.; Ryan, G.M., Jr.

    1982-06-01

    Comparison is made of x-ray pelvimetry use on a public and private service in 1974 with experience in 1979, when the clinic service did no x-ray pelvimetry while the private service continued as before. It is concluded that the use of x-ray pelvimetry is inadequate as a predictor of cesarean section because of cephalopelvic disproportion, does not improve neonatal mortality, and poses potential hazards to the mother and fetus. Its use in the management of breech presentations is not currently established by our data. Guidelines are presented for the management of patients in labor without using x-ray pelvimetry.

  18. Scanning Microscopes Using X Rays and Microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu

    2003-01-01

    Scanning microscopes that would be based on microchannel filters and advanced electronic image sensors and that utilize x-ray illumination have been proposed. Because the finest resolution attainable in a microscope is determined by the wavelength of the illumination, the xray illumination in the proposed microscopes would make it possible, in principle, to achieve resolutions of the order of nanometers about a thousand times as fine as the resolution of a visible-light microscope. Heretofore, it has been necessary to use scanning electron microscopes to obtain such fine resolution. In comparison with scanning electron microscopes, the proposed microscopes would likely be smaller, less massive, and less expensive. Moreover, unlike in scanning electron microscopes, it would not be necessary to place specimens under vacuum. The proposed microscopes are closely related to the ones described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles; namely, Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO-20218), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 22, No. 8 (August 1998), page 43; and Reflective Variants of Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO-20610), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 9 (September 2002) page 6a. In all of these microscopes, the basic principle of design and operation is the same: The focusing optics of a conventional visible-light microscope are replaced by a combination of a microchannel filter and a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector. A microchannel plate containing parallel, microscopic-cross-section holes much longer than they are wide is placed between a specimen and an image sensor, which is typically the CCD. The microchannel plate must be made of a material that absorbs the illuminating radiation reflected or scattered from the specimen. The microchannels must be positioned and dimensioned so that each one is registered with a pixel on the image sensor. Because most of the radiation incident on the microchannel walls becomes absorbed, the radiation that reaches the

  19. X-ray computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalender, Willi A

    2006-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT), introduced into clinical practice in 1972, was the first of the modern slice-imaging modalities. To reconstruct images mathematically from measured data and to display and to archive them in digital form was a novelty then and is commonplace today. CT has shown a steady upward trend with respect to technology, performance and clinical use independent of predictions and expert assessments which forecast in the 1980s that it would be completely replaced by magnetic resonance imaging. CT not only survived but exhibited a true renaissance due to the introduction of spiral scanning which meant the transition from slice-by-slice imaging to true volume imaging. Complemented by the introduction of array detector technology in the 1990s, CT today allows imaging of whole organs or the whole body in 5 to 20 s with sub-millimetre isotropic resolution. This review of CT will proceed in chronological order focussing on technology, image quality and clinical applications. In its final part it will also briefly allude to novel uses of CT such as dual-source CT, C-arm flat-panel-detector CT and micro-CT. At present CT possibly exhibits a higher innovation rate than ever before. In consequence the topical and most recent developments will receive the greatest attention. (review)

  20. Microfocussing of synchrotron X-rays using X-ray refractive lens ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-02

    Jul 2, 2014 ... ring (black) is fixed from polyimide side and (g) finally the metal substrate is etched to prepare the X-ray mask. standardized for the present X-ray lithography beamline. X-ray exposures are carried out in 3–10 keV region selected using two X-ray mirrors kept at grazing incidence angles. The total power ...

  1. Diffraction leveraged modulation of X-ray pulses using MEMS-based X-ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Daniel; Shenoy, Gopal; Wang, Jin; Walko, Donald A.; Jung, Il-Woong; Mukhopadhyay, Deepkishore

    2016-08-09

    A method and apparatus are provided for implementing Bragg-diffraction leveraged modulation of X-ray pulses using MicroElectroMechanical systems (MEMS) based diffractive optics. An oscillating crystalline MEMS device generates a controllable time-window for diffraction of the incident X-ray radiation. The Bragg-diffraction leveraged modulation of X-ray pulses includes isolating a particular pulse, spatially separating individual pulses, and spreading a single pulse from an X-ray pulse-train.

  2. Accelerator-driven X-ray Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-09

    After an introduction which mentions x-ray tubes and storage rings and gives a brief review of special relativity, the subject is treated under the following topics and subtopics: synchrotron radiation (bending magnet radiation, wiggler radiation, undulator radiation, brightness and brilliance definition, synchrotron radiation facilities), x-ray free-electron lasers (linac-driven X-ray FEL, FEL interactions, self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), SASE self-seeding, fourth-generation light source facilities), and other X-ray sources (energy recovery linacs, Inverse Compton scattering, laser wakefield accelerator driven X-ray sources. In summary, accelerator-based light sources cover the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Synchrotron radiation (bending magnet, wiggler and undulator radiation) has unique properties that can be tailored to the users’ needs: bending magnet and wiggler radiation is broadband, undulator radiation has narrow spectral lines. X-ray FELs are the brightest coherent X-ray sources with high photon flux, femtosecond pulses, full transverse coherence, partial temporal coherence (SASE), and narrow spectral lines with seeding techniques. New developments in electron accelerators and radiation production can potentially lead to more compact sources of coherent X-rays.

  3. Polyvinyl chloride degradation by X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbampato, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    Degradation of film samples of pure PVC and comercial film (PVC + Polyacrylatis) with vacuum X-rays using the following techniques: infra-red, Raman, ultra violet and visible spectroscopies, eletronic paramagnetic resonance, X-rays difraction, percent measurement of transmitance and microanalysis was studied. (L.M.J.) [pt

  4. X-ray diagnosis of retropatellar diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlers, B.

    1979-01-01

    The article reports on a comprehensive, stepwise diagnosis in diseases of the knee joints. This includes a description of the indication, the technique of taking X-ray films, and X-ray findings, as well as arthrography of the femoropatellar joint in retropatellar diseases such as chondropathia patellae, osteochondrosis dissecans, traumas of the knee joints and arthrosis deformans. (orig.) [de

  5. Ultra fast x-ray streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, L.W.; McConaghy, C.F.

    1975-01-01

    A unique ultrafast x-ray sensitive streak camera, with a time resolution of 50psec, has been built and operated. A 100A thick gold photocathode on a beryllium vacuum window is used in a modified commerical image converter tube. The X-ray streak camera has been used in experiments to observe time resolved emission from laser-produced plasmas. (author)

  6. X-ray tubes for computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotabe, Munenori; Sado, Noriyuki; Tachiki, Shigeru; Kitsuya, Minoru

    1979-01-01

    The X-ray tomography by computer processing (CT) is rapidly spreading because of the capabilities to obtain useful diagnostic information quantitatively, which was not able to be obtained by conventional X-ray photography, and to perform no-intrusion inspection, because it can picture the difference of X-ray absorption coefficient of several per cent in the soft tissues inside craniums. As the X-ray tubes to meet these requirements, the fixed anode X-ray tubes having high continuous rating are required for head CT, while the rotary anode X-ray tubes having the large cumulative heat capacity of anodes for whole body CT. Hitachi Ltd. has developed the X-ray tubes of type H 7129 of 4 kW rating for head CT and of type UJ-6FC-05V of 300 kHU (heat unit) for whole body CT. The specifications required for respective X-ray tubes include several items, and the maximum working tube voltage, focusing dimensions, long or short term maximum input and others are reported for the above described tubes. The performance centering around the loading life-time is described. In the tubes for whole body CT, repeated loading is also investigated. For the assumed input of 70,000 HU/slice, repeated loading of 10 times or more is possible in both cases when the input is repeatedly applied at loading intervals of 90 and 120 sec. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  7. Adenocarcinoma - chest x-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chest x-ray shows adenocarcinoma of the lung. There is a rounded light spot in the right upper lung (left side ... density. Diseases that may cause this type of x-ray result would be tuberculous or fungal granuloma, and ...

  8. X-ray microanalysis in plant physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, D.

    1979-01-01

    X-ray microanalysis represents a highly sensitive and modern method for the measurement of ions in the very small compartments of the cell. The limitations of X-ray microanalysis in biological objects exist in the preparation of the tissues and the quantitation of the results. In plant physiology this method has provided several surprising results and new insights for further investigations. (author)

  9. X-ray topography and multiple diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.-L.

    1983-01-01

    A short summary on X-ray topography, which is based on the dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction, is made. The applications and properties related to the use of the multiple diffraction technique are analized and discussed. (L.C.) [pt

  10. Techniques in X-ray Astronomy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Techniques in X-ray Astronomy. 2. Imaging Detectors. Kulinder Pal Singh is in the Department of. Astronomy and Astro- physics of the Tata. Institute of Fundamental. Research, Mumbai. His primary fields of research are X-ray studies of hot plasmas in stars, super- nova remnants, galaxies, intergalactic medium in clusters of ...

  11. X-ray Emission from Solar Flares

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS), the first space-borne solar astronomy experiment of India was designed to improve our current understanding of X-ray emission from the Sun in general and solar flares in particular. SOXS mission is composed of two solid state detectors, viz., Si and CZT semiconductors ...

  12. Coccidioidomycosis - chest x-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chest x-ray shows the affects of a fungal infection, coccidioidomycosis. In the middle of the left lung (seen on the ... defined borders. Other diseases that may explain these x-ray findings include lung abscesses, chronic pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic ...

  13. Proton induced X-ray emission analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Rashiduzzman

    1976-09-01

    The developments in proton induced X-ray emission analysis are reviewed. Techniques for analyzing thick and thin samples of different origin are described. Discussions on the application of proton induced X-ray emission analysis in different fields, comparison of the sensitivity of this method with other analytical techniques, its limitations and possible improvements are presented

  14. X-ray Studies of Flaring Plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Sun; flares; X-rays; spectroscopic plasma diagnostic. Abstract. We present some methods of X-ray data analysis employed in our laboratory for deducing the physical parameters of flaring plasma. For example, we have used a flare well observed with Polish instrument RESIK aboard Russian CORONAS-F ...

  15. The Beginnings of X-ray Crystallography

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    broke his arm when he was 5 years old and his father used the newly discovered Rontgen-rays. (X-rays) and his experimental equipment to examine the broken arm, which is the first recorded surgical use of X-rays in Australia. William Lawrence Bragg married Alice Hopkinson (1899–. 1989) in 1921, with whom he had four ...

  16. KD901G X-ray system to reject contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Hachiro

    1995-01-01

    Among the complaints to the foods that consumers bought, the proportion of the mixing of alien substances is more than 20%. The number of the cases classified by the kinds of alien substances, and that of minerals and animal substances are shown. The causes of the mixing of alien substances are classified into those due to the mixing in raw materials, production places, processing machines and workers. In case of using primary products as raw materials, the alien substances closely related to those raw materials are difficult to detect, such as bones and hairs in animal meat, fish bones, egg shells and fruit seeds. There are problems and limitation in the inspection of alien substance mixing by visual or touching inspection, metal detectors and the visual inspection of X-ray radiographs. The judgement of the presence of alien substances by automatically processing X-ray radiograph information has been tried one or two-dimensionally. The X-ray alien substance detector KD901G adopted the one-dimensional line sensor type, and its features are shown. The effective introduction of the X-ray alien substance detector, its comparison with metal detectors, and the safety of workers against radiation exposure and the safety of inspected foods are discussed. (K.I.)

  17. Microfocussing of synchrotron X-rays using X-ray refractive lens

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    X-ray lenses are fabricated in polymethyl methacrylate using deep X-ray lithography beamline of Indus-2. The focussing performance of these lenses is evaluated using Indus-2 and Diamond Light Source Ltd. The process steps for the fabrication of X-ray lenses and microfocussing at 10 keV at moderate and low emittance ...

  18. Microfocussing of synchrotron X-rays using X-ray refractive lens ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-02

    Jul 2, 2014 ... Abstract. X-ray lenses are fabricated in polymethyl methacrylate using deep X-ray lithography beamline of Indus-2. The focussing performance of these lenses is evaluated using Indus-2 and Dia- mond Light Source Ltd. The process steps for the fabrication of X-ray lenses and microfocussing at 10 keV at ...

  19. X-ray Measurements of Black Hole X-ray Binary Source GRS 1915+ ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    features in the X ray light curve include flickering, strong quasi periodic oscillations, irregular X ray bursts, pronounced dips and rapid high low transitions both in soft and hard X ray bands (Greiner et al. 1996; Morgan et al. 1997; Yadav et al. 1999). Among the main dynamical features of the source are the emission of two.

  20. Microfocussing of synchrotron X-rays using X-ray refractive lens ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    X-ray lenses are fabricated in polymethyl methacrylate using deep X-ray lithography beamline of Indus-2. The focussing performance of these lenses is evaluated using Indus-2 and Diamond Light Source Ltd. The process steps for the fabrication of X-ray lenses and microfocussing at 10 keV at moderate and low emittance ...

  1. X-ray interferometric Fourier holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balyan, M.K.

    2016-01-01

    The X-ray interferometric Fourier holography is proposed and theoretically investigated. Fourier The X-ray interferometric Young fringes and object image reconstruction are investigated. It is shown that the interference pattern of two slits formed on the exit surface of the crystal-analyzer (the third plate of the interferometer) is the X-ray interferometric Young fringes. An expression for X-ray interferometric Young fringes period is obtained. The subsequent reconstruction of the slit image as an object is performed by means of Fourier transform of the intensity distribution on the hologram. Three methods of reconstruction of the amplitude transmission complex function of the object are presented: analytical - approximate method, method of iteration and step by step method. As an example the X-ray Fourier interferometric hologram recording and the complex amplitude transmission function reconstruction for a beryllium circular wire are considered

  2. Guides for intraoral x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunsunlade, O.A.

    1988-01-01

    An h-shaped exterior guide for use in combination with a SNAP-A-RAY film holder for accurately aligning a beam from an X-ray cone with an X-ray film during the process of taking intraoral periapical dental X-rays of the maxillary and mandibular teeth is described comprising: a first guide arm laterally and detachably connectable through a housing means; a traverse arm extending from the midpoint of the first guide arm and parallel to the X-ray film; and a second guide arm extending perpendicularly from an end of the traverse arm toward a plane of the X-ray film and in parallel relation up to an end point of the first guide arm

  3. X-ray modeling for SMILE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, T.; Wang, C.; Wei, F.; Liu, Z. Q.; Zheng, J.; Yu, X. Z.; Sembay, S.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.

    2016-12-01

    SMILE (Solar wind Magnetosphere Ionosphere Link Explorer) is a novel mission to explore the coupling of the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere system via providing global images of the magnetosphere and aurora. As the X-ray imaging is a brand new technique applied to study the large scale magnetopause, modeling of the solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) X-ray emissions in the magnetosheath and cusps is vital in various aspects: it helps the design of the Soft X-ray Imager (SXI) on SMILE, selection of satellite orbits, as well as the analysis of expected scientific outcomes. Based on the PPMLR-MHD code, we present the simulation results of the X-ray emissions in geospace during storm time. Both the polar orbit and the Molniya orbit are used. From the X-ray images of the magnetosheath and cusps, the magnetospheric responses to an interplanetary shock and IMF southward turning are analyzed.

  4. Requirements for industrial x-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This safety code is concerned with the protection of all individuals who may be exposed to radiation emitted by X-ray equipment operating at energies up to 1 MeV as used in industrial radiography. This code presents basic radiation safety information for the protection of personnel operating and servicing X-ray equipment and other workers and the general public in the vicinity of areas where X-ray equipment is in operation. It specifies general safety features of design, construction and functioning of X-ray equipment and facilities; describes the responsibilities of the user, operator and maintenance personnel; contains recommendations to ensure that the X-ray equipment is used and maintained in accordance with the ALARA principle; and describes a program of personnel monitoring and radiation safety surveys. ( 6 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.)

  5. Apollo 15 X-ray fluorescence experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, I.; Trombka, J.; Gerard, J.; Schmadebeck, R.; Lowman, P.; Blodgett, H.; Yin, L.; Eller, E.; Lamothe, R.; Gorenstein, P.

    1971-01-01

    The X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, carried in the SIM bay of the command service module was employed principally for compositional mapping of the lunar surface while in lunar orbit, and secondarily, for X-ray astronomical observations during the trans-earth coast. The lunar surface measurements involved observations of the intensity and characteristics energy distribution of the secondary or fluorescent X-rays produced by the interaction of solar X-rays with the lunar surface. The astronomical observations consisted of relatively long periods of measurements of X-rays from pre-selected galactic sources such as Cyg-X-1 and Sco X-1 as well as from the galactic poles.

  6. X-Ray Focusing: Techniques and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khounsary, A.; O'Dell, S.L.; Ice, G.

    2010-01-01

    This Special Issue of X-Ray Optics and Instrumentation comprises ten review papers and six research articles, which collectively offer a broad overview of X-ray focusing techniques and applications in laboratory measurements, in synchrotron beamlines, and in X-ray astronomy. Focusing enables not only more intense illumination for reduced exposure time and higher signal-to-noise ratio, but higher spatial resolution through true imaging. Although X-ray focusing is accomplished through the application of some basic physical principles, such as reflection (mirrors), refraction (lenses), and diffraction (crystals or zone plates), stringent performance requirements coupled with physical, mechanical, environmental, and manufacturability imperatives or limitations make the task technically challenging. The diverse X-ray focusing techniques and applications covered in this Volume provide a glimpse into the scope, challenges, and future of this expanding field.

  7. Repeated pulsed x-ray emission equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terauchi, Hikaru; Iida, Satoshi

    1982-01-01

    X-ray diffraction technique has been applied to determine the spatial positions of atoms which compose a material, and it is needless to say that the technique is a fundamental means regardless of the fields of research. However, the application of X-ray diffraction to the research on physical properties has been so far limited to know the spatial positions of atoms or molecules under thermal equilibrium condition. The addition of time element to the conventional technique, that is, the analysis of material structure including the time-varying processes under non-equilibrium conditions, is considered to approach the elucidation of the essence of materials. The authors call this dynamic structural analysis. The authors have planned to analyze X-ray diffraction intensity which has the resolution of about 10 -8 s in the real time which is conjugate with energy. However, present pulsed X-ray sources are not suitable for diffraction experiment because the pulse width is too long or X-ray wavelength is too short. Accordingly, the authors have made for trial a pulsed X-ray source for diffraction experiment. Its specifications are: diode voltage (X-ray tube voltage) from 200 to 300 kV, diode current from 2 to 5 kA, pulse width of about 30ns, maximum repetition frequency 10 pps, and X-ray focus size of 2 mm diameter. One of the features of this source is the repeated generation of pulsed X-ray. This is the first trial in the world, and is indispensable to the dynamic structural analysis described above. The quality of the emitted X-ray is also written. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  8. TES-Based X-Ray Microcalorimeter Performances Under AC Bias and FDM for Athena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, H.; Gottardi, L.; de Vries, C. P.; Adams, J. S.; Bandler, S. R.; Bruijn, M. P.; Chervenak, J. A.; Eckart, M. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Gao, J. R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Athena is a European X-ray observatory, scheduled for launch in 2028. Athena will employ a high-resolution imaging spectrometer called X-ray integral field unit (X-IFU), consisting of an array of 4000 transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter pixels. For the readout of X-IFU, we are developing frequency domain multiplexing, which is the baseline readout system. In this paper, we report on the performance of a TES X-ray calorimeter array fabricated at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) at MHz frequencies for the baseline of X-IFU detector. During single-pixel AC bias characterization, we measured X-ray energy resolutions (at 6 keV) of about 2.9 eV at both 2.3 and 3.7 MHz. Furthermore, in the multiplexing mode, we measured X-ray energy resolutions of about 2.9 eV at 1.3 and 1.7 MHz.

  9. Storm in a Teacup: X-Ray View of an Obscured Quasar and Superbubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansbury, George B.; Jarvis, Miranda E.; Harrison, Chris M.; Alexander, David M.; Del Moro, Agnese; Edge, Alastair C.; Mullaney, James R.; Thomson, Alasdair P.

    2018-03-01

    We present the X-ray properties of the “Teacup AGN” (SDSS J1430+1339), a z = 0.085 type 2 quasar that is interacting dramatically with its host galaxy. Spectral modeling of the central quasar reveals a powerful, highly obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) with a column density of N H = (4.2–6.5) × 1023 cm‑2 and an intrinsic luminosity of L 2–10 keV = (0.8–1.4) × 1044 erg s‑1. The current high bolometric luminosity inferred (L bol ≈1045–1046 erg s‑1) has ramifications for previous interpretations of the Teacup as a fading/dying quasar. High-resolution Chandra imaging data reveal a ≈10 kpc loop of X-ray emission, cospatial with the “eastern bubble” previously identified in luminous radio and ionized gas (e.g., [O III] line) emission. The X-ray emission from this structure is in good agreement with a shocked thermal gas, with T = (4–8) × 106 K, and there is evidence for an additional hot component with T ≳ 3 × 107 K. Although the Teacup is a radiatively dominated AGN, the estimated ratio between the bubble power and the X-ray luminosity is in remarkable agreement with observations of ellipticals, groups, and clusters of galaxies undergoing AGN feedback.

  10. An X-Ray/SDSS Sample: Observational Characterization of The Outflowing Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Michele; Brusa, M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Mignoli, M.

    2016-10-01

    Powerful ionised AGN-driven outflows, commonly detected both locally and at high redshift, are invoked to contribute to the co-evolution of SMBH and galaxies through feedback phenomena. Our recent works (Brusa+2015; 2016; Perna+2015a,b) have shown that the XMM-COSMOS targets with evidence of outflows collected so far ( 10 sources) appear to be associated with low X-ray kbol corrections (Lbol /LX ˜ 18), in spite of their spread in obscuration, in the locations on the SFR-Mstar diagram, in their radio emission. A higher statistical significance is required to validate a connection between outflow phenomena and a X-ray loudness. Moreover, in order to validate their binding nature to the galaxy fate, it is crucial to correctly determine the outflow energetics. This requires time consuming integral field spectroscopic (IFS) observations, which are, at present, mostly limited to high luminosity objectsThe study of SDSS data offers a complementary strategy to IFS efforts. I will present physical and demographic characterization of the AGN-galaxy system during the feedback phase obtained studying a sample of 500 X-ray/SDSS AGNs, at z<0.8. Outflow velocity inferred from [OIII]5007 emission line profile has been related to optical (e.g., [OIII] and bolometric luminosities, Eddington ratio, stellar velocity dispersion) and X-ray properties (intrinsic X-ray luminosity, obscuration and X-ray kbol correction), to determine what drives ionised winds. Several diagnostic line ratios have been used to infer the physical properties of the ionised outflowing gas. The knowledge of these properties can reduce the actual uncertainties in the outflow energetics by a factor of ten, pointing to improve our understanding of the AGN outflow phenomenon and its impact on galaxy evolution.

  11. X-Ray Background from Early Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-11-01

    What impact did X-rays from the first binary star systems have on the universe around them? A new study suggests this radiation may have played an important role during the reionization of our universe.Ionizing the UniverseDuring the period of reionization, the universe reverted from being neutral (as it was during recombination, the previous period)to once again being ionized plasma a state it has remained in since then. This transition, which occurred between 150 million and one billion years after the Big Bang (redshift of 6 z 20), was caused by the formation of the first objects energetic enough to reionize the universes neutral hydrogen.ROSAT image of the soft X-ray background throughout the universe. The different colors represent different energy bands: 0.25 keV (red), 0.75 keV (green), 1.5 keV (blue). [NASA/ROSAT Project]Understanding this time period in particular, determining what sources caused the reionization, and what the properties were of the gas strewn throughout the universe during this time is necessary for us to be able to correctly interpret cosmological observations.Conveniently, the universe has provided us with an interesting clue: the large-scale, diffuse X-ray background we observe all around us. What produced these X-rays, and what impact did this radiation have on the intergalactic medium long ago?The First BinariesA team of scientists led by Hao Xu (UC San Diego) has suggested that the very first generation of stars might be an important contributor to these X-rays.This hypothetical first generation, Population III stars, are thought to have formed before and during reionization from large clouds of gas containing virtually no metals. Studies suggest that a large fraction of Pop III stars formed in binaries and when those stars ended their lives as black holes, ensuing accretion from their companions could produceX-ray radiation.The evolution with redshift of the mean X-ray background intensities. Each curve represents a different

  12. Toward Adaptive X-Ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Tim W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peer; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey J.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Future x-ray observatories will require high-resolution (less than 1 inch) optics with very-large-aperture (greater than 25 square meter) areas. Even with the next generation of heavy-lift launch vehicles, launch-mass constraints and aperture-area requirements will limit the surface areal density of the grazing-incidence mirrors to about 1 kilogram per square meter or less. Achieving sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with such lightweight mirrors will require excellent mirror surfaces, precise and stable alignment, and exceptional stiffness or deformation compensation. Attaining and maintaining alignment and figure control will likely involve adaptive (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. In contrast with infrared and visible astronomy, adaptive optics for x-ray astronomy is in its infancy. In the middle of the past decade, two efforts began to advance technologies for adaptive x-ray telescopes: The Generation-X (Gen-X) concept studies in the United States, and the Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project in the United Kingdom. This paper discusses relevant technological issues and summarizes progress toward adaptive x-ray telescopes.

  13. X-ray diffraction computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, G.; Kosanetzky, J.; Neitzel, U.

    1987-01-01

    Coherent scattering of x-ray photons leads to the phenomenon of x-ray diffraction, which is widely used for determining atomic structure in materials science. A technique [x-ray diffraction computed tomography (CT)] is described, analogous to conventional CT, in which the x-ray diffraction properties of a stack of two-dimensional object sections may be imaged. The technique has been investigated using a first generation (single pencil beam) CT scanner to measure small angle coherent scatter, in addition to the customary transmitted radiation. Diffraction data from a standard CT performance phantom obtained with this new technique and with an x-ray diffractometer are compared. The agreement is satisfactory bearing in mind the poor momentum resolution of our apparatus. The dose and sensitivity of x-ray diffraction CT are compared with those of conventional transmission CT. Diffraction patterns of some biological tissues and plastics presented in a companion paper indicate the potential of x-ray diffraction CT for tissue discrimination and material characterization. Finally, possibilities for refinement of the technique by improving the momentum resolution are discussed

  14. Optimum x-ray spectra for mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaman, S A; Lillicrap, S C

    1982-10-01

    A number of authors have calculated x-ray energies for mammography using, as a criterion, the maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) obtainable per unit dose to the breast or conversely the minimum exposure for constant SNR. The predicted optimum energy increases with increasing breast thickness. Tungsten anode x-ray spectra have been measured with and without various added filter materials to determine how close the resultant spectra can be brought to the predicted optimum energies without reducing the x-ray output to unacceptable levels. The proportion of the total number of x-rays in a measured spectrum lying within a narrow energy band centred on the predicted optimum has been used as an optimum energy index. The effect of various filter materials on the measured x-ray spectra has been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The resulting spectra have been compared with molybdenum anode, molybdenum filtered x-ray spectra normally used for mammography. It is shown that filters with K-absorption edges close to the predicted optimum energies are the most effective at producing the desired spectral shape. The choices of filter thickness and Vp are also explored in relationship to their effect on the resultant x-ray spectral shape and intensity.

  15. Magnetic neutron and x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vettier, C.

    1999-01-01

    Most of our knowledge about the microscopic properties of magnetic materials comes from neutron scattering experiments owing to the strength of the interaction between the neutron spin and magnetisation densities which is exploited to study the statics and dynamics of magnetic moments. Neutron diffraction is the probe of choice for magnetic structure determinations and inelastic neutron scattering is the only tool to observe the propagation of magnetic excitations. However, neutron scattering suffer from two drawbacks: i) neutron beams have a low flux and a low brilliance; ii) the magnetic neutron scattering amplitude is neither electronic shell sensitive nor species selective. These limitations are easily overcome by the x-ray methods. On the one hand, x-rays are extremely sensitive to electronic distributions and the use of resonant scattering has proven to be extremely sensitive to the symmetry of the site and electronic shell which carries the magnetisation. On the other hand, the high brilliance x-ray beams delivered by the modern synchrotron facilities are perfectly suited to the study of small samples. Furthermore, the recent progress achieved in x-ray instrumentation has stimulated considerable theoretical interest on the use of the x-ray scattering and new phenomena related to magnetism can be directly detected in x-ray scattering experiments. Recent specific examples are presented to underline the complementary use of neutron and x-ray methods. (author)

  16. X-ray diagnostic developments in the perspective of DEMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacella, D.; Romano, A.; Gabellieri, L.; Causa, F.; Murtas, F.; Claps, G.; Choe, W.; Lee, S. H.; Jang, S.; Jang, J.; Hong, J.; Jeon, T.; Lee, H.

    2014-08-01

    Soft X-ray diagnostics at present are not adequate for a burning plasma experiment, neither in term of hardware nor as diagnostic conception. Detectors have to be radiation tolerant, easily shielded, with low sensitivity to neutrons and gammas and with energy discrimination. Layout and viewing capability should be more flexible, thanks to the use also of optical devices, going toward a configuration intermediate between discrete tomography and pure imaging. The general conception of these diagnostics should therefore evolve in the direction of pattern recognition for a real time feedback. This work is focused on the diagnostic developments undertaken at the ENEA- Frascati X-ray Laboratory, following in particular three directions: gas detector for fast and advanced high density tomography, C-MOS solid state imaging detectors for slow control and X-ray polycapillary optics. GEM gas detectors in photon counting mode (noise free) were developed in the range 1-30 keV having high efficiency, high time resolution (up to microseconds), energy discrimination in bands and optical flexibility. Discrimination of X-rays, neutrons and gammas has been demonstrated, thanks to the combination of intrinsic gain and discrimination thresholds, at neutron fluxes (107 n/s*cm2) comparable with the expected ones at the ports of ITER. GEM detectors are also extremely flexible in the design, allowing optimization of the measurements and solutions for shielding or minimization of the effect of background radiation. Two solid state C-MOS imagers working in photon counting mode, one based on Si semiconductor (Medipix-2, range 5-30 keV) and the other one having a CdTe sensor (Pixirad, range 2-100 keV) have been characterized in laboratory. C-MOS imagers have features and performances thoroughly complementary to the GEM detector and, thanks to their higher pixel density, could be used as remote imaging detectors coupled to optics. X-ray polycapillary lenses have been therefore studied in the

  17. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy with microcalorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollerith, C.; Wernicke, D.; Buehler, M.; Feilitzsch, F. von; Huber, M.; Hoehne, J.; Hertrich, T.; Jochum, J.; Phelan, K.; Stark, M.; Simmnacher, B.; Weiland, W.; Westphal, W.

    2004-01-01

    Shrinking feature sizes in semiconductor device production as well as the use of new materials demand innovation in device technology and material analysis. X-ray spectrometers based on superconducting sensor technology are currently closing the gap between fast energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and high-resolution wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). This work reports on the successful integration of iridium/gold transition edge sensors in the first industrially used microcalorimeter EDS. The POLARIS microcalorimeter system is installed at the failure analysis lab FA5 at Infineon Technologies AG in Neuperlach (Munich) and is used in routine analysis

  18. Design considerations for soft X-ray television imaging detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalata, K.; Golub, L.

    1988-01-01

    Television sensors for X-rays can be coupled to converters and image intensifiers to obtain active areas, high flux capabilities, quantum efficiency, high time resolution, or ease of construction and operation that may not be obtained with a directly illuminated sensor. A general purpose system which makes use of these capabilities for a number of applications is decribed. Some of the performance characteristics of this type of system are examined, and the expected future developments for such systems are briefly addressed. 19 refs

  19. The low light level image intensifier's application in x-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunyu; Kong, Lingli; Zhang, Junju; Zhang, Shengdong

    2011-08-01

    The low light level image intensifier was usually applied in the night observation, and it has been developed and improved for a long history. While it can also be used in the x ray imaging system for its specialty in photos multiplying and conversion, so in this paper, the technology development of the low light level image intensifier was described at first and then a novel x ray image intensifier designed by our research group is introduced. The x ray intensifying screen was the x ray sensor converting the x ray into the visible light. For the visible light from the x ray image intensifier was too weak to see the image, the low light level image intensifier was used to intensify the light further. When the low light level image intensifier was selected, the novel x ray image intensifier's performance was modeled, which can given the comparison in resolution and brightness between with and without the low light level image intensifier. In conclusion, the novel x ray imaging system's performance is good enough to be applied to security checking, non-destructive testing, and industry detection.

  20. X-ray lenses with large aperture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Up to now, most X-ray imaging setups are based on absorption contrast imaging. There is a demand for focused X-rays in many X-ray analysis applications, either to increase the resolution of an imaging system, or, to reduce the time effort of an experiment through higher photon flux. For photon energies higher than 15 keV refractive X-ray optics are more efficient in comparison to non-refractive X-ray optics. The aim of this work was to develop X-ray lenses with large apertures and high transparency. By increasing the number of refracting surfaces while removing unnecessary lens material such lenses have been developed. Utilizing this approach the overall beam deflection angle is large with respect to the lens material it propagates through and so the transparency of the lens is increased. Within this work, X-ray lenses consisting of several thousands of prisms with an edge length in the range of micrometers have been developed and fabricated by deep X-ray lithography. Deep X-ray lithography enables high precision microstrucures with smooth sidewalls and large aspect ratios. The aperture of high-transparency X-ray lenses made this way is greater than 1 mm. They are suitable for photon energies in the range of 8 keV to 24 keV and offer a focal width of smaller than 10 μm at a transparency of around 40%. Furthermore, rolled X-ray lenses have been developed, that are made out of a microstructured polyimide film, which is cut according to the requirements regarding focal length and photon energy. The microstructured film is fabricated by molding, using an anisotropically etched silicon wafer as molding tool. Its mean roughness is in the range of nanometers. The film features prismatic structures, its surface topology is similar to an asparagus field. The measured diameter of the point focus was 18 μm to 31 μm, the calculated opticla efficiency was 37%. Future work will concentrate on increasing the aspect ratio of Prism Lenses and on increasing the rolling accuracy

  1. X- rays and matter- the basic interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    In this introductory article we attempt to provide the theoretical basis for developing the interaction between X-rays and matter, so that one can unravel properties of matter by interpretation of X-ray experiments on samples. We emphasize that we are dealing with the basics, which means that we...... shall limit ourselves to a discussion of the interaction of an X-ray photon with an isolated atom, or rather with a single electron in a Hartree-Fock atom. Subsequent articles in this issue deal with more complicated - and interesting - forms of matter encompassing many atoms or molecules. To cite...

  2. The Future of X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2013-01-01

    The most important next step is the development of X-ray optics comparable to (or better than) Chandra in angular resolution that far exceed Chandra s effective area. Use the long delay to establish an adequately funded, competitive technology program along the lines I have recommended. Don't be diverted from this objective, except for Explorer-class missions. Progress in X-ray optics, with emphasis on the angular resolution, is central to the paradigm-shifting discoveries and the contributions of X-ray astronomy to multiwavelength astrophysics over the past 51 years.

  3. RFR-4 X-ray photochronograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarchuk, V.P.; Litvin, D.N.; Murugov, V.M.; Petrov, S.I.; Senik, A.V.; Pruyanishnikov, I.G.

    2004-01-01

    Paper describes RFR-4 X-ray photochronograph based on X-ray sensitive image converter with recording of the acquired images using self-powered chamber. Paper lists basic parameters of X-ray photochronograph and describes it its purpose and operation of its components. Paper describes operation of the device under the image focusing enabling to increase its sensitivity by one order of magnitude with no loss of time resolution. Photochronograph was used to record X-radiation in the course of experiments with targets of various types [ru

  4. Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bob B

    2009-01-01

    Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to resea

  5. X-ray output and percentage ripple in x-ray tube voltage. X-ray generators for mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Shigeru; Katoh, Yoh; Negishi, Toru; Abe, Shinji; Ogura, Izumi

    1998-01-01

    Various characteristics of x-ray generators used for mammography (tube voltage, tube current, percentage average error of irradiation time, percentage ripple of the tube voltage waveform, linearity, and reproducibility of the photographic effect) have already been clarified by the authors. In our more recent investigations, x-ray output and radiation quality as percentage ripple of the tube voltage waveform were evaluated using the dynamic study method with the aluminum filter specified in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard. In addition, we also assessed the effects of fluctuation in percentage ripple of the tube voltage waveform on the x-ray spectrum. Based on the results obtained, the characteristics of an ideal x-ray generator for mammography are discussed. The results of this study showed that x-ray output differences in terms of percentage ripple ranged from 45% to 82% compared with that of a constant-potential high-voltage generator. With regard to radiation quality, differences of 0.01 to 0.02 mm were found in the half value layer using an aluminum filter. The thicker the x-ray absorber, the more marked the effects of percentage ripple. In terms of the x-ray spectrum, moreover, characteristic x-rays (at 17.4 and 19.5 keV) cannot be effectively used, although a molybdenum target or molybdenum filter is used. Based on these results, a constant potential high-voltage generator with percentage ripple of 4% or less in the tube voltage waveform should be employed for mammography. (author)

  6. Flat Field Anomalies in an X-Ray CCD Camera Measured Using a Manson X-Ray Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael Haugh

    2008-01-01

    The Static X-ray Imager (SXI) is a diagnostic used at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the position of the X-rays produced by lasers hitting a gold foil target. It determines how accurately NIF can point the laser beams and is critical to proper NIF operation. Imagers are located at the top and the bottom of the NIF target chamber. The CCD chip is an X-ray sensitive silicon sensor, with a large format array (2k x 2k), 24 (micro)m square pixels, and 15 (micro)m thick. A multi-anode Manson X-ray source, operating up to 10kV and 2mA, was used to characterize and calibrate the imagers. The output beam is heavily filtered to narrow the spectral beam width, giving a typical resolution E/ΔE ∼ 12. The X-ray beam intensity was measured using an absolute photodiode that has accuracy better than 1% up to the Si K edge and better than 5% at higher energies. The X-ray beam provides full CCD illumination and is flat, within ±1.5% maximum to minimum. The spectral efficiency was measured at 10 energy bands ranging from 930 eV to 8470 eV. The efficiency pattern follows the properties of Si. The maximum quantum efficiency is 0.71. We observed an energy dependent pixel sensitivity variation that showed continuous change over a large portion of the CCD. The maximum sensitivity variation was >8% at 8470 eV. The geometric pattern did not change at lower energies, but the maximum contrast decreased and was less than the measurement uncertainty below 4 keV. We were also able to observe debris on the CCD chip. The debris showed maximum contrast at the lowest energy used, 930 eV, and disappeared by 4 keV. The Manson source is a powerful tool for characterizing the imaging errors of an X-ray CCD imager. These errors are quite different from those found in a visible CCD imager

  7. Characteristics of an inverter type X-ray generator (X-ray generator for mammography)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Shigeru; Negishi, Toru; Katoh, Yoh; Abe, Shinji; Ogura, Izumi.

    1995-01-01

    Two inverter-type X-ray generators, A and B, from different manufactures were used for a dynamic mammographic study. In both X-ray generators, the percentage average error (PAE) of tube voltage (TV) and tube current (TC) was 0.2% to 1.0%; the coefficient of variation in TV, TC, and X-ray output was 0.001 to 0.03. For X-ray generator A, under the conditions of 25-40 kV and 10-400 mA, the percentage ripple of of TV was 1.4% to 5.3% for each X-ray loading; the percentage ripple of TV was greater at lower TV and larger TC. For X-ray generator B, the percentage ripple of TV depended upon the amount of X-ray loading (4.7% to 30.5%). It was greater with decreasing TV and TC; and this tendency was noticeable when TC was less than 100 mA. As regards the photographic effect, TV of X-ray generator B was lower by approximately 5 kV than that of X-ray generator A because the generator B showed a greater percentage ripple of TV. This became more evident when a molybdenum filter (0.03 mm) was used. An X-ray generator, having the most potential, may have the smallest percentage ripple of TV and coefficient of variation, probably with the highest reproducibility. However, although a generator may have good reproducibility, its X-ray output could vary widely even at the same TV and current time product, if the TV waveform fluctuates to a significant extent in response to X-ray loading. These results indicate that the percentage ripple of TV should be 3 to 4% in an X-ray generator for mammographic imaging. (N.K.)

  8. X-ray intensification and minification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The specification discloses an apparatus for intensifying and minifying x-ray images including a rectangular housing with opposed front and rear ends. A phosphorous screen is disposed in the front end of the housing for receiving x-ray images of an object irradiated by x-rays and in response thereto generating light images corresponding to the x-ray images. A mirror system is mounted within the housing adjacent the rear end for reflecting the light images back toward the front end of the housing. An image intensifying assembly is provided along one side of the housing for amplifying and minifying the reflected light images. A camera is located in the front end of the housing for recording the amplified and minified light images. Circuitry is provided for interrogating the operation of the camera and of various electronic circuits of the system in order to provide a visual indication of malfunction of the system

  9. X-rays sensitive mammalian cell mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsumi, Hiroshi

    1982-01-01

    A phenomenon that in x-ray-sensitive mammalian-cell mutants, cellular death due to x-ray radiation was not increased by caffeine, but on the contrary, the dead cells were resuscitated by it was discussed. The survival rate of mutant cells increased by caffein in a low concentration. This suggested that caffeine may have induced some mechanism to produce x-ray resistant mutant cells. Postirradiation treatment with caffeine increased considerably the survival rate of the mutant cells, and this suggested the existence of latent caffeine-sensitive potentially lethal damage repair system. This system, after a few hours, is thought to be substituted by caffeine-resistant repair system which is induced by caffeine, and this may be further substituted by x-ray-resistant repair system. The repair system was also induced by adenine. (Ueda, J.)

  10. Tuberculosis, advanced - chest x-rays (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that causes inflammation, the formation of tubercules and other growths within tissue, ... death. These chest x-rays show advanced pulmonary tuberculosis. There are multiple light areas (opacities) of varying ...

  11. X-ray image intensifier photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, K.; Angerstein, W.; Steinhardt, L.

    1980-01-01

    The present treatise on X-ray image intensifier photography starts with introductory remarks on the history of X-ray imaging and image intensifiers. In the physical-technological part especially the quality of image and the methods of its measurement are discussed in detail. The relevant equipment such as image intensifier cameras, X-ray television, video recorder and devices of display and evaluation of images are presented as well as problems of radiation doses and radiation protection. Based on 25,000 examinations of the digestive, the biliary and the urinary tract, resp., as well as of the blood vessels the applicability of the X-ray image intensifier photography and its diagnostic value are demonstrated in the medical part of the book

  12. X-ray imaging: Status and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryon, R.W.; Martz, H.E.; Hernandez, J.M.; Haskins, J.J.; Day, R.A.; Brase, J.M.; Cross, B.; Wherry, D.

    1987-08-01

    There is a veritable renaissance occurring in x-ray imaging. X-ray imaging by radiography has been a highly developed technology in medicine and industry for many years. However, high resolution imaging has not generally been practical because sources have been relatively dim and diffuse, optical elements have been nonexistent for most applications, and detectors have been slow and of low resolution. Materials analysis needs have therefore gone unmet. Rapid progress is now taking place because we are able to exploit developments in microelectronics and related material fabrication techniques, and because of the availability of intense x-ray sources. This report describes the methods and uses of x-ray imaging along with a discussion of technology advances in these areas

  13. X-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrizzi, Marco

    2018-01-01

    X-ray imaging is a standard tool for the non-destructive inspection of the internal structure of samples. It finds application in a vast diversity of fields: medicine, biology, many engineering disciplines, palaeontology and earth sciences are just few examples. The fundamental principle underpinning the image formation have remained the same for over a century: the X-rays traversing the sample are subjected to different amount of absorption in different parts of the sample. By means of phase-sensitive techniques it is possible to generate contrast also in relation to the phase shifts imparted by the sample and to extend the capabilities of X-ray imaging to those details that lack enough absorption contrast to be visualised in conventional radiography. A general overview of X-ray phase contrast imaging techniques is presented in this review, along with more recent advances in this fast evolving field and some examples of applications.

  14. Metrology and X-rays emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chancel, C.; Schirmann, D.

    1993-01-01

    This scientific journal explains different technologies used to study X-rays emissions hot dense plasmas created by laser at the Dam center of Limeil-Valenton (CEL-V) or created by nuclear fire in the Pacific

  15. Hard X-ray Photoelectric Polarimeter

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our objective is to determine the gas mixtures and pressures that would enable a sensitive, hard X-ray polarimeter using existing flight components with the goal of...

  16. Silicon Wafer X-ray Mirror Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to undertake the initial development of a Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) type X-ray mirror using the relatively recent availability of high quality, inexpensive,...

  17. Insights from soft X-rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaf, Jennifer; Issinger, Olaf-Georg; Niefind, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    The diffraction pattern of a protein crystal is normally a product of the interference of electromagnetic waves scattered by electrons of the crystalline sample. The diffraction pattern undergoes systematic changes in case additionally X-ray absorption occurs, meaning if the wavelength of the pri......The diffraction pattern of a protein crystal is normally a product of the interference of electromagnetic waves scattered by electrons of the crystalline sample. The diffraction pattern undergoes systematic changes in case additionally X-ray absorption occurs, meaning if the wavelength...... of the primary X-ray beam is relatively close to the absorption edge of selected elements of the sample. The resulting effects are summarized as "anomalous dispersion" and can be always observed with "soft" X-rays (wavelength around 2 A) since they match the absorption edges of sulfur and chlorine...

  18. Center for X-ray Optics (CXRO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for X-Ray Optics at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory works to further science and technology using short wavelength optical systems and techniques....

  19. Silicon Wafer X-ray Mirror

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to undertake the initial development of a Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) type X-ray mirror using the relatively recent availability of high quality, inexpensive,...

  20. X-ray diagnostics of thorax diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulke, H.M.

    2013-01-01

    The book on X-ray diagnostics of thorax diseases covers the following issues: diagnostic procedures, inflammatory thorax diseases, malign thorax diseases, heart and large blood vessels, hear insufficiency, pulmonary congestion, pulmonary edema, interstitial pulmonary diseases, intensive care and traumatology.

  1. X-ray yields in kaonic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borie, E.; Leon, M.

    1979-01-01

    The yield of K x-rays in kaonic hydrogen (as well as other forms of exotic hydrogen) has been calculated following the method used by Leon and Bethe. Our results are not incompatible with experiment. (auth)

  2. Molecular X-ray scattering, ch. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welzen, Th. L.

    1977-01-01

    This chapter considers the evaluation of coherently and incoherently scattered X-ray intensities of single freely rotating molecules (gas scattering). A purely analytical procedure is given based upon the use of LCAO-MO Gaussian wave functions

  3. X-ray Optics Development at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dharma P.

    2017-01-01

    Development of high resolution focusing telescopes has led to a tremendous leap in sensitivity, revolutionizing observational X-ray astronomy. High sensitivity and high spatial resolution X-ray observations have been possible due to use of grazing incidence optics (paraboloid/hyperboloid) coupled with high spatial resolution and high efficiency detectors/imagers. The best X-ray telescope flown so far is mounted onboard Chandra observatory launched on July 23,1999. The telescope has a spatial resolution of 0.5 arc seconds with compatible imaging instruments in the energy range of 0.1 to 10 keV. The Chandra observatory has been responsible for a large number of discoveries and has provided X-ray insights on a large number of celestial objects including stars, supernova remnants, pulsars, magnetars, black holes, active galactic nuclei, galaxies, clusters and our own solar system.

  4. Milli X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Eagle III Micro XRF unit is similar to a traditional XRF unit, with the primary difference being that the X-rays are focused by a polycapillary optic into a spot...

  5. Improvements in X-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetten, N.R.; Houston, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    Multicellular, spatially separate, gaseous ionization detectors for use in computerized tomography are described. They have high sensitivity, short recovery time, fine spatial resolution and are relatively insensitive to the adverse effects of k shell x-ray fluoresecence.(UK)

  6. Demonstration of X-ray talbot interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Momose, A; Kawamoto, S; Hamaishi, Y; Takai, K; Suzuki, Y

    2003-01-01

    First Talbot interferometry in the hard X-ray region was demonstrated using a pair of transmission gratings made by forming gold stripes on glass plates. By aligning the gratings on the optical axis of X-rays with a separation that caused the Talbot effect by the first grating, moire fringes were produced inclining one grating slightly against the other around the optical axis. A phase object placed in front of the first grating was detected by moire-fringe bending. Using the technique of phase-shifting interferometry, the differential phase corresponding to the phase object could also be measured. This result suggests that X-ray Talbot interferometry is a novel and simple method for phase-sensitive X-ray radiography. (author)

  7. X-ray induced optical reflectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Durbin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The change in optical reflectivity induced by intense x-ray pulses can now be used to study ultrafast many body responses in solids in the femtosecond time domain. X-ray absorption creates photoelectrons and core level holes subsequently filled by Auger or fluorescence processes, and these excitations ultimately add conduction and valence band carriers that perturb optical reflectivity. Optical absorption associated with band filling and band gap narrowing is shown to explain the basic features found in recent measurements on an insulator (silicon nitride, Si3N4, a semiconductor (gallium arsenide, GaAs, and a metal (gold, Au, obtained with ∼100 fs x-ray pulses at 500-2000 eV and probed with 800 nm laser pulses. In particular GaAs exhibits an abrupt drop in reflectivity, persisting only for a time comparable to the x-ray excitation pulse duration, consistent with prompt band gap narrowing.

  8. Dentistry 4. X-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    DIN pocketbook 267/4 gives an overview of the normative requirements of the new X-Ray and Radiation Protection Ordinance, which has been in effect since 1 November 2011. This DIN pocketbook is intended for anyone charged with professional responsibility for the use of ionizing radiation in dentistry, operators and users of x-ray devices, radiation protection officers, accredited experts, manufacturers as well as for anyone with an interest in radiation protection or optimal radiological diagnostics. It contains standards relating to the following areas: acceptance and constancy testing; devices for evaluating findings (monitors, film viewing devices), films, printers; archiving, designating, labelling. Adherence to the standards makes it possible to avoid distractive artefacts in x-ray images and optimise the quality of x-ray diagnostics in dentistry.

  9. Nonrelativistic quantum X-ray physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hau-Riege, Stefan P

    2015-01-01

    Providing a solid theoretical background in photon-matter interaction, Nonrelativistic Quantum X-Ray Physics enables readers to understand experiments performed at XFEL-facilities and x-ray synchrotrons. As a result, after reading this book, scientists and students will be able to outline and perform calculations of some important x-ray-matter interaction processes. Key features of the contents are that the scope reaches beyond the dipole approximation when necessary and that it includes short-pulse interactions. To aid the reader in this transition, some relevant examples are discussed in detail, while non-relativistic quantum electrodynamics help readers to obtain an in-depth understanding of the formalisms and processes. The text presupposes a basic (undergraduate-level) understanding of mechanics, electrodynamics, and quantum mechanics. However, more specialized concepts in these fields are introduced and the reader is directed to appropriate references. While primarily benefiting users of x-ray light-sou...

  10. Contrast optimization in X-ray radiography with single photon counting imagers of Medipix type

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jandejsek, Ivan; Dammer, J.; Jakůbek, J.; Vavřík, Daniel; Žemlička, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, C12011 (2012), s. 1-5 ISSN 1748-0221. [International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors /14./. Figueira da Foz, Coimbra, 01.07.2012-05.07.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP105/11/1551 Grant - others:GA MKO(CZ) DF12P01OVV048 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : X- ray detectors * X- ray radiography and digital radiography * inspection with x- ray s Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 1.869, year: 2011 http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-0221/7/12/C12011/

  11. Collimating device for x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, C.H.

    1978-01-01

    A position indicating device which attaches to an X-ray machine is provided with a collar onto which a lead lined cylinder may be threaded. The cylinder has an end plate through which a rectangular opening is formed in order to provide a rectangular X-ray beam for use in cephalometric radiography. When the cylinder is removed, a circular beam is emitted for use in intra-oral radiography

  12. X-ray and optical wave mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Ernest

    2013-05-01

    Light-matter interactions have advanced our understanding of atoms, molecules, and materials while also being central to a number of applied areas. Though optical interactions have been heavily studied, their microscopic details are often poorly understood. To date it has not been possible to directly probe the microscopic details of light-matter interactions. X-ray and optical wave mixing, specifically sum frequency generation, was proposed nearly a half century ago as an atomic-scale probe of light-matter interactions. The process is, in essence, optically modulated x-ray diffraction: x-rays inelastically scatter from optically induced charge oscillations and probe optically polarized charge in direct analogy to how conventional x-ray diffraction probes ground-state charge. Here we use an x-ray free electron laser to demonstrate x-ray/optical sum frequency generation through nonlinear interaction of the two fields in single crystal diamond. Optically modulated x-ray diffraction from the (111) planes generates a sum (x-ray + optical) frequency pulse. The measured conversion efficiency (~ 10-7) determines the (111) Fourier components of the optically induced charge and associated microscopic field that arise in the illuminated sample. To within experimental error bars the measured charge density is consistent with first principles calculations of microscopic optical polarizability in diamond. The measurements and calculations indicate that light predominantly perturbs chemical bonds in the diamond lattice. This finding should be generally applicable to covalent semiconductors and closely related materials such as graphene. A simple bond charge model reproduces the measured charge density to within ~ 50%, suggesting that these models can provide reasonably accurate estimates of microscopic optical polarizability in, for instance, photonic and photovoltaic devices based on silicon. The ability to measure atomic-scale charges and fields induced by light should

  13. Scattered X-ray beam nondestructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, G.; Kosanetzky, J.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray scatter interactions generally dominate the linear attenuation coefficient at the photon energies typical of medical and industrial radiography. Specific advantages of X-ray scatter imaging, including a flexible choice of measurement geometry, direct 3D-imaging capability (tomography) and improved information for material characterization, are illustrated with results from Compton and coherent scatter devices. Applications of a Compton backscatter scanner (ComScan) in the aerospace industry and coherent scatter imaging in security screening are briefly considered [pt

  14. X-ray instrumentation: monochromators and mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, A.R.D.

    1983-01-01

    The main type of X-ray monochromators used with Synchrotron Radiation are discussed in relation to the energy resolution and to the spectral contamination, as well special systems for applications which require simultaneously high flux and resolution. The characteristics for X-ray mirrors necessaries for its utilization with synchrotron radiation are also analized, as conformators of the beam geometry and spectrum. (L.C.) [pt

  15. Capacitor discharges, magnetohydrodynamics, X-rays, ultrasonics

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A

    1965-01-01

    High Speed Pulse Technology, Volume 1: Capacitor Discharges - Magnetohydrodynamics - X-Rays - Ultrasonics deals with the theoretical and engineering problems that arise in the capacitor discharge technique.This book discusses the characteristics of dielectric material, symmetrical switch tubes with mercury filling, and compensation conductor forms. The transformed discharge for highest current peaks, ignition transformer for internal combustion engines, and X-ray irradiation of subjects in mechanical motion are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the transformed capacitor discharge in w

  16. Microfocus X-ray seeds separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryaznov, A. Yu; Staroverov, N. E.; Kholopova, E. D.; Guk, K. K.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper the model of X-ray seeds separator is described. The main parameters of the seed separator are determined. The operating modes of the X-ray apparatus were determined; with these modes the greatest contrast of the image was achieved. For the research, seeds of almost 40 different plant species were selected. For each type of seed, the optimal parameters of the imaging were calculated; also during the experimental studies the parameters were checked.

  17. Crystal structure resolution by X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeannin, Y.

    1998-01-01

    This paper deals with the crystal structure analysis by X-rays. It details the different steps of the crystal structure resolution, the measured parameters and the possible errors with appropriate corrections. The presentation includes the x-rays intensity measurement, the structure factor calculus, the Patterson method, the direct methods, the structure analysis, the parameters refinement by least square fit, the temperature factors, disorder and twinning, the primary and secondary extinctions and a absolute configuration determination. (A.L.B.)

  18. X-Ray Emission from Compact Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cominsky, L

    2004-03-23

    This paper presents a review of the physical parameters of neutron stars and black holes that have been derived from X-ray observations. I then explain how these physical parameters can be used to learn about the extreme conditions occurring in regions of strong gravity, and present some recent evidence for relativistic effects seen in these systems. A glossary of commonly used terms and a short tutorial on the names of X-ray sources are also included.

  19. Parametric X-rays at FAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Tanaji [Fermilab

    2016-06-01

    We discuss the generation of parametric X-rays (PXR) in the photoinjector at the new FAST facility at Fermilab. Detailed calculations of the intensity spectrum, energy and angular widths and spectral brilliance with a diamond crystal are presented. We also report on expected results with PXR generated while the beam is channeling. The low emittance electron beam makes this facility a promising source for creating brilliant X-rays.

  20. The universe in X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Hasinger, Günther

    2008-01-01

    In the last 45 years, X-ray astronomy has become an integral part of modern astrophysics and cosmology. There is a wide range of astrophysical objects and phenomena, where X-rays provide crucial diagnostics. In particular they are well suited to study hot plasmas and matter under extreme physical conditions in compact objects. This book summarizes the present status of X-ray astronomy in terms of observational results and their astrophysical interpretation. It is written for students, astrophysicists as well a growing community of physicists interested in the field. An introduction including historical material is followed by chapters on X-ray astronomical instrumentation. The next two parts summarize in 17 chapters the present knowledge on various classes of X-ray sources in the galactic and extragalactic realm. While the X-ray astronomical highlights discussed in this book are mainly based on results from ROSAT, ASCA, RXTE, BeppoSAX, Chandra and XMM-Newton, a final chapter provides an outlook on observation...