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Sample records for bohunice radioactive waste processing center

  1. SE-VYZ - Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations, Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentations processes of radioactive waste treatment in the Bohunice Radioactive Waste Processing Center (SE-VYZ), Jaslovske Bohunice are presented. Decommissioning of the A-1 NPP is also presented. Disposal of conditioned radioactive waste in fibre concrete containers (FCC) are transported to Mochovce from Jaslovske Bohunice by the transport truck where are reposited in the National radioactive waste repository Mochovce. The Interim spent fuel storage facility (ISFSF) is included into this presentation

  2. Barriers in process of treatment with radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this leaflet the scheme of the barriers used in process of treatment of radioactive wastes in Bohunice Radwaste Treatment Centre (BSC RAO) are presented. Transport, sorting, compacting, preparation of final product as well as transport and disposal of radioactive wastes as final product are described

  3. Radioactive waste processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When granular materials comprising radioactive wastes containing phosphorus are processed at first in a fluidized bed type furnace, if the granular materials are phosphorus-containing activated carbon, granular materials comprising alkali compound such as calcium hydroxide and barium hydroxide are used as fluidizing media. Even granular materials of slow burning speed can be burnt stably in a fluidizing state by high temperature heat of the fluidizing media, thereby enabling to take a long burning processing time. Accordingly, radioactive activated carbon wastes can be processed by burning treatment. (T.M.)

  4. Radioactive waste management centers: an approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste management centers would satisfy the need for a cost-effective, sound management system for nuclear wastes by the industry and would provide a well integrated solution which could be understood by the public. The future demands for nuclear waste processing and disposal by industry and institutions outside the United States Government are such that a number of such facilities are required between now and the year 2000. Waste management centers can be organized around two general needs in the commercial sector: (1) the need for management of low-level waste generated by nuclear power plants, the once-through nuclear fuel cycle production facilities, from hospitals, and other institutions; and (2) more comprehensive centers handling all categories of nuclear wastes that would be generated by a nuclear fuel recycle industry. The basic technology for radioactive waste management will be available by the time such facilities can be deployed. This paper discusses the technical, economic, and social aspects of organizing radioactive waste managment centers and presents a strategy for stimulating their development

  5. Radioactive waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid wastes are supplied to a ceramic filter to conduct filtration. In this case, a device for adding a powdery inorganic ion exchanger is disposed to the upstream of the ceramic filter. When the powdery inorganic ion exchanger is charged to the addition device, it is precoated to the surface of the ceramic filter, to conduct separation of suspended matters and separation of ionic nuclides simultaneously. Liquid wastes returned to a collecting tank are condensed while being circulated between the ceramic filter and the tank and then contained in a condensation liquid waste tank. With such a constitution, both of radioactive nuclides accompanied by suspended matters in the radioactive liquid wastes and ionic nuclides can be captured efficiently. (T.M.)

  6. Radioactive waste processing field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storing space for radioactive wastes (storage tunnels) are formed underground of the sea bottom along coast. A plurality of boreholes through which sea water flows are pored vertically in a direction intersecting underground streams of brine in the ground between the tunnels and seaside. Sea water introduction pipes are joined to the upper side walls of the boreholes. The sea water introduction pipes have introduction ports protruded under the sea level of the coastal sea area region. Since sea water flows from the introduction ports to the boreholes passing through the sea water introduction pipes, sea water is always filled in the boreholes. Therefore, brine is sufficiently supplied toward the land by sea water from the boreholes, the underground stream of brine is negligibly small. This can prevent radioactive contamination due to flow of the underground water when radioactive wastes are buried in the underground near coast. (I.N.)

  7. Radioactive waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation contains 4144 citations of foreign and domestic reports, journal articles, patents, conference proceedings, and books pertaining to radioactive waste processing and disposal. Five indexes are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  8. Radioactive liquid waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides a device for processing radioactive liquid wastes generated in a facility of a nuclear power plant, especially suitable to liquid wastes at relatively high electroconductivity and solid content concentration. Namely, the device comprises a vessel for receiving radioactive liquid wastes, a device for concentrating the radioactive liquid wastes and a device for solidifying the liquid wastes. The concentrated liquid wastes can be charged from the concentration device to the receiving container. The concentration device has a precipitation separation function and comprises a supernatant withdrawing section and a solid content withdrawing section. In addition, the concentration device is connected with the receiving device for transferring the supernatant in the concentration device. Further, the receiving device is connected to the solidification device by way of a solid content transferring line, and the precipitated and separated solid content is transferred to a cement solidification device, plastic solidification device, asphalt solidification device, a glass solidification device etc. (I.S.)

  9. Incineration as a radioactive waste volume reduction process for CEA nuclear centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incineration processes represent a promising solution for waste volume reduction, and will be increasingly used in the future. The features and performance specifications of low-level waste incinerators with capacities ranging from 10 to 20 kg-h-1 at the Fontenay-aux-Roses, Grenoble and Cadarache nuclear centers in France are briefly reviewed. More extensive knowledge of low-level wastes produced in facilities operated by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) has allowed us to assess the volume reduction obtained by processing combustible waste in existing incinerators. Research and development work is in progress to improve management procedures for higher-level waste and to build facilities capable of incinerating α - contaminated waste. (authors). 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  10. Radioactive liquid waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a radioactive liquid waste processing device comprising a freeze-drying vessel for freezing and then vacuum drying acidic liquid wastes containing radioactive materials and a cold trap condensing steams evaporated in the freeze-drying vessel, a dust collecting electrode of an electric dust collector is disposed in the freeze-drying vessel for capturing fine solid particles and inorganic salts in steams. With such a constitution, upon sublimation of the water content contained in a freezing product of an acidic solution, since fine solid particles and inorganic salts entrained by steams are collected by the dust collecting electrode, radioactive materials entrained by recovered steams are almost eliminated, decontamination efficiency of the liquid waste processing device can be increased. Further, heat for the sublimation can be supplied to the solution-freezing product by a radiation heat caused by electric discharge of the dust collecting electrode, thereby enabling to eliminate the heater which was unnecessary so far. (T.M.)

  11. Radioactive liquid waste processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides a system for processing radioactive liquid wastes containing laundry liquid wastes, shower drains or radioactive liquid wastes containing chemical oxygen demand (COD) ingredients and oil content generated from a nuclear power plant. Namely, a collecting tank collects radioactive liquid wastes. A filtering device is connected to the exit of the collective tank. A sump tank is connected to the exit of the filtering device. A powdery active carbon supplying device is connected to the collecting tank. A chemical fluid tank is connected to the collecting tank and the filtering device by way of chemical fluid injection lines. Backwarding pipelines connect a filtered water flowing exit of the filtering device and the collecting tank. The chemical solution is stored in the chemical solution tank. Then, radioactive materials in radioactive liquid wastes generated from a nuclear power plant are removed by the filtering device. The water quality standard specified in environmental influence reports can be satisfied. In the filtering device, when the filtering flow rate is reduced, the chemical fluid is supplied from the chemical fluid tank to the filtering device to recover the filtering flow rate. (I.S.)

  12. Radioactive waste processing by incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1986, low-level combustible radioactive waste has in Czechoslovakia been burnt in an experimental facility of a capacity of 40 kg/h. A modified two-stage SPG02 furnace is installed as the incinerator. It is a fixed-grate furnace with mechanical removal of solid residues. Propane-butane is used as the fuel. A 100 kg/h incinerator has been designed using the experience gained with the above type. The new prototype incinerator has two chambers and its operation is based on pyrolysis: radioactive waste is distilled at partial access of air, the evolving gas is then burnt thus obtaining a dry coke residue which will be fired in the furnace. Both chambers of the furnace are heated with one light fuel oil burner and one burner for contaminated oils and liquid radioactive wastes. The whole process is remote-controlled. (Z.M.). 6 figs., 3 refs

  13. Bituminization plant Jaslovske Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this leaflet the principle of the bituminization plant for radioactive concentrate (the intermediate liquid radioactive waste generated during the NPP A1, V-1, V-2 operations) solidification used in the Bohunice Radwaste Treatment Centre (BSC RAO) is presented

  14. Facilities for processing, packaging and storage of intermediate level radioactive waste at the Winfrith Technology Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK strategy for the management of radioactive waste is the responsibility of the Secretary of State for the Environment. The implementation of that strategy is a function of Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution (HMIP), a department within the Department of the Environment. Close liaison between HMIP and Her Majesty's Nuclear Installation Inspectorate (HMNII) takes place ensuring that site licenses are only granted for proposals which are consistent with the national waste management strategy. The task of developing national low level solid waste (LLSW) and intermediate level waste (ILW) disposal facilities rests with the UK Nirex, Ltd., a company formed by major national nuclear utilities with independent and government representation. This company is currently investigating the suitability of Sellafield, Cumbria and Dounreay, Caithness for a national repository. Operation of such a facility is unlikely however before the year 2005. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Process for packaging radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The waste is filled into auxiliary barrels made of sheet steel. It is compressed with the auxiliary barrels into steel jacket bodies. A number of steel jacket bodies are accommodated in storage barrels, which are simultaneously stiffened by them. The radioactive waste is therefore no longer free in the storage barrels, the storage barrels are reinforced and appreciably greater quantities of radioactive waste can be accommodated in the storage barrels and therefore in the stores. (orig./PW)

  16. Process for fixation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fixation of radioactive waste comprises mixing of the water saturated waste with a resin and a monomer in order to form an emulsion. By addition of a hydraulic binder, formation of concrete is achieved. This process enables the fixation of the waste in a stable manner without release of radioactivity

  17. Radioactive waste gas processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To effectively separate and remove only hydrogen from hydrogen gas-containing radioactive waste gases produced from nuclear power plants without using large scaled facilities. Constitution: From hydrogen gas-enriched waste gases which contain radioactive rare gases (Kr, Xe) sent from the volume control tank of a chemical volume control system, only the hydrogen is separated in a hydrogen separator using palladium alloy membrane and rare gases are concentrated, volume-decreased and then stored. In this case, an activated carbon adsorption device is connected at its inlet to the radioactive gas outlet of the hydrogen separator and opened at its outlet to external atmosphere. In this system, while only the hydrogen gas permeates through the palladium alloy membrane, other gases are introduced, without permeation, into the activated carbon adsorption device. Then, the radioactive rare gases are decayed by the adsorption on the activated carbon and then released to the external atmosphere. (Furukawa, Y.)

  18. The storage center of very-low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low level radioactive wastes have a radioactivity level as same as the natural radioactivity. This wastes category and their storage has been taken into account by the french legislation. This document presents the storage principles of the site, containment, safety and the Center organization. (A.L.B.)

  19. Radioactive gaseous waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a radioactive gaseous waste processing device, a dehumidifier in which a lot of hollow thread membranes are bundled and assembled is disposed instead of a dehumidifying cooling device and a dehumidifying tower. The dehumidifier comprises a main body, a great number of hollow thread membranes incorporated in the main body, a pair of fixing members for bundling and fixing both ends of the hollow thread membranes, a pair of caps for allowing the fixing members to pass through and fixing them on both ends of the main body, an off gas flowing pipe connected to one of the caps, a gas exhaustion pipe connected to the other end of the cap and a moisture removing pipeline connected to the main body. A flowrate control valve is connected to the moisture removing pipeline, and the other end of the moisture removing pipeline is connected between a main condensator and an air extraction device. Then, cooling and freezing devices using freon are no more necessary, and since the device uses the vacuum of the main condensator as a driving source and does not use dynamic equipments, labors for the maintenance is greatly reduced to improve economical property. The facilities are reduced in the size thereby enabling to use space effectively. (N.H.)

  20. Radioactive gaseous waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides a device for continuously removing a moisture content in radioactive gaseous wastes (off gas) generated from a BWR type power generation plant. Namely, in a dehumidification device by utilizing hollow thread membranes of an off gas processing device, thermometers are disposed for measuring each of the temperature of off gases and the temperature of entrance of the off gas dehumidification device. A heater is disposed for heating the inside of the dehumidification device to a state corresponding to the temperature of off gases. A control device for controlling the heater by comparing the temperate of inflown gases and the temperature of the body of the dehumidification device. The inside of the dehumidifying device is heated to a temperature at or higher than the temperature of inflown off gases. Then, condensation of the moisture content contained in off gases in the dehumidification device can be prevented. In addition, if demister is disposed to an entrance nozzle portion of an off gas entrance chamber of the dehumidification device, mist of inflown off gases can be removed thereby enabling to improve steam permeation property of a hollow thread module. (I.S.)

  1. The Research Results of Radioactive Waste Management Technology Center Year 1997/1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research results of Radioactive Waste Management Technology Center, National Atomic Energy Agency of Indonesia year 1997/1998 contain paper as form of research results on radioactive waste management related fields. There were included many aspects such as radioactive waste processing, storage, decontamination, decommissioning, safety and environmental aspects. There are 26 papers indexed individually (ID)

  2. The Research Results of Radioactive Waste Management Technology Center Year 1996/1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research results of Radioactive Waste Management Technology Center, National Atomic Energy Agency of Indonesia year 1996/1997 contain paper as form of research results on radioactive waste management related fields. There were included many aspects such as radioactive waste processing, storage, decontamination, decommissioning, safety and environmental aspects. There are 24 papers and 12 short communications indexed individually(ID)

  3. Radioactive liquid waste processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive liquid wastes containing radioactive materials and sodium compounds are dried into a dried material, and then, the dried material is heated to form molten salts, which is used as a anolyte. Electrolysis is conducted having a sodium ion conductive β-alumina as a diaphragm. When a molten material containing sodium hydroxide is used as a catholyte, electrolysis is conducted while supplying steams or steams and oxygen to the catholyte. Extremely low radioactive and highly pure (solid) metal sodium or sodium hydroxide can be formed on the side of the cathode by the electrolysis. The radioactive materials are gradually concentrated on the side of the anode along with the progress of the electrolysis. After the lapse of a predetermined time, the concentrated radioactive materials on the side of the anode is taken out from the device and treated into a harmless form by an optional means such as confinement with cement or the like. With such procedures, highly purified metal sodium or sodium hydroxide can be recovered at a high electric efficiency. (T.M.)

  4. Device for radioactive waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Object: To remove burr on the pellet surface obtained by pelletizing radioactive powder by the use of a rotatable roller type pellet molding machine, to prevent occurrence of powder from the pellets. Structure: Condensed radioactive liquid waste is vaporized and dried into powder form, which is fed to a granulator. The powder is forced in by means of a screw nad pelletized by a rotating roll. Pellets are charged into a rotating cage through a hopper, and rotation of the cage causes pellets to be rubbed with each other and to contact with meshes of the cage to remove burr, whereby they are formed into shaped pellets when the latter come out of the cage, which pellets are transported towards the drum filler via the hopper. Incomplete pellets or burr drop onto the lower hopper through the meshes of the cage and are turned to the granulator again. (Yoshino, Y.)

  5. Method of processing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: After removing clads from radioactive wastes, to dry and pulverize the same thereby to reduce hazard of radiation exposure and to obtain a large volume reduction ratio. Method: Regenerated liquid wastes, sludges and spent ion-exchange resin slurries within the tanks are respectively introduced into separation tanks, and the regenerated liquid wastes are sent into a mixing tank after clads within the separation tanks have been precipitated and separated. The sludges are applied with a supersonic wave in the separation tanks, and thereafter are passed through an electromagnetic filter. Then, clads are removed from the sludges, and thereafter the sludges are sent into the mixing tank. The spent ion-exchange resin slurries are applied with a supersonic wave and stirred in the separation tanks, and sent into the mixing tank after the clads have been precipitated and separated. The mixture which has been prepared in the mixing tank is dried and pulverized by a centrifugal film drier, and mixed with burnt ashes discharged from a hopper. Then, the mixture is pelletized and asphalt-hardened. (Yoshino, Y.)

  6. Qualification of radioactive waste cement conditioning processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucleco Qualification Process Laboratory activities are focused on qualification of cement matrix conditioning processes of Low and Intermediate Level Waste produced by the decommissioning of old Nuclear Power Plants and research centres. Radioactive waste management strategies for Second- and Third Category wastes (according to the ENEA Technical Guide n. 26), involve specific processes (treatment and conditioning) aimed at producing a final waste form in which the radionuclides are incorporated into a solid matrix in order to reduce their potential migration or dispersion. The qualification of conditioning processes consists of all those activities demonstrating that the final waste form and waste package have the minimum requirements (mechanical, chemical and physical characteristics) compliant with all the subsequent management phases: long term interim storage, transport and long term disposal of the waste (in accordance with UNI 11193- 2006 standard). First, the paper recalls the classification into 3 categories of radioactive wastes by the Italian authorities. Cementation is one of the most common method for conditioning radioactive wastes into a solid, safe form suitable for long term storage. 3 tables list the qualification tests that are assigned to waste form, containers and final packages, the minimum requirements for second category wastes and the results of qualification tests

  7. Method of processing radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been difficult to convert liquid wastes, for example, containing phosphates by more then 3% by weight in the total solids stably into a powderized form under identical design factors and operation conditions. In view of the above, stable dry powderization is made possible by applying pre-treatment for the liquid wastes containing the phosphates to a pH value of weakly acidic nature of less than 7, preferably, between 5 and 7. Further, in a case of dry-powderization of liquid wastes containing both phosphates and reducing material such as sodium nitrite, the liquid wastes are rendered weakly acidic to the same extent of the pH value as described above and pre-treated by the addition of oxidative material such as hydrogen peroxide. Sodium phophate has a nature of being converted into disodium pyrophosphate by dehydration under heating and is present as hexa-hydrate in a solution at normal temperature and then gradually increase the solubility along with temperature elevation. That is, stable processing is made possible after providing a positive solubility characteristic by means of pre-treatment, etc, in a depositing process. (N.H.)

  8. Processing system for low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low level radioactive wastes are successively charged into a container while sliding a partition plate such that the wastes are kept substantially in a fully charged state in the direction of the height. Radiation rays from the low level radioactive wastes contained in the container are measured by a radiation dose measuring means constituted so as to be slidable together with the partition plate. Further, the weight of the low level radioactive wastes in the container is measured by the weight measuring means, and the radioactivity concentration per unit container is calculated by a calculation means based on the result of the measurement. Accordingly, the optimum storage period and the radioactivity level can be estimated on every containers. Further, since the measuring vessel is used also as a storage vessel, long time measurement can be conducted by measuring the radioactivity for the wastes successively to enable exact evaluation. Accordingly, it is possible to save the labors for processing operation and save the storage facility. (T.M.)

  9. Method of processing liquid radioactive wastes by calcination and vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The original liquid radioactive waste is added to the radioactive waste calcinate and glass-forming additions. The said components are converted into a paste form which is proportioned in the melting furnace. Moisturising the mixture with liquid radioactive waste eliminates dust, avoids radionuclide volatility and has an additional advantage that more radioactive waste can be processed. (E.S.)

  10. Radioactive liquid waste processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floor drainages are mixed with low electroconductive liquid wastes, and after filtering the mixed liquid wastes by a hollow thread membrane filters, they are subjected to a desalting treatment by a desalter. The mixing ratio of the floor drainages to the lower electroconductive liquid wastes is determined to not more than 50wt%. With such procedures, since ionic ingredients are further diluted by mixing the floor drainages to the low electroconductive liquid wastes, sufficient margin can be provided up to the saturation of the ion exchange resins of the desalter, to maintain the ion exchange performance for a long period of time. Further, the recovery of the amount of permeation water and a differential pressure of filtration upon back washing of the hollow thread membrane filters is facilitated, thereby enabling to perform regeneration easily at high efficiency. (T.M.)

  11. Response of native flora to inducible genotoxic damage from increased radioactivity around NPP Jaslovske Bohunice, Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is not generally known that the first serious failure of nuclear power plant (NPP) technology with loss of human lives occurred in NPP Jaslovske Bohunice (Czechoslovakia) in January 1976. A year later the second accident finally broken reactor A1 with large radioactive contamination. This material was later (in 1980) washed into the nearby drainage by the heavy rain. In cleaning procedure, the contaminated soil particles contaminated the slopes of the drainage. These spots have the shape of 'blurs' about 15 cm wide with a scale of contamination from 0,067; 0,15; 2,38; 9,5; 45.5 up to 322 kBq/kg 137Cs. The research was done in cooperation with the Institute of Tumorbiology, University of Vienna, within the grant Action Austria - Slovak Republic. Details of radioactivity at the area were obtained thanks to the Research Institute of the Nuclear Energy in Trnava, Slovakia. In our ten years long-term study of contaminated soil around nuclear power plant (NPP) Jaslovske Bohunice 24 species of local flora were used to show impact of these accidents. The 19 km long banks of the Jaslovske Bohunice NPP waste water recipient has been identified as contaminated by 137Cs. In total, more than 67,000 m2 of river banks have been found as being contaminated at levels exceeding 1 Bq 137Cs/g of soil. Used phytotoxic and cytogenetic -in situ' tests were extended by analyses of pollen grains. Although the dose of some samples of radioactive soil was relatively high (322 kBq kg-1) no any significant impact on the biological level of tested wild plant species was observed. Possible explanation (such as adaptation and resistance) is discussed. (author)

  12. Solid and liquid radioactive waste management of the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN)- Nuclebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low level liquid and solid wastes are produced in several laboratories of the NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT CENTER (CDTN) - NUCLEBRAS. In the last years, the intensification of technical activities at the Center has increased the radioactive waste volumes. Therefore, the implementation of a Radioactive Waste Management Program has begun. This Program includes the systematic of activities from the waste collection to the transportation for the final disposal. The liquid and solid waste are collected separately in proper containers and stored for later treatment according to the processes available or under development at the Center. (Author)

  13. Microbial processes in radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbial processes could potentially affect the performance of a radioactive waste disposal system and related factors that could have an influence on the mobility of radionuclides are outlined. Analytical methods, including sampling of water, rock and surface swabs from a potential disposal site, are described and the quantitative as well as qualitative experimental results obtained are given. Although the results contribute to an understanding of the impact of microbial processes on deep geological disposal of nuclear waste, there is not yet sufficient information for a model which will predict the consequences of these processes. (author)

  14. Treatment, recovery, and disposal processes for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive wastes handling and disposal are discussed in over 200 processes here. Isolation means for these wastes must withstand attack, essentially indefinitely, from the radioactive material and the chemical and physical stresses of the natural environment. Contents: Immobilization Techniques; Storage Containers; Water Removal and Concentration Processes; Chemical Treatments; Heat Treatments; Recovery and Recycling Processes; Processing Radioactive Gases; Waste Treatment Apparatus and Equipment

  15. Gaseous radioactive waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high temperature water feed line connecting a heating steam line as a heat source for an off-gas pre-heater and a desalting water feed line is connected to the exit and inlet of an off-gas recombiner, and a drain discharge port is disposed at the lower portion of the off-gas recombiner. A ventilation port capable of sending air is disposed to the off-gas inlet of the off-gas pre-heater. The off-gas processing device uses a high temperature water, as a recombiner cleaning medium, prepared by mixing heated steams at about 170degC as a heat source of the off-gas pre-heater and a desalting water at normal temperature. Accordingly, impurities deposited strongly to the surface of the catalysts can be removed by the vigorous movement of moleculers of the high temperature water. This can improve the corrosive environment of the device, facilitate the cleaning of the off-gas recombiner catalyst, and conduct the process frequently. Then, the life time of the catalysts can be extended by maintaining the catalyst performance. (T.M.)

  16. Radioactive liquid waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional hollow thread filters were prepared by melt spinning polyethylene and then stretching it into a porous structures. In the present invention, electron-rays are irradiated to the conventional filters to form radicals on the ethylene chains. Then, chloromethyl styrene and methacrylic acid are brought into contact with each other to take place graft polymerization. Then, secondary or lower amine is brought into contact to aminate them. This can provide a functional resin having weakly acidic groups (-COOH) and weakly basic groups (-NRR') in the polyethylene main chain. When a pretreatment device is disposed to a desalting tower using hollow thread filters provided with the ion exchanging function, it is possible to reduce both the load due to the suspensions and load due to the ionic ingredients to the desalting tower and the quality of processed water can be improved. (T.M.)

  17. Technical study for the automation and control of processes of the chemical processing plant for liquid radioactive waste at Racso Nuclear Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to introduce the development of an automation and control system in a chemical processing plant for liquid radioactive waste of low and medium activity. The control system established for the chemical processing plant at RACSO Nuclear Center is described. It is an on-off sequential type system with feedback. This type of control has been chosen according to the volumes to be treated at the plant as processing is carried out by batches. The system will be governed by a programmable controller (PLC), modular, with a minimum of 24 digital inputs, 01 analog input, 16 digital outputs and 01 analog input. Digital inputs and outputs are specifically found at the level sensors of the tanks and at the solenoid-type electro valve control. Analog inputs and outputs have been considered at the pH control. The comprehensive system has been divided into three control bonds, The bonds considered for the operation of the plant are described, the plant has storing, fitting, processing and clarifying tanks. National Instruments' Lookout software has been used for simulation, constituting an important tool not only for a design phase but also for a practical one since this software will be used as SCADA system. Finally, the advantages and benefits of this automation system are analyzed, radiation doses received by occupationally exposed workers are reduced and reliability on the operation on the system is increased. (authors)

  18. Inverse osmotic process for radioactive laundry waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To effectively recover the processing amount reduced in a continuous treatment. Method: Laundry waste containing radioactive substances discharged from a nuclear power plant is processed in an inverse osmotic process while adding starch digesting enzymes such as amylase and takadiastase, as well as soft spherical bodies such as sponge balls of a particle diameter capable of flowing in the flow of the liquid wastes along the inverse osmotic membrane pipe and having such a softness and roundness as not to damage the inverse osmotic membrane. This process can remove the floating materials such as thread dusts or hairs deposited on the membrane surface by the action of the soft elastic balls and remove paste or the like through decomposition by the digesting enzymes. Consequently, effective recovery can be attained for the reduced processing amount. (Furukawa, Y.)

  19. Operation for Rokkasho Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rokkasho Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) Disposal Center is located in Oishitai, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikitagun, of Aomori Prefecture. This district is situated in the southern part of Shimohita Peninsula in the northeastern corner of the prefecture, which lies at the northern tip of Honshu, Japan's main island. The Rokkasho LLW Disposal Center deals with only LLW generated by operating of nuclear power plants. The No.1 and No.2 disposal facility are now in operation. The disposal facilities in operation have a total dispose capacity of 80,000m3 (equivalent to 400,000 drums). Our final business scope is to dispose of radioactive waste corresponding to 600,000 m3 (equivalent to 3000,000 drums). For No.1 disposal facility, we have been disposing of homogeneous waste, including condensed liquid waste, spent resin, solidified with cement and asphalt, etc. For No.2 disposal facility, we can bury a solid waste solidified with mortar, such as activated metals and plastics, etc. Using an improved construction technology for an artificial barrier, the concrete pits in No.2 disposal facility could be constructed more economical and spacious than that of No.1. Both No.1 and No.2 facility will be able to bury about 200,000 waste packages (drums) each corresponding to 40,000 m3. As of March 17, 2008, Approximately 200,00 waste drums summing up No.1 and No.2 disposal facility have been received from Nuclear power plants and buried. (author)

  20. Mobile Processing Systems for Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world.' One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property'. The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in Member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and to assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. Radioactive waste is generated from the operation of nuclear power plants, fuel cycle facilities and other nuclear applications. It consists of distinct 'waste types' with a variety of characteristics. Mobile systems have recently been increasingly deployed for predisposal management of radioactive waste streams (e.g. pretreatment, treatment and conditioning). In addition, considerations of performance, cost and flexibility may render mobile systems attractive for future nuclear facilities. This publication provides guidance for evaluating and implementing processing technologies

  1. Final Treatment Center Project for Liquid and Wet Radioactive Waste in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Final Treatment Center (FTC) for Mochovce nuclear power plant (NPP) is designed for treatment and final conditioning of radioactive liquid and wet waste produced from plant operation. Mochovce NNP uses a Russian VVER-440 type reactor. Treated wastes comprise radioactive concentrates, spent resin and sludge. VUJE Inc. as an experienced company in field of treatment of radioactive waste in Slovakia has been chosen as main contractor for technological part of FTC. This paper describes the capacity, flow chart, overall waste flow and parameters of the main components in the FTC. The initial project was submitted for approval to the Slovak Electric plc. in 2003. The design and manufacture of main components were performed in 2004 and 2005. FTC construction work started early in 2004. Initial non-radioactive testing of the system is planned for summer 2006 and then radioactive tests are to be followed. A one-year trial operation of facility is planned for completion in 2007. SE - VYZ will be operates the FTC during trial operation and after its completion. SE - VYZ is subsidiary company of Slovak Electric plc. and it is responsible for treatment with radioactive waste and spent fuel in the Slovak republic. SE - VYZ has, besides of other significant experience with operation of Jaslovske Bohunice Treatment Centre. The overall capacity of the FTC is 870 m3/year of concentrates and 40 m3/year of spent resin and sludge. Bituminization and cementation were provided as main technologies for treatment of these wastes. Treatment of concentrate is performed by bituminization. Concentrate and bitumen are metered into a thin film evaporator with rotating wiping blades. Surplus water is evaporated and concentrate salts are embedded in bitumen. Bitumen product is discharged into 200 l steel drums. Spent resin and sludge are decanted, dried and mixed with bitumen. These mixtures are also discharged into 200 l steel drums. Drums are moved along bituminization line on a roller

  2. Process of disposing radioactive washed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Object: To use a surface active agent, which produces no bubble when vaporized and concentrated, as a cleaning material, to effect processes of vaporization and concentration without removing the surface active agent from the cleaned waste. Structure: A cleaning agent containing 10 - 30% of a non-ion surface active agent comprising a combination of polyethylene-alkyl-ether and polyethylene-alkyl-phenylether in a ratio of 1 to 1, 0 - 30% of chelate, 1% of re-adhesion prohibitor (CMC), and 1 - 5% of emulsion stabilizer is used to wash a radioactive contamination, an anti-foaming agent in a small amount is added to the washed waste only when in start to directly vaporize and concentrate the same, after which it is heated and dried and thereafter, it is decomposed at a temperature less than 4000C for treatment of reduction in volume. (Kawakami, Y.)

  3. Processing method for radioactive gaseous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive gaseous wastes generated in a nuclear power plant are introduced from a main condensator to a hydrogen re-combiner passing through an air extractor to recombine and devolume a hydrogen gas. At the same time, exhausted gases from the hydrogen-recombiner are introduced to a dehumidifying cooler to conduct cooling and primary dehumidification. Then, the exhausted gases are introduced to a dehumidifying tower to remove the moisture content, introduced to an activated carbon-type rare gas hold-up tower to conduct a delayed processing. In such a method of processing radioactive gaseous wastes, a dehumidifying device incorporating hollow membrane having a great steam permeation coefficient is used as a dehumidifying cooler and a dehumidifying tower, and the inside of the system is pressurized by a pressurized air and an ejector, to improve the steam permeability. With such procedures, the dehumidifying cooler and a refrigerator used for primary cooling are no more necessary, thereby enabling to substantially save a space for installation of the dehumidifying device. Further, maintenance upon periodical inspection is facilitated, to shorten the period therefor to about 1/4. (T.M.)

  4. Programs of recovery of radioactive wastes from the trenches and land decontamination of the radioactive waste storage center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report there are the decontamination program of the land of the Radioactive Waste Storage Center, the Program of Recovery of the radioactive waste of the trenches, the recovery of polluted bar with cobalt 60, the recovery of minerals and tailings of uranium and of earth with minerals and tailings of uranium, the recovery of worn out sealed sources and the waste recovery with the accustomed corresponding actions are presented. (Author)

  5. Hydrothermal processing of radioactive combustible waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worl, L.A.; Buelow, S.J.; Harradine, D.; Le, L.; Padilla, D.D.; Roberts, J.H.

    1998-09-01

    Hydrothermal processing has been demonstrated for the treatment of radioactive combustible materials for the US Department of Energy. A hydrothermal processing system was designed, built and tested for operation in a plutonium glovebox. Presented here are results from the study of the hydrothermal oxidation of plutonium and americium contaminated organic wastes. Experiments show the destruction of the organic component to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, with 30 wt.% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as an oxidant, at 540 C and 46.2 MPa. The majority of the actinide component forms insoluble products that are easily separated by filtration. A titanium liner in the reactor and heat exchanger provide corrosion resistance for the oxidation of chlorinated organics. The treatment of solid material is accomplished by particle size reduction and the addition of a viscosity enhancing agent to generate a homogeneous pumpable mixture.

  6. Hydrothermal processing of radioactive combustible waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrothermal processing has been demonstrated for the treatment of radioactive combustible materials for the US Department of Energy. A hydrothermal processing system was designed, built and tested for operation in a plutonium glovebox. Presented here are results from the study of the hydrothermal oxidation of plutonium and americium contaminated organic wastes. Experiments show the destruction of the organic component to CO2 and H2O, with 30 wt.% H2O2 as an oxidant, at 540 C and 46.2 MPa. The majority of the actinide component forms insoluble products that are easily separated by filtration. A titanium liner in the reactor and heat exchanger provide corrosion resistance for the oxidation of chlorinated organics. The treatment of solid material is accomplished by particle size reduction and the addition of a viscosity enhancing agent to generate a homogeneous pumpable mixture

  7. Method of solidification processing for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To easily form radioactive wastes pellets which are stable for a long period of time. Method: Inorganic binders comprising silica sol, lithium silicate or mixtures thereof are added to radioactive wastes and, depending on the requirements, curing promotors and/or water proofness improver to the inorganic binders are further mixed and the resultant mixture is hardened by press-molding them into a pellet shape. Since such binders are added and press-molded, it is possible to mold strong and long time durable pellets at a lower molding pressure than usual. (Takahashi, M.)

  8. Process for the encapsulation of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste material, particularly radioactive ion exchange resin in the wet condition, is encapsulated in a polyurethane by dispersing the waste in an aqueous emulsion of an organic polyol, a polyisocyanate and an hydraulic cement and allowing the emulsion to set to form a monolithic block. If desired the emulsion may also contain additional filler e.g. sand or aggregate to increase the density of the final product. Preferred polyurethanes are those made from a polyester polyol and an organic diisocyanate, particularly hexamethylene diisocyanate. (author)

  9. Process for treating waste water containing radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process for treating waste water containing radioactive substances comprising treating the waste water by reverse osmosis in the presence of at least one organic surfactant selected from the group consisting of anionic surfactants, cationic surfactants and nonionic surfactants

  10. Plasma separation process: Disposal of PSP radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive wastes, in the form of natural uranium contaminated scrap hardware and residual materials from decontamination operations, were generated in the PSP facilities in buildings R1 and 106. Based on evaluation of the characteristics of these wastes and the applicable regulations, the various options for the processing and disposal of PSP radioactive wastes were investigated and recommended procedures were developed. The essential features of waste processing included: (1) the solidification of all liquid wastes prior to shipment; (2) cutting of scrap hardware to fit 55-gallon drums and use of inerting agents (diatomaceous earth) to eliminate pyrophoric hazards; and (3) compaction of soft wastes. All PSP radioactive wastes were shipped to the Hanford Site for disposal. As part of the waste disposal process, a detailed plan was formulated for handling and tracking of PSP radioactive wastes, from the point of generation through shipping. In addition, a waste minimization program was implemented to reduce the waste volume or quantity. Included in this document are discussions of the applicable regulations, the types of PSP wastes, the selection of the preferred waste disposal approach and disposal site, the analysis and classification of PSP wastes, the processing and ultimate disposition of PSP wastes, the handling and tracking of PSP wastes, and the implementation of the PSP waste minimization program. 9 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs

  11. Method of processing for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To enable chemically and mechanically stable radioactive wastes storage. Method: Sintered pieces (or grains) of radioactive wastes are formed at the surface thereof with coatings of silicon carbide by way of chemical vapor deposition. For the chemical vapor deposition, a gas mixture of silane (SiH4) and methane is reacted under the presence of gaseous hydrogen, for example, to deposit silicon carbide on the particle surfaces. The membrane thickness for the silicon carbide is controlled with a range of 5 - 100 μm. Then, the coated particles are charged into an internal vessel and solidified together with metals. For the solidification, coated particles are, for instance, compression-molded together with metal powder and, additionally, sintered if required. Further, the solidifying products are buried into metals within a storage container. (Kawakami, Y.)

  12. The DMC process for radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes AEA Technology's patented Direct Membrane Cleaning (DMC) technology for enhancing the filtration of finely divided solids from aqueous streams. Electrolytically generated, microscopic gas bubbles at the membrane surface remove the superficial fouling layer, enching the permeation rate of the membrane. DMC technology has been demonstrated for ultrafilters and microfilters; several applications are summarized, including radioactive waste treatment and non-nuclear applications

  13. Defense Waste Processing Facility radioactive operations -- Part 2, Glass making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, SC is the nation's first and world's largest vitrification facility. Following a ten year construction period and nearly 3 year non-radioactive test program, the DWPF began radioactive operations in March, 1996. The results of the first 8 months of radioactive operations are presented. Topics include facility production from waste preparation batching to canister filling

  14. Technical evaluation of proposed Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical report is a comprehensive evaluation of the proposal by the Ukrainian State Committee on Nuclear Power Utilization to create a central facility for radioactive waste (not spent fuel) processing. The central facility is intended to process liquid and solid radioactive wastes generated from all of the Ukrainian nuclear power plants and the waste generated as a result of Chernobyl 1, 2 and 3 decommissioning efforts. In addition, this report provides general information on the quantity and total activity of radioactive waste in the 30-km Zone and the Sarcophagus from the Chernobyl accident. Processing options are described that may ultimately be used in the long-term disposal of selected 30-km Zone and Sarcophagus wastes. A detailed report on the issues concerning the construction of a Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility (CRWPF) from the Ukrainian Scientific Research and Design institute for Industrial Technology was obtained and incorporated into this report. This report outlines various processing options, their associated costs and construction schedules, which can be applied to solving the operating and decommissioning radioactive waste management problems in Ukraine. The costs and schedules are best estimates based upon the most current US industry practice and vendor information. This report focuses primarily on the handling and processing of what is defined in the US as low-level radioactive wastes

  15. Microbial processes in radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Karsten [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology

    2000-04-15

    Independent scientific work has unambiguously demonstrated life to be present in most deep geological formations investigated, down to depths of several kilometres. Microbial processes have consequently become an integral part of the performance safety assessment of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repositories. This report presents the research record from the last decade of the microbiology research programme of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) and gives current perspectives of microbial processes in HLW disposal. The goal of the microbiology programme is to understand how microbes may interact with the performance of a future HLW repository. First, for those who are not so familiar with microbes and their ways of living, the concept of 'microbe' is briefly defined. Then, the main characteristics of recognised microbial assemblage and microbial growth, activity and survival are given. The main part of the report summarises data collected during the research period of 1987-1999 and interpretations of these data. Short summaries introduce the research tasks, followed by reviews of the results and insight gained. Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) produce sulphide and have commonly been observed in groundwater environments typical of Swedish HLW repositories. Consequently, the potential for sulphide corrosion of the copper canisters surrounding the HLW must be considered. The interface between the copper canister and the buffer is of special concern. Despite the fact that nowhere are the environmental constraints for life as strong as here, it has been suggested that SRB could survive and locally produce sulphide in concentrations large enough to cause damage to the canister. Experiments conducted thus far have indicated the opposite. Early studies in the research programme revealed previously unknown microbial ecosystems in igneous rock aquifers at depths exceeding 1000 m. This discovery triggered a thorough exploration of the

  16. Microbial processes in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Independent scientific work has unambiguously demonstrated life to be present in most deep geological formations investigated, down to depths of several kilometres. Microbial processes have consequently become an integral part of the performance safety assessment of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repositories. This report presents the research record from the last decade of the microbiology research programme of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) and gives current perspectives of microbial processes in HLW disposal. The goal of the microbiology programme is to understand how microbes may interact with the performance of a future HLW repository. First, for those who are not so familiar with microbes and their ways of living, the concept of 'microbe' is briefly defined. Then, the main characteristics of recognised microbial assemblage and microbial growth, activity and survival are given. The main part of the report summarises data collected during the research period of 1987-1999 and interpretations of these data. Short summaries introduce the research tasks, followed by reviews of the results and insight gained. Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) produce sulphide and have commonly been observed in groundwater environments typical of Swedish HLW repositories. Consequently, the potential for sulphide corrosion of the copper canisters surrounding the HLW must be considered. The interface between the copper canister and the buffer is of special concern. Despite the fact that nowhere are the environmental constraints for life as strong as here, it has been suggested that SRB could survive and locally produce sulphide in concentrations large enough to cause damage to the canister. Experiments conducted thus far have indicated the opposite. Early studies in the research programme revealed previously unknown microbial ecosystems in igneous rock aquifers at depths exceeding 1000 m. This discovery triggered a thorough exploration of the

  17. Stabilization of radioactive liquid process waste at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After describing radiochemical and chemical composition of typical process waste water, a review of the various waste processing techniques that have been used prior to 1984 is given. In 1984 the hydrofracture operation was shutdown and ORNL had to quickly find means to reduce liquid low level radioactive waste generation before the storage area was filled. A clarifier was reinstalled at the head of the process flowsheet and results of this waste reduction are given. In 1987 a zeolite column was added to the process waste treatment plant for the removal of cesium 137. A flow sheet of the existing waste water treatment plant and radiochemical concentrations of the effluent are given

  18. Processing method for miscellaneous radioactive solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miscellaneous solid wastes are subjected to heat treatment at a temperature not lower than a carbonizing temperature of organic materials in the wastes and not higher than the melting temperature of inorganic materials in the wastes, for example, not lower than 200degC but not higher than 660degC, and then resultant miscellaneous solid wastes are solidified using a water hardening solidification material. With such procedures, the organic materials in the miscellaneous solids are decomposed into gases. Therefore, solid materials excellent in long term stability can be formed. In addition, since the heat treatment is conducted at a relatively low temperature such as not higher than 660degC, the generation amount of off gases is reduced to simplify an off gas processing system, and since molten materials are not formed, handing is facilitated. (T.M.)

  19. Defense Waste Processing Facility Radioactive Operations - Year Two

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Occhipinti, J.E.; Carter, J.T.; Edwards, R.E.; Beck, R.S.; Iverson, D.C.

    1998-03-01

    The Savannah River Site`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, SC is the nation`s first high-level radioactive waste vitrification facility. This waste (130 million liters) which has been stored in carbon steel underground tanks and is now being pretreated, melted into a highly durable borosilicate glass and poured into stainless steel canisters for eventual disposal in a geologic repository. Following a ten-year construction period and nearly three-year nonradioactive test program, the DWPF began radioactive operations in March 1996. The first nine months of radioactive operations have been reported previously. As with any complex technical facility, difficulties were encountered during the transition to radioactive operations. Results of the second year of radioactive operations are presented in this paper. The discussion includes: feed preparation and glass melting, resolution of the melter pouring issues, improvements in processing attainment and throughput, and planned improvements in laboratory attainment and throughput.

  20. Mobile unit for processing liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrate of radioactive wastes is filled into a stainless steel container in which its chemical composition is adjusted. The treated concentrate is pumped int liquid scales from where the weighed concentrate is discharged into a homogenizer, or into a calciner. The calcinate from the calciner and the cement from the hopper are transported to hopper scales which are connected to the homogenizer. Here, a cement mass is produced which is discharged into tin drums. The equipment is divided into three independent transportable modules: the homogenizer module, the scales module and the calciner module. The total height of the assembled modules is 5.5 m. The cement hopper and the oblique cement transporter are outside the modules. The control panel with electronic equipment is also placed outside the modules. Three operators are required for the system. (E.S.)

  1. Radioactive waste shipments to Hanford Retrievable Storage from the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Pleasanton, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vejvoda, E.J.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; DeLorenzo, D.S.; Weyns-Rollosson, M.I. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., NM (United States); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) wastes now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Approximately 3.8% of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to WIPP was generated at the General Electric (GE) Vallecitos Nuclear Center (VNC) in Pleasanton, California and shipped to the Hanford Site for storage. The purpose of this report is to characterize these radioactive solid wastes using process knowledge, existing records, and oral history interviews. The waste was generated almost exclusively from the activities, of the Plutonium Fuels Development Laboratory and the Plutonium Analytical Laboratory. Section 2.0 provides further details of the VNC physical plant, facility operations, facility history, and current status. The solid radioactive wastes were associated with two US Atomic Energy Commission/US Department of Energy reactor programs -- the Fast Ceramic Reactor (FCR) program, and the Fast Flux Test Reactor (FFTR) program. These programs involved the fabrication and testing of fuel assemblies that utilized plutonium in an oxide form. The types and estimated quantities of waste resulting from these programs are discussed in detail in Section 3.0. A detailed discussion of the packaging and handling procedures used for the VNC radioactive wastes shipped to the Hanford Site is provided in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides an in-depth look at this waste including the following: weight and volume of the waste, container types and numbers, physical description of the waste, radiological components, hazardous constituents, and current storage/disposal locations.

  2. Radioactive waste shipments to Hanford Retrievable Storage from the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Pleasanton, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) wastes now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Approximately 3.8% of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to WIPP was generated at the General Electric (GE) Vallecitos Nuclear Center (VNC) in Pleasanton, California and shipped to the Hanford Site for storage. The purpose of this report is to characterize these radioactive solid wastes using process knowledge, existing records, and oral history interviews. The waste was generated almost exclusively from the activities, of the Plutonium Fuels Development Laboratory and the Plutonium Analytical Laboratory. Section 2.0 provides further details of the VNC physical plant, facility operations, facility history, and current status. The solid radioactive wastes were associated with two US Atomic Energy Commission/US Department of Energy reactor programs -- the Fast Ceramic Reactor (FCR) program, and the Fast Flux Test Reactor (FFTR) program. These programs involved the fabrication and testing of fuel assemblies that utilized plutonium in an oxide form. The types and estimated quantities of waste resulting from these programs are discussed in detail in Section 3.0. A detailed discussion of the packaging and handling procedures used for the VNC radioactive wastes shipped to the Hanford Site is provided in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides an in-depth look at this waste including the following: weight and volume of the waste, container types and numbers, physical description of the waste, radiological components, hazardous constituents, and current storage/disposal locations

  3. Compact combustion facility for thermal processing of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the processing of low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in nuclear power plants a compact multi-chamber combustion facility was constructed. Compared to conventional shaft furnaces a space saving of about 50% was reached. Exhaust gas cleaning is included. The system can be operated in one-shift-operation. Small combustion facilities can be assembled on site and are supposed to be implemented in new nuclear power plants that produce less radioactive wastes.

  4. Waste processing system for product contaminated with radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To enable to processing contaminated products while separating them into metals at high contamination level and non-metals at low contamination level. Constitution: Pulverized radioactive wastes conveyed on a conveyor belt are uniformly irradiated by a ring-illumination device and then they are picked-up by a television camera or the like. The picked-up signals are sent to an image processing device, applied with appropriate binarization and metal objects are separated by utilizing the light absorbing property of non-metal and light reflection property of metals. The graviational center for the metal object is calculated from the binarized image, the positional information is provided to a robot controller and the metal object is transferred to another position by a robot. Since only the metal object at high radioactive contamination level can be taken out separately, it is no more necessary to process the entire wastes as the high level decontamination products, to thereby provide an economical advantage. (Sekiya, K.)

  5. Decontamination processes for low level radioactive waste metal objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disposal and safe storage of contaminated nuclear waste is a problem of international scope. Although the greatest volume of such waste is concentrated in the USA and former Soviet Union, Western Europe and Japan have contaminated nuclear waste requiring attention. Japan's radioactive nuclear waste is principally generated at nuclear power plants since it has no nuclear weapons production. However, their waste reduction, storage and disposal problems may be comparable to that of the USA on an inhabited area basis when consideration is given to population density where Japan's population, half that of the USA, lives in an area slightly smaller than that of California's. If everyone's backyard was in California, the USA might have insoluble radioactive waste reduction, storage and disposal problems. Viewing Japan's contaminated nuclear waste as a national problem requiring solutions, as well as an economic opportunity, Morikawa began research and development for decontaminating low level radioactive nuclear waste seven years ago. As engineers and manufacturers of special machinery for many years Morikawa brings special electro/mechanical/pneumatic Skills and knowledge to solving these unique problems. Genden Engineering Services and Construction Company (GESC), an affiliate of Japan Atomic Power Company, recently joined with Morikawa in this R ampersand D effort to decontaminate low level radioactive nuclear waste (LLW) and to substantially reduce the volume of such nuclear waste requiring long term storage. This paper will present equipment with both mechanical and chemical processes developed over these several years by Morikawa and most recently in cooperation with GESC

  6. Chemical precipitation processes for the treatment of aqueous radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical precipitation by coagulation-flocculation and sedimentation has been commonly used for many years to treat liquid (aqueous) radioactive waste. This method allows the volume of waste to be substantially reduced for further treatment or conditioning and the bulk of the waste to de discharged. Chemical precipitation is usually applied in combination with other methods as part of a comprehensive waste management scheme. As with any other technology, chemical precipitation is constantly being improved to reduce cost to increase the effectiveness and safety on the entire waste management system. The purpose of this report is to review and update the information provided in Technical Reports Series No. 89, Chemical Treatment of Radioactive Wastes, published in 1968. In this report the chemical methods currently in use for the treatment of low and intermediate level aqueous radioactive wastes are described and illustrated. Comparisons are given of the advantages and limitations of the processes, and it is noted that good decontamination and volume reduction are not the only criteria according to which a particular process should be selected. Emphasis has been placed on the need to carefully characterize each waste stream, to examine fully the effect of segregation and the importance of looking at the entire operation and not just the treatment process when planning a liquid waste treatment facility. This general approach includes local requirements and possibilities, discharge authorization, management of the concentrates, ICRP recommendations and economics. It appears that chemical precipitation process and solid-liquid separation techniques will continue to be widely used in liquid radioactive waste treatment. Current research and development is showing that combining different processes in one treatment plant can provide higher decontamination factors and smaller secondary waste arisings. Some of these processes are already being incorporated into new and

  7. Problem of the NPP liquid radioactive wastes processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern methods of NPP radioactive waste processing and disposal are briefly presented, bituminization with the following disposal in the clayey soil in particular. Soviet installations of liquid waste bituminization and results of proving ground preservation of bituminic blocks are briefly described. These results indicate a possibility of bituminic material disposal with specific activity of 1 Ci/l directly in the soil without waterproofing. High safety and effectivity of waste bituminization is shown in comparison with preservation variant of liquid radioactive concentrates in capacities

  8. Process innovations in the management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innovative processes and techniques were investigated for their possible application in the management of low, intermediate and high level radioactive wastes. High decontamination, high volume reduction, process simplicity and operational safety are some of the objectives of these investigation. Based on the favourable results, it is hoped that many of these process innovations can be introduced in the waste management schemes with beneficial results. (author)

  9. Radioactive waste disposal in a private urban academic medical center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior to 1979 all of Michael Reese Hospital's low level radioactive waste (LLW) was shipped to Sheffield, Illinois (approximately 100 miles) for burial. This method was an economical, convenient and expedient means of LLW disposal. Since 1979 all generators of LLW have been confronted with escalating costs, erratic service, and cumbersome regulations for shipping and burying wastes. Additional disposal procedures, i.e. use o sanitary sewer, storage-for-decay, incineration and volume reduction before shipment, became relevant and were assessed. The implementation of these alternative methods and our experiences at Michael Reese Hospital are discussed

  10. Drying device and processing method for radioactive solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A waste disposing vessel filled with radioactive solid wastes containing zirconium or alloys thereof is contained and sealed in a drying vessel of a drying device and then evaluated. Then, the radioactive solid wastes containing zirconium or alloys thereof in the waste disposing vessel are dried by heating using steams from the outside of the drying vessel. After the completion of the drying, the waste disposing vessel is sealed in the drying device, and the sealed waste disposing vessel is pressed after taking out from the drying vessel. Since this method requires no displacement or deaerating operation for sealing, the handling step can be saved, the working efficiency for a series of processings is improved, and there is no worry of ignition of fines due to mechanical shocks. (N.H.)

  11. Method of processing high level radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High level radioactive liquid wastes formed from re-processing plants are cleaned being frozen in a freezing step. Frozen products of high level radioactive liquid wastes are put to a heated, pressurized and evacuated state in a sublimation step and nitric acid, water, subliming nuclides, etc. are sublimated from the frozen products. They are condensated in a condenser into liquid condensates. Then, a solution of sodium hydroxide is added to the residues and they are separated in a solid-liquid separation step into solutions such as of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide and residues mainly comprising nuclear fission products, actinoide elements and corrosion products in the re-processing step. Then, the residues are dried and calcined to form nitrates, drying and calcinating products, etc. of such shape and volume as easy to be stored. Accordingly, as compared with the case of directly processing high level radioactive liquid wastes, the amount of solidification products can be reduced remarkably. (I.N.)

  12. Experimental study on pyrolysis incineration process for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to treat combustible radioactive wastes containing plastics and rubber in a considerable amount, a pyrolysis incineration process has been developed. Laboratory study and pilot test for the technology were performed. The results obtained in pilot test show that the waste containing a larger amount of plastics and rubber can be burnt perfectly in given technologic conditions, with a high volume-reduction factor obtained, and the process is easy to control

  13. The storage center of short life low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Situated at 50 km of Troyes, the Aube Center was opened in 1992 in order to take over from the Manche Center, for the surface storage of low life low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. It offers an answer to manage safely theses wastes at an industrial scale during 50 years. (A.L.B.)

  14. Melt-processing method for miscellaneous radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miscellaneous radioactive solid wastes containing waste components of various kinds of materials are charged into a water-cooling type cold crucible induction melting furnace disposed in high frequency coils. High frequency electric current is supplied to the high frequency coils which surrounds the melting furnace to melt the miscellaneous wastes by induction-heating. In this case, plural kinds of currents of high frequencies suitable to induction-heating the various kinds of materials contained in the miscellaneous radioactive solid wastes are supplied to the high frequency coils in the present invention. Therefore, the most effective melting performance can be provided. As a result, even miscellaneous radioactive solid wastes having various kinds of mixed materials can be melted and processed uniformly, rapidly and efficiently entirely. In addition, since both materials of metals and glasses in the miscellaneous solid radioactive wastes can be melted as main materials, they are not limited to the mixing ratio of metals and glass in the wastes. (T.M.)

  15. Radioactive waste disposal assessment - overview of biosphere processes and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides an overview of biosphere processes and models in the general context of the radiological assessment of radioactive waste disposal as a basis for HMIP's response to biosphere aspects of Nirex's submissions for disposal of radioactive wastes in a purpose-built repository at Sellafield, Cumbria. The overview takes into account published information from the UK as available from Nirex's safety and assessment research programme and HMIP's disposal assessment programme, as well as that available from studies in the UK and elsewhere. (Author)

  16. Defense Waste Processing Facility -- Radioactive operations -- Part 3 -- Remote operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, South Carolina is the nation's first and world's largest vitrification facility. Following a ten year construction period and nearly three years of non-radioactive testing, the DWPF began radioactive operations in March 1996. Radioactive glass is poured from the joule heated melter into the stainless steel canisters. The canisters are then temporarily sealed, decontaminated, resistance welded for final closure, and transported to an interim storage facility. All of these operations are conducted remotely with equipment specially designed for these processes. This paper reviews canister processing during the first nine months of radioactive operations at DWPF. The fundamental design consideration for DWPF remote canister processing and handling equipment are discussed as well as interim canister storage

  17. Radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focusing on radioactive waste management and disposal policies in the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Federal Republic of Germany, this book gives a detailed historical account of the policy process in these three countries, and draws out the implications for theory and public policy. This comparative approach underlines how profoundly different the policy process has been in different countries. By comparing the evolution of policy in three countries, fundamental questions about the formation and resolution of technical decisions under uncertainty are clarified. The analysis of nuclear strategy, the politics of nuclear power, and the shifting emphasis of government regulation redefines the issue of radwaste management and sets it at the heat of the current debate about power, the environment and society. The combination of up-to-date technological assessment with an account of the social and political implications of radwaste management makes'Radioactive Waste'particularly useful to students of environmental studies, geography and public administration. (author)

  18. Radioactive wastes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the French way to deal with nuclear wastes. 4 categories of radioactive wastes have been defined: 1) very low-level wastes (TFA), 2) low or medium-wastes with short or medium half-life (A), 3) low or medium-level wastes with long half-life (B), and 4) high-level wastes with long half-life (C). ANDRA (national agency for the management of radioactive wastes) manages 2 sites of definitive surface storage (La-Manche and Aube centers) for TFA-wastes. The Aube center allows the storage of A-wastes whose half-life is less than 30 years. This site will receive waste packages for 50 years and will require a regular monitoring for 300 years after its decommissioning. No definitive solutions have been taken for B and C wastes, they are temporarily stored at La Hague processing plant. Concerning these wastes the French parliament will have to take a decision by 2006. At this date and within the framework of the Bataille law (1991), scientific studies concerning the definitive or retrievable storage, the processing techniques (like transmutation) will have been achieved and solutions will be proposed. These studies are numerous, long and complex, they involve fresh knowledge in geology, chemistry, physics,.. and they have implied the setting of underground facilities in order to test and validate solutions in situ. This article presents also the transmutation technique. (A.C.)

  19. Defense waste processing facility radioactive operations. Part 1 - operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, SC is the nation's first and the world's largest vitrification facility. Following a ten year construction program and a 3 year non-radioactive test program, DWPF began radioactive operations in March 1996. This paper presents the results of the first 9 months of radioactive operations. Topics include: operations of the remote processing equipment reliability, and decontamination facilities for the remote processing equipment. Key equipment discussed includes process pumps, telerobotic manipulators, infrared camera, Holledge trademark level gauges and in-cell (remote) cranes. Information is presented regarding equipment at the conclusion of the DWPF test program it also discussed, with special emphasis on agitator blades and cooling/heating coil wear. 3 refs., 4 figs

  20. Processing method and device of radioactive sludge waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive nuclides in a relatively highly radioactivated sludges generated from a nuclear power plant or like other facility are at first leached by using acids. Then, the leached sludge wastes are devolumed or solidified, or solidified after devoluming depending on the radioactivity level, to stabilize the sludge wastes. That is, the radioactivity of the radioactive sludge wastes is separated, to lower the radioactivity level of the radioactive sludge wastes, and they are devolumed by burning or applied with solidification of drying and solidifying into a plastic solid material or dehydrating and solidifying into a solid cement material depending on the level. Further, most of acids used for leaching the radioactive nuclides is recovered and reused. Accordingly, the amount of residual liquid wastes is decreased to a small amount and they are neutralized, and thereafter, can be stored for a long period of time as condensed liquid wastes as they are. (T.M.)

  1. Regulation of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bulletin contains information about activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). In this leaflet the regulation of radioactive waste management of the UJD are presented. Radioactive waste (RAW) is the gaseous, liquid or solid material that contains or is contaminated with radionuclides at concentrations or activities greater than clearance levels and for which no use is foreseen. The classification of radioactive waste on the basis of type and activity level is: - transition waste; - short lived low and intermediate level waste (LlLW-SL); - long lived low and intermediate level waste (LlLW-LL); - high level waste. Waste management (in accordance with Act 130/98 Coll.) involves collection, sorting, treatment, conditioning, transport and disposal of radioactive waste originated by nuclear facilities and conditioning, transport to repository and disposal of other radioactive waste (originated during medical, research and industrial use of radioactive sources). The final goal of radioactive waste management is RAW isolation using a system of engineered and natural barriers to protect population and environment. Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic regulates radioactive waste management in accordance with Act 130/98 Coll. Inspectors regularly inspect and evaluate how the requirements for nuclear safety at nuclear facilities are fulfilled. On the basis of safety documentation evaluation, UJD issued permission for operation of four radioactive waste management facilities. Nuclear facility 'Technologies for treatment and conditioning contains bituminization plants and Bohunice conditioning centre with sorting, fragmentation, evaporation, incineration, supercompaction and cementation. Final product is waste package (Fibre reinforced container with solidified waste) acceptable for near surface repository in Mochovce. Republic repository in Mochovce is built for disposal of short lived low and intermediate level waste. Next

  2. Method of volume-reducing processing for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To process the processing products of radioactive liquid wastes and burnable solid wastes produced from nuclear facilities into stable solidification products by heat melting. Method: At first, glass fiber wastes of contaminated air filters are charged in a melting furnace. Then, waste products obtained through drying, sintering, incineration, etc. are mixed with a proper amount of glass fibers and charged into the melting furnace. Both of the charged components are heated to a temperature at which the glass fibers are melted. The burnable materials are burnt out to provide a highly volume-reduced products. When the products are further heated to a temperature at which metals or metal oxides of a higher melting point than the glass fiber, the glass fibers and the metals or metal oxides are fused to each other to be combined in a molecular structure into more stabilized products. The products are excellent in strength, stability, durability and leaching resistance at ambient temperature. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. Radioactive Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2015-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2014. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes. PMID:26420096

  4. Radioactive Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2015. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes. PMID:27620100

  5. Separation processes for high-level radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During World War II, production of nuclear materials in the United States for national defense, high-level waste (HLW) was generated as a byproduct. Since that time, further quantities of HLW radionuclides have been generated by continued nuclear materials production, research, and the commercial nuclear power program. In this paper HLW is defined as the highly radioactive material resulting from the processing of spent nuclear fuel. The HLW is the liquid waste generated during the recovery of uranium and plutonium in a fuel processing plant that generally contains more than 99% of the nonvolatile fission products produced during reactor operation. Since this paper deals with waste separation processes, spent reactor fuel elements that have not been dissolved and further processed are excluded

  6. THE USE OF POLYMERS IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE PROCESSING SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, E.; Fondeur, F.

    2013-04-15

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), one of the largest U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, has operated since the early 1950s. The early mission of the site was to produce critical nuclear materials for national defense. Many facilities have been constructed at the SRS over the years to process, stabilize and/or store radioactive waste and related materials. The primary materials of construction used in such facilities are inorganic (metals, concrete), but polymeric materials are inevitably used in various applications. The effects of aging, radiation, chemicals, heat and other environmental variables must therefore be understood to maximize service life of polymeric components. In particular, the potential for dose rate effects and synergistic effects on polymeric materials in multivariable environments can complicate compatibility reviews and life predictions. The selection and performance of polymeric materials in radioactive waste processing systems at the SRS are discussed.

  7. A very high energy imaging for radioactive wastes processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X imaging occurs at a lot of steps of the radioactive wastes processing: selection for conditioning, physical characterization with a view to radiological characterization, quality control of the product before storage, transport or disposal. Size and volume of the objects considered here necessitate to work with very high energy systems. Here is shown, through some examples, in which conditions this X imaging is carried out as well as the contribution of the obtained images. (O.M.)

  8. Processing method for radioactive gaseous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dehumidifier incorporating hollow thread membranes having a large steam permeation coefficient is used for a dehumidifying cooler or a dehumidifying tower for processing off gases from which water content is separated while passing through a hydrogen recombiner. A portion of gases on the primary side dried by the dehumidifier is used for the secondary side of the hollow thread membranes for purging. The steam permeation performance is further improved by sucking the secondary side to a pressure lower than the primary side by a vacuum pressure of a main condenser or using a purging vacuum pump. The humidity of the off gases is determined, for example, to 40% or less. When the dryness of the gas on the primary side dried by using the dehumidifier such as upon startup of the system is low, dried gas in the plant is used, as the purging gas, instead of the gases on the primary side dried by the dehumidifier. Then, the moisture in the off gases can be removed continuously to make the dehumidifying cooler and refrigerators unnecessary thereby enabling to save control for the inner side of the plant, facilitate the maintenance and shorten the term for the maintenance to about 1/4. (N.H.)

  9. Process for the storage of radioactive wastes by vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for storage of radioactive waste by vitrification is carried out as follows: low and medium active waste concentrates from borate-containing liquids are mixed with glassforming aggregates in maximum proportions 1:3 and heated to produce a glass-forming melt. In addition, ion exchange resins are added to approx. 10 wt% of the total mass prior to the melting process. Off-gases are drawn off and cleansed with a gas scrubber and/or filter whilst the solid radionuclides are stored in the glass. (orig./WI)

  10. Development of thermoplastic solidification process for urban solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban radioactive solid wastes come mainly from laboratories and hospitals using nuclear technology and radioisotope. Most of them is combustible and they are treated by incineration into ash which is dispersive and may easily contaminated the environment. For this reason the immobilization of the ash is required. Spent ion exchange resins are also dispersive and they need to be converted into stable waste forms. This paper describes the technological process and operation conditions for polymerization of the incineration ash and spent ion exchange resins with the thermoplastic solidification unit. (author). 1 fig., 6 tabs

  11. Solid radioactive waste processing facility of the NPP Leningrad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On behalf of the Russian Company Rosenergoatom NUKEM Technologies GmbH is planning and constructing a complete facility for the processing of solid low- and medium-active radioactive wastes. The NPP Leningrad comprises 4 units of RBMK-1000 reactors, the plant life has been extended by 15 years, the first unit is to be decommissioned in 2018. The construction of four new units is planned. NUKEM is in charge of planning, manufacture, construction and startup of the following facilities: sorting, internal transport, combustion and waste gas cleaning, emission surveillance, compacting, packaging and radiological measurement.

  12. Method and device for processing radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a method of processing radioactive liquid wastes containing ionic or colloidal actinides, powdery or fibrous cellose is uniformly deposited, as a tannin immobilizing carrier, on a filter membrane disposed in an adsorptive filtering and separating tower (ST). Reagents are succesively reacted to them to immobilize tannin thereby producing an adsorptive filtering and separating membrane. Then, liquid wastes of a predetermined flow rate depending on the performance of the separation membrane are supplied to the separation tower ST by a flow control valve and a flowmeter, to process the liquid wastes by the separation membrane. Further, when the processing performance of the separation membrane reaches a predetermined minimum value, ionic and colloidal actinides collected and accumulated to the membrane are removed and dissolved. Since reproduction can be conducted by the same device, facilities are simplified remarkably. (T.M.)

  13. Study of plastic solidification process on solid radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparisons between the plastic solidification conditions of incinerated ash and waste cation resin by using thermosetting plastic polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polystyrene (PS) and polyethylene (PE), and identified physico-chemical properties and irradiation resistance of solidified products were presented. These solidified products have passed through different tests as compression strength, leachability, durability, stability, permeability and irradiation resistance (106 Gy) etc. The result showed that the solidified products possessed stable properties and met the storage requirement. The waste tube of radioimmunoassay, being used as solidification medium to contain incinerated ash, had good mechanical properties and satisfactory volume reduction. This process may develop a new way for disposal solid radioactive waste by means of re-using waste

  14. Site selection process for radioactive waste repository (radioactive facility) in Cuba as a fundamental safety criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper show the process of search carried out for the selection of the safest site in the National territory, in order to sitting the Facility (Repository) that will disposal the low and intermediate level radioactive wastes, as well as the possible Storage Facility for nuclear spent Fuel (radioactive wastes of high activity). We summarize the obtained Methodology and the Criterions of exclusion adopted for the development of the Process of site selection, as well as the current condition of the researches that will permit the obtaining of the nominative objectives. (author)

  15. Characterization of the low-level radioactive wastes and waste packages of General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of the low-level wastes and waste packages generated by General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center (GEVNC) was made on the basis of 10 CFR Part 61 criteria and on the Technical Position on Waste Form (TP). In addition, a review has been performed of the handling and storage methods used by GEVNC for their transuranic wastes. Several options have been discussed for management of these materials. This evaluation was the result of a study initiated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), in which GEVNC participated. GEVNC generates radioactive wastes in hot cell processes which include examination of reactor fuel and components, and production of sources and radiopharmaceuticals. These wastes are usually Class B or greater. Class A wastes result from support activities which include maintenance of the hot cells. The dominant contaminating radioisotopes are Cs-137 and Co-60. In addition, transuranic wastes result from examination and burnup analyses of fuel. The latter wastes are all currently stored on-site at GEVNC. The low activity Class A, Cs-137 and Co-60 dominated wastes are generally packaged in 55-gallon drums and wooden boxes, while those of higher activity (Class B and greater) are packaged in 84-gallon extended 17H drums that are grouted with cement. The Class A packages meet the requirements in 10 CFR Part 61. The Class B and greater grouted drum packages have been evaluated with respect to meeting the stability requirements in 10 CFR Part 61 and with respect to the guidance in the TP. Based on the evaluation, overall, the waste forms of these packages are expected to maintain their stability, but a few concerns are identified and testing should be performed by GEVNC to demonstrate waste form stability. 57 references, 16 tables

  16. Radioactive waste package assay facility. Volume 3. Data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, in three volumes, covers the work carried out by Taylor Woodrow Construction Ltd, and two major sub-contractors: Harwell Laboratory (AEA Technology) and Siemens Plessey Controls Ltd, on the development of a radioactive waste package assay facility, for cemented 500 litre intermediate level waste drums. Volume 3, describes the work carried out by Siemens Plessey Controls Ltd on the data-processing aspects of an integrated waste assay facility. It introduces the need for a mathematical model of the assay process and develops a deterministic model which could be tested using Harwell experimental data. Relevant nuclear reactions are identified. Full implementation of the model was not possible within the scope of the Harwell experimental work, although calculations suggested that the model behaved as predicted by theory. 34 figs., 52 refs., 5 tabs

  17. The storage center of very-low level radioactive wastes; Le centre de stockage des dechets de tres faible activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The low level radioactive wastes have a radioactivity level as same as the natural radioactivity. This wastes category and their storage has been taken into account by the french legislation. This document presents the storage principles of the site, containment, safety and the Center organization. (A.L.B.)

  18. Cost saving methods in University/Health Center radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief description is given of the various measures that have been, are being, and will soon be instituted by the Radiation Safety Office of Temple University, Philadelphia to reduce the volume of radioactive waste transferred to commercial handlers. The categories of waste considered are 1) liquid scintillation vials containing 3H or 14C in concentrations 3H or 14C in average concentrations 3H or 14C and 5) nuclear medicine waste. The alternative radioactive waste processing procedures will result in a 47% reduction in expenditure. (U.K.)

  19. Application of thermal technologies for processing of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this publication is to provide an overview of the various thermal technologies for processing various solid, liquid, organic and inorganic radioactive waste streams. The advantages, limitations and operating experience of various thermal technologies are explained. This publication also goes beyond previous work on thermal processes by addressing the applicability of each technology to national or regional nuclear programmes of specific relative size (major advanced programmes, small to medium programmes, and emerging programmes with other nuclear applications). The most commonly used thermal processing technologies are reviewed, and the key factors influencing the selection of thermal technologies as part of a national waste management strategy are discussed. Accordingly, the structure and content of this publication is intended to assist decision-makers, regulators, and those charged with developing such strategies to identify and compare thermal technologies for possible inclusion in the mix of available, country-specific waste management processes. This publication can be used most effectively as an initial cutting tool to identify whether any given technology will best serve the local waste management strategy in terms of the waste generated, technical complexity, available economic resources, environmental impact considerations, and end product (output) of the technology. If multiple thermal technologies are being actively considered, this publication should be instrumental in comparing the technologies and assisting the user to reach an informed decision based on local needs, economics and priorities. A detailed set of conclusions is provided in Section 7

  20. Selection of efficient options for processing and storage of radioactive waste in countries with small amounts of waste generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is intended to assist decision makers in countries using nuclear energy for non-power applications to organize their waste management practices. It describes methodologies, criteria and options for the selection of appropriate technologies for processing and storage of low and intermediate level radioactive waste from different nuclear applications. The report reviews both technical and non-technical factors important for decision making and planning, and for implementation of waste management activities at the country and facility levels. It makes practical recommendations for the selection of particular technologies for different scales of waste generation. These wastes may arise from production of radionuclides and their application in industry, agriculture, medicine, education and research. The report also considers waste generated at research reactors, research centers and research laboratories using radioisotopes, as well as waste from decommissioning of research reactors and small nuclear facilities such as hot cells, laboratories and irradiation facilities. Management of uranium mining and milling waste and management of spent fuel from research reactors are not considered in this report. Discussed in detail are: the basic legal, regulatory, administrative and technical requirements set up in a national waste management system and review of the factors and components affecting the selection of an appropriate national waste management system. the origins and characteristics of radioactive waste from different nuclear applications. the technical factors that might affect the selection of waste processing and storage technologies, the main waste management steps, information on available technologies, the basis for planning of waste processing and storage and the selection of a particular option for radioactive waste processing and storage in countries with a different scale of nuclear applications

  1. Increasing operational efficiency in a radioactive waste processing plant - 16100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solid waste plant at Harwell in Oxfordshire, contains a purpose built facility to input, assay, visually inspect and sort remote handled intermediate level radioactive waste (RHILW). The facility includes a suite of remote handling cells, known as the head-end cells (HEC), which waste must pass through in order to be repackaged. Some newly created waste from decommissioning works on site passes through the cells, but the vast majority of waste for processing is historical waste, stored in below ground tube stores. Existing containers are not suitable for long term storage, many are already badly corroded, so the waste must be efficiently processed and repackaged in order to achieve passive safety. The Harwell site is currently being decommissioned and the land is being restored. The site is being progressively de-licensed, and redeveloped as a business park, which can only be completed when all the nuclear liabilities have been removed. The recovery and processing of old waste in the solid waste plant is a key project linked to de-licensing of a section of the site. Increasing the operational efficiency of the waste processing plant could shorten the time needed to clear the site and has the potential to save money for the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). The waste processing facility was constructed in the mid 1990's, and commissioned in 1999. Since operations began, the yearly throughput of the cells has increased significantly every year. To achieve targets set out in the lifetime plan (LTP) for the site, throughput must continue to increase. The operations department has measured the overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) of the process for the last few years, and has used continuous improvement techniques to decrease the average cycle time. Philosophies from operational management practices such as 'lean' and 'kaizen' have been employed successfully to drive out losses and increase plant efficiency. This paper will describe how the solid waste plant

  2. Safe operation of a national centralized processing facility for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peru has a centralized waste processing and storage facility for radioactive wastes. It is placed in the Nuclear Research Center 'RACSO'. It is located 40 km in the north of Lima and started operation in the beginning of 1989. Actually, RACSO, operates a pool type research reactor of 10 Mw to produce radioisotopes. There are many laboratories where a small research program is developed. Iodine-131 and Technetium 99 are produced twice a week. Some kind of radioactive wastes are produced. Other sources are from the application of radioisotopes in hospitals, industry and other institutions. This paper presents the experience gained in the operation of this centralized facility. In twenty years of operation has been produced 15 cubic metres of solid wastes, 532 TBq of activity and approximately standardized 52 drums of 200 litres of conditioned solid wastes. During the period of operation it has not been produced any kind of accident. (author)

  3. Method and apparatus for processing radioactive resin wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To process spent radioactive resin wastes by heat decomposition, to thereby decrease the amount thereof and convert them into stable inorganic compounds. Method: Upon processing spent radioactive ion exchange resins through heat decomposition, decomposition gases formed at lower temperature are at first separated, and are followed by the separation of decomposed gases formed at higher temperature. Since nitrogen oxides and gaseous sulfur oxides are formed at lower temperature, while hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are generated at higher temperature selectively, amount of injurious gases can be reduced significantly. Then, the remaining ion exchange resins are subjected to hot press into molding products. The heat decomposing apparatus comprises a reaction vessel, a heater, a slurry transport pipe, a decomposing filter, a pressing device or the like. As the result, the volume can be decreased to about 1/30 of the initial volume. (Moriyama, K.)

  4. Manual to radioactive waste management produced in hospitals, research and education centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual collects the experience on the disposal and management of the wastes produced in the preparation and application of radioactive material. Although the content is not so extensive, the authors have tried to provide the necessary guidelines and adequate information for the management of the wastes produced in hospitals and research and education centers. The objective of this work is to describe the basis and principles for the establishment of a minimization program, a segregation program and a provisional waste storage, in order to reduce the generation of wastes, personal exposure and the environmental impact. (authors). 5 refs

  5. The Future: Innovative Technologies for Radioactive Waste Processing and Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safe, proliferation resistant and economically efficient nuclear fuel cycles that minimize waste generation and environmental impacts are key to sustainable nuclear energy. Innovative approaches and technologies could significantly reduce the radiotoxicity, or the hazard posed by radioactive substances to humans, as well as the waste generated. Decreasing the waste volume, the heat load and the duration that the waste needs to be isolated from the biosphere will greatly simplify waste disposal concepts

  6. Surface encapsulation process for managing low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current processes for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) stabilization involve mixing contaminants with a fixative such as cement, asphalt, polyethylene, or vinyl monomers, and subsequently curing the mixtures in containers. These methods give rise to processing difficulties and yield products lacking performance to assure long-term LLRW immobilization. Mixing of LLRW into fixatives is impeded by viscous media and the curing reaction is inhibited by LLRW constituents. Product performance is affected by corrosion of the containers which ultimately expose the cured mixtures to environmental stresses. This process, termed the ''Surface Encapsulation Process,'' circumvents these problems. A thermosetting fixative is employed that mixes readily with LLRW and is highly insensitive to inhibition in curing. The agglomerated mixtures are further stabilized by encapsulation with seamless jackets of corrosion resistant plastic, such as polyethylene. In laboratory-scale investigations, feasibility of the technique was demonstrated for managing a broad spectrum of LLRW simulants including ion-exchange resins, beads, and glasses, and sodium salts. Products tested to date meet all relevant NRC and DOT regulations governing waste fixation. The high waste loadings of the products, use of commodity resins, and processing simplicity indicated our process would provide high performance LLRW stabilization at costs that are competitive to those for processes employing state-of-the-art fixatives. An economic analysis based on managing LLRW generated by commercial power plants (≅1,000 MeW) substantiates the competitive process costs advantages

  7. Method of processing nitrate-containing radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To efficiently concentrate nitrate-containing low level radioactive liquid wastes by electrolytically dialyzing radioactive liquid wastes to decompose the nitrate salt by using an electrolytic cell comprising three chambers having ion exchange membranes and anodes made of special materials. Method: Nitrate-containing low level radioactive liquid wastes are supplied to and electrolytically dialyzed in a central chamber of an electrolytic cell comprising three chambers having cationic exchange membranes and anionic exchange membranes made of flouro-polymer as partition membranes, whereby the nitrate is decomposed to form nitric acid in the anode chamber and alkali hydroxide compound or ammonium hydroxide in the cathode chamber, as well as concentrate the radioactive substance in the central chamber. Coated metals of at least one type of platinum metal is used as the anode for the electrolytic cell. This enables efficient industrial concentration of nitrate-containing low level radioactive liquid wastes. (Yoshihara, H.)

  8. Chapter No.6. Radioactive waste (RAW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UJD SR supervises all phases of radioactive waste management at nuclear installations and final phases of institutional radioactive waste management. Total concentrates generation and minimisation trends during recent period (for NPP V1, NPP V2 Bohunice and NPP Mochovce) as well as increasing of their conditioning are presented. So nearly 8000 m3 of concentrates were stored at the end of year 2001, representing 75.5% of storage capacity at Bohunice site. Total amount of solid waste stored at VVER NPPs reached 3500 m3 at December 2001. The solid waste storage capacity of NPP V1 Bohunice is spent. NPP A1 Bohunice with a heterogeneous reactor using natural uranium, moderated by heavy water and cooled by CO2 had been in operation for 4 years. It was finally shut down in February 1977 after an accident (INES level 4). Main activities in 2001 were focused on an increasing of radwaste management safety by the waste solidification or storage improvement, especially in the case of inorganic spent fuel coolant. The total solid radwaste inventory in 2001 (including filters) represents cca 700 m3 of soft and pre-pressed not sorted waste, 700 m3 of sorted waste, more then 1 000 t of scrap and next 260 m3 of scrap in drums. The total volume of contaminated soils and concrete is more than 7200 m3. The volume of solid radwaste depends on the extent of dismantling works and following treatment, conditioning and disposal. The total volume is also increased by products of bituminization and cementation facilities in drums stored before conditioning at NPP A1 Bohunice site. The facilities focused only on treatment of radwaste from NPP A1 decommissioning are operated by the same operator as a part of this decommissioned nuclear installation. Experimental and research treatment plants are operated by VUJE. A facility for the treatment and conditioning of operational liquid radwaste from NPP Mochovce is under preparation and a start of construction is foreseen in 2004. The nuclear

  9. Nuclear and environmental licensing process for a radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maybe the greatest problem associated to the nuclear energy is what to do with the waste generated in the power plants. This question echoes in many people voices, every time that the nuclear energy is the subject in assignment. The long time that is necessary for the radioactive decay of some elements makes this issue a big challenge for the actual and future generations. Several environmental and nuclear aspects must be considered in this process, and the national and international legislation must be observed. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the applicability of the regulatory aspects of the Low and Intermediate Level Activity Waste Repository project, contemplating all the development phases, accomplishing a diagnosis of all the laws, norms and pertinent national regulations, observing the recommendations of the relevant international organs and the aspects of Nuclear and Environmental Licensing. Also, another goal is to discuss the compatibility of the application of these two licensing processes. (author)

  10. An innovative approach to solid Low Level Radioactive Waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will focus on a new system of Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) accumulation, processing and packaging, as-well as the implementation of a Laboratory-wide training program used to introduce new waste accumulation containers to all of the on-site radioactive waste generators, and to train them on the requirements of this innovative waste characterization and documentation program

  11. Application of advanced oxidative process in treatment radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ion exchange resin is used in the water purification system in both nuclear research and power reactors. Combined with active carbon, the resin removes dissolved elements from water when the nuclear reactor is operating. After its consumption, it becomes a special type of radioactive waste. The usual treatment to this type of waste is the immobilization with Portland cement, which is simple and low cost. However, its low capacity of immobilization and the increase volume of waste have been the challenges. The development of new technologies capable of destroying this waste completely by increasing its solidification is the main target due to the possibility of both volume and cost reduction. The objective of this work was to evaluate ion exchange resin degradation by Advanced Oxidative Process using Fenton's Reagent (H2O2 / Fe+2) in different concentration and temperatures. One advantage of this process is that all additional organic compounds or inorganic solids produced are oxidized easily. The degradation experiments were conducted with IRA-400 resin and Fenton's Reagents, varying the H2O2 concentration (30% e 50%) and heat temperature (25, 60 and 100 deg C). The resin degradation was confirmed by the presence of BaCO3 as a white precipitate resulting from the reaction between the Ba(OH)2 and the CO2 from the resin degradation. All experiments run in duplicate. Higher degradation was observed with Fenton's Reagent (Fe+2 /H2O2 30%) at 100 deg C after 2 hours. (author)

  12. Process for treatment of detergent-containing radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detergent-containing radioactive liquid waste originating from atomic power plants is concentrated to have about 10 wt. % detergent concentration, then dried in a thin film evaporator, and converted into powder. Powdered activated carbon is added to the radioactive waste in advance to prevent the liquid waste from foaming in the evaporator by the action of surface active agents contained in the detergent. The activated carbon is added in accordance with the COD concentration of the radioactive liquid waste to be treated, and usually at a concentration 2-4 times as large as the COD concentration of the liquid waste to be treated. A powdery product having a moisture content of not more than 15 wt. % is obtained from the evaporator, and pelletized and then packed into drums to be stored for a predetermined period

  13. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This eighth chapter presents the radioactive wastes and waste disposal; classification of radioactive wastes; basis requests of the radioactive waste management; conditions for a radioactive waste disposal; registers and inventories; transport of radioactive wastes from a facility to another and the radioactive waste management plan

  14. Melt-processing method for radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive solid wastes are charged into a water-cooled type cold crucible induction melting furnace disposed in high frequency coils, and high frequency currents are supplied to high frequency coils which surround the melting furnace to melt the solid wastes by induction-heating. In this case, heat plasmas are jetted from above the solid wastes to the solid wastes to conduct initial heating to melt a portion of the solid wastes. Then, high frequency currents are supplied to the high frequency coils to conduct induction heating. According to this method, even when waste components of various kinds of materials are mixed, a portion of the solid wastes in the induction melting furnace can be melted by the initial heating by jetting heat plasmas irrespective of the kinds and the electroconductivity of the materials of the solid wastes. With such procedures, entire solid wastes in the furnace can be formed into a molten state uniformly and rapidly. (T.M.)

  15. Information letter 2. Information about operation of plants SE-NPP Bohunice and SE-VYZ during February 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this leaflet results of exploitation of four units of the Bohunice V-1 and V-2 NPPs are presented. The electricity and heat production in February 2005 are reviewed. Within a February 2005 the electricity was produced: 217 GWh (block 1), 281 GWh (block 2), 277 GWh (block 3), 282 GWh (block 4), totally 1057 GWh, and 2271 GWh within a January - February 2005. The heat production in February 2005 was 266 506 GJ, and within a January - February 2005 it was produced 531 849 GJ of heat. On February 17 Slovak minister of economy Pavol Rusko and general director of ENEL Paolo Scaroni signed the agreement on acquisition of 66 per cent of Slovenske elektrarne (SE) by Italian ENEL for 840 million Eur. SE has capacity of around 7 GW (83 per cent of total Slovakian capacity). In 2004 SE generated 26 TWh of electricity. Processing and storage of radioactive wastes in Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations and Spent Fuel and Rad-waste Management (SE-VYZ) is presented. Since beginning of this year 58 fibre-concrete containers have been filled up in Bohunice processing centre of radioactive wastes. Twenty-three pieces of fibre-concrete containers were processed into fibre-concrete containers in Bohunice processing centre of radioactive wastes (BSC RAO) in February 2005. Twenty fibre-concrete containers were stored into Republic storage of radioactive wastes (RU RAO). Total number in RU RAO reached 830 pieces of fibre-concrete containers, which represent 11.53 per cent of storage capacity (7200 containers). Bohunice processing centre of radioactive wastes was put into active operation just before five years

  16. The Hybrid Treatment Process for treatment of mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a new process for treating mixed hazardous and radioactive waste, commonly called mixed waste. The process is called the Hybrid Treatment Process (HTP), so named because it is built on the 20 years of experience with vitrification of wastes in melters, and the 12 years of experience with treatment of wastes by the in situ vitrification (ISV) process

  17. Innovative Process for Comprehensive Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste - 12551

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzin, R.A.; Sarychev, G.A. [All-Russia Scientific Research Institute of Chemical Technology (VNIIKHT), Moscow, 115409 (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    composition, including those containing hardness salts, resulted in generation of LRW concentrate 300-600 g/l. The method is based on utilization of supersonic ejector for intensification of thermal physic processes and performance of evaporation in brine recycling mode. All proposed technological solutions are totally based on patented Russian developments. Proposed work will allow to construct modular plants, which will be totally prepared for efficient purification of any types of liquid radioactive wastes from radionuclides in case of force majeure. According to proposed scheme concentration level of cesium radionuclides in safe-for-storage form will make up not less than 5000. With respect to purification from cesium radionuclides of liquid radioactive wastes stored at NPP 'Fukushima' about 10 t of inorganic sorbents, loaded in 160 protective filter-containers, will be required for solving this problem. The amount of secondary wastes will be reduced approximately in 5 times in comparison with traditional schemes, applied in purification of secondary LRW of Fukushima-1 by Areva (France) and Kurion (USA) companies. All units of modular plants will be constructed and manufactured as totally automated, providing their twenty-four-hour safe operation. Modular design will ensure efficiency and let optimize the costs of secondary LRW treatment. In order to ensure off-line operation in emergency conditions the plant should be equipped with auxiliary modules: energy and ventilation ones. Under normal conditions these modules can be stored in 'mothballed' condition at special warehouses under the authority of federal bodies. It will be reasonable to choose required transport facilities, the most suitable for transportation of modules to target destination beforehand, using vessel classification list.

  18. Decontamination of radioactive process waste water by adsorbing colloid flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adsorbing colloid flotation was tested to remove 144Ce, 60Co, 65Zn, and 89Sr from radioactive process waste water. Potassium oleate was used as the collector, and Fe(III) hydroxide, Al(III) hydroxide or Co(II) hydroxide as the coprecipitant. Under optimal conditions, removals exceeding 99% could be achieved for 65Zn with any of the tested coprecipitants, for 144Ce with Fe(III) and Co(II) hydroxides and for 60Co with only Co(II) hydroxide. For 89Sr removals of 90% could be achieved only with Fe(III) hydroxide. The adsorbing colloid flotation process was compared with both chemical precipitation and ion exchange. Advantages of adsorbing colloid flotation are discussed. (author)

  19. USING STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL TO MONITOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE CHARACTERIZATION AT A RADIOACTIVE FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two facilities for storing spent nuclear fuel underwater at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington State being removed from service, decommissioned, and prepared for eventual demolition. The fuel-storage facilities consist of two separate basins called K East (KE) and K West (KW) that are large subsurface concrete pools filled with water, with a containment structure over each. The basins presently contain sludge, debris, and equipment that have accumulated over the years. The spent fuel has been removed from the basins. The process for removing the remaining sludge, equipment, and structure has been initiated for the basins. Ongoing removal operations generate solid waste that is being treated as required, and then disposed. The waste, equipment and building structures must be characterized to properly manage, ship, treat (if necessary), and dispose as radioactive waste. As the work progresses, it is expected that radiological conditions in each basin may change as radioactive materials are being moved within and between the basins. It is imperative that these changing conditions be monitored so that radioactive characterization of waste is adjusted as necessary

  20. USING STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL TO MONITOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE CHARACTERIZATION AT A RADIOACTIVE FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two facilities for storing spent nuclear fuel underwater at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington State are being removed from service, decommissioned, and prepared for eventual demolition. The fuel-storage facilities consist of two separate basins called K East (KE) and K West (KW) that are large subsurface concrete pools filled with water, with a containment structure over each. The basins presently contain sludge, debris, and equipment that have accumulated over the years. The spent fuel has been removed from the basins. The process for removing the remaining sludge, equipment, and structure has been initiated for the basins. Ongoing removal operations generate solid waste that is being treated as required, and then disposed. The waste, equipment and building structures must be characterized to properly manage, ship, treat (if necessary), and dispose as radioactive waste. As the work progresses, it is expected that radiological conditions in each basin may change as radioactive materials are being moved within and between the basins. It is imperative that these changing conditions be monitored so that radioactive characterization of waste is adjusted as necessary

  1. USING STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL TO MONITOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE CHARACTERIZATION AT A RADIOACTIVE FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WESTCOTT, J.L.

    2006-11-15

    Two facilities for storing spent nuclear fuel underwater at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington State being removed from service, decommissioned, and prepared for eventual demolition. The fuel-storage facilities consist of two separate basins called K East (KE) and K West (KW) that are large subsurface concrete pools filled with water, with a containment structure over each. The basins presently contain sludge, debris, and equipment that have accumulated over the years. The spent fuel has been removed from the basins. The process for removing the remaining sludge, equipment, and structure has been initiated for the basins. Ongoing removal operations generate solid waste that is being treated as required, and then disposed. The waste, equipment and building structures must be characterized to properly manage, ship, treat (if necessary), and dispose as radioactive waste. As the work progresses, it is expected that radiological conditions in each basin may change as radioactive materials are being moved within and between the basins. It is imperative that these changing conditions be monitored so that radioactive characterization of waste is adjusted as necessary.

  2. USING STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL TO MONITOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE CHARACTERIZATION AT A RADIOACTIVE FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WESTCOTT, J.L.; JOCHEN; PREVETTE

    2007-01-02

    Two facilities for storing spent nuclear fuel underwater at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington State are being removed from service, decommissioned, and prepared for eventual demolition. The fuel-storage facilities consist of two separate basins called K East (KE) and K West (KW) that are large subsurface concrete pools filled with water, with a containment structure over each. The basins presently contain sludge, debris, and equipment that have accumulated over the years. The spent fuel has been removed from the basins. The process for removing the remaining sludge, equipment, and structure has been initiated for the basins. Ongoing removal operations generate solid waste that is being treated as required, and then disposed. The waste, equipment and building structures must be characterized to properly manage, ship, treat (if necessary), and dispose as radioactive waste. As the work progresses, it is expected that radiological conditions in each basin may change as radioactive materials are being moved within and between the basins. It is imperative that these changing conditions be monitored so that radioactive characterization of waste is adjusted as necessary.

  3. The study for management process of radioactive solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of contributing to decide treatment method for solid waste stored by JNC, a series of investigation was conducted for domestic and overseas technologies about volume-reduction and immobilization of radioactive solid waste, focused on the melting technologies. Based on the result of investigation, melting and off-gas treatment were classified and summarized based on the result of investigation. Treatment and disposal cost for each melting method were estimated under definite conditions. Followings are obtained: (1) Melters for radioactive metal have been in operation since 1980's. On the other hand, melter for solid waste is under construction in Japan and Switzerland, never in operation. (2) Plasma arc melter and induction heat melter is developed for radioactive solid waste. They are classified into 5 method since there are 4 induction heat melter is developed. (3) Construction cost for each kind of melter are about 700-950 million yen, estimated by using open melting capacity and cost ratio of existing facility. (4) Volume of the molten waste to be filled up per disposal container, supposing 200 liter drum about 70-140 liter depends on the volume of receptacle and sub-heat material. Decision of the melter need detailed estimation of filling factor since they have large effects on disposal cost. (5) For adopting radioactive solid waste melter, it needs to estimate of melting capacity taking consideration into wide range composition of the JNC waste. In addition, it is necessary to develop estimating method of inventory for JNC waste since radioactivity composition is differ from that of nuclear power station. (author)

  4. Processing method for salt containing radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mixed solution of ferrocyanate and copper sulfate is added to salt-containing radioactive liquid wastes, then pH is controlled to 9 to 11, and they are stood still to coprecipitate and separate radioactive nuclides. The precipitated sludges are condensed by evaporation and the resultant condensed liquid wastes are solidified, if necessary, by using asphalts. Further, the coprecipitated and separated supernatants are passed through a filter of activated carbon or a hollow thread membrane for removing remaining radioactive materials. With such procedures, the amount of liquid condensates generated during the evaporation and condensation step is reduced greatly, and the amount of generated solids is reduced also in a case of applying solidification. Further, since iron cruds are precipirated and separated simultaneously with coprecipitation, loads applied to the filter is reduced upon subsequent filtration of the supernatants, thereby enabling to use the filter for a long period of time, and the accompanying generation of wastes is also reduced. (T.M.)

  5. Processing and Pre-Treatment of Solid Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As solid radioactive waste varies in form, dimensions and volume, the Atomic Energy Commission first of all reduces the volume by breaking up and compressing the waste. Since the temporary storage of such waste is always attended by the risk of contamination, an efficient packing system has been devised and adopted. This consists of embedding the waste in the heart of a specially-designed block of concrete possessing the following characteristics: Great strength Maximum insolubility Resistance to corrosion Maximum imperviousness Protection against radiation. It is thus quite safe to store these blocks with a view to final dumping. (author)

  6. Processing of low- and medium-level radioactive waste. Chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a Dutch government policy formulated in 1984, it has been stated that in the Netherlands one location has to be adapted for, among other things, processing of low- and medium-level radioactive waste. This chapter deals with the radioactive waste to be processed and the processing facility to be realized. (author). 3 figs

  7. Method of processing radioactive liquid waste containing soduium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfuric acid is added to radioactive liquid wastes containing sodium nitrate and heated to convert sodium nitrate into sodium sulfate and remove nitric acid as fumes. Then, calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide is added to the resultant liquid wastes containing sodium sulfate into a solution of calcium sulfate and sodium hydroxide. Then, solid-liquid separation is applied to take out, as a solid, calcium sulfate containing most portion of radioactive materials. Since no burnable materials such as asphalt are not used as in the prior art method, it is possible, according to the present invention, to reduce the fire hazard and remarkably decrease the formation of solidification products. (S.T.)

  8. Method of processing solidification product of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daime, Fumiyoshi.

    1988-02-17

    Purpose: To improve the long-time stability of solidification products by providing solidification products with liquid tightness, gas tightness, abrasion resistance, etc., of the products in the course of the solidification for the treatment of radioactive wastes. Method: The surface of solidification products prepared by mixing solidifying agents with powder or pellets is entirely covered with high molecular polymer such as epoxy resin. The epoxy resin has excellent properties such as radiation-resistance, heat resistance, water proofness and chemical resistance, as well as have satisfactory mechanical properties. This can completely isolate the solidification products of radioactive wastes from the surrounding atmosphere. (Yoshino, Y.).

  9. Method of processing solidification product of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To improve the long-time stability of solidification products by providing solidification products with liquid tightness, gas tightness, abrasion resistance, etc., of the products in the course of the solidification for the treatment of radioactive wastes. Method: The surface of solidification products prepared by mixing solidifying agents with powder or pellets is entirely covered with high molecular polymer such as epoxy resin. The epoxy resin has excellent properties such as radiation-resistance, heat resistance, water proofness and chemical resistance, as well as have satisfactory mechanical properties. This can completely isolate the solidification products of radioactive wastes from the surrounding atmosphere. (Yoshino, Y.)

  10. Processing and disposal of radioactive waste: selection of technical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The infrastructure requires selection of an optimized technology/option because of the variety of processes and techniques available for different waste streams. The technologies selected for different waste management steps should be combined in an integrated strategy to optimize the overall waste management system. Issues of waste classification and categorization, inventory problems are highlighted. A schematic of waste management steps, methodologies for technology selection and multi-attribute utility analysis are presented. It is concluded that to address complex waste management needs it is essential to analyze the waste generation and understand properties, type and volumes of waste before selection of a particular technology

  11. Italian experience on the processing of solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental work is under way in Italy for treatment and conditioning of different types of solid radioactive wastes. The following wastes are taken into account in this paper: Magnox fuel element debris, solid compactable wastes, radiation sources and contaminated carcasses. The metallic debris, consisting of Magnox splitters and braces, are conditioned, after drying and separation of corrosion products, by means of a two component epoxy system (base product + hardener). Solid compactable wastes are reduced in volume by using a press. The resulting pellets are transferred to a final container and conditioned with a cement mortar of a suitable consistency. As to the radiation sources, mainly contained in lightning-rods, gas detectors and radioactive thickness gauges, the encapsulation in a cementitious grout is a common practice for their incorporation. Early experiments, with satisfactory results, have also been conducted for the cementation of contaminated carcasses. (author)

  12. Low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mochovce National Radwaste Repository is a near surface multi-barrier disposal facility for disposal of processed low and very low level radioactive wastes (radwastes) resulting from the operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities situated in the territory of the Slovak Republic and from research institutes, laboratories, hospitals and other institutions (institutional RAW) which are in compliance with the acceptance criteria. The basic safety requirement of the Repository is to avoid a radioactive release to the environment during its operation and institutional inspection. This commitment is covered by the protection barrier system. The method of solution designed and implemented at the Repository construction complies with the latest knowledge and practice of the repository developments all over the world and meets requirements for the safe radwaste disposal with minimum environmental consequences. All wastes are solidified and have to meet the acceptance criteria before disposal into the Repository. They are processed and treated at the Bohunice RAW Treatment Centre and Liquid RAW Final Treatment Facility at Mochovce. The disposal facility for low level radwastes consists of two double-rows of reinforced concrete vaults with total capacity 7 200 fibre reinforced concrete containers (FCCs) with RAW. One double-row contains 40 The operation of the Repository was started in year 2001 and after ten years, in 2011 was conducted the periodic assessment of nuclear safety with positive results. Till the end of year 2014 was disposed to the Repository 11 514 m3 RAW. The analysis of total RAW production from operation and decommissioning of all nuclear installation in SR, which has been carried out in frame of the BIDSF project C9.1, has showed that the total volume estimation of conditioned waste is 108 thousand m3 of which 45.5 % are low level waste (LLW) and 54,5 % very low level waste (VLLW). On the base of this fact there is the need to build 7.5 double

  13. Process for multi-stage treatment of radioactive waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the multi-stage treatment of radioactive waste waters with a decanter the solids contained in the waste waters are dried up to a residual moisture of 10% and are subsequently disposed. Solids remaining in the liquid part are removed with a separator up to the colloidal range, whereas the liquid product of the decanter is filtered up to the molecular range so that it can be used as industrial water. (orig.)

  14. Evaluation of management of radioactive waste in nuclear medicine department of radiation and isotopes center, Khartoum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of management of radioactive waste in nuclear medicine department of radiation and isotopes center in Khartoum, Sudan, was conducted using radiation survey meter. The purpose of this study is to provide protection of workers, patients, co patients, an the environment by introducing good practice in management of radioactive waste generated in this lab. In this work measurement of radiation effective dose at different locations in the department were carried out. These locations were selected around the radioactive liquid and solid waste disposal position. It was found that the effective doses per year from radioactive wastes obtained through this work using the survey meter RDS-120 at these locations, are 1.47 mSv/y at the neighbouring patients room, 5.47 mSv/y at the hot lab., 0.09 mSv/y at the neighbouring toilet, 0.321 mSv/y at the water closet, and 1.4 mSv/y at the place down water closet. The results obtained shows that the dose levels waste at the location not exceed the recommended dose limits for workers 20 mSv/y, that set by basic safety standards (Bss 115) which published by the international atomic energy agency. Also it s comply with the national regulation, regulation on basic radiation protection requirement and dose limits 1996, issued by sudan atomic energy commission act 1996. The annual dose calculated for the patients and co-patients at rooms around the nuclear medicine department, the results shows that dose are fairly high. Measure should taken to improve the waste management in the department for better protection of workers, patients and co patients. (Author)

  15. Membrane technologies for processing of liquid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reverse osmosis is used were complete rejection of all dissolved compounds is required; it needs pre-treatment of the waste by microfiltration, ultrafiltration or other conventional technique to avoid the membrane blockage by colloids and suspensions. Recently the nanofiltration membranes are often used to separate monovalent ions from multivalent. Ultrafiltration apart of pre-treatment stage is used to separate colloids, which usually are formed by compounds of 54Mn, 55Fe. 60Co and 125Sb. Microfiltration found application for solid wastes dewatering before final disposal. A novel technology is membrane distillation proposed by researches from INCT for concentration of liquid radioactive waste. (author)

  16. A process for the bituminization of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process is described for the incorporation of sodium nitrate solutions in bitumen, with a view to the bituminization of radioactive wastes. This process has involved the development of a chemical process and its technological application. A double jacket reactor equipped with an anchor-type stirrer has been built. Sodium nitrate (NaNO3) solutions with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) are fed into the reactor simultaneously with a bitumen emulsion while heated oil is circulated through the double jacket. After all the water has evaporated, the mixture is ''simmered'' at 170/180 deg C for up to 5 hours in order to get a homogeneous product which will be suitable for final storage. The product contains small salt crystals (10/50 μm) and has high viscosity (200/2000 poise at 160 deg C and 12 rpm), so that the possibility of sedimentation is eliminated. In comparative experiments with molten bitumen, large salt aggregates, inhomogeneously distributed, make the product unsuitable. It has been found that NaOH is responsible for the polimerization of the bitumen, which raises its viscosity. The degree of polimerization depends on the NaOH concentration and ''simmering'' time and temperature. NaOH is added to NaNO3 in order to raise the mixture's viscosity and thereby prevent sedimentation

  17. Full-scale technology demonstration of a polyethylene encapsulation process for radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A full-scale technology demonstration of a polyethylene encapsulation process, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development, was held at the Environmental and Waste Technology Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in September 1994. Polyethylene encapsulation has been developed and tested at BNL as an alternative solidification technology for improved treatment of low-level radioactive (LLW), hazardous, and mixed wastes. Although originally developed for treatment of DOE-generated wastes through waste management and environmental restoration activities, polyethylene encapsulation has application within the commercial sector. A fully equipped, production-scale system, capable of processing over 900 kg/hr (2000 lb/hr), has been installed at BNL. The demonstration covered all facets of the integrated processing system including pre-treatment of aqueous wastes, precise feed metering, extrusion processing, on-line quality control monitoring, and process control. Following the demonstration, waste-form testing was conducted to confirm performance of the final waste form. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  18. Processing method for metallic aluminum-containing-radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallic Al-containing radioactive solid wastes are reacted with an alkali-solution to generate hydrogen gas, and then obtained reaction liquid and a solidifying material mainly comprising a latent water-hardenable material are mixed and solidified. In this case, since the metallic Al is transformed into Al hydroxide or alkali aluminate, the solidifying material even if it is solidified, it is not reacted with the metallic Al, and generation of voids and cracks in the solids is suppressed, and the solidification material has excellent mechanical strength and leaching proof property against radioactive nuclides. (T.M.)

  19. Thermal treatment of organic radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organic radioactive waste which is generated in nuclear and isotope facilities (power plants, research centers and other) must be treated in order to achieve a waste form suitable for long term storage and disposal. Therefore the resulting waste treatment products should be stable under influence of temperature, time, radioactivity, chemical and biological activity. Another reason for the treatment of organic waste is the volume reduction with respect to the storage costs. For different kinds of waste, different treatment technologies have been developed and some are now used in industrial scale. The paper gives process descriptions for the treatment of solid organic radioactive waste of low beta/gamma activity and alpha-contaminated solid organic radioactive waste, and the pyrolysis of organic radioactive waste

  20. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here are gathered 1)the decrees (99-686 and 99-687) of the 3 rd of August 1999 relative to the researches on radioactive waste management. A local committee of information and follow-up has to be established on the site of each underground facility. The composition of this committee is determined here (99-686). 3 people will from now on be jointly ordered by the Minister of Economy, Finance and Industry and by the Secretary of State of Industry to conduct a preliminary dialogue for the choice of one or several sites on which previous works should be made before the construction of an underground facility (99-687). They take the opinion of the people's representatives, the associations and the concerned population and inform the Ministers of Environment, Energy and Research of the collected information. 2)the decree of the 3 rd of August 1999 authorizing the 'Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs' (ANDRA) to install and exploit an underground facility located in Bure (Meuse) and intended to study the deep geological deposits where could be stored radioactive wastes. (O.M.)

  1. Study of aqueous process using hydrochloric acid for radioactive waste including uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A lot of solid and liquid radioactive wastes had been produced in the various examinations. The wastes have been stored in Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute Ningyo-Toge Environmental Engineering Center. Amounts of solid wastes including fluorine and uranium are very much, so techniques of final disposal will be developed and the solid wastes will be disposed. This study estimates the applicability of aqueous process using hydrochloric acid for CaF2, NaF, Al2O3 and UF4, so examinations using those wastes were performed and mass balance and activity balance sheets were made. The conclusion is as below. 1. The process using hydrochloric acid to CaF2 is applicable. 2. The process using hydrochloric acid to NaF is applicable. 3. Dissolution of Al2O3 is difficult, but uranium in Al2O3 is almost dissolved, so application of aqueous process using hydrochloric acid for Al2O3 is possible. 4. Application of aqueous process using hydrochloric acid to UF4 has problem of insolubility of UF4. 5. Next subjects are a rise of solid/liquid ratio, a increase of efficiency of uranium precipitation and decrease of second wastes which are resins and aluminium as masking material to fluorine. (author)

  2. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, some general informations are given about radioactive waste, e.g. arising of waste, classification, intermediate deposition and transport, as well as about the multi-barrier concept. Then, emphasis is laid on the internationally favoured vitrification of high-active waste. Safety requirements and the physical-chemical characteristics of the waste forms are described as are the different technical vitrification processes. Moreover, alternative solidification products such as ceramic materials and synthetic rocks were discussed. In addition, the worldwide technical concepts for the management and final disposal of radioactive waste are summarized. (orig./HP)

  3. Process Knowledge Characterization of Radioactive Waste at the Classified Waste Landfill Remediation Project Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the development and application of process knowledge (PK) to the characterization of radioactive wastes generated during the excavation of buried materials at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Classified Waste Landfill (CWLF). The CWLF, located in SNL/NM Technical Area II, is a 1.5-acre site that received nuclear weapon components and related materials from about 1950 through 1987. These materials were used in the development and testing of nuclear weapon designs. The CWLF is being remediated by the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration (ER) Project pursuant to regulations of the New Mexico Environment Department. A goal of the CWLF project is to maximize the amount of excavated materials that can be demilitarized and recycled. However, some of these materials are radioactively contaminated and, if they cannot be decontaminated, are destined to require disposal as radioactive waste. Five major radioactive waste streams have been designated on the CWLF project, including: unclassified soft radioactive waste--consists of soft, compatible trash such as paper, plastic, and plywood; unclassified solid radioactive waste--includes scrap metal, other unclassified hardware items, and soil; unclassified mixed waste--contains the same materials as unclassified soft or solid radioactive waste, but also contains one or more Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) constituents; classified radioactive waste--consists of classified artifacts, usually weapons components, that contain only radioactive contaminants; and classified mixed waste--comprises radioactive classified material that also contains RCRA constituents. These waste streams contain a variety of radionuclides that exist both as surface contamination and as sealed sources. To characterize these wastes, the CWLF project's waste management team is relying on data obtained from direct measurement of radionuclide activity content to the maximum extent possible and, in cases where

  4. Design of Biochemical Oxidation Process Engineering Unit for Treatment of Organic Radioactive Liquid Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic radioactive liquid waste from nuclear industry consist of detergent waste from nuclear laundry, 30% TBP-kerosene solvent waste from purification or recovery of uranium from process failure of nuclear fuel fabrication, and solvent waste containing D2EHPA, TOPO, and kerosene from purification of phosphoric acid. The waste is dangerous and toxic matter having low pH, high COD and BOD, and also low radioactivity. Biochemical oxidation process is the effective method for detoxification of organic waste and decontamination of radionuclide by bio sorption. The result process are sludges and non radioactive supernatant. The existing treatment facilities radioactive waste in Serpong can not use for treatment of that’s organics waste. Dio chemical oxidation process engineering unit for continuous treatment of organic radioactive liquid waste on the capacity of 1.6 L/h has been designed and constructed the equipment of process unit consist of storage tank of 100 L capacity for nutrition solution, 2 storage tanks of 100 L capacity per each for liquid waste, reactor oxidation of 120 L, settling tank of 50 L capacity storage tank of 55 L capacity for sludge, storage tank of 50 capacity for supernatant. Solution on the reactor R-01 are added by bacteria, nutrition and aeration using two difference aerators until biochemical oxidation occurs. The sludge from reactor of R-01 are recirculated to the settling tank of R-02 and on the its reverse operation biological sludge will be settled, and supernatant will be overflow. (author)

  5. Facilities for processing and solidification of intermediate- and low-level liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For intermediate- and low-level liquid radioactive wastes processing two units are proposed. Technological schemes of both units include primary purification of solutions from solids, waste reagent treatment , preparation of waste concentrated product, evaporation of concentrated product and remainder drying. Difference between unit 1 and 2 is in methods used for preparation of concentrated product: unit 1 - settling, unit 2 - filtration

  6. Radioactive wastes management development in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Facility for immobilizing and conditioning of radioactive wastes generated in Chile, has recently started in operation. It is a Radioactive Wastes Treatment Plant, RWTP, whose owner is Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, CCHEN. A Storgement Building of Conditioned Wastes accomplishes the facility for medium and low level activity wastes. The Project has been carried with participation of chilean professionals at CCHEN and Technical Assistance of International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA. Processes developed are volume reduction by compaction; immobilization by cementation and conditioning. Equipment has been selected to process radioactive wastes into a 200 liters drum, in which wastes are definitively conditioned, avoiding exposition and contamination risks. The Plant has capacity to treat low and medium activity radioactive wastes produced in Chile due to Reactor Experimental No. 1 operation, and annex Laboratories in Nuclear Research Centers, as also those produced by users of nuclear techniques in Industries, Hospitals, Research Centers and Universities, in the whole country. With the infrastructure developed in Chile, a centralization of Radioactive Wastes Management activities is achieved. A data base system helps to control and register radioactive wastes arising in Chile. Generation of radioactive wastes in Chile, has found solution for the present production and that of near future

  7. Minimization of formation, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 30 contributions presented at the conference and summarizing results attained over the 1986-1989 period within the A 01-159-812 Project of the State Plan of Scientific and Technological Development. The topics treated include decontamination technologies and agents; optimization of performance of purification plants and active laundries; waste volume reduction processes; waste incineration, compression, vitrification, calcination, cementation and bituminization and equipment therefor; economic analyses; and some problems of waste disposal and transportation. (M.D.). 49 figs., 86 tabs., 349 refs

  8. Design and implementation of a national center for storage and management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the benefits of the radioactive sources use, waste generated by radioactive sources, may have harmful effects on human health and the environment. According to principle number 9 of the radioactive waste management, 'the safety of facilities for radioactive waste management should be provided as appropriate throughout their lifetime' radioactive waste must be managed safely, because they are potentially dangerous. By remedy this problem, it well necessary for each waste radioactive producer to establish, an infrastructure for waste radioactive management and storage. For this, the knowledge of climatic, meteorological, geological, seismic and hydrological conditions is a prerequisite for achieving the realization of the storage site. The room storage greatness, offices and other rooms depends on the nature of radiation and characteristics of materials used for construction of walls, as part the construction safety.The strictly tell management must be strictly observed during all operations. The acquisition of equipments for measurement, detection, decontamination and accessories for operations management should not be neglected. After performing the inventory and characterizing all the spent sealed radioactive sources existing in Madagascar (about 130 sealed sources), for to achieve such construction, we would need a capital budget that varies between 250 000 and 300 000 USD (including apparatus detection and accessories for the management of the construction).

  9. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book highlights the main issues of public concern related to radioactive waste management and puts them into perspective. It provides an overview of radioactive waste management covering, among other themes, policies, implementation and public communication based on national experiences. Its purpose is to assists in increasing the understanding of radioactive waste management issues by public and national authorities, organizations involved in radioactive waste management and the nuclear industry; it may also serve as a source book for those who communicate with the public. Even in the unlikely event that nuclear power does not further develop around the world, the necessity for dealing with nuclear waste from past usages, from uranium mining and milling, decontamination and decommissioning of existing nuclear facilities and from the uses of radioactive materials in medicine, industry and research would still exist. In many countries, radioactive waste management planning involves making effective institutional arrangements in which responsibilities and liabilities are well established for the technical operation and long term surveillance of disposal systems. Financing mechanisms are part of the arrangements. Continuous quality assurance and quality control, at all levels of radioactive waste management, are essential to ensure the required integrity of the system. As with any other human activity, improvements in technology and economics may be possible and secondary problems avoided. Improvements and confirmation of the efficiency of processes and reduction of uncertainties can only be achieved by continued active research, development and demonstration, which are the goals of many national programmes. International co-operation, also in the form of reviews, can contribute to increasing confidence in the ongoing work. The problem of radioactive wastes is not a unique one; it may be compared with other problems of toxic wastes resulting from many other

  10. A Cask Processing Enclosure for the TRU Waste Processing Center - 13408

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, John T.; Mendez, Nicholas [IP Systems, Inc., 2685 Industrial Lane, Broomfield, Colorado 80020 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper will discuss the key elements considered in the design, construction, and use of an enclosure system built for the TRU Waste Processing Center (TWPC). The TWPC system is used for the repackaging and volume reduction of items contaminated with radioactive material, hazardous waste and mixed waste. The modular structural steel frame and stainless steel skin was designed for rapid field erection by the use of interchangeable self-framing panel sections to allow assembly of a sectioned containment building and for ease of field mobility. The structure was installed on a concrete floor inside of an outer containment building. The major sections included an Outer Cask Airlock, Inner Cask Airlock, Cask Process Area, and Personnel Airlocks. Casks in overpacks containing transuranic waste are brought in via an inter-site transporter. The overpack lid is removed and the cask/overpack is transferred into the Outer Cask Airlock. A contamination cover is installed on the overpack body and the Outer Cask Airlock is closed. The cask/overpack is transferred into the Inner Cask Airlock on a cask bogie and the Inner Cask Airlock is closed. The cask lid is removed and the cask is transferred into the Cask Process Area where it is placed on a cask tilting station. Once the Cask Processing Area is closed, the cask tilt station is activated and wastes are removed, size reduced, then sorted and re-packaged into drums and standard waste boxes through bag ports. The modular system was designed and built as a 'Fast Track' project at IP Systems in Broomfield Colorado and then installed and is currently in use at the DOE TWPC located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. (authors)

  11. A Cask Processing Enclosure for the TRU Waste Processing Center - 13408

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will discuss the key elements considered in the design, construction, and use of an enclosure system built for the TRU Waste Processing Center (TWPC). The TWPC system is used for the repackaging and volume reduction of items contaminated with radioactive material, hazardous waste and mixed waste. The modular structural steel frame and stainless steel skin was designed for rapid field erection by the use of interchangeable self-framing panel sections to allow assembly of a sectioned containment building and for ease of field mobility. The structure was installed on a concrete floor inside of an outer containment building. The major sections included an Outer Cask Airlock, Inner Cask Airlock, Cask Process Area, and Personnel Airlocks. Casks in overpacks containing transuranic waste are brought in via an inter-site transporter. The overpack lid is removed and the cask/overpack is transferred into the Outer Cask Airlock. A contamination cover is installed on the overpack body and the Outer Cask Airlock is closed. The cask/overpack is transferred into the Inner Cask Airlock on a cask bogie and the Inner Cask Airlock is closed. The cask lid is removed and the cask is transferred into the Cask Process Area where it is placed on a cask tilting station. Once the Cask Processing Area is closed, the cask tilt station is activated and wastes are removed, size reduced, then sorted and re-packaged into drums and standard waste boxes through bag ports. The modular system was designed and built as a 'Fast Track' project at IP Systems in Broomfield Colorado and then installed and is currently in use at the DOE TWPC located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. (authors)

  12. Geochemical processes to mobilization of radionuclides from radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On time to alteration the waste by natural weather in isolated area of waste dumps we can notice chemical, biochemical and geochemical modification. Disposability and flow of water are two of the most important parameter which affect the waste chemistry and migration of contamination from wastes. The water behaves like a mechanism of transport for cationic and anionic components and influenced solubility and salt migration from dump. The salt migration towards residue surfaces is affected by short distance between water and surface. The salts are redissolving and moving through the capillary towards the surface when precipitate. The reactions inside of waste are influenced by geochemical point of view mainly by the amount of sulfated salts and chloride, by the disposability of water, pH and by the chemical mineral heterogeneous of waste. Obviously, if the process of alteration by atmospherically agents and those effects about waste can be minimized we could minimize even chemical modification in order to form the salts. This paper examines the mechanism by which 226Ra and Unat can enter in groundwater and those, which control its concentration. (author)

  13. The Use of Transportable Processing Systems for the Treatment of Radioactive Nuclear Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EnergySolutions has developed two major types of radioactive processing plants based on its experience in the USA and UK, and its exclusive North American access to the intellectual property and know-how developed over 50 years at the Sellafield nuclear site in the UK. Passive Secure Cells are a type of hot cell used in place of the Canyons typically used in US-designed radioactive facilities. They are used in permanent, large scale plants suitable for long term processing of large amounts of radioactive material. The more recently developed Transportable Processing Systems, which are the subject of this paper, are used for nuclear waste processing and clean-up when processing is expected to be complete within shorter timescales and when it is advantageous to be able to move the processing equipment amongst a series of geographically spread-out waste treatment sites. Such transportable systems avoid the construction of a monolithic waste processing plant which itself would require extensive decommissioning and clean-up when its mission is complete. This paper describes a range of transportable radioactive waste processing equipment that EnergySolutions and its partners have developed including: the portable MOSS drum-based waste grouting system, the skid mounted MILWPP large container waste grouting system, the IPAN skid-mounted waste fissile content non-destructive assay system, the Wiped Film Evaporator low liquid hold-up transportable evaporator system, the CCPU transportable solvent extraction cesium separation system, and the SEP mobile shielded cells for emptying radioactive debris from water-filled silos. Maximum use is made of proven, robust, and compact processing equipment such as centrifugal contactors, remote sampling systems, and cement grout feed and metering devices. Flexible, elastomer-based Hose-in-Hose assemblies and container-based transportable pump booster stations are used in conjunction with these transportable waste processing units for

  14. Development of new treatment process for low level radioactive waste at Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low-level radioactive Waste Treatment Facility (LWTF) was constructed at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) and cold testing has been carried out since 2006. The waste which will be treated in the LWTF is combustible/incombustible solid waste and liquid waste. In the LWTF, the combustible/incombustible solid waste will be incinerated. The liquid waste will be treated by a radio-nuclides removal process and subsequently solidified in cement. This report describes the essential technologies of the LWTF and results of R and D work for the nitrate-ion decomposition technology for the liquid waste. (author)

  15. Information Strategy of Nuclear Training Center Ljubljana in the Area of Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovenia has plans to build a repository for low- and medium-radioactive waste by 2013, the location in the very neighborhood of nuclear power plant is almost chosen, but the final approval hasn't been granted yet. The main obstacle is public opinion. Public information activities are therefore vitally important. One of the most important players in this area in Slovenia is Nuclear Training Center in Ljubljana. Though its main task is training of nuclear professionals, it has a significant role in dissemination of knowledge about radioactivity and nuclear technology also among general public. Public information is focused on youngsters. Almost one half of every generation of schoolchildren in Slovenia visits the Information center yearly and in May 2007, we have celebrated the 100,000. visitor since its opening. Live lectures, exhibition, publications and laboratory demonstrations are offered. To measure the opinion of youngsters about nuclear power and get a feed-back for our activities about 1000 youngsters are polled every year since 1993 using the same basic set of questions. The paper describes the information strategy, types of lectures and information materials, permanent exhibition with the most important exhibits. Furthermore, the results of yearly polls of our visitors and comparison with relevant Euro-barometer polls are presented. (authors)

  16. Order of the 10 january 2003 authorizing the national agency for the radioactive wastes management to follow the gaseous and liquid effluents release for the exploitation of the radioactive wastes storage center of the Manche

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, took out from the Official Journal, is the law text relative to the order of the 10 january 2003 authorizing the national agency for the radioactive wastes management to follow the gaseous and liquid effluents release for the exploitation of the radioactive wastes storage center of the Manche. (A.L.B.)

  17. National inventory of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are in France 1064 sites corresponding to radioactive waste holders that appear in this radioactive waste inventory. We find the eighteen sites of E.D.F. nuclear power plants, The Cogema mine sites, the Cogema reprocessing plants, The Cea storages, the different factories and enterprises of nuclear industry, the sites of non nuclear industry, the Andra centers, decommissioned installations, disposals with low level radioactive wastes, sealed sources distributors, national defence. (N.C.)

  18. A pre design processing of solid radioactive waste using microwave process from nuclear power plant type PWR 1000 MW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pre design processing of solid radioactive waste using microwave process from nuclear power plant type 1000 MW has been carried out. The aims of study is to conduct pre design solid radioactive waste treatment in the form of incineration ash, ion exchange resins, solid concentrates and metal sludge by microwave process by melting them in a melter using a microwave technique. The results of the reduction of waste volume up to 1/20 times from the original waste volume and having shape very solids so that it will be easily stored and transferred at the waste storage place. Thus, the processing using microwave process has many advantages compared to the immobilization process which is more efficient and effective. In the pre design installation of solid radioactive waste processing is done by compilation of microwave conceptual design and process flow diagram of pre design. (author)

  19. Geological aspects of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geological formations suitable for burying various types of radioactive wastes are characterized applying criteria for the evaluation and selection of geological formations for building disposal sites for radioactive wastes issued in IAEA technical recommendations. They are surface disposal sites, disposal sites in medium depths and deep disposal sites. Attention is focused on geological formations usable for injecting self-hardening mixtures into cracks prepared by hydraulic decomposition and for injecting liquid radioactive wastes into permeable rocks. Briefly outlined are current trends of the disposal of radioactive wastes in Czechoslovakia and the possibilities are assessed from the geological point of view of building disposal sites for radioactive wastes on the sites of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants at Jaslovske Bohunice, Mochovce, Dukovany, Temelin, Holice (eastern Bohemia), Blahoutovice (northern Moravia) and Zehna (eastern Slovakia). It is stated that in order to design an optimal method of the burial of radioactive waste it will be necessary to improve knowledge of geological conditions in the potential disposal sites at the said nuclear plants. There is usually no detailed knowledge of geological and hydrological conditions at greater depths than 100 m. (Z.M.)

  20. Processing method for contaminated water containing radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For absorbing contaminated water containing radioactive substances, a sheet is prepared by covering water absorbing pulps carrying an organic water absorbent having an excellent water absorbability is semi-solidified upon absorption water with a water permeable cloth, such as a non-woven fabric having a shape stability. As the organic water absorbent, a hydrophilic polymer which retains adsorbed water as it is used. In particular, a starch-grafted copolymer having an excellent water absorbability also for reactor water containing boric acid is preferred. The organic water absorbent can be carried on the water absorbing pulps by scattering a granular organic water absorbent to the entire surface of the water absorbing cotton pulp extended thinly to carry it uniformly and putting them between thin absorbing paper sheets. If contaminated water containing radioactive materials are wiped off by using such a sheet, the entire sheet is semi-solidified along with the absorption with no leaching of the contaminated water, thereby enabling to move the wastes to a furnace for applying combustion treatment. (T.M.)

  1. Method of processing radioactive liquid wastes derived from organic-chemical decontaminating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To process radioactive liquid wastes of organic-chemical decontaminating agents after being used for the decontamination of tanks, pipeways, pumps or like other equipments contaminated with radioactive materials in nuclear power plants. Method: Radioactive liquid wasted derived from decontaminating agents mainly composed of organic acids such as citric acid, formic acid, oxalic acid, hydroxyl acetic acid, ascorbic acid and gluconic acid are at first processed in a filter comprising porous filtering membranes, to eliminate suspended materials containing claddings not dissolved in the liquid wastes. As the porous filtering membranes, hollow thread filtering membranes, ceramic filters, sintered metal membranes, metal mesh filters or the likes may be used, the back-wash type hollow thread porous polymeric membranes being preferred. Then, the organic mateirals are effectively decomposed into gaseous dioxide and water through photolysis while blowing ozone under the irradiation of UV-rays to thereby decrease the amount of radioactive wastes significantly. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. The estimation of the amount of radioactive waste from decommissioning of the nuclear facilities in Oarai Engineering Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimation of the amount of radioactive waste produced from nuclear facilities in Oarai Engineering Center was performed for the purpose of using it for countermeasure of decommissioning planning. The conditions and the result of the estimation are as follows; (1) The total amount of occurrence of radioactive waste is 18,820 tons. As the items of the amount in radioactive level, the amount of 1 GBq/t and over is 820 tons and that of under 1 GBq/t is 18,000 tons. (2) The amount of metal waste is 5,820 tons and the amount of concrete is 13,000 tons. (3) Above calculation was based on related specifications, complete drawings, and visual observation. (4) To dismantle facilities, if must exfoliate the surface of wall. As for the polluted zone and the zone with possibility of pollution, it decided to exfoliate 5 cm in thickness from the surface of the wall. And, as for the zone that fundamentally pollution was not there, it decided to exfoliate surface 1 cm in thickness from the surface of the wall. (5) Using the suitable decontamination technology and exfoliation technology can reduce the amount of radioactive waste. (6) In the facilities dealing with sealed source judging from the past record of operation, there is no contact with the radioactive material, etc. Therefore, it can be disposed of all the waste that comes out from the facilities as non-radioactive waste. (author)

  3. Low-level radioactive waste processing at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This survey was limited to systems and materials used to process waste liquids contaminated with radionuclides. Since the chemical and radiological character of collected liquids may change dramatically, the survey describes waste and cleanup process streams encountered during normal outage or power production conditions. Influents containing specific organic compounds, salts, or solids common to local sources, and the special techniques developed to remove or concentrate these materials are not detailed in this report. The names and phone numbers of the individuals responsible for investigating and solving these problems, however, provides easy access to data which will save time and expense when facing abnormal processing, purchasing, or engineering challenges. The Liquid Radwaste Source Book contains information collected from 31 of 36 BWR's as well as contact information from all licensed commercial units. Since some sites share common radwaste processing facilities, not all units are represented by individual data sheets

  4. Technical guide management of waste materials with radioactive contents in biological research centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guide presented offers significant improvements in the management procedures of waste materials with radioactive contents, in addition to unifying modes of action on radioactive facilities for research and teaching. The guide has been developed within the activities of the SEPR in collaboration with ENRESA. (Author)

  5. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throughout this century, the application of nuclear energy has produced many benefits, in industry, in research, in medicine, and in the generation of electricity. These activities generate wastes in the same way as do other human activities. The primary objective of radioactive waste management is to protect human health and environment now and in the future without imposing undue burden on future generations, through sound, safe and efficient radioactive waste management. This paper briefly describes the different steps of the management of short lived low and intermediate level wastes, and presents and overview of the state of art in countries involved in nuclear energy, describing their organizations, methodologies used in the processing of these wastes and the final disposal concepts. It also presents the Argentine strategy, its technical and legal aspects. Worldwide experience during the past 50 years has shown that short lived low and intermediate level wastes can be successfully isolated from human and environment in near surface disposal facilities. (author)

  6. Heat transfer enhanced microwave process for stabilization of liquid radioactive waste slurry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectve of this CRADA is to combine a polymer process for encapsulation of liquid radioactive waste slurry developed by Monolith Technology, Inc. (MTI), with an in-drum microwave process for drying radioactive wastes developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), for the purpose of achieving a fast, cost-effectve commercial process for solidification of liquid radioactive waste slurry. Tests performed so far show a four-fold increase in process throughput due to the direct microwave heating of the polymer/slurry mixture, compared to conventional edge-heating of the mixer. We measured a steady-state throughput of 33 ml/min for 1.4 kW of absorbed microwave power. The final waste form is a solid monolith with no free liquids and no free particulates

  7. Processes and Equipment for the Cementation of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article a short selection of different cement mixer types provided by NUKEM Technologies is given. The variety stems on one hand from historical development, but more especially from specific customer demands to meet their local and technical requirements. The Slant Batch Mixer is successfully installed in several Waste Treatment Centers (WTC). NUKEM Technologies set up these mixers with necessary auxiliary systems to facilitate all the cementation tasks of a WTC. By the slant design of the mixer a homogeneous intermixing and a rapid and comprehensive emptying is achieved. The High Shear Mixer is a batch mixer producing a thixotropic, fast flowing colloidal cement slurry. NUKEM Technologies uses this cement slurry to bubble-free/ empty space-free grouting of pre-packed solid waste items in container. The High Throughput Continuous Mixer is a continuously operating screw mixer that provides a high throughput. One or more dry components are continuously fed to the mixer where liquid waste or water is added. The High Performance In-Drum Mixer is a combination of planetary mixer with double helical mixer. NUKEM Technologies recently has developed a new High Capacity Mixer (HCM) based on a well proven conventional concrete mixer. The HCM is the successor of the slant mixer and will expend NUKEM Technologies' portfolio of cementation units. (A.C.)

  8. Joint Assessment of Renewable Energy and Water Desalination Research Center (REWDC) Program Capabilities and Facilities In Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary goal of this visit was to perform a joint assessment of the Renewable Energy and Water Desalination Center's (REWDC) program in radioactive waste management. The visit represented the fourth technical and scientific interaction with Libya under the DOE/NNSA Sister Laboratory Arrangement. Specific topics addressed during the visit focused on Action Sheet P-05-5, ''Radioactive Waste Management''. The Team, comprised of Mo Bissani (Team Lead), Robert Fischer, Scott Kidd, and Jim Merrigan, consulted with REWDC management and staff. The team collected information, discussed particulars of the technical collaboration and toured the Tajura facility. The tour included the waste treatment facility, waste storage/disposal facility, research reactor facility, hot cells and analytical labs. The assessment team conducted the first phase of Task A for Action Sheet 5, which involved a joint assessment of the Radioactive Waste Management Program. The assessment included review of the facilities dedicated to the management of radioactive waste at the Tourja site, the waste management practices, proposed projects for the facility and potential impacts on waste generation and management

  9. Experience base for Radioactive Waste Thermal Processing Systems: A preliminary survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the process of considering thermal technologies for potential treatment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory mixed transuranic contaminated wastes, a preliminary survey of the experience base available from Radioactive Waste Thermal Processing Systems is reported. A list of known commercial radioactive waste facilities in the United States and some international thermal treatment facilities are provided. Survey focus is upon the US Department of Energy thermal treatment facilities. A brief facility description and a preliminary summary of facility status, and problems experienced is provided for a selected subset of the DOE facilities

  10. Optimization of sorption technology processing of liquid radioactive waste of low and middle activity level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A substantial amount of liquid radioactive wastes (LRW) is formed during the regeneration of irradiated nuclear fuel (INF). Liquid wastes of low activity level (LAL) include: wash water and leakages; water for hydrotransport; water in storage basins; water from special laundries and disinfestation posts; and waste deactivation solutions. The radioactivity of these LRWs is equal to 1 x 10-7 1 x 10-5 Ci/l. Depending on the sources of the water supply for processing of INF, as well as technology and time (seasons) of processing, productivity and other factors, variations exist in the chemical and radiochemical compositions of LAL. This article discusses various processing treatments for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

  11. Materials Characterization Center workshop on leaching of radioactive waste forms. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the first Materials Characterization Center (MCC) workshop, on the leaching of radioactive waste forms, there was general agreement that, after certain revisions, the proposed leach test plan set forth by the MCC can be expected to meet most of the nuclear waste community's waste form durability data requirements. The revisions give a clearer definition of the purposes of each test and the end uses of the data. As a result of the workshop, the format of the test program has been recast to clarify the purposes, limitations, and interrelationships of the individual tests. There was also a recognition that the leach test program must be based on an understanding of the mechanistic principles of leaching, and that further study is needed to ensure that the approved data from the MCC leach tests will be compatible with mechanistic research needs. It was agreed that another meeting of the participants in Working Groups 3 and 4, and perhaps some other experts, should be held as soon as possible to focus just on the definition of leach test requirements for mechanistic research. The MCC plans to hold this meeting in April 1980. Many of the tests that will lead to increased understanding of mechanisms will of necessity be long-term tests, sometimes lasting for several years. But the MCC also faces pressing needs to produce approved data that can be used for the comparison of waste forms in the relative near-term, i.e., in the next 1 to 3 yr. Therefore, it was decided to initiate a round-robin test of the MCC short-term static leach procedure as soon as practicable. The MCC has tentative plans for organization of the round robin in May 1980

  12. Waste management of radioactive residual material at a research center operating a heavy ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the 70th GSI in Darmstadt succesfully operates a large heavy ion accelerator. Limited amounts of Radioactive residual material and waste is produced in addition to great and numerous research results. These residual materials have to be measured, described and declared in order to safely reuse these materials or to dispose them in a controlled way. This is a challenge for the radioactive waste management group. The application areas at the research facility are divided in groups with similar radioactive inventory: - The ion sources with depleted uranium; - The beam line an the surrounding areas with mainly activation nuclides; - The caves for the experiments with activation products as well as contaminations from target material or open sources in rare occasions; - the radiochemical laboratories where all nuclides especially transuranium targets are handled. These nuclides are partially difficult to detect. One of the problems for radioactive waste management is the determination of nuclides and their activities. Another one is the chemical composition of the waste material. Materials with different properties must be strictly separated and described. In this paper the specific problems for all 4 groups are discussed and the characteristic solutions presented. In the future with the new facility FAIR higher beam energies and intensities will require an efficient radioactive waste management for optimised waste reduction and effective handling methods. (orig.)

  13. Study of the Treatment of the Liquid Radioactive Waste Nong Son Uranium Ore Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid waste from Nong Son uranium ore processing is treated with concentrated acid, agglomerated, leached, run through ion exchange and then treated with H2O2 to precipitate yellowcake. The liquid radioactive waste has a pH of 1.86 and a high content of radioactive elements, such as: [U] 143.898 ppm and [Th] = 7.967 ppm. In addition, this waste contains many polluted chemical elements with high content, such as arsenic, mercury, aluminum, iron, zinc, magnesium, manganese and nickel. The application of the general method as one stage precipitation or precipitation in coordination with BaCl2 is not effective. These methods generated a large amount of sludge with poor settling characteristics. The volume of final treated waste was large. This paper introduces the investigation of the treatment of this liquid radioactive waste by the method of two stage of precipitation in association with polyaluminicloride (PAC) and polymer. The impact of factors: pH, neutralizing agents, quantity of PAC and polymer to effect precipitation and improve the settling characteristics during processing was studied. The results showed that the processing of liquid radioactive waste treatment through two stages: first stage at pH = 3 and the second stage at pH = 8.0 with limited PAC and polymer (A 101) resulted in significant reduced volume of the treated waste. The discharged liquid satisfied the requirement of the National Technical Regulation on Industrial Waste Water (QCVN 24:2009). (author)

  14. Radioactive waste containing method and containing vessel for underground processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overpack has spherical seats at the openings of a vessel main body, and a lid is fitted to the spherical seat as a bottom and mounted by a welded portion. The bottom and the outer circumferential surface of the overpack are previously covered by a body covering material, an end covering material, a lid covering material and an annular closing plate. A containing vessel (canister) after glass-solidification of radioactive liquid wastes is charged from an upper opening of the overpack. A lid is fitted to the upper spherical seat, and a welded portion is formed to seal the canister. An end covering material is disposed on the upper end face of the vessel main body, and a seal-welding portion is formed to the joining portion with the body covering material to integrate them. In addition, the annular closing plate is fitted between the end covering material and the lid covering material, and then a seal-welding portion is formed to cover the entire surface of the vessel main body and the lids. (I.N.)

  15. Optimal operation planning of radioactive waste processing system by goal programming and fuzzy theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is concerned with the applications of linear goal programming and fuzzy theory to the analysis of management and operational problems in the radioactive processing system (RWPS). The developed model is validated and verified using actual data obtained from the RWPS at Kyoto University in Japan. The solution by goal programming and fuzzy theory would show the optimal operation point which is to maximize the total treatable radioactive waste volume and minimize the released radioactivity of liquid waste even under the restricted resources

  16. Programs of recovery of radioactive wastes from the trenches and land decontamination of the radioactive waste storage center; Programas de recuperacion de los desechos radiactivos de las trincheras y de descontaminacion del predio del centro de almacenamiento de desechos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez D, J.; Reyes L, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1999-06-15

    In this report there are the decontamination program of the land of the Radioactive Waste Storage Center, the Program of Recovery of the radioactive waste of the trenches, the recovery of polluted bar with cobalt 60, the recovery of minerals and tailings of uranium and of earth with minerals and tailings of uranium, the recovery of worn out sealed sources and the waste recovery with the accustomed corresponding actions are presented. (Author)

  17. Study into an organization for collecting, processing and removing of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a study into a new organization for the collection, processing and removal of radioactive waste. At present these activities are carried out by the Dutch Energy Research Foundation (ECN). The new organization has to offer guarantees for a qualititatively responsible retrieval and processing of radioactive waste. It also has to be certain that the waste offered will not be send back, or even refused, if stagnation occurs in the removal. Finally the tariffs have to be not so prohibitive that they hinder a responsible handling with radioactive waste by the producers. An organization is advised which is self-employed with regard to management, directorate and materials. It is recommended to submit this organization in a limited liability company. This form of government may be supplemented optionally with a slight form of a cooperative association. (author). 10 refs.; 3 figs.; 11 tabs

  18. Radioactive Waste Conditioning, Immobilisation, And Encapsulation Processes And Technologies: Overview And Advances (Chapter 7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, Carol M. [Savannah River National Lab., Aiken SC (United States); Lee, William E. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; Ojovan, Michael I. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2012-10-19

    The main immobilization technologies that are available commercially and have been demonstrated to be viable are cementation, bituminization, and vitrification. Vitrification is currently the most widely used technology for the treatment of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) throughout the world. Most of the nations that have generated HLW are immobilizing in either alkali borosilicate glass or alkali aluminophosphate glass. The exact compositions of nuclear waste glasses are tailored for easy preparation and melting, avoidance of glass-in-glass phase separation, avoidance of uncontrolled crystallization, and acceptable chemical durability, e.g., leach resistance. Glass has also been used to stabilize a variety of low level wastes (LLW) and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) low level wastes (MLLW) from other sources such as fuel rod cladding/decladding processes, chemical separations, radioactive sources, radioactive mill tailings, contaminated soils, medical research applications, and other commercial processes. The sources of radioactive waste generation are captured in other chapters in this book regarding the individual practices in various countries (legacy wastes, currently generated wastes, and future waste generation). Future waste generation is primarily driven by interest in sources of clean energy and this has led to an increased interest in advanced nuclear power production. The development of advanced wasteforms is a necessary component of the new nuclear power plant (NPP) flowsheets. Therefore, advanced nuclear wasteforms are being designed for robust disposal strategies. A brief summary is given of existing and advanced wasteforms: glass, glass-ceramics, glass composite materials (GCM’s), and crystalline ceramic (mineral) wasteforms that chemically incorporate radionuclides and hazardous species atomically in their structure. Cementitious, geopolymer, bitumen, and other encapsulant wasteforms and composites that atomically bond and encapsulate

  19. Management on radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic philosophy governing the radioactive waste management activities in India is to concentrate and contain as much activity as possible and to discharge to the environment only such of these streams that have radioactive content much below the nationally and internationally accepted standards. The concept of ''Zero Release'' is also kept in view. At Tarapur, the effluents are discharged into coastal waters after the radioactivity of the effluents is brought down by a factor 100. The effluents fΩm Rajasthan reactors are discharged into a lake keeping their radioactivity well within permissible limits and a solar evaporation plant is being set up. The plant, when it becomes operational, will be a step towards the concept of ''Zero Release''. At Kalpakkam, the treated wastes are proposed to be diluted by circulating sea water and discharged away from the shore through a long pipe. At Narora, ion exchange followed by chemical precipitation is to be employed to treat effluents and solar evaporation process for total containment. Solid wastes are stored/dispsed in the concrete trenches, underground with the water proofing of external surfaces and the top of the trench is covered with concrete. Highly active wastes are stored/disposed in tile holes which are vaults made of steel-lined, reinforced concrete pipes. Gas cleaning, dilution and dispersion techniques are adopted to treat gaseous radioactive wastes. (M.G.B.)

  20. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The execution of the Brazilian nuclear power program involves the generation of radwastes, some of which must be isolated, for several centuries, from human activities and environment. The Materials Directory from National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) organized a project in order to collect information concerning the waste disposal practices that may fulfill national technical-social-economic conditions and to recommend them, if requested, to the competent authorities. The paper provides general information concerning the waste producers, the project organization, the regions in Brazil that should be investigated in more detail during the site selection studies, as well as the preliminary conclusion in waste management area

  1. Radioactive waste management in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Neubauer Josef

    2004-01-01

    At the Austrian Research Centers Seibersdorf, there are several facilities in stalled for treatment of waste of low and intermediate radioactivity level (radwaste). A separate company within Centers, Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf, has been formed recently, acting as a centralized facility for treatment, conditioning and storing of such waste within the country. The relevant treatment technology is applied depending on the waste category. In total about 6900 m3 of solid waste of low and inte...

  2. Final Report - "Foaming and Antifoaming and Gas Entrainment in Radioactive Waste Pretreatment and Immobilization Processes"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasan, Darsh T.

    2007-10-09

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford site are in the process of stabilizing millions of gallons of radioactive waste slurries remaining from production of nuclear materials for the Department of Energy (DOE). The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS is currently vitrifying the waste in borosilicate glass, while the facilities at the Hanford site are in the construction phase. Both processes utilize slurry-fed joule-heated melters to vitrify the waste slurries. The DWPF has experienced difficulty during operations. The cause of the operational problems has been attributed to foaming, gas entrainment and the rheological properties of the process slurries. The rheological properties of the waste slurries limit the total solids content that can be processed by the remote equipment during the pretreatment and meter feed processes. Highly viscous material can lead to air entrainment during agitation and difficulties with pump operations. Excessive foaming in waste evaporators can cause carryover of radionuclides and non-radioactive waste to the condensate system. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the surface phenomena, suspension rheology and bubble generation of interactions that lead to foaming and air entrainment problems in the DOE High Level and Low Activity Radioactive Waste separation and immobilization processes were pursued under this project. The first major task accomplished in the grant proposal involved development of a theoretical model of the phenomenon of foaming in a three-phase gas-liquid-solid slurry system. This work was presented in a recently completed Ph.D. thesis (9). The second major task involved the investigation of the inter-particle interaction and microstructure formation in a model slurry by the batch sedimentation method. Both experiments and modeling studies were carried out. The results were presented in a recently completed Ph.D. thesis. The third task involved the use of laser confocal microscopy to study

  3. Radioactive waste management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reports and other Canadian literature on radioactive waste processing and disposal covering the period 1953-1979 are listed. A selected list of international conferences relating to waste management (1959-1979) is attached. (LL)

  4. Modeling Coupled Processes in Clay Formations for Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the termination of the Yucca Mountain Project, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has started to explore various alternative avenues for the disposition of used nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The overall scope of the investigation includes temporary storage, transportation issues, permanent disposal, various nuclear fuel types, processing alternatives, and resulting waste streams. Although geologic disposal is not the only alternative, it is still the leading candidate for permanent disposal. The realm of geologic disposal also offers a range of geologic environments that may be considered, among those clay shale formations. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA. Clay rock/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures induced by tunnel excavation. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon et al., 2005) have all been under intensive scientific investigations (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relations with flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of nuclear waste. Clay/shale formations may be generally classified as indurated and plastic clays (Tsang et al., 2005). The latter (including Boom clay) is a softer material without high cohesion; its deformation is dominantly plastic. For both clay rocks, coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes are expected to have a significant impact on the long-term safety of a clay repository. For

  5. Modeling Coupled Processes in Clay Formations for Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Rutqvist, Jonny; Zheng, Liange; Sonnenthal, Eric; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2010-08-31

    As a result of the termination of the Yucca Mountain Project, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has started to explore various alternative avenues for the disposition of used nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The overall scope of the investigation includes temporary storage, transportation issues, permanent disposal, various nuclear fuel types, processing alternatives, and resulting waste streams. Although geologic disposal is not the only alternative, it is still the leading candidate for permanent disposal. The realm of geologic disposal also offers a range of geologic environments that may be considered, among those clay shale formations. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA. Clay rock/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures induced by tunnel excavation. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon et al., 2005) have all been under intensive scientific investigations (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relations with flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of nuclear waste. Clay/shale formations may be generally classified as indurated and plastic clays (Tsang et al., 2005). The latter (including Boom clay) is a softer material without high cohesion; its deformation is dominantly plastic. For both clay rocks, coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes are expected to have a significant impact on the long-term safety of a clay repository. For

  6. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet is a publication by International Atomic Energy Agency for general awareness of citizens and policy-makers to clarify their concept of nuclear wastes. In a very simple way it tells what is radioactivity, radiations and radioactive wastes. It further hints on various medial and industrial uses of radiations. It discusses about different types of radioactive wastes and radioactive waste management. Status of nuclear power plants in Central and Eastern European countries are also discussed

  7. Academic design of on-line radiation monitoring instrument for gaseous radioactive waste processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the radioactivity monitoring requirements for exhaust air with the hydrogen waste gas from the waste gas processing system of the nuclear power plant, a kind of on-line monitoring scheme is designed to efficiently solve the problem of radiation monitoring of 85Kr and 133Xe in waste gas containing hydro-gen. The detection efficiency and the influences of the environmental gamma background for the monitor have been calculated by Monte Carlo code. Thereby, important theoretical references are provided for the equipment development and production. The calculated results show that plastic scintillator with the size of φ10 ×0.5 mm that is based on the on -line monitoring scheme fully meets the radioactivity monitoring requirements for exhaust air with the hydrogen waste gas from the waste gas processing system of AP1000 nuclear power plant. If the gamma environmental background is smaller than 10μGy/h, the lead shielding is not needed. (authors)

  8. Fixation of radioactive wastes in glass by a process of molecular stuffing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on a process for adding dopants to high-silica porous glass at relatively low temperatures (0C) (Molecular Stuffing Process) has led to a method suitable for the storage of radioactive waste materials. Glass produced by this method has a high concentration of waste in the interior and is free of this waste in a thick surface layer. Silica content is above 75% in the core and above 90 mole % in the surface. The glass exhibits extremely high chemical durability and low diffusion rates for the waste

  9. Process for ultimate conditioning of solid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic raw waste is grinded, then mixed with a cement-water mix homogeneously, subsequently filled into storage cask. Big non-desintegrateable organic waste may be embedded therein. After solidification transport to the ultimate storage facility. (orig.)

  10. Tests for process control during treatment of low and medium radioactive waste in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On behalf of European Communities R and D programme on Management and Storage of Radioactive Waste (1990-1994) an order was given by CEC to study test methods for process control during treatment of low and medium radioactive waste arising from nuclear power plants. This study is jointly performed by KFA Juelich (Germany), Laborelec (Belgium) and N.V. KEMA (The Netherlands). In stage 1 of the research programme inventories are made of existing processes and general quality actions in the three countries. This report describes the processes in the Dodewaard and Borssele nuclear power plants. The types of radioactive waste and conditioning are described. Detailed process descriptions are give of the waste pretreatment, cementation, packaging, transportation and storage at the Dodewaard BWR. Several forms that have to be filled in are described. A process description for the Borssele PWR is also given, including the quality actions. In the Netherlands COVRA (Central Organization for Radioactive Waste) organizes the transport and (interim) storage of radwaste. COVRA also approves procedures and defines requirements. (author). 11 refs.; 24 figs.; 1 tab

  11. Assessment of Malaysia Institutional radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complete inventory of radioactive wastes from different source bas been set up in Malaysia. Wastes from external agencies were sent to the National Radioactive Waste Management Center at MINT for final disposal. MINT has been collecting information on the accumulated wastes received since 1982. Assessment of radioactive waste management in Malaysia has been conducted based on the inventory record. The information in the inventory include description of users, type volume, characteristics of the wastes; and the current and accumulated activities of the radioisotopes in the wastes forms while storing. The records indicate that there is a significant increase in the volume of wastes from medical and industrial applications. The category of users varies; there are about 270 industrial users, about 60 in medical fields and 13 in research institutes and universities. Major users generating sealed source wastes for the industrial sector are services, manufacturing and consumer companies; including government department and universities. It is estimated that by the year 2005, approximately a total accumulated processed waste package volume for disposal will be between 210-215 m sup 3. This estimate includes low level and intermediate level wastes. From this study, future waste management activities in Malaysia can be planned with proper policy decision, treatment conditioning, storage and disposal facilities. This will enable radioactive wastes to be kept under control and their potential impact on man and the environment to be minimal

  12. Evaluation of a unique system for the thermal processing of radioactive and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1981 Mound began a study to determine the feasibility of using an electrically heated glass furnace for the treatment of low-level radioactive wastes generated at commercial nuclear power facilities. This study featured experiments which were designed to address critical needs of the industry in the area of thermal waste processing, namely high quality combustion of organic constituents, radioactivity capture and immobilization, integrity of the final waste form, and cost effectiveness. In dealing with these concerns a variety of wastes typical of the types generated by nuclear power facilities, including not only standard trash but also wastes of high aqueous and/or inorganic content, were spiked with predominant waste radioisotopes and processed in the glass furnace. The results of this study indicate that the unit's capabilities fully meet the addressed needs of the nuclear industry for power plant waste processing. The quality of combustion observed during the initial studies on the glass furnace was such that a more demanding application was suggested - that of hazardous waste combustion. To evaluate the furnace's capabilities in this area a study was initiated in December, 1984, which simulated a ''trial burn'' of the type required for an EPA Part B permit for thermal processing of RCRA hazardous wastes. Solvents and sludges containing high percentages of water were spiked with problem toxic metals and ''cocktails'' of organics determined to be ''difficult to incinerate'' by the EPA. A complete sampling program following EPA protocol demonstrated destruction and removal efficiencies exceeding RCRA standards

  13. Calcination processing method and calcination processing device for radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a calcination method of heating radioactive solid wastes comprising mixed organic and inorganic materials to thermally decompose organic materials in wastes, the temperature of the radioactive solid wastes is measured upon heating the radioactive solid wastes, and the amount of heat to be applied to wastes is controlled based on the measured value, and the atmosphere of the circumference of the wastes is cooled to suppress the temperature elevation rate of the wastes. In addition, the oxygen concentration in generated off gases is measured and the amount of heat to be applied to the wastes is controlled depending on the change of the oxygen concentration during calcination. Further, the concentration of gaseous carbon dioxide in the generated off gases is also measured to judge the completion of the calcination by the change of the concentration of the gaseous carbon dioxide. With such procedures, even if the wastes to be treated are radioactive solid wastes in which organic and inorganic materials are mixed with less burnable organic materials, stable and safe operation can be conducted. (T.M.)

  14. Progress of the radioactive waste management at the Dalat Nuclear Research Institute and the role of an IAEA technical co-operation project in this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, the main radioactive waste generator in Vietnam is the Dalat Nuclear Research Institute (DNRI). For safe management of radioactive waste generated from this nuclear center, in 1982 Soviet specialists newly constructed one combined technology system for low level radioactive waste management. The existing system consists of two main parts, a Liquid Radioactive Waste Treatment Station and a Storage/Disposal Facility. The liquid treatment station can in principle meet the needs for this nuclear center but disposal technology and storage/disposal facilities are not good enough both with respect to safety and economy, especially the storage/disposal facility placed in Dalat, the tourist city. In order to help DNRI and Vietnam to solve the radioactive waste management problem, the IAEA Technical Co-operation (TC) project VIE/9/007 was implemented in Vietnam. The facilities and IAEA experts provided under this project gradually help to develop radioactive waste management at DNRI, Vietnam. This paper outlines progress under way in the management of the radioactive waste at the Nuclear Research Institute (NRI), Dalat, Vietnam, and the role of the IAEA Technical Co-operation (TC) project in this process. (author)

  15. Pecularities of carrying out radioactive wastes vitrification process without preliminary calcination of wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitrification technology is considered for liquid radioactive wastes by means of electric furnace where heating of glass-paste is done by electric current passing through the melt. Continious process of gehydration, calcination and vitrification is going on in one apparatus. Testing if the method has been performed by use of a model solution, containing sodium and aluminium nitrates. To obtain phosphoric acid has been added into the solution. Lay-out of the device and its description as well as technical parameters of the electric furnace are given. The results are stated for determination of the optimum operation conditions for the device. To reduce entrainment of solid components, molasses has been added in the solution. Parameters are given for the process of the solution containing 80 g/l molasses processing. It has been shown that edding molasses to the solution permitted to reduse power consumption of the process due to the heat generation during oxidation-reduction reaction on the melt surface. The results are given for investigations of the nitrogen oxides catching in scrubbers. These results have shown that introduction of molasses reduces nitrigen oxides concentration. The results of the experimental works have shown the possibility of the continious process of dehydration, calcination and vitrification in single device with application of remote control and monitoring by means of automatics. (I.T.)

  16. Process for treating of chemical or radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to transport liquid or slurry waste, an emulsion is formed from a resin and a monomer with a small water volume, the emulsion showing a high thixotropy, and then the waste is added to this emulsion. With the addition of flame retardants and catalysts stable in the cold but active when heated, transport in appropriate containers is possible with minimal risks

  17. Process for decontamination of radioactively contaminated waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The waste water from the nuclear medical stations are separated from coarse dispersed materials in a precipitation container and are made acid to reach a pH value greater than 9.5. Next, there is precipitation or absorption. Waste air produced is cleaned by means of filters. (DG)

  18. Biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid simulation waste containing detergent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research of biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid waste containing detergent has been done. Thse organic liquid wastes are generated in nuclear facilities such as from laundry. The wastes that are cotegorized as hazard and poison materials are also radioactive. It must be treated properly by detoxification of the hazard and decontamination of the radionuclides to ensure that the disposal of the waste meets the requirement of standard quality of water. This research was intended to determine decontamination factor and separation efficiensies, its kinetics law, and to produce a supernatant that ensured the environmental quality standard. The radioactive element in the waste was thorium with activity of 5.10−5 Ci/m3. The radioactive liquid waste which were generated in simulation plant contains detergents that was further processed by aerobic biochemical process using SGB 103 bacteria in a batch reactor equipped with aerators. Two different concentration of samples were processed and analyzed for 212 hours and 183 hours respectively at a room temperature. The product of this process is a liquid phase called as supernatant and solid phase material called sludge. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solid (SS), and its alpha activity were analyzed. The results show that the decontamination factor and the separation efficiency of the lower concentration samples are higher compared to the samples with high concentration. Regarding the decontamination factor, the result for 212 hours processing of waste with detergent concentration of 1.496 g/L was 3.496 times, whereas at the detergent concentration of 0.748 g/L was 15.305 times for 183 hours processing. In case of the separation efficiency, the results for both samples were 71.396% and 93.465% respectively. The Bacterial growth kinetics equation follow Monod’s model and the decreasing of COD and BOD were first order with the rate constant of 0.01 hour−1

  19. Biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid simulation waste containing detergent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundari, Noor Anis; Putra, Sugili; Mukaromah, Umi

    2015-12-01

    Research of biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid waste containing detergent has been done. Thse organic liquid wastes are generated in nuclear facilities such as from laundry. The wastes that are cotegorized as hazard and poison materials are also radioactive. It must be treated properly by detoxification of the hazard and decontamination of the radionuclides to ensure that the disposal of the waste meets the requirement of standard quality of water. This research was intended to determine decontamination factor and separation efficiensies, its kinetics law, and to produce a supernatant that ensured the environmental quality standard. The radioactive element in the waste was thorium with activity of 5.10-5 Ci/m3. The radioactive liquid waste which were generated in simulation plant contains detergents that was further processed by aerobic biochemical process using SGB 103 bacteria in a batch reactor equipped with aerators. Two different concentration of samples were processed and analyzed for 212 hours and 183 hours respectively at a room temperature. The product of this process is a liquid phase called as supernatant and solid phase material called sludge. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solid (SS), and its alpha activity were analyzed. The results show that the decontamination factor and the separation efficiency of the lower concentration samples are higher compared to the samples with high concentration. Regarding the decontamination factor, the result for 212 hours processing of waste with detergent concentration of 1.496 g/L was 3.496 times, whereas at the detergent concentration of 0.748 g/L was 15.305 times for 183 hours processing. In case of the separation efficiency, the results for both samples were 71.396% and 93.465% respectively. The Bacterial growth kinetics equation follow Monod's model and the decreasing of COD and BOD were first order with the rate constant of 0.01 hour-1.

  20. Biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid simulation waste containing detergent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundari, Noor Anis, E-mail: nooranis@batan.go.id; Putra, Sugili; Mukaromah, Umi [Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Nuklir – Badan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional Jl. Babarsari P.O. BOX 6101 YKBB Yogyakarta 55281 Telp : (0274) 48085, 489716, Fax : (0274) 489715 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Research of biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid waste containing detergent has been done. Thse organic liquid wastes are generated in nuclear facilities such as from laundry. The wastes that are cotegorized as hazard and poison materials are also radioactive. It must be treated properly by detoxification of the hazard and decontamination of the radionuclides to ensure that the disposal of the waste meets the requirement of standard quality of water. This research was intended to determine decontamination factor and separation efficiensies, its kinetics law, and to produce a supernatant that ensured the environmental quality standard. The radioactive element in the waste was thorium with activity of 5.10{sup −5} Ci/m{sup 3}. The radioactive liquid waste which were generated in simulation plant contains detergents that was further processed by aerobic biochemical process using SGB 103 bacteria in a batch reactor equipped with aerators. Two different concentration of samples were processed and analyzed for 212 hours and 183 hours respectively at a room temperature. The product of this process is a liquid phase called as supernatant and solid phase material called sludge. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solid (SS), and its alpha activity were analyzed. The results show that the decontamination factor and the separation efficiency of the lower concentration samples are higher compared to the samples with high concentration. Regarding the decontamination factor, the result for 212 hours processing of waste with detergent concentration of 1.496 g/L was 3.496 times, whereas at the detergent concentration of 0.748 g/L was 15.305 times for 183 hours processing. In case of the separation efficiency, the results for both samples were 71.396% and 93.465% respectively. The Bacterial growth kinetics equation follow Monod’s model and the decreasing of COD and BOD were first order with the rate constant of 0

  1. Operation and control of ion-exchange processes for treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A manual dealing with the application of ion-exchange materials to the treatment of radioactive wastes and reviewing the facilities currently using this method. This book is one of three commissioned by the IAEA on the principal methods of concentrating radioactive wastes. The content of this document is: (i) Historical review related to removal of radioactivity; (ii) Principles of ion exchange (iii) Ion-exchange materials; (iv) Limitations of ion exchangers; (v) Application of ion exchange to waste processing; (vi) Operational procedures and experiences; (vii) Cost-of-treatment by ion-exchange. The document also gives a list of producers of ion-exchange material and defines some relevant terms. 101 refs, 31 figs, 27 tabs

  2. Corrosion processes studies in a radioactive waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In high activity nuclear waste containers design, a number of metals have been considered, among them carbon steels, stainless steels, high alloy steels, copper and titanium should be mentioned. Lead may also be useful for this purpose due to its good radiological and corrosion resistance in natural water properties. As disadvantage, its low creep resistance and toxicity should be mentioned. Corrosion tests results in commercial lead and lead-tin alloys, with tin contents ranging from 1 to 9 %, lead-antimony and lead bismuth with alloy content ranging from 1 to 3.5 % are reported. Those tests were performed in low salinity carbonated groundwater and in artificial seawater at 60 and 75 degree C. This test program is aimed to select an alloy with better corrosion resistance than commercial lead. It was found that lead-tin alloys fulfill this condition when tin concentration is equal to 3.5 % or higher. A lower corrosion resistance was found in Lead-Antimony and Lead-Bismuth alloys tests. Besides, a corrosion processes modeling in a container placed in a repository is intended. In a first stage, taking into account that for this particular container design, where a carbon steel liner is the external container wall, an iron corrosion process based on oxygen diffusion through a porous media (bentonite backfill) is proposed. No water radiolysis is taken into account because this phenomenon is negligible due to the internal thick lead container main barrier. The results of this model predict uniform corrosion and a low corrosion kinetics of the carbon steel external liner. It is due to the limited oxygen amount retained in the backfill pores and its low diffusion kinetics

  3. Establishment of Radioactive Waste Running Safely in Whole Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>In 2008, the radioactive wastes treatment and operation center received about 90 m3 of radioactiveliquid waste, about 30 m3 of radioactive solid waste, and about 160 million m3 of treated radioactive

  4. Production of aromatic compounds containing nitrogen during high level radioactive waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility will use a slurry-fed melter to immobilize high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass for permanent storage. During the melter feed operation, some nitrogen-containing organic species are generated due to the nitrite in the sludge and the organic by-products in the aqueous product. The chemistry involved is summarized in this paper

  5. New treatment methods of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques of Radioactive waste treatment continues to make advances in year by year. First of all we would explain the new plant constructed by Studsvik of America in Tenn. U.S.A. This plant consist of pyrolysis and hydro-reforming process. These combination technique are capable for incineration and decompose the inflammable material such as ion-exchange resin. ZWILAG is the central control facility of Radioactive wastes in Switzerland. This facility has wastes storage halls and incineration plant which operated by plasma torch. This system is the first plant in the would. Radon Science Research Center of Russia has been developed many kinds of technique in radwaste treatment. Powdered metal fuel is very unique material for incineration of ionexchange resin. Magnetic stirrer is applied for cement solidification. Ebara designed special equipment for nuclear accident such as movable radioactive measurement car and radioactive liquid waste treatment installed on car are explained. (author)

  6. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources

  7. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources.

  8. Radioactive Waste Repositories Administration - SURAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Act specifies, among other things, responsibilities of the government in the field of safe disposal of radioactive wastes. To satisfy this responsibility, the Ministry of Industry and Trade has established the Radioactive Waste Repositories Administration (SURAO). SURAO's major responsibilities include: (a) the preparation, construction, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning of radioactive waste repositories and the monitoring of their environmental impacts; (b) radioactive waste management; (c) spent or irradiated nuclear fuel processing into a form suitable for storage/disposal or reuse; (d) record-keeping of received radioactive wastes and their producers; (e) administration of fund transfers as stipulated by the Atomic Act, Article 27; (f) development of proposals for specification of fees to be paid to the Nuclear Account; (g) responsibility for and coordination of research and development in the field of radioactive waste handling and management; (h) supervision of licensees' margin earmarked for the decommissioning of their facilities; (i) providing services in radioactive waste handling and management; (j) handling and management of radioactive wastes that have been transferred to the Czech Republic from abroad and cannot be sent back; (k) interim administration of radioactive wastes that have become state property. The Statute of the Administration is reproduced in full. (P.A.)

  9. Criteria and Processes for the Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document details Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) criteria and processes for determining if potentially volumetrically contaminated or potentially surface contaminated wastes are to be managed as material containing residual radioactivity or as non-radioactive. This document updates and replaces UCRL-AR-109662, Criteria and Procedures for the Certification of Nonradioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 1), also known as 'The Moratorium', and follows the guidance found in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) document, Performance Objective for Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 2). The 1992 Moratorium document (UCRL-AR-109662) is three volumes and 703 pages. The first volume provides an overview of the certification process and lists the key radioanalytical methods and their associated Limits of Sensitivities. Volumes Two and Three contain supporting documents and include over 30 operating procedures, QA plans, training documents and organizational charts that describe the hazardous and radioactive waste management system in place in 1992. This current document is intended to update the previous Moratorium documents and to serve as the top-tier LLNL institutional Moratorium document. The 1992 Moratorium document was restricted to certification of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), State and Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) hazardous waste from Radioactive Material Management Areas (RMMA). This still remains the primary focus of the Moratorium; however, this document increases the scope to allow use of this methodology to certify other LLNL wastes and materials destined for off-site disposal, transfer, and re-use including non-hazardous wastes and wastes generated outside of RMMAs with the potential for DOE added radioactivity. The LLNL organization that authorizes off-site transfer/disposal of a material or waste stream is responsible for implementing the requirements of this document. The LLNL Radioactive and

  10. Neutronic measurements of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the general matters involved in the radioactive waste management and the different non destructive assays of radioactivity. The neutronic measurements used in the characterization of waste drums containing emitters are described with more details, especially the active neutronic interrogation assays with prompt or delayed neutron detection: physical principle, signal processing and evaluation of the detection limit. (author)

  11. Retrieval and Transfer of Stored Radioactive Waste Content of Process Vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall objective of this book is to provide guidance on the retrieval and transfer of stored, bulk radioactive waste in tanks, silos, or similar containment systems. Information is based on the experiences of particular Member States and is intended to provide the people planning retrieval operations with the information they need to develop the most appropriate strategy and supporting processes for their application. It can also provide those in ongoing programs with information to measure their progress and identify additional resources. To this end, a generic methodology for addressing waste retrieval in specific situations is presented with information on the waste retrieval and transportation processes

  12. Automation of the chemical treatment plant of radioactive wastes at the RACSO Nuclear Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RACSO Nuclear Center has a chemical treatment plant which has been designed and built for the low and medium activity radioactive residual treatment. Considering the Radiological Security standards and the optimization principle in order to reduce the doses of the operator personnel, the chemical treatment plant automation development was carried out

  13. Management of radioactive waste from the operation of Czechoslovak NPPs with WWER reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By the end of the 1970s, a policy of safe management of radioactive waste from the operation of Czechoslovak NPPs was determined by the decision of the Czechoslovak Government. Liquid waste including spent ion exchangers had to be solidified and the volume of the solid waste reduced. The final products, filled in standard steel drums, then had to be transported into shallow ground regional repositories for the final disposal. To implement the policy presented, the development of technology and of equipment was finished; production of all needed types of operating units and auxiliary facilities was then commenced. A full scale capacity experimental facility for bituminization of liquid concentrates is operated with the real waste in the NPP at Jaslovske Bohunice. The operating line is under construction at the same site. For the NPP Temelin, the bituminization process with calcination of the liquid concentrate as the first step has been chosen. A mobile calcination and cementation unit for liquid concentrates was developed with one of the full scale experimental facilities being operated in the NPP Dukovany. An experimental full scale prototype of an incinerating plant and a press for the radioactive waste are in operation in the NPP Jaslovske Bohunice. A type of transport container for the conditioned waste has been introduced into production together with the necessary handling devices and means of transport. In addition, two regional repositories are being built. Work leading to the processes and equipment of the next generations is planned and already being carried out. It focuses on both more advanced or new technologies, e.g. vitrification of low and intermediate level waste, as well as on more advanced handling devices and methods of disposal. (author). 4 figs

  14. Technology of processing liquid radioactive wastes at the help of mobile modular installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of mobile modular installation for liquid radioactive waste processing directly at nuclear facility sites is described. The principle arrangement of the modules for waste purification in transport and working variants, as well as the general process scheme of liquid waste processing are considered. The cementation technique is suggested to be applied as the method for waste solidification. The applicability of metal tanks with capacity of 200 litre and concrete containers for solidified waste storage is discussed. It is emphasized that the facility modular structure allows to make corrections in the set and number of the block used directly on a site where the works are conducted. The present design gives an opportunity to put the facility into operation and modify its separate components in parts, when it is necessary

  15. Understanding radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  16. Understanding radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes)

  17. Treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a review of some waste management activities including sources, system of collection and treatment of radioactive wastes. The report also includes methods and options used for treatment of liquid and solid radioactive wastes. (author). 26 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  18. Operational experience at radioactive waste treatment plant, after 15 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The experience of the radioactive waste treatment plant (PTDR) in Chile, which centralizes all activities related to pre-disposal activities in the radioactive waste management, in the country is presented. It is the solely waste treatment plant in the country, where radioactive waste are received from all nuclear and radioactive waste generators facilities located in the country. Radioactive waste in Chile proceeds from radioisotope application at industrial, health, universities research, and from two nuclear research centers. Lately, there have been included the radioactive wastes discovered in metal recycling facilities, which sometimes make big amounts. Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant was planned in 1990; adoption of decision and started operation in 1992. At that time, a facility to store waste packages as conditioned waste in cementitious matrices in standardized 200 l drums was built (43 m3 total capacity) for a storage period estimated in 15 years. The methodology and procedures developed has been transferred to Latin American and El Caribe professionals, through demonstration training courses held in this Waste Treatment Plant which recognized as Demonstration facilities to prepare people in the processing of radioactive waste from nuclear applications, previous to disposal. These procedures were the first one developed following international recommendations and complying requirements to immobilize the radioactive material to avoid the external intrusion of thirds, and requirements of dose radiation according to transport regulations for radioactive material. (authors)

  19. Preliminary tests of an infrared process monitor for polyethylene encapsulation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyethylene encapsulation is a process that is being investigated for the solidification of radioactive nitrate salts at Brookhaven National Laboratory and Rocky Flats Plant. In the encapsulation process, radioactive-salt waste is mixed with polyethylene pellets, heated, and extruded as a molten stream. Upon cooling, the mixture solidifies to a monolithic waste form with excellent properties for long-term waste storage. This paper describes a novel method to monitor the composition of the salt/polymer stream as it exits the extruder. The monitor is based on a technique known as transient infrared spectroscopy (TIRS). The TIRS monitor is able to capture the real-time mid-infrared spectrum of the processed waste stream as it exits the extruder. The wealth of chemical information contained in a mid-infrared spectrum makes this technique very appealing for on-line monitoring and process control. Data from the monitor can be used to guide processing, minimize waste volume, and certify the composition of the final waste form

  20. Predisposal Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recognition of the importance of the safe management of radioactive waste means that, over the years, many well-established and effective techniques have been developed, and the nuclear industry and governments have gained considerable experience in this field. Minimization of waste is a fundamental principle underpinning the design and operation of all nuclear operations, together with waste reuse and recycling. For the remaining radioactive waste that will be produced, it is essential that there is a well defined plan (called a waste treatment path) to ensure the safe management and ultimately the safe disposal of radioactive waste so as to guarantee the sustainable long term deployment of nuclear technologies

  1. High level radioactive waste vitrification process equipment component testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote operability and maintainability of vitrification equipment were assessed under shielded-cell conditions. The equipment tested will be applied to immobilize high-level and transuranic liquid waste slurries that resulted from plutonium production for defense weapons. Equipment tested included: a turntable for handling waste canisters under the melter; a removable discharge cone in the melter overflow section; a thermocouple jumper that extends into a shielded cell; remote instrument and electrical connectors; remote, mechanical, and heat transfer aspects of the melter glass overflow section; a reamer to clean out plugged nozzles in the melter top; a closed circuit camera to view the melter interior; and a device to retrieve samples of the glass product. A test was also conducted to evaluate liquid metals for use in a liquid metal sealing system

  2. Categorizing operational radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this publication is to improve communications among waste management professionals and Member States relative to the properties and status of radioactive waste. This is accomplished by providing a standardized approach to operational waste categorization using accepted industry practices and experience. It is a secondary objective to draw a distinction between operational waste categorization and waste disposal classification. The approach set forth herein is applicable to waste generation by mature (major, advanced) nuclear programmes, small-to-medium sized nuclear programmes, and programmes with waste from other nuclear applications. It can be used for planning, developing or revising categorization methodologies. For existing categorization programmes, the approach set forth in this publication may be used as a validation and evaluation tool for assessing communication effectiveness among affected organizations or nations. This publication is intended for use by waste management professionals responsible for creating, implementing or communicating effective categorization, processing and disposal strategies. For the users of this publication, it is important to remember that waste categorization is a communication tool. As such, the operational waste categories are not suitable for regulatory purposes nor for use in health and safety evaluations. Following Section 1 (Introduction) Section 2 of this publication defines categorization and its relationship to existing waste classification and management standards, regulations and practices. It also describes the benefits of a comprehensive categorization programme and fundamental record considerations. Section 3 provides an overview of the categorization process, including primary categories and sub-categories. Sections 4 and 5 outline the specific methodology for categorizing unconditioned and conditioned wastes. Finally, Section 6 provides a brief summary of critical considerations that

  3. Low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 10 new disposal facilities for low level radioactive waste are now under development in the USA. They were planned in the wake of the highly visible failures of three such sites and a widespread loss of public confidence, both in shallow burial technology and the federal government's ability to regulate commercial waste disposal enterprises. The development of new technology and active involvement of state governments presents the nuclear power industry with its best opportunity for regaining the public confidence that it lost during the 1970s. This paper critically explores the fundamental technical, economic, political and value issues at stake in this process. (author)

  4. Design and safety assessment of a storage for radioactive wastes in a nuclear research center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design and operation of an interim storage facility built for all radioactive wastes produced in the country. It is in operation for the long-time storage of conditioned waste until their final disposal. The store is constructed above ground. The interim storage is a single store rectangular building with approximately 16 m long, 7 m broad and 4,5 m high.The design of the storage considers the waste can be received, handled, stored, inspected or monitored and so that it can be retrieved without undue occupational or public radiation exposure or environmental impact. The concept of a defence in depth has been considered On the other hand taking in account the inventory of activity have been considered security requirement in the design, too. Additional to this, a safety assessment was developed to ensure the protection of workers, the public and the environment under both normal but also accident situations. (author)

  5. Using portland cement for encapsulation of epipremnum aureum generated from phytoremediation process of liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phyto remediation process was recommended for treatment of low and intermediate level liquid radioactive waste. Epipremnum aureum (golden pothas plant) was used to bioabsorbe, bioaccumulate and biostabilize Cs-137 and Co-60 from simulated waste solution containing both radionuclides. After the phyto remediation process, the collected golden pothas was solidified using portland cement aiming at complete and safe management scheme. In this part of work x-ray diffraction , infrared analysis and electron microscope examination as non-destructive techniques were used to evaluate the characteristics of obtained final waste forms of cemented golden pothas. In addition, mechanical, porosity and chemical optimizations were performed under various experimental parameters to asses the suitability of the two processes i.e. phyto remediation and cementation for managing these wastes categories. The experimental results obtained confirmed that encapsulation of 3 % dry ground golden pothas that collected from treatment process of radioactive waste solution, in cement materials did not affect the hydration, setting and curing of the cement matrix. In addition , the obtained cemented waste form exhibits acceptable constitutions that comply with the final disposal requirements.

  6. The storage center of short life low and intermediate level radioactive wastes; Le centre de stockage des dechets de faible et moyenne activite a vie courte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Situated at 50 km of Troyes, the Aube Center was opened in 1992 in order to take over from the Manche Center, for the surface storage of low life low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. It offers an answer to manage safely theses wastes at an industrial scale during 50 years. (A.L.B.)

  7. Foaming in Radioactive Waste Treatment and Immobilization Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop a basic understanding of the mechanisms that produce foaming in a three-phase system (solid/liquid/gas) combined with a specific application to foaming during nuclear waste treatment. In our first annual report, we established the role of solid colloidal particles in generating foam. Therefore, the specific objective of this year's research was to investigate the effects of the concentration of the particles, size and polydispersity in size on the nature and amount of foaminess. This study will aid in developing an understanding of tailoring the properties of solid particles to mitigate foaming

  8. Controlling radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guideline of the Ministry for Environmental Protection for controlling radioactive waste with a negligible development of heat defines in detail what data are relevant to the control of radioactive waste and should be followed up on and included in a system of documentation. By introducing the AVK (product control system for tracing the course of waste disposal) the operators of German nuclear power plants have taken the requirements of this guideline into account. In particular, possibilities for determining the degree of radioactivity of radioactive waste, which the BMU-guidelines call for, were put into practice by means of the programming technology of the product control system's module MOPRO. (orig.)

  9. The Optimization of Radioactive Waste Management in the Nuclear Installation Decommissioning Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a basic characterization of nuclear installation decommissioning process especially in the term of radioactive materials management. A large amount of solid materials and secondary waste created after implementation of decommissioning activities have to be managed considering their physical, chemical, toxic and radiological characteristics. Radioactive materials should be, after fulfilling all the conditions defined by the authorities, released to the environment for the further use. Non-releasable materials are considered to be a radioactive waste. Their management includes various procedures starting with pre-treatment activities, continuing with storage, treatment and conditioning procedures. Finally, they are disposed in the near surface or deep geological repositories. Considering the advantages and disadvantages of all possible ways of releasing the material from nuclear installation area, optimization of the material management process should be done. Emphasis is placed on the radiological parameters of materials, availability of waste management technologies, waste repositories and on the radiological limits and conditions for materials release or waste disposal. Appropriate optimization of material flow should lead to the significant savings of money, disposal capacities or raw material resources. Using a suitable calculation code e.g. OMEGA, the evaluation of the various material management scenarios and selection of the best one, based on the multi-criterion analysis, should be done. (authors)

  10. US and Russian innovative technologies to process low-level liquid radioactive wastes: The Murmansk initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper documents the status of the technical design for the upgrade and expansion to the existing Low-level Liquid Radioactive Waste (LLLRW) treatment facility in Murmansk, the Russian Federation. This facility, owned by the Ministry of Transportation and operated by the Russian company RTP Atomflot in Murmansk, Russia, has been used by the Murmansk Shipping Company (MSCo) to process low-level liquid radioactive waste generated by the operation of its civilian icebreaker fleet. The purpose of the new design is to enable Russia to permanently cease the disposal at sea of LLLRW in the Arctic, and to treat liquid waste and high saline solutions from both the Civil and North Navy Fleet operations and decommissioning activities. Innovative treatments are to be used in the plant which are discussed in this paper

  11. Management of radioactive waste: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Paulo Sant'ana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of disposal of radioactive waste around the world is not solved by now and the principal reason is the lack of an efficient technologic system. The fact that radioactive waste decays of radioactivity with time are the main reasons for setting nuclear or radioactive waste apart from the other common hazardous wastes management. Radioactive waste can be classified according to the state of matter and level of radioactivity and this classification can be differently interpreted from country to country. Furthermore, microbiological procedures, plasma vitrification process, chemical precipitation, ion exchange, evaporation and reverse osmosis are strategies used for the treatment of radioactive wastes. The major challenge is to manage these radioactive substances after being used and discharged. This report brings data from the literature published worldwide from 2009 to 2014 on radioactive waste management studies and it covers production, classification and management of radioactive solid, liquid and gas waste.

  12. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to set out the Government's current strategy for the long term in the management of radioactive wastes. It takes account of the latest developments, and will be subject to review in the light of future developments and studies. The subject is discussed under the headings: what are radioactive wastes; who is responsible; what monitoring takes place; disposal as the objective; low-level wastes; intermediate-level wastes; discharges from Sellafield; heat generating wastes; how will waste management systems and procedures be assessed; how much more waste is there going to be in future; conclusion. (U.K.)

  13. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current disposal concept for radioactive waste in the FRG was discussed in the framework of this seminar. In addition to this concept for the treatment of radioactive waste also the volume of this waste is indicated. The present state of the two repositories 'Konrad' and 'Gorleben' is explained, as well as the requirements on waste packages for transportation, intermediate and ultimate storage. The final part discusses the conditioning of this radioactive waste and the control of the barrels as regards the observance of the requirements. (orig.)

  14. Preparation of nonradioactive substitutes for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the difficulties in obtaining and working with actual radioactive waste, most experiments involving development of ceramic materials for nuclear waste fixation are performed using simulated wastes. Procedures for preparing simulated nuclear wastes that exhibit physical and chemical properties similar to those of actual wastes are given in this report. The synthetic wastes were formulated using conditions similar to those defined in the original process flowsheets. Recipes suitable for laboratory-scale or pilot-scale preparation are given for wastes found at the Savannah River Plant, Hanford Site, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, and the Western New York Nuclear Service Center facility. Recipes are also given for waste that is likely to be generated from future reprocessing of spent commercial nuclear fuels

  15. Radioactive wastes on Kazakhstan territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Common amount of radioactive wastes in Kazakhstan makes up 235 million tons. In Semipalatinsk test site in the result of surface and underground explosions low-radioactive wastes have accumulated in the form of soils contaminated with radionuclides and these wastes could be buried during re-cultivation works. In the same time there are places contaminated with plutonium. These soils should be buried in special points. Volume of these wastes is estimated in 5,000 m3. In Kazakhstan there are one power nuclear reactor in Aktau, 3 research reactors on Semipalatinsk site territory and 1 in Almaty city. During operation of BN-350 power reactor in Aktau city till present day 10,000 m3 of different wastes have been accumulated. Great amount of wastes will appear in 2005 during the reactor decommissioning, common volume of processed and packaged wastes after BN-350 reactor out of operation will be estimated in 623,000 m3. In Kazakhstan system of gathering, processing, and transporting of radioactive wastes is not taken into operation yet. According of conception on radioactive wastes burial and IAEA recommendation part of wastes with volume 67,450 m3 (intermediate- and high-level radioactive wastes) are subjected to burial in points in geological formations

  16. Process for producing zeolite adsorbent and process for treating radioactive liquid waste with the zeolite adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeolite is contacted with an aqueous solution containing at least one of copper, nickel, cobalt, manganese and zinc salts, preferably copper and nickel salts, particularly preferably copper salt, in such a form as sulfate, nitrate, or chloride, thereby adsorbing the metal on the zeolite in its pores by ion exchange, then the zeolite is treated with a water-soluble ferrocyanide compound, for example, potassium ferrocyanide, thereby forming metal ferrocyanide on the zeolite in its pores. Then, the zeolite is subjected to ageing treatment, thereby producing a zeolite adsorbent impregnated with metal ferrocyanide in the pores of zeolite. The adsorbent can selectively recover cesium with a high percent cesium removal from a radioactive liquid waste containing at least radioactive cesium, for example, a radioactive liquid waste containing cesium and such coexisting ions as sodium, magnesium, calcium and carbonate ions at the same time at a high concentration. The zeolite adsorbent has a stable adsorbability for a prolonged time

  17. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Section 24 of the Finnish Radiation Decree (1512/91), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety shall specify the concentration and activity limits and principles for the determination whether a waste can be defined as a radioactive waste or not. The radiation safety requirements and limits for the disposal of radioactive waste are given in the guide. They must be observed when discharging radioactive waste into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste disposal plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilization of nuclear energy of natural resources. (4 refs., 1 tab.)

  18. Testing and evaluation of alternative process systems for immobilizing radioactive mixed particulate waste in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive and Hazardous Mixed Wastes have accumulated at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. Ongoing operations and planned facilities at Hanford will also contribute to this waste stream. To meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restrictions most of this waste will need to be treated to permit disposal. In general this treatment will need to include stabilization/solidification either as a sole method or as part of a treatment train. A planned DOE facility, the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 2A, is scoped to provide this required treatment for containerized contact-handled (CH), mixed low-level waste (MLLW) at Hanford. An engineering development program has been conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to select the best system for utilizing a cement based process in WRAP Module 2A. Three mixing processes were developed for analysis and testing; in-drum mixing, continuous mixing, and batch mixing. Some full scale tests were conducted and 55 gallon drums of solidified product were produced. These drums were core sampled and examined to evaluate mixing effectiveness. Total solids loading and the order of addition of waste and binder constituents were also varied. The highest confidence approach to meet the WRAP Module 2A waste immobilization system needs appears to be the out-of-drum batch mixing concept. This system is believed to offer the most flexibility and efficiency, given the highly variable and troublesome waste streams feeding the facility

  19. Geochemical processes and geophysical investigations associated with geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC) of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is an international committee composed of senior government experts. It is entrusted with overall responsibility for the orientation, conduct and co-ordination at NEA of research and development activities in the field of radioactive waste management. In the particular area of geological disposal of radioactive wastes, the Committee is supported by a Co-ordinating Group on Geological Disposal which has a mandate to organize the exchange of information between participants and to co-ordinate activities in the field of geological disposal. It also constitutes a forum for discussion and evaluation of results achieved in research and development, reporting periodically to the Radioactive Waste Management Committee. During 1982 the Co-ordinating Group sponsored two technical workshops on topics of great importance to the safety assessment and siting of high-level waste repositories. The first of these workshops, held at the OECD in Paris in May 1982 dealt with geochemical processes, and the second, held in Ottawa in September 1982, covered geophysical investigations. These are both active areas of research, and the technical complexity of the subjects and the diversity of experimental findings can often give an impression of uncertainty and confusion to those not intimately involved. It was one purpose of these workshops to attempt to draw from the discussions a clearer view of the capabilities of our current experimental techniques and to highlight the points of most significance to geological disposal of high-level waste, and the areas where further research should be focused. The paper represents the view of the NEA Chairman of the Co-ordinating Group and the Secretariat and does not engage the responsibilities of member governments of the Organisation. (author)

  20. ORNL radioactive waste operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its beginning in 1943, ORNL has generated large amounts of solid, liquid, and gaseous radioactive waste material as a by-product of the basic research and development work carried out at the laboratory. The waste system at ORNL has been continually modified and updated to keep pace with the changing release requirements for radioactive wastes. Major upgrading projects are currently in progress. The operating record of ORNL waste operation has been excellent over many years. Recent surveillance of radioactivity in the Oak Ridge environs indicates that atmospheric concentrations of radioactivity were not significantly different from other areas in East Tennesseee. Concentrations of radioactivity in the Clinch River and in fish collected from the river were less than 4% of the permissible concentration and intake guides for individuals in the offsite environment. While some radioactivity was released to the environment from plant operations, the concentrations in all of the media sampled were well below established standards

  1. NRI's research on radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is given (including 41 references) of work carried out at the Nuclear Research Institute. Discussed are sorption processes (a selective sorbent for 90Sr based on BaSO4, etc.), sorption on inorganic ion exchangers (heteropolyacid salts, ferrocyanides for 137Cs capture), on organic cation exchangers (separation of lanthanides), electrocoagulation. The process is described of vitrification of highly radioactive wastes, the arrest of emissions, the deposition of radioactive wastes and surface decontamination. (M.K.)

  2. Storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even if the best waste minimization measures are undertaken throughout radioisotope production or usage, significant radioactive wastes arise to make management measures essential. For developing countries with low isotope usage and little or no generation of nuclear materials, it may be possible to handle the generated waste by simply practicing decay storage for several half-lives of the radionuclides involved, followed by discharge or disposal without further processing. For those countries with much larger facilities, longer lived isotopes are produced and used. In this situation, storage is used not only for decay storage but also for in-process retention steps and for the key stage of interim storage of conditioned wastes pending final disposal. The report will serve as a technical manual providing reference material and direct step-by-step know-how to staff in radioisotope user establishments and research centres in the developing Member States without nuclear power generation. Considerations are limited to the simpler storage facilities. The restricted quantities and low activity associated with the relevant wastes will generally permit contact-handling and avoid the need for shielding requirements in the storage facilities or equipment used for handling. A small quantity of wastes from some radioisotope production cells and from reactor cooling water treatment may contain sufficient short lived activity from activated corrosion products to require some separate decay storage before contact-handling is suitable. 16 refs, 12 figs, 8 tabs

  3. Radioactive waste management in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste, like many other hazardous wastes, is of great concern in Tanzania because of its undesirable health effects. The stochastic effects due to prolonged exposure to ionizing radiation produce cancer and hereditary effects. The deterministic effects due to higher doses cause vomiting, skin reddening, leukemia, and death to exposed victims. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the status of radioactive wastes in Tanzania, how they are generated and managed to protect humans and the environment. As Tanzania develops, it is bound to increase the use of ionizing radiation in research and teaching, industry, health and agriculture. Already there are more than 42 Centers which use one form of radioisotopes or another for these purposes: Teletherapy (Co-60), Brach-therapy (Cs-137, Sr-89), Nuclear Medicine (P-32, Tc-99m, 1-131, 1-125, Ga-67, In-111, Tl-206), Nuclear gauge (Am-241, Cs- 137, Sr-90, Kr-85), Industrial radiography (Am-241, C-137, Co-60, lr-92), Research and Teaching (1-125, Am241/Be, Co-60, Cs-137, H-3 etc). According to IAEA definition, these radioactive sources become radioactive waste if they meet the following criteria: if they have outlived their usefulness, if they have been abandoned, if they have been displaced without authorization, and if they contaminate other substances. Besides the origin of radioactive wastes, special emphasis will also be placed on the existing radiation regulations that guide disposal of radioactive waste, and the radioactive infrastructure Tanzania needs for ultimate radioactive waste management. Specific examples of incidences (theft, loss, abandonment and illegal possession) of radioactive waste that could have led to serious deterministic radiation effects to humans will also be presented. (author)

  4. Decontamination process applied to radioactive solid wastes from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of decontamination is an important step in the economic operation of nuclear facilities. A large number of protective clothing, metallic parts and equipment get contaminated during the handling of radioactive materials in laboratory, plants and reactors. Safe and economic operation of these nuclear facilities will have a bearing on the extent to which these materials are reclaimed by the process of decontamination. The most common radioactive contaminants are fission products, corrosion products, uranium and thorium. The principles involved in decontamination are the same as those for an industrial cleaning process. However, the main difference is in the degree of cleaning required and at times special techniques have to be employed for removing even trace quantities of radioactive materials. This paper relate decontaminations experiences using acids and acids mixtures (HCl, HF, HNO3, KMnO4, C2H2O4, HBF4) in several kinds of radioactive solid wastes from nuclear power plants. The result solutions were monitored by nuclear analytical techniques, in order to contribute for radiochemical characterization of these wastes. (author)

  5. Process for improving the radionuclide retention properties of solidified radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of this process radioactive wastes from a variety of sources are solidified in such a manner as to significantly improve retention of radionuclides, especially Cs-137. This is achieved by adding to the liquid waste (and/or the binder), an additive consisting of naturally weathered volcanic rocks with a maximum total content of 6.5 w/o CaO + MgO having a solubility in mineral acids less than 50%. The additive varies between 1 and 60 % of the binder weight

  6. Processing of radioactive wastes from long-term fuel store of A-1 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solidification system was designed for the very special composition of radioactive wastes of non-standard type generated in the A-1 nuclear power plant. The system was tested on laboratory scale and tests under pilot plant conditions have just started. The chemical composition of the intermediate-level wastes is not accurately known but in the routine fuel cycle of nuclear power plants it certainly does not occur. The designed system is based on vitrification, attention mainly being centred on the development of suitable glasses. A detailed presentation is made of the results of the development of lead glasses and glasses with a high titanium content. Tests were made with radioactive samples of wastes and with selected types of glass. An experimental melting facility was built which allows to process a model, i.e., non-radioactive, waste of the A-1 type to a scale of 1:1. Pilot plant experiments on the facility will be followed by the design and construction of a fully operational facility. (Z.M.)

  7. Solid Waste Processing Center Primary Opening Cells Systems, Equipment and Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.; Mullen, O Dennis; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2006-04-17

    This document addresses the remote systems and design integration aspects of the development of the Solid Waste Processing Center (SWPC), a facility to remotely open, sort, size reduce, and repackage mixed low-level waste (MLLW) and transuranic (TRU)/TRU mixed waste that is either contact-handled (CH) waste in large containers or remote-handled (RH) waste in various-sized packages.

  8. The Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee's advice to ministers on the process for formulation of future policy for the long term management of UK solid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report sets out the Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee's (RWMAC's) view of the way in which policy for the long-term management of the United Kingdom's (UK's) solid radioactive waste should be developed. It does not cover subsequent policy implementation stages, which will need to be the subject of separate consideration. It is RWMAC's view that 'do nothing' or 'decide-announce-defend' approaches to policy formulation are inappropriate, and what is needed is a consensus-building approach involving full and open discussion of the issues. Such an approach now offers the best chance of identifying a policy that can ultimately be delivered. This process must be founded on a set of clear guiding principles. These should be: provision of adequate time for exploration and resolution of complex issues; early involvement of the public and other stakeholders; openness and transparency; a deliberative and accessible process in decision-making; and commitment to appropriate peer review of scientific and other expert input. The issue of equity, that is the extent to which both the process for deciding policy and the policy itself are generally perceived and accepted to be fair, will also need to be explored. The process should provide for all the practicable options for the long-term management of the UK's radioactive waste to be assessed against a set of common evaluation criteria. Both the list of practicable options and the criteria against which they are evaluated should be developed through a process of open discussion

  9. Safety documentation in the siting process of low and intermediate level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Slovenian legislation a mandate is given to The Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (Arab) to perform various tasks related to safe management of radioactive waste in Slovenia. Part of the activities is siting and construction of a repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW). The process of siting and construction is three-phase, with accompanying safety documentation produced in each step, Special Safety Analysis (SSA), Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Safety Analysis Report (SAR), respectively. Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) is a regulatory body, whereas ARAO is the licensee. The interaction between the two should follow the scheme: requirements, guidelines, application with documents, review and licensing. The repository project is the first of a kind according to new Slovenian nuclear regulations set in 2002. Compliant with its scope of responsibilities SNSA shall determine requirements regarding the extent and contents of the safety documentation. The paper will present the process of preparation of the guidelines and requirements by SNSA. The latest findings in regulatory role at regard of interaction with licensee were used, taking into consideration recommendations from International Atomic Energy Agency, European Union, Nuclear Energy Agency, and similar examples in other countries. SNSA has already prepared extensive guidelines on how to perform SSA, while guidelines for EIA and SAR are in the drafting phase. Requirements and guidelines are important documents both for licensee, when producing the safety documentation, and for regulator, when reviewing the application, and to great extent contribute to prevention of any unnecessary delays in the licensing process. A national repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste is due to start operation in 2013 with the location known in 2008. (author)

  10. Radioactive waste disposal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The responsibilities of the Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food and Ministry policy on radioactive waste disposal are described. The disposal of solid radioactive waste at sea is subject to detailed safeguards developed within two international agreements to which the United Kingdom is a contracting party. The agreements are discussed together with a research and monitoring programme to provide scientific data for informed decisions on waste disposal authorisations and dumping licences. (U.K.)

  11. Raman Based Process Monitor For Continuous Real-Time Analysis Of High Level Radioactive Waste Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new monitoring system was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quickly generate real-time data/analysis to facilitate a timely response to the dynamic characteristics of a radioactive high level waste stream. The developed process monitor features Raman and Coriolis/conductivity instrumentation configured for the remote monitoring, MatLab-based chemometric data processing, and comprehensive software for data acquisition/storage/archiving/display. The monitoring system is capable of simultaneously and continuously quantifying the levels of all the chemically significant anions within the waste stream including nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, carbonate, chromate, hydroxide, sulfate, and aluminate. The total sodium ion concentration was also determined independently by modeling inputs from on-line conductivity and density meters. In addition to the chemical information, this monitoring system provides immediate real-time data on the flow parameters, such as flow rate and temperature, and cumulative mass/volume of the retrieved waste stream. The components and analytical tools of the new process monitor can be tailored for a variety of complex mixtures in chemically harsh environments, such as pulp and paper processing liquids, electroplating solutions, and radioactive tank wastes. The developed monitoring system was tested for acceptability before it was deployed for use in Hanford Tank S-109 retrieval activities. The acceptance tests included performance inspection of hardware, software, and chemometric data analysis to determine the expected measurement accuracy for the different chemical species that are encountered during S-109 retrieval.

  12. Raman Based Process Monitor for Continuous Real-Time Analysis Of High Level Radioactive Waste Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new monitoring system was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quickly generate real-time data/analysis to facilitate a timely response to the dynamic characteristics of a radioactive high level waste stream. The developed process monitor features Raman and Coriolis/conductivity instrumentation configured for the remote monitoring, MatLab-based chemometric data processing, and comprehensive software for data acquisition/storage/archiving/display. The monitoring system is capable of simultaneously and continuously quantifying the levels of all the chemically significant anions within the waste stream including nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, carbonate, chromate, hydroxide, sulfate, and aluminate. The total sodium ion concentration was also determined independently by modeling inputs from on-line conductivity and density meters. In addition to the chemical information, this monitoring system provides immediate real-time data on the flow parameters, such as flow rate and temperature, and cumulative mass/volume of the retrieved waste stream. The components and analytical tools of the new process monitor can be tailored for a variety of complex mixtures in chemically harsh environments, such as pulp and paper processing liquids, electroplating solutions, and radioactive tank wastes. The developed monitoring system was tested for acceptability before it was deployed for use in Hanford Tank S-109 retrieval activities. The acceptance tests included performance inspection of hardware, software, and chemometric data analysis to determine the expected measurement accuracy for the different chemical species that are encountered during S-109 retrieval. (authors)

  13. Evaluation of spiral wound reverse osmosis for four radioactive waste processing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot-scale spiral wound reverse osmosis rig was used to treat four significantly different radioactive waste streams, three of which were generated at the Chalk River Laboratories at AECL. These streams included: 1. A chemical decontamination (CD/DC) waste stream which is routinely treated by the plant-scale membrane system at CRL; 2. Reactor waste which is a dilute radioactive waste stream (containing primarily tritium and organic acids), and it an effluent from the operating reactors at AECL; 3. An ion exchange regenerant waste stream which contains a mixture of stream (1) (CD/DC), blended with secondary waste from ion exchange regeneration; 4. Boric acid simulated waste which is a by-product waste of the PWR reactors. This was the only stream treated that was not generated as a waste liquid at AECL. For the first three streams specified above, reverse osmosis was used to remove chemical and radiochemical impurities from the water with efficiencies usually exceeding 99%. In these three cases the 'permeate' or clean water was the product of the process. In the case of stream 4, reverse osmosis was used in a recovery application for the purpose of recycling boric acid back to the reactor, with the concentrate being the 'product'. Reverse osmosis technology was successfully demonstrated for the treatment of all four streams. Prefiltration and oxidation (with photocatalytic continuous oxidation technology) were evaluated as pretreatment alternatives for streams 1, 2, and 3. The results indicated that the effective crossflow velocity through and membrane vessel was more important in determining the extent of membrane fouling than the specific pretreatment strategy employed. (author)

  14. Biochemistry Oxidation Process for Treatment the Simulation of Organic Liquid Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry activities generate the organic liquid wastes such as detergent waste from laundry, solvent waste of 30% TBP (tri-n-butyl phosphate) in kerosene from purification or recovery of uranium from rejection of nuclear fuel element fabrication, and solvent waste containing D2EHPA (di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid) and TOPO (trioctyl phospine oxide) in kerosene from phosphoric acid purification. The wastes are included in category of the hazard and poison materials which also radioactive, so that the wastes have to be treated to detoxification of the hazard and poison materials and decontamination of the radionuclides. The research of biochemistry oxidation process for treatment the simulation of organic liquid radioactive waste from laundry using mixture of aerobe bacteria of bacillus sp, pseudomonas sp, arthrobacter sp, and aeromonas sp have been carried out. The waste containing detergent 1,496 g/Litre, activity 10-1 Ci/m3 , with COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) 128, BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) 68 and TSS (Total Suspended Solid) 1000 ppm, it is treated by biochemistry oxidation with addition of bacteria which be fed nutrition of nitrogen and phosphor, and aeration. The result show that the bacteria can decompose the detergent to become carbon dioxyde and water so that can fulfill the quality standard of water group-B with content of BOD and COD are 6 and 10 ppm respectively, the time of decomposition is needed 106 hours to be fulfill the quality standard of water. The longer of process time will give bigger the total solid content in sludge, because the biomass generated from the colony of bacteria which life and dead to so much. (author)

  15. Licensing process for the installation of radioactive waste treatment by plasma technology in Kozloduy NPP (Bulgaria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this project, which lasted approximately four years, is to have a facility for reduction volume of radioactive waste and waste generated during the decommissioning of the four units that have completed its operational life.

  16. Krsko NPP radioactive waste characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 2005 Krsko NPP initiated the Radioactive Waste Characterization Project and commissioned its realization to the consulting company Enconet International, Zagreb. The Agency for Radwaste Management was invited to participate on the Project. The Project was successfully closed out in August 2006. The main Project goal consisted of systematization the existing and gathering the missing radiological, chemical, physical, mechanical, thermal and biological information and data on radioactive waste. In a general perspective, the Project may also be considered as a part of broader scope of activities to support state efforts to find a disposal solution for radioactive waste in Slovenia. The operational low and intermediate level radioactive waste has been structured into 6 waste streams that contain evaporator concentrates and tank sludges, spent ion resins, spent filters, compressible and non-compressible waste as well as specific waste. For each of mentioned waste streams, process schemes have been developed including raw waste, treatment and conditioning technologies, waste forms, containers and waste packages. In the paper the main results of the Characterization Project will be briefly described. The results will indicate that there are 17 different types of raw waste that have been processed by applying 9 treatment/conditioning technologies. By this way 18 different waste forms have been produced and stored into 3 types of containers. Within each type of container several combinations should be distinguished. Considering all of this, there are 34 different types of waste packages altogether that are currently stored in the Solid Radwaste Storage Facility at the Krsko NPP site. Because of these findings a new identification system has been recommended and consequently the improvement of the existing database on radioactive waste has been proposed. The potential areas of further in depth characterization are indicated. In the paper a brief description on the

  17. Radioactive waste management - a safe solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet sets out current United Kingdom government policy regarding radioactive waste management and is aimed at reassuring members of the public concerned about the safety of radioactive wastes. The various disposal or, processing or storage options for low, intermediate and high-level radioactive wastes are explained and sites described, and the work of the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX) is outlined. (UK)

  18. Encapsulation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for encapsulating a particular radioactive waste which consists of suspending the waste in a viscous liquid encapsulating material, of synthetic resin monomers or prepolymers, and setting the encapsulating material by addition or condensation polymerization to form a solid material in which the waste is dispersed. (author)

  19. Classification of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive wastes are generated in a number of different kinds of facilities and arise in a wide range of concentrations of radioactive materials and in a variety of physical and chemical forms. To simplify their management, a number of schemes have evolved for classifying radioactive waste according to the physical, chemical and radiological properties of significance to those facilities managing this waste. These schemes have led to a variety of terminologies, differing from country to country and even between facilities in the same country. This situation makes it difficult for those concerned to communicate with one another regarding waste management practices. This document revises and updates earlier IAEA references on radioactive waste classification systems given in IAEA Technical Reports Series and Safety Series. Guidance regarding exemption of materials from regulatory control is consistent with IAEA Safety Series and the RADWASS documents published under IAEA Safety Series. 11 refs, 2 figs, 2 tab

  20. Treatment of Radioactive Gaseous Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste, with widely varying characteristics, is generated from the operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, research laboratories and medical facilities. The waste needs to be treated and conditioned as necessary to provide waste forms acceptable for safe storage and disposal. Although radioactive gaseous radioactive waste does not constitute the main waste flow stream at nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste processing facilities, it represents a major source for potential direct environmental impact. Effective control and management of gaseous waste in both normal and accidental conditions is therefore one of the main issues of nuclear fuel cycle and waste processing facility design and operation. One of the duties of an operator is to take measures to avoid or to optimize the generation and management of radioactive waste to minimize the overall environmental impact. This includes ensuring that gaseous and liquid radioactive releases to the environment are within authorized limits, and that doses to the public and the effects on the environment are reduced to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. Responsibilities of the regulatory body include the removal of radioactive materials within authorized practices from any further regulatory control — known as clearance — and the control of discharges — releases of gaseous radioactive material that originate from regulated nuclear facilities during normal operation to the environment within authorized limits. These issues, and others, are addressed in IAEA Safety Standards Series Nos RS-G-1.7, WS-G-2.3 and NS-G-3.2. Special systems should be designed and constructed to ensure proper isolation of areas within nuclear facilities that contain gaseous radioactive substances. Such systems consist of two basic subsystems. The first subsystem is for the supply of clean air to the facility, and the second subsystem is for the collection, cleanup and

  1. The Destruction of Organic Compound by Photocatalysis Process for Conditioning of Liquid Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment for degradation of organic compound that was contained at liquid radioactive waste has been done. This experiment was purposed for conditioning liquid radioactive waste so it will be easy for manage and save for disposal. Thin layer of photocatalist TiO2 that was immobilized at glass matrix is one of alternative for degradation of organic compound. The thin layer of TiO2 was prepared by calcination process of Ti(IV) bis ethylasetatodiisopropoxide 0.5M at 400 oC. This thin layer was characterized by spectrophotometer, SEM and XRD. The result of characterization was proven that photocatalist have anatase crystal structure because it has band gap energy around 3.11 eV to 3.27 eV and has XRD pattern it with anatase structure. The capability of photocatalist for degradation of organic compound was 185.7 mg/KWh or the quantum yield value was 1.25 X 10-4. This capability show that thin layer photocatalist TiO2 that immobilized at glass matrix can be used for conditioning liquid radioactive waste. (author)

  2. Purification of the off-gases of the process of radioactive waste vitrification in induction melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscow SIA RADON has developed the method of vitrifying both radioactive ashes, arising from radioactive waste incineration, and liquid radioactive waste in induction melter. In the experimental plant the characteristics of off-gases were determined and various constructions of filters and filtering materials for dust trapping were tested. On the base of test results the plant for liquid radioactive waste vitrification has been constructed on the base of induction melter cold crucible, equipped with modern effective dust and gas purification system, consisting of filtration unit, absorption unit and unit for nitrogen oxide catalytic reduction. (author). 3 refs., 9 tabs., 3 figs

  3. Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant Safety Upgrading Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohunice nuclear Power Plant generation represents almost 50% of the Slovak republic electric power production. Due to such high level of commitment to nuclear power in the power generation system, a special attention is given to safe and reliable operation of NPPs. Safety upgrading and operational reliability improvement of Bohunice V-1 NPP was carried out by the Bohunice staff continuously since the plant commissioning. In the 1990 - 1993 period extensive projects were realised. As a result of 'Small Reconstruction of the Bohunice V-1 NPP', the standards of both the nuclear safety and operational reliability have been significantly improved. The implementation of another modifications that will take place gradually during extended refuelling outages and overhauls in the course of 1996 through 1999, is referred to as the Gradual Reconstruction of the Bohunice V-1 Plant. The general goal of the V-1 NPP safety upgrading is the achievement of internationally acceptable level of nuclear safety. Extensive and financially demanding modification process of Bohunice V-2 NPP is likely to be implemented after a completion of the Gradual Reconstruction of the Bohunice V-1 NPP, since the year 1999. With this in mind, a first draft of the strategy of the Bohunice V-2 NPP upgrading program based on Probabilistic Safety assessment consideration was developed. A number of actions with a general effect on Bohunice site safety is evident. All these activities are aimed at reaching the essential objective of Bohunice NPP Management - to ensure a safe, reliable and effective electric energy and heat generation at the Bohunice site. (author)

  4. Integrated system for the processing, storage, and disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SUREPAK was originally developed as a system for the safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste. SUREPAK is an acronym for Subsurface Recoverable Packaging System. The SUREPAK system uses hexagonal reinforced concrete containers called SUREPAK modules to package waste in a stable form. The hexagonal SUREPAK modules are placed in a disposal trench in a close packed array to provide a structurally stable base to support a protective cover. This avoids subsidence and the other problems experienced with shallow land burial facilities. The SUREPAK concept has now been expanded to processing, storage and transport of low-level radioactive waste. The SUREPAK modules are designed to receive waste packaged in drums, liners and higher integrity containers. The SUREPAK modules can also be used to receive and process the waste directly. The processed waste can be stored on-site pending the availability of permanent disposal space. This eliminates the need for expensive on-site disposal facilities. The SUREPAK modules are transported to the permanent disposal site when space becomes available. Transport of the SUREPAK modules is accomplished by the use of reusable impact skirts. The SUREPAK modules are then buried along with the SUREPAK modules packaged at the disposal site. The application of the SUREPAK system is presently constrained by a number of factors. The present regulations do not provide incentives for the use of high integrity, structurally stable containers. In fact, current price schedules discourage the use of such containers. Regulations and price schedules must be revised to foster use of improved disposal technology

  5. Geological Disposal Options for the Radioactive Wastes from a Recycling Process of Spent Nuclear Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. Y.; Choi, H. J.; Lee, M. S.; Jeong, J. T.; Choi, J. W.; Kim, S. K.; Cho, D. K.; Kuk, D. H.; Cha, J. H

    2008-10-15

    The electricity from the nuclear power plants is around 40 % of total required electricity in Korea and according to the energy development plan, the proportion will be raised about 60 % in near future. To implement this plan, the most important factor is the back-end fuel cycle, namely the safe management of the spent fuel or high level radioactive wastes from the nuclear power plants. Various researches are being carried out to manage the spent fuel effectively in the world. In our country, as one of the management alternatives which is more effective and non-proliferation, pyro-processing method is being developed actively to retrieve reusable uranium and TRU, and to reduce the volume of high level waste from a Nuclear power plant. This is a new dry recycling process. In this report, the amount of various wastes and their characteristics are estimated in a Pyro-process. Based on these information, the geological disposal alternatives are developed. According to the amount and the characteristics of each waste, the concepts of waste packages and the disposal container are developed. And also from the characteristics of the radioactivity and the heat generation, multi-layer of the depth is considered to dispose these wastes. The proposed various alternatives in this report can be used as input data for design of the deep geological disposal system. And they will be improved through the application of the real site data and safety assessment in the future. After then, the final disposal concept will be selected with various assessment and the optimization will be carried out.

  6. Current status on storage, processing and risk communication of medical radioactive waste in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decay-in-storage for radioactive waste including that of nuclear medicine has not been implemented in Japan. Therefore, all medical radioactive waste is collected and stored at the Japan Radioisotope Association Takizawa laboratory, even if the radioactivity has already decayed out. To clarify the current situation between Takizawa village and Takizawa laboratory, we investigated the radiation management status and risk communication activities at the laboratory via a questionnaire and site visiting survey in June 2010. Takizawa laboratory continues to maintain an interactive relationship with local residents. As a result, Takizawa village permitted the acceptance of new medical radioactive waste containing Sr-89 and Y-90. However, the village did not accept any non-medical radioactive waste such as waste from research laboratories. To implement decay-in-storage in Japan, it is important to obtain agreement with all stakeholders. We must continue to exert sincere efforts to acquire the trust of all stakeholders. (author)

  7. Technical and Economic Problems Associated with the Development of Methods of Processing and Using Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper briefly reviews the various techniques used in processing the radioactive wastes which unavoidably result from the generation of electric power from nuclear sources. The paper goes on to define the relative importance, in nuclear fuel cycles, of the problem raised by these wastes. Emphasis is placed on the economic influence of management policies on the cost of power generation, and hence on the relative position of nuclear energy. A substantial percentage of these wastes can be economically utilized. Attention is drawn to the major technical and economic features of the industry which will come into being as a result of this utilization. The major uses anticipated are discussed: radiation sources, heat sources, auxiliary power generation. The paper concludes that satisfactory solutions have already been found to these problems, and describes possible improvements. (author)

  8. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discussed the basic subjects covered in the radioactive waste management. The subjects are policy and legislation, pre-treatment, classification, segregation, treatment, conditioning, storage, siting and disposal, and quality assurance

  9. Processing results of 1,800 gallons of mercury and radioactively contaminated mixed waste rinse solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mercury-contaminated rinse solution (INEL waste ID number-sign 123; File 8 waste) was successfully treated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This waste was generated during the decontamination of the Heat Transfer Reactor Experiment 3 (HTRE-3) reactor shield tank. Approximately 1,800 gal of waste was generated and was placed into 33 drums. Each drum contained precipitated sludge material ranging from 1--10 in. in depth, with the average depth of about 2.5 in. The pH of each drum varied from 3--11. The bulk liquid waste had a mercury level of 7.0 mg/l, which exceeded the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) limit of 0.2 mg/l. The average liquid bulk radioactivity was about 2.1 pCi/ml, while the average sludge contamination was about 13,800 pci/g. Treatment of the waste required separation of the liquid from the sludge, filtration, pH adjustment, and ion exchange. Because of difficulties in processing, three trials were required to reduce the mercury levels to below the RCRA limit. In the first trial, insufficient filtration of the waste allowed solid particulate produced during pH adjustment to enter into the ion exchange columns and ultimately the waste storage tank. In the second trial, the waste was filtered down to 0.1 μ to remove all solid mercury compounds. However, before filtration could take place, a solid mercury complex dissolved and mercury levels exceeded the RCRA limit after filtration. In the third trial, the waste was filtered through 0.3-A filters and then passed through the S-920 resin to remove the dissolved mercury. The resulting solut

  10. The Michigan site selection process for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michigan as the host for the Midwest Compact, a consortium of states, is in the process of site selection of three potential candidate sites for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Ultimately, three detailed site characterization studies will be performed concurrently. The site selection process consists of application of siting criteria. An initial screening of the entire state with exclusionary criteria incorporated into a geographic information system eliminated about 97 percent of the state. The remaining areas of over 2,250 acres in extent are being investigated using available data. Three have been eliminated to date and the remaining 79 continue under study. (author) 10 figs

  11. Management of small quantities of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this publication is to provide practical guidance primarily to developing Member States on the predisposal management of small quantities of radioactive waste arising from hospitals, laboratories, industries, institutions, research reactors and research centres.The publication covers the management of liquid, solid and gaseous radioactive wastes at the users' premises and gives general guidance on procedures at a centralized waste management facility. Predisposal management of radioactive waste includes handling, treatment, conditioning, storage and transportation. This publication provides information and guidance on the following topics: national waste management framework; origin and characteristics of radioactive waste arising from users generating small quantities of waste; radioactive waste management concepts appropriate for small quantities; local waste management; the documentation and approval necessary for the consignment of waste to a centralized waste management facility; centralized waste management; exemption of radionuclides from the regulatory body; transportation; environmental monitoring; quality assurance for the whole predisposal process; regional co-operation aspects

  12. Measurements of whole body and urine of the inhabitants of the neighbouring to the Radioactive Waste Storage Center (CADER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existence of the Center of Storage of Radioactive Wastes (CADER) in the Municipality of Temascalapa, Estado de Mexico has generated restlessness among the inhabitants from it installation. In March 1998, its appeared in diverse media, notes and reports attributing illnesses and sufferings to the CADER activities. In coordination with the health authorities of the Estado de Mexico and of the Municipality of Temascalapa, the doctors of the ININ assisted people that converged to the centers. For the above-mentioned, in the period understood among the months of May to September 1998, its were carried out measurements in 338 urine samples and 45 whole-body of voluntary people of the surroundings of the CADER. This document has the purpose of presenting the information on the carried out measurements. (Author)

  13. Characterization of radioactive hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characterization of radioactive hazardous waste, also known as transuranic 'mixed waste' has to be completed before it can be classified for proper treatment (incinerator, mechanical compaction or thermal treatment), packing, and transport. The characterization of the TRU mixed waste is not only complex process but rather an expensive undertaking. The process knowledge is the basic foundation of characterization. It is the documented knowledge of processes and materials that generated the waste. The transuranic waste Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) defines the Data Quality Objectives (DQO's) and provides the scope of analytical parameters and methods required to accurately characterize the radioactive mixed waste. Based on the historical data and process knowledge a sampling and analysis plan can be developed to characterize the radioactive hazardous waste. Based on the characterization, an assessment of the regulatory status can be made before the waste could be accepted for disposal at the WIPP facility. The Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) developed by WIPP defines the parameters for receiving and final disposal of the TRU waste. The sets of criteria, such as: heat generated, fissile gram equivalent (FGE), plutonium-equivalent (PE) curies, and specifications of a dose rate have to be met before the waste is accepted for deep geological disposal. The characterization of radioactive waste becomes even more complex due to the presence of iron base metals/alloys, aluminum base metals/alloys, organic, chelating agents that are mixed with plastic, rubber, cellulose, soils and cement. Some of the modern characterization technologies that are under development and currently used for TRU mixed wastes are: nondestructive examination, nondestructive assay, headspace gas analysis, and drum coring for Resources Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) sampling. (author)

  14. Operation of the radioactive waste treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive wasted generated at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in 1996 are about 118m3 of liquid waste and 204 drums of solid waste. Liquid waste were treated by the evaporation process, the bituminization process, and the solar evaporation process. In 1996, 100.5m3 of liquid waste was treated. (author). 84 tabs., 103 figs

  15. Operation of the radioactive waste treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kil Jeong; Ahn, Seom Jin; Lee, Kang Moo; Lee, Young Hee; Sohn, Jong Sik; Bae, Sang Min; Kang, Kwon Ho; Lim, Kil Sung; Sohn, Young Joon; Kim, Tae Kook; Jeong, Kyung Hwan; Wi, Geum San; Park, Seung Chul; Park, Young Woong; Yoon, Bong Keun

    1996-12-01

    The radioactive wasted generated at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in 1996 are about 118m{sup 3} of liquid waste and 204 drums of solid waste. Liquid waste were treated by the evaporation process, the bituminization process, and the solar evaporation process. In 1996, 100.5m{sup 3} of liquid waste was treated. (author). 84 tabs., 103 figs.

  16. Radioactive waste shredding: Preliminary evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The critical constraints for sizing solid radioactive and mixed wastes for subsequent thermal treatment were identified via a literature review and a survey of shredding equipment vendors. The types and amounts of DOE radioactive wastes that will require treatment to reduce the waste volume, destroy hazardous organics, or immobilize radionuclides and/or hazardous metals were considered. The preliminary steps of waste receipt, inspection, and separation were included because many potential waste treatment technologies have limits on feedstream chemical content, physical composition, and particle size. Most treatment processes and shredding operations require at least some degree of feed material characterization. Preliminary cost estimates show that pretreatment costs per unit of waste can be high and can vary significantly, depending on the processing rate and desired output particle size

  17. Radioactive Waste Management in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Romania, the radioactive waste results from nuclear industry and from the applications of the nuclear energy in research, medicine, industry and agriculture. The main producers of radioactive waste are: - Nuclear Power Plant - Unit 1 and 2 of Cernavoda NPP; - Nuclear Research Reactors - WWR-S IFIN-HH and TRIGA INR-Pitesti; - The Factory for production of nuclear fuel, FCN-Pitesti; - Mining facilities and uranium processing facilities - The Uranium National Company; - Hospitals using radioisotopes in medical applications (radiology, oncology); - Classical industry, as a consequence of the industrial applications (the use of radioactive, sources in weld testing, leak detection, wall thickness measurements, etc). According to the Romanian legislation in force, the licensees producing radioactive waste are responsible for the safe management of the radioactive waste up to the moment of disposal. National Agency Radioactive Waste ANDRAD was created on the basis of Governmental Ordinance No.11/2003 on the 28th of August 2004. ANDRAD is responsible for the disposal of the radioactive waste and the spent nuclear fuel. In order to achieve this objective ANDRAD has to develop a lot of activities, defined in the Governmental Ordinance No. 11/2003 modified and completed in 2007. The paper deals with the most important aspects of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel management and the ANDRAD responsibilities in this area. Last year by the Governmental Ordinance a task was approved regarding the management of nuclear waste produced in nuclear power stations. There are finalized safety studies for LILW final repository and licensing procedures are in progress. (authors)

  18. Method of separating useful radioactive nuclide in radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To separate useful radioactive nuclides from radioactive liquid wastes for reducing the amount of radioactive secondary wastes generated upon disposal of radioactive liquid wastes. Method: Nitric acid is added to radioactive liquid wastes containing radioactive metal ions, iron ions, nickel ion, chromium ions and oxidative tetravalent serium ions dissolved therein, to convert tetravalent serium ions into complex ions. The liquid wastes are circulated through an ion exchange resin column. This enables to efficiently recover tetravalent serium ions which are useful oxidative nuclides thereby enabling the reuse of serium. Further, since the oxidative nature of the radioactive liquid wastes is eliminated, there is no requirement of adding a reducing agent and it is possible for drying treatment and solidification processing such as plastic solidification. (Takahashi, M.)

  19. The role of physicochemical processes during long-time storage of liquid radioactive wastes in deep bed-collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation of the processes taking place during interaction in hydrothermal conditions (3 MPa, 80-170 Deg C, time of contact - up to 2500 h) of intermediate-level radioactive acid wastes with rocks making up the underground storage of liquid radioactive wastes is conducted. It is established that transformations of rockforming minerals occurring in these conditions cause to increase of adsorption of 137Cs, 90Sr, 239Pu, 241Am and 238U

  20. Radioactive waste management in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Romania, the radioactive waste results from nuclear industry and from the applications of the nuclear energy in research, medicine, industry and agriculture. The main producers of radioactive waste are: Nuclear Power Plant - Unit 1 and 2 of Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant; Nuclear Research Reactors - VVRS IFIN-HH and TRIGA SCN-Pitesti; The Factory which produces nuclear fuel Nuclear Fuel Plant (FCN-Pitesti Mining facilities and uranium processing facilities - The Uranium National Company; Hospitals which use applications of the radioisotopes in medical field (radiology, oncology); Classical industry, as a consequence of the industrial applications (the use of radioactive, sources in weld testing, leak detection, wall thickness measurement, etc.). According to the Romanian legislation in force, the licensees who produce radioactive waste are responsible for the safe management of the radioactive waste up to the moment of disposal. National Agency Radioactive Waste ANDRAD was created on the basis of the Governmental Ordinance No.11/2003 on the 28. of August 2004. ANDRAD is responsible for the disposal of the radioactive waste and the spent nuclear fuel. In order to achieve this objective ANDRAD has to develop a lot of activities, defined in the Governmental Ordinance No. 11/2003 modified and completed in 2007. The paper deals with the most important aspects of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel management, the ANDRAD responsibilities in this area. The main nuclear waste management facilities the National Nuclear Waste Repository (DNDR) Baita, the nuclear waste storage, treatment and conditioning plants are presented. The Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW) storage facility (DIDR) and spent fuel storage (DICA) are presented, also. ANDRAD is responsible for the future LILW DFDSMA which is to be built at Saligny, near Cernavoda NPP site and future High Level Waste (HLW) and spent fuel repository (DFCA). This year was approved by the Governmental Ordinance the

  1. Decontamination of a radioactive process waste water by adsorbing colloid flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of a research programme on the treatment of a radioactive process waste water by foam separation techniques, adsorbing colloid flotation was tested to remove 144Ce, 60Co, 65Zn and 89Sr from the waste water. Potassium oleate was used as the collector, and Fe(III) hydroxide, Al(III) hydroxide or Co(II) hydroxide as the coprecipitant. Under the optimal conditions; removals exceeding 99% could be achieved for 65Zn with any of the tested coprecipitants, for 144Ce with Fe(III) and Co(II) hydroxides and for 60Co with only Co(II) hydroxide. For 89Sr removals > 90% could be achieved with only Fe(III) hydroxide. The adsorbing colloid flotation process was compared with both chemical precipitation and ion exchange, and advantages of adsorbing colloid flotation were enumerated. (author)

  2. Management of the radioactive waste treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kil Jeong; An, Sum Jin; Lee, Kang Mu; Jeong, Kyeong Hwan; Lee, Young Hee; Sohn, Jong Sik; Bae, Sang Min; Kang, Kwon Ho; Yim, Kil Sung; Ui, Keum San; Kim, Tae Kuk; Sohn, Young Jun; You, Young Keol; Park, Young Yoong; Yoon, Bong Keun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-01

    The radioactive wastes generated in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in 1993 are about 107 m{sup 3} of liquid waste and 169 drums of solid waste. Liquid waste is treated by the evaporation process, the bituminization process, and the solar evaporation process. The solid waste is treated by the compaction process and the cementation process. The radioactive wastes treated in 1993 are about 194 m{sup 3} of liquid waste and 31 drums of solid waste, respectively. 28 tabs., 12 figs. (Author) .new.

  3. Repackaging of High Fissile TRU Waste at the Transuranic Waste Processing Center - 13240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-six drums of high fissile transuranic (TRU) waste from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operations were declared waste in the mid-1980's and placed in storage with the legacy TRU waste inventory for future treatment and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Repackaging and treatment of the waste at the TRU Waste Packaging Center (TWPC) will require the installation of additional equipment and capabilities to address the hazards for handling and repackaging the waste compared to typical Contact Handled (CH) TRU waste that is processed at the TWPC, including potential hydrogen accumulation in legacy 6M/2R packaging configurations, potential presence of reactive plutonium hydrides, and significant low energy gamma radiation dose rates. All of the waste is anticipated to be repackaged at the TWPC and certified for disposal at WIPP. The waste is currently packaged in multiple layers of containers which presents additional challenges for repackaging activities due to the potential for the accumulation of hydrogen gas in the container headspace in quantities than could exceed the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL). The outer container for each waste package is a stainless steel 0.21 m3 (55-gal) drum which contains either a 0.04 m3 or 0.06 m3 (10-gal or 15-gal) 6M drum. The inner 2R container in each 6M drum is ∼12 cm (5 in) outside diameter x 30-36 cm (12-14 in) long and is considered to be a > 4 liter sealed container relative to TRU waste packaging criteria. Inside the 2R containers are multiple configurations of food pack cans, pipe nipples, and welded capsules. The waste contains significant quantities of high burn-up plutonium oxides and metals with a heavy weight percentage of higher atomic mass isotopes and the subsequent in-growth of significant quantities of americium. Significant low energy gamma radiation is expected to be present due to the americium in-growth. Radiation dose rates on inner containers are estimated to be 1-3 mSv/hr (100

  4. Environmental-effect reporting with regard to processing and storage of radioactive waste. Chapter 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to obtain a licence for the construction of an institute for the processing and storage of radio-active waste it is necessary to draw up an environmental-impact report (dutch MER). This chapter discusses the direction-lines for drawing up such an environmental-impact report, the coherence of the MER with other documents for licence demands, the function of the location-independent MER, the scenarios in behalf of the planning and design of such an institute, and location alternatives. (H.W.). 10 refs.; 5 figs.;

  5. High level radioactive waste siting processes: critical lessons from Canadian siting successes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While not without controversy, Canada's Crown Corporations, municipalities, agencies and private companies have had success in siting and achieving approval for operating: toxic and hazardous waste facilities; dry radioactive materials storage facilities; the Federal low-level radioactive waste disposal facility; and, several large and small domestic landfills. The cumulative experience gained from these siting and approval processes provides valuable advice in support of the siting and approval of high-level radioactive disposal facilities. Among the critical elements for the success of these siting efforts are: 1) the tinting, scope and character of the siting process reflects the cultural and social values of affected people; 2) the siting and approval processes has integrity -- characterized as rational processes in pursuit of the public interest; 3) sufficient time and resources are dedicated to listening carefully and examining issues seen to be important by the public; 4) all information is shared -- even if the information is potentially detrimental to the approval of the facility; 5) proponent has a prioritized multiple focus on 'health, safety and environment issues', on 'insuring that the environmental assessment process is socially acceptable' as well as on the 'approval considerations'; 6) the implementing agency seeks cooperation and win-win solutions with the local community; 7) the community has the option of opting-out of the process and the do-nothing and/or the not here option continues to be considered by the proponent; 8) local emergency response people are well-trained and accepting of the facility; 9) the community has a strong role in determining the terms, conditions and compensation related to the future facility. (author)

  6. Disposal of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Requirements publication applies to the disposal of radioactive waste of all types by means of emplacement in designed disposal facilities, subject to the necessary limitations and controls being placed on the disposal of the waste and on the development, operation and closure of facilities. The classification of radioactive waste is discussed. This Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements to provide assurance of the radiation safety of the disposal of radioactive waste, in the operation of a disposal facility and especially after its closure. The fundamental safety objective is to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. This is achieved by setting requirements on the site selection and evaluation and design of a disposal facility, and on its construction, operation and closure, including organizational and regulatory requirements.

  7. Analysis of Uranium and Thorium in Radioactive Wastes from Nuclear Fuel Cycle Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of analysis method for uranium and thorium in radioactive wastes generated from nuclear fuel cycle process have been carried out. The uranium and thorium analysis methods in the assessment are consist of Titrimetry, UV-VIS Spectrophotometry, Fluorimetry, HPLC, Polarography, Emission Spectrograph, XRF, AAS, Alpha Spectrometry and Mass Spectrometry methods. From the assessment can be concluded that the analysis methods of uranium and thorium content in radioactive waste for low concentration level using UV-VIS Spectrometry is better than Titrimetry method. While for very low concentration level in part per billion (ppb) can be used by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Alpha Spectrometry and Mass Spectrometry. Laser Fluorimetry is the best method of uranium analysis for very low concentration level. Alpha Spectrometry and ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) methods for isotopic analysis are favourable in the precision and accuracy aspects. Comparison of the ICP-MS and Alpha Spectrometry methods shows that the both of methods have capability to determining of uranium and thorium isotopes content in the waste samples with results comparable very well, but the time of its analysis using ICP-MS method is faster than the Alpha Spectrometry, and also the cost of analysis for ICP-MS method is cheaper. NAA method can also be used to analyze the uranium and thorium isotopes, but this method needs the reactor facility and also the time of its analysis is very long. (author)

  8. Radioactive wastes vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borosilicate glass is capable to solidify the liquid wastes and to confine the radionuclides present in fission product solutions, not by coating, but thanks to the existence of chemical bonds with the glass oxides. Glass materials have a large chemical flexibility in comparison with crystal structures. In parallel to the studies of nuclear glass formulation, a continuous vitrification process has been developed in France which allows to generate glass in a highly radioactive environment. The first demonstration of the feasibility of this process was done at Marcoule in 1969 with the vitrification pilot system PIVER. The industrial vitrification facility of Marcoule started in 1978 for the confinement of spent fuel reprocessing wastes. This process was implemented at the R7 and T7 facilities of La Hague in 1989 and 1992, respectively. The process used today at La Hague comprises two steps: a calcination of fission products liquid solutions at 400 deg. C and a melting at 1100 deg. C in a crucible heated by magnetic induction. The molten mixture of glass and fission products is cast and solidified in 400 kg containers. Other vitrification processes have been developed like the cold crucible vitrification process and the vitrification in electrode heated ceramic melter. This article presents: 1 - the formulation of nuclear glasses: constraints, choice of vitreous systems, chemical reactivity between the waste and the vitrification catalyst, some basic properties of nuclear glasses, confining properties, perspectives of evolution of glass compositions; 2 - vitrification processes: vitrification with induction-heated metal crucible, with cold crucible, with electrode-heated ceramic melters; 3 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  9. Characterisation of concrete containers for radioactive waste in the engineering tranches system at the Yugoslav R.A waste storing center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low and intermediate level radioactive waste represents 90% of total R.A. waste. It is conditioned into special concrete containers. Since these concrete containers are to protect safely the radioactive waste for 300 years, the selection of materials and precise control of their physical and mechanical properties is very important. In this paper results obtained with some concrete compositions are described. (author)

  10. Transuranic Waste Processing Center (TWPC) Legacy Tank RH-TRU Sludge Processing and Compliance Strategy - 13255

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to safely and efficiently treat its 'legacy' transuranic (TRU) waste and mixed low-level waste (LLW) from past research and defense activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) so that the waste is prepared for safe and secure disposal. The TWPC operates an Environmental Management (EM) waste processing facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The TWPC is classified as a Hazard Category 2, non-reactor nuclear facility. This facility receives, treats, and packages low-level waste and TRU waste stored at various facilities on the ORR for eventual off-site disposal at various DOE sites and commercial facilities. The Remote Handled TRU Waste Sludge held in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) was produced as a result of the collection, treatment, and storage of liquid radioactive waste originating from the ORNL radiochemical processing and radioisotope production programs. The MVSTs contain most of the associated waste from the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) in the ORNL's Tank Farms in Bethel Valley and the sludge (SL) and associated waste from the Old Hydro-fracture Facility tanks and other Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) tanks. The SL Processing Facility Build-outs (SL-PFB) Project is integral to the EM cleanup mission at ORNL and is being accelerated by DOE to meet updated regulatory commitments in the Site Treatment Plan. To meet these commitments a Baseline (BL) Change Proposal (BCP) is being submitted to provide continued spending authority as the project re-initiation extends across fiscal year 2012 (FY2012) into fiscal year 2013. Future waste from the ORNL Building 3019 U-233 Disposition project, in the form of U-233 dissolved in nitric acid and water, down-blended with depleted uranyl nitrate solution is also expected to be transferred to the 7856 MVST Annex Facility (formally the Capacity Increase Project (CIP) Tanks) for co-processing with the SL. The SL-PFB project will construct and install

  11. Processing of concentrated radioactive wastes into cement and bitumens following calcination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief characteristic is presented of the most frequently used processes of solidification of liquid radioactive wastes, viz., bituminization, cementation and their combination with calcination. The effect of individual parameters is assessed on the choice of the type of solidification process as is their importance in the actual process, in temporary storage, during transportation and under conditions of long-term storage. It has been found that a combination of the procedures could lead to a modular system of methods and equipment. This would allow to approach optimal solidification of wastes in the present period and to establish a research reserve for the development of more modern, economically advantageous and safer procedures. A rough estimate is made of the costs of the solidification of 1 m3 of radioactive concentrate from the V-1 power plant at a production of 380 m3/year, this for the cementation-calcination and bituminization-calcination procedures. The said rough economic analysis only serves to identify the major operating components which have the greatest effect on the economic evaluation of the solidification procedures. (Z.M.)

  12. Plastic solidification of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 20 years have elapsed after the start of nuclear power development, and the nuclear power generation in Japan now exceeds the level of 10,000 MW. In order to meet the energy demands, the problem of the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes produced in nuclear power stations must be solved. The purpose of the plastic solidification of such wastes is to immobilize the contained radionuclides, same as other solidification methods, to provide the first barrier against their move into the environment. The following matters are described: the nuclear power generation in Japan, the radioactive wastes from LWR plants, the position of plastic solidification, the status of plastic solidification in overseas countries and in Japan, the solidification process for radioactive wastes with polyethylene, and the properties of solidified products, and the leachability of radionuclides in asphalt solids. (J.P.N.)

  13. Selected problems of the minimization and processing of radioactive wastes arising from nuclear power plants decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literature data is presented covering the strategy of nuclear power plants decommissioning, the amount of produced wastes and their radioactivity, the problems of the relative amount of different types of wastes, the classification of wastes of various origins, as well as the specific characteristics of decontamination related to nuclear power plants decommissioning. Experience and problems are summed up presented in recent publications dealing with wastes from nuclear power plant decommissioning. 1 fig., 6 tabs., 29 refs

  14. Assessing radioactive concentrates and waste vapor condensate in solidifying radioactive wastes by bituminization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief overview is presented of chemical and radiochemical methods used in the world for the analysis of the concentrate of liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants destined for bituminization. Most methods are also suitable for an analysis of the condensate of waste vapors produced in bituminization. The methods of analysis of the radioactive concentrate from the V-1 nuclear power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice and of the waste vapors condensate were developed and tested in practice. Gross gamma activity was measured using a well-type Na(Tl) scintillation detector, the content of radionuclides was determined using semiconductor Ge(Li) spectrometry. The concentration of boric acid in the concentrate was determined by titration with mannite; in the condensate, using spectrophotometry with curcumine. The content of nitrates in both the concentrate and the condensate was determined spectrophotometrically using salicylic acid, the content of nitrites was determined by spectrophotometry using sulfanilic acid and α-naphthylamine. Carbonates and chlorides were determined by titration, sodium and potassium by flame photometry. The content of organic acids was measured by gravimetry of extracted methyl esters, the content of surfactants by spectrophotometry. Infrared spectrophotometry was used in determining hydrocarbons in the waste vapor condensate. The measured value range and the measurement errors are shown for each method. (A.K.)

  15. The management of radioactive waste treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive wastes generated at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in 1994 are about 56 m3 of liquid waste and 323 drums of solid waste. Liquid waste were treated by the evaporation process, the bituminization process, and the solar evaporation process. The solid wastes were treated in 1994 are about 87 m3 of liquid waste and 81 drums of solid waste, respectively. 2 tabs., 26 figs., 12 refs. (Author) .new

  16. Radioactive waste management challenges and progress in Iraq - 59164

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The government of Iraq, through the Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST) is decommissioning Iraq's former nuclear facilities. The 18 former facilities at the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center near Baghdad include partially destroyed research reactors, a fuel fabrication facility and radioisotope production facilities. These 18 former facilities contain large numbers of silos and drums of un-characterized radioactive waste and approximately 30 tanks that contain or did contain un-characterized liquid radioactive wastes. Other key sites outside of Al Tuwaitha include facilities at Jesira (uranium processing and waste storage facility), Rashdiya (centrifuge facility) and Tarmiya (enrichment plant). The newly created Radioactive Waste Treatment Management Directorate (RWTMD) within MoST is responsible for Iraq's centralized management of radioactive waste, including safe and secure disposal. In addition to being responsible for the un-characterized wastes at Al Tuwaitha, the RWTMD will be responsible for future decommissioning wastes, approximately 900 disused sealed radioactive sources, and unknown quantities of NORM wastes from oil production in Iraq. This paper presents the challenges and progress that the RWTMD has made in setting-up a radioactive waste management program. The progress includes the establishment of a staffing structure, staff, participation in international training, rehabilitation of portions of the former Radioactive Waste Treatment Station at Al-Tuwaitha and the acquisition of equipment. (authors)

  17. Waterproofing improvement of radioactive waste asphalt solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To improve the waterproofing of asphalt solid by adding an alkaline earth metal salt and, further, paraffin, into radioactive liquid waste when processing asphalt solidification of the radioactive liquid waste. Method: Before processing molten asphalt solidification of radioactive liquid waste, soluble salts of alkaline earth metal such as calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, or the like is added to the radioactive liquid waste. Paraffin having a melting point of higher than 600C, for example, is added to the asphalt, and waterproofing can be remarkably improved. The waste asphalt solid thus fabricated can prevent the swelling thereof, and can improve its waterproofing. (Yoshihara, H.)

  18. Radioactive waste storage issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state's boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected

  19. Radioactive waste storage issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, D.E.

    1994-08-15

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

  20. Law on the management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This law regulate the relations of legal persons, enterprises without the rights of legal persons, and natural persons in the management of radioactive waste in Lithuania and establish the legal grounds for the management of radioactive waste. Thirty one article of the law deals with the following subjects: principles of radioactive waste management, competence of the Government, State Nuclear Power Safety Inspectorate, Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Environment and Radiation Protection Center in the sphere of regulation of the radioactive waste management, activities subject to licensing, issue of licences and authorisations, duties and responsibilities of the waste producer, founding of the radioactive waste management agency, its basic status and principles of the activities, functions of the agency, management of the agency, transfer of the radioactive waste to the agency, assessment of the existing waste management facilities and their past practices, siting, design and construction, safety assessment, commissioning and operation of the radioactive waste management facilities, radiation protection, quality assurance, emergency preparedness, decommissioning of radioactive waste storage and other facilities, post-closure surveillance of the repository, disused sealed sources, transportation, export and transit of radioactive waste

  1. Process for the storage of borate containing radioactive wastes by vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For storage of radioactive waste by vitrification the radioactive waste concentrates from borate-containing liquids are mixed with glass-forming aggregates. The borates make up a major part of the glass product. A glass product with good chemical and physical properties for storage is produced by heating to produce a glass-forming melt. Lead oxides and silicates in particular are considered suitable aggregate materials. (orig.)

  2. Automated system for the safe management of the radioactive wastes and liquid effluents in a Radiopharmaceutical an labelled compounds production center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Center of Isotopes of the Republic of Cuba is a radioactive installation of first category that executes the administration of their radioactive waste under authorization of the National Regulatory Authority. The principles of the design and operation of the 'SADR' system for the safe administration of the radioactive waste and liquid effluents are presented. The Visual Basic 6 platform for the programming of the SADR is used and through of their schematic representation, the control flows and of data of the 7 modules that conform it are shown. For each module the functions are described and it presents an image of the corresponding interface. With the SADR its can be carried out the one registration and the upgrade of the inventory of radioactive waste, the planning of those disqualification operations, the annual consolidation of the volumes of waste generated and disqualified, the evaluation of specific and general indicators and the one tendencies analysis. The handling of the system through the intranet allows the enter of data from the operations place with the radioactive wastes. The results of the operation of the SADR show the utility of this work to elevate the efficiency of the administration of the radioactive wastes. (Author)

  3. Development of advanced membrane process for treatment of radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Development of advanced membrane process for treatment of radioactive liquid wastes'. 1. Surface modification technique of microfiltration membrane. Microporous hydrophobic polypropylene(PP) membrane were modified by radiation-induced grafting using hydrophilic monomers such as arylic acid(AAc), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate(HEMA) and styrenesulfonic acid(SSS). The effect of grafting conditions was investigated. Also, copolymeric condition of AAc and EGDMA for nylon membrane was studied. The structure of grafted PP membrane was examined by using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy, SEM and contact angle. The grafted membrane was characterized by measureing the water flux, the ion exchange capacity or the binding capacity of the metal ions. A study on the permeation behavior of simulated waste water containing oil emulsion and characterization of membrane fouling was carried out in the crossflow membrane filtration process using capillary type PP microfiltration membrane modified by radiation induced grafting of HEMA. The effects of various operating parameters were investigated. 2. Electrofiltration Technology. In this section, the process conditions for fouling prevention of membrane by evaluating the effects of operational parameters such as external electric field strength, crossflow velocity, transmembrane pressure, etc. on the permeate flux in electrofiltration were established and the process applicability for oil emulsion wastes containing surfactant using parallel plate type electrofiltration module was evaluated

  4. Radioactive waste management in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activities underway at various levels in Hungary in the field of the safe management and disposal of radioactive waste and spent fuel are outlined. Various specific aspects, including financing of radioactive waste management, handling of spent fuel, high level radioactive waste disposal, site selection for a disposal facility for low and intermediate level waste, and public information activities are described. (author)

  5. Treatment, Processing and Future Disposal of Radioactive Wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acidic wastes from the recovery of enriched uranium from aluminium, zirconium, and stainless-steel fuels at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are stored in underground tanks of two configurations and nominal sizes of 30,000 and 300,000 gallons. The design and operation of the waste-tank farm as well as the methods of environmental disposal of low-level wastes is described. The ''concentrate and contain'' philosophy of waste disposal has as its ultimate aim the production of a solid mass containing the fission products. The disadvantage of increased treatment costs may or may not be offset by reduction in storage costs. The low thermal conductivity of solids makes storage temperature considerations more important than for liquids. The acid aluminium nitrate wastes from the processing of fuels of the Material Testing Reactor type may be converted to granular alumina by calcining in a fluidized bed from 350° to 550° C. The major process components are the NaK heated calciner, an off-gas cleaning system and the solids storage vessels. The process design and the research and development programme are reviewed. On the basis of the successful demonstration of fluidized-bed calcining and high-temperature solids storage in conjunction with other considerations, a number of future storage concepts and their environmental connotations are discussed. (author)

  6. Radioactive waste management strategy in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, an outline is given concerning the treatment, conditioning, characterization, storage, transport and final disposal of radioactive wastes arising in the fuel cycle, radioisotopes production plant, research centers, etc. The overall strategy of the Argentina program is to plan, develop and implement the technology and provide the facilities for the permanent isolation of commercially generated wastes, with the aim that this waste not compromise the health and safety of the general public. To implement all these activities, CNEA has established in 1986 a Radioactive Waste Management Program. This long term project is aimed at meeting all the requirements for the radioactive waste management of Argentina

  7. EXPLORING ENGINEERING CONTROL THROUGH PROCESS MANIPULATION OF RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE TANK CHEMICAL CLEANING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, A.

    2014-04-27

    One method of remediating legacy liquid radioactive waste produced during the cold war, is aggressive in-tank chemical cleaning. Chemical cleaning has successfully reduced the curie content of residual waste heels in large underground storage tanks; however this process generates significant chemical hazards. Mercury is often the bounding hazard due to its extensive use in the separations process that produced the waste. This paper explores how variations in controllable process factors, tank level and temperature, may be manipulated to reduce the hazard potential related to mercury vapor generation. When compared using a multivariate regression analysis, findings indicated that there was a significant relationship between both tank level (p value of 1.65x10{sup -23}) and temperature (p value of 6.39x10{sup -6}) to the mercury vapor concentration in the tank ventilation system. Tank temperature showed the most promise as a controllable parameter for future tank cleaning endeavors. Despite statistically significant relationships, there may not be confidence in the ability to control accident scenarios to below mercury’s IDLH or PAC-III levels for future cleaning initiatives.

  8. Radioactive wastes in Oklo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acceptance of the Nuclear Energy as electric power supply implies to give answer to the population on the two main challenges to conquer in the public opinion: the nuclear accidents and the radioactive wastes. Several of the questions that are made on the radioactive wastes, its are the mobility migration of them, the geologic stability of the place where its are deposited and the possible migration toward the aquifer mantels. Since the half lives of the radioactive waste of a Nuclear Reactor are of several hundred of thousands of years, the technical explanations to the previous questions little convince to the public in general. In this work summary the results of the radioactive waste generated in a natural reactor, denominated Oklo effect that took place in Gabon, Africa, it makes several thousands of millions of years, a lot before the man appeared in the Earth. The identification of at least 17 reactors in Oklo it was carried out thanks to the difference in the concentrations of Uranium 235 and 238 prospective, and to the analysis of the non-mobility of the radioactive waste in the site. It was able by this way to determine that the reactors with sizes of hardly some decimeter and powers of around 100 kilowatts were operating in intermittent and spontaneous form for space of 150,000 years, with operation cycles of around 30 minutes. Recent studies have contributed information valuable on the natural confinement of the radioactive waste of the Oklo reactors in matrixes of minerals of aluminum phosphate that caught and immobilized them for thousands of millions of years. This extracted information from the nature contributes guides and it allows 'to verify' the validity of the current proposals on the immobilization of radioactive wastes of a nuclear reactor. This work presents in clear and accessible form to the public in general on the secure 'design', operation, 'decommissioning' and 'storage' of the radioactive waste of the reactors that the nature put

  9. Radioactive waste management and handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, mainly from the radioactive solid waste separation, treatment details of Shaanxi uranium Enrichment Co., Ltd. the actual situation of radioactive waste management, and solid radioactive waste by raising the whole preparation, storage for planning. Through the planning to address the company's accumulation of radioactive waste, more and more waste repository issue of storage space is shrinking each year. Planning is mainly to establish compression volume reduction system, to be accumulated to a certain amount of radioactive waste, the compressed volume reduction package, packaged material blocks passing through the surface contamination testing was conducted after the weighing to measure, and paste the labels, establishing a database and record sets account, record the weight, type, date, etc. after the warehouse store. Would be a good package of radioactive solid waste brought to the state designated for storage of radioactive waste storage sites. By planning the company's radioactive solid waste control and management has been continued to improve. (authors)

  10. Management of low-level natural radioactivity wastes of phosphate mining and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redistribution of the uranium-series radionuclides associated with phosphate deposits produces what are, in effect, low-level radioactive wastes. Proposed management of these materials involved (1) restricting by-product uses to applications not causing significant exposures to man; and (2) returning other material to the land with simulation of the natural radioactivity depth profile by covering high activity overburden, tailings, clays, gypsum and other radioactivity-bearing wastes with a lower activity overburden layer. Radon flux models are being developed to aid design of materials placement

  11. Physical chemistry characterization of soils of the Storage Center of Radioactive Wastes; Caracterizacion fisico-quimica de suelos del Centro de Almacenamiento de Desechos Radioactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez T, U. O.; Fernandez R, E. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Tecnologico s/n, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Monroy G, F.; Anguiano A, J., E-mail: uohtrejo@gmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (MX)

    2011-11-15

    Any type of waste should be confined so that it does not causes damage to the human health neither the environment and for the storage of the radioactive wastes these actions are the main priority. In the Storage Center of Radioactive Wastes the radioactive wastes generated in Mexico by non energy applications are storage of temporary way. The present study is focused in determining the physical chemistry properties of the lands of the Storage Center of Radioactive Wastes like they are: real density, ph, conductivity percentage of organic matter and percentage of humidity. With what is sought to make a characterization to verify the reaction capacity of the soils in case of a possible flight of radioactive material. The results show that there are different density variations, ph and conductivity in all the soil samples; the ph and conductivity vary with regard to the contact time between the soil and their saturation point in water, for the case of the density due to the characteristics of the same soil; for what is not possible to establish a general profile, but is necessary to know the properties of each soil type more amply. Contrary case is the content of organic matter and humidity since both are in minor proportions. (Author)

  12. Volume reduction and encapsulation process for water containing low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In encapsulating solutions or slurries of radio-active waste within polymeric material for disposal, the water is removed therefrom by adding a water insoluble liquid forming a low boiling azeotrope and evaporating the azeotrope, and then a polymerisable composition is dispersed throughout the dewatered waste and allowed to set. (author)

  13. National inventory of the radioactive wastes and the recycling materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This synthesis report presents the 2006 inventory of the radioactive wastes and recycling materials, in France. It contains 9 chapters: a general introduction, the radioactive wastes (definition, classification, origins and management), the inventory methodology (organization, accounting and prospecting, exhaustiveness and control tools), main results (stocks, prevision for the period 2005-2020, perspectives after 2020), the inventory for producers or owners (front end fuel cycle, electric power plants, back end fuel cycle, wastes processing and maintenance facilities, researches centers, medical activities, industrial activities, non nuclear industries using nuclear materials, defense center, storage and disposal), the polluted sites, examples of foreign inventories, conclusion and annexes. (A.L.B.)

  14. Radioactive waste management - an educational challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    University Radioactive Waste Management educational programs are being actively advanced by the educational support activities of the Offices of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) of the DOE. The DOE fellowship program formats of funding students and requiring a practical research experience (practicum) at a DOE site has helped to combine the academic process with a practical work experience. Support for faculty in these programs is augmenting the benefits of the fellowship programs. The many job opportunities and funding sources for students which currently exists in the radioactive waste management area are fueling an increase in academic programs seeking recognition of their radioactive waste management curriculums

  15. Developing a deliberative process for ethically informed radioactive waste management decision making in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the UK and internationally, there is widespread recognition that decision-making processes over long-term radioactive waste management are subject to a broad array of inherent technical, political, social, psychological and ethical issues. This paper seeks to specifically address the ethical aspects of long-term radioactive waste management and siting by proposing a framework for evaluating and integrating stakeholders' ethical values into a political decision-making process. Evaluation and integration of the ethical issues and related values takes place within the context of a comprehensive program of stakeholder engagement; a process necessary in fostering support amongst stakeholder groups and potentially affected communities - allowing legitimate and defensible political decisions to be made. In pluralistic democracies such as the UK, there is a recognition that a broad array of ethical values are held by the affected stakeholder groups, and the tools used to integrate ethical values into a stakeholder engagement process must be designed to reflect this pattern of moral diversity. This paper outlines the implications of this diversity for participatory decision making and addresses it by outlining a 'tool' or procedure for stakeholder deliberation as part of a broader 'toolbox' of deliberative methods: a tool that allows not only the elicitation of stakeholders' moral values, but also a critical re-evaluation of those values in light of ethical principles agreed upon by the participants themselves. Drawing upon the theoretical framework of ethical pragmatism, the goal is to turn what philosopher John Rawls has termed an ethical 'reflective equilibrium' into a practical procedure for stakeholder deliberation. The paper describes how the model of reflective equilibrium can be used as a basis for designing this deliberative procedure, in a way that is multi-staged and iterative in nature; with a goal to providing the means for stakeholder participants to

  16. The Treatment of Low Level Radioactive Liquid Waste Containing Detergent by Biological Activated Sludge Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment of low level radioactive liquid waste containing persil detergent from laundry operation of contaminated clothes by activated sludge process has been done, for alternative process replacing the existing treatment by evaporation. The detergent concentration in water solution from laundry operation is 14.96 g/l. After rinsing operation of clothes and mixing of laundry water solution with another liquid waste, the waste water solution contains about ≤ 1.496 g/l of detergent and 10-3 Ci/m3 of Cs-137 activity. The simulation waste having equivalent activity of Cs-137 10-3 Ci/m3, detergent content (X) 1.496, 0.748, 0.374, 0.187, 0.1496 and 0.094 g/l on BOD value respectively 186, 115, 71, 48, 19, and 16 ppm was processed by activated sludge in reactor of 18.6 l capacity on ambient temperature. It is used Super Growth Bacteria (SGB) 102 and SGB 104, nitrogen and phosphor nutrition, and aeration. The result show that bacteria of SGB 102 and SGB 104 were able to degrade the persil detergent for attaining standard quality of water release category B in which BOD values 6 ppm. It was need 30 hours for X ≤ 0.187 g/l, 50 hours for 0.187 < X ≤ 0.374 g/l, 75 hours for 0.374 < X ≤ 0.748, and 100 hours for 0.748 < X ≤ 1.496 g/l. On the initial period the bacteria of SGB 104 interact most quickly to degrade the detergent comparing SGB 102. Biochemical oxidation process decontaminate the solution on the decontamination factor of 350, Cs-137 be concentrate in sludge by complexing with the bacteria wall until the activity of solution be become very low. (author)

  17. Radioactive waste management. Collecting, sorting, processing, conditioning, intermediate and final storage for ensuring protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, prepared by the French IRSN (Institut de Radioprotection et de surete nucleaire - radioprotection and nuclear safety Institute), gives some information on topics such as: the classification of radioactive wastes and their management according to waste category; long term management of long life wastes: separation and transmutation, reversible storage in deep geological layers, the intermediate storage; the storage in deep geological layers in foreign countries and in France

  18. Pot-Calcination Process for Converting Highly Radioactive Wastes to Solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pot-calcination process has successfully converted synthetic non-radioactive Purex, TBP-25 (aluminium, HNO3) and Darex (stainless steel, HNO3) wastes to solids in both bench-scale(24 x 4 in diam.) and engineering-scale (82 X 8 in diam.) pots. The process includes feed evaporation, calcination to 900°C in the pot and recycle of the calciner vapour to the evaporator in a closed loop. Vapour from the evaporator is fractionated to produce water for disposal and nitric acid for re-use. The stainless-steel pot would be sealed after being filled and would serve as both the shipping and ultimate containment vessel. The nitrate content of the calcined solids varied between 60 and 500 ppm. Sulphate volatility during calcination of Purex waste was reduced to less than 0.8% by conversion to thermally stable sodium, magnesium, or calcium salts. Ruthenium volatility from the pot was reduced to less than 20% of the feed by the addition of phosphite or nitric oxide gas to the calciner. Steam stripping to avoid excessive acid build-up in the evaporator limited the volatility of ruthenium from the evaporator to approximately 2% of the feed. Addition of up to 1 ml/1 each of monobutyl and dibutyl phosphate to the feed to simulate solvent degradation products reduced the ruthenium volatility to < 1%. The mercury in TBP wastes was completely volatilized during calcination. Control of a 25-1 hold-up continuous evaporator close-coupled to the. engineering-scale pot calciner was demonstrated and a batch evaporation system was developed during 25 experimental tests. Average feed rates for both systems varied between 8 and 30 1/hr. Small-scale equipment (24 x 4 in diam. pots) for studying fission-product volatilities from actual wastes is installed in a hot cell at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A 20-1/hr pilot plant for calcination of radioactive Purex, Darex, and TBP-25 wastes in 82 x 6-12-in-diam. pots is being designed for installation at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

  19. Radioactive waste integrated management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present an integrated management system for radioactive waste, which can keep watch on the whole transporting process of each drum from nuclear power plant temporary storage house to radioactive waste storage house remotely. Our approach use RFID(Radio Frequency Identification) system, which can recognize the data information without touch, GSP system, which can calculate the current position precisely using the accurate time and distance measured from satellites, and the spread spectrum technology CDMA, which is widely used in the area of mobile communication

  20. Removal of 60Co and 134Cs from radioactive process waste water by flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal of 134Cs and 60Co from radioactive process waste water using cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC) as a collector and cobalt(II) hexacyanoferrate(II) as a precipitant for 60Co and sorbent (ion exchanger) for 13'4Cs was intensively investigated and the best removal conditions could be established. The results indicate that under the optimum conditions removals higher than 96% and 97% could be achieved for Co(II) and Cs(I), respectively. Cobalt(II) hexacyanoferrate(II) was found to have high affinity for cesium and can preferentially remove it in presence of relatively high amounts of other alkali or alkaline earth cations. A two-stage flotation process was successfully tested for the removal of both Cs(I) and Co(II) from waters containing both cations. (author) 59 refs.; 8 figs.; 2 tabs

  1. Program of environmental radiological surveillance of the radioactive wastes storage center of Maquixco in the period January-December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of all program of environmental radiological surveillance (PVRA), it is to follow the evolution of the radioactive content of the links of the chains that constitute the different ways of transfer of the radioactivity toward the man, with the purpose of making a realistic evaluation of the environmental impact produced by the installation under surveillance. In the CADER in Mexico, only accidents or escapes of radioactivity of slow evolution can be detected. At the moment the radioactive wastes in this installation are not treated. In this report the results obtained during the year 1991 are presented. (Author)

  2. Underground storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An introductory survey of the underground disposal of radioactive wastes is given. Attention is paid to various types of radioactive wastes varying from low to highly active materials, as well as mining techniques and salt deposits

  3. Method of packaging radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To decrease the leaching of radioactive waste in marine environment. Method: Fillers are placed between a drum can and an inner cage for charging radioactive wastes in order to prevent the leakage of the radioactive wastes from the drum can. Leaching inhibitors for radioactive materials are mixed with the fillers made of organic substance such as asphalts and plastics. The leaching inhibitors are made of materials in the similar chemical form to that of the radioactive materials in the wastes and mixed into the fillers to the saturation limit of dissolution. For the radioactive wastes containing spent adsorbents for iodine, the inhibitors are made of silver nitrates. (Ikeda, J.)

  4. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main issues of the radioactive waste safe management are covered in the monograph. The international knowledge, as well as the national experience in this field are summarized. The technologies and methods used for the safety objective achievement are described. The main attention is paid to the safety norms and rules, to the descriptions of the radwaste management facilities under operation

  5. Non-fuel cycle radioactive waste policy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive wastes generated in Turkey are mostly low level radioactive waste generated from the operation of one research reactor, research centers and universities, hospitals, and from radiological application of various industries. Disused sealed sources which potentially represent medium and high radiological risks in Turkey are mainly Am-241, Ra-226, Kr-85, Co-60, Ir-192 and Cs-137. All radioactive waste produced in Turkey is collected, segregated, conditioned and stored at CWPSF. Main components of the facility are listed below: Liquid waste is treated in chemical processing unit where precipitation is applied. Compactable solids are compressed in a compaction cell. Spent sources are embedded into cement mortar with their original shielding. If the source activities are in several millicuries, sometimes dismantling is applied and segregated sources are conditioned in shielded drums. Due to increasing number of radiation and nuclear related activities, the waste facility of CNAEM is now becoming insufficient to meet the storage demand of the country. TAEA is now in a position to establish a new radioactive waste management facility and studies are now being carried out on the selection of best place for the final storage of processed radioactive wastes. Research and development studies in TAEA should continue in radioactive waste management with the aim of improving data, models, and concepts related to long-term safety of disposal of long-lived waste

  6. Management of radioactive waste in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive materials are used extensively in Israel in labelled chemicals in hospitals, research laboratories, industrial and agricultural premises and for environmental studies. A by products of many of these methods is radioactive waste (RW). The responsible authority for RW management in Israel is the Chief Radiation Executive (CRE). Each RW producing institute in Israel has to acquire a license for its operation. This license limits the amount to radioactive materials purchased by the institute and approves the nomination of a radiation officer. Radiation waste disposal services are offered by the IAEC's Nuclear Research Center-Negev (NRCN) which operates and monitors a National Radioactive Waste Disposal Site (NRWDS). 2 figs, 4 tabs

  7. Characterization of waste products prepared from radioactive contaminated clayey soil cemented according to the GEODUR process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive contaminated soil may arise due to accidents of various types or may be detected during decommisioning of nuclear installations. Ordinary surface soil cannot normally be conditioned using conventional cementation processes since the content of humic materials retards or prevents the solidification. An additive available from the Danish firm Geodur A/S makes it possible to circumvent this difficulty and to produce a monolithic, nondusting waste type using rather small amounts of cement. The report describes work on characterization of such a cemented waste product prepared on basis of clayey top soil from the Risoe area. The claimed advantages of the process was verified, and data for the compression strength (low), hydraulic conductivity (satisfactory) and other pore structure-related properties are given for the obtained products. Unfortunately the behaviour of cesium and strontium, representing two of the most relevant radionuclides, was not too promising. The retention of cesium is satisfactory, but less good than for the untreated soil. Greatly improved cesium retention after drying of the materials was noticed. Good retention of strontium is only obtained after reaction of the material with carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The behaviour of the two isotopes in other types of cemented waste is somewhat similar, but the decrease in retention compared with untreated soil makes the process less interesting as a possibility for remedial actions after accidents, etc. Some further studies of the cemented soil waste are beeing made within the frame of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Studies. Elements forming low solublity components in the high pH environment in the cemented soil will probably be retained quite efficiently. This was demonstrated in case of Zn. (author) 11 tabs., 22 ills., 8 refs

  8. Radioactive waste management glossary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Management Glossary defines over 300 terms in the English language that have special meanings when they are used in the context of radioactive waste management. The Glossary is intended to provide a consistent reference for these terms for specialists in this field. It also will assist non-specialists who read IAEA reports dealing with waste management. This is the second edition of the Glossary. It is intended to update and replace its predecessor, TECDOC-264, that was issued in 1982. (author)

  9. Qualification of a Radioactive High Aluminum Glass for Processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a borosilicate glass for approximately eleven years. Currently the DWPF is immobilizing HLW sludge in Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). Each sludge batch is nominally two million liters of HLW and produces nominally five hundred stainless steel canisters 0.6 meters in diameter and 3 meters tall filled with the borosilicate glass. In SB4 and earlier sludge batches, the Al concentration has always been rather low, (less than 9.5 weight percent based on total dried solids). It is expected that in the future the Al concentrations will increase due to the changing composition of the HLW. Higher Al concentrations could introduce problems because of its known effect on the viscosity of glass melts and increase the possibility of the precipitation of nepheline in the final glass and decrease its durability. In 2006 Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) used DWPF processes to immobilize a radioactive HLW slurry containing 14 weight percent Al to ensure that this waste is viable for future DWPF processing. This paper presents results of the characterization of the high Al glass prepared in that demonstration. At SRNL, a sample of the processed high Al HLW slurry was mixed with an appropriate glass frit as performed in the DWPF to make a waste glass containing nominally 30% waste oxides. The glass was prepared by melting the frit and waste remotely at 1150 deg. C. The glass was then characterized by - determining the chemical composition of the glass including the concentrations of several actinide and U-235 fission products, - calculating the oxide waste loading of the glass based on the chemical composition and comparing it to that of the target - determining if the glass composition met the DWPF processing constraints such as glass melt viscosity and liquidus temperature along with a waste form affecting constraint that prevents

  10. Radioactive waste management profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1989, the International Atomic Energy Agency began development of the Waste Management Data Base (WMDB) to, primarily, establish a mechanism for the collection, integration, storage, and retrieval of information relevant to radioactive waste management in Member States. This report is a summary and compilation of the information contained in the data base. The WMDB contains information and data on several aspects of waste management and offer a ready source of information on such activities as R and D efforts, waste disposal plans and programmes, important programme milestones, waste volume projections, and national and regulatory policies. This report is divided into two parts. Part one describes the Waste Management Data Base system and the type of information it contains. The second part contains data provided by Member States between August 1989 and December 1990 in response to a questionnaire sent by the Agency. However, if a Member State did not respond to the questionnaire, data from IAEA sources, such as technical assistance mission reports, were used - where such data exist. The WMDB system became operational in January 1991. The type of information contained in the data base includes radioactive waste management plans, policies and activities in Member States

  11. Radioactive wastes handling facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are disposed an area where a conveyor is disposed for separating miscellaneous radioactive solid wastes such as metals, on area for operators which is disposed in the direction vertical to the transferring direction of the conveyor, an area for receiving the radioactive wastes and placing them on the conveyor and an area for collecting the radioactive wastes transferred by the conveyor. Since an operator can conduct handling while wearing a working cloth attached to a partition wall as he wears his ordinary cloth, the operation condition can be improved and the efficiency for the separating work can be improved. When the area for settling conveyors and the area for the operators is depressurized, cruds on the surface of the wastes are not released to the outside and the working clothes can be prevented from being involved. Since the wastes are transferred by the conveyor, the operator's moving range is reduced, poisonous materials are fallen and moved through a sliding way to an area for collecting materials to be separated. Accordingly, the materials to be removed can be accumulated easily. (N.H.)

  12. Solidifying method for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To obtain stable solidifying material capable of solidifying pellet-like radioactive waste intermediate storing products or miscellaneous solid wastes such of metals into uniform solidification products with no gaps. Method: In this method, radioactive wastes are solidified integrally by means of solidifying material comprising water-curable inorganic compound, aggregate, inorganic fluidizing material and reaction suppressing agent for suppressing the coagulating reaction between these materials. Aluminum lactate which is a basic metal salt is used as the reaction suppressing agent and lithium citrate is used together as an auxiliary agent for the reaction suppressing agent. Thus, particles constituting solidifying material are uniformly dispersed into added water and in a easily movable state. Accordingly, the solidifying material easily flows to the surface of wastes as the processing object upon packing the solidifying material, can easily fill the container for the package of solidification product with no gaps, to thereby from stable package for the solidification products. (Takahashi, M.)

  13. Chemical decontamination method for radioactive metal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention relates to a decontamination method for radioactive metal waste products derived from equipment that handles radioactive materials whose surfaces have been contaminated; in particular it concerns a decontamination method that reduces the amount of radioactive waste by decontaminating radioactive waste substances to a level of radioactivity in line with normal waste products. In order to apply chemical decontamination to metal waste products whose surfaces are divided into carbon steel waste and stainless steel waste; the carbon steel waste is treated using only a primary process in which the waste is immersed in a sulfuric acid solution, while the stainless steel waste must be treated with both the primary process and then electrolytically reduces it for a specific length of time and a secondary process that uses a solution of sulfuric acid mixed with oxidizing metal salts. The method used to categorize metal waste into carbon steel waste and stainless steel waste involves determining the presence, or absence, of magnetism. Voltage is applied for a fixed duration; once that has stopped, electrolytic reduction repeats the operative cycle of applying, then stopping voltage until the potential of the radioactive metal waste is retained in the active region. 1 fig. 2 tabs

  14. Management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When I first became concerned with radioactive waste management, in the early 1950's, very little was really known about the subject. There was a general feeling that it was a serious 'problem'. Articles were appearing in the press and talks were being given on the radio suggesting that the wastes generated by the proposed nuclear power reactors might be a serious menace to humanity. The prophets pointed with alarm to the enormous quantities of fission products that would accumulate steadily over the years in tank farms associated with reactor fuel reprocessing plants, and calculations were made of the possible results from rupture of the tanks due to corrosion, earthquakes or enemy attack. Responsible people suggested seriously that the waste disposal problem might be fatal to the development of a nuclear power industry, and this attitude was reinforced by the popular outcry that arose from experience with fallout from nuclear weapons testing. The Canadian nuclear power industry was not critically involved in this controversy because our heavy-water reactors are fuelled with natural uranium, and reprocessing of the fuel is not necessary. The spent fuel contains plutonium, a potential fuel, but the cost of recovering it was such that it was not competitive with natural uranium, which is not in short supply in Canada. Our spent fuel is not dissolved in acid - it is stored. still in its zirconium cladding, under water at the reactor site, or placed in sealed concrete-and-steel pipes below ground. If the price of uranium rises sufficiently it will become profitable to recover the plutonium, and only then shall we have an appreciable amount of waste from this source. However. during the first five or six years of research and development at Chalk River we did investigate fuel processing methods, and like everybody else we grad stainless steel tanks containing high and medium level wastes. These were located quite close to the Ottawa River, and we worried about what

  15. Management of hospital radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general structure of a regulatory scheme for the management of hospital radioactive wastes is presented. The responsabilities of an institution in the radioactive waste management, and storage conditions are defined. The radioactive wastes are classified in physical terms, and the criteria for evaluating the activity of solid wastes are described. The container characteristics and, the types of treatments given to the wastes are specified. (M.C.K.)

  16. Gas generation in deep radioactive waste repositories: a review of processes, controls and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas generation within radioactive waste repositories may produce two general problems: 1) breaching of engineered and natural barriers due to high gas pressures; 2) enhanced radiological risk due to reduced groundwater travel times and/or greater aqueous or gaseous activities reaching the biosphere. As a result of these concerns, HMIP must be aware of the current status of relevant research, together with any associated deficiencies. This report addresses the current status of published research on near-field gas generation from worldwide sources and documents the important gas generating processes, the factors controlling them and models available to simulate them. In the absence of suitable models, outline technical specifications for corrosion and microbial degradation gas generation models are defined and the deficiencies in the current understanding of gas generation are highlighted; a conceptual research programme to correct these deficiencies is presented. (author)

  17. Radioactive waste management: Spanish experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste generation began in Spain during the 1950's, in association with the first applications of radioactive isotopes in industry, medicine and research. Spain's first nuclear power plant began its operations in 1968. At present, there are in operation some one thousand installations possessing the administrative authorization required to use radioactive isotopes (small producers), nine nuclear groups and a tenth is now entering the dismantling phase. There are also activities and installations pertaining to the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle (mining, milling and the manufacturing of fuel elements). Until 1985, the research center Junta de Energia Nuclear (now CIEMAT) rendered radioactive waste removal, and subsequent conditioning and temporary storage services to the small producers. Since the beginning of their operations the nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities have had the capacity to condition and temporarily store their own radioactive wastes. ENRESA (Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S. A.) began its operations in the second half of 1985. It is a state-owned company created by the Government in accordance with a previous parliamentary resolution and commissioned to establish a system for management of such wastes throughout Spain, being in charge also of the dismantling of nuclear power plants and other major installations at the end of their operating lifetimes. Possibly the most outstanding characteristic of ENRESA's evolution over these last seven years has been the need to bring about a compromise between solving the most immediate and pressing day-to-day problems of operation (the first wastes were removed at the beginning of 1986) and establishing the basic organization, resources, technology and installations required for ENRESA to operate efficiently in the long term. (author)

  18. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) attaches considerable importance to its cooperation with Japan. It was said in the annual conference in 1977 that the presentation of the acceptable policy regarding radioactive waste management is the largest single factor for gaining public confidence when nuclear power is adopted with assurance. The risk connected with radioactive wastes was often presented as the major obstacle to the development of nuclear energy, however, an overall impression of optimism and confidence prevailed by the technical appraisal of the situation in this field by the committee of the NEA. This evolution can be easily explained by the significant progress achieved in radioactive waste management both at the technical level and with respect to the implementation of special legislation and the establishment of specialized institutions and financing schemes. More research will focus on the optimization of the technical, safety and economic aspects of specific engineering designs at specific sites on the long term isolation of wastes, and the NEA contributes to this general effort. The implementation of disposal programs is also in progress. (Kako, I.)

  19. The radioactive wastes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The different types of radioactive waste are presented in this paper in the frame of the official categories which take into account their dangerousness and the lifetimes of their radioactivity. It is indicated how the less dangerous of them are handled in France. The ways of protecting the environment from the more dangerous ones (high activity and long lifetimes) are object of studies. Scientific questions, in the field of chemistry and physical chemistry, related to the implementation of deep underground repository facilities with full respect of nuclear safety are presented. (authors)

  20. Plasma technology for high-level radioactive waste processing of nuclear industrial groups of USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information about the innovation procedure for the separation of technological mixtures components including liquid and slurry high-level radioactive wastes is presented. Advantages of using plasma mass filter (PMF) as compares with chemical separation procedures are treated. Data on start in the demonstration PMF plant testing for high-level and low-level components in radioactive wastes of the Hanford reservation are communicated. The American firm Archimedes Technology Group Inc. (ATG) performs these tests in association with groups of other countries including Russia

  1. Radioactive waste management in FR Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results presented in this paper represent the nowadays status of the radioactive waste management, especially quality testing methods, which are in common with radioactive waste solidification processes, performing in the Institute of nuclear sciences ''Vinca'' in Belgrade. These investigations represent the part of important activity in a ten years mortar and concrete testing project and research work that is dealing with the radioactive waste mixture forms. The data obtained in these investigations are intended to use during the designing of the proposed central radioactive waste materials repository in FR Yugoslavia. (author)

  2. Initialization of Safety Assessment Process for the Croatian Radioactive Waste repository on Trgovska gora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An iterative process of safety assessment, presently focusing on the site-specific evaluation of the post-closure phase for the prospective LILW repository on Trgovska gora in Croatia, has recently been initiated. The primary aim of the first assessment iterations is to provide the experts involved, the regulators and the general public with a reasonable assurance that the applicable long term performance and safety objectives can be met. Another goal is to develop a sufficient understanding of the system behavior to support decisions about the site investigation, the facility design, the waste acceptance criteria and the closure conditions. In this initial phase, the safety assessment is structured in a manner following closely methodology of the ISAM. The International Programme for Improving Long Term Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities the IAEA coordinated research program started in 1997. Results of the safety assessment first iteration will be organized and presented in the form of a preliminary safety analysis report (PSAR), expected to be completed in the second part of the year 2000. As the first report on the initiated safety assessment activities, the PSAR will describe the concept and aims of the assessment process. Particular emphasis will be placed on description of the key elements of a safety assessment approach by: a) defining the assessment context; b) providing description of the disposal system; c) developing and justifying assessment scenarios; d) formulating and implementing models; and e) interpreting the scoping calculations. (author)

  3. Decontamination of radioactive process waste water by foam separation. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of new studies and previous work from this laboratory, several foam separation techniques are considered feasible methods to carry out the separation of radioactive nuclides from simulated radioactive process waste water. Anionic or cationic collectors were used depending on the type of charge on the ion or precipitate to be removed. Sodium lauryl sulphate, aerosol-18 potassium oleate, acetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, dodecyl pyridinium chloride and gelation were examined as the collector. Aluminium hydroxide, iron (III) oxyhydroxide and hydrous manganese dioxide were studied as the adsorbing floc adsorbing colloid flotation and copper ferrocyanide as the co precipitating agent in co precipitate flotation. The effects of varying the collector, the adsorbing colloid floc, co precipitant and metal ion concentrations, the PH, the gas flow rate, the ionic strength, length of the flotation column and multistage separation on the percentage removal, volume reduction and enrichment ratio were investigated. According to experimental results, adsorbing colloid flotation, whenever applicable, is the preferred method for decontamination. Radionuclide removal up to 100% were obtained. 4 figs., 13 tabs

  4. Chemical treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the third manual of three commissioned by the IAEA on the three principal techniques used in concentrating radioactive liquid wastes, namely chemical precipitation, evaporation and ion exchange. The present manual deals with chemical precipitation by coagulation-flocculation and sedimentation, commonly called ''chemical treatment'' of low-activity wastes. Topics discussed in the manual are: (i) principles of coagulation on flocculation and sedimentation and associated processes; (ii) process and equipment; (iii) conditioning and disposal of flocculation sludge; (iv) sampling and the equipment required for experiments; and (v) factors governing the selection of processes. 99 refs, 17 figs, 4 tabs

  5. Alternatives for conversion to solid interim waste forms of the radioactive liquid high-level wastes stored at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques for isolating and solidifying the nuclear wastes in the storage tanks at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center plant have been examined. One technique involves evaporating the water and forming a molten salt containing the precipitated sludge. The salt is allowed to solidify and is stored in canisters until processing into a final waste form is to be done. Other techniques involve calcining the waste material, then agglomerating the calcine with sodium silicate to reduce its dispersibility. This option can also involve a prior separation and decontamination of the supernatant salt. The sludge and all resins containing fission-product activity are then calcined together. The technique of removing the water and solidifying the salt may be the simplest method for removing the waste from the West Valley Plant

  6. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    OpenAIRE

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of c...

  7. Radioactive waste management policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight senior government representatives outlined the views and policies of their countries in the field of radioactive waste management at a 'scientific afternoon' during the 27th Regular Session of the General Conference of the IAEA in Vienna in October. The countries represented were Argentina, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, India, Japan, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the USA; statements made by the participants are reproduced in this article

  8. Integrated radioactive defense waste management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plan for controlling the releases of radioactivity and ensuring the safe storage of radioactive wastes generated by past, present, and future operation of the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is presented. The waste was categorized as solid, liquid, and gaseous, and the different waste management operations are categorized as treatment, storage, and release operations. Following a summary of the environmental effects of SRP emissions, the document includes in succession (1) a description of processes that generate wastes, (2) a description of the various waste treatment techniques, (3) a description of the waste holding facilities, and (4) a description of the plant's waste storage facilities

  9. Radioactive waste management glossary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terminology used in documents published by the IAEA is frequently defined in glossaries in the separate documents so that understanding is enhanced, particularly for terms having unique meanings in the field of radioactive waste management. This has been found to be a good practice but frequently a burdensome one, too. In addition, terms in various documents occasionally were used differently. Thus, a common glossary of terms for radioactive waste management documents is believed to have merit. This glossary has been developed for use in IAEA documentation on radioactive waste management topics. The individual items have been compiled by selecting terms and definitions from thirty sources, listed on the next page, and numerous people. An effort has been made to use the definitions in internationally-accepted glossaries (e.g. ICRP, ICRU, ISO), with minimum modification; similarly, definitions in recently published IAEA documents have been respected. Nevertheless, when modifications were believed appropriate, they have been made. The glossary, stored on magnetic tape, is intended to be used as a standard for terminology for IAEA use; it is hoped that some benefits of common international terminology may result from its use in IAEA documentation

  10. Developing a deliberative process for ethically informed radioactive waste management decision making in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, Matthew [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Risk

    2006-09-15

    In the UK and internationally, there is widespread recognition that decision-making processes over long-term radioactive waste management are subject to a broad array of inherent technical, political, social, psychological and ethical issues. This paper seeks to specifically address the ethical aspects of long-term radioactive waste management and siting by proposing a framework for evaluating and integrating stakeholders' ethical values into a political decision-making process. Evaluation and integration of the ethical issues and related values takes place within the context of a comprehensive program of stakeholder engagement; a process necessary in fostering support amongst stakeholder groups and potentially affected communities - allowing legitimate and defensible political decisions to be made. In pluralistic democracies such as the UK, there is a recognition that a broad array of ethical values are held by the affected stakeholder groups, and the tools used to integrate ethical values into a stakeholder engagement process must be designed to reflect this pattern of moral diversity. This paper outlines the implications of this diversity for participatory decision making and addresses it by outlining a 'tool' or procedure for stakeholder deliberation as part of a broader 'toolbox' of deliberative methods: a tool that allows not only the elicitation of stakeholders' moral values, but also a critical re-evaluation of those values in light of ethical principles agreed upon by the participants themselves. Drawing upon the theoretical framework of ethical pragmatism, the goal is to turn what philosopher John Rawls has termed an ethical 'reflective equilibrium' into a practical procedure for stakeholder deliberation. The paper describes how the model of reflective equilibrium can be used as a basis for designing this deliberative procedure, in a way that is multi-staged and iterative in nature; with a goal to providing the

  11. The conditioning of radioactive waste by bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The separation of radioactive sludge and waste by bitumen is studied. Results are given concerning various trials carried out on the lixiviation of the final product by water as a function of the pH, of the time, and of the composition. The conditions for carrying out this process of coating the waste are controlled from a radioactive point of view. (author)

  12. Industrial radioactive wastes: what are we talking about?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of radioactive wastes is developed through their origin, their classification, their scale of size. The different storage centers are given and the new channels of radioactive wastes management are tackled. The particular case of high level and long term radioactive wastes is detailed. (N.C.)

  13. Radioactive waste examination pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) is a contact-handled radioactive waste examination pilot facility at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The plant determines through computerized nondestructive examination (NDE) whether transuranic waste now stored at the INEL qualifies for shipment to DOE's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico or whether it needs further processing. As a container proceeds through the plant it is weighed, x-rayed with real-time radiography to determine actual contents, assayed to determine fissile contents, ultrasonically examined to determine container integrity, and surveyed for surface radiation and contamination. Because the facility handles transuranic waste, proper information management is essential. A microprocessor-based data management system has been developed for this purpose; a key feature is its direct communication with the computerized NDE equipment and with a mainframe computer on which the data is stored permanently. 4 references, 2 figures

  14. Argentina's radioactive waste disposal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Argentina policy for radioactive waste disposal from nuclear facilities is presented. The radioactive wastes are treated and disposed in confinement systems which ensure the isolation of the radionucles for an appropriate period. The safety criteria adopted by Argentina Authorities in case of the release of radioactive materials under normal conditions and in case of accidents are analysed. (M.C.K.)

  15. Fate and transport processes controlling the migration of hazardous and radioactive materials from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desert vadose zones have been considered as suitable environments for the safe and long-term isolation of hazardous wastes. Low precipitation, high evapotranspiration and thick unsaturated alluvial deposits commonly found in deserts make them attractive as waste disposal sites. The fate and transport of any contaminant in the subsurface is ultimately determined by the operating retention and transformation processes in the system and the end result of the interactions among them. Retention (sorption) and transformation are the two major processes that affect the amount of a contaminant present and available for transport. Retention processes do not affect the total amount of a contaminant in the soil system, but rather decrease or eliminate the amount available for transport at a given point in time. Sorption reactions retard the contaminant migration. Permanent binding of solute by the sorbent is also possible. These processes and their interactions are controlled by the nature of the hazardous waste, the properties of the porous media and the geochemical and environmental conditions (temperature, moisture and vegetation). The present study summarizes the available data and investigates the fate and transport processes that govern the migration of contaminants from the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). While the site is currently used only for low-level radioactive waste disposal, past practices have included burial of material now considered hazardous. Fundamentals of chemical and biological transformation processes are discussed subsequently, followed by a discussion of relevant results

  16. Fate and transport processes controlling the migration of hazardous and radioactive materials from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrella, R.

    1994-10-01

    Desert vadose zones have been considered as suitable environments for the safe and long-term isolation of hazardous wastes. Low precipitation, high evapotranspiration and thick unsaturated alluvial deposits commonly found in deserts make them attractive as waste disposal sites. The fate and transport of any contaminant in the subsurface is ultimately determined by the operating retention and transformation processes in the system and the end result of the interactions among them. Retention (sorption) and transformation are the two major processes that affect the amount of a contaminant present and available for transport. Retention processes do not affect the total amount of a contaminant in the soil system, but rather decrease or eliminate the amount available for transport at a given point in time. Sorption reactions retard the contaminant migration. Permanent binding of solute by the sorbent is also possible. These processes and their interactions are controlled by the nature of the hazardous waste, the properties of the porous media and the geochemical and environmental conditions (temperature, moisture and vegetation). The present study summarizes the available data and investigates the fate and transport processes that govern the migration of contaminants from the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). While the site is currently used only for low-level radioactive waste disposal, past practices have included burial of material now considered hazardous. Fundamentals of chemical and biological transformation processes are discussed subsequently, followed by a discussion of relevant results.

  17. Development of modified electrochemical process for decontamination of radioactive metal waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. H.; Lim, Y. K.; Yang, H. Y.; Shin, S. W.; Song, M. J. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    In order to develop an effective metal decontamination technique, some experiments were carried out using a modified electrochemical decontamination process. The operational parameters such as current density and reaction time in the electrolytic process were investigated to decide the optimum conditions for the decontamination of the carbon steel generated from nuclear power plants. Decontamination efficiency of the modified electrolytic process, when applied to carbon steel, was much higher than that of the conventional one. In the case of surface contamination, most of the radioactivity is localized within a 10 {mu}m thickness from the surface, in general. Through a series of experiments, 16{mu}m thickness changes were found in carbon steel with the current density and reaction time as 0.4 A/cm{sup 2} and 30 minute, respectively. Based on the results of small modified electrochemical experiments, the large lab scale electrochemical decontamination system was designed and manufactured. In particular, it is not necessary to install an extra washing tank because an ultrasonic oscillator is attached to the bottom of the electrolytic decontamination reactor. This system was also designed to decontaminate both sides of the metal waste simultaneously.

  18. Social acceptance process model for ensuring the high-level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generally speaking, a vast, advanced and unfamiliar science and technology are unacceptable to the public for fear of their unknown nature. Here, the social acceptance process model was examined on the basis of the analysis of the cause phenomenon and numerical grounds, by referring to the problems on the application of literature documentation for location examination of a high-level radioactive waste disposal site in Toyo town in Kochi Pref. in April 2007. In analyzing the Toyo town case, we have found a possibility that the majority of local residents knew very little about the object opposed by the fringe route processing. To ensure a healthy decision making by the public, it is vital to convey fundamental information using sufficient wide-area PR media before the issue becomes actual. After the issue becomes actual, dialog with residents through a careful technology assessment is indispensable. The authors focus attention on the decision-making process of human beings from the social and psychological viewpoints, and point out that it is desirable for promoting social acceptance by adopting two approaches: a direct approach aiming at better intelligibility for the different resident layers and a deductive approach in technological essence. (author)

  19. Radioactive waste: Issues and debates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste management in general has always been in terms of regulation Environmental, a subject of attention but also voltages. Radioactive waste management is no exception to the rule and concentrates, sometimes irrationally, the vast majority industry fears nuclear. The first difficulty is to define radioactive waste, which raises further questions with regard to the case law on this topic and reactions of stakeholders. One of the other components of the debate on radioactive waste is the ability of different actors to ensure sustainable waste management Radioactive in optimum conditions in terms of nuclear safety.This results in the acceptance management solutions by the public.

  20. Microbial degradation processes in radioactive waste repository and in nuclear fuel storage areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intent of the workshop organizers was to convene experts in the fields of corrosion and spent nuclear fuels. The major points which evolved from the interaction of microbiologists, material scientists, and fuel storage experts are as follows: Corrosion of basin components as well as fuel containers or cladding is occurring; Water chemistry monitoring, if done in the storage facility does not take into account the microbial component; Microbial influenced corrosion is an area that many have not considered to be an important contributor in the aging of metallurgical materials especially those exposed to a radiation field; Many observations indicate that there is a microbial or biological presence in the storage facilities but these observations have not been correlated with any deterioration or aging phenomena taking place in the storage facility; The sessions on the fundamentals of microbial influenced corrosion and biofilm pointed out that these phenomena are real, occurring on similar materials in other industries and probably are occurring in the wet storage of spent fuel; All agreed that more monitoring, testing, and education in the field of biological mediate processes be performed and financially supported; Loosing the integrity of fuel assemblies can only cause problems, relating to the future disposition of the fuel, safety concerns, and environmental issues; In other rad waste scenarios, biological processes may be playing a role, for instance in the mobility of radionuclides in soil, decomposition of organic materials of the rad waste, gas production, etc. The fundamental scientific presentations discussed the full gamut of microbial processes that relate to biological mediated effects on metallic and non-metallic materials used in the storage and containment of radioactive materials

  1. Innocuous management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relations between peaceful uses and bellicose uses of the nuclear energy are complexes in relation to international establishment of norms to control the destiny of the radioactive materials, above all in the context of the existing international legislation of respect to the autonomy of the countries, and in the determination of the institution or institutions upon the ones that would fall on. The nuclear safeguards of materials and the possibilities of performing their function. Important efforts have been done to unify, to help and to impose international measures on the behalf of an environmentally harmless processing of the radioactive wastes

  2. Natural radioactivity of wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By-products of the combustion of coal (wastes) are often used for various types of construction (dwellings, roads, etc.). The legal regulations (The Ordinance of the Council of Ministers of 2 January 2007 'On the requirements for the content of natural radioactive isotopes of potassium K-40, radium Ra-226 and thorium Th-228 in raws and materials used in buildings for the residence of people and livestock, as well as in the industrial by-products used in the construction, and the control of the content of the aforementioned isotopes' - Law Gazette no. 4/2007 item 29) are in force in Poland. The regulations permit the possibility of utilization of raws and by-products basing upon the level of the natural radioactivity of the examined raws and materials. The article is a survey of the results obtained during the measurements of many types of raws and building materials for almost 30 years by the network of the laboratories in Poland. It is based upon the results stored in the database of the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection (CLRP), Warsaw. The article tends to outline the radioactivity of the waste materials with respect to other raws and materials used in the construction industry. The article shows the possibilities for the use of by-products originating in the power stations and heat- and power stations (mainly ashes, slag and hinter) in the construction of dwellings and roads. (authors)

  3. Treatment of radioactive wastes by incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Great part of the radioactive wastes of low and intermediate level generated during the nuclear fuel cycle, in laboratories and other sites where the radionuclides are used for the research in the industry, in medicine and other activities, are combustible wastes. The incineration of these radioactive wastes provides a very high reduction factor and at the same time converts the wastes in radioactive ashes and no-flammable residuals, chemically inert and much more homogeneous that the initial wastes. With the increment of the costs in the repositories and those every time but strict regulations, the incineration of radioactive wastes has been able to occupy an important place in the strategy of the wastes management. However, in a particular way, the incineration is a complex process of high temperature that demands the execution of safety and operation requirements very specific. (author)

  4. Management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the round table debates which took place at Joinville, i.e. in the same area as the Bure underground laboratory of Meuse/Haute-Marne. Therefore, the discussion focuses more on the local impacts of the setting up of a waste disposal facility (environmental aspects, employment, economic development). (J.S.)

  5. Radwaste Treatment Centre Jaslovske Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this leaflet the Bohunice Radwaste Treatment Centre (BSC RAO) is presented. BSC RAO is designed to process and treat liquid and solid radwaste, arising from the NPP A-1 decommissioning, from NPPs V-1, V-2, and Mochovce operations, as well as institutional radwaste of diverse institutional (hospitals, research institutes) in the Slovak Republic. Transport, sorting, incineration, compacting, concentration and cementation of radwaste as well as monitoring of emission are described

  6. Liquid Radioactive Wastes Treatment: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Tse Hung

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Radioactive wastes are generated during nuclear fuel cycle operation, production and application of radioisotope in medicine, industry, research, and agriculture, and as a byproduct of natural resource exploitation, which includes mining and processing of ores, combustion of fossil fuels, or production of natural gas and oil. To ensure the protection of human health and the environment from the hazard of these wastes, a planned integrated radioactive waste management practice should be applied. This work is directed to review recent published researches that are concerned with testing and application of different treatment options as a part of the integrated radioactive waste management practice. The main aim from this work is to highlight the scientific community interest in important problems that affect different treatment processes. This review is divided into the following sections: advances in conventional treatment of aqueous radioactive wastes, advances in conventional treatment of organic liquid wastes, and emerged technological options.

  7. Radioactive waste management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography is a review of the Canadian literature on radioactive waste management from 1953 to the present. It incorporates the references from the previous AECL--6186 revisions, and adds the current data and some of the references that had been omitted. Publications from outside organizations of concern to the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Program are included in addition to AECL Research reports and papers. This report is intended as an aid in the preparation of the Concept Assessment Document and is complementary to AECL Research's internal document-ready references on the MASS-11 word processing systems

  8. Radioactive lightning rods waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In this paper, we present alternative processes that could be adopted for the management of radioactive waste that arises from the replacement of lightning rods with attached Americium-241 sources. Lightning protectors, with Americium-241 sources attached to the air terminals, were manufactured in Brazil until 1989, when the regulatory authority overthrew the license for fabrication, commerce, and installation of radioactive lightning rods. It is estimated that, during the license period, about 75,000 such devices were set up in public, commercial and industrial buildings, including houses and schools. However, the policy of CNEN in regard to the replacement of the installed radioactive rods, has been to leave the decision to municipal governments under local building regulations, requiring only that the replaced rods be sent immediately to one of its research institutes to be treated as radioactive waste. As a consequence, the program of replacement proceeds in a low pace and until now only about twenty thousand rods have reached the waste treatment facilities The process of management that was adopted is based primarily on the assumption that the Am-241 sources will be disposed of as radioactive sealed sources, probably in a deep borehole repository. The process can be described broadly by the following steps: a) Receive and put the lightning rods in initial storage; b) Disassemble the rods and pull out the sources; c) Decontaminate and release the metal parts to metal recycling; d) Store the sources in intermediate storage; e) Package the sources in final disposal packages; and f) Send the sources for final disposal. Up to now, the disassembled devices gave rise to about 90,000 sources which are kept in storage while the design of the final disposal package is in progress. (author)

  9. Technical, normative and social aspects of the site selection process for radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In force since 2001, the Federal Law 10.308 states, in article 37, that the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN should start studies for the implementation of a final radioactive waste repository, 'in the shortest timeframe technically feasible'. Nevertheless, not only technical aspects have to be taken into account to accomplish with this schedule, but, also factors of political, economic and social nature. In this paper, the importance and impact of public acceptance aspects are discussed, as well as the methodology of site selection for radioactive wastes repositories, and proposals to accommodate the emanated criteria from the existing legislation. Additionally, practical results from the international experience in the implementation of such deposits are presented. (author)

  10. Liquid Radioactive Wastes Treatment: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Yung-Tse Hung; R. O. Abdel Rahman; Ibrahium, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive wastes are generated during nuclear fuel cycle operation, production and application of radioisotope in medicine, industry, research, and agriculture, and as a byproduct of natural resource exploitation, which includes mining and processing of ores, combustion of fossil fuels, or production of natural gas and oil. To ensure the protection of human health and the environment from the hazard of these wastes, a planned integrated radioactive waste management practice should be applie...

  11. Radioactive waste: show time?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic concept within both EC funded SAPIERR I and SAPIERR II projects (FP6) is that of one or more geological repositories developed in collaboration by two or more European countries to accept spent nuclear fuel, vitrified high-level waste and other long-lived radioactive waste from those partner countries. The SAPIERR II project (Strategic Action Plan for Implementation of Regional European Repositories) examines in detail issues that directly influence the practicability and acceptability of such facilities. This paper describes the work in the SAPIERR II project (2006-2008) on the development of a possible practical implementation strategy for shared, regional repositories in Europe and lays out the first steps in implementing that strategy. (authors)

  12. Radioactive waste: show time?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoef, E.V. [COVRA N.V., Spanjeweg 1, 4455 TW Nieuwdorp (Netherlands); McCombie, Charles; Chapman, Neil [Arius Association, Taefernstrasse 1, CH-4050 Baden (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    The basic concept within both EC funded SAPIERR I and SAPIERR II projects (FP6) is that of one or more geological repositories developed in collaboration by two or more European countries to accept spent nuclear fuel, vitrified high-level waste and other long-lived radioactive waste from those partner countries. The SAPIERR II project (Strategic Action Plan for Implementation of Regional European Repositories) examines in detail issues that directly influence the practicability and acceptability of such facilities. This paper describes the work in the SAPIERR II project (2006-2008) on the development of a possible practical implementation strategy for shared, regional repositories in Europe and lays out the first steps in implementing that strategy. (authors)

  13. Theoretical modeling of crevice and pitting corrosion processes in relation to corrosion of radioactive waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mathematical and numerical model for evaluation of crevice and pitting corrosion in radioactive waste containers is presented. The model considers mass transport, mass transfer at the metal/solution interface, and chemical speciation in the corrosion cavity. The model is compared against experimental data obtained in artificial crevices. Excellent agreement is found between modeled and experimental values. The importance of full consideration of complex ion formation in the aqueous solution is emphasized and illustrated. 10 refs., 5 figs

  14. The removal of 134Cs from radioactive process waste water by coprecipitate flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coprecipitate flotation of 134Cs from radioactive process waste water using copper ferrocyanide as a coprecipitating agent and sodium lauryl sulphate, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide or gelatin as collector was extensively investigated to establish the best conditions for caesium removal with each of the collectors under test. The investigated parameters include the collector dosage, the Cu2+/Fe(CN)64- ratio, the caesium, potassium, sodium and calcium ion concentrations, the ageing time period of the Cu2+ - Fe(CN)64- - 134Cs - water system and the bubbling time duration. The results indicate that copper ferrocyanide has a high affinity for caesium and can preferentially co-precipitate it in presence of relatively high amounts of other alkali or alkaline earth cations. For the alkali metals the affinity increases in the order Na < K < Cs. Under the optimal conditions removals higher than 99% could be achieved with any of the tested collectors. The results are discussed in terms of the ion exchange properties of copper ferrocyanide and collector behaviour. Advantages of the coflotation technique over other methods are enumerated. (Auth.)

  15. Redox processes in the safety case of deep geological repositories of radioactive wastes. Contribution of the European RECOSY Collaborative Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The RECOSY project produced results relevant for the Safety Case of nuclear disposal. • We classify the safety related features where RECOSY has contributed. • Redox processes effect the retention of radionuclides in all repository subsystems. - Abstract: Redox processes influence key geochemical characteristics controlling radionuclide behaviour in the near and far field of a nuclear waste repository. A sound understanding of redox related processes is therefore of high importance for developing a Safety Case, the collection of scientific, technical, administrative and managerial arguments and evidence in support of the safety of a disposal facility. This manuscript presents the contribution of the specific research on redox processes achieved within the EURATOM Collaborative Project RECOSY (REdox phenomena COntrolling SYstems) to the Safety Case of nuclear waste disposal facilities. Main objectives of RECOSY were related to the improved understanding of redox phenomena controlling the long-term release or retention of radionuclides in nuclear waste disposal and providing tools to apply the results to Performance Assessment and the Safety Case. The research developed during the project covered aspects of the near-field and the far-field aspects of the repository, including studies relevant for the rock formations considered in Europe as suitable for hosting an underground repository for radioactive wastes. It is the intention of this paper to highlight in which way the results obtained from RECOSY can feed the scientific process understanding needed for the stepwise development of the Safety Case associated with deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes

  16. Shallow disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review and evaluation of computer codes capable of simulating the various processes that are instrumental in determining the dose rate to individuals resulting from the shallow disposal of radioactive waste was conducted. Possible pathways of contamination, as well as the mechanisms controlling radionuclide movement along these pathways have been identified. Potential transport pathways include the unsaturated and saturated ground water systems, surface water bodies, atmospheric transport and movement (and accumulation) in the food chain. Contributions to dose may occur as a result of ingestion of contaminated water and food, inhalation of contaminated air and immersion in contaminated air/water. Specific recommendations were developed regarding the selection and modification of a model to meet the needs associated with the prediction of dose rates to individuals as a consequence of shallow radioactive waste disposal. Specific technical requirements with regards to risk, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses have been addressed

  17. Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Storage Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, ''Radioactive Waste Management Manual.'' This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility

  18. A Study on the Conceptual Development for a Deep Geological Disposal of the Radioactive Waste from Pyro-processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A long-term R and D program for HLW disposal technology development was launched in 1997 in Korea and Korea Reference disposal System(KRS) for spent fuels had been developed. After then, a recycling process for PWR spent fuels to get the reusable material such as uranium or TRU and to reduce the volume of radioactive waste, called Pyro-process, is being developed. This Pyro-process produces several kinds of wastes including metal waste and ceramic waste. In this study, the characteristics of the waste from Pyro-process and the concepts of a disposal container for the wastes were described. Based on these concepts, thermal analyses were carried out to determine a layout of the disposal area of the ceramic wastes which was classified as a high level waste and to develop the disposal system called A-KRS. The location of the final repository for A-KRS is not determined yet, thus to review the potential repository domains, the possible layout in the geological characteristics of KURT facility site was proposed. These results will be used in developing a repository system design and in performing the safety assessment.

  19. Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal——Application Process for Immobilization of Spent Organic Ion Exchanger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINMei-qiong; GANXue-ying; BAOLiang-jin; CHENHui

    2003-01-01

    Cementation process used ASC matrix is developed by CIAE. The primary objective of the project is to provide 200 L drum scale process parameter and make an improved formulation of waste form.Scientific researchers of Tsinghua take the responsibility for improving on formulation in final waste form and ensuring quality can meet requirement of GB 14569.1-93.

  20. Regulation on radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A national calculator control system for the metropolitan radioactive waste banks was developed in 1999. The NNSA reviewed by the regulations the feasibility of some rectification projects for uranium ore decommissioning and conducted field inspections on waste treating systems and radioactive waste banks at the 821 plant. The NNSA realized in 1999 the calculator control for the disposal sites of low and medium radioactive waste. 3 routine inspections were organized on the reinforced concrete structures for disposal units and their pouring of concrete at waste disposal site and specific requirements were put forth

  1. Radioactive waste engineering and management

    CERN Document Server

    Nakayama, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    This book describes essential and effective management for reliably ensuring public safety from radioactive wastes in Japan. This is the first book to cover many aspects of wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle to research and medical use, allowing readers to understand the characterization, treatment and final disposal of generated wastes, performance assessment, institutional systems, and social issues such as intergenerational ethics. Exercises at the end of each chapter help to understand radioactive waste management in context.

  2. Processing results of 1800 gallons of mercury and radioactively contaminated mixed waste rinse solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury-contaminated rinse solution was successfully treated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This waste was generated during the decontamination of the Heat Transfer Reactor Experiment 3 reactor shield tank. Approximately 6.8 m3 (1,800 pi) of waste was generated and placed into 33 drums. Each drum contained precipitated sludge material ranging from 2--5 cm in depth, with the average depth of about 6 cm. The pH of each drum varied from 3--11. The bulk liquid waste had a mercury level of 7.0 mg/l, which exceeded the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act limit of 0.2 mg/l. The average liquid bulk radioactivity was about 2.1 pCi/mL while the average sludge contamination was about 13,800 pCi/g. Treatment of the waste required separation of the liquid from the sludge, filtration, pH adjustment, and ion exchange. The resulting solution after treatment had mercury levels at 0.0186 mg/l and radioactivity of 0.282 pCi/ml

  3. Characteristics on contamination and generation of radioactive metal wastes for decontamination process application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey has carried out on metal rad waste generation, contamination characteristics and recycling criteria for NPPs including other nuclear facilities. Particularly, NPPs under DOE facilities and Trojan NPP have investigated. The results were that the metal radwaste generation from every PWR 1000 MWe reactor was rich in carbon steel and stainless steel in order in material respect. Radioactivity level was the highest in reactor vessel of 4,160,000 Ci in structural point of view. Co-58 and Co-60, were the most dominant radionuclides in the primary coolant system. These radionuclides covered about 80% of the whole radionuclides contributed for surface contamination. Recycling of metal waste would have advantages on saving resources, safety for human health and environmental effect. Furthermore it will be cost effective about more than 50% compared with its permenant disposal cost. However to establish recycling criteria on metal waste in Korea will be rather early at this time, because there are no international criteria on radioactive metal waste release and also the criteria of every country are different from one another

  4. Offgas treatment for radioactive waste incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incineration of radioactive materials for resource recovery or waste volume reduction is recognized as an effective waste treatment method that will increase in usage and importance throughout the nuclear industry. The offgas cleanup subsystem of an incineration process is essential to ensure radionuclide containment and protection of the environment. Several incineration processes and associated offgas cleanup systems are discussed along with potential application of commercial pollution control components to radioactive service. Problems common to radioactive waste incinerator offgas service are identified and areas of needed research and development effort are noted

  5. Microbial processes relevant for the long-term performance of radioactive waste repositories in clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. A number of investigations on occurrence and viability of microbes in compacted clays have been aimed at studying possible microbial effects on long-term performance of a deep geological repository (DGR) for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SF). Compacted clays are considered in current DGR designs either as a buffer material or as a host rock. The primary purpose of the present work was to qualitatively evaluate the relevance of microbial activity for the long-term performance of a DGR and to identify which safety-relevant processes and properties can be potentially influenced by this activity. The present analysis identified eight clay properties essential for maintaining safety functions of containment and retardation of the disposal system - swelling pressure, specific surface area, cation exchange capacity, anion sorption capacity, porosity, permeability, fluid pressure, plasticity - which can potentially be influenced by microbial processes in clay buffer and Clay-stone within a DGR for HLW/SF. Iron(III)- and sulphate-reducing, fermentative, methane-producing and oxidizing microbes can be considered to be present in any clay formation. Each habitat includes a massive number of microbial niches with perhaps only a small proportion of the species being metabolically active at the habitat's conditions, the remainder becoming not extinct. Moreover, clays contain electron donors and electron acceptors in amounts sufficient for these microbes to remain active during very long periods of time. Additional sources of electron donors or electron acceptors will inevitably be added to the repository system as a result of DGR excavation, placement of radioactive waste as well as backfilling and sealing of the DGR. In no case should the potential impact of microbes be underestimated based on a possible argument of comparably low biomass of the microbes in contact with metal surfaces or dissolved

  6. Change of radioactive waste characteristics at their processing and storage at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper offers some methods developed for calculation of radiation from the casks for storage of radioactive wastes (RW) at the nuclear power plant (NPP) area. Monte Carlo method was used to calculate spectral-angular characteristics of the cask external radiation generated by separate nuclides. The obtained data allowed to provide simple methods for calculating changes in the radiation characteristics with the waste storage time and determining the radiation spatial distribution away from the casks. We propose a technique of reducing the radiation dose due to arranging properly loading the casks with barrels containing wastes of different activity. It is shown that at the RW storage its radiotoxicity decay is slower than the dose rate decay due to decrease of the activity of short-lived radionuclides.

  7. The Los Alamos controlled air incinerator for radioactive waste: Volume 3, Modifications for processing hazardous chemicals and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the design and operation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI). This third volume addresses categories of information that pertain to modifications to the CAI in the period between 1981 and 1986. These later system changes were motivated by programmatic objectives to use the CAI for additionally studying combustion of low-level radioactive wastes and hazardous chemicals. 19 figs., 13 tabs

  8. Declare of radionuclides content in radioactive wastes of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of the classification of radioactive waste involves two consideration. First, consideration must be given to the concentration of long-lived radionuclides and their shorter-lived precursors and second, consideration must be given to the concentration of shorter-lived radionuclides for which requirements on institutional controls waste form, and disposal methods are effective. Final disposal low and intermediate level radioactive waste have to meet certain requirements of regulations, one of this is the estimation of the radionuclide inventory. As most of nuclides are difficult to measure, the correlation between critical nuclides and some other easily measurable key nuclides such as 60Co and 137Cs are investigate for typical waste streams of Nuclear Power Plant Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia). Scaling factors for difficult to measure nuclides can be derived with acceptable correlation from samples collected annually from the waste stream. (authors)

  9. Reversibility and retrievability in the deliberative decision making processes on radioactive waste in Finland and the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility to recover the radioactive waste deposited for final disposal (retrievability), or to reverse decisions concerning the management of the waste (reversibility) have emerged as central issues on the policymaking agenda in a number of countries. The call for reversibility and retrievability have mainly emanated from the civil society and politicians, and have subsequently, and to varying degrees in different countries, been translated into technical and administrative solutions. This paper examines the role of such debates within the participatory and deliberative planning and decision-making processes concerning radioactive waste management in Finland and the UK. In Finland, the bulk of public participation took place at the local level discussions, within the two-year EIA process preceding the choice of the disposal site, while in the UK, the Commission on Radioactive Waste Management (CoRWM) provided the main forum for participation and deliberation. The paper seeks to provide tentative explanations for the differences in the ways in which the issues of retrievability and reversibility have been handled in the two countries - notably the contrast between the relative absence of debate in Finland and the continuous contestation around the issue in the UK. Tentative findings indicate that the degree of trust in public institutions, notably in the 'official experts', is a major factor explaining the differences between the treatment of the topic in the two countries

  10. Economic and technical advantages of high temperature processes in high level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimated waste management costs incurred for the three principal waste forms produced by reprocessing spent fuel are compared from a theoretical economic standpoint. The cost of vitrifying concentrated fission product solutions is considered first, together with the estimated additional costs of transportation and final storage in a geological repository. Fuel cladding waste treatments are then examined by comparing the relative costs of cementation, compaction and melting; processes for disposal of incinerable alpha-bearing wastes are also considered. In each case, the processes ensuring the greatest waste volume reduction not only result in the lowest management cost, but are also most effective in ensuring the highest possible containment quality for the final waste package

  11. Process Modeling and Analysis for Radioactive Solid Waste Management at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has created a discrete-event simulation model of the nuclear waste drum characterization operations the 'processing/inspection - Los Alamos model of drums equivalent' (π a la mode). This model takes drum inventory data, process-related information, and planned processing priorities related to the solid-waste management operations at Los Alamos to assess the resulting characterization process and resulting schedule for drum shipments to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The model tracks the drum inventory, material inventory, and equipment as a function of time. Data from the model and some sample results are presented in this paper. (authors)

  12. Low-level radioactive waste disposal. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document constitutes a segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramifications of constructing a nuclear energy center in an arid western region. In this phase of the study, the alternatives for disposing of the low-level waste on the site are compared with the alternative of transporting the waste to the nearest commercial waste disposal site for permanent disposal. Both radiological and nonradiological impacts on the local socioeconomic infrastructure and the environment are considered. Disposal on the site was found to cost considerably less than off-site disposal with only negligible impacts associated with the disposal option on either mankind or the environment

  13. Some new concepts in the field of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author would like to introduce some new concepts in the field of radioactive waste management, which was presented by the ICRP and the IAEA in recent years, such as whole process of management for radioactive wastes; safe assessment applying constrained optimization for the disposal of long-lived solid radioactive wastes, and the optimization is a judgmental process, and so on. These new concepts are helpful to the safe management of radioactive wastes

  14. Method of processing radioactive waste water from WWER power plants and equipment for this method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste water with mechanical impurities removed is thickened by evaporation to a salt concentration of more than 100 g/l. It is then cooled to a temperature below 40 degC which results in the crystallization of boric acid salts and/or double or multi-component salts, which are then separated by filtration from the mother solution. The salts are used as secondary raw materials or are dissolved by the action of H2SO4 or HCl; a conversion salt and boric acid are formed. After evaporation and having cooled down a bellow 35 degC, H3BO3 becomes crystallized and is separated by filtering. Radioactive emitters contained in the radioactive waste water accumulate in the minimized-volume mother liquors. The equipment consists of a crystallization evaporator, a tickener, a centrifuge and a separator. The centrifuge is connected to the reactor via a pipe and via another pipe to the crystallizer which in turn is connected to the separator. (J.P.)

  15. Public debate - radioactive wastes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between September 2005 and January 2006 a national debate has been organized on the radioactive wastes management. This debate aimed to inform the public and to allow him to give his opinion. This document presents, the reasons of this debate, the operating, the synthesis of the results and technical documents to bring information in the domain of radioactive wastes management. (A.L.B.)

  16. 2009 National inventory of radioactive material and wastes. Geographical inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A geographical inventory of the radioactive wastes present on the French territory (as recorded until the 31 of december, 2007) is presented, region by region. The various types of waste sites (production, processing, conditioning and storage sites, Uranium mines, ANDRA storage centers, historical storage sites and polluted sites where wastes are stored) are listed and located on maps. Details are given on the nature and origin of these wastes (nuclear industry, medical domain, scientific research, conventional industry, Defense...). A total of 1121 sites have been recorded, among which 163 are presented with details and charts

  17. Chemical processes in a final repository for high-level radioactive waste in clay and salt formations. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report on the chemical processes in a final repository for high-level radioactive waste in clay and salt formations covers the following issues: (i) chemical fundamentals; (ii) materials in a final repository: Sorel concrete, salt concrete, iron, glass, rock minerals (silicates, clays, pyrite, salt minerals); (iii) chemical interactions in the final repository: glass corrosion, cement corrosion, interactions with the host rock clay, sorption and diffusion of radionuclides, other interactions; (iiii) data base projects: NEA-TDB, THEREDA, evaluation.

  18. A very high energy imaging for radioactive wastes processing; Une imagerie haute energie pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulin, V. [CEA Grenoble, Lab. d' Electronique et de Technologie de l' Informatique (DRT/DSIS/SSBS/LETI), 38 (France); Pettier, J.L. [CEA Cadarache, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN/DTN/SMTM), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2004-07-01

    The X imaging occurs at a lot of steps of the radioactive wastes processing: selection for conditioning, physical characterization with a view to radiological characterization, quality control of the product before storage, transport or disposal. Size and volume of the objects considered here necessitate to work with very high energy systems. Here is shown, through some examples, in which conditions this X imaging is carried out as well as the contribution of the obtained images. (O.M.)

  19. Assessment of microbial processes on gas production at radioactive low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors controlling gaseous emanations from low level radioactive waste disposal sites are assessed. Importance of gaseous fluxes of methane, carbon dioxide, and possible hydrogen from the site, stems from the inclusion of tritium and/or carbon-14 into the elemental composition of these compounds. In that the primary source of these gases is the biodegradation of organic components of the waste material, primary emphasis of the study involved an examination of the biochemical pathways producing methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, and the environmental parameters controlling the activity of the microbial community involved. Initial examination of the data indicates that the ecosystem is anaerobic. As the result of the complexity of the pathway leading to methane production, factors such as substrate availability, which limit the initial reaction in the sequence, greatly affect the overall rate of methane evolution. Biochemical transformations of methane, hydrogen and carbon dioxide as they pass through the soil profile above the trench are discussed. Results of gas studies performed at three commercial low level radioactive waste disposal sites are reviewed. Methods used to obtain trench and soil gas samples are discussed. Estimates of rates of gas production and amounts released into the atmosphere (by the GASFLOW model) are evaluated. Tritium and carbon-14 gaseous compounds have been measured in these studies; tritiated methane is the major radionuclide species in all disposal trenches studied. The concentration of methane in a typical trench increases with the age of the trench, whereas the concentration of carbon dioxide is similar in all trenches

  20. Advice concerning the advantages of a reference incinerator for low-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, an inventory is presented of new incinerators and flue gas filters used in low and intermediate-level radioactive waste combustion. It is argued that a 'reference equipment' for the combustion of solid and liquid low- and intermediate-level wastes best meets existing Dutch radiation protection standards. A cost-benefit analysis of such an equipment is given including annual costs of investment, capital and exploration. A separate combustion process of organic liquids and carrions is considered finally. (G.J.P.)

  1. Solidification method for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a method for processing low level radioactive wastes, it has been known that they are solidified by using inorganic solidifying materials such as cement and water glass. In the present invention, it is considered that not only the low level wastes but also middle level wastes are solidified by cement or the like and then put to land disposal. Therefore, hydrophobic materials such as oils and silicon are coated in the solidification vessel, and solidification is conducted subsequently. With such procedures, even if water intrudes by some causes from the outside, since thin layers made of hydrophobic materials have a permanent water-repellent effect, the intrusion of water to the inside of the solidification material can be prevented as much as possible. Accordingly, integrity of the solidification materials can further be improved. (T.M.)

  2. Portable radioactive waste tracking and inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardware has components such as host computer, Personal Digital Assistant(PDA), bar code scanner, and digital camera. Software consists of database about radioactive waste which covers date, generator, container type, activity, images, physical characteristics, and nuclide. The portable radioactive waste tracking and inspection system needs programs such as web communication between the host computer and PDA, database application of PDA, processing of bar codes and images. The inspector can track, inspect, and modify information such as date, generator, container type, activity, images, physical characteristics, and nuclide by reading two dimensional bar code on container of radioactive waste with bar code scanner on PDA

  3. Method of removing radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A paste prepared by mixing a mixed acid containing HF and at least one of HCl and HNO3 with a paste aid is coated at the surface of radioactive wastes, to dissolve the surface thereof. Water is jetted to remove the dissolved radioactive contaminants and the pastes from the surface of the radioactive wastes. Since the pastes are thus used, the amount of liquid wastes can be remarkably reduced compared with that in a conventional electrolysis method. Further, if it is confirmed that dose rate of the radioactive wastes after decontamination is lower than a predetermined level by adding a step of measuring the extent of contamination of the wastes before and after the steps, they can be handled hereinafter being regarded as ordinary wastes. (T.M.)

  4. Radioactive waste management in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is provided on the major nuclear facilities operating in Argentina and data are given on radioactive wastes arising from these operations. The respective legal framework and the nuclear activities, including research and development, are outlined. The programme for the management of the different categories of radioactive wastes is described. Main milestones for establishing geological repositories for intermediate level and high level waste are highlighted. (author)

  5. Radioactive wastes. Management prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes the perspectives of management of radioactive wastes as defined in the French law from December 30, 1991. This law defines three ways of research: abatement of the radiotoxicity of wastes (first way), reversible geological storage (second way) or long duration geological disposal (third way). This article develops these three solutions: 1 - strategic perspectives; 2 - separation, transmutation and specific conditioning: isotopes to be separated (evolution of the radio-toxicity inventory of spent fuels, migration of long-living radionuclides, abatement of radio-toxicity), research on advanced separation (humid and dry way), research on transmutation of separate elements (transmutation and transmutation systems, realistic scenarios of Pu consumption and actinides transmutation, transmutation performances), research on materials (spallation targets, fuels and transmutation targets), research on conditioning matrices for separated elements; 3 - long-term storage: principles and problems, containers, surface and subsurface facilities; 4 - disposal: reversibility and disposal, geological disposal (principle and problems, site and concept selection), adaptation to reversibility, research on materials (bentonite and cements for geologic barrier, metals for containers), underground research and qualification laboratories, quantity of containers to be stored. (J.S.)

  6. National Concept of the Radioactive Waste Management in the Czech Republic: Public Involvement in the related EIA Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By approval of the Atomic Act in 1997 the state assumed the responsibility for the safe disposal of all existing radioactive waste as well as that be generated in the future in the Czech Republic. Since certain categories of radioactive waste represent a highly hazardous long- term potential, the management and especially disposal of radioactive waste is a very long- term task which has to meet high technical, administrative and financial requirements. This is the main reason why a national policy of waste management is needed. The purpose of such a policy is to determine a long-term government strategy with respect to those organisations generating radioactive waste or otherwise involved in the management system and to provide a general system framework for decisions to be made by any party involved in radioactive waste management. In 2000 the document called Concept of Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel Management in CR was prepared by the Ministry of Industry and Trade in co-operation with many other organisations. The main goal was to come up with generally acceptable ideas for the strategically justified and scientifically, technologically, environmentally, financially and socially acceptable management of radioactive waste. At the same time this document is to serve as a source of clear information for the general public. The document is based on the results of detailed analyses of all reasonable options. Construction of a deep geological repository for the direct disposal of spent fuel and other high level wastes is considered to be the only realistic option for a final solution based on the current state of knowledge, yet this decision on further development could be reversed in the future by a new evaluation of management options, expected in 20 years time. In compliance with the Environmental Impact Assessment Act all similar concepts must be made public and civic organisations and other interested parties in this field should be invited to comment. Only

  7. Automatic radioactive waste recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of a plutonium ingot by calcium reduction process at CEA/Valduc generates a residue called 'slag'. This article introduces the recycling unit which is dedicated to the treatment of slags. The aim is to separate and to recycle the plutonium trapped in this bulk on the one hand, and to generate a disposable waste from the slag on the other hand. After a general introduction of the facilities, some elements will be enlightened, particularly the dissolution step, the filtration and the drying equipment. Reflections upon technological constraints will be proposed, and the benefits of a fully automatic recycling unit of nuclear waste will also be stressed. (authors)

  8. Microbial processes relevant for long-term performance of radioactive waste repositories in clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary purpose of the present work was qualitatively evaluate the relevance of microbial activity for the long-term performance of deep geological repository (DGR) and to identify which safety-relevant processes and properties can be potentially influenced by this activity. This work should also provide a basis for the quantitative estimation of the maximum possible effects of microbial processes on the barrier system of a DGR as well as for the consideration of microbial impact on radionuclide redox chemistry and transport in DGR environments in future work. The present analysis identified eight clay properties essential for maintaining safety functions of containment and retardation of the disposal system - swelling pressure, specific surface area, cation exchange capacity, anion sorption capacity, porosity, permeability, fluid pressure, plasticity - which can potentially be influenced by microbial processes in clay buffer and clay-stone within a DGR for HLW/SF. Radioactive waste canisters and over-packs made either of cast metal, carbon steel or stainless steel represent a further component of the engineered barrier system which can be strongly affected by microbial activity in clay buffer or in adjacent host rock. According to the current state of knowledge, iron(III)-reducing, sulphate-reducing, fermentative, methane-producing, and methane-oxidizing microbes can be considered to be present in any clay formation to be utilized either as a source of clay buffer material or as a host rock for a DGR for HLW/SF. The growing body of observations suggests also that each habitat includes a massive number of microbial niches with perhaps only a small proportion of the species being metabolically active at the habitat's conditions, the remainder becoming not extinct - which makes microbes discontinuously different from larger organisms. Thus, e.g. hyperthermophilic microbial species are available in the currently rather cold environments such as deep clay

  9. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A deep gap, reflecting a persisting fear, separates the viewpoints of the experts and that of the public on the issue of the disposal of nuclear WASTES. The history of this field is that of the proliferation with time of spokesmen who pretend to speak in the name of the both humans and non humans involved. Three periods can be distinguished: 1940-1970, an era of contestation and confusion when the experts alone represents the interest of all; 1970-1990, an era of contestation and confusion when spokespersons multiply themselves, generating the controversy and the slowing down of most technological projects; 1990-, an era of negotiation, when viewpoints, both technical and non technical, tend to get closer and, let us be optimistic, leading to the overcome of the crisis. We show that, despite major differences, the options and concepts developed by the different actors are base on two categories of resources, namely Nature and Society, and that the consensus is built up through their 'hydridation'. we show in this part that the perception of nuclear power and, in particular of the underground disposal of nuclear wastes, involves a very deep psychological substrate. Trying to change mentalities in the domain by purely scientific and technical arguments is thus in vain. The practically instinctive fear of radioactivity, far from being due only to lack of information (and education), as often postulated by scientists and engineers, is rooted in archetypical structures. These were, without doubt, reactivated in the 40 s by the traumatizing experience of the atomic bomb. In addition, anthropological-linked considerations allow us to conclude that he underground disposal of wastes is seen as a 'rape' and soiling of Mother Earth. This contributes to explaining, beyond any rationality, the refusal of this technical option by some persons. However, it would naturally be simplistic and counter-productive to limit all controversy in this domain to these psychological aspects

  10. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  11. Radioactive waste management. Main features of the plans in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report gives a general description of the plans concerning Finnish radioactive waste management. The decision making process, legislation, regulative work by authorities and cost estimations are considered. Plans for the radioactive waste management in other countries are reviewed. Alternatives concerning radioactive waste management and environmental issues are also described

  12. Solidification of radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To decrease the amount of surface active agents required for solidifying sodium sulfate-containing concentrated radioactive liquid wastes with asphalts. Method: Water soluble calcium compounds (calcium nitrate, etc.) are added to alkaline radioactive concentrated liquid wastes essentially consisting of sodium sulfate to adjust the pH value of the liquid wastes to 4.5 - 8.5. The addition amount of the water soluble calcium compounds (based on the weight of the calcium ions) is set to about 2 - 5% of the sulfate ions in the liquid wastes. Then, surface active agents are added by 3 - 10 weight % to the solid contents in the liquid wastes. (Ikeda, J.)

  13. A Study of the applicability of biomineralization process to the treatment of radioactive waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been carried out on the removal of uranium and radionuclides like 137Cs, 60Co and 90Sr from radioactive waste solutions using a bioreactor of Serratia sp.-biofilm which is capable of producing an acid type phosphatase enzyme that liberates HPO42- from a suitable organic phosphate donor and of stoichiometrically forming precipitates of the metal ions (M2+) such as insoluble MHPO4(HUP) at the cell surface. Sorption behaviours of the Serratia sp.-biofilm for UO22+, Cs+, Sr2+ and Co2+ were investigated using synthetic radioactive waste solutions containing 137Cs, 60Co and 85Sr. Uranium was effectively removed as hydrogen uranyl phosphate (HUP) in the presence of glycerol-2-phosphate. Cs+, Sr2+ and Co2+ were removed via an intercalation by either continuous co-crystal(precipitate) growth along with U or by a pre-formed HUP host crystal as an inorganic ion exchanger. Effect of sodium ion on the sorption behaviour of serratia sp.-HUP-bioreactor and its stability were investigated. In addition, Sorption behaviours of the serratia sp.-HUP-bioreactor were compared with those of Amberlite IRN 77,cation exchanger and ammoniumphosphotungstate/silical gel which shows selective sorption property for Cs+

  14. Microbiological treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of microorganisms which are ubiquitous throughout nature to bring about information of organic and inorganic compounds in radioactive wastes has been recognized. Unlike organic contaminants, metals cannot be destroyed, but must be either removed or converted to a stable form. Radionuclides and toxic metals in wastes may be present initially in soluble form or, after disposal may be converted to a soluble form by chemical or microbiological processes. The key microbiological reactions include (i) oxidation/reduction; (ii) change in pH and Eh which affects the valence state and solubility of the metal; (iii) production of sequestering agents; and (iv) bioaccumulation. All of these processes can mobilize or stabilize metals in the environment

  15. The influence of non-aqueous radiochemical processes on radiation parameters of spent fuel and radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the technology applied for separation of radioactive elements on radiation parameters of fuel and wastes when using non-aqueous radiochemical processing of spent fuels are studied. The results of calculational modelling the fuel recycle in the BREST-1200 reactor closed fuel cycle are considered. The data characterizing contribution of separate elements in potential biological danger (dose) and the dependence of the potential biological danger of the wastes on regenerated fuel cooling time are discussed. It is shown that plutonium and americium give the main contributions into the fuel potential biological danger in time period of 40-1000 years. For monitored cooling of 120-150 years the balance between natural uranium potential biological danger and that of wastes at different waste compositions is achievable. The fission product contributions into potential biological danger differ slightly for different variants of the processing technology. The 99Tc contribution is noticeable only in the case of metallurgical processing. The conclusion is made that differences in radiochemical technologies applied for waste fracturing and fuel purification degree do not influence in principle on capabilities for radiation balance achieving. For a long-time perspective the radiation balance is determined by plutonium, americium and their decay products. The technology peculiarities may change radiation characteristics of wastes only at separate stages of cooling and do not affect greatly the radiation balance as a whole

  16. Method of solidifying radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To obtain satisfactory plastic solidification products rapidly and more conveniently from radioactive wastes. Method: liquid wastes contain, in addition to sodium sulfate as the main ingredient, nitrates hindering the polymerizing curing reactions and various other unknown ingredients, while spent resins contain residual cationic exchange groups hindering the polymerizing reaction. Generally, as the acid value of unsaturated liquid polyester resins is lower, the number of terminal alkyd resins is small, formation of nitrates is reduced and the polymerizing curing reaction is taken place more smoothly. In view of the above, radioactive wastes obtained by dry powderization or dehydration of radioactive liquid wastes or spent resins are polymerized with unsaturated liquid polyester resins with the acid value of less than 13 to obtain plastic solidification. Thus, if the radioactive wastes contain a great amount of polymerization hindering material such as NaNO2, they can be solidified rapidly and conveniently with no requirement for pre-treatment. (Kamimura, Y.)

  17. Microbiological treatment of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises the work of an experimental programme investigating the anaerobic digestion of low-level radioactive wastes. The project focused on the selection of the optimum bioreactor design to achieve 95% removal or stabilisation of the biodegradable portion of low-level radioactive wastes. Performance data was obtained for the bioreactors and process scale-up factors for the construction of a full-scale reactor were considered. (author)

  18. Proceeding of the Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research of Nuclear Science and Technology: Book II. Nuclear Chemistry, Process Technology, and Radioactive Waste Processing and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceeding contains papers presented on Scientific Meeting and Presentation on on Basic Research of Nuclear Science and Technology, held in Yogyakarta, 25-27 April 1995. This proceeding is second part of two books published for the meeting contains papers on nuclear chemistry, process technology, and radioactive waste management and environment. There are 62 papers indexed individually. (ID)

  19. Radioactive waste: show time? - 16309

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time will render radioactive waste harmless. How can we manage the time radioactive substances remain harmful? Just 'wait and see' or 'marking time' is not an option. We need to isolate the waste from our living environment and control it as long as necessary. For the situation in the Netherlands, it is obvious that a period of long term storage is needed. Both the small volume of waste and the limited financial possibilities are determining factors. Time is needed to let the volume of waste grow and to let the money, needed for disposal, grow in a capital growth fund. An organisation such as COVRA - the radioactive waste organisation in the Netherlands - can only function when it has good, open and transparent relationship with the public and particularly with the local population. If we tell people that we safely store radioactive waste for 100 years, they often ask: 'That long?' How can we explain the long-term aspect of radioactive waste management in a way people can relate to? In this paper, an overview is given of the activities of COVRA on the communication of radioactive waste management. (authors)

  20. Nuclear energy from radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global energy demand is increasing. Sound forecasts indicate that by the year 2020 almost eight thousand million people will be living on our planet, and generating their demand for energy will require conversion of about 20 thousand million tonnes of coal equivalents a year. Against this background scenario, a new concept for energy generation elaborated by nuclear scientists at CERN attracts particular interest. The concept describing a new nuclear energy source and technology intends to meet the following principal requirements: create a new energy source that can be exploited in compliance with extremely stringent safety requirements; reduce the amount of long-lived radioactive waste; substantially reduce the size of required radwaste repositories; use easily available natural fuels that will not need isotopic separation; prevent the risk of proliferation of radioactive materials; process and reduce unwanted actinides as are generated by the operation of current breeder reactors; achieve high efficiency both in terms of technology and economics. (orig./CB)

  1. Method and techniques of radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study illustrates the characterization of radioactive wastes produced by the application of radioisotopes in industry and research. The treatment methods of such radioactive wastes, chemical co-precipitation and ion exchange depending on the technical state of radioactive waste management facility in Syria were described. The disposal of conditioned radioactive wastes, in a safe way, has been discussed including the disposal of the radioactive sources. The characterizations of the repository to stock conditioned radioactive wastes were mentioned. (author)

  2. Management of radioactive waste: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Paulo Sant'ana; Taynara Cristina Cordeiro

    2016-01-01

    The issue of disposal of radioactive waste around the world is not solved by now and the principal reason is the lack of an efficient technologic system. The fact that radioactive waste decays of radioactivity with time are the main reasons for setting nuclear or radioactive waste apart from the other common hazardous wastes management. Radioactive waste can be classified according to the state of matter and level of radioactivity and this classification can be differently interpreted from co...

  3. Radioactive waste programme in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is made on the use of radioactive sources and waste management in Latvia. Brief overview of the development of national legal documents - the framework law of environmental protection; international agreements; the new law on radiation safety and nuclear safety; regulation of the Cabinet of Ministers - is given. The regulatory infrastructure in the nearest future is outlined. The institutional framework for radioactive waste management is described. Basic design of the repository and radioactive waste inventory are also given. The activities on the EU DG Environment project CASIOPEE are reported

  4. Low level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This talk is an overview of the problem of radioactive waste management in general as a step in dealing with the issues it presents to emergency preparedness. Major topics covered include the following: types of radioactive waste; Low-level radioactive waste including an overview of regulations and the problems/possibilities of developing disposal sites; Barriers to LLRW disposal site development including technical issues, not in my backyard, not in my term of office, and legal issues; impacts created by lack of disposal; and possible solutions

  5. BATAN Contribution for NPP-Radioactive Waste Management Scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BATAN contribution for NPP-radioactive waste management scenario has been studied. The study analysis base on the knowledge background, about relation between NPP and NPP-radioactive waste management installation obtained from literatures. The study concluded that BATAN contribution for NPP-radioactive waste management have 5 possibility scenario, which are: only prepare and operate ultimate waste disposal; prepare and operate ultimate waste disposal and interim storage; prepare and operate ultimate waste disposal, interim storage and treat solid radioactive waste by incineration process, prepare and operate ultimate waste disposal and interim storage and treat all of solid radioactive waste; prepare and operate ultimate waste disposal and interim storage and all of radioactive waste. (author)

  6. Implementation of Information Management System for Radiation Safety of Personnel at the Russian Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management 'SevRAO' - 13131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is an overview of the information-analytical system designed to assure radiation safety of workers. The system was implemented in the Northwest Radioactive Waste Management Center 'SevRAO' (which is a branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise 'Radioactive Waste Management Enterprise RosRAO'). The center is located in the Northwest Russia. In respect to 'SevRAO', the Federal Medical-Biological Agency is the regulatory body, which deals with issues of radiation control. The main document to regulate radiation control is 'Reference levels of radiation factors in radioactive wastes management center'. This document contains about 250 parameters. We have developed a software tool to simplify control of these parameters. The software includes: input interface, the database, dose calculating module and analytical block. Input interface is used to enter radiation environment data. Dose calculating module calculates the dose on the route. Analytical block optimizes and analyzes radiation situation maps. Much attention is paid to the GUI and graphical representation of results. The operator can enter the route at the industrial site or watch the fluctuations of the dose rate field on the map. Most of the results are presented in a visual form. Here we present some analytical tasks, such as comparison of the dose rate in some point with control levels at this point, to be solved for the purpose of radiation safety control. The program helps to identify points making the largest contribution to the collective dose of the personnel. The tool can automatically calculate the route with the lowest dose, compare and choose the best route. The program uses several options to visualize the radiation environment at the industrial site. This system will be useful for radiation monitoring services during the operation, planning of works and development of scenarios. The paper presents some applications of this system on real data over three years - from March 2009 to

  7. Implementation of Information Management System for Radiation Safety of Personnel at the Russian Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management 'SevRAO' - 13131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chizhov, K.; Simakov, A.; Seregin, V.; Kudrin, I.; Shandala, N.; Tsovyanov, A.; Kryuchkov, V. [Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency, RF Ministry of Health and Social Development. 46, Zhivopisnaya St., Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation); Krasnoschekov, A.; Kosnikov, A. [Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management ' SevRAO' - a branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise ' Enterprise for Radioactive Waste Management' ' RosRAO' 183017, Murmansk, Lobova st., 100 (Russian Federation); Kemsky, I. [Regional management - 120 of the Federal Medical-Biological Agency, 184682, Snezhnogorsk, Valentina Biryukova St., 5/1 (Russian Federation); Sneve, M. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Postboks 55, 1332 Oesteraas (Norway)

    2013-07-01

    The report is an overview of the information-analytical system designed to assure radiation safety of workers. The system was implemented in the Northwest Radioactive Waste Management Center 'SevRAO' (which is a branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise 'Radioactive Waste Management Enterprise RosRAO'). The center is located in the Northwest Russia. In respect to 'SevRAO', the Federal Medical-Biological Agency is the regulatory body, which deals with issues of radiation control. The main document to regulate radiation control is 'Reference levels of radiation factors in radioactive wastes management center'. This document contains about 250 parameters. We have developed a software tool to simplify control of these parameters. The software includes: input interface, the database, dose calculating module and analytical block. Input interface is used to enter radiation environment data. Dose calculating module calculates the dose on the route. Analytical block optimizes and analyzes radiation situation maps. Much attention is paid to the GUI and graphical representation of results. The operator can enter the route at the industrial site or watch the fluctuations of the dose rate field on the map. Most of the results are presented in a visual form. Here we present some analytical tasks, such as comparison of the dose rate in some point with control levels at this point, to be solved for the purpose of radiation safety control. The program helps to identify points making the largest contribution to the collective dose of the personnel. The tool can automatically calculate the route with the lowest dose, compare and choose the best route. The program uses several options to visualize the radiation environment at the industrial site. This system will be useful for radiation monitoring services during the operation, planning of works and development of scenarios. The paper presents some applications of this system on real data

  8. Radioactive Waste Management Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    considered and the specific goals to be achieved at different stages of implementation, all of which are consistent with the Basic Principles. The four Objectives publications include Nuclear General Objectives, Nuclear Power Objectives, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives, and Radioactive Waste Management and Decommissioning Objectives. This publication sets out the objectives that need to be achieved in the area of radioactive waste management, including decommissioning and environmental remediation, to ensure that the Nuclear Energy Basic Principles are satisfied.

  9. Development of pyrochemical process in molten salts applied to the radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants and nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshiba started to develop a series of methods of radioactive waste treatment in 1980's. Our original methods developed to date are; an abrasive blast decontamination method, a water jet method, a chemical decontamination method, an electrolytic decontamination method in aqueous solution etc. However, these decontamination methods have one common problem such as difficulties in decontamination of waste materials of complicated shapes and another common problem to cause large volume of secondary wastes such as used reagents and resin. Pyrochemical treatment in molten salts is a promising process for decontamination of radioactive waste in complicated shapes without producing a large amount of secondary wastes because the electric current is distributed effectively entire surface of the waste in high conductive molten salts and the decontaminated species by anodic dissolution are recovered on the cathode. We have applied this process to the radioactive waste such as Magnox end crops, metallic waste contaminated with uranium, wasted chemical traps for UF6 and channel boxes zircaloy wasted from boiling water reactors (BWR). This paper reviews pyrochemical processes in molten salts applied to the radioactive waste treatment. (author)

  10. Radioactive wastes. Management prospects. Appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These appendixes complete the article BN3661 entitled 'Radioactive wastes. Management prospects'. They develop the principles of the different separation processes under study and make a status of the conditioning matrices that are envisaged: 1 - principles of advanced separation (separation of U, Np, Pu, Tc and I; separation of Am and Cm in two extraction steps (Diamex and Sanex processes); separation of Am and Cm in a single extraction step (Paladin process); separation of Am and Cm (Sesame process); separation of Cs (Calixarene process); 2 - principles of separation in pyro-chemistry: separation under inert atmosphere (non-oxidizing); separation in oxidizing conditions; 3 - conditioning matrices under study for separate elements: objectives and methodology, matrices for iodine, for cesium and for actinides. (J.S.)

  11. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-99 Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1999, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed on radionuclide leaching, microbial degradation, waste neutralization, and a small mockup for grouting the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels

  12. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-99 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Mc Cray, John Alan; Kirkham, Robert John; Pao, Jenn Hai; Hinckley, Steve Harold

    1999-10-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1999, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed on radionuclide leaching, microbial degradation, waste neutralization, and a small mockup for grouting the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  13. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-99 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. K. Herbst; J. A. McCray; R. J. Kirkham; J. Pao; S. H. Hinckley

    1999-09-30

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1999, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed on radionuclide leaching, microbial degradation, waste neutralization, and a small mockup for grouting the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  14. Management of low-level radioactive wastes in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management system of low level radioactive wastes in Mexico is presented. The radioactive wastes are produced by medical institutions, research establishments and universities as well as in industry, clinics and laboratories. The National Institute of Nuclear Research is the organization responsible for managing these wastes. Mexico classifies its wastes in accordance with the IAEA recommendations. The system of collection and transport, the processes of treatment and the final storage of radioactive wastes, are described. (M.C.K.)

  15. Radioactive Demonstration of Caustic Recovery from Low-Level Alkaline Nuclear Waste by an Electrochemical Separation Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bench-scale radioactive tests successfully demonstrated an electrochemical process for the recovery of sodium hydroxide (caustic) from Decontaminated Salt Solution produced from the In-Tank Precipitation and Effluent Treatment Processes at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This testing evaluated two membranes: an organic-based membrane, Nafion Type 350, manufactured by E. I. duPont de Nemours ampersand Company, Inc. (DuPont) and an inorganic-based membrane, NAS D, being developed by Ceramatec. Both membranes successfully separated caustic from radioactive SRS waste.Key findings of the testing indicate the following attributes and disadvantages of each membrane. The commercially-available Nafion membrane proved highly conductive. Thus, the electrochemical cell can operate at high current density minimizing the number of cells at the desired volumetric processing rate. Testing indicated cesium transported across the Nafion membrane into the caustic product. Therefore, the caustic product will contain low-levels of radioactive cesium due to the presence of 134,137Cs in the waste feed. To meet customer requirements, a post treatment stage may prove necessary to remove radioactive cesium resulting in increased overall process costs and decreased cost savings. In contrast to the Nafion membrane, the NAS D membrane demonstrated the production of caustic with much lower levels of gamma radioactivity (137Cs activity was < 51 dpm/g). Therefore, the caustic product could possibly release for onsite/offsite use without further treatment. The NAS D membrane remains in the development stage and does not exist as a commercial product. Operating costs and long-term membrane durability remain unknown.Caustic recovery has been successfully demonstrated in a bench-scale, 2-compartment electrochemical reactor operated for brief periods of time with simulated and radioactive waste solutions and two different types of membranes. The next phase of testing should be directed at (1

  16. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, B.; Waltz, R.

    2009-06-11

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2008 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report.

  17. The PERC trademark process: Existing and potential applications for induction coupled plasma technology in hazardous and radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma Technology, Inc. (PTI), a Santa Fe, New Mexico corporation has developed the Plasma Energy Recycle and Conversion (PERC)trademark treatment process as a safe and environmentally clean alternative to conventional thermal destruction technologies. The PERC trademark treatment process uses as its heat source an advanced Induction Coupled Plasma (ICP) torch connected to a reaction chamber system with an additional emission control system. For example, organic-based gas, liquid, slurry, and/or solid waste streams can be converted into usable or even salable products while residual emissions are reduced to an absolute minimum. In applications for treatment of hazardous and radioactive waste streams, the PERC system could be used for destruction of the hazardous organic constituents and/or significant waste volume reduction while capturing the radioactive fraction in a non-leachable form. Like Direct Current (DC) and Alternating Current (AC) arc plasma systems, ICP torches offer sufficient energy to decompose, melt and/or vitrify any waste stream. The decision for an arc plasma or an IC plasma system has to be made on a case by case evaluation and is highly dependent on the specific waste stream's form and composition. Induction coupled plasma technology offers one simple, but significant difference compared to DC or AC arc plasma systems: the ICP torch is electrodeless. To date, enormous research effort has been spent to improve the lifetime of electrodes and the effectiveness of related cooling systems. Arc plasma systems are established in research laboratories worldwide and are approaching a broad use in commercial applications. ICP technology has been improved relatively recently, but nowadays offers complete new and beneficial approaches in the field of waste conversion and treatment

  18. Analysis through indicators of the management of radioactive waste in a radioactive facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of the management of radioactive waste in the center of isotopes of the Republic of Cuba is the objective of this work. To do so, all the operations of the management system are evaluated through indicators used by this radioactive facility over a decade ago. Available information is processed from 1996 until 2012. The major waste generators are identified through the indicator of annual generation of each working group by local and by worker and it were analyzed the available store radioactive inventory, the relationship between the variation of annual technological waste volume of waste and the annual total manipulated activity, the relationship generation-declassification and the percent of liquid effluents managed as waste. Indicators of unconditional clearance, as well as the of the gaseous and liquid discharges are presented. It is concluded, with all these indicators, that it is possible to determine where are the causes of the behavior in the generation of radioactive waste if it is an increase of manipulated activity int the places of work or of worker, or improper application of the procedures of collection. It is controlled not only management, but also determines in which aspects can work to achieve the objective of minimizing the formation of these wastes, to be able to reduce the production costs. National shedding environmental regulations are met and the results are acceptable)

  19. From uranium to radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief outline is given of the fuel cycle of conventional thermal reactors explaining the role of the individual stages leading from the uranium enrichment stage to fuel elements reprocessing and radioactive waste disposal. (S.R.)

  20. National radioactive waste management strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article briefs out the strategic management of radioactive wastes in Malaysia. The criteria and methods discussed are those promoted by UTN (Nuclear Energy Unit) which has been given the authority to carry out local research programs in nuclear energy

  1. Processing of low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from the nuclear power plant Muehleberg at Mol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between October 1986 and April 1987 two contracts were concluded between the nuclear power plant Muehleberg and the German firm Transnuklear GmbH for the processing of low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Muehleberg in the incineration facility at Mol in Belgium. In the contracts, transport of the wastes to Mol and back was included. According to the contracts the maximum admissible surface dose rate of the containers enclosing the wastes was 3000 mR/h. The actual maximum value of the surface dose rate was 1800 mR/h. On January 8, 1988, Swiss press published a statement to the effect that those wastes having a surface dose rate of more than 200 mR/h cannot be processed at Mol and must be transported back to Switzerland. Three representatives of Muehleberg visited Mol to discuss the conflicting information. The result of their inquiries was that the processing and transport of foreign wastes at Mol are currently suspended due to the irregularities associated with Transnuklear. Neither the safety nor the operation of the Muehleberg facility are jeopardized through the incident

  2. Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities were built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford's 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Areas to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive constituents. This paper focuses on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location

  3. Chemical process for treatment of corrosive radioactive waste from the fabrication of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were carried out to decrease fluors concentration in corrosive radioactive liquid waste containing 19430 ppm of fluors by chemical method i.e. combination of coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation. Calcium chloride, aluminium sulfate, resin WWS 116, and mix of aluminium sulfate and resin WWS 116 were used as chemical coagulant on variation of concentration. The precipitates of fluors salt was separated from the solution, and than fluors concentration in solution is analyzed. The best result of optimum Fluors concentration in solution was achieved at 4.88 ppm by using of 1.3 mole/l calcium chloride coagulant at pH 8, the separation factor is 99.97%. (author)

  4. The process of growing in opinion for radioactive waste disposal. Focusing on science communication and education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The choice of geological disposal of high level radioactive waste is based on science. So, public understanding of science (PUS) becomes important issue in public acceptance (PA). Considering PUS, there are two problems. One is the literacy to understand scientific information and the other is the paradigm of the public on which the knowledge formed in the public depends heavily. In this research, survey of awareness and attitude to geological disposal on the postgraduate students was conducted. They have been studying civil and rock engineering, so they belong to 'the group' that acquires high education, culture and faculty. The results of questionnaires show that the awareness of danger is affected strongly by given information even in this groups, but they become thoughtful and prudent in their opinion and decision-making as increasing information. (author)

  5. Modular Design of Processing and Storage Facilities for Small Volumes of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste including Disused Sealed Sources - 12372

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a number of IAEA Member States generating relatively small quantities of radioactive waste and/or disused sealed sources in application of nuclear techniques in medicine, industry and research and in nuclear research centres having small research reactors. At present many of these Member States do not have facilities for processing and storing their radioactive wastes; notably in those countries with small quantities of generated radioactive wastes. In other Member States the existing waste processing and storage facilities (WPSF) are in need of varying degrees of upgrading in order to address new waste streams, incorporate new waste processing technologies, or expand interim storage capacities. The IAEA has developed a modular design approach for a WPSF that is based on a variety of modules for different waste stream treatment and conditioning processes. The modular WPSF design is elaborated in a substantial Design Engineering Package that will be published by IAEA as a technical report. The Design Engineering Package enables users to select the optimum waste processing and storage modules to meet their needs, and to specify the requirements for procurement of individual modules and their integration into a waste processing and storage facility. The Design Engineering Package is planned for publication by the IAEA in 2012 and is presented as: - A Design Engineering Package Summary document. - A supporting CD that contains: - Process module general specifications. - Process module interface specifications. - Design Engineering Package for process modules. - Sample technical specifications for design and construction of modular processing facility. - Design Engineering Package for storage modules. (authors)

  6. Radioactive Waste and Clean-up: Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary mission of the Radioactive Waste and Clean-up division is to propose, to develop and to evaluate solutions for a safe, acceptable and sustainable management of radioactive waste. The Radioactive Waste and Clean-up division programme consists in research, studies, development and demonstration aiming to realise the objective of Agenda 21 on sustainable development in the field of radioactive waste and rehabilitation on radioactively contaminated sites. Indeed, it participates in the realisation of an objective which is to ensure that radioactive wastes are safely managed, transported, stored and disposed of, with a view to protecting human health and the environment, within a wider framework of an interactive and integrated approach to radioactive waste management and safety. We believe that nuclear energy will be necessary for the sustainable development of mankind in the 21st century, but we well understand that it would not be maintained if it is not proven that within benefits of nuclear energy a better protection of the environment is included. Although the current waste management practices are both technically and from the environmental point of view adequate, efforts in relation of future power production and waste management technologies should be put on waste minimisation. Therefore, the new and innovative reactors, fuel cycle and waste management processes and installations should be designed so that the waste generation can be kept in minimum. In addition to the design, the installations should be operated so as to create less waste; consideration should be given e.g. to keeping water chemistry clean and other quality factors. SCK-CEN in general and the Radioactive Waste and Clean-up division in particular are present in international groups preparing the development of innovative nuclear reactors, as Generation 4 and INPRO. Because performance assessments are often black boxes for the public, demonstration is needed for the acceptation of

  7. Safety of radioactive waste management in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste produced in France vary considerably by their activity level, their half lives, their volume or even their nature. In order to manage them safely, the treatment and final disposal solution must be adapted to the type of waste considered by setting up specific waste management channels. A strong principle in France is that it is the responsibility of the nuclear operators as waste producers to dispose of their waste or have them disposed of in a suitable manner. The competent authorities regulate and control the radioactive waste management activities. At present, only short-lived low and intermediate level waste have a definitive solution, the surface repository, where adequate waste packages are disposed of in concrete structures. Other types of radioactive waste are in interim storage facilities at the production sites. For very low level waste coming mainly from dismantling of nuclear facilities a dedicated repository is planned to be built in the coming years. Dedicated repositories are also planned for radiferous, tritiated and graphite waste. As for high level waste and long-lived waste coming mainly from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel the disposal options are being sought along the lines specified by law 91-1381 concerning research on radioactive waste management, passed on December 30, 1991: research of solutions to partition and transmute long-lived radionuclides in the waste; studies of retrievable and non retrievable disposal in deep geological layers with the help of underground laboratories; studies of processes for conditioning and long term surface storage of these waste. In 2006, the French Parliament will assess the results of the research conducted by ANDRA relative to deep geological disposal as well as the work conducted by CEA in the two other areas of research and, if this research is conclusive, pass a law defining the final disposal option. (author)

  8. Progress on Radioactive Waste Treatment Facilities Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, five projects were undertaken by radioactive waste projects management department, which are "Cold Commissioning of the Pilot Project on Radioactive Waste Retrieval and Conditioning (abbreviation 'Pilot Project')", "Radioactive Ventilation Project Construction (abbreviation 'Ventilation

  9. Rates and mechanisms of radioactive release and retention inside a waste disposal canister - in Can Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the system that will not be present under long term disposal conditions. A simulation of long-term conditions can be done using uranium dioxide that contains a short-lived isotope of uranium, but this will not include the effects of fission product and higher actinide elements on the behaviour of the spent fuel. We designed a project that had as its objective to improve the scientific understanding of the processes that control release of radioactive species from spent fuel inside a disposal canister and the chemical changes in those species that might limit release of radioactivity from the canister. If the mechanisms that control dissolution of the fuel matrix, including self-irradiation effects, can be clarified, a more realistic assessment of the long-term behaviour of spent fuel under disposal conditions can be made. By removing uncertainties concerning waste form performance, a better assessment of the individual and collective role of the engineered barriers can be made. To achieve the overall objective of the project, the following scientific and technical objectives were set. 1. Measure the actual rate of matrix dissolution of uranium dioxide under oxidising and reducing conditions. 2. Measure the effect of alpha radiolysis on the dissolution rate of uranium dioxide under oxidising and reducing conditions. 3. Measure the dissolution rate of the matrix material of spent fuel and thereby determine the additional effects of beta and gamma radiation on uranium dioxide dissolution rate under oxidising and reducing conditions. 4. Measure the ability of actively corroding iron to reduce oxidised U(VI) to U(IV) when U is present as the complex ion uranyl carbonate. 5. Measure the rate of reduction of Np(V) species in the presence of actively corroding iron. 6. Calculate the expected equilibrium and steady state concentrations of U under the conditions of the experiments used for meeting objectives 1 through 3 and compare the calculated results with those measured in

  10. Radioactive wastes problem in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The localization of CSOP Near Surface Repository of radioactive wastes in Rozan (Poland) and description of storage facilities was presented. This place is systematically controlled (e.g. measurements of radioactive contamination of the surface air, ground water, soil, grass and cereals). Contamination by tritium near by storage facilities was observed

  11. Final treatment of liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Final treatment of liquid radioactive wastes which are produced by 1st and 2nd bloc of the Mochovce NPP, prepares the NPP in its natural range. The purpose of the equipment is liquidation of wastes, which are formed at production. Wastes are warehoused in the building of active auxiliary plants in the present time, where are reservoirs in which they are deposited. Because they are already feeling and in 2006 year they should be filled definitely, it is necessary to treat them in that manner, so as they may be liquidated. Therefore the Board of directors of the Slovenske elektrarne has disposed about construction of final treatment of liquid radioactive wastes in the Mochovce NPP. Because of transport the wastes have to be treated in the locality of power plant. Technically, the final treatment of the wastes will be interconnected with building of active operation by bridges. These bridges will transport the wastes for treatment into processing centre

  12. Radioactive-waste management in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of the radioactive wastes produced in the course of electricity generation from nuclear fission is a problem of concern to the electric-power sectors, governments, and publics of all of the 25 nations that obtain some of their electricity in this way, as well as to people in other countries who might be affected by choices about how and where such wastes will be shipped, processed, and stored. This paper reports on the evolution of the radioactive-waste issue as a policy problem in the United States, attempting to address the following major questions: What has been the role of the radioactive-waste issue in US decisions about the future of nuclear energy? How and why has the issue become, from a policy standpoint, so intractable? What policy dilemmas associated with waste management are evident from the US experience to date, and what are the pros and cons of the possible choices

  13. Collection and Segregation of Radioactive Waste. Principals for Characterization and Classification of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive wastes are generated by all activities which utilize radioactive materials as part of their processes. Generally such activities include all steps in the nuclear fuel cycle (for power generation) and non-fuel cycle activities. The increasing production of radioisotopes in a Member State without nuclear power must be accompanied by a corresponding development of a waste management system. An overall waste management scheme consists of the following steps: segregation, minimization, treatment, conditioning, storage, transport, and disposal. To achieve a satisfactory overall management strategy, all steps have to be complementary and compatible. Waste segregation and minimization are of great importance mainly because they lead to cost reduction and reduction of dose commitments to the personnel that handle the waste. Waste characterization plays a significant part in the waste segregation and waste classification processes, it implicates required waste treatment process including the need for the safety assessment of treatment conditioning and storage facilities

  14. Overview of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of what to do with radioactive wastes is discussed. The need to resolve this issue promptly is pointed out. Two significant events which have occurred during the Carter administration are discussed. An Interagency Review Group (IRG) on waste management was formed to formulate recommendations leading to the establishment of a National policy for managing radioactive wastes. The technical findings in the IRG report are listed. The author points out some issues not addressed by the report. President Carter issued a national policy statement on Radioactive Waste Management in February 1980. The most significant elements of this statement are summarized. The cancellation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is currently meeting opposition in Congress. This and other items in the National Policy Statement are discussed

  15. Natural analogues in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to validate predictive models of the very long-term processes which effect the performance of radioactive waste repositories, there has been increasing interest in the information which can be obtained from studying similar mechanisms in natural systems. Although such analogues have been studied for many years, performance assessment methodology has now matured to the point where it can enlist the support which analogues can offer. Consequently this book assesses the safety levels attributable to underground depositories for radioactive waste be examining natural depositories to radioactive material and their degree of migration

  16. Reduction of INTEC Analytical Radioactive Liquid Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report details the evaluation of the reduction in radioactive liquid waste from the analytical laboratories sent to the Process Effluent Waste system (deep tanks). The contributors are the Analytical Laboratories Department (ALD), the Waste Operations Department, the laboratories at CPP-637, and natural run off. Other labs were contacted to learn the methods used and if any new technologies had emerged. A waste generation database was made from the current methods in used in the ALD. From this database, methods were targeted to reduce waste. Individuals were contacted on ways to reduce waste. The results are: a new method generating much less waste, several methods being handled differently, some cleaning processes being changed to reduce waste, and changes to reduce chemicals to waste

  17. Reduction of INTEC Analytical Radioactive Liquid Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. J. Johnson; J. S. Hu; A. G. Chambers

    1999-06-01

    This report details the evaluation of the reduction in radioactive liquid waste from the analytical laboratories sent to the Process Effluent Waste system (deep tanks). The contributors are the Analytical Laboratories Department (ALD), the Waste Operations Department, the laboratories at CPP-637, and natural run off. Other labs were contacted to learn the methods used and if any new technologies had emerged. A waste generation database was made from the current methods in used in the ALD. From this database, methods were targeted to reduce waste. Individuals were contacted on ways to reduce waste. The results are: a new method generating much less waste, several methods being handled differently, some cleaning processes being changed to reduce waste, and changes to reduce chemicals to waste.

  18. Reduction of INTEC Analytical Radioactive Liquid Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Virgil James; Hu, Jian Sheng; Chambers, Andrea

    1999-06-01

    This report details the evaluation of the reduction in radioactive liquid waste from the analytical laboratories sent to the Process Effluent Waste system (deep tanks). The contributors are the Analytical Laboratories Department (ALD), the Waste Operations Department, the laboratories at CPP-637, and natural run off. Other labs were contacted to learn of methods used and if any new technologies had emerged. A waste generation database was made from the current methods in use in the ALD. From this database, methods were targeted to reduce waste. Individuals were contacted on ways to reduce waste. The results are: a new method generating much less waste, several methods being handled differently, some cleaning processes being changed to reduce waste, and changes to reduce chemicals to waste.

  19. Radioactive waste management: a comparative study of national decision-making processes. Final report, September 15, 1978-December 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is presented resulting from a comparative study of national decision-making processes in radioactive waste management. By seeking out the variations among the socio-political and institutional components of the nuclear power and radioactive waste policies in ten countries, the authors have attempted to identify means to improve national and international responses to a seemingly intractable problem, the management of wastes from military and commercial nuclear programs worldwide. Efforts were focused on evaluation of comparative national policy formulation processes. Mapping national programs in conjunction with social, political and administrative structure and comparing the similarities and differences among them has revealed six major issues: (1) technological bias in decision-making; (2) lack of natioal strategies for the RWM programs; (3) fragmentation of governmental power structures; (4) crippled national regulatory bodies; (5) complex and competing relations among local, state and federal levels of government; and (6) increased importance of non-governmental actors and public participation. The first two issues are overarching, encompassing the fundamental approach to policy, whereas the last four describe more specific aspects of the decision-making structures

  20. National inventory of radioactive wastes; Inventaire national des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    There are in France 1064 sites corresponding to radioactive waste holders that appear in this radioactive waste inventory. We find the eighteen sites of E.D.F. nuclear power plants, The Cogema mine sites, the Cogema reprocessing plants, The Cea storages, the different factories and enterprises of nuclear industry, the sites of non nuclear industry, the Andra centers, decommissioned installations, disposals with low level radioactive wastes, sealed sources distributors, national defence. (N.C.). 16 refs.

  1. Crystal-Tolerant Glass Approach For Mitigation Of Crystal Accumulation In Continuous Melters Processing Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States); Rodriguez, Carmen P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lang, Jesse B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huckleberry, Adam R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Matyas, Josef [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Owen, Antoinette T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-08-28

    High-level radioactive waste melters are projected to operate in an inefficient manner as they are subjected to artificial constraints, such as minimum liquidus temperature (T{sub L}) or maximum equilibrium fraction of crystallinity at a given temperature. These constraints substantially limit waste loading, but were imposed to prevent clogging of the melter with spinel crystals [(Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn)(Fe, Cr){sub 2}O{sub 4}]. In the melter, the glass discharge riser is the most likely location for crystal accumulation during idling because of low glass temperatures, stagnant melts, and small diameter. To address this problem, a series of lab-scale crucible tests were performed with specially formulated glasses to simulate accumulation of spinel in the riser. Thicknesses of accumulated layers were incorporated into empirical model of spinel settling. In addition, T{sub L} of glasses was measured and impact of particle agglomeration on accumulation rate was evaluated. Empirical model predicted well the accumulation of single crystals and/or smallscale agglomerates, but, excessive agglomeration observed in high-Ni-Fe glass resulted in an under-prediction of accumulated layers, which gradually worsen over time as an increased number of agglomerates formed. Accumulation rate of ~14.9 +- 1 nm/s determined for this glass will result in ~26 mm thick layer in 20 days of melter idling.

  2. 2009 National inventory of radioactive material and wastes. Synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Third edition of the ANDRA's national inventory report on radioactive wastes that are present on the French territory (as recorded until december, 2007). After a brief historical review of the national inventory and the way it is constructed, the report gives the basics on radioactive wastes, their classification, origins and management processes, followed by a general presentation and discussion of the inventory results (radioactive wastes and materials). Results are then detailed for the different activity sectors using radioactive materials (nuclear industry, medical domain, scientific research, conventional industry, Defense...). Information is also given concerning radioactive polluted areas (characterization and site management) and radioactive waste inventories in various foreign countries

  3. Reorganization of storage, processing and transport of radioactive waste at the Erasmus University Rotterdam and the Academic Hospital Rotterdam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spring 2000 started a project to modernize radioactive waste management in the title institutes as part of internal reorganization and anticipating new legislation and regulations. An overview is given of the different waste streams and possible framework of the new waste management policy. Costs can be reduced considerably

  4. Radioactive waste management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography is an up-date to AECL-6186(Rev 3), 1952-1982, 'Radioactive Waste Management in Canada AECL Publications and Other Literature' compiled by Dianne Wallace. Canadian publications from outside contractors concerning the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program are included in addition to Atomic Energy of Canada Limited reports and papers. 252 refs

  5. Non-fuel cycle radioactive waste policy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    be difficult to trace. The fundamental issue for which protection is required, is the prevention of over exposure of individuals or groups throughout the entire life cycle of sealed sources, lkitelli Accident in Istanbul (in 08.01.1999) shows the importance of life cycle of sealed source. Disused sealed sources which potentially represent medium and high radiological risks in Turkey are mainly Am-241, Ra-226, Kr-85, Co-60, lr-192 and Cs-137. According to 'The Radiation Protection Regulation' all spent sources have to be sent to the manufacturer. However, the spent sources which the manufacturer stopped its source related activities or the sources which were imported before the issue of the Regulation, are stored in Radioactive Waste Processing and Storage Facility (CWPSF) of Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center (CNRTC). Main radionuclides in the inventory of the Facility are Co-60, Cs-137, Am-240, Sr-90, Kr-85, Fe-55 respectively. Conclusion. Waste prevention and minimisation is an essential element of any radioactive waste management strategy. The objective of waste minimisation is to reduce the activity and the volume of wastes for storage, treatment and disposal. The environmental impact will also be reduced, as well as the costs associated with contaminated material management. Due to increasing number of radiation and nuclear related activities, the waste facility of CNRTC is now becoming insufficient to meet the storage demand of the country. TAEA is now in a position to establish a new radioactive waste management facility and studies are now being carried out on the selection of the best place for the final storage of processed radioactive wastes. Research and development studies in TAEA will continue in radioactive waste management with the aim of improving data, models, and concepts related to long-term safety of disposal of radioactive waste. (author)

  6. Decontamination method for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallic radioactive wastes are immersed in a liquid nitrogen vessel above a freezing crusher and they are frozen to about -196degC. Then, impact shocks are applied to crush the radioactive wastes frozen by a rotary shearing shock crusher disposed below the freezing crusher. The thus obtained crushed materials are sent to a decontamination device and decontaminated. In this case, since the objective materials are crushed, any of a blast decontamination method, an electrolytic polishing decontamination method, a redox decontamination method and a chemical agent immersion decontamination method can be applied. Thereafter, the dose of remaining radioactivity of the decontaminated crushed materials is measured. With such procedures, the decontamination and the subsequent measurement for the radiation contamination dose can easily and certainly be conducted for metallic radioactive wastes such as pipes of a small diameter and complicated structures. (I.N.)

  7. Method of solidifying radioactive laundry wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To enable to solidify radioactive laundry wastes containing non-ionic liquid detergents less solidifiable by plastic solidification process in liquid laundry wastes for cloths or the likes discharged from a nuclear power plant. Method: Radioactive laundry wastes are solidified by using plastic solidifying agent comprising, as a main ingredient, unsaturated polyester resins and methylmethacrylate monomers. The plastic solidifying agents usable herein include, for example, unsaturated polyester resins prepared by condensating maleic anhydride and phthalic anhydride with propylene glycol and incorporated with methylmethacrylate monomers. The mixing ratio of the methylmethacrylate monomers is preferably 30 % by weight based on the unsaturated polyester resins. (Aizawa, K.)

  8. Prospects of nuclear waste management and radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The policy of radioactive waste management in the Slovak Republic is based on the principles defined by law on the National Nuclear Fund (NJF) and sets basic objectives: 1 Safe and reliable nuclear decommissioning; 2 The minimization of radioactive waste; 3. Selection of a suitable fuel cycle; 4 Safe storage of radioactive waste (RAW) 5 Security chain management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel (SNF); 6 Nuclear safety; 7 The application of a graduated approach; 8 Respect of the principle 'a polluter pays'; 9 Objective decision-making process; 10 Responsibility. In connection with the above objectives, it appears necessary to build required facilities that are listed in this article.

  9. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 2 contains chapters 6 through 10: environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plant; environmental effects related to transporting radioactive wastes associated with LWR fuel reprocessing and fabrication; environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - retrievable waste storage facility; environmental effects related to geologic isolation of LWR fuel reprocessing wastes; and integrated systems for commercial radioactive waste management

  10. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    Volume 2 contains chapters 6 through 10: environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plant; environmental effects related to transporting radioactive wastes associated with LWR fuel reprocessing and fabrication; environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - retrievable waste storage facility; environmental effects related to geologic isolation of LWR fuel reprocessing wastes; and integrated systems for commercial radioactive waste management. (LK)

  11. Management of radioactive waste from reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reprocessing and recycling of both fissile and fertile components back into appropriate reactor systems is an integral part of three stage nuclear energy programme of India. Different steps involved in processing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) are decladding, dissolution and recovery of fissile and fertile materials. Reprocessing of SNF is a complex process involving handling of large quantity of radioactive materials and processing chemicals. There are three reprocessing plants in operation in the country at Trombay, Tarapur and Kalpakkam. Out of these plants, Trombay reprocessing plant is engaged in reprocessing of SNF from research reactors and other two plants are processing of SNF from PHWRs. A facility is being built for reprocessing of thorium based spent fuel at BARC, Trombay based on the experience of pilot plant scale. Like other industrial activities of nuclear fuel cycle, fuel reprocessing facilities too generate various types of radioactive waste streams. These are generated in all the three physical forms namely solid, liquid and gas. These waste streams are primarily categorized on the basis of concentration of radionuclides, their half lives and toxicity. Management of these wastes aims at (a) recovery and recycle of useful materials, (b) concentration and confinement of radioactivity in inert and stable matrices, (c) minimization of final waste volume for disposal, (d) decontamination of effluents following ALARA principle and (e) minimization of radioactive discharge to the environment. The present paper outlines the salient features of management of different types of radioactive waste generated in reprocessing plants handling SNF from research reactors and PHWR

  12. Radioactive Waste in Oil Exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radioactive material commonly known as NORM composes the majority of the dose received by a person each year at approximately 80% of the total amount. However, there is a noticeably higher concentration of radioisotopes present in technologically enhanced NORM, often called TENORM, which results directly from human industrial activities. NORM is formed in the process of mineral mining including phosphate production, where the end goal is to concentrate high quantities of metals or elements (e.g. phosphorous). However, NORM has also become a widely recognized problem in the oil and gas industry. It is approximately one hundred and fifty years since oil was discovered in the continental United States and the mention of radioactivity in mineral oils and natural gases occurred in 1904, just eight years after the discovery of radioactivity by Henri Bequerel in 1896. In just over three decades the problems from naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) wastes arising from the oil and gas industry have been much more scrutinized. In the 1980’s 226Ra began to be noticed when scrap metal dealers would detect unacceptably high levels of radiation from oil-field piping1. In 1991 Raloff2 published an article on the new hot wastes in NORM and in 1992 Wilson et. al3 described the health physics aspects of radioactive petroleum piping scale. NORM will develop in high concentrations in by-product oil and gas waste streams4-7. The NORM will chemically separate from other piped material in the process of the extraction of oil, resulting in high concentrations of 226Ra, 228 Ra and 210Pb and other radioisotopes in a densely caked layer on the inner surfaces of the piping1 . The activity of the 226Ra from NORM ranges from 185 to several tens of thousands Bq/kg of sample. By comparison, the NORM concentrations of radium in rock and soil is, at a natural level, 18.5 - 185 Bq/kg1. Disposal of NORM becomes more problematic as higher concentrations of

  13. National facilities for the management of institutional radioactive waste in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of the non-fuel cycle radioactive wastes from all over Romania is centralized at IFIN-HH in the Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant (STDR). Final disposal is carried out at the National Repository of Radioactive Wastes (DNDR) at Baita Bihor. Radioactive waste treated at STDR arise from three main sources: 1. Wastes arising from the WWR-S research reactor during operation and the future decommissioning works; 2. Local waste from other facilities operating on IFIN-HH site. These sources include wastes generated during the normal activities of the STDR; 3. Wastes from IFIN-HH off site facilities and activities including medical, biological, and industrial applications all over the country. The Radiochemical Production Center, operating within IFIN-HH is the most important source of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes (liquid and solid), as the operational wastes arising from processing at STDR are. The STDR basically consists of liquid and solid waste treatment and conditioning facilities, a radioactive decontamination centre, a laundry and an intermediate storage area. The processing system of the STDR are located at six principal areas performing the following activities: 1. Liquid effluent treatment; 2. Burning of combustible solid stuff; 3. Compaction of solid non-combustible stuff; 4. Cement conditioning; 5. Radioactive decontamination; 6. Laundry. The annual designed treatment capacity of the plant is 1500 m3 Low Level Aqueous Waste, 100 m3 Low Level Solid Waste and shielded drums for Intermediate Level Waste. The temporary storage within and final disposal of waste in the frame of DNDR are explained as well as the up-dating of institutional radioactive waste infrastructure

  14. Hazardous and radioactive waste incineration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development and demonstration of a transuranic (TRU) waste volume-reduction process is described. A production-scale controlled air incinerator using commercially available equipment and technology has been modified for solid radioactive waste service. This unit successfully demonstrated the volume reduction of transuranic (TRU) waste with an average TRU content of about 20 nCi/g. The same incinerator and offgas treatment system is being modified further to evaluate the destruction of hazardous liquid wastes such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hazardous solid wastes such as pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood

  15. Radioactive waste management: yesterday, today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public believes that there is a radioactive waste problem, but knowledge in the field is so well advanced that the only problem left is how to choose the most economically effective method among many available. Tailings from uranium ore processing could be made harmless by removing the majority of the radium and storing the remaining waste in well-designed retention areas. Non-fuel reactor wastes may be handled by incineraton, reverse osmosis, and evaporation in a central waste management centre. The dry storage of spent fuel in concrete cannisters is being investigated. Ultimate disposal of high-level wastes will be in deep, stable geologic formations. (LL)

  16. Research programme on radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report for the Swiss Federal Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication (DETEC) takes a look at work done within the framework of the research programme on radioactive wastes. The paper discusses the development of various projects and the associated organisations involved. Both long-term and short-term topics are examined. The long-term aspects of handling radioactive wastes include organisation and financing as well as the preservation of know-how and concepts for marking the repositories. Communication with the general public on the matter is looked at along with public perception, opinion-making and acceptance. Waste storage concepts are looked at in detail and aspects such as environmental protection, monitoring concepts, retrievability and encasement materials are discussed. Finally, ethical and legal aspects of radioactive waste repositories are examined. The paper is completed with appendixes dealing with planning, co-ordination and the responsibilities involved

  17. Radioactive waste management in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of radioactive waste management is both scientifically and technically complex and also deeply emotional issue. In the last twenty years the first two aspects have been mostly resolved up to the point of safe implementation. In the Republic of Slovenia, certain fundamentalist approaches in politics and the use of radioactive waste problem as political marketing tool, make things even more complex. Public involvement in planning and development of radioactive waste management program must be perceived as essential for the success of the program. Education is a precursor to public comprehension and confidence which lead to adequate waste management decisions that will protect the public health, safety and environment without jeopardizing further progress and development. (author)

  18. Underground radioactive waste disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents some solutions for radioactive waste disposal. An underground disposal of radioactive waste is proposed in deep boreholes of greater diameter, fitted with containers. In northern part of Croatia, the geological data are available on numerous boreholes. The boreholes were drilled during investigations and prospecting of petroleum and gas fields. The available data may prove useful in defining safe deep layers suitable for waste repositories. The paper describes a Russian disposal design, execution and verification procedure. The aim of the paper is to discuss some earlier proposed solutions, and present a solution that has not yet been considered - lowering of containers with high level radioactive waste (HLW) to at least 500 m under the ground surface.(author)

  19. Standardization of radioactive waste categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large amount of information about most aspects of radioactive waste management has been accumulated and made available to interested nations in recent years. The efficiency of this service has been somewhat hampered because the terminology used to describe the different types of radioactive waste has varied from country to country and indeed from installation to installation within a given country. This publication is the outcome of a panel meeting on Standardization of Radioactive Waste Categories. It presents a simple standard to be used as a common language between people working in the field of waste management at nuclear installations. The purpose of the standard is only to act as a practical tool for increasing efficiency in communicating, collecting and assessing technical and economical information in the common interest of all nations and the developing countries in particular. 20 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  20. Clays in radioactive waste disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Delage, Pierre; CUI, Yu-Jun; Tang, Anh-Minh

    2010-01-01

    Clays and argillites are considered in some countries as possible host rocks for nuclear waste disposal at great depth. The use of compacted swelling clays as engineered barriers is also considered within the framework of the multi-barrier concept. In relation to these concepts, various research programs have been conducted to assess the thermo-hydro-mechanical properties of radioactive waste disposal at great depth. After introducing the concepts of waste isolation developed in Belgium, Fran...

  1. Policies and strategies for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A policy for spent fuel and radioactive waste management should include a set of goals or requirements to ensure the safe and efficient management of spent fuel and radioactive waste in the country. Policy is mainly established by the national government and may become codified in the national legislative system. The spent fuel and radioactive waste management strategy sets out the means for achieving the goals and requirements set out in the national policy. It is normally established by the relevant waste owner or nuclear facility operator, or by government (institutional waste). Thus, the national policy may be elaborated in several different strategy components. To ensure the safe, technically optimal and cost effective management of radioactive waste, countries are advised to formulate appropriate policies and strategies. A typical policy should include the following elements: defined safety and security objectives, arrangements for providing resources for spent fuel and radioactive waste management, identification of the main approaches for the management of the national spent fuel and radioactive waste categories, policy on export/import of radioactive waste, and provisions for public information and participation. In addition, the policy should define national roles and responsibilities for spent fuel and radioactive waste management. In order to formulate a meaningful policy, it is necessary to have sufficient information on the national situation, for example, on the existing national legal framework, institutional structures, relevant international obligations, other relevant national policies and strategies, indicative waste and spent fuel inventories, the availability of resources, the situation in other countries and the preferences of the major interested parties. The strategy reflects and elaborates the goals and requirements set out in the policy statement. For its formulation, detailed information is needed on the current situation in the country

  2. Application of indigenous inorganic sorbents in combination with membrane technology for treatment of radioactive liquid waste from decontamination processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the work was to improve the process for treatment of liquid radioactive waste containing complexing agents, which are generated during the decontamination operations. We performed some experiments using simulated waste solutions like secondary waste from the modified CANDEREM process (Canadian Decontamination and Remediation Process) and secondary waste from the modified CANDECON process (Canadian Decontamination Process). To improve efficiency and economics of the process it was proposed to treat the waste by combining the sorption of radionuclides on natural inorganic sorbents (zeolites) with membrane filtration. Standard procedures are applied to compare the sorption of radionuclides on different sorbent forms-determination of the ion exchange capacity, construction of sorption isotherms, determination of the distribution coefficients, and kinetics experiments. To check the influence of converting the sorbents to various cationic forms on their sorption properties, distribution coefficients of 137Cs and 57Co on natural zeolites from local deposits converted to NH4+, Na+ or H+ forms were determined. The results obtained show that the distribution coefficients of 137Cs on the materials converted to Na+ form are higher than for the remaining forms studied. The parameters of Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption isotherms have been determined using sorption data. The Dubinin-Radushkevich model shows better correlation between the theoretical and experimental data for 137Cs sorption on natural zeolites from local deposits converted to NH4+ and H+ forms than Langmuir and Freundlich equations. Kinetic studies were carried out with various zeolite forms. The sorbents studied are natural zeolites from local deposits (Marsid-Romania). The batch sorption kinetics has been tested for pseudo-second order reaction. The pseudo-second order model fits the experimental data well for all of the systems studied. (orig.)

  3. Geologic processes in the RWMC area, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: Implications for long term stability and soil erosion at the radioactive waste management complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, W.R.; Tullis, J.A.; Smith, R.P. [and others

    1995-09-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is the disposal and storage facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Transuranic waste and mixed wastes were also disposed at the RWMC until 1970. It is located in the southwestern part of the INEL about 80 km west of Idaho Falls, Idaho. The INEL occupies a portion of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), a low-relief, basalt, and sediment-floored basin within the northern Rocky Mountains and northeastern Basin and Range Province. It is a cool and semiarid, sagebrush steppe desert characterized by irregular, rolling terrain. The RWMC began disposal of INEL-generated wastes in 1952, and since 1954, wastes have been accepted from other Federal facilities. Much of the waste is buried in shallow trenches, pits, and soil vaults. Until about 1970, trenches and pits were excavated to the basalt surface, leaving no sediments between the waste and the top of the basalt. Since 1970, a layer of sediment (about 1 m) has been left between the waste and the basalt. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has developed regulations specific to radioactive-waste disposal, including environmental standards and performance objectives. The regulation applicable to all DOE facilities is DOE Order 5820.2A (Radioactive Waste Management). An important consideration for the performance assessment of the RWMC is the long-term geomorphic stability of the site. Several investigators have identified geologic processes and events that could disrupt a radioactive waste disposal facility. Examples of these {open_quotes}geomorphic hazards{close_quotes} include changes in stream discharge, sediment load, and base level, which may result from climate change, tectonic processes, or magmatic processes. In the performance assessment, these hazards are incorporated into scenarios that may affect the future performance of the RWMC.

  4. Geologic processes in the RWMC area, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: Implications for long term stability and soil erosion at the radioactive waste management complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is the disposal and storage facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Transuranic waste and mixed wastes were also disposed at the RWMC until 1970. It is located in the southwestern part of the INEL about 80 km west of Idaho Falls, Idaho. The INEL occupies a portion of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), a low-relief, basalt, and sediment-floored basin within the northern Rocky Mountains and northeastern Basin and Range Province. It is a cool and semiarid, sagebrush steppe desert characterized by irregular, rolling terrain. The RWMC began disposal of INEL-generated wastes in 1952, and since 1954, wastes have been accepted from other Federal facilities. Much of the waste is buried in shallow trenches, pits, and soil vaults. Until about 1970, trenches and pits were excavated to the basalt surface, leaving no sediments between the waste and the top of the basalt. Since 1970, a layer of sediment (about 1 m) has been left between the waste and the basalt. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has developed regulations specific to radioactive-waste disposal, including environmental standards and performance objectives. The regulation applicable to all DOE facilities is DOE Order 5820.2A (Radioactive Waste Management). An important consideration for the performance assessment of the RWMC is the long-term geomorphic stability of the site. Several investigators have identified geologic processes and events that could disrupt a radioactive waste disposal facility. Examples of these open-quotes geomorphic hazardsclose quotes include changes in stream discharge, sediment load, and base level, which may result from climate change, tectonic processes, or magmatic processes. In the performance assessment, these hazards are incorporated into scenarios that may affect the future performance of the RWMC

  5. Radioactive Waste Management in the Republic of Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Description of regulation of radioactive waste management in Lithuania, waste processing in Ignalina NPP is presented. On 2001 VATESI approved the regulations governing pre disposal waste management at the Ignalina NPP. The classification of radioactive waste was modified in accordance with the practice of the IAEA. Short information on radioactive waste forms in the cause of operation of Ignalina NPP is presented. Comparison with previous years is made. On July 2001 Radioactive Waste Management Agency (RATA) was established. Description of RATA's aims and activities is provided

  6. THMC analysis of saturation and heating processes of an expansive clay barrier in radioactive waste isolation

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Leonardo do N; Gens Solé, Antonio; Sánchez, M.; Olivella Pastallé, Sebastià

    2010-01-01

    A fully coupled formulation combining reactive transport and an existing thermo- hydro-mechanical (THM) code is briefly described. Special attention has been given to phenomena likely to be encountered in clay barriers used as part of containment systems of nuclear waste. The types of processes considered in the chemical formulation include hydrolysis, complex formation, oxidation/reduction reactions, acid/base reactions, precipitation/dissolution of minerals and cation exchange. Both kine...

  7. Mental Models of Radioactivity and Attitudes towards Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siting of a radioactive waste repository presents a great problem in almost every country that produces such waste. The main problem is not a technical one, but socio-psychological, namely the acceptability of this kind of repository. Previous research on people's perception of the LILW repository construction, their attitudes towards radioactive waste, their willingness to accept it, indicated significant differences in answers of experts and lay persons, mainly regarding evaluation of the consequences of repository construction. Based on the findings of pilot investigations a mental model approach to the radioactivity, radioactive waste and repository was used as a method for development better risk communication strategies with local communities. The mental models were obtained by adjustment of the method developed by Morgan and co-workers where expert model of radioactivity is compared with mental model of lay people obtained through individual opened interviews. Additional information on trust, risk perception, role of main actors in the site selection process and their credibility was gained with the overall questionnaire on the representative sample of Slovenian population. Results of the survey confirm some already known findings, in addition we gained new cognitions and with analyses obtained the relationships and ratios between different factors, which are characteristics both for the general public and for the public, which is involved in the site selection process for a longer period and has been living beside a nuclear power plant for one generation. People have in general negative associations regarding the repository, the perceived risk for nuclear facilities is high, and trust in representatives of governmental institutions is low. Mental models of radioactivity, radioactive waste and the LILW repository are mostly irregular and differ from the experts' models. This is particularly valid for the models of radioactivity and the influences of

  8. Method of solidifying radioactive wastes with plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To prevent solidification of solidifying agents in the mixer by conducting the mixing process for the solidifying agents and the radioactive wastes at a temperature below the initiation point for the solidification of the agents thereby separating the mixing process from the solidification-integration process. Method: Catalyst such as cobalt naphthenate is charged into an unsaturated polyester resin in a mixer previously cooled, for example, to -100C. They are well mixed with radioactive wastes and the mixture in the mixer is charged in a radioactive waste storage container. The temperature of the mixture, although kept at a low temperature initially, gradually increases to an ambient temperature whereby curing reaction is promoted and the reaction is completed about one day after to provide firm plastic solidification products. This can prevent the solidification of the solidifying agents in the mixer to thereby improve the circumstance's safety. (Kawakami, Y.)

  9. Radioactivities at megalopolis waste water treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In waste water treatment plants, the nuclides originated from nuclear medicine are generally detected. In the Tokyo Metropolis, the sludges in five waste water treatment plants were investigated, where the same nuclides were detected, though the concentration was different. The radioactivity was far lower than the permissible concentration level for waste water. In the aspect of environmental protection, the radioactivity contained in the resultant sludges is important. Such sludges are mostly treated by incineration. In this case, the nuclide released to the atmosphere is mainly 131I. This quantity is only slight presently. However, if the quantity of RIs used should increase largely, it will be necessary to monitor the radioactivity in the waste treatment plants. The most suitable place for the monitoring is the process of sludge treatment, preferably with Ge semiconductor detectors. (Mori, K.)

  10. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EM's Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form

  11. ECOLOGICAL AND TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE UTILISATION

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Borowski; Michał Wośko

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a survey of radioactive waste disposal technologies used worldwide in terms of their influence upon natural environment. Typical sources of radioactive waste from medicine and industry were presented. In addition, various types of radioactive waste, both liquid and solid, were described. Requirements and conditions of the waste’s storage were characterised. Selected liquid and solid waste processing technologies were shown. It was stipulated that contemporary methods of rad...

  12. Identification of tetraphenylborate radiolysis products in a simulated feedstock for radioactive waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first step towards immobilization of the soluble radioactive species in borosilicate glass is the addition of sodium tetraphenylborate (TPB) and sodium titanate to the radioactive aqueous solution. Initial studies of the TPB hydrolysis process have found that some component of the radiolysis mixture inactivates the Cu catalyst. The interaction of organic materials with the catalyst, and the subsequent interference with the hydrolysis process, would have presented problems with the use of the vitrification process. Prevention of the catalyst deactivation is obtained by washing the irradiated TPB precipitate in the Late Wash Facility prior to hydrolysis to remove the soluble radiolysis products. Identification of the organic radiolysis products, their distribution in the Late Wash Facility, and their interactions with the Cu catalyst has become an important analytical issue. To further investigate the reaction products of the TPB precipitation process, a simulated feedstock was created from compounds known to be present in the starting materials. This simulated feedstock was precipitated with sodium TPB and then exposed to Co-60 gamma radiation to simulate two years of additional storage time prior to the hydrolysis process. The irradiated product was divided into two parts, the filtered supernatant liquid and the precipitate slurry, which contains the TPB and the solid sodium titanate. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry, ion chromatography, and high performance liquid chromatography, over 50 organic and inorganic species have been identified in the aqueous portion of a simulated feedstock for TPB hydrolysis. The major organic species present are benzene, phenol, benzamide and a variety of substituted phenylphenols. The major inorganic species present are sodium, nitrite, and oxalate ions

  13. Radioactive waste management in Ukraine: Status, problems, prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One of the main problems of the successful development of Nuclear Power Industry is doubtlessly the management of radioactive waste, which will be arising both during nuclear power plant (NPP) operation and during NPP decommissioning. There are different sides to the same problem - decommissioning of NPPs, rehabilitation the territory Estrangement Zone and radwaste of Chernobyl origin within the 30 km Zone, maintenance of 8,000 firms of the country's economic complex, which uses ionizing radiation sources, treatment of 6,000 m3 solid radioactive waste by 13 operating units at four Ukrainian NPPs, liquidation of the storage of former rocket - nuclear complex. It is leading the analysis of all generators of radioactive wastes, including such specific one as the destroyed unit 4 of Chernobyl NPP and enterprises of a former military-industrial complex of the Soviet Union. The problem of radioactive waste management is multilevel. The tasks and their solutions at national, branch, industrial levels are considered. It is marked that in Ukraine, based on the nuclear legislation and as the independent part of the national law is developing currently. The work under adaptation of Ukrainian nuclear legislation to European has amplified. The infrastructure is unified at a branch level: container park, transportation, system of the radioactive waste calculation, process engineering. The National Center on the management of low- and intermediate level radwaste and disposal are building. The construction of the plant on extraction of radwaste from Chernobyl storages is finished. The construction of the plant on sorting and handling the solid and liquid radioactive waste, storages of radioactive waste arising from the Chernobyl units decommissioning has begun. The high level of international integration on radwaste management by Chernobyl's origin is marked. Problems in a field of a radwaste management in Ukraine are: Outdated and inadequate legislation; Deficient of

  14. The disposal of intermediate-level radioactive liquid waste by hydraulic fracturing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydraulic fracturing process is characterized by combination of the treatment with the disposal of ILLW (intermediate-level liquid waste). It is of cement solidification in deep geology stratum. First of all, it is necessary to select a suitable disposal site with detailed information on geology and hydrogeology. The process has such advantages as simple, low cost, large capacity of disposal, safe and reliable in technology. It is an attractive process of ILLW. Since 1980's, the research and the concept design of the hydraulic fracturing process have been initiated for disposal of ILLW. It is demonstrated by the field tests. The authors considered that the geological structure near Sichuan Nuclear Fuel Plant fits the disposal of ILLW by the hydraulic fracturing process

  15. Regulatory considerations for radioactive waste diposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packaging, transportation, and burial of radioactive wastes involves a complex, sometimes nebulous set of regulatory conditions, restrictions, and exceptions for proper handling. These regulations affect the shipper of radioactive wastes directly as in the case of the Department of Transportation (DOT), Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), state highway permits or bridge and tunnel authorities, or indirectly by imposing restrictions on the burial site of which the shipper must be aware. Due to the complexity of the regulations involving the various levels and types of radioactive wastes, this paper concentrates on low level (i.e., Type A and LSA quantities) wastes. When considering the shipment of Type A or LSA waste, the shipper must first consider the packaging, marking, labeling, etc. requirements as specified by the DOT and compatible with the respective burial site restrictions. The appropriate shipping papers must be completed certifying the packaging, marking, and labeling in accordance with DOT regulations. In transporting radioactive wastes, the DOT imposes requirements and restrictions on the carrier. Driver's logs and examination certificates must be in the driver's possession. In addition, requirements for the safe operation of vehicles carrying hazardous materials are imposed by the DOT. In addition to the DOT regulations, certain states, localities, highway authorities or bridge and tunnel authorities impose restrictions or require permit authorization prior to transporting radioactive wastes through their jurisdiction. In many states, the respective environmental agencies have recently imposed permit requirements for transport of any hazardous materials. The regulatory process governing radioactive waste disposal has become a maze of requirements, conditions, restrictions, and exemptions which are often redundant and ambiguous, which raises the costs to commercial waste disposal companies, carriers, and ultimately the generator

  16. Order of the 10 january 2003 authorizing the national agency for the radioactive wastes management to follow the gaseous and liquid effluents release for the exploitation of the radioactive wastes storage center of the Manche; Arrete du 10 janvier 2003 autorisant l'Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs a poursuivre les rejets d'effluents gazeux et liquides pour l'exploitation du centre de stockage de dechets radioactifs de la Manche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-01-01

    This document, took out from the Official Journal, is the law text relative to the order of the 10 january 2003 authorizing the national agency for the radioactive wastes management to follow the gaseous and liquid effluents release for the exploitation of the radioactive wastes storage center of the Manche. (A.L.B.)

  17. Pilot scale study of a chemical treatment process for decontamination of aqueous radioactive waste of pakistan research reactor-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical treatment process for the low level liquid radioactive waste generated at PINSTECH was previously optimized on lab-scale making use of coprecipitation of hydrous oxides of iron in basic medium. Ferrous sulfate was used as coagulant. Batch wise application of this procedure on pilot scale has been tested on a 1200 L batch volume of typical PINSTECH liquid waste. Different parameters and unit operations have been evaluated. The required data for the construction of a small size treatment plant envisioned can be used for demonstration/teaching purpose as well as for the decontamination of the waste effluents of the Institute. The lab-scale process parameters were verified valid on pilot scale. It was observed that reagent doses can further be economized with out any deterioration of the Decontamination Factors (DF) achieved or of any other aspect of the process. This simple, cost- effective, DF-efficient and time-smart batch wise process could be coupled with an assortment of other treatment operations thus affording universal application. Observations recorded during this study are presented. (author)

  18. A fuzzy mathematics model for radioactive waste characterization by process knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuzzy mathematics and fuzzy logic are means for making decisions that can integrate complicated combinations of hard and soft factors and produce mathematically validated results that can be independently verified. In this particular application, several sources of information regarding the waste stream have been compiled, including facility operating records, other waste generated from the facility in the past, laboratory analysis results, and interviews with facility personnel. A fuzzy mathematics model is used to interrelate these various sources of information and arrive at a defensible estimate of the contaminant concentration in the final waste product. The model accounts for the separate process knowledge-based contaminant concentrations by providing a weighted averaging technique to incorporate information from the various sources. Reliability estimates are provided for each of the component pieces of information and combined using the model into an estimate that provides a near-probabilistic value for contaminant concentration. The speadsheet accounts for the estimated uncertainty in the concentration on the basis of open-quotes reliability curves,close quotes which are derived from personal process knowledge as well as limited independent measurements

  19. Temperature and solid radioactive waste reduction characteristics of combustion chamber in HK-2010 incinerator prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype of cylindrical solid radioactive waste incinerator named HK – 2010 has been created for solid radioactive waste handling in Nuclear Technology Center for Materials and Radiometry (PTNBR) BATAN Bandung. The incinerator serves to reduce the solid radioactive wastes by burning. The incinerator performance for burning of various amounts and types of solid waste is necessary to be tested before it is continuously used in radioactive waste burning. The temperature value and homogenity of combustion chamber during combustion process have been tested. An amount of 20 kg of solid radioactive waste mixture form the PTNBR laboratory was burned in the incinerator and the temperature of primary and secondary walls, also the water flow rate were measured. The weight of radioactive waste was measured before and after combustion process. The maximum temperature of combustion chamber wall of the incinerator reach 783.34°C and the incinerator can reduce the amount of waste until 90% - 92%. The radioactive waste exposure can be reduced to become 0.249%. (author)

  20. Disposal of radioactive waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste is disposed below ground at a position adjacent the coast line such that, 1. drainage of any water which has flowed through the disposal volume can be drained to the sea, or 2. the waste is disposed below the foreshore or coastal shallow water. Disposal facilities are described which advantageously include surrounding the waste with absorber to increase protection against migration of radionuclides. An example of a radioactive waste disposal facility is shown and includes a number of cells formed from concrete walls and floors, the cells being loaded successively with drums containing the waste, each cell being roofed with concrete after filling, there being absorber placed beneath the floors between the walls and after complete filling, above the said roof, with a soil mound surmounting. Drainage channels extend to sea via monitoring means. (author)