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Sample records for bohunice radioactive waste processing center

  1. Hydrothermal processing of radioactive combustible waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worl, L.A.; Buelow, S.J.; Harradine, D.; Le, L.; Padilla, D.D.; Roberts, J.H.

    1998-09-01

    Hydrothermal processing has been demonstrated for the treatment of radioactive combustible materials for the US Department of Energy. A hydrothermal processing system was designed, built and tested for operation in a plutonium glovebox. Presented here are results from the study of the hydrothermal oxidation of plutonium and americium contaminated organic wastes. Experiments show the destruction of the organic component to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, with 30 wt.% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as an oxidant, at 540 C and 46.2 MPa. The majority of the actinide component forms insoluble products that are easily separated by filtration. A titanium liner in the reactor and heat exchanger provide corrosion resistance for the oxidation of chlorinated organics. The treatment of solid material is accomplished by particle size reduction and the addition of a viscosity enhancing agent to generate a homogeneous pumpable mixture.

  2. Technical evaluation of proposed Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, R.; Glukhov, A.; Markowski, F.

    1996-06-01

    This technical report is a comprehensive evaluation of the proposal by the Ukrainian State Committee on Nuclear Power Utilization to create a central facility for radioactive waste (not spent fuel) processing. The central facility is intended to process liquid and solid radioactive wastes generated from all of the Ukrainian nuclear power plants and the waste generated as a result of Chernobyl 1, 2 and 3 decommissioning efforts. In addition, this report provides general information on the quantity and total activity of radioactive waste in the 30-km Zone and the Sarcophagus from the Chernobyl accident. Processing options are described that may ultimately be used in the long-term disposal of selected 30-km Zone and Sarcophagus wastes. A detailed report on the issues concerning the construction of a Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility (CRWPF) from the Ukrainian Scientific Research and Design institute for Industrial Technology was obtained and incorporated into this report. This report outlines various processing options, their associated costs and construction schedules, which can be applied to solving the operating and decommissioning radioactive waste management problems in Ukraine. The costs and schedules are best estimates based upon the most current US industry practice and vendor information. This report focuses primarily on the handling and processing of what is defined in the US as low-level radioactive wastes.

  3. Microbial processes in radioactive waste disposal

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    Pedersen, Karsten [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology

    2000-04-15

    Independent scientific work has unambiguously demonstrated life to be present in most deep geological formations investigated, down to depths of several kilometres. Microbial processes have consequently become an integral part of the performance safety assessment of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repositories. This report presents the research record from the last decade of the microbiology research programme of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) and gives current perspectives of microbial processes in HLW disposal. The goal of the microbiology programme is to understand how microbes may interact with the performance of a future HLW repository. First, for those who are not so familiar with microbes and their ways of living, the concept of 'microbe' is briefly defined. Then, the main characteristics of recognised microbial assemblage and microbial growth, activity and survival are given. The main part of the report summarises data collected during the research period of 1987-1999 and interpretations of these data. Short summaries introduce the research tasks, followed by reviews of the results and insight gained. Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) produce sulphide and have commonly been observed in groundwater environments typical of Swedish HLW repositories. Consequently, the potential for sulphide corrosion of the copper canisters surrounding the HLW must be considered. The interface between the copper canister and the buffer is of special concern. Despite the fact that nowhere are the environmental constraints for life as strong as here, it has been suggested that SRB could survive and locally produce sulphide in concentrations large enough to cause damage to the canister. Experiments conducted thus far have indicated the opposite. Early studies in the research programme revealed previously unknown microbial ecosystems in igneous rock aquifers at depths exceeding 1000 m. This discovery triggered a thorough exploration of the

  4. Foaming and Antifoaming in Radioactive Waste Pretreatment and Immobilization Processes

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    Wasan, Darsh T.; Nikolov, Alex; Lambert, Dan; Calloway, T. Bond

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a fundamental understanding of the physico-chemical mechanisms that cause foaminess in the DOE High Level (HLW) and Low Activity radioactive waste separation processes and to develop and test advanced antifoam/defoaming agents. Antifoams developed for this research will be tested using simulated defense HLW radioactive wastes obtained from the Hanford and Savannah River sites.

  5. Foaming and Antifoaming in Radioactive Waste Pretreatment and Immobilization Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasan, Darsh T.

    2002-08-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a fundamental understanding of the physico-chemical mechanisms that cause foaminess in the DOE High Level (HLW) and Low Activity radioactive waste separation processes and to develop and test advanced antifoam/defoaming agents. Antifoams developed for this research will be tested using simulated defense HLW radioactive wastes obtained from the Hanford and Savannah River sites.

  6. Foaming and Antifoaming in Radioactive Waste Pretreatment and Immobilization Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasan, Darsh T.; Nikolov, Alex; Lambert, Dan; Calloway, T. Bond, Jr.

    2003-06-05

    The objective of this research is to develop a fundamental understanding of the physico-chemical mechanisms that cause foaminess in the DOE High Level (HLW) and Low Activity radioactive waste separation processes and to develop and test advanced antifoam/defoaming agents. Antifoams developed for this research will be tested using simulated defense HLW radioactive wastes obtained from the Hanford and Savannah River sites.

  7. Radioactive waste shipments to Hanford Retrievable Storage from the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Pleasanton, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vejvoda, E.J.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; DeLorenzo, D.S.; Weyns-Rollosson, M.I. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., NM (United States); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) wastes now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Approximately 3.8% of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to WIPP was generated at the General Electric (GE) Vallecitos Nuclear Center (VNC) in Pleasanton, California and shipped to the Hanford Site for storage. The purpose of this report is to characterize these radioactive solid wastes using process knowledge, existing records, and oral history interviews. The waste was generated almost exclusively from the activities, of the Plutonium Fuels Development Laboratory and the Plutonium Analytical Laboratory. Section 2.0 provides further details of the VNC physical plant, facility operations, facility history, and current status. The solid radioactive wastes were associated with two US Atomic Energy Commission/US Department of Energy reactor programs -- the Fast Ceramic Reactor (FCR) program, and the Fast Flux Test Reactor (FFTR) program. These programs involved the fabrication and testing of fuel assemblies that utilized plutonium in an oxide form. The types and estimated quantities of waste resulting from these programs are discussed in detail in Section 3.0. A detailed discussion of the packaging and handling procedures used for the VNC radioactive wastes shipped to the Hanford Site is provided in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides an in-depth look at this waste including the following: weight and volume of the waste, container types and numbers, physical description of the waste, radiological components, hazardous constituents, and current storage/disposal locations.

  8. Foaming and Antifoaming in Radioactive Waste Pretreatment and Immobilization Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darsh T. Wasan; Alex D. Nikolov; D.P. Lamber; T. Bond Calloway; M.E. Stone

    2005-03-12

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has reported severe foaminess in the bench scale evaporation of the Hanford River Protection - Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WPT) envelope C waste. Excessive foaming in waste evaporators can cause carryover of radionuclides and non-radioactive waste to the condensate system. The antifoams used at Hanford and tested by SRNL are believed to degrade and become inactive in high pH solutions. Hanford wastes have been known to foam during evaporation causing excessive down time and processing delays.

  9. The Defense Waste Processing Facility: Two Years of Radioactive Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, S.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Gee, J.T.; Sproull, J.F.

    1998-05-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC is currently immobilizing high level radioactive sludge waste in borosilicate glass. The DWPF began vitrification of radioactive waste in May, 1996. Prior to that time, an extensive startup test program was completed with simulated waste. The DWPF is a first of its kind facility. The experience gained and data collected during the startup program and early years of operation can provide valuable information to other similar facilities. This experience involves many areas such as process enhancements, analytical improvements, glass pouring issues, and documentation/data collection and tracking. A summary of this experience and the results of the first two years of operation will be presented.

  10. THE USE OF POLYMERS IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE PROCESSING SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, E.; Fondeur, F.

    2013-04-15

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), one of the largest U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, has operated since the early 1950s. The early mission of the site was to produce critical nuclear materials for national defense. Many facilities have been constructed at the SRS over the years to process, stabilize and/or store radioactive waste and related materials. The primary materials of construction used in such facilities are inorganic (metals, concrete), but polymeric materials are inevitably used in various applications. The effects of aging, radiation, chemicals, heat and other environmental variables must therefore be understood to maximize service life of polymeric components. In particular, the potential for dose rate effects and synergistic effects on polymeric materials in multivariable environments can complicate compatibility reviews and life predictions. The selection and performance of polymeric materials in radioactive waste processing systems at the SRS are discussed.

  11. The storage center of very-low level radioactive wastes; Le centre de stockage des dechets de tres faible activite

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    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The low level radioactive wastes have a radioactivity level as same as the natural radioactivity. This wastes category and their storage has been taken into account by the french legislation. This document presents the storage principles of the site, containment, safety and the Center organization. (A.L.B.)

  12. Melt processing of radioactive waste: A technical overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlienger, M.E.; Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.

    1997-04-01

    Nuclear operations have resulted in the accumulation of large quantities of contaminated metallic waste which are stored at various DOE, DOD, and commercial sites under the control of DOE and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This waste will accumulate at an increasing rate as commercial nuclear reactors built in the 1950s reach the end of their projected lives, as existing nuclear powered ships become obsolete or unneeded, and as various weapons plants and fuel processing facilities, such as the gaseous diffusion plants, are dismantled, repaired, or modernized. For example, recent estimates of available Radioactive Scrap Metal (RSM) in the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex have suggested that as much as 700,000 tons of contaminated 304L stainless steel exist in the gaseous diffusion plants alone. Other high-value metals available in the DOE complex include copper, nickel, and zirconium. Melt processing for the decontamination of radioactive scrap metal has been the subject of much research. A major driving force for this research has been the possibility of reapplication of RSM, which is often very high-grade material containing large quantities of strategic elements. To date, several different single and multi-step melting processes have been proposed and evaluated for use as decontamination or recycling strategies. Each process offers a unique combination of strengths and weaknesses, and ultimately, no single melt processing scheme is optimum for all applications since processes must be evaluated based on the characteristics of the input feed stream and the desired output. This paper describes various melt decontamination processes and briefly reviews their application in developmental studies, full scale technical demonstrations, and industrial operations.

  13. Analysis of data from radioactive wastes treatment process and implementation of a data management applied program

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    Jeo, H. S.; Son, J. S.; Kim, T. K.; Kang, I. S.; Lee, Y. H [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    As for the generated radioactive waste, a nuclide and a form are various, and by small quantity occurs the irregular times in KAERI. Record management of a radioactive waste personal history is an important element in disposal. A data collection of a liquid / solid radioactive waste treatment process of a research organization became necessary while developing the RAWMIS which it can generate personal history management for efficient management of a waste, documents, all kinds of statistics. This paper introduces an input and output application program design to do to database with data in the results and a stream process of a treatment that analyzed the waste occurrence present situation and data by treatment process. Data on the actual treatment process that is not limited experiment improve by a document, human traces, saving of material resources and improve with efficiency of tracking about a radioactive waste and a process and give help to radioactive waste material valance and inventory study.

  14. Innovative Process for Comprehensive Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste - 12551

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzin, R.A.; Sarychev, G.A. [All-Russia Scientific Research Institute of Chemical Technology (VNIIKHT), Moscow, 115409 (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    composition, including those containing hardness salts, resulted in generation of LRW concentrate 300-600 g/l. The method is based on utilization of supersonic ejector for intensification of thermal physic processes and performance of evaporation in brine recycling mode. All proposed technological solutions are totally based on patented Russian developments. Proposed work will allow to construct modular plants, which will be totally prepared for efficient purification of any types of liquid radioactive wastes from radionuclides in case of force majeure. According to proposed scheme concentration level of cesium radionuclides in safe-for-storage form will make up not less than 5000. With respect to purification from cesium radionuclides of liquid radioactive wastes stored at NPP 'Fukushima' about 10 t of inorganic sorbents, loaded in 160 protective filter-containers, will be required for solving this problem. The amount of secondary wastes will be reduced approximately in 5 times in comparison with traditional schemes, applied in purification of secondary LRW of Fukushima-1 by Areva (France) and Kurion (USA) companies. All units of modular plants will be constructed and manufactured as totally automated, providing their twenty-four-hour safe operation. Modular design will ensure efficiency and let optimize the costs of secondary LRW treatment. In order to ensure off-line operation in emergency conditions the plant should be equipped with auxiliary modules: energy and ventilation ones. Under normal conditions these modules can be stored in 'mothballed' condition at special warehouses under the authority of federal bodies. It will be reasonable to choose required transport facilities, the most suitable for transportation of modules to target destination beforehand, using vessel classification list.

  15. Application of advanced oxidative process in treatment radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Catia; Sakata, Solange K.; Ferreira, Rafael V.P.; Marumo, Julio T., E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The ion exchange resin is used in the water purification system in both nuclear research and power reactors. Combined with active carbon, the resin removes dissolved elements from water when the nuclear reactor is operating. After its consumption, it becomes a special type of radioactive waste. The usual treatment to this type of waste is the immobilization with Portland cement, which is simple and low cost. However, its low capacity of immobilization and the increase volume of waste have been the challenges. The development of new technologies capable of destroying this waste completely by increasing its solidification is the main target due to the possibility of both volume and cost reduction. The objective of this work was to evaluate ion exchange resin degradation by Advanced Oxidative Process using Fenton's Reagent (H{sub 2}O{sub 2} / Fe{sup +2}) in different concentration and temperatures. One advantage of this process is that all additional organic compounds or inorganic solids produced are oxidized easily. The degradation experiments were conducted with IRA-400 resin and Fenton's Reagents, varying the H{sub 2O}2 concentration (30% e 50%) and heat temperature (25, 60 and 100 deg C). The resin degradation was confirmed by the presence of BaCO{sub 3} as a white precipitate resulting from the reaction between the Ba(OH){sub 2} and the CO{sub 2} from the resin degradation. All experiments run in duplicate. Higher degradation was observed with Fenton's Reagent (Fe{sup +2} /H{sub 2}O{sub 2} 30%) at 100 deg C after 2 hours. (author)

  16. Foaming and Antifoaming and Gas Entrainment in Radioactive Waste Preteatment and Immobilization Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasan, Darsh T.; Nikolov, Alex

    2005-06-01

    The objectives of this research effort are to develop a fundamental understanding of the physico-chemical mechanisms that produce foaming and air entrainment in the DOE High Level (HLW) and Low Activity (LAW) radioactive waste separation and immobilization processes, and to develop and test advanced antifoam/defoaming/rheology modifier agents. Antifoams/rheology modifiers developed from this research will be tested using non-radioactive simulants of the radioactive wastes obtained from Hanford and the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  17. Small-scale demonstration of high-level radioactive waste processing and solidification using actual SRP waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okeson, J K; Galloway, R M; Wilhite, E L; Woolsey, G B; B, Ferguson R

    1980-01-01

    A small-scale demonstration of the high-level radioactive waste solidification process by vitrification in borosilicate glass is being conducted using 5-6 liter batches of actual waste. Equipment performance and processing characteristics of the various unit operations in the process are reported and, where appropriate, are compared to large-scale results obtained with synthetic waste.

  18. Radioactive waste processing: Vitrification. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the processing of radioactive wastes by vitrification (the formation of a glassy material to immobilize radioactive nuclides). In-situ vitrification; proposed glass compositions; glass properties including degradation, leachability, and physical strength; and vitrification processes are discussed. Full-scale vitrification plants and international waste vitrification programs are described. Solidification of radioactive waste with borosilicate glass and synthetic rock or cement and asphalt is discussed in separate bibliographies. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Selection of optimal treatment procedures for non-standard radioactive waste arising from decommissioning of NPP after accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strážovec, Roman, E-mail: strazovec.roman@javys.sk [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); JAVYS, a.s., Tomášikova 22, 821 02 Bratislava (Slovakia); Hrnčíř, Tomáš [DECOM, a.s., Sibírska 1, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia); Lištjak, Martin [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); VUJE, a.s., Okružná 5, 918 64 Trnava (Slovakia); Nečas, Vladimír [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2016-05-15

    The decommissioning of nuclear power plants is becoming a standard industrial activity where the optimization processes of partial activities are inevitable mainly for technical and economic reasons. In Slovakia, the decommissioning of A1 NPP is very specific case because A1 NPP is rare type of NPP (prototype) and furthermore its operation was affected by the accident. A large number of specific non-standard radioactive waste, such as long-time storage cases (hereinafter LSC), that is not usually present within the decommissioning projects of NPP with a regular termination of operation, represent one of the significant consequences of the accident and issues arisen from follow-up activities. The presented article describes the proposal of processing and conditioning of non-standard radioactive waste (such as LSC), together with description of methodology applied in the proposal for update of waste acceptance criteria for the processing and conditioning of radioactive waste (hereinafter RAW) within Bohunice Radioactive waste Treatment and Conditioning Centre (hereinafter RWTC). The results of performed detailed analysis are summarized into new waste acceptance criteria for technological lines keeping in mind safety principles and requirements for protection of operating personnel, the public and the environment.

  20. Understanding radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  1. Establishment of Radioactive Waste Running Safely in Whole Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>In 2008, the radioactive wastes treatment and operation center received about 90 m3 of radioactiveliquid waste, about 30 m3 of radioactive solid waste, and about 160 million m3 of treated radioactive

  2. Programs of recovery of radioactive wastes from the trenches and land decontamination of the radioactive waste storage center; Programas de recuperacion de los desechos radiactivos de las trincheras y de descontaminacion del predio del centro de almacenamiento de desechos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez D, J.; Reyes L, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1999-06-15

    In this report there are the decontamination program of the land of the Radioactive Waste Storage Center, the Program of Recovery of the radioactive waste of the trenches, the recovery of polluted bar with cobalt 60, the recovery of minerals and tailings of uranium and of earth with minerals and tailings of uranium, the recovery of worn out sealed sources and the waste recovery with the accustomed corresponding actions are presented. (Author)

  3. Radioactive Waste Conditioning, Immobilisation, And Encapsulation Processes And Technologies: Overview And Advances (Chapter 7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, Carol M. [Savannah River National Lab., Aiken SC (United States); Lee, William E. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; Ojovan, Michael I. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2012-10-19

    The main immobilization technologies that are available commercially and have been demonstrated to be viable are cementation, bituminization, and vitrification. Vitrification is currently the most widely used technology for the treatment of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) throughout the world. Most of the nations that have generated HLW are immobilizing in either alkali borosilicate glass or alkali aluminophosphate glass. The exact compositions of nuclear waste glasses are tailored for easy preparation and melting, avoidance of glass-in-glass phase separation, avoidance of uncontrolled crystallization, and acceptable chemical durability, e.g., leach resistance. Glass has also been used to stabilize a variety of low level wastes (LLW) and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) low level wastes (MLLW) from other sources such as fuel rod cladding/decladding processes, chemical separations, radioactive sources, radioactive mill tailings, contaminated soils, medical research applications, and other commercial processes. The sources of radioactive waste generation are captured in other chapters in this book regarding the individual practices in various countries (legacy wastes, currently generated wastes, and future waste generation). Future waste generation is primarily driven by interest in sources of clean energy and this has led to an increased interest in advanced nuclear power production. The development of advanced wasteforms is a necessary component of the new nuclear power plant (NPP) flowsheets. Therefore, advanced nuclear wasteforms are being designed for robust disposal strategies. A brief summary is given of existing and advanced wasteforms: glass, glass-ceramics, glass composite materials (GCM’s), and crystalline ceramic (mineral) wasteforms that chemically incorporate radionuclides and hazardous species atomically in their structure. Cementitious, geopolymer, bitumen, and other encapsulant wasteforms and composites that atomically bond and encapsulate

  4. Final Report - "Foaming and Antifoaming and Gas Entrainment in Radioactive Waste Pretreatment and Immobilization Processes"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasan, Darsh T.

    2007-10-09

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford site are in the process of stabilizing millions of gallons of radioactive waste slurries remaining from production of nuclear materials for the Department of Energy (DOE). The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS is currently vitrifying the waste in borosilicate glass, while the facilities at the Hanford site are in the construction phase. Both processes utilize slurry-fed joule-heated melters to vitrify the waste slurries. The DWPF has experienced difficulty during operations. The cause of the operational problems has been attributed to foaming, gas entrainment and the rheological properties of the process slurries. The rheological properties of the waste slurries limit the total solids content that can be processed by the remote equipment during the pretreatment and meter feed processes. Highly viscous material can lead to air entrainment during agitation and difficulties with pump operations. Excessive foaming in waste evaporators can cause carryover of radionuclides and non-radioactive waste to the condensate system. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the surface phenomena, suspension rheology and bubble generation of interactions that lead to foaming and air entrainment problems in the DOE High Level and Low Activity Radioactive Waste separation and immobilization processes were pursued under this project. The first major task accomplished in the grant proposal involved development of a theoretical model of the phenomenon of foaming in a three-phase gas-liquid-solid slurry system. This work was presented in a recently completed Ph.D. thesis (9). The second major task involved the investigation of the inter-particle interaction and microstructure formation in a model slurry by the batch sedimentation method. Both experiments and modeling studies were carried out. The results were presented in a recently completed Ph.D. thesis. The third task involved the use of laser confocal microscopy to study

  5. Management of radioactive waste: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Paulo Sant'ana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of disposal of radioactive waste around the world is not solved by now and the principal reason is the lack of an efficient technologic system. The fact that radioactive waste decays of radioactivity with time are the main reasons for setting nuclear or radioactive waste apart from the other common hazardous wastes management. Radioactive waste can be classified according to the state of matter and level of radioactivity and this classification can be differently interpreted from country to country. Furthermore, microbiological procedures, plasma vitrification process, chemical precipitation, ion exchange, evaporation and reverse osmosis are strategies used for the treatment of radioactive wastes. The major challenge is to manage these radioactive substances after being used and discharged. This report brings data from the literature published worldwide from 2009 to 2014 on radioactive waste management studies and it covers production, classification and management of radioactive solid, liquid and gas waste.

  6. Modeling Coupled Processes in Clay Formations for Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Rutqvist, Jonny; Zheng, Liange; Sonnenthal, Eric; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2010-08-31

    As a result of the termination of the Yucca Mountain Project, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has started to explore various alternative avenues for the disposition of used nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The overall scope of the investigation includes temporary storage, transportation issues, permanent disposal, various nuclear fuel types, processing alternatives, and resulting waste streams. Although geologic disposal is not the only alternative, it is still the leading candidate for permanent disposal. The realm of geologic disposal also offers a range of geologic environments that may be considered, among those clay shale formations. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA. Clay rock/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures induced by tunnel excavation. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon et al., 2005) have all been under intensive scientific investigations (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relations with flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of nuclear waste. Clay/shale formations may be generally classified as indurated and plastic clays (Tsang et al., 2005). The latter (including Boom clay) is a softer material without high cohesion; its deformation is dominantly plastic. For both clay rocks, coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes are expected to have a significant impact on the long-term safety of a clay repository. For

  7. Biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid simulation waste containing detergent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundari, Noor Anis, E-mail: nooranis@batan.go.id; Putra, Sugili; Mukaromah, Umi [Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Nuklir – Badan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional Jl. Babarsari P.O. BOX 6101 YKBB Yogyakarta 55281 Telp : (0274) 48085, 489716, Fax : (0274) 489715 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Research of biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid waste containing detergent has been done. Thse organic liquid wastes are generated in nuclear facilities such as from laundry. The wastes that are cotegorized as hazard and poison materials are also radioactive. It must be treated properly by detoxification of the hazard and decontamination of the radionuclides to ensure that the disposal of the waste meets the requirement of standard quality of water. This research was intended to determine decontamination factor and separation efficiensies, its kinetics law, and to produce a supernatant that ensured the environmental quality standard. The radioactive element in the waste was thorium with activity of 5.10{sup −5} Ci/m{sup 3}. The radioactive liquid waste which were generated in simulation plant contains detergents that was further processed by aerobic biochemical process using SGB 103 bacteria in a batch reactor equipped with aerators. Two different concentration of samples were processed and analyzed for 212 hours and 183 hours respectively at a room temperature. The product of this process is a liquid phase called as supernatant and solid phase material called sludge. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solid (SS), and its alpha activity were analyzed. The results show that the decontamination factor and the separation efficiency of the lower concentration samples are higher compared to the samples with high concentration. Regarding the decontamination factor, the result for 212 hours processing of waste with detergent concentration of 1.496 g/L was 3.496 times, whereas at the detergent concentration of 0.748 g/L was 15.305 times for 183 hours processing. In case of the separation efficiency, the results for both samples were 71.396% and 93.465% respectively. The Bacterial growth kinetics equation follow Monod’s model and the decreasing of COD and BOD were first order with the rate constant of 0

  8. Biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid simulation waste containing detergent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundari, Noor Anis; Putra, Sugili; Mukaromah, Umi

    2015-12-01

    Research of biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid waste containing detergent has been done. Thse organic liquid wastes are generated in nuclear facilities such as from laundry. The wastes that are cotegorized as hazard and poison materials are also radioactive. It must be treated properly by detoxification of the hazard and decontamination of the radionuclides to ensure that the disposal of the waste meets the requirement of standard quality of water. This research was intended to determine decontamination factor and separation efficiensies, its kinetics law, and to produce a supernatant that ensured the environmental quality standard. The radioactive element in the waste was thorium with activity of 5.10-5 Ci/m3. The radioactive liquid waste which were generated in simulation plant contains detergents that was further processed by aerobic biochemical process using SGB 103 bacteria in a batch reactor equipped with aerators. Two different concentration of samples were processed and analyzed for 212 hours and 183 hours respectively at a room temperature. The product of this process is a liquid phase called as supernatant and solid phase material called sludge. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solid (SS), and its alpha activity were analyzed. The results show that the decontamination factor and the separation efficiency of the lower concentration samples are higher compared to the samples with high concentration. Regarding the decontamination factor, the result for 212 hours processing of waste with detergent concentration of 1.496 g/L was 3.496 times, whereas at the detergent concentration of 0.748 g/L was 15.305 times for 183 hours processing. In case of the separation efficiency, the results for both samples were 71.396% and 93.465% respectively. The Bacterial growth kinetics equation follow Monod's model and the decreasing of COD and BOD were first order with the rate constant of 0.01 hour-1.

  9. The Optimization of Radioactive Waste Management in the Nuclear Installation Decommissioning Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachar, Matej; Necas, Vladimir [Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Department of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2008-07-01

    The paper presents a basic characterization of nuclear installation decommissioning process especially in the term of radioactive materials management. A large amount of solid materials and secondary waste created after implementation of decommissioning activities have to be managed considering their physical, chemical, toxic and radiological characteristics. Radioactive materials should be, after fulfilling all the conditions defined by the authorities, released to the environment for the further use. Non-releasable materials are considered to be a radioactive waste. Their management includes various procedures starting with pre-treatment activities, continuing with storage, treatment and conditioning procedures. Finally, they are disposed in the near surface or deep geological repositories. Considering the advantages and disadvantages of all possible ways of releasing the material from nuclear installation area, optimization of the material management process should be done. Emphasis is placed on the radiological parameters of materials, availability of waste management technologies, waste repositories and on the radiological limits and conditions for materials release or waste disposal. Appropriate optimization of material flow should lead to the significant savings of money, disposal capacities or raw material resources. Using a suitable calculation code e.g. OMEGA, the evaluation of the various material management scenarios and selection of the best one, based on the multi-criterion analysis, should be done. (authors)

  10. High level radioactive waste vitrification process equipment component testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemens, D.H.; Heath, W.O.; Larson, D.E.; Craig, S.N.; Berger, D.N.; Goles, R.W.

    1985-04-01

    Remote operability and maintainability of vitrification equipment were assessed under shielded-cell conditions. The equipment tested will be applied to immobilize high-level and transuranic liquid waste slurries that resulted from plutonium production for defense weapons. Equipment tested included: a turntable for handling waste canisters under the melter; a removable discharge cone in the melter overflow section; a thermocouple jumper that extends into a shielded cell; remote instrument and electrical connectors; remote, mechanical, and heat transfer aspects of the melter glass overflow section; a reamer to clean out plugged nozzles in the melter top; a closed circuit camera to view the melter interior; and a device to retrieve samples of the glass product. A test was also conducted to evaluate liquid metals for use in a liquid metal sealing system.

  11. Radioactive waste management in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neubauer Josef

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available At the Austrian Research Centers Seibersdorf, there are several facilities in stalled for treatment of waste of low and intermediate radioactivity level (radwaste. A separate company within Centers, Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf, has been formed recently, acting as a centralized facility for treatment, conditioning and storing of such waste within the country. The relevant treatment technology is applied depending on the waste category. In total about 6900 m3 of solid waste of low and intermediate radioactivity level originating from Austria was treated in the period between 1976 and 2002. Presently, there exists no final repository for radwaste in Austria. A study is under way to identify the structure for a long term storage facility.

  12. The storage center of short life low and intermediate level radioactive wastes; Le centre de stockage des dechets de faible et moyenne activite a vie courte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Situated at 50 km of Troyes, the Aube Center was opened in 1992 in order to take over from the Manche Center, for the surface storage of low life low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. It offers an answer to manage safely theses wastes at an industrial scale during 50 years. (A.L.B.)

  13. Probability analysis of geological processes: a useful tool for the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alessandro, M.; Murray, C.N.; Bertozzi, G.; Girardi, F.

    1980-05-01

    In the development of methods for the assessment of the risk associated with the disposal of radioactive wastes over periods up to 10/sup 6/ years, much discussion has occurred on the use of probability analysis for geological processes. The applicability and limitations of this concept are related to the proper use of the geological data-base and the critical interpretation of probability distributions. The interpretation of geological phenomena in terms of probability is discussed and an example of application to the determination of faulting probability is illustrated. The method has been used for the determination of failure probability of geological segregation of a waste repository in a clay formation.

  14. Radioactive waste storage issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Daniel E. [Colorado Christian Univ., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1994-08-15

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

  15. Radioactive waste management; Gerencia de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-11-15

    This eighth chapter presents the radioactive wastes and waste disposal; classification of radioactive wastes; basis requests of the radioactive waste management; conditions for a radioactive waste disposal; registers and inventories; transport of radioactive wastes from a facility to another and the radioactive waste management plan.

  16. The management of radioactive waste treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kil Jeong; An, Sum Jin; Lee, Kang Moo; Lee, Young Hee; Sohn, Jong Sik; Bae, Sang Min; Kang, Kwon Ho; Sohn, Young Jun; Yim, Kil Sung; Kim, Tae Kuk; Jeong, Kyeong Hwan; Wi, Keum San; Park, Young Yoong; Park, Seung Chul; Lee, Chul Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    The radioactive wastes generated at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in 1994 are about 56 m{sup 3} of liquid waste and 323 drums of solid waste. Liquid waste were treated by the evaporation process, the bituminization process, and the solar evaporation process. The solid wastes were treated in 1994 are about 87 m{sup 3} of liquid waste and 81 drums of solid waste, respectively. 2 tabs., 26 figs., 12 refs. (Author) .new.

  17. Geological Disposal Options for the Radioactive Wastes from a Recycling Process of Spent Nuclear Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. Y.; Choi, H. J.; Lee, M. S.; Jeong, J. T.; Choi, J. W.; Kim, S. K.; Cho, D. K.; Kuk, D. H.; Cha, J. H

    2008-10-15

    The electricity from the nuclear power plants is around 40 % of total required electricity in Korea and according to the energy development plan, the proportion will be raised about 60 % in near future. To implement this plan, the most important factor is the back-end fuel cycle, namely the safe management of the spent fuel or high level radioactive wastes from the nuclear power plants. Various researches are being carried out to manage the spent fuel effectively in the world. In our country, as one of the management alternatives which is more effective and non-proliferation, pyro-processing method is being developed actively to retrieve reusable uranium and TRU, and to reduce the volume of high level waste from a Nuclear power plant. This is a new dry recycling process. In this report, the amount of various wastes and their characteristics are estimated in a Pyro-process. Based on these information, the geological disposal alternatives are developed. According to the amount and the characteristics of each waste, the concepts of waste packages and the disposal container are developed. And also from the characteristics of the radioactivity and the heat generation, multi-layer of the depth is considered to dispose these wastes. The proposed various alternatives in this report can be used as input data for design of the deep geological disposal system. And they will be improved through the application of the real site data and safety assessment in the future. After then, the final disposal concept will be selected with various assessment and the optimization will be carried out.

  18. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    OpenAIRE

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of c...

  19. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiesleben, H.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste - LLW, intermediate-level waste - ILW, high-level waste - HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  20. EXPLORING ENGINEERING CONTROL THROUGH PROCESS MANIPULATION OF RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE TANK CHEMICAL CLEANING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, A.

    2014-04-27

    One method of remediating legacy liquid radioactive waste produced during the cold war, is aggressive in-tank chemical cleaning. Chemical cleaning has successfully reduced the curie content of residual waste heels in large underground storage tanks; however this process generates significant chemical hazards. Mercury is often the bounding hazard due to its extensive use in the separations process that produced the waste. This paper explores how variations in controllable process factors, tank level and temperature, may be manipulated to reduce the hazard potential related to mercury vapor generation. When compared using a multivariate regression analysis, findings indicated that there was a significant relationship between both tank level (p value of 1.65x10{sup -23}) and temperature (p value of 6.39x10{sup -6}) to the mercury vapor concentration in the tank ventilation system. Tank temperature showed the most promise as a controllable parameter for future tank cleaning endeavors. Despite statistically significant relationships, there may not be confidence in the ability to control accident scenarios to below mercury’s IDLH or PAC-III levels for future cleaning initiatives.

  1. [Assessment of Cyto- and Genotoxicity of Underground Waters from the Far Eastern Center on Radioactive Waste Treatment Site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudalova, A A; Pyatkova, S V; Geras'kin, S A; Kiselev, S M; Akhromeev, S V

    2016-01-01

    This study has been completed in the frames of activities on the environment assessment in the vicinity of the Far Eastern center (FEC) on radioactive waste treatment (a branch of Fokino, Sysoev Bay). Underground waters collected at the FEC technical site were surveyed both with instrumental techniques and bioassays. Concentrations of some chemicals (ranged to the third hazard category) in the samples collected are over the permitted limits. Activities of 137Cs and 90Sr in waters amount up to 3.8 and 16.2 Bq/l, correspondingly. The integral pollution index is over 1 in all the samples and could amount up to 165. The Allium-test application allows the detection of the sample points where underground waters have an enhanced mutagenic potential. Dependencies between biological effects and pollution levels are analyzed. The findings obtained could be used for the monitoring optimized and decision making on rehabilitation measures to decrease negative influence of the enterprise on the environment.

  2. Impact of microbial activity on the radioactive waste disposal: long term prediction of biocorrosion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libert, Marie; Schütz, Marta Kerber; Esnault, Loïc; Féron, Damien; Bildstein, Olivier

    2014-06-01

    This study emphasizes different experimental approaches and provides perspectives to apprehend biocorrosion phenomena in the specific disposal environment by investigating microbial activity with regard to the modification of corrosion rate, which in turn can have an impact on the safety of radioactive waste geological disposal. It is found that iron-reducing bacteria are able to use corrosion products such as iron oxides and "dihydrogen" as new energy sources, especially in the disposal environment which contains low amounts of organic matter. Moreover, in the case of sulphate-reducing bacteria, the results show that mixed aerobic and anaerobic conditions are the most hazardous for stainless steel materials, a situation which is likely to occur in the early stage of a geological disposal. Finally, an integrated methodological approach is applied to validate the understanding of the complex processes and to design experiments aiming at the acquisition of kinetic data used in long term predictive modelling of biocorrosion processes.

  3. Physical chemistry characterization of soils of the Storage Center of Radioactive Wastes; Caracterizacion fisico-quimica de suelos del Centro de Almacenamiento de Desechos Radioactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez T, U. O.; Fernandez R, E. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Tecnologico s/n, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Monroy G, F.; Anguiano A, J., E-mail: uohtrejo@gmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (MX)

    2011-11-15

    Any type of waste should be confined so that it does not causes damage to the human health neither the environment and for the storage of the radioactive wastes these actions are the main priority. In the Storage Center of Radioactive Wastes the radioactive wastes generated in Mexico by non energy applications are storage of temporary way. The present study is focused in determining the physical chemistry properties of the lands of the Storage Center of Radioactive Wastes like they are: real density, ph, conductivity percentage of organic matter and percentage of humidity. With what is sought to make a characterization to verify the reaction capacity of the soils in case of a possible flight of radioactive material. The results show that there are different density variations, ph and conductivity in all the soil samples; the ph and conductivity vary with regard to the contact time between the soil and their saturation point in water, for the case of the density due to the characteristics of the same soil; for what is not possible to establish a general profile, but is necessary to know the properties of each soil type more amply. Contrary case is the content of organic matter and humidity since both are in minor proportions. (Author)

  4. Radioactive waste: show time?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoef, E.V. [COVRA N.V., Spanjeweg 1, 4455 TW Nieuwdorp (Netherlands); McCombie, Charles; Chapman, Neil [Arius Association, Taefernstrasse 1, CH-4050 Baden (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    The basic concept within both EC funded SAPIERR I and SAPIERR II projects (FP6) is that of one or more geological repositories developed in collaboration by two or more European countries to accept spent nuclear fuel, vitrified high-level waste and other long-lived radioactive waste from those partner countries. The SAPIERR II project (Strategic Action Plan for Implementation of Regional European Repositories) examines in detail issues that directly influence the practicability and acceptability of such facilities. This paper describes the work in the SAPIERR II project (2006-2008) on the development of a possible practical implementation strategy for shared, regional repositories in Europe and lays out the first steps in implementing that strategy. (authors)

  5. Radioactive waste processing: Borosilicate glasses and synthetic rocks. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The biliography contains citations concerning radioactive waste processing and disposal by incorporation in borosilicate glasses and synthetic rock materials. Formulations, leach tests and evaluations, melting characteristics, phase determinations, scaled-up processes, and process variables are considered. The Synroc process, and general preparation and evaluation studies are also included. Waste vitrification in materials other than borosilicates and synthetic rocks, and waste fixation using cements and bitumens are discussed in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  6. Radioactive waste engineering and management

    CERN Document Server

    Nakayama, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    This book describes essential and effective management for reliably ensuring public safety from radioactive wastes in Japan. This is the first book to cover many aspects of wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle to research and medical use, allowing readers to understand the characterization, treatment and final disposal of generated wastes, performance assessment, institutional systems, and social issues such as intergenerational ethics. Exercises at the end of each chapter help to understand radioactive waste management in context.

  7. Fate and transport processes controlling the migration of hazardous and radioactive materials from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrella, R.

    1994-10-01

    Desert vadose zones have been considered as suitable environments for the safe and long-term isolation of hazardous wastes. Low precipitation, high evapotranspiration and thick unsaturated alluvial deposits commonly found in deserts make them attractive as waste disposal sites. The fate and transport of any contaminant in the subsurface is ultimately determined by the operating retention and transformation processes in the system and the end result of the interactions among them. Retention (sorption) and transformation are the two major processes that affect the amount of a contaminant present and available for transport. Retention processes do not affect the total amount of a contaminant in the soil system, but rather decrease or eliminate the amount available for transport at a given point in time. Sorption reactions retard the contaminant migration. Permanent binding of solute by the sorbent is also possible. These processes and their interactions are controlled by the nature of the hazardous waste, the properties of the porous media and the geochemical and environmental conditions (temperature, moisture and vegetation). The present study summarizes the available data and investigates the fate and transport processes that govern the migration of contaminants from the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). While the site is currently used only for low-level radioactive waste disposal, past practices have included burial of material now considered hazardous. Fundamentals of chemical and biological transformation processes are discussed subsequently, followed by a discussion of relevant results.

  8. MODELING AN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS FOR CESIUM REMOVAL FROM ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE SOLUTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F; Luther Hamm, L; Sebastian Aleman, S; Johnston Michael, J

    2008-08-26

    The performance of spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde ion-exchange resin for the removal of cesium from alkaline radioactive waste solutions has been investigated through computer modeling. Cesium adsorption isotherms were obtained by fitting experimental data using a thermodynamic framework. Results show that ion-exchange is an efficient method for cesium removal from highly alkaline radioactive waste solutions. On average, two 1300 liter columns operating in series are able to treat 690,000 liters of waste with an initial cesium concentration of 0.09 mM in 11 days achieving a decontamination factor of over 50,000. The study also tested the sensitivity of ion-exchange column performance to variations in flow rate, temperature and column dimensions. Modeling results can be used to optimize design of the ion exchange system.

  9. Developing a deliberative process for ethically informed radioactive waste management decision making in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, Matthew [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Risk

    2006-09-15

    In the UK and internationally, there is widespread recognition that decision-making processes over long-term radioactive waste management are subject to a broad array of inherent technical, political, social, psychological and ethical issues. This paper seeks to specifically address the ethical aspects of long-term radioactive waste management and siting by proposing a framework for evaluating and integrating stakeholders' ethical values into a political decision-making process. Evaluation and integration of the ethical issues and related values takes place within the context of a comprehensive program of stakeholder engagement; a process necessary in fostering support amongst stakeholder groups and potentially affected communities - allowing legitimate and defensible political decisions to be made. In pluralistic democracies such as the UK, there is a recognition that a broad array of ethical values are held by the affected stakeholder groups, and the tools used to integrate ethical values into a stakeholder engagement process must be designed to reflect this pattern of moral diversity. This paper outlines the implications of this diversity for participatory decision making and addresses it by outlining a 'tool' or procedure for stakeholder deliberation as part of a broader 'toolbox' of deliberative methods: a tool that allows not only the elicitation of stakeholders' moral values, but also a critical re-evaluation of those values in light of ethical principles agreed upon by the participants themselves. Drawing upon the theoretical framework of ethical pragmatism, the goal is to turn what philosopher John Rawls has termed an ethical 'reflective equilibrium' into a practical procedure for stakeholder deliberation. The paper describes how the model of reflective equilibrium can be used as a basis for designing this deliberative procedure, in a way that is multi-staged and iterative in nature; with a goal to providing the

  10. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  11. Solid Waste Processing Center Primary Opening Cells Systems, Equipment and Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.; Mullen, O Dennis; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2006-04-17

    This document addresses the remote systems and design integration aspects of the development of the Solid Waste Processing Center (SWPC), a facility to remotely open, sort, size reduce, and repackage mixed low-level waste (MLLW) and transuranic (TRU)/TRU mixed waste that is either contact-handled (CH) waste in large containers or remote-handled (RH) waste in various-sized packages.

  12. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  13. Process for converting sodium nitrate-containing, caustic liquid radioactive wastes to solid insoluble products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Gary S.; Brownell, Lloyd E.

    1977-01-01

    A method for converting sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive wastes to a solid, relatively insoluble, thermally stable form is provided and comprises the steps of reacting powdered aluminum silicate clay, e.g., kaolin, bentonite, dickite, halloysite, pyrophyllite, etc., with the sodium nitrate-containing radioactive wastes which have a caustic concentration of about 3 to 7 M at a temperature of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C to thereby entrap the dissolved radioactive salts in the aluminosilicate matrix. In one embodiment the sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive liquid waste, such as neutralized Purex-type waste, or salts or oxide produced by evaporation or calcination of these liquid wastes (e.g., anhydrous salt cake) is converted at a temperature within the range of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C to the solid mineral form-cancrinite having an approximate chemical formula 2(NaAlSiO.sub.4) .sup.. xSalt.sup.. y H.sub.2 O with x = 0.52 and y = 0.68 when the entrapped salt is NaNO.sub.3. In another embodiment the sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive liquid is reacted with the powdered aluminum silicate clay at a temperature within the range of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C, the resulting reaction product is air dried eitheras loose powder or molded shapes (e.g., bricks) and then fired at a temperature of at least 600.degree. C to form the solid mineral form-nepheline which has the approximate chemical formula of NaAlSiO.sub.4. The leach rate of the entrapped radioactive salts with distilled water is reduced essentially to that of the aluminosilicate lattice which is very low, e.g., in the range of 10.sup.-.sup.2 to 10.sup.-.sup.4 g/cm.sup.2 -- day for cancrinite and 10.sup.-.sup.3 to 10.sup.-.sup.5 g/cm.sup.2 -- day for nepheline.

  14. Radioactive Air Emmission Notice of Construction (NOC) for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MENARD, N.M.

    2000-12-01

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC) pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to modify pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07 for the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility. The rewrite of this NOC incorporates all the approved revisions (Sections 5.0, 6.0, 8.0, and 9.0), a revised potential to emit (PTE) based on the revised maximally exposed individual (MEI) (Sections 8.0, 10.0, 11.0, 12.0, 13.0, 14.0, and 15.0), the results of a study on fugitive emissions (Sections 6.0, 10.0, and 15.0), and reflects the current operating conditions at the WRAP Facility (Section 5.0). This NOC replaces DOE/RL-93-15 and DOE/RL-93-16 in their entirety. The primary function of the WRAP Facility is to examine, assay, characterize, treat, verify, and repackage radioactive material and mixed waste. There are two sources of emissions from the WRAP Facility: stack emissions and fugitive emissions. The stack emissions have an unabated total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) estimate to the hypothetical offsite MEI of 1.13 E+02 millirem per year. The abated TEDE for the stack emissions is estimated at 5.63 E-02 millirem per year to the MEI. The fugitive emissions have an unabated TEDE estimate to the hypothetical offsite MEI of 5.87 E-04. There is no abatement for the fugitive emissions.

  15. Progress on Radioactive Waste Treatment Facilities Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, five projects were undertaken by radioactive waste projects management department, which are "Cold Commissioning of the Pilot Project on Radioactive Waste Retrieval and Conditioning (abbreviation 'Pilot Project')", "Radioactive Ventilation Project Construction (abbreviation 'Ventilation

  16. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, B.; Waltz, R.

    2009-06-11

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2008 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report.

  17. SELF SINTERING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, T.N.; Johnson, J.R.; Struxness, E.G.; Morgan, K.Z.

    1959-12-29

    A method is described for disposal of radioactive liquid waste materials. The wastes are mixed with clays and fluxes to form a ceramic slip and disposed in a thermally insulated container in a layer. The temperature of the layer rises due to conversion of the energy of radioactivity to heat boillng off the liquid to fomn a dry mass. The dry mass is then covered with thermal insulation, and the mass is self-sintered into a leach-resistant ceramic cake by further conversion of the energy of radioactivity to heat.

  18. Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal——Application Process for Immobilization of Spent Organic Ion Exchanger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINMei-qiong; GANXue-ying; BAOLiang-jin; CHENHui

    2003-01-01

    Cementation process used ASC matrix is developed by CIAE. The primary objective of the project is to provide 200 L drum scale process parameter and make an improved formulation of waste form.Scientific researchers of Tsinghua take the responsibility for improving on formulation in final waste form and ensuring quality can meet requirement of GB 14569.1-93.

  19. Repackaging of High Fissile TRU Waste at the Transuranic Waste Processing Center - 13240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakley, Brian; Heacker, Fred [WAI, TRU Waste Processing Center, 100 WIPP Road Lenoir City, TN 37771 (United States); McMillan, Bill [DOE, Oak Ridge Operations, Bldg. 2714, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Twenty-six drums of high fissile transuranic (TRU) waste from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operations were declared waste in the mid-1980's and placed in storage with the legacy TRU waste inventory for future treatment and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Repackaging and treatment of the waste at the TRU Waste Packaging Center (TWPC) will require the installation of additional equipment and capabilities to address the hazards for handling and repackaging the waste compared to typical Contact Handled (CH) TRU waste that is processed at the TWPC, including potential hydrogen accumulation in legacy 6M/2R packaging configurations, potential presence of reactive plutonium hydrides, and significant low energy gamma radiation dose rates. All of the waste is anticipated to be repackaged at the TWPC and certified for disposal at WIPP. The waste is currently packaged in multiple layers of containers which presents additional challenges for repackaging activities due to the potential for the accumulation of hydrogen gas in the container headspace in quantities than could exceed the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL). The outer container for each waste package is a stainless steel 0.21 m{sup 3} (55-gal) drum which contains either a 0.04 m{sup 3} or 0.06 m{sup 3} (10-gal or 15-gal) 6M drum. The inner 2R container in each 6M drum is ∼12 cm (5 in) outside diameter x 30-36 cm (12-14 in) long and is considered to be a > 4 liter sealed container relative to TRU waste packaging criteria. Inside the 2R containers are multiple configurations of food pack cans, pipe nipples, and welded capsules. The waste contains significant quantities of high burn-up plutonium oxides and metals with a heavy weight percentage of higher atomic mass isotopes and the subsequent in-growth of significant quantities of americium. Significant low energy gamma radiation is expected to be present due to the americium in-growth. Radiation dose rates on inner containers are estimated

  20. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    Volume 2 contains chapters 6 through 10: environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plant; environmental effects related to transporting radioactive wastes associated with LWR fuel reprocessing and fabrication; environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - retrievable waste storage facility; environmental effects related to geologic isolation of LWR fuel reprocessing wastes; and integrated systems for commercial radioactive waste management. (LK)

  1. National inventory of radioactive wastes; Inventaire national des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    There are in France 1064 sites corresponding to radioactive waste holders that appear in this radioactive waste inventory. We find the eighteen sites of E.D.F. nuclear power plants, The Cogema mine sites, the Cogema reprocessing plants, The Cea storages, the different factories and enterprises of nuclear industry, the sites of non nuclear industry, the Andra centers, decommissioned installations, disposals with low level radioactive wastes, sealed sources distributors, national defence. (N.C.). 16 refs.

  2. Clays in radioactive waste disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Delage, Pierre; Cui, Yu-Jun; Tang, Anh-Minh

    2010-01-01

    Clays and argillites are considered in some countries as possible host rocks for nuclear waste disposal at great depth. The use of compacted swelling clays as engineered barriers is also considered within the framework of the multi-barrier concept. In relation to these concepts, various research programs have been conducted to assess the thermo-hydro-mechanical properties of radioactive waste disposal at great depth. After introducing the concepts of waste isolation developed in Belgium, Fran...

  3. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    EM`s Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form.

  4. [RADIATION HYGIENIC MONITORING AT THE AREA OF THE LOCATION OF THE FAR EASTERN CENTER FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT (FEC "DALRAO"--BRANCH OF FSUE "ROSRAO")].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, S M; Shandala, N K; Akhromeev, S V; Gimadova, T I; Seregin, V A; Titov, A V; Biryukova, N G

    2015-01-01

    Intensification ofactivities in the field of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and radioactive waste (RW) management in the Far East region of Russia assumes an increase of the environmental load on the territories adjacent to the enterprise and settlements. To ensure radiation safety during works on SNF and radioactive waste management in the standard mode of operation and during the rehabilitation works in the contaminated territories, there is need for the optimization of the existing system of radiation-hygienic monitoring, aimed at the implementation of complex dynamic observation of parameters of radiation-hygienic situation and radiation amount of the population living in the vicinity of the Far Eastern Center for Radioactive Waste Management (FEC "DALRAO"). To solve this problem there is required a significant amount of total and enough structured information on the character of the formation of the radiation situation, the potential ways of the spread of man-made pollution to the surrounding area, determining the radiation load on the population living in the vicinity of the object. In this paper there are presented the results of field studies of the radiation situation at the plant FEC "DALRAO", which were obtained during the course of expedition trips in 2009-2012.

  5. Indian programme on radioactive waste management

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Wattal

    2013-10-01

    The primary objective of radioactive waste management is protection of human health, environment and future generation. This article describes, briefly, the Indian programme on management of different radioactive wastes arising in the entire nuclear fuel cycle adhering to this objective.

  6. Rates and mechanisms of radioactive release and retention inside a waste disposal canister - in Can Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oversby, V.M. (ed.) [and others

    2003-10-01

    the system that will not be present under long term disposal conditions. A simulation of long-term conditions can be done using uranium dioxide that contains a short-lived isotope of uranium, but this will not include the effects of fission product and higher actinide elements on the behaviour of the spent fuel. We designed a project that had as its objective to improve the scientific understanding of the processes that control release of radioactive species from spent fuel inside a disposal canister and the chemical changes in those species that might limit release of radioactivity from the canister. If the mechanisms that control dissolution of the fuel matrix, including self-irradiation effects, can be clarified, a more realistic assessment of the long-term behaviour of spent fuel under disposal conditions can be made. By removing uncertainties concerning waste form performance, a better assessment of the individual and collective role of the engineered barriers can be made. To achieve the overall objective of the project, the following scientific and technical objectives were set. 1. Measure the actual rate of matrix dissolution of uranium dioxide under oxidising and reducing conditions. 2. Measure the effect of alpha radiolysis on the dissolution rate of uranium dioxide under oxidising and reducing conditions. 3. Measure the dissolution rate of the matrix material of spent fuel and thereby determine the additional effects of beta and gamma radiation on uranium dioxide dissolution rate under oxidising and reducing conditions. 4. Measure the ability of actively corroding iron to reduce oxidised U(VI) to U(IV) when U is present as the complex ion uranyl carbonate. 5. Measure the rate of reduction of Np(V) species in the presence of actively corroding iron. 6. Calculate the expected equilibrium and steady state concentrations of U under the conditions of the experiments used for meeting objectives 1 through 3 and compare the calculated results with those measured in

  7. Crystal-Tolerant Glass Approach For Mitigation Of Crystal Accumulation In Continuous Melters Processing Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States); Rodriguez, Carmen P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lang, Jesse B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huckleberry, Adam R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Matyas, Josef [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Owen, Antoinette T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-08-28

    High-level radioactive waste melters are projected to operate in an inefficient manner as they are subjected to artificial constraints, such as minimum liquidus temperature (T{sub L}) or maximum equilibrium fraction of crystallinity at a given temperature. These constraints substantially limit waste loading, but were imposed to prevent clogging of the melter with spinel crystals [(Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn)(Fe, Cr){sub 2}O{sub 4}]. In the melter, the glass discharge riser is the most likely location for crystal accumulation during idling because of low glass temperatures, stagnant melts, and small diameter. To address this problem, a series of lab-scale crucible tests were performed with specially formulated glasses to simulate accumulation of spinel in the riser. Thicknesses of accumulated layers were incorporated into empirical model of spinel settling. In addition, T{sub L} of glasses was measured and impact of particle agglomeration on accumulation rate was evaluated. Empirical model predicted well the accumulation of single crystals and/or smallscale agglomerates, but, excessive agglomeration observed in high-Ni-Fe glass resulted in an under-prediction of accumulated layers, which gradually worsen over time as an increased number of agglomerates formed. Accumulation rate of ~14.9 +- 1 nm/s determined for this glass will result in ~26 mm thick layer in 20 days of melter idling.

  8. Implementation of Information Management System for Radiation Safety of Personnel at the Russian Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management 'SevRAO' - 13131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chizhov, K.; Simakov, A.; Seregin, V.; Kudrin, I.; Shandala, N.; Tsovyanov, A.; Kryuchkov, V. [Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency, RF Ministry of Health and Social Development. 46, Zhivopisnaya St., Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation); Krasnoschekov, A.; Kosnikov, A. [Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management ' SevRAO' - a branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise ' Enterprise for Radioactive Waste Management' ' RosRAO' 183017, Murmansk, Lobova st., 100 (Russian Federation); Kemsky, I. [Regional management - 120 of the Federal Medical-Biological Agency, 184682, Snezhnogorsk, Valentina Biryukova St., 5/1 (Russian Federation); Sneve, M. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Postboks 55, 1332 Oesteraas (Norway)

    2013-07-01

    The report is an overview of the information-analytical system designed to assure radiation safety of workers. The system was implemented in the Northwest Radioactive Waste Management Center 'SevRAO' (which is a branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise 'Radioactive Waste Management Enterprise RosRAO'). The center is located in the Northwest Russia. In respect to 'SevRAO', the Federal Medical-Biological Agency is the regulatory body, which deals with issues of radiation control. The main document to regulate radiation control is 'Reference levels of radiation factors in radioactive wastes management center'. This document contains about 250 parameters. We have developed a software tool to simplify control of these parameters. The software includes: input interface, the database, dose calculating module and analytical block. Input interface is used to enter radiation environment data. Dose calculating module calculates the dose on the route. Analytical block optimizes and analyzes radiation situation maps. Much attention is paid to the GUI and graphical representation of results. The operator can enter the route at the industrial site or watch the fluctuations of the dose rate field on the map. Most of the results are presented in a visual form. Here we present some analytical tasks, such as comparison of the dose rate in some point with control levels at this point, to be solved for the purpose of radiation safety control. The program helps to identify points making the largest contribution to the collective dose of the personnel. The tool can automatically calculate the route with the lowest dose, compare and choose the best route. The program uses several options to visualize the radiation environment at the industrial site. This system will be useful for radiation monitoring services during the operation, planning of works and development of scenarios. The paper presents some applications of this system on real data

  9. Radioactive Waste Management BasisApril 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, B K

    2011-08-31

    This Radioactive Waste Management Basis (RWMB) documents radioactive waste management practices adopted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  10. Annual Radioactive Waste Tank Inspection Program - 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNatt, F.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1997 to evaluate these vessels, and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report.

  11. Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program: 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNatt, F.G. Sr.

    1996-04-01

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1995 to evaluate these vessels and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report

  12. Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program - 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNatt, F.G.

    1997-04-01

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1996 to evaluate these vessels, and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed, are the subject of this report.

  13. Geologic processes in the RWMC area, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: Implications for long term stability and soil erosion at the radioactive waste management complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, W.R.; Tullis, J.A.; Smith, R.P. [and others

    1995-09-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is the disposal and storage facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Transuranic waste and mixed wastes were also disposed at the RWMC until 1970. It is located in the southwestern part of the INEL about 80 km west of Idaho Falls, Idaho. The INEL occupies a portion of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), a low-relief, basalt, and sediment-floored basin within the northern Rocky Mountains and northeastern Basin and Range Province. It is a cool and semiarid, sagebrush steppe desert characterized by irregular, rolling terrain. The RWMC began disposal of INEL-generated wastes in 1952, and since 1954, wastes have been accepted from other Federal facilities. Much of the waste is buried in shallow trenches, pits, and soil vaults. Until about 1970, trenches and pits were excavated to the basalt surface, leaving no sediments between the waste and the top of the basalt. Since 1970, a layer of sediment (about 1 m) has been left between the waste and the basalt. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has developed regulations specific to radioactive-waste disposal, including environmental standards and performance objectives. The regulation applicable to all DOE facilities is DOE Order 5820.2A (Radioactive Waste Management). An important consideration for the performance assessment of the RWMC is the long-term geomorphic stability of the site. Several investigators have identified geologic processes and events that could disrupt a radioactive waste disposal facility. Examples of these {open_quotes}geomorphic hazards{close_quotes} include changes in stream discharge, sediment load, and base level, which may result from climate change, tectonic processes, or magmatic processes. In the performance assessment, these hazards are incorporated into scenarios that may affect the future performance of the RWMC.

  14. Guide to radioactive waste management literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houser, B.L.; Holoway, C.F.; Madewell, D.G.

    1977-10-01

    Increased public concern about radioactive waste management has called attention to this aspect of the nuclear fuel cycle. Socio-economic planning and technical development are being undertaken to assure that such wastes will be managed safely. This Guide to Radioactive Waste Management Literature has been compiled to serve scientists, engineers, administrators, legislators, and private citizens by directing them to sources of information on various aspects of the subject. References were selected from about 6000 documents on waste management in the computerized information centers in Oak Ridge. The documents were selected, examined, indexed, and abstracted between 1966-1976 by several knowledgeable indexers, principally at the Nuclear Safety Information Center. The selected references were further indexed and classified into 12 categories. Each category is discussed in enough detail to give some understandng of present technology in various phases of waste management and some appreciation of the attendant issues and problems. The bibliographic part of this guide exists in computerized form in the Health Physics Information System and is available through the Oak Ridge Information Center Complex for searching from remote terminals.

  15. A two-dimensional dual-modality tomography technique for a radioactive waste separation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattle, Brian A. [Nexia Solutions Limited, Hinton House, Risley, Warrington WA3 6AS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: brian.a.cattle@nexiasolutions.com; West, Robert M. [Nexia Solutions University Research Alliance, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-15

    The monitoring of a waste separation process in the nuclear power industry is considered. Recent advances in gamma ray emission and electrical impedance tomography mean that it is now feasible to unite these two modalities into a novel dual-modality monitoring method. This paper considers a simple model problem for the identification of a boundary between two distinct waste streams in a semi-continuous rotation separator. The simplicity of the problem affords the opportunity to demonstrate the general feasibility of the approach whilst avoiding unnecessary complications.

  16. Radioactive waste management in the former USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1992-06-01

    Radioactive waste materials--and the methods being used to treat, process, store, transport, and dispose of them--have come under increased scrutiny over last decade, both nationally and internationally. Nuclear waste practices in the former Soviet Union, arguably the world's largest nuclear waste management system, are of obvious interest and may affect practices in other countries. In addition, poor waste management practices are causing increasing technical, political, and economic problems for the Soviet Union, and this will undoubtedly influence future strategies. this report was prepared as part of a continuing effort to gain a better understanding of the radioactive waste management program in the former Soviet Union. the scope of this study covers all publicly known radioactive waste management activities in the former Soviet Union as of April 1992, and is based on a review of a wide variety of literature sources, including documents, meeting presentations, and data base searches of worldwide press releases. The study focuses primarily on nuclear waste management activities in the former Soviet Union, but relevant background information on nuclear reactors is also provided in appendixes.

  17. Radioactive waste caracterisation by neutron activation

    OpenAIRE

    Nicol, Tangi

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear activities produce radioactive wastes classified following their radioactive level and decay time. An accurate characterization is necessary for efficient classification and management. Medium and high level wastes containing long lived radioactive isotopes will be stored in deep geological storage for hundreds of thousands years. At the end of this period, it is essential to ensure that the wastes do not represent any risk for humans and environment, not only from radioactive point o...

  18. Approach for Configuring a Standardized Vessel for Processing Radioactive Waste Slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Minette, Michael J.; Holton, Langdon K.

    2015-09-10

    A standardized vessel design is being considered at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) that is under construction at Hanford, Washington. The standardized vessel design will be used for storing, blending, and chemical processing of slurries that exhibit a variable process feed including Newtonian to non-Newtonian rheologies over a range of solids loadings. Developing a standardized vessel is advantageous and reduces the testing required to evaluate the performance of the design. The objectives of this paper are to: 1) present a design strategy for developing a standard vessel mixing system design for the pretreatment portion of the waste treatment plant that must process rheologically and physically challenging process streams, 2) identify performance criteria that the design for the standard vessel must satisfy, 3) present parameters that are to be used for assessing the performance criteria, and 4) describe operation of the selected technology. Vessel design performance will be assessed for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian simulants which represent a range of waste types expected during operation. Desired conditions for the vessel operations are the ability to shear the slurry so that flammable gas does not accumulate within the vessel, that settled solids will be mobilized, that contents can be blended, and that contents can be transferred from the vessel. A strategy is presented for adjusting the vessel configuration to ensure that all these conditions are met.

  19. Identification of tetraphenylborate radiolysis products in a simulated feedstock for radioactive waste processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eibling, R.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Bartlett, M.G.; Carlson, R.E.; Testino, S.A. Jr.; Kunkel, G.J.; Browner, R.F.; Busch, K.L. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    1994-10-01

    The first step towards immobilization of the soluble radioactive species in borosilicate glass is the addition of sodium tetraphenylborate (TPB) and sodium titanate to the radioactive aqueous solution. Initial studies of the TPB hydrolysis process have found that some component of the radiolysis mixture inactivates the Cu catalyst. The interaction of organic materials with the catalyst, and the subsequent interference with the hydrolysis process, would have presented problems with the use of the vitrification process. Prevention of the catalyst deactivation is obtained by washing the irradiated TPB precipitate in the Late Wash Facility prior to hydrolysis to remove the soluble radiolysis products. Identification of the organic radiolysis products, their distribution in the Late Wash Facility, and their interactions with the Cu catalyst has become an important analytical issue. To further investigate the reaction products of the TPB precipitation process, a simulated feedstock was created from compounds known to be present in the starting materials. This simulated feedstock was precipitated with sodium TPB and then exposed to Co-60 gamma radiation to simulate two years of additional storage time prior to the hydrolysis process. The irradiated product was divided into two parts, the filtered supernatant liquid and the precipitate slurry, which contains the TPB and the solid sodium titanate. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry, ion chromatography, and high performance liquid chromatography, over 50 organic and inorganic species have been identified in the aqueous portion of a simulated feedstock for TPB hydrolysis. The major organic species present are benzene, phenol, benzamide and a variety of substituted phenylphenols. The major inorganic species present are sodium, nitrite, and oxalate ions.

  20. Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Jeffrey Whealdon; Nenni, Joseph A; Timothy S. Yoder

    2003-04-01

    This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual.” This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

  1. Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Storage Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, J.W.; Nenni, J.A.; Yoder, T.S.

    2003-04-22

    This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, ''Radioactive Waste Management Manual.'' This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

  2. Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Storage Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Jeffrey W.

    2010-08-12

    This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual.” This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. This report is an update, and replaces the previous report by the same title issued April 2003. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility.

  3. TFA'Expo Exhibition on the next low level radioactive wastes storage center Andra - Aube Center. January - june 2003; TFA'Expo exposition sur le futur Centre de stockage de dechets de tres faible activite Andra - Centre de l'Aube. Janvier - Juin 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In order to inform the public on the nuclear installations, the Andra this document on the next storage Center of the Aube, for the low level radioactive wastes. The six parts present, the wastes characteristics, the wastes management, the choice of the site, the organization of the TFA (very low activity wastes), the environmental impacts and the economical impacts. (A.L.B.)

  4. Vitrification of hazardous and radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickford, D.F.; Schumacher, R.

    1995-12-31

    Vitrification offers many attractive waste stabilization options. Versatility of waste compositions, as well as the inherent durability of a glass waste form, have made vitrification the treatment of choice for high-level radioactive wastes. Adapting the technology to other hazardous and radioactive waste streams will provide an environmentally acceptable solution to many of the waste challenges that face the public today. This document reviews various types and technologies involved in vitrification.

  5. Radioactive Waste Management in A Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Shoukat; Syed, AT; Ahmad, Reyaz; Rather, Tanveer A; Ajaz, M.; Jan, FA

    2010-01-01

    Most of the tertiary care hospitals use radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Safe disposal of the radioactive waste is a vital component of the overall management of the hospital waste. An important objective in radioactive waste management is to ensure that the radiation exposure to an individual (Public, Radiation worker, Patient) and the environment does not exceed the prescribed safe limits. Disposal of Radioactive waste in public domain is undertaken in accordance w...

  6. Selection of Steady-State Process Simulation Software to Optimize Treatment of Radioactive and Hazardous Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Todd Travis; Barnes, Charles Marshall; Lauerhass, Lance; Taylor, Dean Dalton

    2001-06-01

    The process used for selecting a steady-state process simulator under conditions of high uncertainty and limited time is described. Multiple waste forms, treatment ambiguity, and the uniqueness of both the waste chemistries and alternative treatment technologies result in a large set of potential technical requirements that no commercial simulator can totally satisfy. The aim of the selection process was two-fold. First, determine the steady-state simulation software that best, albeit not completely, satisfies the requirements envelope. And second, determine if the best is good enough to justify the cost. Twelve simulators were investigated with varying degrees of scrutiny. The candidate list was narrowed to three final contenders: ASPEN Plus 10.2, PRO/II 5.11, and CHEMCAD 5.1.0. It was concluded from "road tests" that ASPEN Plus appears to satisfy the project's technical requirements the best and is worth acquiring. The final software decisions provide flexibility: they involve annual rather than multi-year licensing, and they include periodic re-assessment.

  7. Selection of Steady-State Process Simulation Software to Optimize Treatment of Radioactive and Hazardous Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, T. T.; Barnes, C. M.; Lauerhass, L.; Taylor, D. D.

    2001-06-01

    The process used for selecting a steady-state process simulator under conditions of high uncertainty and limited time is described. Multiple waste forms, treatment ambiguity, and the uniqueness of both the waste chemistries and alternative treatment technologies result in a large set of potential technical requirements that no commercial simulator can totally satisfy. The aim of the selection process was two-fold. First, determine the steady-state simulation software that best, albeit not completely, satisfies the requirements envelope. And second, determine if the best is good enough to justify the cost. Twelve simulators were investigated with varying degrees of scrutiny. The candidate list was narrowed to three final contenders: ASPEN Plus 10.2, PRO/II 5.11, and CHEMCAD 5.1.0. It was concluded from ''road tests'' that ASPEN Plus appears to satisfy the project's technical requirements the best and is worth acquiring. The final software decisions provide flexibility: they involve annual rather than multi-year licensing, and they include periodic re-assessment.

  8. Note from the Radioactive Waste Section

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Section of the Radiation Protection Group wishes to announce that the radioactive waste treatment centre will be closed on Friday, 19 December. In addition, waste reception will be limited to a strict minimum on Thursday, 18 December. Users of the centre are requested to adjust their plans accordingly. For more information, call 73875.

  9. Site selection process for radioactive waste repository (radioactive facility) in Cuba as a fundamental safety criteria; Proceso de seleccion de emplazamiento como criterio fundamental de la seguridad para el repositorio de desechos radiactivos (instalacion radiactiva) en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vital, Jose Luis Peralta; Castillo, Reinaldo Gil; Chales Suarez, Gustavo; Rodriguez Reyes, Aymee [Centro de Tecnologia Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba)

    1999-11-01

    The paper show the process of search carried out for the selection of the safest site in the National territory, in order to sitting the Facility (Repository) that will disposal the low and intermediate level radioactive wastes, as well as the possible Storage Facility for nuclear spent Fuel (radioactive wastes of high activity). We summarize the obtained Methodology and the Criterions of exclusion adopted for the development of the Process of site selection, as well as the current condition of the researches that will permit the obtaining of the nominative objectives. (author) 18 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. The Radioactive Waste Management at Studsvik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedlund, R.; Lindskog, A.

    1966-04-15

    The report was originally prepared as a contribution to the discussions in an IAEA panel on economics of radioactive waste management held in Vienna from 13 - 17 December 1965. It contains the answers and comments to the questions of a questionnaire for the panel concerning the various operations associated with the management (collection, transport, treatment, discharge, storage, and operational monitoring) of: - radioactive liquid wastes, except high-level effluents from reactor fuel recovering operations; - solid wastes, except those produced from treatment of high level wastes; - gaseous wastes produced from treatment of the foregoing liquid and solid wastes; - equipment decontamination facilities and radioactive laundries.

  11. Transmutation of radioactive nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toor, A; Buck, R

    2000-03-15

    years. One approach to the RNW storage problem has been to transmute the radioactive elements into other radioactive isotopes with much shorter half-lives. Transmutation of both RNW components using neutrons has been discussed and studied over the past four decades. Most transmutation studies have examined the feasibility of using neutron-induced reactions where the neutrons would be provided by accelerator-based spallation neutron sources, tokamak fusion reactors, sub-critical fission reactors and other novel concepts. Studies have shown that all proposed transmutation processes to treat RNW using neutron reactions are deficient or marginal at best from the point of view of energy consumption and/or cost. We suggest an alternative approach that has not been considered to date: the transmutation of RNW elements using high-energy photons or gamma rays. The photo-disintegration of RNW may provide an effective way to treat reprocessed waste; waste that has been chemically separated or the residual waste left over after neutron processing. Photo-disintegration is attractive in that any isotope can be transmuted. This approach is now potentially practical because of the development of micropole undulators (MPUs) that allow us to use small storage rings to economically generate photons with gamma-ray energies and to tune these ''gamma rays'' to the peak of the cross-section resonance for various RNW elements. Because the cross sections for all RNW nuclei have a broad peak with the maximum in the 12-18 MeV range, a single MPU could be used to treat both actinide and fission fragment components of RNW. The goal of this study is to make estimates of the reaction rates and energy efficiency of the transmutation of typical RNW elements using gamma rays to establish whether or not gamma-ray transmutation should be examined as a viable alternative solution to RNW warranting further study.

  12. User interface features of information-analytical system for radiation safety of personnel on the example of the northwest center for radioactive waste management 'SEVRAO'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chizhov, K.; Kryuchkov, V.; Simakov, A.; Tsovyanov, A. [Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center (Russian Federation); Sneve, M. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA (Norway); Krasnoshekov, A.; Kosnikov, A. [Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management ' SevRAO' - a branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise ' Enterprise for Radioactive Waste Management ' RosRAO' (Russian Federation); Kemsky, I. [Regional management No. 120 of the Federal Medical-Biological Agency (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Algorithms for radiation protection services and regulators were developed. They provide guidelines for choosing actions in planning the elimination of accidents. Method is based on work with a grid of radiation field, which is obtained by interpolation of the measured values. Based on these algorithms, was developed a software with a graphical representation of the original data and the results of calculations. It allows us to evaluate the quality of information received from the monitoring team, search for the best routes on site and find points that make a maximum contribution to the collective dose. Regulator should control about 250 parameters of the radiation situation. Basically, this is a list of control points and the reference values of dose rate at these points for the technical area, buildings and structures located at the industrial site. For each point are two control values - the dose rate at rest and during work. It is more important for regulator to compare the radiation situation with control levels, but not only to see radiation situation itself. Our software graphically present information as areas on the map. Regulator with a glance at the screen can see where levels have been exceeded. It has shown that an important condition for the software implementation is that when facility use it, the operator's efficiency increases, while working time stay constant or reduces. This statement applies for input data into the database, mathematical analysis and present the results in a report drawn up in accordance with the rules of the company. On the example of the Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management 'SevRAO' shown that the installation of information-analytical system helped to reduce the time for entering and processing data on the radiation measurements. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  13. Numerical analysis of thermal process in the near field around vertical disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.G. Zhao; H. Shao; H. Kunz; J. Wang; R. Su; Y.M. Liu

    2014-01-01

    For deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in granite, the temperature on the HLW canisters is commonly designed to be lower than 100◦C. This criterion dictates the dimension of the repository. Based on the concept of HLW disposal in vertical boreholes, thermal process in the near field (host rock and buffer) surrounding HLW canisters has been simulated by using different methods. The results are drawn as follows:(a) the initial heat power of HLW canisters is the most important and sensitive parameter for evolution of temperature field;(b) the thermal properties and variations of the host rock, the engineered buffer, and possible gaps between canister and buffer and host rock are the additional key factors governing the heat transformation;(c) the gaps width and the filling by water or air determine the temperature offsets between them.

  14. Numerical analysis of thermal process in the near field around vertical disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.G. Zhao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available For deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW in granite, the temperature on the HLW canisters is commonly designed to be lower than 100 °C. This criterion dictates the dimension of the repository. Based on the concept of HLW disposal in vertical boreholes, thermal process in the near field (host rock and buffer surrounding HLW canisters has been simulated by using different methods. The results are drawn as follows: (a the initial heat power of HLW canisters is the most important and sensitive parameter for evolution of temperature field; (b the thermal properties and variations of the host rock, the engineered buffer, and possible gaps between canister and buffer and host rock are the additional key factors governing the heat transformation; (c the gaps width and the filling by water or air determine the temperature offsets between them.

  15. Technical guide management of waste materials with radioactive contents in biological research centers; Guia tecnica de gestion de materiales residuales con contenido radiactivo en centro de investigacion biologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias, M. T.; Pulido, J.; Sastre, G.; Sanchez, A.; Usera, F.

    2013-07-01

    The guide presented offers significant improvements in the management procedures of waste materials with radioactive contents, in addition to unifying modes of action on radioactive facilities for research and teaching. The guide has been developed within the activities of the SEPR in collaboration with ENRESA. (Author)

  16. MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘自强

    1994-01-01

    The policy and principles on management of radioactive wastes are stipulated.Cement solidification and bituminization unit has come into trial run.Solid radioactive waste is stored in tentative storage vault built in each of nuclear facilities.Seventeen storages associated with applications of nuclear technology and radioisotopes have been built for provinces.Disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes pursues the policy of “regional disposal”.Four repositories have been planned to be built in northwest.southwest,south and east China respectively.A program for treatment and disposal of high level radioactive waste has been made.

  17. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-2000 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Mc Cray, John Alan; Kirkham, Robert John; Pao, Jenn Hai; Argyle, Mark Don; Lauerhass, Lance; Bendixsen, Carl Lee; Hinckley, Steve Harold

    2000-11-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program anticipated that grouting will be used for disposal of low-level and transuranic wastes generated at the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC). During fiscal year 2000, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed using silica gel and other absorbents to solidify sodium-bearing wastes. A feasibility study and conceptual design were completed for the construction of a grout pilot plant for simulated wastes and demonstration facility for actual wastes.

  18. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-2000 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, A.K.; McCray, J.A.; Kirkham, R.J.; Pao, J.; Argyle, M.D.; Lauerhass, L.; Bendixsen, C.L.; Hinckley, S.H.

    2000-10-31

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program anticipated that grouting will be used for disposal of low-level and transuranic wastes generated at the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC). During fiscal year 2000, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed using silica gel and other absorbents to solidify sodium-bearing wastes. A feasibility study and conceptual design were completed for the construction of a grout pilot plant for simulated wastes and demonstration facility for actual wastes.

  19. Experimental Simulation of the Radionuclide Behaviour in the Process of Creating Additional Safety Barriers in Solid Radioactive Waste Repositories Containing Irradiated Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavliuk, A. O.; Kotlyarevskiy, S. G.; Bespala, E. V.; Zakarova, E. V.; Rodygina, N. I.; Ermolaev, V. M.; Proshin, I. M.; Volkova, A.

    2016-08-01

    Results of the experimental modeling of radionuclide behavior when creating additional safety barriers in solid radioactive waste repositories are presented. The experiments were run on the repository mockup containing solid radioactive waste fragments including irradiated graphite. The repository mockup layout is given; the processes with radionuclides that occur during the barrier creation with a clayey solution and during the following barrier operation are investigated. The results obtained confirm high anti-migration and anti-filtration properties of clay used for the barrier creation even under the long-term excessive water saturation of rocks confining the repository.

  20. Membrane Treatment of Liquid Salt Bearing Radioactive Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitriev, S. A.; Adamovich, D. V.; Demkin, V. I.; Timofeev, E. M.

    2003-02-25

    The main fields of introduction and application of membrane methods for preliminary treatment and processing salt liquid radioactive waste (SLRW) can be nuclear power stations (NPP) and enterprises on atomic submarines (AS) utilization. Unlike the earlier developed technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste decontamination and concentrating this report presents the new enhanced membrane technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste processing based on the state-of-the-art membrane unit design, namely, the filtering units equipped with the metal-ceramic membranes of ''TruMem'' brand, as well as the electrodialysis and electroosmosis concentrators. Application of the above mentioned units in conjunction with the pulse pole changer will allow the marked increase of the radioactive waste concentrating factor and the significant reduction of the waste volume intended for conversion into monolith and disposal. Besides, the application of the electrodialysis units loaded with an ion exchange material at the end polishing stage of the radioactive waste decontamination process will allow the reagent-free radioactive waste treatment that meets the standards set for the release of the decontaminated liquid radioactive waste effluents into the natural reservoirs of fish-farming value.

  1. Communication from the Radioactive Waste Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste service of the Radiation protection Group informs you that as of 15 April 2011 radioactive waste can be delivered to the waste treatment centre (Bldg. 573) only during the following hours: Mon- Thu: 08:00 – 11:30 / 13:30 – 16:00 Fri : 08:00 – 11:30 An electronic form must be filled in before the arrival of the waste at the treatment centre: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/General/RadioactiveWaste for further information, please call 73171.

  2. Volume Reduction of Decommissioning Radioactive Burnable and Metal Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B. Y.; Lee, Y. J.; Yun, G. S.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Y. K.; Cho, J. H. [SunKwang Atomic Energy Safety Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A large quantity of radioactive waste was generated during the decommissioning projects. For the purpose of the volume reduction and clearance for decommissioning wastes from decommissioning projects, the incineration and high melting technology has been selected for the decommissioning wastes treatment. The volume reduction of the combustible wastes through the incineration technologies has merits from the view point of a decrease in the amount of waste to be disposed of resulting in a reduction of the disposal cost. Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. Incinerator burns waste at high temperature. Incineration of a mixture of chemically hazardous and radioactive materials, known as 'mixed waste,' has two principal goals: to reduce the volume and total chemical toxicity of the waste. Incineration itself does not destroy the metals or reduce the radioactivity of the waste. A proven melting technology is currently used for low-level waste (LLW) at several facilities worldwide. These facilities use melting as a means of processing LLW for unrestricted release of the metal or for recycling within the nuclear sector. About 16.4 tons of decommissioning combustible waste has been treated using Oxygen Enriched incineration. The incineration facility operated quite smoothly through the analysis major critical parameters of off-gas.

  3. Radioactive waste today - an asset tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmstrand, M. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    Mining of Rare Earth Elements (REE) causes radioactive pollution, as ores which contain REE also contain an elevated concentration of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Wastes from REE mining are therefore regarded as being inherently radioactive. One of the potential economically viable REE resources in Norway is in the Fensfield area in Telemark County, which is recognized as one of the world's largest thorium resources. If REE was mined in this area, a large volume of radioactive waste would be created. The authorities would then need to know how to regulate the waste so that the environmental impact would be as low as reasonably achievable when societal and economic factors having been accounted for (ALARA). Radioactive pollution from REE tailings could be a threat to the environment, biota and humans. However, naturally occurring thorium is practically not mobile nor bioavailable and has a relatively low specific activity and might therefore safely be deposited in a landfill. An environmental risk assessment should be used to evaluate if it is justifiable to deposit the radioactive tailings in a landfill or if alternative ways of handling, such as extraction of thorium in addition to extraction of REE from the ore, might be better. The risk assessment must start with a source term, the native carbonatite rocks, and an investigation on how the chemical properties of the rock changes when it's milled and treated with chemicals. Changes in the physical and chemical properties and changes in the environment where the processed rock are deposited might mobilize and/or make thorium bioavailable, thus increasing the environmental risk. Removal of thorium from the raw materials or tailings from the REE mining industry prior to deposition could be seen as one form of environmental protection with many benefits, for instance reducing the potential of external and internal radiation in biota and humans. We could also speculate about the

  4. Radioactive Waste and Clean-up: Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collard, G

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's Radioactive Waste and Clean-up Division performs studies and develops strategies, techniques and technologies in the area of radioactive waste management, the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear installations and the remediation of radioactive-contaminated sites. These activities are performed in the context of our responsibility towards the safety of present and future generations and contribute to achieve intrageneration equity.

  5. Optimization and validation of a chemical process for uranium, mercury and cesium leaching from cemented radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynier, N.; Lastra, R.; Laviolette, C.; Bouzoubaa, N., E-mail: nicolas.reynier@canada.ca [Natural Resources Canada, CanmetMINING, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Chapman, M. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    Canadian Nuclear Laboratories (CNL) is developing a treatment and long-term management strategy for a legacy cemented radioactive waste that contains uranium, mercury, and fission products. Extracting the uranium would be advantageous for decreasing the waste classification and reducing the cost of long-term management. The chemical leachability of 3 key elements (U, Hg, and Cs) from a surrogate cemented waste (SCW) was studied with several lixiviants. The results showed that the most promising approach to leach and recover U, Hg, and Cs is the direct leaching of the SCW with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in strong saline media. Operating parameters such as particle size, temperature, pulp density, leaching time, acid and salt concentrations, number of leaching/washing steps, etc. were optimized to improve key elements solubilization. Sulfuric leaching in saline media of a SCW (U5) containing 1182 ppm of U, 1598 ppm of Hg, and 7.9 ppm of Cs in the optimized conditions allows key elements solubilisation of 98.5 ± 0.4%, 96.6 ± 0.1%, and 93.8 ± 1.1% of U, Hg, and Cs, respectively. This solubilization process was then applied in triplicate to 7 other SCWs prepared with different cements, liquid ratios, and at different aging times and temperatures. Concentrated sulfuric acid is added to the slurry until the pH is about 2, which causes the complete degradation of cement and the formation of CaSO{sub 4}. Sulfuric acid is particularly useful because it produces a leachate that is amenable to conventional ion exchange technology for the separation and recovery of uranium. (author)

  6. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM - 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, B.; Waltz, R.

    2012-06-21

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2011 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report. The 2011 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. All inspections scheduled per SRR-LWE-2011-00026, HLW Tank Farm Inspection Plan for 2011, were completed. Ultrasonic measurements (UT) performed in 2011 met the requirements of C-ESR-G-00006, In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks, Rev. 3, and WSRC-TR-2002-00061, Rev.6. UT inspections were performed on Tanks 25, 26 and 34 and the findings are documented in SRNL-STI-2011-00495, Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2011, Waste Tanks 25, 26, 34 and 41. A total of 5813 photographs were made and 835 visual and video inspections were performed during 2011. A potential leaksite was discovered at Tank 4 during routine annual inspections performed in 2011. The new crack, which is above the allowable fill level, resulted in no release to the environment or tank annulus. The location of the crack is documented in C-ESR-G-00003, SRS High Level Waste Tank Leaksite Information, Rev.6.

  7. Assessment of public perception of radioactive waste management in Korea.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trone, Janis R.; Cho, SeongKyung (Myongji University, Korea); Whang, Jooho (Kyung Hee University, Korea); Lee, Moo Yul

    2011-11-01

    The essential characteristics of the issue of radioactive waste management can be conceptualized as complex, with a variety of facets and uncertainty. These characteristics tend to cause people to perceive the issue of radioactive waste management as a 'risk'. This study was initiated in response to a desire to understand the perceptions of risk that the Korean public holds towards radioactive waste and the relevant policies and policy-making processes. The study further attempts to identify the factors influencing risk perceptions and the relationships between risk perception and social acceptance.

  8. Physical-Chemical Solid Waste Processing for Space Missions at Ames Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John W.; Pisharody, Suresh; Moran, Mark; Wignarajah, K.; Tleimat, Maher; Pace, Greg

    2001-01-01

    As space missions become longer in duration and reach out to more distant locations such as Mars, solids waste processing progresses from storage technologies to reclamation technologies. Current low Earth orbit technologies consist of store-and dispose to space or return to Earth. Fully regenerative technologies recycle wastes. The materials reclaimed from waste can be used to provide the basic materials to support plant growth for food including carbon dioxide, water, and nutrients. Other products can also be reclaimed from waste such as hydrocarbons and activated carbon. This poster describes development at Ames Research Center of a process to make activated carbon from space mission wastes and to make an incineration system that produces clean flue gas. Inedible biomass and feces contain hydrocarbons in a form that can be pyrolyzed and converted to activated carbon. The activated carbon can then be used to clean up contaminants from various other life support systems; in particular, the activated carbon can be used regeneratively to remove NOx from incinerator flue gas. Incinerator flue gas can also be cleaned up by the use of reductive and oxidative catalysts. A catalytic incinerator flue gas cleanup system has been developed at ARC that produces flue gas clean enough (with the exception of carbon dioxide) to meet the Space Minimum Allowable Concentration limits for human exposure.

  9. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, B.; Waltz, R.

    2010-06-21

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2009 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report. The 2009 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. All inspections scheduled per LWO-LWE-2008-00423, HLW Tank Farm Inspection Plan for 2009, were completed. All Ultrasonic measurements (UT) performed in 2009 met the requirements of C-ESG-00006, In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks, Rev. 1, and WSRC-TR-2002-00061, Rev.4. UT inspections were performed on Tank 29 and the findings are documented in SRNL-STI-2009-00559, Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2009, Waste Tank 29. Post chemical cleaning UT measurements were made in Tank 6 and the results are documented in SRNL-STI-2009-00560, Tank Inspection NDE Results Tank 6, Including Summary of Waste Removal Support Activities in Tanks 5 and 6. A total of 6669 photographs were made and 1276 visual and video inspections were performed during 2009. Twenty-Two new leaksites were identified in 2009. The locations of these leaksites are documented in C-ESR-G-00003, SRS High Level Waste Tank Leaksite Information, Rev.4. Fifteen leaksites at Tank 5 were documented during tank wall/annulus cleaning activities. Five leaksites at Tank 6 were documented during tank wall/annulus cleaning activities. Two new leaksites were identified at Tank 19 during waste removal activities. Previously documented leaksites were reactivated at Tanks 5 and 12 during waste removal activities. Also, a very small amount of additional leakage from a previously identified leaksite at Tank 14 was observed.

  10. Karlsruhe Database for Radioactive Wastes (KADABRA) - Accounting and Management System for Radioactive Waste Treatment - 12275

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himmerkus, Felix; Rittmeyer, Cornelia [WAK Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs- GmbH, 76339 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The data management system KADABRA was designed according to the purposes of the Cen-tral Decontamination Department (HDB) of the Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs-GmbH (WAK GmbH), which is specialized in the treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste. The layout considers the major treatment processes of the HDB as well as regulatory and legal requirements. KADABRA is designed as an SAG ADABAS application on IBM system Z mainframe. The main function of the system is the data management of all processes related to treatment, transfer and storage of radioactive material within HDB. KADABRA records the relevant data concerning radioactive residues, interim products and waste products as well as the production parameters relevant for final disposal. Analytical data from the laboratory and non destructive assay systems, that describe the chemical and radiological properties of residues, production batches, interim products as well as final waste products, can be linked to the respective dataset for documentation and declaration. The system enables the operator to trace the radioactive material through processing and storage. Information on the actual sta-tus of the material as well as radiological data and storage position can be gained immediately on request. A variety of programs accessed to the database allow the generation of individual reports on periodic or special request. KADABRA offers a high security standard and is constantly adapted to the recent requirements of the organization. (authors)

  11. Marine disposal of radioactive wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhead, D. S.

    1980-03-01

    In a general sense, the main attraction of the marine environment as a repository for the wastes generated by human activities lies in the degree of dispersion and dilution which is readily attainable. However, the capacity of the oceans to receive wastes without unacceptable consequences is clearly finite and this is even more true of localized marine environments such as estuaries, coastal waters and semi-enclosed seas. Radionuclides have always been present in the marine environment and marine organisms and humans consuming marine foodstuffs have always been exposed, to some degree, to radiation from this source. The hazard associated with ionizing radiations is dependent upon the absorption of energy from the radiation field within some biological entity. Thus any disposal of radioactive wastes into the marine environment has consequences, the acceptability of which must be assessed in terms of the possible resultant increase in radiation exposure of human and aquatic populations. In the United Kingdom the primary consideration has been and remains the safe-guarding of public health. The control procedures are therefore designed to minimize as far as practicable the degree of human exposure within the overall limits recommended as acceptable by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. There are several approaches through which control could be exercised and the strengths and weaknesses of each are considered. In this review the detailed application of the critical path technique to the control of the discharge into the north-east Irish Sea from the fuel reprocessing plant at Windscale is given as a practical example. It will be further demonstrated that when human exposure is controlled in this way no significant risk attaches to the increased radiation exposure experienced by populations of marine organisms in the area.

  12. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-99 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Mc Cray, John Alan; Kirkham, Robert John; Pao, Jenn Hai; Hinckley, Steve Harold

    1999-10-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1999, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed on radionuclide leaching, microbial degradation, waste neutralization, and a small mockup for grouting the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  13. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-99 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. K. Herbst; J. A. McCray; R. J. Kirkham; J. Pao; S. H. Hinckley

    1999-09-30

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1999, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed on radionuclide leaching, microbial degradation, waste neutralization, and a small mockup for grouting the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  14. Radioactive waste management in member states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this part of the report is to present a brief overview of key issues in radioactive waste management on a nation-by-nation basis. Member State representatives were asked to address nine questions in no more than three or four pages. Hence, by design, the presentations are not comprehensive. Even so, the information set out here should provide the reader valuable insights into the nature of problems associated with radioactive waste management. The materials may also be used as a ready reference for specific information about radioactive waste management in individual Member States as well as for comparative purposes. (author).

  15. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, B.; Waltz, R.

    2011-06-23

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2010 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report. The 2010 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. All inspections scheduled per SRR-LWE-2009-00138, HLW Tank Farm Inspection Plan for 2010, were completed. Ultrasonic measurements (UT) performed in 2010 met the requirements of C-ESG-00006, In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks, Rev. 3, and WSRC-TR-2002-00061, Rev.6. UT inspections were performed on Tanks 30, 31 and 32 and the findings are documented in SRNL-STI-2010-00533, Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2010, Waste Tanks 30, 31 and 32. A total of 5824 photographs were made and 1087 visual and video inspections were performed during 2010. Ten new leaksites at Tank 5 were identified in 2010. The locations of these leaksites are documented in C-ESR-G-00003, SRS High Level Waste Tank Leaksite Information, Rev.5. Ten leaksites at Tank 5 were documented during tank wall/annulus cleaning activities. None of these new leaksites resulted in a release to the environment. The leaksites were documented during wall cleaning activities and the waste nodules associated with the leaksites were washed away. Previously documented leaksites were reactivated at Tank 12 during waste removal activities.

  16. The new site selection process in Germany. Results of the ''Commission Disposal of High Radioactive Waste''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brammer, Klaus-Juergen; Weber, Stefan [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    After the open exploration of the salt dome Gorleben was suspended for political reasons and in favour of a new selection process in Germany the German Bundestag passed the site selection law mid-2013. It provides a three-phase process, which shall lead to the designation of a site with ''best possible safety'' in particular for highly radioactive waste in the year 2031. Early July 2016 the ''Commission Disposal of High Radioactive Waste'' submitted now its final report. Thus it is up to the legislator to legally implement the commission's recommendations and to clear the path for the start of phase 1 of the selection process.

  17. Treatment technology for organic radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, S. J.; Lee, Y. H.; Shon, J. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    In this report, various alternative technologies to the incineration for the treatment of radioactive organic wastes were described and reviewed, fallen into two groups of low temperature technologies and high temperature technologies. These technologies have the advantages of low volume gaseous emission, few or no dioxin generation, and operation at low enough temperature that radionuclides are not volatilized. Delphi chemical oxidation, mediated electrochemical oxidation, and photolytic ultraviolet oxidation appear to be the most promising low temperature oxidation process and steam reforming and supercritical water oxidation in the high temperature technologies. 52 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  18. National inventory of the radioactive wastes and the recycling materials; Inventaire national des dechets radioactifs et des matieres valorisables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuis, M.C

    2006-07-01

    This synthesis report presents the 2006 inventory of the radioactive wastes and recycling materials, in France. It contains 9 chapters: a general introduction, the radioactive wastes (definition, classification, origins and management), the inventory methodology (organization, accounting and prospecting, exhaustiveness and control tools), main results (stocks, prevision for the period 2005-2020, perspectives after 2020), the inventory for producers or owners (front end fuel cycle, electric power plants, back end fuel cycle, wastes processing and maintenance facilities, researches centers, medical activities, industrial activities, non nuclear industries using nuclear materials, defense center, storage and disposal), the polluted sites, examples of foreign inventories, conclusion and annexes. (A.L.B.)

  19. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    Environmental effects (including accidents) associated with facility construction, operation, decommissioning, and transportation in the management of commercially generated radioactive waste were analyzed for plants and systems assuming a light water power reactor scenario that produces about 10,000 GWe-yr through the year 2050. The following alternative fuel cycle modes or cases that generate post-fission wastes requiring management were analyzed: a once-through option, a fuel reprocessing option for uranium and plutonium recycle, and a fuel reprocessing option for uranium-only recycle. Volume 1 comprises five chapters: introduction; summary of findings; approach to assessment of environmental effects from radioactive waste management; environmental effects related to radioactive management in a once-through fuel cycle; and environmental effects of radioactive waste management associated with an LWR fuel reprocessing plant. (LK)

  20. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM- 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, B; Ruel Waltz, R

    2008-06-05

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. The 2007 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. A very small amount of material had seeped from Tank 12 from a previously identified leaksite. The material observed had dried on the tank wall and did not reach the annulus floor. A total of 5945 photographs were made and 1221 visual and video inspections were performed during 2007. Additionally, ultrasonic testing was performed on four Waste Tanks (15, 36, 37 and 38) in accordance with approved inspection plans that met the requirements of WSRC-TR-2002- 00061, Revision 2 'In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks'. The Ultrasonic Testing (UT) In-Service Inspections (ISI) are documented in a separate report that is prepared by the ISI programmatic Level III UT Analyst. Tanks 15, 36, 37 and 38 are documented in 'Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2007'; WSRC-TR-2007-00064.

  1. Development of characterization protocol for mixed liquid radioactive waste classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakaria, Norasalwa, E-mail: norasalwa@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my [Waste Technology Development Centre, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Wafa, Syed Asraf [Radioisotop Technology and Innovation, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Wo, Yii Mei [Radiochemistry and Environment, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Mahat, Sarimah [Material Technology Group, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Mixed liquid organic waste generated from health-care and research activities containing tritium, carbon-14, and other radionuclides posed specific challenges in its management. Often, these wastes become legacy waste in many nuclear facilities and being considered as ‘problematic’ waste. One of the most important recommendations made by IAEA is to perform multistage processes aiming at declassification of the waste. At this moment, approximately 3000 bottles of mixed liquid waste, with estimated volume of 6000 litres are currently stored at the National Radioactive Waste Management Centre, Malaysia and some have been stored for more than 25 years. The aim of this study is to develop a characterization protocol towards reclassification of these wastes. The characterization protocol entails waste identification, waste screening and segregation, and analytical radionuclides profiling using various analytical procedures including gross alpha/ gross beta, gamma spectrometry, and LSC method. The results obtained from the characterization protocol are used to establish criteria for speedy classification of the waste.

  2. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume I. Rationale, process, equipment, performance, and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuls, A.S.; Draper, W.E.; Koenig, R.A.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-08-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawing, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities.

  3. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste...

  4. Disposal of radioactive waste. Some ethical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streffer, Christian

    2014-07-01

    The threat posed to humans and nature by radioactive material is a result of the ionizing radiation released during the radioactive decay. The present use of radioactivity in medicine research and technologies produces steadily radioactive waste. It is therefore necessary to safely store this waste, particularly high level waste from nuclear facilities. The decisive factors determining the necessary duration of isolation or confinement are the physical half-life times ranging with some radionuclides up to many million years. It has therefore been accepted worldwide that the radioactive material needs to be confined isolated from the biosphere, the habitat of humans and all other organisms, for very long time periods. Although it is generally accepted that repositories for the waste are necessary, strong public emotions have been built up against the strategies to erect such installations. Apparently transparent information and public participation has been insufficient or even lacking. These problems have led to endeavours to achieve public acceptance and to consider ethical acceptability. Some aspects of such discussions and possibilities will be taken up in this contribution. This article is based on the work of an interdisciplinary group. The results have been published in 'Radioactive Waste - Technical and Normative Aspects of its Disposal' by C. Streffer, C.F. Gethmann, G. Kamp et al. in 'Ethics of Sciences and Technology Assessment', Volume 38, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  5. ICPP radioactive liquid and calcine waste technologies evaluation. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, J.A.; Pincock, L.F.; Christiansen, I.N.

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until recently, the major activity of the ICPP has been the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium; however, changing world events have raised questions concerning the need to recover and recycle this material. In April 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the management and disposition of radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste) and 3,800 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) of calcine waste are in inventory at the ICPP. Legal drivers and agreements exist obligating the INEL to develop, demonstrate, and implement technologies for safe and environmentally sound treatment and interim storage of radioactive liquid and calcine waste. Candidate treatment processes and waste forms are being evaluated using the Technology Evaluation and Analysis Methodology (TEAM) Model. This process allows decision makers to (1) identify optimum radioactive waste treatment and disposal form alternatives; (2) assess tradeoffs between various optimization criteria; (3) identify uncertainties in performance parameters; and (4) focus development efforts on options that best satisfy stakeholder concerns. The Systems Analysis technology evaluation presented in this document supports the DOE in selecting the most effective radioactive liquid and calcine waste management plan to implement in compliance with established regulations, court orders, and agreements.

  6. Radioactive waste disposal and public acceptance aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulhoa, Barbara M.A.; Aleixo, Bruna L.; Mourao, Rogerio P.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M., E-mail: mouraor@cdtn.b, E-mail: vvmf@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Part of the public opinion around the world considers the wastes generated due to nuclear applications as the biggest environmental problem of the present time. The development of a solution that satisfies everybody is a great challenge, in that obtaining public acceptance for nuclear enterprises is much more challenging than solving the technical issues involved. Considering that the offering of a final solution that closes the radioactive waste cycle has a potentially positive impact on public opinion, the objective of this work is to evaluate the amount of the radioactive waste volume disposed in a five-year period in several countries and gauge the public opinion regarding nuclear energy. The results show that the volume of disposed radioactive waste increased, a fact that stresses the importance of promoting discussions about repositories and public acceptance. (author)

  7. The IAEA radioactive waste safety standards programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tourtellotte, James R.

    1995-12-31

    The IAEA is currently reviewing more than thirty publications in its Safety Series with a view toward consolidating and organizing information pertaining to radioactive waste. the effort is entitled Radioactive Waste Safety Standards programme (RADWASS). RADWASS is a significant undertaking and may have far reaching effects on radioactive waste management both in the international nuclear community and in individual nuclear States. This is because IAEA envisions the development of a consensus on the final document. In this circumstance, the product of RADWASS may ultimately be regarded as an international norm against which future actions of Member States may be measured. This program is organized in five subjects: planning, pre-disposal, disposal, uranium and thorium waste management and decommissioning, which has four levels: safety fundamentals, safety standards, safety guides and safety practices. (author).

  8. Development of a Radioactive Waste Assay System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Duck Won; Song, Myung Jae; Shin, Sang Woon; Sung, Kee Bang; Ko, Dae Hach [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kil Jeong; Park, Jong Mook; Jee, Kwang Yoong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Nuclear Act of Korea requires the manifest of low and intermediate level radioactive waste generated at nuclear power plants prior to disposal sites.Individual history records of the radioactive waste should be contained the information about the activity of nuclides in the drum, total activity, weight, the type of waste. A fully automated nuclide analysis assay system, non-destructive analysis and evaluation system of the radioactive waste, was developed through this research project. For the nuclides that could not be analysis directly by MCA, the activities of the representative {gamma}-emitters(Cs-137, Co-60) contained in the drum were measured by using that system. Then scaling factors were used to calculate the activities of {alpha}, {beta}-emitters. Furthermore, this system can automatically mark the analysis results onto the drum surface. An automated drum handling system developed through this research project can reduce the radiation exposure to workers. (author). 41 refs., figs.

  9. Development of the destruction technology for radioactive organic solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Park, H.S.; Lee, K.W. [and others

    1999-04-01

    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Technology development for nuclear fuel cycle waste treatment'. 1. Organic waste decomposition technology development A. Destruction technology for organic wastes using Ag(2)-mediated electrochemical oxidation B. Recovery and regeneration technology for the spent chemicals used in the MEO process 2. Radioactive metal waste recycling technology A. Surface decontamination processes B. Decontamination waste treatment technology 3. Volume reduction technology nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) technology A. Estimation of the amount of radwastes and the optimum volume reduction methodology of domestic NFC B. Pretreatment of spent fuel cladding by electrochemical decontamination C. Hot cell process technology for the treatment of NFC wastes 4. Design and fabrication of the test equipment of volume reduction and reuse of alpha contaminated wastes 5. Evaluation on environmental compatibility of NFC A. Development of evaluation methodology on environmental friendliness of NFC B. Residual activity assessment of recycling wastes. (author). 321 refs., 54 tabs., 183 figs.

  10. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-98 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Mc Cray, John Alan; Rogers, Adam Zachary; Simmons, R. F.; Palethorpe, S. J.

    1999-03-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1998, three grout formulations were studied for low-activity wastes derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste. Compressive strength and leach results are presented for phosphate bonding cement, acidic grout, and alkaline grout formulations. In an additional study, grout formulations are recommended for stabilization of the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  11. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program, FY-98 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, A.K.; Rogers, A.Z.; McCray, J.A.; Simmons, R.F.; Palethorpe, S.J.

    1999-03-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1998, three grout formulations were studied for low-activity wastes derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste. Compressive strength and leach results are presented for phosphate bonding cement, acidic grout, and alkaline grout formulations. In an additional study, grout formulations are recommended for stabilization of the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  12. The Constitution, waste facility performance standards, and radioactive waste classification: Is equal protection possible?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eye, R.V. [Kansas Dept. of Health and Environment, Topeka, KS (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The process for disposal of so-called low-level radioactive waste is deadlocked at present. Supporters of the proposed near-surface facilities assert that their designs will meet minimum legal and regulatory standards currently in effect. Among opponents there is an overarching concern that the proposed waste management facilities will not isolate radiation from the biosphere for an adequate length of time. This clash between legal acceptability and a perceived need to protect the environment and public health by requiring more than the law demand sis one of the underlying reasons why the process is deadlocked. Perhaps the most exhaustive public hearing yet conducted on low-level radioactive waste management has recently concluded in Illinois. The Illinois Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Sitting Commission conducted 71 days of fact-finding hearings on the safety and suitability of a site near Martinsville, Illinois, to serve as a location for disposition of low-level radioactive waste. Ultimately, the siting commission rejected the proposed facility site for several reasons. However, almost all the reasons were related, to the prospect that, as currently conceived, the concrete barrier/shallow-land burial method will not isolate radioactive waste from the biosphere. This paper reviews the relevant legal framework of the radioactive waste classification system and will argue that it is inadequate for long-lived radionuclides. Next, the paper will present a case for altering the classification system based on high-level waste regulatory considerations.

  13. The nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process for the denitration and immobilization of low-level radioactive liquid waste (LLW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muguercia, Ivan

    Hazardous radioactive liquid waste is the legacy of more than 50 years of plutonium production associated with the United States' nuclear weapons program. It is estimated that more than 245,000 tons of nitrate wastes are stored at facilities such as the single-shell tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site in the state of Washington, and the Melton Valley storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee. In order to develop an innovative, new technology for the destruction and immobilization of nitrate-based radioactive liquid waste, the United State Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the research project which resulted in the technology known as the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process. However, inasmuch as the nitrate anion is highly mobile and difficult to immobilize, especially in relatively porous cement-based grout which has been used to date as a method for the immobilization of liquid waste, it presents a major obstacle to environmental clean-up initiatives. Thus, in an effort to contribute to the existing body of knowledge and enhance the efficacy of the NAC process, this research involved the experimental measurement of the rheological and heat transfer behaviors of the NAC product slurry and the determination of the optimal operating parameters for the continuous NAC chemical reaction process. Test results indicate that the NAC product slurry exhibits a typical non-Newtonian flow behavior. Correlation equations for the slurry's rheological properties and heat transfer rate in a pipe flow have been developed; these should prove valuable in the design of a full-scale NAC processing plant. The 20-percent slurry exhibited a typical dilatant (shear thickening) behavior and was in the turbulent flow regime due to its lower viscosity. The 40-percent slurry exhibited a typical pseudoplastic (shear thinning) behavior and remained in the laminar flow regime throughout its experimental range. The reactions were found to be more efficient in the

  14. Correlation of radioactive-waste-treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: conversion of yellow cake to uranium hexafluoride. Part II. The solvent extraction-fluorination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, M.B.; Etnier, E.L.; Hill, G.S.; Patton, B.D.; Witherspoon, J.P.; Yen, S.N.

    1983-03-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials and chemicals from a model uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) production plant using the solvent extraction-fluorination process, and to evaluate the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the release materials on the environment. The model plant processes 10,000 metric tons of uranium per year. Base-case waste treatment is the minimum necessary to operate the process. Effluents meet the radiological requirements listed in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 20 (10 CFR 20), Appendix B, Table II, but may not be acceptable chemically at all sites. Additional radwaste treatment techniques are applied to the base-case plant in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The costs for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding dose committment are correlated with the annual cost for treatment of the radwastes. The status of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed. Much of the technology used in the advanced cases will require development and demonstration, or else is proprietary and unavailable for immediate use. The methodology and assumptions for the radiological doses are found in ORNL-4992.

  15. Public involvement in radioactive waste management decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-04-01

    Current repository siting efforts focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is conducting exploratory studies to determine if the site is suitable. The state of Nevada has resisted these efforts: it has denied permits, brought suit against DOE, and publicly denounced the federal government`s decision to study Yucca Mountain. The state`s opposition reflects public opinion in Nevada, and has considerably slowed DOE`s progress in studying the site. The Yucca Mountain controversy demonstrates the importance of understanding public attitudes and their potential influence as DOE develops a program to manage radioactive waste. The strength and nature of Nevada`s opposition -- its ability to thwart if not outright derail DOE`s activities -- indicate a need to develop alternative methods for making decisions that affect the public. This report analyzes public participation as a key component of this openness, one that provides a means of garnering acceptance of, or reducing public opposition to, DOE`s radioactive waste management activities, including facility siting and transportation. The first section, Public Perceptions: Attitudes, Trust, and Theory, reviews the risk-perception literature to identify how the public perceives the risks associated with radioactivity. DOE and the Public discusses DOE`s low level of credibility among the general public as the product, in part, of the department`s past actions. This section looks at the three components of the radioactive waste management program -- disposal, storage, and transportation -- and the different ways DOE has approached the problem of public confidence in each case. Midwestern Radioactive Waste Management Histories focuses on selected Midwestern facility-siting and transportation activities involving radioactive materials.

  16. Quality management system for the disposal of low and medium levels radioactive wastes - RBMN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Antonio Mario P.; Haucz, Maria Judite A.; Fraga, Rosane Rodrigues, E-mail: ampa@cdtn.br, E-mail: hauczmj@cdtn.br, E-mail: rosaner@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This article compares the standards applied in quality and safety management systems for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste. The comparison will be a contribution to development, maintenance and improvement the safety and quality system of a disposal of low and medium radioactive waste (RBMN) coordinated by CDTN - Brazilian Development Center for Nuclear Technology). (author)

  17. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  18. Materials and Security Consolidation Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Not Listed

    2011-09-01

    Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Materials and Security Consolidation Center facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

  19. Prediction of radionuclide inventory for the low-and intermediated-level radioactive waste disposal facility the radioactive waste classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kang Il; Jeong, Noh Gyeom; Moon, Young Pyo; Jeong, Mi Seon; Park, Jin Beak [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    To meet nuclear regulatory requirements, more than 95% individual radionuclides in the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste inventory have to be identified. In this study, the radionuclide inventory has been estimated by taking the long-term radioactive waste generation, the development plan of disposal facility, and the new radioactive waste classification into account. The state of radioactive waste cumulated from 2014 was analyzed for various radioactive sources and future prospects for predicting the long-term radioactive waste generation. The predicted radionuclide inventory results are expected to contribute to secure the development of waste disposal facility and to deploy the safety case for its long-term safety assessment.

  20. Radioactive and mixed waste - risk as a basis for waste classification. Symposium proceedings No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-21

    The management of risks from radioactive and chemical materials has been a major environmental concern in the United states for the past two or three decades. Risk management of these materials encompasses the remediation of past disposal practices as well as development of appropriate strategies and controls for current and future operations. This symposium is concerned primarily with low-level radioactive wastes and mixed wastes. Individual reports were processed separately for the Department of Energy databases.

  1. Combustion synthesis of radioactive waste immobilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ruizhu; GUO Zhimeng; LU Xin; JIA Chengchang; LIN Tao

    2005-01-01

    Using chromium oxide (CrO3) as an oxidant, the immobilization of simulating radioactive waste in perovskite (CaTiO3) structure by a combustion synthesis (CS) method was tested. The products were characterized by Archimedes liquid displacement technique, microhardness technique, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The leaching rate was measured by the method of MCC-1 or MCC-2.The primary results show that the CS method can be used to solidify the immobilizate waste effectively.

  2. Engineered barriers for radioactive waste confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández, R.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power plants generate long-lived radioactive waste of high toxicity. The security assessment of repositories destined to definitive confinement of radioactive waste has been studied for several decades. Deep geological repositories are technically feasible and begin to be built by some pioneer countries. The scientific evaluation of interactions between the different engineered barriers is studied by laboratory experiments, natural analogues and modeling studies. The three methods are able to represent and validate the main geochemical processes that take place in the near field. This paper reviews the scientific and technical basis of the concept of geological disposal, with particular focus on the methods of study applied to the evaluation of geochemical stability of the bentonite barrier.

    Las centrales nucleares generan residuos radiactivos de elevada peligrosidad y permanencia en el tiempo. La evaluación de la seguridad de repositorios destinados al alojamiento definitivo de estos residuos lleva estudiándose desde hace varias décadas. El almacenamiento geológico es técnicamente factible y empieza ya a desarrollarse en países pioneros. La evaluación científica de las interacciones entre las distintas barreras de ingeniería se estudia mediante ensayos de laboratorio, análisis de análogos naturales y modelos teóricos. Las tres vías de estudio son capaces de representar y validar los principales procesos geoquímicos que tienen lugar en el campo cercano al repositorio. Este artículo revisa los fundamentos científicos y técnicos del concepto de almacenamiento geológico detallando, en particular, los métodos de estudio aplicados a la evaluación de la estabilidad geoquímica de la barrera de bentonita.

  3. Analysis through indicators of the management of radioactive waste in a radioactive facility; Analisis por medio de indicadores de la gestion de desechos radiactivos en una instalacion radiactiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador Balbona, Zayda; Argudin Bocourt, William, E-mail: zabalbona@centis.edu.cu [Centro de Isotopos (CENTIS), Mayabeque (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    The evaluation of the management of radioactive waste in the center of isotopes of the Republic of Cuba is the objective of this work. To do so, all the operations of the management system are evaluated through indicators used by this radioactive facility over a decade ago. Available information is processed from 1996 until 2012. The major waste generators are identified through the indicator of annual generation of each working group by local and by worker and it were analyzed the available store radioactive inventory, the relationship between the variation of annual technological waste volume of waste and the annual total manipulated activity, the relationship generation-declassification and the percent of liquid effluents managed as waste. Indicators of unconditional clearance, as well as the of the gaseous and liquid discharges are presented. It is concluded, with all these indicators, that it is possible to determine where are the causes of the behavior in the generation of radioactive waste if it is an increase of manipulated activity int the places of work or of worker, or improper application of the procedures of collection. It is controlled not only management, but also determines in which aspects can work to achieve the objective of minimizing the formation of these wastes, to be able to reduce the production costs. National shedding environmental regulations are met and the results are acceptable)

  4. Radioactive wastes conditioning; Le conditionnement des dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Latge, C.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, C.; Moisy, P.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Advocat, T.; Andrieux, C.; Bardez, I.; Bart, F.; Boen, R.; Bourniol, P.; Brunel, G.; Chartier, D.; Cau dit Coumes, C.; Delaye, J.M.; Deschanels, X.; Faure, S.; Ferry, C.; Fillet, C.; Fournel, B.; Frizon, F.; Galle, C.; Gin, S.; Girold, C.; Grandjean, A.; Hudry, D.; Joussot-Dubien, C.; Lambertin, D.; Ledieu, A.; Lemont, F.; Moulin, N.; Peuget, S.; Pinet, O.; Piron, J.P.; Ranc, G.; Ribet, I.; Sarrade, S.; Tribet, M.; Pradel, P.; Bonnin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Forestier, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P

    2008-07-01

    Very early in its history, nuclear industry has taken care of the future of its wastes. Cementation processes for medium-level activity wastes, vitrification processes for minor actinide solutions and fission products are now proven technologies. The conditioning of wastes is just one ink in the full chain of the waste management process. However, this link is of prime importance because the future of the waste depends on the way it is conditioned. Reciprocally, the storage and disposal largely rely on the confidence given to the behaviour of waste packages with time. The leading role of France in the domain of radioactive wastes conditioning is a strong and valorisable asset at the international industrial plan, but also in terms of social acceptance by showing to the public that technical solutions exist. This monograph takes stock of the conditioning of nuclear wastes and describes the researches in progress, the stakes and the recent results obtained by the CEA (French atomic energy commission). Content: 1 - introduction: waste volumes and fluxes, management strategy, conditioning; 2 - decontamination processes and treatment processes for effluents and technological wastes; 3 - glasses, a long-lasting conditioning of wastes: glass package making, vitrification, glass formulation, structure and properties, long-term behaviour of glasses, cold crucible vitrification; 4 - present day conditioning of low- and medium-activity wastes: cements, bitumens, conditioning of metal structure wastes; 5 - search for alternate matrices and processes for the processing-conditioning of wastes: plasma-based processes for the incineration/vitrification of wastes, the Shiva process, alternate confinement materials, confinement of wastes from pyro-chemical processes; 6 - can the spent fuel be considered as a confinement matrix?: initial characteristics of spent fuels, evolution in dry storage environment, modeling of the spent fuel long-term behaviour, spent fuel containers in long

  5. Radioactive waste disposal in thick unsaturated zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winogard, I J

    1981-06-26

    Portions of the Great Basin are undergoing crustal extension and have unsaturated zones as much as 600 meters thick. These areas contain multiple natural barriers capable of isolating solidified toxic wastes from the biosphere for tens of thousands to perhaps hundreds of thousands of years. An example of the potential utilization of such arid zone environments for toxic waste isolatic is the burial of transuranic radioactive wastes at relatively shallow depths (15 to 100 meters) in Sedan Crater, Yucca Flat, Nevada. The volume of this man-made crater is several times that of the projected volume of such wastes to the year 2000. Disposal in Sedan Crater could be accomplished at a savings on the order of $0.5 billion, in comparison with current schemes for burial of such wastes in mined repositories at depths of 600 to 900 meters, and with an apparently equal likelihood of waste isolation from the biosphere.

  6. Clays in natural and engineered barriers for radioactive waste confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Andra organised an International Symposium on the use of Natural and Engineered Clay-based Barriers for the Containment of Radioactive Waste hold at the Congress Centre of Tours, France, in March 2005. The symposium provided an opportunity to take stock of the potential properties of the clay-based materials present in engineered or natural barriers in order to meet the containment specifications of a deep geological repository for radioactive waste. It was intended for specialists working in the various disciplines involved with clays and clay based minerals, as well as scientists from agencies and organisations dealing with investigations on the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive waste. The themes of the Symposium included geology, geochemistry, transfers of materials, alteration processes, geomechanics, as well as the recent developments regarding the characterisation of clays, as well as experiments in surface and underground laboratories. The symposium consisted of plenary sessions, parallel specialized sessions and poster sessions. (author)

  7. Iraq liquid radioactive waste tanks maintenance and monitoring program plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, Matthew L.; Cochran, John Russell; Sol Shamsaldin, Emad (Iraq Ministry of Science and Technology)

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop a project management plan for maintaining and monitoring liquid radioactive waste tanks at Iraq's Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center. Based on information from several sources, the Al-Tuwaitha site has approximately 30 waste tanks that contain varying amounts of liquid or sludge radioactive waste. All of the tanks have been non-operational for over 20 years and most have limited characterization. The program plan embodied in this document provides guidance on conducting radiological surveys, posting radiation control areas and controlling access, performing tank hazard assessments to remove debris and gain access, and conducting routine tank inspections. This program plan provides general advice on how to sample and characterize tank contents, and how to prioritize tanks for soil sampling and borehole monitoring.

  8. Handbook of high-level radioactive waste transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattler, L.R.

    1992-10-01

    The High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Handbook serves as a reference to which state officials and members of the general public may turn for information on radioactive waste transportation and on the federal government`s system for transporting this waste under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The Handbook condenses and updates information contained in the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer. It is intended primarily to assist legislators who, in the future, may be called upon to enact legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste through their jurisdictions. The Handbook is divided into two sections. The first section places the federal government`s program for transporting radioactive waste in context. It provides background information on nuclear waste production in the United States and traces the emergence of federal policy for disposing of radioactive waste. The second section covers the history of radioactive waste transportation; summarizes major pieces of legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste; and provides an overview of the radioactive waste transportation program developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To supplement this information, a summary of pertinent federal and state legislation and a glossary of terms are included as appendices, as is a list of publications produced by the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments (CSG-MW) as part of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project.

  9. Ceramic and glass radioactive waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Readey, D.W.; Cooley, C.R. (comps.)

    1977-01-01

    This report contains 14 individual presentations and 6 group reports on the subject of glass and polycrystalline ceramic radioactive waste forms. It was the general consensus that the information available on glass as a waste form provided a good basis for planning on the use of glass as an initial waste form, that crystalline ceramic forms could also be good waste forms if much more development work were completed, and that prediction of the chemical and physical stability of the waste form far into the future would be much improved if the basic synergistic effects of low temperature, radiation and long times were better understood. Continuing development of the polycrystalline ceramic forms was recommended. It was concluded that the leach rate of radioactive species from the waste form is an important criterion for evaluating its suitability, particularly for the time period before solidified waste is permanently placed in the geologic isolation of a Federal repository. Separate abstracts were prepared for 12 of the individual papers; the remaining two were previously abstracted.

  10. Potential areas for the near surface disposal of radioactive waste in Pahang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, Nazran; Yaacob, Wan Zuhairi Wan; Simon, Norbert

    2016-11-01

    Radioactive material has been used in Malaysia since the 1960's. The low level radioactive wastes are generated every year and stored in Nuclear Malaysia. The storage capacities are expected to reach its maximum capacity by the year 2025. Disposal of the radioactive waste is considered as one of the best options for future radioactive and nuclear material generated in Malaysia, hence the necessary site selection. The selection process used the IAEA document as the main reference, supported by site selection procedure applied by various countries. ArcGIS software was used to simulate the selection of the near surface radioactive waste disposal. This paper suggested the best four potential areas for the near surface radioactive waste disposal in Pahang state, Malaysia, the Sg. Lembing, Gambang, Felda Lepar Utara and Cheneh areas. These areas are located within 100 km from the potential radioactive waste producer (Lynas).

  11. Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. (Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

  12. Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

  13. Radioactive waste management in the former USSR. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1992-06-01

    Radioactive waste materials--and the methods being used to treat, process, store, transport, and dispose of them--have come under increased scrutiny over last decade, both nationally and internationally. Nuclear waste practices in the former Soviet Union, arguably the world`s largest nuclear waste management system, are of obvious interest and may affect practices in other countries. In addition, poor waste management practices are causing increasing technical, political, and economic problems for the Soviet Union, and this will undoubtedly influence future strategies. this report was prepared as part of a continuing effort to gain a better understanding of the radioactive waste management program in the former Soviet Union. the scope of this study covers all publicly known radioactive waste management activities in the former Soviet Union as of April 1992, and is based on a review of a wide variety of literature sources, including documents, meeting presentations, and data base searches of worldwide press releases. The study focuses primarily on nuclear waste management activities in the former Soviet Union, but relevant background information on nuclear reactors is also provided in appendixes.

  14. Issues for the long term management of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T.; Schieber, C. [CEPN, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Lavelle, S. [ICAM, 59 - Lille (France)

    2006-07-01

    High-level radioactive waste are currently managed in interim storage installations, providing an adequate protection of the public and the workers for the short term period. However, the long-term persistence of the radioactivity of the waste gives a new timescale dimension, never experimented by the society for the development of protection systems. In the framework of the European Commission research project 'COWAM-2' (COmmunity WAste Management) dedicated to the governance of radioactive waste management, the issues of 'long term governance' have been addressed by exploring the elements which can contribute to a better integration of the technical and societal time dimensions, taking into account technical, ethical, economic and organizational considerations. The originality of this project is to address the various issues within working groups involving stakeholders from different origins and European countries together with a research team. After a discussion on the time dimensions to be taken into account from the technical and societal perspective, this paper presents, mainly based on the findings of the COWAM-2 project, a brief analysis of the ethical criteria to be considered when future generations are concerned as well as some performance criteria regarding long term governance. Finally, it proposes a discussion on the interest for the radiation protection experts to engage a process with stakeholders concerned by radioactive waste management in order to favour the emergence of a sustainable management responding to the issues at stake and including radiation protection considerations for long term periods. (authors)

  15. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, P.A. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    The problem of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere presents specialists in the fields of earth sciences with some of the most complicated problems they have ever encountered. This is especially true for high level waste (HLW) which must be isolated in the underground and away from the biosphere for thousands of years. Essentially every country that is generating electricity in nuclear power plants is faced with the problem of isolating the radioactive wastes that are produced. The general consensus is that this can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the rock repository. Much new technology is being developed to solve the problems that have been raised and there is a continuing need to publish the results of new developments for the benefit of all concerned. The 28th International Geologic Congress that was held July 9--19, 1989 in Washington, DC provided an opportunity for earth scientists to gather for detailed discussions on these problems. Workshop W3B on the subject, Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation -- A World Wide Review'' was organized by Paul A Witherspoon and Ghislain de Marsily and convened July 15--16, 1989 Reports from 19 countries have been gathered for this publication. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  16. Combustible radioactive waste treatment by incineration and chemical digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stretz, L.A.; Crippen, M.D.; Allen, C.R.

    1980-05-28

    A review is given of present and planned combustible radioactive waste treatment systems in the US. Advantages and disadvantages of various systems are considered. Design waste streams are discussed in relation to waste composition, radioactive contaminants by amount and type, and special operating problems caused by the waste.

  17. Thermo-Hydro Mechanical Characteristics and Processes in the Clay Barrier of a High Level Radioactive Waste Repository. State of the Art Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, M. V.

    2004-07-01

    This document is a summary of the available information on the thermo-hydro-mechanical properties of the bentonite barrier of a high-level radioactive waste repository and of the processes taking place in it during the successive repository operation phases. Mainly the thermal properties, the volume change processes (swelling and consolidation), the permeability and the water retention capacity are analysed. A review is made of the existing experimental knowledge on the modification of the these properties by the effect of temperature, water salinity, humidity and density of the bentonite, and their foreseen evolution as a consequence of the processes expected in the repository. The compiled evolution refers mostly to the FEBEX (Spain), the MX-80 (US) and the FoCa (France) bentonite, considered as reference barrier materials in several European disposal concepts. (Author) 102 refs.

  18. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: conversion of yellow cake to uranium hexafluoride. Part I. The fluorination-fractionation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, M.B.; Blanco, R.E.; Finney, B.C.; Hill, G.S.; Moore, R.E.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1977-07-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials and chemicals from a model uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) production plant using the fluorination-fractionation (dry hydrofluor) process, and to evaluate the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. This study is designed to assist in defining the term as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA) in relation to limiting the release of radioactive materials from nuclear facilities. The model plant processes 10,000 metric tons of uranium per year. Base-case waste treatment is the minimum necessary to operate the process. Effluents meet the radiological requirements listed in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 20 (10 CFR 20), Appendix B, Table II, but may not be acceptable chemically at all sites. Additional radwaste treatment techniques are applied to the base-case plant in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The costs for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding dose commitment are calculated for each case. In the final analysis, radiological dose is plotted vs the annual cost for treatment of the radwastes. The status of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed. Much of the technology used in the advanced cases will require development and demonstration or else is proprietary and unavailable for immediate use. The methodology and assumptions for the radiological doses are found in ORNL-4992.

  19. Lump corrections for radioactive waste assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, T J

    2009-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that automated radioactive waste assay techniques, such as segmented gamma scanner (SGS) and automated qualitative and quantitative (AQ2), have severely underestimated fissile material due to either the malfunction or absence of appropriate lump correction routines. This paper examines the application of manual techniques, such as Monte Carlo N particle (MCNP) and spectral non-destructive assay platform (SNAP) software, to lump corrections in plutonium (Pu), enriched uranium (EU) and depleted uranium (DU) waste streams. Excellent results have been obtained when comparing MCNP with SNAP and applying the SNAP lump correction routine to a range of simulated and typical wastes containing various Pu and EU lump sizes. It has been concluded that the need for lump corrections was relatively rare and usually apparent from abnormal gamma ray peak area ratios, since most AWE waste streams are only lightly shielded.

  20. Pilot studies to achieve waste minimization and enhance radioactive liquid waste treatment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freer, J.; Freer, E.; Bond, A. [and others

    1996-07-01

    The Radioactive and Industrial Wastewater Science Group manages and operates the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The RLWTF treats low-level radioactive liquid waste generated by research and analytical facilities at approximately 35 technical areas throughout the 43-square-mile site. The RLWTF treats an average of 5.8 million gallons (21.8-million liters) of liquid waste annually. Clarifloculation and filtration is the primary treatment technology used by the RLWTF. This technology has been used since the RLWTF became operable in 1963. Last year the RLWTF achieved an average of 99.7% removal of gross alpha activity in the waste stream. The treatment process requires the addition of chemicals for the flocculation and subsequent precipitation of radionuclides. The resultant sludge generated during this process is solidified in drums and stored or disposed of at LANL.

  1. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, L.H. (ed.)

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

  2. IMPACT OF PARTICLE SIZE AND AGGLOMERATION ON SETTLING OF SOLIDS IN CONTINUOUS MELTERS PROCESSING RADIOACTIVE WASTE GLASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HRMA PR

    2008-12-18

    The major factor limiting waste loading for many waste compositions in continuous waste glass melters is the settling of crystalline materials. The currently used constraints, i.e., the minimum liquidus temperature or the maximum fraction of equilibrium crystallinity at a given temperature, are based on thennodynamic equilibria. Because of the rapid circular convection in the melter, these constraints are probably irrelevant and cannot prevent large crystals from settling. The main factor that detennines the rate of settling ofindividual crystals, such as those ofspinel, is their size. The tiny crystals of RU02 are too small to settle, but they readily fonn large agglomerates that accelerate their rate ofsettling by severalorders ofmagnitude. The RU02 agglomerates originate early in the melting process and then grow by the shear-flocculation mechanism. It is estimated that these agglomerates must either be ofhundreds micrometers in size or have an elongated shape to match the observed rates ofthe sludge-layer fonnation. PACS: 47.57.ef, 81.05.Kj, 81.10.Fg

  3. CHAPTER 5-RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, J.

    2010-05-05

    The ore pitchblende was discovered in the 1750's near Joachimstal in what is now the Czech Republic. Used as a colorant in glazes, uranium was identified in 1789 as the active ingredient by chemist Martin Klaproth. In 1896, French physicist Henri Becquerel studied uranium minerals as part of his investigations into the phenomenon of fluorescence. He discovered a strange energy emanating from the material which he dubbed 'rayons uranique.' Unable to explain the origins of this energy, he set the problem aside. About two years later, a young Polish graduate student was looking for a project for her dissertation. Marie Sklodowska Curie, working with her husband Pierre, picked up on Becquerel's work and, in the course of seeking out more information on uranium, discovered two new elements (polonium and radium) which exhibited the same phenomenon, but were even more powerful. The Curies recognized the energy, which they now called 'radioactivity,' as something very new, requiring a new interpretation, new science. This discovery led to what some view as the 'golden age of nuclear science' (1895-1945) when countries throughout Europe devoted large resources to understand the properties and potential of this material. By World War II, the potential to harness this energy for a destructive device had been recognized and by 1939, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman showed that fission not only released a lot of energy but that it also released additional neutrons which could cause fission in other uranium nuclei leading to a self-sustaining chain reaction and an enormous release of energy. This suggestion was soon confirmed experimentally by other scientists and the race to develop an atomic bomb was on. The rest of the development history which lead to the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 is well chronicled. After World War II, development of more powerful weapons systems by the United States and the Soviet Union continued to

  4. Radioactive wastes coming from La Hague reprocessing plant exploitation; Dechets nucleaires issus de l'exploitation de l'usine de traitement de La Hague

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riva Roveda, G. [Cogema, Etablissement de la Hague, 50 - Beaumont Hague (France)

    2001-07-01

    The treatment of radioactive waste at the facility of Cogema la Hague is presented. At the different categories are associated different methods and processes. The different steps are primary waste, intermediary waste, conditioned waste and ultimate waste. (N.C.)

  5. RETENTION OF SULFATE IN HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE GLASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.

    2010-09-07

    High level radioactive wastes are being vitrified at the Savannah River Site for long term disposal. Many of the wastes contain sulfate at concentrations that can be difficult to retain in borosilicate glass. This study involves efforts to optimize the composition of a glass frit for combination with the waste to improve sulfate retention while meeting other process and product performance constraints. The fabrication and characterization of several series of simulated waste glasses are described. The experiments are detailed chronologically, to provide insight into part of the engineering studies used in developing frit compositions for an operating high level waste vitrification facility. The results lead to the recommendation of a specific frit composition and a concentration limit for sulfate in the glass for the next batch of sludge to be processed at Savannah River.

  6. Long-term corrosion study at nuclear power plant Bohunice (Slovakia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slugen, V; Lipka, J; Dekan, J; Toth, I [Department of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Slovak University of Technology Bratislava, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); Smiesko, I, E-mail: Vladimir.Slugen@stuba.s [NPP Jaslovske Bohunice, SE, a.s. (Slovakia)

    2010-03-01

    Steam generators of four VVER-440 units at nuclear power plants V-1 and V-2 in Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia) were gradually changed by new original 'Bohunice' design in period 1994-1998. Corrosion processes before and after these design and material changes in Bohunice secondary circuit were studied using Moessbauer spectroscopy during last 25 years. Innovations in the feed water pipeline design as well as material composition improvements were evaluated positively. Moessbauer spectroscopy studies of phase composition of corrosion products were performed on real specimens scrapped from water pipelines or in form of filter deposits. The corrosion of new feed water pipelines system (from austenitic steel) in combination to innovated operation regimes goes dominantly to magnetite. The hematite presence is mostly on the internal surface of steam generator body and its concentration increases towards the top of the body. In the results interpretation it is necessary to consider also erosion as well as scope and type of maintenance activities. The long-term study of phase composition of corrosion products at VVER reactors is one of precondition for the safe operation over the projected NPP lifetime.

  7. Long-term corrosion study at nuclear power plant Bohunice (Slovakia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slugen, V.; Lipka, J.; Dekan, J.; Tóth, I.; Smieško, I.

    2010-03-01

    Steam generators of four VVER-440 units at nuclear power plants V-1 and V-2 in Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia) were gradually changed by new original "Bohunice" design in period 1994-1998. Corrosion processes before and after these design and material changes in Bohunice secondary circuit were studied using Mössbauer spectroscopy during last 25 years. Innovations in the feed water pipeline design as well as material composition improvements were evaluated positively. Mössbauer spectroscopy studies of phase composition of corrosion products were performed on real specimens scrapped from water pipelines or in form of filter deposits. The corrosion of new feed water pipelines system (from austenitic steel) in combination to innovated operation regimes goes dominantly to magnetite. The hematite presence is mostly on the internal surface of steam generator body and its concentration increases towards the top of the body. In the results interpretation it is necessary to consider also erosion as well as scope and type of maintenance activities. The long-term study of phase composition of corrosion products at VVER reactors is one of precondition for the safe operation over the projected NPP lifetime.

  8. Project SAFE. Microbial features, events and processes in the Swedish final repository for low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Karsten [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    The waste disposed of in the Swedish final repository for low and intermediate radioactive waste (SFR) typically contains large amounts of organic substances. This waste thus constitutes a possible source of energy and nutrients for microorganisms. Microbes can degrade the waste to degradation products, which to a varying degree may create problems if the process is significant. The environment for microbial life in the SFR is, however, unique since it cannot be compared to any environment to which microbes have adapted naturally over millions of years. Most similar to the SFR are waste dumps and landfills. In those, microbes degrade the waste and form degradation products. The experience from such 'analogues' and from research performed under repository-like conditions may provide useful clues about the microbial processes which may occur in the repository. Microbes have the ability to degrade bitumen, used to solidify some wastes, but this degradation is very slow under anaerobic conditions. Bitumen degradation will, therefore, not influence the safety of the SFR. However, some microbes can produce acids that could influence concrete stability, particularly in the presence of oxygen. The future SFR environment is anaerobic, which suggests that acid production is a very unlikely problem. Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have the ability to produce sulphide, which may act as a corrosive on metals. Under specific conditions, with the local groundwater flow close to a metal surface and with dissolved organic material from the repository, pitting corrosion of metal canisters is a potential threat. This process appears to require conditions fairly atypical of the SFR, however. Large groups of microorganisms can use hydrogen as a source of energy, thereby contributing to the decrease of this gas mainly formed from water during the anaerobic corrosion of metals. Cellulose is an excellent substrate for many microorganisms and it will be the dominating carbon and

  9. Neutronic measurements of radioactive waste; Les mesures neutroniques des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perot, B

    1997-12-31

    This document presents the general matters involved in the radioactive waste management and the different non destructive assays of radioactivity. The neutronic measurements used in the characterization of waste drums containing emitters are described with more details, especially the active neutronic interrogation assays with prompt or delayed neutron detection: physical principle, signal processing and evaluation of the detection limit. (author).

  10. Demonstration Project of Radioactive Solid Waste Retrieval and Conditioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The construction goal of the project is to construct a set of special equipments for radioactive solid waste retrieval, sorting, pre-compacting and radioactive measurement, to provide a set of engineering

  11. Disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear research facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Maxeiner, H; Kolbe, E

    2003-01-01

    Swiss radioactive wastes originate from nuclear power plants (NPP) and from medicine (e.g. radiation sources), industry (e.g. fire detectors) and research (e.g. CERN, PSI). Their conditioning, characterisation and documentation has to meet the demands given by the Swiss regulatory authorities including all information needed for a safe disposal in future repositories. For NPP wastes, arisings as well as the processes responsible for the buildup of short and long lived radionuclides are well known, and the conditioning procedures are established. The radiological inventories are determined on a routinely basis using a combined system of measurements and calculational programs. For waste from research, the situation is more complicated. The wide spectrum of different installations combined with a poorly known history of primary and secondary radiation results in heterogeneous waste sorts with radiological inventories quite different from NPP waste and difficult to measure long lived radionuclides. In order to c...

  12. Future radioactive liquid waste streams study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, A.S.

    1993-11-01

    This study provides design planning information for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Predictions of estimated quantities of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) and radioactivity levels of RLW to be generated are provided. This information will help assure that the new treatment facility is designed with the capacity to treat generated RLW during the years of operation. The proposed startup date for the RLWTF is estimated to be between 2002 and 2005, and the life span of the facility is estimated to be 40 years. The policies and requirements driving the replacement of the current RLW treatment facility are reviewed. Historical and current status of RLW generation at Los Alamos National Laboratory are provided. Laboratory Managers were interviewed to obtain their insights into future RLW activities at Los Alamos that might affect the amount of RLW generated at the Lab. Interviews, trends, and investigation data are analyzed and used to create scenarios. These scenarios form the basis for the predictions of future RLW generation and the level of RLW treatment capacity which will be needed at LANL.

  13. [The main directions of improving the system of state accounting and control of radioactive substances and radioactive waste products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a modification of the basic directions of state accounting and control of radioactive substances and radioactive waste products, whose implementation will significantly improve the efficiency of its operation at the regional level. Selected areas are designed to improve accounting and control system for the submission of the enterprises established by the reporting forms, the quality of the information contained in them, as well as structures of information and process for collecting, analyzing and data processing concerning radioactive substances and waste products.

  14. Measurements of whole body and urine of the inhabitants of the neighbouring to the Radioactive Waste Storage Center (CADER); Mediciones de cuerpo entero y de orina de los habitantes de las poblaciones vecinas al CADER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro L, M.M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1998-10-15

    The existence of the Center of Storage of Radioactive Wastes (CADER) in the Municipality of Temascalapa, Estado de Mexico has generated restlessness among the inhabitants from it installation. In March 1998, its appeared in diverse media, notes and reports attributing illnesses and sufferings to the CADER activities. In coordination with the health authorities of the Estado de Mexico and of the Municipality of Temascalapa, the doctors of the ININ assisted people that converged to the centers. For the above-mentioned, in the period understood among the months of May to September 1998, its were carried out measurements in 338 urine samples and 45 whole-body of voluntary people of the surroundings of the CADER. This document has the purpose of presenting the information on the carried out measurements. (Author)

  15. Intergenerational ethics of high level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kunihiko [Nagoya Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Nasu, Akiko; Maruyama, Yoshihiro [Shibaura Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The validity of intergenerational ethics on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste originating from nuclear power plants was studied. The result of the study on geological disposal technology showed that the current method of disposal can be judged to be scientifically reliable for several hundred years and the radioactivity level will be less than one tenth of the tolerable amount after 1,000 years or more. This implies that the consideration of intergenerational ethics of geological disposal is meaningless. Ethics developed in western society states that the consent of people in the future is necessary if the disposal has influence on them. Moreover, the ethics depends on generally accepted ideas in western society and preconceptions based on racism and sexism. The irrationality becomes clearer by comparing the dangers of the exhaustion of natural resources and pollution from harmful substances in a recycling society. (author)

  16. CAN WE CONSIDER WASTES GENERATED DURING RADIOIMMUNOASSAYS AS A RADIOACTIVE WASTE?

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Shapilov; G. G. Gorsky; I. A. Zvonova

    2010-01-01

    The work presents issues of the radiation protection provision for the management of radioactive waste produced by the radioimmunological analysis with the use of 125I marker, calculated and experimental data on radioactive waste specific activities are analyzed.

  17. Treatment of Radioactive Contaminated Soil and Concrete Wastes Using the Regulatory Clearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il Sik; Ryu, W. S.; Kim, T. K.; Shon, J. S.; Ahn, S. J.; Lee, Y. H.; Bae, S. M.; Hong, D. S.; Ji, Y. Y.; Lee, B. C

    2008-11-15

    In the radioactive waste storage facilities at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in Daejoen, there are thousands drums of radioactive contaminated soil and concrete wastes. The soil and concrete wastes were generated in 1988 during the decommissioning process of the research reactor and the attached radioactive waste treatment facility which were located in Seoul. The wastes were transported to Daejeon and have been stored since then. At the generation time, the radioactive contamination of the wastes was very low, and the radionuclides in the wastes was Co-60 and Cs-137. As the wastes have been stored for more than 20 years, the radioactivity concentration of the wastes has been decayed to become very extremely low. The wastes are needed to be treated because they take up large spaces at the storage facility. Also by treating the wastes, final disposal cost can be saved. So, the regulatory clearance was considered as a treatment method for the soil and concrete wastes with extremely low radioactivity concentration.

  18. Treatment of radioactive wastes by incineration; Tratamiento de desechos radiactivos por incineracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priego C, E., E-mail: emmanuel.priego@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    Great part of the radioactive wastes of low and intermediate level generated during the nuclear fuel cycle, in laboratories and other sites where the radionuclides are used for the research in the industry, in medicine and other activities, are combustible wastes. The incineration of these radioactive wastes provides a very high reduction factor and at the same time converts the wastes in radioactive ashes and no-flammable residuals, chemically inert and much more homogeneous that the initial wastes. With the increment of the costs in the repositories and those every time but strict regulations, the incineration of radioactive wastes has been able to occupy an important place in the strategy of the wastes management. However, in a particular way, the incineration is a complex process of high temperature that demands the execution of safety and operation requirements very specific. (author)

  19. Planning of low-level radioactive waste management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Teruo; Yoneya, Masayuki; Tanabe, Tsutomu; Koakutsu, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Yasuaki [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    2002-09-01

    In order to treat and dispose of the low-level radioactive waste generated from JNC sites safely and rationally, a comprehensive plan managing the generation, treatment, storage and disposal of waste, was formulated. The plan is called ''Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program''. Taking into consideration an institutionalization of disposal and based on an investigation of waste properties (type, amount, activity concentration), the appropriate treatment method for disposal was studied, and a fundamental plan for conducting the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program was presented. To achieve disposal of low-level radioactive waste, concrete measures will be taken according to the Low-Level Radioactive Wastes Management Program. The plan will be improved suitably by the result of technical development, and will be reconsidered flexibly after institutionalization by the government. (author)

  20. Foaming and Antifoaming in Radioactive Waste Pretreatment and Immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darsh T. Wasan

    2002-02-20

    Radioactive waste treatment processes usually involve concentration of radionuclides before waste can be immobilized by storing it in stable solid form. Foaming is observed at various stages of waste processing like sludge chemical processing and melter operations. Hence, the objective of this research was to study the mechanisms that produce foaming during nuclear waste treatment, to identify key parameters which aggravate foaming, and to identify effective ways to eliminate or mitigate foaming. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the surface phenomenon, suspension rheology, and bubble generation and interactions that lead to the formation of foam during waste processing were pursued under this EMSP project. Advanced experimental techniques including a novel capillary force balance in conjunction with the combined differential and common interferometry were developed to characterize particle-particle interactions at the foam lamella surfaces as well as inside the foam lamella. Laboratory tests were conducted using a non-radioactive simulant slurry containing high levels of noble metals and mercury similar to the High-Level Waste. We concluded that foaminess of the simulant sludge was due to the presence of colloidal particles such as aluminum, iron, and manganese. We have established the two major mechanisms of formation and stabilization of foams containing such colloidal particles: (1) structural and depletion forces; and (2) steric stabilization due to the adsorbed particles at the surfaces of the foam lamella. Based on this mechanistic understanding of foam generation and stability, an improved antifoam agent was developed by us, since commercial antifoam agents were found to be ineffective in the aggressive physical and chemical environment present in the sludge processing. The improved antifoamer was subsequently tested in a pilot plant at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and was found to be effective. Also, in the SRTC experiment, the irradiated

  1. Processing method for molten salt waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Shuichi; Sawa, Toshio; Hoshikawa, Tadahiro; Suzuoki, Akira

    1999-01-06

    The present invention concerns a processing method for selectively adsorbing and removing radioactive metal ingredients contained in high temperature molten salts by an inorganic ion exchanger and separating radioactive metal ingredients from the molten salts as high level radioactive wastes upon reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels by using molten salts. The molten salts occluded in the inorganic ion exchanger are desorbed with highly purified water. Successively, saturation adsorbed radioactive metal ingredients are desorbed by an aqueous solution of alkali metal salt or an aqueous solution of alkaline earth metal salt. The desorbed molten salts and radioactive metal ingredients are formed into at least two kinds of radioactive waste solidification materials depending on each of radioactivity level. As the inorganic ion exchanger, at least one of aluminosilicate and hydroxides is used. Then, molten salt wastes generated upon a dry-type reprocessing can be processed as a stable borosilicate glass solidification material or as a similar homogeneous solid material. (T.M.)

  2. International Symposium on Disposal of Low Activity Radioactive Waste, Cordoba, Spain, 13-17 December 2004

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    The topical issues addressed by the symposium were: policies and strategies for low activity radioactive waste; very low activity radioactive waste; low activity radioactive waste from decommissioning; long lived low activity radioactive waste and other materials; and unique low activity radioactive waste.

  3. Automated system for the safe management of the radioactive wastes and liquid effluents in a Radiopharmaceutical an labelled compounds production center; Sistema automatizado para la gestion segura de los desechos radiactivos y efluentes liquidos en un centro de produccion de radiofarmacos y compuestos marcados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador B, Z.H. [Centro de Isotopos, Ave. Monumental y Carretera La Rada, Km. 3, Guanabacoa, Apartado 3415, Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba); Guerra V, R. [Centro de Gestion de Informacion y Desarrollo de la Energia, Calle 20 No. 4111 e/47 y 18A, Playa, Ciudad La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: zabalbona@centis.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    The Center of Isotopes of the Republic of Cuba is a radioactive installation of first category that executes the administration of their radioactive waste under authorization of the National Regulatory Authority. The principles of the design and operation of the 'SADR' system for the safe administration of the radioactive waste and liquid effluents are presented. The Visual Basic 6 platform for the programming of the SADR is used and through of their schematic representation, the control flows and of data of the 7 modules that conform it are shown. For each module the functions are described and it presents an image of the corresponding interface. With the SADR its can be carried out the one registration and the upgrade of the inventory of radioactive waste, the planning of those disqualification operations, the annual consolidation of the volumes of waste generated and disqualified, the evaluation of specific and general indicators and the one tendencies analysis. The handling of the system through the intranet allows the enter of data from the operations place with the radioactive wastes. The results of the operation of the SADR show the utility of this work to elevate the efficiency of the administration of the radioactive wastes. (Author)

  4. Radioactive Waste Management Complex performance assessment: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, M.J.; Maheras, S.J.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Sussman, M.E.; Voilleque, P.

    1990-06-01

    A radiological performance assessment of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was conducted to demonstrate compliance with appropriate radiological criteria of the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the general public. The calculations involved modeling the transport of radionuclides from buried waste, to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the general public via air, ground water, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses were made for both offsite receptors and individuals intruding onto the site after closure. In addition, uncertainty analyses were performed. Results of calculations made using nominal data indicate that the radiological doses will be below appropriate radiological criteria throughout operations and after closure of the facility. Recommendations were made for future performance assessment calculations.

  5. Attention: no radioactive waste accepted on 7 September

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Anouncement by the RW section of the Radiation Protection Group: The Treatment Centre for Radioactive Waste will not be accepting waste on Friday, 7 September 2012. Thank you for adjusting your activities accordingly.

  6. Civilian radioactive waste management program plan. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This revision of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan describes the objectives of the Civilian Radioactive Waste management Program (Program) as prescribed by legislative mandate, and the technical achievements, schedule, and costs planned to complete these objectives. The Plan provides Program participants and stakeholders with an updated description of Program activities and milestones for fiscal years (FY) 1998 to 2003. It describes the steps the Program will undertake to provide a viability assessment of the Yucca Mountain site in 1998; prepare the Secretary of Energy`s site recommendation to the President in 2001, if the site is found to be suitable for development as a repository; and submit a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 2002 for authorization to construct a repository. The Program`s ultimate challenge is to provide adequate assurance to society that an operating geologic repository at a specific site meets the required standards of safety. Chapter 1 describes the Program`s mission and vision, and summarizes the Program`s broad strategic objectives. Chapter 2 describes the Program`s approach to transform strategic objectives, strategies, and success measures to specific Program activities and milestones. Chapter 3 describes the activities and milestones currently projected by the Program for the next five years for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project; the Waste Acceptance, Storage and Transportation Project; ad the Program Management Center. The appendices present information on the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, and the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the history of the Program; the Program`s organization chart; the Commission`s regulations, Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Wastes in geologic Repositories; and a glossary of terms.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF GLASS MATRICES FOR HLW RADIOACTIVE WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C.

    2010-03-18

    Vitrification is currently the most widely used technology for the treatment of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) throughout the world. Most of the nations that have generated HLW are immobilizing in either borosilicate glass or phosphate glass. One of the primary reasons that glass has become the most widely used immobilization media is the relative simplicity of the vitrification process, e.g. melt waste plus glass forming frit additives and cast. A second reason that glass has become widely used for HLW is that the short range order (SRO) and medium range order (MRO) found in glass atomistically bonds the radionuclides and governs the melt properties such as viscosity, resistivity, sulphate solubility. The molecular structure of glass controls contaminant/radionuclide release by establishing the distribution of ion exchange sites, hydrolysis sites, and the access of water to those sites. The molecular structure is flexible and hence accounts for the flexibility of glass formulations to waste variability. Nuclear waste glasses melt between 1050-1150 C which minimizes the volatility of radioactive components such as Tc{sup 99}, Cs{sup 137}, and I{sup 129}. Nuclear waste glasses have good long term stability including irradiation resistance. Process control models based on the molecular structure of glass have been mechanistically derived and have been demonstrated to be accurate enough to control the world's largest HLW Joule heated ceramic melter in the US since 1996 at 95% confidence.

  8. National inventory of radioactive wastes and valorizable materials. Synthesis report; Inventaire national des dechets radioactifs et des matieres valorisables. Rapport de synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This national inventory of radioactive wastes is a reference document for professionals and scientists of the nuclear domain and also for any citizen interested in the management of radioactive wastes. It contains: 1 - general introduction; 2 - the radioactive wastes: definition, classification, origin and management; 3 - methodology of the inventory: organization, accounting, prospective, production forecasting, recording of valorizable materials, exhaustiveness, verification tools; 4 - general results: radioactive waste stocks recorded until December 31, 2002, forecasts for the 2003-2020 era, post-2020 prospects: dismantling operations, recording of valorizable materials; 5 - inventory per producer or owner: front-end fuel cycle facilities, power generation nuclear centers, back-end fuel cycle facilities, waste processing or maintenance facilities, civil CEA research centers, non-CEA research centers, medical activities (diagnostics, therapeutics, analyses), various industrial activities (sources fabrication, control, particular devices), military research and experiment centers, storage and disposal facilities; 6 - elements about radioactive polluted sites; 7 - examples of foreign inventories; 8 - conclusion and appendixes. (J.S.)

  9. Biosphere models for safety assesment of radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proehl, G.; Olyslaegers, G.; Zeevaert, T. [SCK/CEN, Mol (Belgium); Kanyar, B. [University of Veszprem (Hungary). Dept. of Radiochemistry; Pinedo, P.; Simon, I. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Bergstroem, U.; Hallberg, B. [Studsvik Ecosafe, Nykoeping (Sweden); Mobbs, S.; Chen, Q.; Kowe, R. [NRPB, Chilton, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the BioMoSA project has been to contribute in the confidence building of biosphere models, for application in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal. The detailed objectives of this project are: development and test of practical biosphere models for application in long-term safety studies of radioactive waste disposal to different European locations, identification of features, events and processes that need to be modelled on a site-specific rather than on a generic base, comparison of the results and quantification of the variability of site-specific models developed according to the reference biosphere methodology, development of a generic biosphere tool for application in long term safety studies, comparison of results from site-specific models to those from generic one, Identification of possibilities and limitations for the application of the generic biosphere model. (orig.)

  10. Proceedings of the 1st workshop on radioactive waste treatment technologies, October 28, 1997 Taejon, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This proceedings describes the volume reduction of radioactive waste, the radioactive waste treatment technology, the decontamination and decommissioning, and the incineration and solidification of radioactive waste. Twenty two papers are submitted.

  11. Storage and disposal of radioactive waste as glass in canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendel, J.E.

    1978-12-01

    A review of the use of waste glass for the immobilization of high-level radioactive waste glass is presented. Typical properties of the canisters used to contain the glass, and the waste glass, are described. Those properties are used to project the stability of canisterized waste glass through interim storage, transportation, and geologic disposal.

  12. Measurement Technology on 200 Liters Barrels of Radioactive Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI; Lei; SHAO; Jie-wen; LIU; Da-ming; LIU; Hong-bin; CHENG; Yi-mei; HE; Li-xia; ZHU; Li-qun

    2012-01-01

    <正>The measurement device on 200 liters barrel of radioactive waste is designed following the rule of orderly measurement automatically, by using the technology of non-destructive to measure the mass of radioactive waste produced from fuel cycle. Device objects as shown in Fig. 1, which consists of the

  13. Radioactive Waste Information for 1998 and Record-To-Date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. L. French; R. E. Tallman; K. A. Taylor

    1999-07-01

    This document presents detailed data, bar graphs, and pie charts on volume, radioactivity; isotopic identity, origin, and status of radioactive waste for calendar year 1998 at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The data presented are from the INEEL Integrated Waste Information System.

  14. Annual Report of Radioactive Waste Facilities Operation in 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU; Hong-ming; GAO; Zhi-gang; DIAO; Lei; SHEN; Zheng; LI; Wen-ge

    2015-01-01

    301of the Department of Radiochemistry,is in charge of the management of radioactive waste and the safety of the relative facilities to meet the request of the scientific research production.There are 16radioactive waste facilities,including9facilities which are closed and monitored

  15. ANSTO`s radioactive waste management policy. Preliminary environmental review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levins, D.M.; Airey, P.; Breadner, B.; Bull, P.; Camilleri, A.; Dimitrovski, L.; Gorman, T.; Harries, J.; Innes, R.; Jarquin, E.; Jay, G.; Ridal, A.; Smith, A.

    1996-05-01

    For over forty years, radioactive wastes have been generated by ANSTO (and its predecessor, the AAEC) from the operation of nuclear facilities, the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial use, and from various research activities. the quantities and activities of radioactive waste currently at Lucas Heights are very small compared to many other nuclear facilities overseas, especially those in countries with nuclear power program. Nevertheless, in the absence of a repository for nuclear wastes in Australia and guidelines for waste conditioning, the waste inventory has been growing steadily. This report reviews the status of radioactive waste management at ANSTO, including spent fuel management, treatment of effluents and environmental monitoring. It gives details of: relevant legislative, regulatory and related requirements; sources and types of radioactive waste generated at ANSTO; waste quantities and activities (both cumulative and annual arisings); existing practices and procedures for waste management and environmental monitoring; recommended broad strategies for dealing with radioactive waste management issues. Detailed proposals on how the recommendations should be implemented is the subject of a companion internal document, the Radioactive Waste Management Action Plan 1996-2000 which provides details of the tasks to be undertaken, milestones and resource requirements. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs.

  16. NEW CRITERIA FOR ASSIGNING WASTE CONTAINING TECH-NOGENIC RADIONUCLIDES TO THE RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanovich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains detailed description of criteria for assigning of liquid and gaseous industrial waste containing technogenicradionuclides to the radioactive waste, presented in the new Basic Sanitary Rulesof Radiation Safety (OSPORB-99/2010. The analysisof shortcomings and discrepancies of the previously used in Russia system of criteria for assigning waste to the radioactive waste is given.

  17. NEW CRITERIA FOR ASSIGNING WASTE CONTAINING TECH-NOGENIC RADIONUCLIDES TO THE RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    OpenAIRE

    I. K. Romanovich; M. I. Balonov; A. N. Barkovsky

    2010-01-01

    The article contains detailed description of criteria for assigning of liquid and gaseous industrial waste containing technogenicradionuclides to the radioactive waste, presented in the new Basic Sanitary Rulesof Radiation Safety (OSPORB-99/2010). The analysisof shortcomings and discrepancies of the previously used in Russia system of criteria for assigning waste to the radioactive waste is given.

  18. Development of iron phosphate ceramic waste form to immobilize radioactive waste solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jongkwon [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-Dong, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Um, Wooyong, E-mail: wooyong.um@pnnl.gov [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-Dong, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Choung, Sungwook [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-Dong, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    The objective of this research was to develop an iron phosphate ceramic (IPC) waste form using converter slag obtained as a by-product of the steel industry as a source of iron instead of conventional iron oxide. Both synthetic off-gas scrubber solution containing technetium-99 (or Re as a surrogate) and LiCl–KCl eutectic salt, a final waste solution from pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuel, were used as radioactive waste streams. The IPC waste form was characterized for compressive strength, reduction capacity, chemical durability, and contaminant leachability. Compressive strengths of the IPC waste form prepared with different types of waste solutions were 16 MPa and 19 MPa for LiCl–KCl eutectic salt and the off-gas scrubber simulant, respectively, which meet the minimum compressive strength of 3.45 MPa (500 psi) for waste forms to be accepted into the radioactive waste repository. The reduction capacity of converter slag, a main dry ingredient used to prepare the IPC waste form, was 4136 meq/kg by the Ce(IV) method, which is much higher than those of the conventional Fe oxides used for the IPC waste form and the blast furnace slag materials. Average leachability indexes of Tc, Li, and K for the IPC waste form were higher than 6.0, and the IPC waste form demonstrated stable durability even after 63-day leaching. In addition, the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure measurements of converter slag and the IPC waste form with LiCl–KCl eutectic salt met the universal treatment standard of the leachability limit for metals regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This study confirms the possibility of development of the IPC waste form using converter slag, showing its immobilization capability for radionuclides in both LiCl–KCl eutectic salt and off-gas scrubber solutions with significant cost savings.

  19. Development of iron phosphate ceramic waste form to immobilize radioactive waste solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jongkwon; Um, Wooyong; Choung, Sungwook

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this research was to develop an iron phosphate ceramic (IPC) waste form using converter slag obtained as a by-product of the steel industry as a source of iron instead of conventional iron oxide. Both synthetic off-gas scrubber solution containing technetium-99 (or Re as a surrogate) and LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, a final waste solution from pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuel, were used as radioactive waste streams. The IPC waste form was characterized for compressive strength, reduction capacity, chemical durability, and contaminant leachability. Compressive strengths of the IPC waste form prepared with different types of waste solutions were 16 MPa and 19 MPa for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and the off-gas scrubber simulant, respectively, which meet the minimum compressive strength of 3.45 MPa (500 psi) for waste forms to be accepted into the radioactive waste repository. The reduction capacity of converter slag, a main dry ingredient used to prepare the IPC waste form, was 4136 meq/kg by the Ce(IV) method, which is much higher than those of the conventional Fe oxides used for the IPC waste form and the blast furnace slag materials. Average leachability indexes of Tc, Li, and K for the IPC waste form were higher than 6.0, and the IPC waste form demonstrated stable durability even after 63-day leaching. In addition, the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure measurements of converter slag and the IPC waste form with LiCl-KCl eutectic salt met the universal treatment standard of the leachability limit for metals regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This study confirms the possibility of development of the IPC waste form using converter slag, showing its immobilization capability for radionuclides in both LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and off-gas scrubber solutions with significant cost savings.

  20. Chemical species of plutonium in Hanford radioactive tank waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barney, G.S.

    1997-10-22

    Large quantities of radioactive wastes have been generated at the Hanford Site over its operating life. The wastes with the highest activities are stored underground in 177 large (mostly one million gallon volume) concrete tanks with steel liners. The wastes contain processing chemicals, cladding chemicals, fission products, and actinides that were neutralized to a basic pH before addition to the tanks to prevent corrosion of the steel liners. Because the mission of the Hanford Site was to provide plutonium for defense purposes, the amount of plutonium lost to the wastes was relatively small. The best estimate of the amount of plutonium lost to all the waste tanks is about 500 kg. Given uncertainties in the measurements, some estimates are as high as 1,000 kg (Roetman et al. 1994). The wastes generally consist of (1) a sludge layer generated by precipitation of dissolved metals from aqueous wastes solutions during neutralization with sodium hydroxide, (2) a salt cake layer formed by crystallization of salts after evaporation of the supernate solution, and (3) an aqueous supernate solution that exists as a separate layer or as liquid contained in cavities between sludge or salt cake particles. The identity of chemical species of plutonium in these wastes will allow a better understanding of the behavior of the plutonium during storage in tanks, retrieval of the wastes, and processing of the wastes. Plutonium chemistry in the wastes is important to criticality and environmental concerns, and in processing the wastes for final disposal. Plutonium has been found to exist mainly in the sludge layers of the tanks along with other precipitated metal hydrous oxides. This is expected due to its low solubility in basic aqueous solutions. Tank supernate solutions do not contain high concentrations of plutonium even though some tanks contain high concentrations of complexing agents. The solutions also contain significant concentrations of hydroxide which competes with other

  1. Development of polymer concrete radioactive waste management containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.; Lee, M. S.; Ahn, D. H.; Won, H. J.; Kang, H. S.; Lee, H. S.; Lim, S.P.; Kim, Y. E.; Lee, B. O.; Lee, K. P.; Min, B. Y.; Lee, J.K.; Jang, W. S.; Sim, W. B.; Lee, J. C.; Park, M. J.; Choi, Y. J.; Shin, H. E.; Park, H. Y.; Kim, C. Y

    1999-11-01

    A high-integrity radioactive waste container has been developed to immobilize the spent resin wastes from nuclear power plants, protect possible future, inadvertent intruders from damaging radiation. The polymer concrete container is designed to ensure safe and reliable disposal of the radioactive waste for a minimum period of 300 years. A built-in vent system for each container will permit the release of gas. An experimental evaluation of the mechanical, chemical, and biological tests of the container was carried out. The tests showed that the polymer concrete container is adequate for safe disposal of the radioactive wastes. (author)

  2. The disposal of radioactive waste on land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1957-09-01

    A committee of geologists and geophysicists was established by the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council at the request of the Atomic Energy Commission to consider the possibilities of disposing of high level radioactive wastes in quantity within the continental limits of the United States. The group was charged with assembling the existing geologic information pertinent to disposal, delineating the unanswered problems associated with the disposal schemes proposed, and point out areas of research and development meriting first attention; the committee is to serve as continuing adviser on the geological and geophysical aspects of disposal and the research and development program. The Committee with the cooperation of the Johns Hopkins University organized a conference at Princeton in September 1955. After the Princeton Conference members of the committee inspected disposal installations and made individual studies. Two years consideration of the disposal problems leads to-certain general conclusions. Wastes may be disposed of safely at many sites in the United States but, conversely, there are many large areas in which it is unlikely that disposal sites can be found, for example, the Atlantic Seaboard. Disposal in cavities mined in salt beds and salt domes is suggested as the possibility promising the most practical immediate solution of the problem. In the future the injection of large volumes of dilute liquid waste into porous rock strata at depths in excess of 5,000 feet may become feasible but means of rendering, the waste solutions compatible with the mineral and fluid components of the rock must first be developed. The main difficulties, to the injection method recognized at present are to prevent clogging of pore space as the solutions are pumped into the rock and the prediction or control of the rate and direction of movement.

  3. Hazardous Waste Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) is playing a major role in development of technologies for cleanup of toxic and hazardous waste in military...

  4. Analysis of Steam Generators Corrosion Products from Slovak NPP Bohunice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Degmová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals of the nuclear industry is to increase the nuclear safety and reliability of nuclear power plants (NPPs. As the steam generator (SG is the most corrosion sensitive component of NPPs, it is important to analyze the corrosion process and optimize its construction materials to avoid damages like corrosion cracking. For this purpose two different kinds of SGs and its feed water distributing systems from the NPP Jaslovske Bohunice were studied by nondestructive Mössbauer spectroscopy. The samples were scraped from the surface and analyzed in transmission geometry. Magnetite and hematite were found to be the main components in the corrosion layers of both SGs. Dependant of the material the SG consisted of, and the location in the system where the samples were taken, the ratios between magnetite and hematite and the paramagnetic components were different. The obtained results can be used to improve corrosion safety of the VVER-440 secondary circuit as well as to optimize its water chemistry regime.

  5. ICPP radioactive liquid and calcine waste technologies evaluation final report and recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Using a formalized Systems Engineering approach, the Latched Idaho Technologies Company developed and evaluated numerous alternatives for treating, immobilizing, and disposing of radioactive liquid and calcine wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Based on technical analysis data as of March, 1995, it is recommended that the Department of Energy consider a phased processing approach -- utilizing Radionuclide Partitioning for radioactive liquid and calcine waste treatment, FUETAP Grout for low-activity waste immobilization, and Glass (Vitrification) for high-activity waste immobilization -- as the preferred treatment and immobilization alternative.

  6. Radioactive Dry Process Material Treatment Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. J.; Hung, I. H.; Kim, K. K. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The project 'Radioactive Dry Process Material Treatment Technology Development' aims to be normal operation for the experiments at DUPIC fuel development facility (DFDF) and safe operation of the facility through the technology developments such as remote operation, maintenance and pair of the facility, treatment of various high level process wastes and trapping of volatile process gases. DUPIC Fuel Development Facility (DFDF) can accommodate highly active nuclear materials, and now it is for fabrication of the oxide fuel by dry process characterizing the proliferation resistance. During the second stage from march 2005 to February 2007, we carried out technology development of the remote maintenance and the DFDF's safe operation, development of treatment technology for process off-gas, and development of treatment technology for PWR cladding hull and the results was described in this report.

  7. Management of waste from the use of radioactive material in medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education safety guide

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations and guidance on the > fulfilment of the safety requirements established in Safety Standards > Series No. WS-R-2, Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste, > Including Decommissioning. It covers the roles and responsibilities of > different bodies involved in the predisposal management of radioactive > waste and in the handling and processing of radioactive material. It > is intended for organizations generating and handling radioactive > waste or handling such waste on a centralized basis for and the > regulatory body responsible for regulating such activities.  > Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of human health and the > environment; 3. Roles and responsibilities; 4. General safety > considerations; 5. Predisposal management of radioactive waste; 6. > Acceptance of radioactive waste in disposal facilities; 7. Record > keeping and reporting; 8. Management systems; Appendix I: Fault > schedule for safety assessment and environmental impact assessment; > Ap...

  8. Waste Handling and Emplacement Options for Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Deep Boreholes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-11-01

    Traditional methods cannot be used to handle and emplace radioactive wastes in boreholes up to 16,400 feet (5 km) deep for disposal. This paper describes three systems that can be used for handling and emplacing waste packages in deep borehole: (1) a 2011 reference design that is based on a previous study by Woodward–Clyde in 1983 in which waste packages are assembled into “strings” and lowered using drill pipe; (2) an updated version of the 2011 reference design; and (3) a new concept in which individual waste packages would be lowered to depth using a wireline. Emplacement on coiled tubing was also considered, but not developed in detail. The systems described here are currently designed for U.S. Department of Energy-owned high-level waste (HLW) including the Cesium- 137/Strontium-90 capsules from the Hanford Facility and bulk granular HLW from fuel processing in Idaho.

  9. Northwest Hazardous Waste Research, Development, and Demonstration Center: Program Plan. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-02-01

    The Northwest Hazardous Waste Research, Development, and Demonstration Center was created as part of an ongoing federal effort to provide technologies and methods that protect human health and welfare and environment from hazardous wastes. The Center was established by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) to develop and adapt innovative technologies and methods for assessing the impacts of and remediating inactive hazardous and radioactive mixed-waste sites. The Superfund legislation authorized $10 million for Pacific Northwest Laboratory to establish and operate the Center over a 5-year period. Under this legislation, Congress authorized $10 million each to support research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) on hazardous and radioactive mixed-waste problems in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington, including the Hanford Site. In 1987, the Center initiated its RD and D activities and prepared this Program Plan that presents the framework within which the Center will carry out its mission. Section 1.0 describes the Center, its mission, objectives, organization, and relationship to other programs. Section 2.0 describes the Center's RD and D strategy and contains the RD and D objectives, priorities, and process to be used to select specific projects. Section 3.0 contains the Center's FY 1988 operating plan and describes the specific RD and D projects to be carried out and their budgets and schedules. 9 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Waste treatment at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunson, R.R.; Bond, W.D.; Chattin, F.R.; Collins, R.T.; Sullivan, G.R.; Wiles, R.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1997-12-31

    At the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) irradiated targets are processed for the recovery of valuable radioisotopes, principally transuranium nuclides. A system was recently installed for treating the various liquid alkaline waste streams for removal of excess radioactive contaminants at the REDC. Radionuclides that are removed will be stored as solids and thus the future discharge of radionuclides to liquid low level waste tank storage will be greatly reduced. The treatment system is of modular design and is installed in a hot cell (Cubicle 7) in Building 7920 at the REDC where preliminary testing is in progress. The module incorporates the following: (1) a resorcinol-formaldehyde resin column for Cs removal, (2) a cross flow filtration unit for removal of rare earths and actinides as hydroxide, and (3) a waste solidification unit. Process flowsheets for operation of the module, key features of the module design, and its computer-assisted control system are presented. Good operability of the cross flow filter system is mandatory to the successful treatment of REDC wastes. Results of tests to date on the operation of the filter in its slurry collection mode and its slurry washing mode are presented. These tests include the effects of entrained organic solvent in the waste stream feed to the filter.

  11. Management of low-level radioactive wastes around the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakey, L.T.; Harmon, K.M.; Colombo, P.

    1985-04-01

    This paper reviews the status of various practices used throughout the world for managing low-level radioactive wastes. Most of the information in this review was obtained through the DOE-sponsored International Program Support Office (IPSO) activities at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) at Richland, Washington. The objective of IPSO is to collect, evaluate, and disseminate information on international waste management and nuclear fuel cycle activities. The center's sources of information vary widely and include the proceedings of international symposia, papers presented at technical society meetings, published topical reports, foreign trip reports, and the news media. Periodically, the information is published in topical reports. Much of the information contained in this report was presented at the Fifth Annual Participants' Information Meeting sponsored by DOE's Low-Level Waste Management Program Office at Denver, Colorado, in September of 1983. Subsequent to that presentation, the information has been updated, particularly with information provided by Dr. P. Colombo of Brookhaven National Laboratory who corresponded with low-level waste management specialists in many countries. The practices reviewed in this paper generally represent actual operations. However, major R and D activities, along with future plans, are also discussed. 98 refs., 6 tabls.

  12. Hazardous Waste Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A full-service research and evaluation center equipped with safety equipment, a high-bay pilot studies area, and a large-scale pilot studies facility The U.S. Army...

  13. Features, events, processes, and safety factor analysis applied to a near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, M.E.; Dolinar, G.M.; Lange, B.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    An analysis of features, events, processes (FEPs) and other safety factors was applied to AECL`s proposed IRUS (Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure) near-surface LLRW disposal facility. The FEP analysis process which had been developed for and applied to high-level and transuranic disposal concepts was adapted for application to a low-level facility for which significant efforts in developing a safety case had already been made. The starting point for this process was a series of meetings of the project team to identify and briefly describe FEPs or safety factors which they thought should be considered. At this early stage participants were specifically asked not to screen ideas. This initial list was supplemented by selecting FEPs documented in other programs and comments received from an initial regulatory review. The entire list was then sorted by topic and common issues were grouped, and issues were classified in three priority categories and assigned to individuals for resolution. In this paper, the issue identification and resolution process will be described, from the initial description of an issue to its resolution and inclusion in the various levels of the safety case documentation.

  14. Radioactive Waste Management in Non-Nuclear Countries - 13070

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubelka, Dragan; Trifunovic, Dejan [SORNS, Frankopanska 11, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2013-07-01

    This paper challenges internationally accepted concepts of dissemination of responsibilities between all stakeholders involved in national radioactive waste management infrastructure in the countries without nuclear power program. Mainly it concerns countries classified as class A and potentially B countries according to International Atomic Energy Agency. It will be shown that in such countries long term sustainability of national radioactive waste management infrastructure is very sensitive issue that can be addressed by involving regulatory body in more active way in the infrastructure. In that way countries can mitigate possible consequences on the very sensitive open market of radioactive waste management services, comprised mainly of radioactive waste generators, operators of end-life management facilities and regulatory body. (authors)

  15. Licensing process for the installation of radioactive waste treatment by plasma technology in Kozloduy NPP (Bulgaria); Proceso de licenciamiento de la instalacion de tratamiento de residuos radiactivos mediante la tecnologia del plasma en la CN de Kozloduy (Bulgaria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Martinez, S.

    2010-07-01

    The main objective of this project, which lasted approximately four years, is to have a facility for reduction volume of radioactive waste and waste generated during the decommissioning of the four units that have completed its operational life.

  16. Redesign and modernization of radioactive waste administration systems in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieder-Westermann, Gerald H.; Walther, Thorsten; Krone, Juergen [DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    The European Commission (EC) has undertaken a series of projects to render assistance to Ukraine in modernizing and redesigning the Ukrainian approach to the administration, management and ultimately disposal of all forms of radioactive waste, including waste associated with the Chornobyl accident as well as waste generated as part of the Ukrainian energy infrastructure and from industrial and medical applications. One of the most recently completed projects focused on modernizing Ukraine's management and administrative systems responsible for the disposal of radioactive waste.

  17. Hospitalar radioactive waste of low activity, a daily practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezio, M.T.; Vieira, M.R. [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia de Francisco Gentil - CROL, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2006-07-01

    radionuclide j. In the following table we have the, that we use in our department. In daily practice, for solid waste we perform measurements with a dose rate meter. If the dose is near the background values (0,2 mSv/h) we discharge that waste. If it was a radioactive waste, without biological contamination, it is treated as public waste. If it was a biological contaminated waste it will undergo a thermal process, for liquid waste we have decay tanks linked to the therapeutic room toilets and to a sink where we can give out that waste. We have detectors inside the decay tanks, which give us the separated concentrations. When the concentration is lower than the legal limit we open the tank to the public sewer. (authors)

  18. Boron Removal in Radioactive Liquid Waste by Forward Osmosis Membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Dooseong; Choi, Hei Min; Lee, Kune Woo; Moon Jeikwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    These wastes contain about 0.3-0.8 wt% boric acid and have been concentrated through an evaporation treatment. Boric acid tends to crystallize owing to its solubility, and to plug the evaporator. The volume reduction obtained through evaporation is limited by the amount of boric acid in the waste. As an emerging technology, forward osmosis (FO) has attracted growing interest in wastewater treatment and desalination. FO is a membrane process in which water flows across a semi-permeable membrane from a feed solution of lower osmotic pressure to a draw solution of higher osmotic pressure. However, very few studies on the removal of boron by FO have been performed. The objective of this study is to evaluate the possibility of boron separation in radioactive liquid waste by FO. In this study, the performance of FO was investigated to separate boron in the simulated liquid waste under the factors such as pH, osmotic pressure, ionic strength of the solution, and membrane characteristic. The boron separation in radioactive borate liquid waste was investigated with an FO membrane. When the feed solution containing boron is treated by the FO membrane, the boron permeation depends on the type of membrane, membrane orientation, pH of the feed solution, salt and boron concentration in the feed solution, and osmotic pressure of the draw solution. The boron flux begins to decline from pH 7, and increases with an increase in the osmotic driving force. The boron flux of the CTA-ES and ALFD membrane orientation is higher than those of the CTA-NW and ALFF orientation, respectively. The boron permeation rate is constant regardless of the osmotic pressure and membrane orientation. The boron flux decreases slightly with the salt concentration, but it is not heavily influenced at a low salt concentration.

  19. Annual Report of Radioactive Waste Facilities Operation in 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU; Hong-ming; GAO; Zhi-gang; LIU; Fu-guo

    2013-01-01

    301,a section of Department of Radiochemistry,which manages 15 facilities and undertakes the administrative tasks of radioactive waste,is the important guarantee of scientific research production and safety in CIAE.1 The safe operation of the radioactive waste management facilities In 2013,in order to ensure the operation safety,we formulated the inspection regulations,which included regular operation inspection,week safety inspection from the leaders of the section and

  20. Incineration facilities for treatment of radioactive wastes: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, B.L.

    1976-02-01

    A description is given of incinerator installations in the US and in foreign countries. Included are descriptions of inactive incinerators, incinerator facilities currently in operation, and incinerator installations under construction. Special features of each installation and operational problems of each facility are emphasized. Problems in the incineration of radioactive waste are discussed in relation to the composition of the waste and the amount and type of radioactive contaminant.

  1. Implementation of Control Measures for Radioactive Waste Packages with Respect to the Materials Composition - 12365

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steyer, S.; Kugel, K. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS), Salzgitter (Germany); Brennecke, P. [Braunschweig (Germany); Boetsch, W.; Gruendler, D.; Haider, C. [ISTec, Cologne (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    In addition to the radiological characterization and control measures the materials composition has to be described and respective control measures need to be implemented. The approach to verify the materials composition depends on the status of the waste: - During conditioning of raw waste the control of the materials composition has to be taken into account. - For already conditioned waste a retrospective qualification of the process might be possible. - If retrospective process qualification is not possible, legacy waste can be qualified by spot checking according to the materials composition requirements The integration of the control of the material composition in the quality control system for radioactive waste is discussed and examples of control measures are given. With the materials-list and the packaging-list the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) provides an appropriate tool to describe the materials composition of radioactive waste packages. The control measures with respect to the materials composition integrate well in the established quality control framework for radioactive waste. The system is flexible enough to deal with waste products of different qualities: raw waste, qualified conditioned waste or legacy waste. Control measures to verify the materials composition can be accomplished with minimal radiation exposure and without undue burden on the waste producers and conditioners. (authors)

  2. Calcined Waste Storage at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. D. Staiger

    2007-06-01

    This report provides a quantitative inventory and composition (chemical and radioactivity) of calcined waste stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. From December 1963 through May 2000, liquid radioactive wastes generated by spent nuclear fuel reprocessing were converted into a solid, granular form called calcine. This report also contains a description of the calcine storage bins.

  3. Radioactive waste. Risk, reward, space and time dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Duncan, I J

    2001-01-01

    to ensure isolation from the biosphere while it remains hazardous. The outcome of this research is applicable to the disposal of all solid hazardous waste. This study considers, in a geographical context, issues arising from the disposal of radioactive waste with particular emphasis on societal perceptions of Risk, Trust, NIMBYand Time. It establishes that the wider community now accepts the concepts of 'user pays' and offsetting compensation to any community that accepts a risk, such risk to be minimised and interruptible as necessary. The underlying causes of NIMBYism have been misjudged by industry and this work establishes that they are as much due to exclusion from the decision making process as they are to direct concerns about the social impact, health and environment. The principal cause of NIMBYism is discussed and a procedure to assist siting approval is suggested. This study establishes that industry, government or specialists working alone in this field engender less trust by society than composit...

  4. Management of radioactive waste from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    Even thought risk assessment is an essential consideration in all projects involving radioactive or hazardous waste, its public role is often unclear, and it is not fully utilized in the decision-making process for public acceptance of such facilities. Risk assessment should be an integral part of such projects and should play an important role from beginning to end, i.e., from planning stages to the closing of a disposal facility. A conceptual model that incorporates all potential pathways of exposure and is based on site-specific conditions is key to a successful risk assessment. A baseline comparison with existing standards determines, along with other factors, whether the disposal site is safe. Risk assessment also plays a role in setting priorities between sites during cleanup actions and in setting cleanup standards for certain contaminants at a site. The applicable technologies and waste disposal designs can be screened through risk assessment.

  5. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility: Environmental Information Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haagenstad, H.T.; Gonzales, G.; Suazo, I.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the treatment of radioactive liquid waste is an integral function of the LANL mission: to assure U.S. military deterrence capability through nuclear weapons technology. As part of this mission, LANL conducts nuclear materials research and development (R&D) activities. These activities generate radioactive liquid waste that must be handled in a manner to ensure protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Radioactive liquid waste currently generated at LANL is treated at the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), located at Technical Area (TA)-50. The RLWTF is 30 years old and nearing the end of its useful design life. The facility was designed at a time when environmental requirements, as well as more effective treatment technologies, were not inherent in engineering design criteria. The evolution of engineering design criteria has resulted in the older technology becoming less effective in treating radioactive liquid wastestreams in accordance with current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory requirements. Therefore, to support ongoing R&D programs pertinent to its mission, LANL is in need of capabilities to efficiently treat radioactive liquid waste onsite or to transport the waste off site for treatment and/or disposal. The purpose of the EID is to provide the technical baseline information for subsequent preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the RLWTF. This EID addresses the proposed action and alternatives for meeting the purpose and need for agency action.

  6. Management of radioactive waste generated in nuclear medicine; Gestion de los residuos radiactivos generados en medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz Perez, P.

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear medicine is a clinical specialty in which radioactive material is used in non-encapsulated form, for the diagnosis and treatment of patients. Nuclear medicine involves administering to a patient a radioactive substance, usually liquid, both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This process generates solid radioactive waste (syringes, vials, gloves) and liquid (mainly the patient's urine). (Author)

  7. Influence of Temperature on Induction Period of Denitration During Concentration of Radioactive Acid Liquid Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Hui; LI; Chuan-bo; YAN; Tai-hong; ZHENG; Wei-fang

    2013-01-01

    To minimize the volume of waste and recycle nitric acid,the high-and middle-level radioactive liquid waste from reprocessing plant need to be concentrated and de-nitrated,and formic acid and formaldehyde are widely applied as denitration agents.Temperature can affect the induction period of denitration reaction and the safety of process.

  8. Letter report: Minor component study for low-level radioactive waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.

    1996-03-01

    During the waste vitrification process, troublesome minor components in low-level radioactive waste streams could adversely affect either waste vitrification rate or melter life-time. Knowing the solubility limits for these minor components is important to determine pretreatment options for waste streams and glass formulation to prevent or to minimize these problems during the waste vitrification. A joint study between Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute has been conducted to determine minor component impacts in low-level nuclear waste glass.

  9. Thirteenth annual U.S. DOE low-level radioactive waste management conference: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    The 40 papers in this document comprise the proceedings of the Department of Energy`s Thirteenth Annual Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference that was held in Atlanta, Georgia, on November 19--21, 1991. General subjects addressed during the conference included: disposal facility design; greater-than-class C low-level waste; public acceptance considerations; waste certification; site characterization; performance assessment; licensing and documentation; emerging low-level waste technologies; waste minimization; mixed waste; tracking and transportation; storage; and regulatory changes. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  10. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management annual report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-12-01

    This seventh Annual Report to Congress by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) describes activities and expenditures of the Office during fiscal years (FY) 1989 and 1990. In November 1989, OCRWM is responsible for disposing of the Nation`s spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. To direct the implementation of its mission, OCRWM has established the following objectives: (1) Safe and timely disposal: to establish as soon as practicable the ability to dispose of radioactive waste in a geologic repository licensed by the NRC. (2) Timely and adequate waste acceptance: to begin the operation of the waste management system as soon as practicable in order to obtain the system development and operational benefits that have been identified for the MRS facility. (3) Schedule confidence: to establish confidence in the schedule for waste acceptance and disposal such that the management of radioactive waste is not an obstacle to the nuclear energy option. (4) System flexibility: to ensure that the program has the flexibility necessary for adapting to future circumstances while fulfilling established commitments. To achieve these objectives, OCRWM is developing a waste management system consisting of a geologic repository for permanent disposed deep beneath the surface of the earth, a facility for MRS, and a system for transporting the waste.

  11. The low to intermediate activity and short living waste storage facility. For a controlled management of radioactive wastes; Le centre de stockage des dechets de faible et moyenne activite a vie courte. Pour une gestion controlee des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Sited at about 50 km of Troyes (France), the Aube facility started in 1992 and has taken over the Manche facility for the surface storage of low to intermediate and short living radioactive wastes. The Aube facility (named CSFMA) is the answer to the safe management of these wastes at the industrial scale and for 50 years onward. This brochure presents the facility specifications, the wastes stored at the center, the surface storage concept, the processing and conditioning of waste packages, and the environmental monitoring performed in the vicinity of the site. (J.S.)

  12. Determination of {sup 129}I in simulated radioactive wastes using distillation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ke Chon; Song, Byung Cheol; Han, Sun Ho; Park, Yong Joon; Song, Kyu Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    It is clarified in the radioactive waste transfer regulation that the concentration of radioactive waste for the major radio nuclide has to be examined when radioactive waste is guided to the radioactive waste stores. In case of the low level radioactive waste sample, the analytical results of radioactive waste concentration frequently show a value lower than minimum detectable activity (MDA). Since the MDA value basically depends on the amount of a sample, background value, measurement time, counting efficiency, and etc, it would be necessary to increase a sample amount with a intention of minimizing MDA. In order to measure a concentration of {sup 129}I in low and medium level radioactive waste, {sup 129}I was collected by using a distillation technique after leaching the simulated radioactive waste sample with a non-volatile acid. The recovery of {sup 129}I measured was compared with that measured with column elution technique which is a conventional method using an anion-exchange resin. The recovery of inactive iodide by using the distillation method and column elution were found as 86.5 {+-} 0.9% and 87.3 {+-}2.7%, respectively. The recovery and MDA value calculated for distillation technique when 100 g of extracted solution of {sup 129}I was taken,were found to be 84.6 {+-} 1.6% and 1.2 X 10{sup -4} Bq/g, respectively. Consequently, the proposed technique with simplified process lowered the MDA value more than 10 times compared to the column elution technique that has a disadvantage of limited sampling amount.

  13. Final repository for Denmark's low- and intermediate level radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, B.; Gravesen, P.; Petersen, S. S.; Binderup, M.

    2012-12-01

    Bertel Nilsson*, Peter Gravesen, Stig A. Schack Petersen, Merete Binderup Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgade 10, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark, * email address bn@geus.dk The Danish Parliament decided in 2003 that the temporal disposal of the low- and intermediate level radioactive waste at the nuclear facilities at Risø should find another location for a final repository. The Danish radioactive waste must be stored on Danish land territory (exclusive Greenland) and must hold the entire existing radioactive waste, consisting of the waste from the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities at Risø, and the radioactive waste produced in Denmark from hospitals, universities and industry. The radioactive waste is estimated to a total amount of up to 10,000 m3. The Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, GEUS, is responsible for the geological studies of suitable areas for the repository. The task has been to locate and recognize non-fractured Quaternary and Tertiary clays or Precambrian bedrocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surroundings the coming more than 300 years. Twenty two potential areas have been located and sequential reduced to the most favorable two to three locations taking into consideration geology, hydrogeology, nature protection and climate change conditions. Further detailed environmental and geology investigations will be undertaken at the two to three potential localities in 2013 to 2015. This study together with a study of safe transport of the radioactive waste and an investigation of appropriate repository concepts in relation to geology and safety analyses will constitute the basis upon which the final decision by the Danish Parliament on repository concept and repository location. The final repository is planned to be established and in operation at the earliest 2020.

  14. Modeling of physico-chemical characteristics of concrete for filling trenches in radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plecas, Ilija [Belgrade Univ. (Serbia). Inst. of Nuclear Sciences; Arbutina, Dalibor [Belgrade Univ. (Serbia). Inst. of Nuclear Sciences; Public Company ' Nuclear Facilities of Serbia, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2015-05-01

    An optimization of concrete used for immobilization of radionuclides {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs, is presented. A relatively simple mathematical model is given, which permits minimization of leach rate and permeability and maximization of compressive strength. An optimal solution, based on experimental data, is given. These results will be used for a future Serbian radioactive waste disposal center.

  15. Dismantlement and Radioactive Waste Management of DPRK Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jooho, W.; Baldwin, G. T.

    2005-04-01

    One critical aspect of any denuclearization of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) involves dismantlement of its nuclear facilities and management of their associated radioactive wastes. The decommissioning problem for its two principal operational plutonium facilities at Yongbyun, the 5MWe nuclear reactor and the Radiochemical Laboratory reprocessing facility, alone present a formidable challenge. Dismantling those facilities will create radioactive waste in addition to existing inventories of spent fuel and reprocessing wastes. Negotiations with the DPRK, such as the Six Party Talks, need to appreciate the enormous scale of the radioactive waste management problem resulting from dismantlement. The two operating plutonium facilities, along with their legacy wastes, will result in anywhere from 50 to 100 metric tons of uranium spent fuel, as much as 500,000 liters of liquid high-level waste, as well as miscellaneous high-level waste sources from the Radiochemical Laboratory. A substantial quantity of intermediate-level waste will result from disposing 600 metric tons of graphite from the reactor, an undetermined quantity of chemical decladding liquid waste from reprocessing, and hundreds of tons of contaminated concrete and metal from facility dismantlement. Various facilities for dismantlement, decontamination, waste treatment and packaging, and storage will be needed. The shipment of spent fuel and liquid high level waste out of the DPRK is also likely to be required. Nuclear facility dismantlement and radioactive waste management in the DPRK are all the more difficult because of nuclear nonproliferation constraints, including the call by the United States for “complete, verifiable and irreversible dismantlement,” or “CVID.” It is desirable to accomplish dismantlement quickly, but many aspects of the radioactive waste management cannot be achieved without careful assessment, planning and preparation, sustained commitment, and long

  16. Radioactive waste disposal fees-Methodology for calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemš, Július; Králík, Tomáš; Kubančák, Ján; Vašíček, Jiří; Starý, Oldřich

    2014-11-01

    This paper summarizes the methodological approach used for calculation of fee for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal and for spent fuel disposal. The methodology itself is based on simulation of cash flows related to the operation of system for waste disposal. The paper includes demonstration of methodology application on the conditions of the Czech Republic.

  17. Developments and studies on the (T)HMC processes in a final repository for heat generating radioactive wastes. Synthesis and final report; Entwicklungen und Untersuchungen zu (T)HMC-Prozessen eines Endlagers fuer Waerme entwickelnde radioaktive Abfaelle. Synthese und Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyand, Torben [Bonn Univ. (Germany); Bracke, Guido; Fischer, Heidemarie; Frieling, Gerd; Hansmeier, Christina; Hotzel, Stephan; Kock, Ingo; Seher, Holger

    2014-10-15

    The report on developments and studies on the (T)HMC (thermal-hydraulic-mechanical-chemical) processes in a final repository for heat generating radioactive wastes covers the following topics: description of the projects, applied codes: TOUGH2, FLAC3D, TOUGH2 and FLAC3D, TOUHREACT/PetraSim, MARNIE, PHREEQC, geochemists workbench, SUSA; safety relevant singular processes in the transition phase, uncertainties due to process interactions, coupling of mass transport and geochemical equilibria, further developments and application of numerical simulations in the transition phase.

  18. Safe management of non-nuclear radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindhe, J.C. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-09-15

    In May 2002, the Swedish Government set up a non-standing committee for the management of radioactive waste unrelated to nuclear technology i.e. outside the nuclear fuel cycle - in this report called non-nuclear radioactive waste. The objective was to elaborate proposals for a national system for the management of all types of non-nuclear radioactive wastes with special consideration of inter alia the polluter pays principle and the responsibility of the producers. The author was principal secretary in the Committee. The proposals from the Committee was delivered to the Government by December 3, 2003. Funds for future costs for the management and final storage of waste from nuclear power are collected in a state-governed funding system. The power sector pays a flat fee per kilowatt-hour nuclear power. For non-nuclear radioactive waste, however, there are no means today to secure the funding. If a company goes bankrupt and leaves radioactive waste behind it might be up to the taxpayers to pay for its safe management. This is because the holder of the waste is responsible for its disposal. The costs appear at the time of disposal and it is usually the last owner/holder of a radioactive product that has to pay. Sometimes the costs come as a surprise and the owner might not have the money available. Thus the waste might be kept longer than warranted or end up as orphan waste. To solve this dilemma and other weaknesses in the Swedish system the Committee proposes a funding system paralleling the system for nuclear waste. The cost for the waste should be paid up front, i.e. when a customer buys a product using a radioactive source, the cost for the future waste management should be included in the price. In this way the consumer will not have to pay for this the day he disposes of the product by returning it to the original producer or leaving it to some waste treatment organization. It should be the responsibility of the producer (manufacturer, importer) to guarantee

  19. Radioactive Demonstrations Of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) With Hanford Low Activity Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Burket, P. R.; Bannochie, C. J.; Daniel, W. G.; Nash, C. A.; Cozzi, A. D.; Herman, C. C.

    2012-10-22

    Several supplemental technologies for treating and immobilizing Hanford low activity waste (LAW) are being evaluated. One immobilization technology being considered is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) which offers a low temperature (700-750?C) continuous method by which wastes high in organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, or other aqueous components may be processed into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The granular waste form produced by co-processing the waste with kaolin clay has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. The FBSR granular product will be monolithed into a final waste form. The granular component is composed of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) feldspathoid minerals such as sodalite. Production of the FBSR mineral product has been demonstrated both at the industrial, engineering, pilot, and laboratory scales on simulants. Radioactive testing at SRNL commenced in late 2010 to demonstrate the technology on radioactive LAW streams which is the focus of this study.

  20. Three multimedia models used at hazardous and radioactive waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Pardi, R.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Holtzman, S.; Sun, L.C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Rambaugh, J.O.; Potter, S. [Geraghty and Miller, Inc., Plainview, NY (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Multimedia models are used commonly in the initial phases of the remediation process where technical interest is focused on determining the relative importance of various exposure pathways. This report provides an approach for evaluating and critically reviewing the capabilities of multimedia models. This study focused on three specific models MEPAS Version 3.0, MMSOILS Version 2.2, and PRESTO-EPA-CPG Version 2.0. These models evaluate the transport and fate of contaminants from source to receptor through more than a single pathway. The presence of radioactive and mixed wastes at a site poses special problems. Hence, in this report, restrictions associated with the selection and application of multimedia models for sites contaminated with radioactive and mixed wastes are highlighted. This report begins with a brief introduction to the concept of multimedia modeling, followed by an overview of the three models. The remaining chapters present more technical discussions of the issues associated with each compartment and their direct application to the specific models. In these analyses, the following components are discussed: source term; air transport; ground water transport; overland flow, runoff, and surface water transport; food chain modeling; exposure assessment; dosimetry/risk assessment; uncertainty; default parameters. The report concludes with a description of evolving updates to the model; these descriptions were provided by the model developers.

  1. High level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal a global challenge

    CERN Document Server

    PUSCH, R; NAKANO, M

    2011-01-01

    High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Disposal, A Global Challenge presents the most recent information on proposed methods of disposal for the most dangerous radioactive waste and for assessing their function from short- and long-term perspectives. It discusses new aspects of the disposal of such waste, especially HLW.The book is unique in the literature in making it clear that, due to tectonics and long-term changes in rock structure, rock can serve only as a ""mechanical support to the chemical apparatus"" and that effective containment of hazardous elements can only be managed by properly des

  2. Managing Radioactive Waste. Problems and Challenges in a Globalizing World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-09-15

    Many countries are at a crossroads in terms of maintaining their energy supply. The existing resources of fossil fuels are dwindling, and global warming makes their use increasingly problematic. Nuclear power is now often regarded inevitable for future sustainability, energy security, and economic prosperity. There are, however, still unsolved problems regarding nuclear power. The fact that no country has established a final waste repository for spent nuclear fuel throws fundamental doubt on nuclear energy expansion. Also, the processes of globalization have transformed the nuclear industry towards increased privatization, concentration, and internationalization. This leads to uncertainties regarding the responsibility for nuclear waste management. In these circumstances is it of greatest importance that scholars from different disciplines, as well as policy makers and practitioners within the field, meet to share experiences. This conference had the general objective of producing knowledge about the challenges caused by global developmental trends, and what the management of nuclear waste implies for contemporary and future social development. Over 100 persons attended the conferences. Papers available at the conference site have been separately indexed. Several contributions were also made as PP-presentation, which are available at the site, among others the Keynote Speeches: Waiting for the Nuclear Renaissance: Exploring the Nexus of Expansion and Disposal in Europe (Jane Dawson); Applying the Risk Governance Framework: Institutional Requirements for Dealing with Nuclear Waste (Ortwin Renn); Learning to Listen: The Long Road to Legitimating Radioactive Waste Management Policies (Frans Berkhout); The Nuclear Waste Debate is Irrational but We Need Not Panic (Frank von Hippel). The conference was divided into the following sessions: Session A: Political characteristics matters; Session B: Radioactivity, geology, society. On a problem definition of HLW

  3. CAN WE CONSIDER WASTES GENERATED DURING RADIOIMMUNOASSAYS AS A RADIOACTIVE WASTE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Shapilov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents issues of the radiation protection provision for the management of radioactive waste produced by the radioimmunological analysis with the use of 125I marker, calculated and experimental data on radioactive waste specific activities are analyzed.

  4. Radioactive Waste Technical and Normative Aspects of its Disposal

    CERN Document Server

    Streffer, Christian; Kamp, Georg; Kröger, Wolfgang; Rehbinder, Eckard; Renn, Ortwin; Röhlig, Klaus-Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Waste caused by the use of radioactive material in research, medicine and technologies, above all high level waste from nuclear power plants, must be disposed of safely. However, the strategies discussed for the disposal of radioactive waste as well as proposals for choosing a proper site for final waste disposal are strongly debated. An appropriate disposal must satisfy complex technical requirements and must meet stringent conditions to appropriately protect man and nature from risks of radioactivity over very long periods. Ethical, legal and social conditions must be considered as well. An interdisciplinary team of experts from relevant fields compiled the current status and developed criteria as well as strategies which meet the requirements of safety and security for present and future generations. The study also provides specific recommendations that will improve and optimize the chances for the selection of a repository site implementing the participation of stakeholders including the general public an...

  5. Research programme on radioactive wastes; Forschungsprogramm Radioaktive Abfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckhardt, A. [Eidgenoessische Kommission fuer die Sicherheit der Kernanlagen (KSA), Brugg (Switzerland); Hufschmid, P. [Kommission Nukleare Entsorgung (KNE), Bern (Switzerland); Jordi, S. [Swiss Federal Office of Energy, Berne (Switzerland); Schanne, M. [Institut fuer Angewandte Medienwissenschaft (IAM), Zuercher Hochschule, Winterthur (Switzerland); Vigfusson, J. [Hauptabteilung fuer die Sicherheit der Kernanlagen (HSK), Brugg (Switzerland)

    2009-11-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication (DETEC) takes a look at work done within the framework of the research programme on radioactive wastes. The paper discusses the development of various projects and the associated organisations involved. Both long-term and short-term topics are examined. The long-term aspects of handling radioactive wastes include organisation and financing as well as the preservation of know-how and concepts for marking the repositories. Communication with the general public on the matter is looked at along with public perception, opinion-making and acceptance. Waste storage concepts are looked at in detail and aspects such as environmental protection, monitoring concepts, retrievability and encasement materials are discussed. Finally, ethical and legal aspects of radioactive waste repositories are examined. The paper is completed with appendixes dealing with planning, co-ordination and the responsibilities involved

  6. Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.

    1995-10-01

    Why are 11 states attempting to develop new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities? Why is only on disposal facility accepting waste nationally? What is the future of waste disposal? These questions are representative of those being asked throughout the country. This paper attempts to answer these questions in terms of where we are, how we got there, and where we might be going.

  7. Radioactive waste management information for 1996 and record-to-date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, D.L.; Lisee, D.J.; Taylor, K.A.

    1997-07-01

    This document presents detailed data, bar graphs, and pie charts on volume, radioactivity, isotopic identity, origin, and status of radioactive waste for calendar year 1996. It also summarizes the radioactive waste data records compiled from 1952 to present for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The data presented are from the INEEL Radioactive Waste Management Information System.

  8. Radioactive waste management approaches for developed countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Anthony Hechanova; Catherine Riddle

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear power has demonstrated over the last 30 years its capacity to produce base-load electricity at a low, predictable and stable cost due to the very low economic dependence on the price of uranium. However the management of used nuclear fuel remains the “Achilles’ Heel” of this energy source since the storage of used nuclear fuel is increasing as evidenced by the following number with 2,000 tons of UNF produced each year by the 104 US nuclear reactor units which equates to a total of 62,000 spent fuel assemblies stored in dry cask and 88,000 stored in pools. Two options adopted by several countries will be presented. The first one adopted by Europe, Japan and Russia consists of recycling the used nuclear fuel after irradiation in a nuclear reactor. Ninety six percent of uranium and plutonium contained in the spent fuel could be reused to produce electricity and are worth recycling. The separation of uranium and plutonium from the wastes is realized through the industrial PUREX process so that they can be recycled for re-use in a nuclear reactor as a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. The second option undertaken by Finland, Sweden and the United States implies the direct disposal of used nuclear fuel into a geologic formation. One has to remind that only 30% of the worldwide used nuclear fuel are currently recycled, the larger part being stored (70% in pool) waiting for scientific or political decisions. A third option is emerging with a closed fuel cycle which will improve the global sustainability of nuclear energy. This option will not only decrease the volume amount of nuclear waste but also the long-term radiotoxicity of the final waste, as well as improving the long-term safety and the heat-loading of the final repository. At the present time, numerous countries are focusing on the R&D recycling activities of the ultimate waste composed of fission products and minor actinides (americium and curium). Several new chemical extraction processes, such as TRUSPEAK

  9. Environmental evaluation of alternatives for long-term management of Defense high-level radioactive wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the selection of a strategy for the long-term management of the defense high-level wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). This report describes the environmental impacts of alternative strategies. These alternative strategies include leaving the calcine in its present form at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), or retrieving and modifying the calcine to a more durable waste form and disposing of it either at the INEL or in an offsite repository. This report addresses only the alternatives for a program to manage the high-level waste generated at the ICPP. 24 figures, 60 tables.

  10. Steam stripping of polycyclic aromatics from simulated high-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.P.; Shah, H.B.; Young, S.R.; Edwards, R.E.; Carter, J.T.

    1992-12-31

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be the United States` first facility to process High Level radioactive Waste (HLW) into a borosilicate glass matrix. The removal of aromatic precipitates by hydrolysis, evaporation, liquid-liquid extraction and decantation will be a key step in the processing of the HLW. This step, titled the Precipitate Hydrolysis Process, has been demonstrated by the Savannah River Technology Center with the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF). The mission of the PHEF is to demonstrate processing of simulated high level radioactive waste which contains tetraphenylborate precipitates and nitrite. Aqueous washing or nitrite destruction is used to reduce nitrite. Formic acid with a copper catalyst is used to hydrolyze tetraphenylborate (TPB). The primary offgases are benzene, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and nitric oxide. Hydrolysis of TPB in the presence of nitrite results in the production of polycyclic aromatics and aromatic amines (referred as high boiling organics) such as biphenyl, diphenylamine, terphenyls etc. The decanter separates the organic (benzene) and aqueous phase, but the high boiling organic separation is difficult. This paper focuses on the evaluation of the operating strategies, including steam stripping, to maximize the removal of the high boiling organics from the aqueous stream. Two areas were investigated, (1) a stream stripping comparison of the late wash flowsheet to the HAN flowsheet and (2) the extraction performance of the original decanter to the new decanter. The focus of both studies was to minimize the high boiling organic content of the Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous (PHA) product in order to minimize downstream impacts caused by organic deposition.

  11. Radioactive wastes and valorizable materials in France: summary of the 2004 national inventory; Dechets radioactifs et matieres valorisables en France: resume de l'inventaire national 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The French national inventory of radioactive wastes is a reference document for professionals and scientists of the nuclear domain and also for any citizen interested in the management of radioactive wastes. This summary document contains: 1 - general introduction; 2 - classification of radioactive wastes: the 5 main categories; 3 - origin of the wastes; 4 - processing and conditioning; 5 - inventory of existing wastes: geographical inventory, inventory per category; 6 - prospective inventory: prospective scenarios, forecasting of waste production; 7 - valorizable radioactive materials; 8 - synthesis and perspective; 9 - glossary. (J.S.)

  12. Overview of Nevada Test Site Radioactive and Mixed Waste Disposal Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.T. Carilli; S.K. Krenzien; R.G. Geisinger; S.J. Gordon; B. Quinn

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Environmental Management Program is responsible for carrying out the disposal of on-site and off-site generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and low-level radioactive mixed waste (MW) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Core elements of this mission are ensuring safe and cost-effective disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. This paper focuses on the impacts of new policies, processes, and opportunities at the NTS related to LLW and MW. Covered topics include: the first year of direct funding for NTS waste disposal operations; zero tolerance policy for non-compliant packages; the suspension of mixed waste disposal; waste acceptance changes; DOE Consolidated Audit Program (DOECAP) auditing; the 92-Acre Area closure plan; new eligibility requirements for generators; and operational successes with unusual waste streams.

  13. The radiation protection and the radioactive wastes management; La radioprotection et la gestion des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servais, F. [CHR Hopital de Warquignies, Service de Medecine Nucleaire (Belgium); Woiche, Ch. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service Interne et de Prevention et Protection (Belgium); Hunin, Ch. [Agence Federale de Controle Nucleaire, Service Controle Etablissements Classes, Brexelles (Belgium)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    This chapter concerns the radiation protection in relation with the radioactive waste management. Three articles make the matter of this file, the management of radioactive medical waste into hospitals, a new concept of waste storage on site, the protection devices on the long term with some lessons for the radioactive waste management. (N.C.)

  14. The basics in transportation of low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allred, W.E.

    1998-06-01

    This bulletin gives a basic understanding about issues and safety standards that are built into the transportation system for radioactive material and waste in the US. An excellent safety record has been established for the transport of commercial low-level radioactive waste, or for that matter, all radioactive materials. This excellent safety record is primarily because of people adhering to strict regulations governing the transportation of radioactive materials. This bulletin discusses the regulatory framework as well as the regulations that set the standards for packaging, hazard communications (communicating the potential hazard to workers and the public), training, inspections, routing, and emergency response. The excellent safety record is discussed in the last section of the bulletin.

  15. Radioactive liquid waste treatment for decontamination and decommissioning of TRIGA research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung Kook; Chung, K.H

    1999-04-01

    All of operated radioactive liquid waste will be stored by using existing collection tank and temporally transfer piping system before dismantle the TRIGA research reactors. In this paper, there are presented and discussed as follows; 1.The status of operated radioactive liquid waste. 2. The radioactive liquid waste during dismantle the reactor. 3. Radiological status of radioactive liquid waste. 4. The classification criteria and method radioactive liquid waste. 6. The collection and transportation of radioactive liquid waste. (Author). 13 refs., 13 tabs., 8 figs.

  16. Standard guide for characterization of radioactive and/or hazardous wastes for thermal treatment

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This guide identifies methods to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of radioactive and/or hazardous wastes before a waste is processed at high temperatures, for example, vitrification into a homogeneous glass ,glass-ceramic, or ceramic waste form. This includes waste forms produced by ex-situ vitrification (ESV), in-situ vitrification (ISV), slagging, plasma-arc, hot-isostatic pressing (HIP) and/or cold-pressing and sintering technologies. Note that this guide does not specifically address high temperature waste treatment by incineration but several of the analyses described in this guide may be useful diagnostic methods to determine incinerator off-gas composition and concentrations. The characterization of the waste(s) recommended in this guide can be used to (1) choose and develop the appropriate thermal treatment methodology, (2) determine if waste pretreatment is needed prior to thermal treatment, (3) aid in development of thermal treatment process control, (4) develop surrogate wa...

  17. RELEASE OF DRIED RADIOACTIVE WASTE MATERIALS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOZLOWSKI, S.D.

    2007-05-30

    This technical basis document was developed to support RPP-23429, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (PDSA) and RPP-23479, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Facility. The main document describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative accidents involving the release of dried radioactive waste materials from the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) and to the associated represented hazardous conditions. Appendices D through F provide the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative dried waste release accident and associated represented hazardous conditions for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Packaging Unit (WPU). The risk binning process uses an evaluation of the frequency and consequence of a given representative accident or represented hazardous condition to determine the need for safety structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls. A representative accident or a represented hazardous condition is assigned to a risk bin based on the potential radiological and toxicological consequences to the public and the collocated worker. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers because credible hazardous conditions with the potential for significant facility worker consequences are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls regardless of their estimated frequency. The controls for protection of the facility workers are described in RPP-23429 and RPP-23479. Determination of the need for safety-class SSCs was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses, as described below.

  18. Equipment for the management of spent fuels and radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, C. C. F.; Carter, C. C.; Doubt, H. A. [GEC Alsthom Engineering System Ltd., Leicester (United Kingdom)

    1996-04-15

    UK experience over the last thirty years with the design and implementation of equipment for the management of spent fuels and radioactive wastes has ranged from remote handling, through encapsulation and containerisation, to the medium-term storage of heat-producing fuels and wastes in the dry state. The design principles involved in handling, transporting and storing hazardous materials safely and reliably, while ensuring biological shielding, containment and cooling of radioactive materials, are common to the various kinds of equipment presented in this paper, even though the individual requirements may be very different. The UK nuclear programme over the last thirty years has encouraged the development of extensive expertise in the engineering of equipment for the management of spent fuel and radioactive waste. This expertise can be applied with benefit to the Korean nuclear programme.

  19. Spanish methodological approach for biosphere assessment of radioactive waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüero, A; Pinedo, P; Cancio, D; Simón, I; Moraleda, M; Pérez-Sánchez, D; Trueba, C

    2007-10-01

    The development of radioactive waste disposal facilities requires implementation of measures that will afford protection of human health and the environment over a specific temporal frame that depends on the characteristics of the wastes. The repository design is based on a multi-barrier system: (i) the near-field or engineered barrier, (ii) far-field or geological barrier and (iii) the biosphere system. Here, the focus is on the analysis of this last system, the biosphere. A description is provided of conceptual developments, methodological aspects and software tools used to develop the Biosphere Assessment Methodology in the context of high-level waste (HLW) disposal facilities in Spain. This methodology is based on the BIOMASS "Reference Biospheres Methodology" and provides a logical and systematic approach with supplementary documentation that helps to support the decisions necessary for model development. It follows a five-stage approach, such that a coherent biosphere system description and the corresponding conceptual, mathematical and numerical models can be built. A discussion on the improvements implemented through application of the methodology to case studies in international and national projects is included. Some facets of this methodological approach still require further consideration, principally an enhanced integration of climatology, geography and ecology into models considering evolution of the environment, some aspects of the interface between the geosphere and biosphere, and an accurate quantification of environmental change processes and rates.

  20. Clays in natural and engineered barriers for radioactive waste confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The meeting covers all topics concerning natural argillaceous geological barriers and the clay material based engineered barrier systems, investigated by means of: laboratory experiments on clay samples (new analytical developments), in situ experiments in underground research laboratories, mock-up demonstrations, natural analogues, as well as numerical modelling and global integration approaches (including up-scaling processes and treatment of uncertainties). The works presented deal with: examples of broad research programs (national or international) on the role of natural and artificial clay barriers for radionuclide confinement; clay-based repository concepts: repository designs, including technological and safety issues related to the use of clay for nuclear waste confinement; geology and clay characterisation: mineralogy, sedimentology, paleo-environment, diagenesis, dating techniques, discontinuities in rock clay, fracturing, self sealing processes, role of organic matter and microbiological processes; geochemistry: pore water geochemistry, clay thermodynamics, chemical retention, geochemical modelling, advanced isotopic geochemistry; mass transfer: water status and hydraulic properties in low permeability media, pore space geometry, water, solute and gas transfer processes, colloid mediated transport, large scale movements, long-term diffusion; alteration processes: oxidation effects, hydration-dehydration processes, response to thermal stress, iron-clay interactions, alkaline perturbation; geomechanics: thermo-hydro-mechanical behaviour of clay, rheological models, EDZ characterisation and evolution, coupled behaviour and models (HM, THM, THMC). A particular interest is given to potential contributions coming from fields of activities other than radioactive waste management, which take advantage of the confinement properties of the clay barrier (oil and gas industries, gas geological storage, CO{sub 2} geological sequestration, chemical waste isolation

  1. DOE guidelines for management of radioactive waste - historical perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluk, A.F. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States); Neal, R.M. [Scientech, Inc., Germantown, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    From the beginning of the Manhattan Project in 1942 through the signing of the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) in 1946 and its reenactment in 1954, new policies and techniques began to evolve for managing waste produced in the manufacture of nuclear weapons. Even in the early days of war-time urgency, public health and safety were the major considerations in managing waste from this new technology. The Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), which took over from the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) in 1947, established initial waste category management guidelines (high level waste stored in tanks, solid low level waste disposed of primarily in trenches, and liquid waste released to ponds, cribs, and pits) based on the management concepts developed by the MED. The AEC and its successor agencies managed radioactive waste in a manner consistent with existing industrial health and safety requirements of that era. With the formation of the Department of Energy (DOE) in September 1977, techniques and internal requirements were already in place or being established that, in some cases, were more protective of human health and the environment than existing legislation and environmental standards. With the transition to environmental cleanup of former DOE weapons production facilities, new and revised guidelines were created to address hazardous and radioactive mixed waste, waste minimization, and recycling. This paper reviews the waste management guidelines as they have evolved from the MED through the resent time.

  2. Bioindication of the anthropogenic effects on micropopulations of Pinus sylvestris, L. in the vicinity of a plant for the storage and processing of radioactive waste and in the Chernobyl NPP zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraskin, S A; Zimina, L M; Dikarev, V G; Dikareva, N S; Zimin, V L; Vasiliyev, D V; Oudalova, A A; Blinova, L D; Alexakhin, R M

    2003-01-01

    Results of a comparative analysis of the frequency and spectrum of cytogenetic anomalies are presented for reproductive (seeds) and vegetative (needles) samples taken from Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris, L.) micropopulations growing at sites with differing levels of radioactive contamination in the Chernobyl NPP 30 km zone, and at the location of a facility for the processing and storage of radioactive wastes (the 'Radon' LWPE, near the town of Sosnovy Bor in the Leningrad Region). The data obtained indicate the presence of genotoxic contaminants in the environment of the tree micropopulations. Chemical toxins make the main contribution to the environmental contamination in the Sosnovy Bor area as compared with the influence of ionising radiation in the Chernobyl 30 km zone. The higher radioresistance of seeds of Scotch pine growing on the area of the 'Radon' LWPE and in the centre of Sosnovy Bor town was revealed with acute gamma-radiation.

  3. Bioindication of the anthropogenic effects on micropopulations of Pinus sylvestris, L. in the vicinity of a plant for the storage and processing of radioactive waste and in the Chernobyl NPP zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraskin, S.A. E-mail: riar@obninsk.org; Zimina, L.M.; Dikarev, V.G.; Dikareva, N.S.; Zimin, V.L.; Vasiliyev, D.V.; Oudalova, A.A.; Blinova, L.D.; Alexakhin, R.M

    2003-07-01

    Results of a comparative analysis of the frequency and spectrum of cytogenetic anomalies are presented for reproductive (seeds) and vegetative (needles) samples taken from Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris, L.) micropopulations growing at sites with differing levels of radioactive contamination in the Chernobyl NPP 30 km zone, and at the location of a facility for the processing and storage of radioactive wastes (the 'Radon LWPE, near the town of Sosnovy Bor in the Leningrad Region). The data obtained indicate the presence of genotoxic contaminants in the environment of the tree micropopulations. Chemical toxins make the main contribution to the environmental contamination in the Sosnovy Bor area as compared with the influence of ionising radiation in the Chernobyl 30 km zone. The higher radioresistance of seeds of Scotch pine growing on the area of the 'Radon' LWPE and in the centre of Sosnovy Bor town was revealed with acute {gamma}-radiation.

  4. Simulated geophysical monitoring of radioactive waste repository barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biryukov, Anton

    Estimation of attenuation of the elastic waves in clays and high clay-content rocks is important for the quality of geophysical methods relying on processing the recorded waveforms. Time-lapse imaging is planned to be employed for monitoring of the condition of high-radioactive waste repositories. Engineers can analyze and optimize configuration of the monitoring system using numerical modelling tools. The reliability of modeling requires proper calibration. The purpose of this thesis is threefold: (i) propose a calibration methodology for the wave propagation tools based on the experimental data, (ii) estimate the attenuation in bentonite as a function of temperature and water content, and (iii) investigate the feasibility of active sonic monitoring of the engineered barriers. The results suggest that pronounced inelastic behavior of bentonite has to be taken into account in geophysical modeling and analysis. The repository--scale models confirm that active sonic monitoring is capable of depicting physical changes in the bentonite barrier.

  5. Involving the citizens. Radioactive waste management and the EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraro, Gianluca [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands)

    2014-11-15

    The European Union (EU) has been often criticized for its democratic deficit, which has been studied in the academic literature at multiple levels: in the polity (macro-level), the institutions (meso-level) and the policies (micro-level) of the EU. The paper presents counterarguments in favour of the democratic nature of the EU and focuses on the micro-level, particularly the process of implementation of EU policies. Policy implementation and the democratic involvement of citizens are discussed with regard to radioactive waste management and the Directive 2011/70/EURATOM. The Directive's clause on transparency and the recent development of a centre of knowledge for public participation in energy policy implementation by the European Commission (EC) are expression of the democratic nature of the EU and provide further counterarguments to the claim of democratic deficit.

  6. Technical report on treatment of radioactive slurry liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Gyeong Hwan; Jo, Eun Sung; Park, Seung Kook; Jung, Ki Jung

    1999-06-01

    By literature survey, this report deals with the technology on typical pre-treatment and filtration of radioactive slurry liquid waste, produced during the operation of TRIGA Mark-II, III research reactor, and produced during the decommission/decontamination of TRIGA Mark-II, III research reactor. It is reviewed pre-treatment procedure, both physical and chemical that optimise the dewatering characteristics, and also surveyed types of dewatering devices based on centrifuges, vacuum and pressure filters with particular reference to various combined field approaches using two or more complementary driving forces to achieve better performance. Dewatering operations and devises on filtration of radioactive slurry liquid waste are also analysed. (author)

  7. Radioactive wastes in Oklo; Desechos radiactivos en Oklo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcazar, M.; Flores R, J.H.; Pena, P.; Lopez, A. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The acceptance of the Nuclear Energy as electric power supply implies to give answer to the population on the two main challenges to conquer in the public opinion: the nuclear accidents and the radioactive wastes. Several of the questions that are made on the radioactive wastes, its are the mobility migration of them, the geologic stability of the place where its are deposited and the possible migration toward the aquifer mantels. Since the half lives of the radioactive waste of a Nuclear Reactor are of several hundred of thousands of years, the technical explanations to the previous questions little convince to the public in general. In this work summary the results of the radioactive waste generated in a natural reactor, denominated Oklo effect that took place in Gabon, Africa, it makes several thousands of millions of years, a lot before the man appeared in the Earth. The identification of at least 17 reactors in Oklo it was carried out thanks to the difference in the concentrations of Uranium 235 and 238 prospective, and to the analysis of the non-mobility of the radioactive waste in the site. It was able by this way to determine that the reactors with sizes of hardly some decimeter and powers of around 100 kilowatts were operating in intermittent and spontaneous form for space of 150,000 years, with operation cycles of around 30 minutes. Recent studies have contributed information valuable on the natural confinement of the radioactive waste of the Oklo reactors in matrixes of minerals of aluminum phosphate that caught and immobilized them for thousands of millions of years. This extracted information from the nature contributes guides and it allows 'to verify' the validity of the current proposals on the immobilization of radioactive wastes of a nuclear reactor. This work presents in clear and accessible form to the public in general on the secure 'design', operation, 'decommissioning' and 'storage' of the radioactive

  8. Novel Solvent for the Simultaneous recovery of Radioactive Nuclides from Liquid Radioactive Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanovskiy, Valeriy Nicholiavich; Smirnov, Lgor V.; Babain, Vasiliy A.; Todd, Terry A.; Brewer, Ken N.

    1999-10-07

    The present invention relates to solvents, and methods, for selectively extracting and recovering radionuclides, especially cesium and strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive wastes. More specifically, the invention relates to extracting agent solvent compositions comprising complex organoboron compounds, substituted polyethylene glycols, and neutral organophosphorus compounds in a diluent. The preferred solvent comprises a chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, diphenyl-dibutylmethylenecarbamoylphosphine oxide, PEG-400, and a diluent of phenylpolyfluoroalkyl sulfone. The invention also provides a method of using the invention extracting agents to recover cesium, strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive waste.

  9. Biosorption of Am-241 and Cs-137 by radioactive liquid waste by coffee husk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua; Sakata, Solange Kazumi; Bellini, Maria Helena; Marumo, Julio Takehiro, E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radioactive Waste Management Laboratory of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP, has stored many types of radioactive liquid wastes, including liquid scintillators, mixed wastes from chemical analysis and spent decontamination solutions. These wastes need special attention, because the available treatment processes are often expensive and difficult to manage. Biosorption using biomass of vegetable using agricultural waste has become a very attractive technique because it involves the removal of heavy metals ions by low cost biossorbents. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of the coffee husk to remove Am-241 and Cs-137 from radioactive liquid waste. The coffee husk was tested in two forms, treated and untreated. The chemical treatment of the coffee husk was performed with HNO{sub 3} and NaOH diluted solutions. The results showed that the coffee husk did not showed significant differences in behavior and capacity for biosorption for Am-241 and Cs-137 over time. Coffee husk showed low biosorption capacity for Cs-137, removing only 7.2 {+-} 1.0% in 4 hours of contact time. For Am-241, the maximum biosorption was 57,5 {+-} 0.6% in 1 hours. These results suggest that coffee husk in untreated form can be used in the treatment of radioactive waste liquid containing Am-241. (author)

  10. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline

  11. State-of-the-art report on low-level radioactive waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kibbey, A.H.; Godbee, H.W.

    1980-09-01

    An attempt is made to identify the main sources of low-level radioactive wastes that are generated in the United States. To place the waste problem in perspective, rough estimates are given of the annual amounts of each generic type of waste that is generated. Most of the wet solid wastes arise from the cleanup of gaseous and liquid radioactive streams prior to discharge or recycle. The treatment of the process streams and the secondary wet solid wastes thus generated is described for each type of government or fuel cycle installation. Similarly, the institutional wet wastes are also described. The dry wastes from all sources have smilar physical and chemical characteristics in that they can be classified as compactible, noncompactible, combustible, noncombustible, or combinations thereof. The various treatment options for concentrated or solid wet wastes and for dry wastes are discussed. Among the dry-waste treatment methods are compaction, baling, and incineration, as well as chopping, cutting, and shredding. Organic materials can usually be incinerated or, in some cases, biodegraded. The filter sludges, spent resins, incinerator ashes, and concentrated liquids are usually solidified in cement, urea-formaldehyde, or unsaturated polyester resins prior to burial. Asphalt has not yet been used as a solidificaton agent in the United States, but it probably will be used in the near future. The treatment of radioactive medical and bioresearch wastes is described, but the waste from radiochenmical, pharmaceutical, and other industries is not well defined at the present time. Recovery of waste metals and treatment of hazardous contaminated wastes are discussed briefly. Some areas appearing to need more research, development, and demonstration are specifically pointed out.

  12. Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States: An overview of current commercial regulations and concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1993-08-01

    Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States is regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) under 10 CFR 61 (1991). This regulation was issued in 1981 after a lengthy and thorough development process that considered the radionuclide concentrations and characteristics associated with commercial low-level radioactive waste streams; alternatives for waste classification; alternative technologies for low-level radioactive waste disposal; and data, modeling, and scenario analyses. The development process also included the publication of both draft and final environmental impact statements. The final regulation describes the general provisions; licenses; performance objectives; technical requirements for land disposal; financial assurances; participation by state governments and Indian tribes; and records, reports, tests, and inspections. This paper provides an overview of, and tutorial on, current commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal regulations in the United States.

  13. Review of private sector treatment, storage, and disposal capacity for radioactive waste. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.; Harris, J.G.; Moore-Mayne, S.; Mayes, R.; Naretto, C.

    1995-04-14

    This report is an update of a report that summarized the current and near-term commercial and disposal of radioactive and mixed waste. This report was capacity for the treatment, storage, dating and written for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) with the objective of updating and expanding the report entitled ``Review of Private Sector Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Capacity for Radioactive Waste``, (INEL-95/0020, January 1995). The capacity to process radioactively-contaminated protective clothing and/or respirators was added to the list of private sector capabilities to be assessed. Of the 20 companies surveyed in the previous report, 14 responded to the request for additional information, five did not respond, and one asked to be deleted from the survey. One additional company was identified as being capable of performing LLMW treatability studies and six were identified as providers of laundering services for radioactively-contaminated protective clothing and/or respirators.

  14. Radioactive wastes dispersed in stabilized ash cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, J.B.; Taylor, C.M.V.; Sivils, L.D.; Carey, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    One of the most widely-used methods for the solidification/stabilization of low-level radwaste is by incorporation into Type-I/II ordinary portland cement (OPC). Treating of OPC with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SCCO{sub 2}) has been shown to significantly increase the density, while simultaneously decreasing porosity. In addition, the process significantly reduces the hydrogenous content, reducing the likelihood of radiolytic decomposition reactions. This, in turn, permits increased actinide loadings with a concomitant reduction in disposable waste volume. In this article, the authors discuss the combined use of fly-ash-modified OPC and its treatment with SCCO{sub 2} to further enhance immobilization properties. They begin with a brief summary of current cement immobilization technology in order to delineate the areas of concern. Next, supercritical fluids are described, as they relate to these areas of concern. In the subsequent section, they present an outline of results on the application of SCCO{sub 2} to OPC, and its effectiveness in addressing these problem areas. Lastly, in the final section, they proffer their thoughts on why they believe, based on the OPC results, that the incorporation of fly ash into OPC, followed by supercritical fluid treatment, can produce highly efficient wasteforms.

  15. Radioactive wastes: public attitudes toward disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindell, M.K.; Earle, T.C.; Hebert, J.A.; Perry, R.W.

    1978-10-01

    Seventeen geographically widespread, established groups were selected which were expected to vary in their attitudes from strongly pronuclear to strongly antinuclear. People who tend to be politically active were chosen. The highest level of consensus was found on the need for site monitoring, site control, and information transfer in a waste repository. Overall, the results indicate that pronuclear respondents believe that the hazards of nuclear waste are similar to other industrial risks, while antinuclear respondents are less optimistic about safe storage of nuclear wastes and believe that nuclear power is different.

  16. Radon exposure at a radioactive waste storage facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manocchi, F H; Campos, M P; Dellamano, J C; Silva, G M

    2014-06-01

    The Waste Management Department of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN) is responsible for the safety management of the waste generated at all internal research centers and that of other waste producers such as industry, medical facilities, and universities in Brazil. These waste materials, after treatment, are placed in an interim storage facility. Among them are (226)Ra needles used in radiotherapy, siliceous cake arising from conversion processes, and several other classes of waste from the nuclear fuel cycle, which contain Ra-226 producing (222)Rn gas daughter.In order to estimate the effective dose for workers due to radon inhalation, the radon concentration at the storage facility has been assessed within this study. Radon measurements have been carried out through the passive method with solid-state nuclear track detectors (CR-39) over a period of nine months, changing detectors every month in order to determine the long-term average levels of indoor radon concentrations. The radon concentration results, covering the period from June 2012 to March 2013, varied from 0.55 ± 0.05 to 5.19 ± 0.45 kBq m(-3). The effective dose due to (222)Rn inhalation was further assessed following ICRP Publication 65.

  17. The calculation and estimation of wastes generated by decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Tokai works and Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayame, Y.; Tanabe, T.; Takahashi, K.; Takeda, S. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Waste Management and Fuel Cycle Research Center, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    This investigation was conducted as a part of planning the low-level radioactive waste management program (LLW management program). The aim of this investigation was contributed to compile the radioactive waste database of JNC's LLW management program. All nuclear facilities of the Tokai works and Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center were investigated in this work. The wastes generated by the decommissioning of each nuclear facility were classified into radioactive waste and others (exempt waste and non-radioactive waste), and the amount of the wastes was estimated. The estimated amounts of radioactive wastes generated by decommissioning of the nuclear facilities are as follows. (1) Tokai works: The amount of waste generated by decommissioning of nuclear facilities of the Tokai works is about 1,079,100 ton. The amount of radioactive waste is about 15,400 ton. The amount of exempt waste and non-radioactive waste is about 1,063,700 ton. (2) Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center: The amount of waste generated by decommissioning of nuclear facilities of Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center is about 112,500 ton. The amount of radioactive waste is about 7,800 ton. The amount of exempt waste and non-radioactive waste is about 104,700 ton. (author)

  18. Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, C.S.; Vaughan, N.D.; Hyder, L.K.

    1980-10-01

    This annotated bibliography of 447 references contains scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on environmental transport, disposal site, and waste treatment studies. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1952 to 1979. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Specialized data fields have been incorporated into the data file to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the Measured Radionuclides field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the Measured Parameters field. In addition, each document referenced in this bibliography has been assigned a relevance number to facilitate sorting the documents according to their pertinence to low-level radioactive waste technology. The documents are rated 1, 2, 3, or 4, with 1 indicating direct applicability to low-level radioactive waste technology and 4 indicating that a considerable amount of interpretation is required for the information presented to be applied. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. Indexes are provide for (1) author(s), (2) keywords, (3) subject category, (4) title, (5) geographic location, (6) measured parameters, (7) measured radionuclides, and (8) publication description.

  19. Calcined Waste Storage at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staiger, M. Daniel, Swenson, Michael C.

    2011-09-01

    This comprehensive report provides definitive volume, mass, and composition (chemical and radioactivity) of calcined waste stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. Calcine composition data are required for regulatory compliance (such as permitting and waste disposal), future treatment of the caline, and shipping the calcine to an off-Site-facility (such as a geologic repository). This report also contains a description of the calcine storage bins. The Calcined Solids Storage Facilities (CSSFs) were designed by different architectural engineering firms and built at different times. Each CSSF has a unique design, reflecting varying design criteria and lessons learned from historical CSSF operation. The varying CSSF design will affect future calcine retrieval processes and equipment. Revision 4 of this report presents refinements and enhancements of calculations concerning the composition, volume, mass, chemical content, and radioactivity of calcined waste produced and stored within the CSSFs. The historical calcine samples are insufficient in number and scope of analysis to fully characterize the entire inventory of calcine in the CSSFs. Sample data exist for all the liquid wastes that were calcined. This report provides calcine composition data based on liquid waste sample analyses, volume of liquid waste calcined, calciner operating data, and CSSF operating data using several large Microsoft Excel (Microsoft 2003) databases and spreadsheets that are collectively called the Historical Processing Model. The calcine composition determined by this method compares favorably with historical calcine sample data.

  20. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    Volume 3 contains eight appendices: a reference environment for assessing environmental impacts associated with construction and operation of waste treatment, interim storage and/or final disposition facilities; dose calculations and radiologically related health effects; socioeconomic impact assessments; release/dose factors and dose in 5-year intervals to regional and world wide population from reference integrated systems; resource availability; environmental monitoring; detailed dose results for radionuclide migration groundwater from a waste repository; and annual average dispersion factors for selected release points. (LK)

  1. Feasibility of space disposal of radioactive nuclear waste. 2: Technical summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of transporting radioactive waste produced in the process of generating electricity in nuclear powerplants into space for ultimate disposal was investigated at the request of the AEC as a NASA in-house effort. The investigation is part of a broad AEC study of methods for long-term storage or disposal of radioactive waste. The results of the study indicate that transporting specific radioactive wastes, particularly the actinides with very long half-lives, into space using the space shuttle/tug as the launch system, appears feasible from the engineering and safety viewpoints. The space transportation costs for ejecting the actinides out of the solar system would represent less than a 5-percent increase in the average consumer's electric bill.

  2. Evaluation on radioactive waste for the decommissioning of deuterium critical assembly (DCA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konno, S.; Fukuda, S.; Hazama, T.; Endou, K.; Hashimoto, M. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Yoshizawa, S. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    Deuterium Critical Assembly (DCA) is a critical facility with 1 kW maximum thermal output reached its initial criticality in 1969. DCA operations were stopped on 26th September 2001, then it has been planed to submit a legal application for decommissioning of DCA to MEXT and to shift to decommissioning phase. In this work, we have evaluated the calculation value of neutron flux by comparison with an actual measurement in biological shield and the amount of contaminated radioactive materials etc. to make a document on estimation of the inventories and the wastes quantity etc. in the legal application. Results are as follows. 1. Fast, epithermal and thermal neutron flux calculated have exceeded the measurement data at almost all location. Therefore concentration of activated materials calculated by neutron flux calculation value is estimated higher than actual that. 2. The amount of radioactive materials that contaminated by nuclides other than tritium is estimated about 3.0 x 10{sup 7}Bq. The concentration of tritium-contaminated radioactive materials is estimated about 4.1 x 10{sup 1}Bq/g at the maximum in concrete, about 7.6 x 10{sup -2}Bq/g in the surface of aluminum plumbing. 3. Consequential waste quantity (solid waste) to radioactive waste generated in total process of dismantling is estimated about 30ton. As for Radioactive liquid waste quantity, moderator for specimen is estimated about 1.4m{sup 3}, consequential liquid wastes is estimated about 300m{sup 3}. 4. The amount of Tritium generated in dismantling (radioactive gas waste) is estimated about 7.25 x 10{sup 8}Bq in dismantling of heavy water system facility, measurement control system facility and neutron reactor. (author)

  3. Learning to listen. Institutional change and legitimation in UK radioactive waste policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackerron, G. [SPRU Science and Technology Policy Research, University of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom); Berkhout, F. [Institute for Environmental Studies IVM, VU University, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-04-15

    Over the course of 50 years, UK radioactive waste policy change has been coupled with institutional change, without much progress towards the ultimate goal of safe, long-term stewardship of wastes. We explain this history as a search for legitimacy against a shifting context of legitimation needs and deficits. Following Habermas, we argue that legitimation is derived from a process of justificatory discourse. In principle, there must be a reasonable exchange of arguments between diverse parties in society, based on common norms, for legitimacy to be achieved. We show that the work of legitimation in UK radioactive waste policy has moved from a focus on factual validity claims towards an increasing emphasis on deliberative processes. This reframing of legitimation needs explains institutional and policy changes in UK radioactive waste policy. The most recent phase of policy and institutional change, which placed public deliberation about long-term management and disposal options centre-stage, represents a new step towards bridging legitimation deficits. Plans to build new nuclear reactors in the UK based on a more closed 'streamlined' decision process risk reversing the legitimacy gains that have been achieved through growing openness on radioactive waste management.

  4. Study on HTR-PM Radioactive Waste Minimization Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG; Zi-ying; ZHANG; Yan-qi; WEN; Bao-yin; LI; Hong; LIAO; Hai-tao

    2015-01-01

    The high temperature gas-cooled reactor pebble bed module(HTR-PM)in constructionhas the characteristics of the fourth generation reactors and it is different both the reactor structure and the radioactive wastes generation from the PWR NPPs in operation at present in China.

  5. 40 CFR 147.3005 - Radioactive waste injection wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Radioactive waste injection wells. 147... wells. Notwithstanding §§ 144.24 and 146.51(b) of this chapter, owners and operators of wells used to... permitting requirements pertaining to Class I wells in parts 124, 144 and 146 of this chapter, as...

  6. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 Areas during calendar year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hladek, K.L.

    1996-06-06

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive materials that have been buried and stored in the 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities since startup in 1944 through calendar year 1995. This report does not include backlog waste, solid radioactive wastes in storage or disposed of in other areas, or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria, liquid waste data are not included in this document. This annual report provides a summary of the radioactive solid waste received in the both the 200-East and 200-West Areas during the calendar year 1995.

  7. A study on the safety of radioactive waste incineration facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Y. C. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, W. J.; Lee, B. S.; Lee, S. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-15

    The main scope of the project is the selection of some considerable items in design criteria of radioactive waste incineration facilities not only for the protection of workers and residents during operation but also for the safe disposal of ashes after incineration. The technological and regulational status on incineration technologies in domestic and foreign is surveyed and analyzed for providing such basic items which must be contained in the guideline for safe and appropriate design, construction and operation of the facilities. The contents of the project are summarized as follows; surveying the status on incineration technologies for both radioactive and non-radioactive wastes in domestic and foreign, surveying and analysing same related technical standards and regulations in domestic and foreign, picking out main considerable items and proposing a direction of further research.

  8. Must we be afraid by the radioactive waste?; Faut-il avoir peur des dechets radioactifs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    In the framework of the information on radioactive waste, scientists and politicians give information on the radioactive waste management in France, the researches in the framework of the law of the 30 december 1991, the national agency for the radioactive waste (ANDRA) and its sites. (A.L.B.)

  9. The state of the art on the radioactive metal waste recycling technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Jin; Moon, Jei Kwon; Jung, Chong Hun; Park, Sang Yoon

    1997-09-01

    As the best strategy to manage the radioactive metal wastes which are generated during operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the following recycling technologies are investigated. 1. decontamination technologies for radioactive metal waste recycling 2. decontamination waste treatment technologies. 3. residual radioactivity evaluation technologies. (author). 260 refs., 26 tabs., 31 figs

  10. Vitrification as a low-level radioactive mixed waste treatment technology at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazer, J.J.; No, Hyo J.

    1995-08-01

    Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) is developing plans to use vitrification to treat low-level radioactive mixed wastes (LLMW) generated onsite. The ultimate objective of this project is to install a full-scale vitrification system at ANL-E capable of processing the annual generation and historic stockpiles of selected LLMW streams. This project is currently in the process of identifying a range of processible glass compositions that can be produced from actual mixed wastes and additives, such as boric acid or borax. During the formulation of these glasses, there has been an emphasis on maximizing the waste content in the glass (70 to 90 wt %), reducing the overall final waste volume, and producing a stabilized low-level radioactive waste glass. Crucible glass studies with actual mixed waste streams have produced alkali borosilicate glasses that pass the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test. These same glass compositions, spiked with toxic metals well above the expected levels in actual wastes, also pass the TCLP test. These results provide compelling evidence that the vitrification system and the glass waste form will be robust enough to accommodate expected variations in the LLMW streams from ANL-E. Approximately 40 crucible melts will be studied to establish a compositional envelope for vitrifying ANL-E mixed wastes. Also being determined is the identity of volatilized metals or off-gases that will be generated.

  11. Evaluation of transport properties of nanofiltration membranes exposed to radioactive liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Elizabeth E.M.; Barbosa, Celina C.R.; Bastos, Edna T.R., E-mail: eemo@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeira, RJ (Brazil); Afonso, Julio C., E-mail: Julio@iq.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica

    2011-07-01

    The application of membrane separation processes (PSM) for treatment of radioactive waste requires the selection of a suitable membrane for the treatment of waste, as the membrane will be directly exposed to the radioactive liquid waste, and also exposed to ionizing radiation. The nanofiltration membrane is most suitable for treatment of radioactive waste, since it has high rejection of multivalent ions. Usually the membranes are made of polymers and depending on the composition of the waste, type and dose of radiation absorbed may be changes in the structure of the membrane, resulting in loss of its transport properties. We tested two commercial nanofiltration membranes: NF and SW Dow/Filmtec. The waste liquid used was obtained in the process of conversion of uranium hexafluoride gas to solid uranium dioxide, known as 'carbonated water'. The membranes were characterized as their transport properties (hydraulic permeability, permeate flux and salt rejection) before and after their immersion in the waste for 24 hours. The surface of the membranes was also evaluated by SEM and FTIR. It was observed that in both the porosity of the membrane selective layer was altered, but not the membrane surface charge, which is responsible for the selectivity of the membrane. The NF membranes and SW showed uranium ion rejection of 64% and 55% respectively. (author)

  12. Application of radiological imaging methods to radioactive waste characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessaro, Ana Paula Gimenes; Souza, Daiane Cristini B. de; Vicente, Roberto, E-mail: aptessaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Radiological imaging technologies are most frequently used for medical diagnostic purposes but are also useful in materials characterization and other non-medical applications in research and industry. The characterization of radioactive waste packages or waste samples can also benefit from these techniques. In this paper, the application of some imaging methods is examined for the physical characterization of radioactive wastes constituted by spent ion-exchange resins and activated charcoal beds stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Department of IPEN. These wastes are generated when the filter media of the water polishing system of the IEA-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor is no longer able to maintain the required water quality and are replaced. The IEA-R1 is a 5MW pool-type reactor, moderated and cooled by light water, and fission and activation products released from the reactor core must be continuously removed to prevent activity buildup in the water. The replacement of the sorbents is carried out by pumping from the filter tanks into several 200 L drums, each drum getting a variable amount of water. Considering that the results of radioanalytical methods to determine the concentrations of radionuclides are usually expressed on dry basis,the amount of water must be known to calculate the total activity of each package. At first sight this is a trivial problem that demanded, however some effort to be solved. The findings on this subject are reported in this paper. (author)

  13. National inventory of radioactive wastes and recoverable materials 2006. Descriptive catalogue of radioactive waste families; Inventaire national des dechets radioactifs et des matieres valorisables 2006. Catalogue descriptif des familles de dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Real comprehensive overview of radioactive wastes, the national inventory of radioactive wastes and recoverable materials describes the situation in France of the wastes that can be conditioned (in their definitive form) or not. It presents also the waste production quantities foreseen for 2010, 2020 and beyond. This document is a complement to the synthesis report and to the geographic inventory of radioactive wastes in France and details the classification of wastes by families (wastes with similar characteristics). For each family of wastes, the description comprises a general presentation and some photos. It comprises also some data such as the position of the family in the French classification, the industrial activity at the origin of the waste, the production situation of the waste in concern (finished, in progress, not started). Some information about the raw waste are given and the conditioning process used is described. Some figures complete the description, like: the past and future production quantities, the evaluation of the radioactivity of the waste family in 2004 and 2020, and the evaluation of the thermal power when available. Finally, some information are given about the presence of compounds with a specific risk of toxicity. (J.S.)

  14. Assessment of magnetite to remove Cs (Total) and Am-241 from radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Priscila; Lima, Josenilson B.; Bueno, Vanessa N.; Yamamura, Mitiko H.; Holland, Helber; Hiromoto, Goro; Potiens Junior, Ademar J.; Sakata, Solange K., E-mail: apotiens@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive waste can affect human hea lt and the environment, thus their safe management has received considerable attention worldwide. Radioactive waste treatment is an important step in its management. Sorption technique is one of the most studied methods to reduce the volume of radioactive waste streams and it has been successfully used for treatment of radioactive liquid wastes. Herein, the experiments were performed using magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) as adsorbents for removal the cesium and americium from different radioactive aqueous solution. An aqueous solution with 13.9 ppm of Cs-133 was stirred with 20-25 mg of magnetite and another solution of 117.94 Bq/mL Am-241 was stirred with 50 mg using the same adsorbent but in different contact times and pH. After the experiments the magnetite was removal using a super magnet and the solutions were analyzed by ICP-OES for Cs-133 and Am-241 remaining in solution was quantified by a gamma spectrometry. The results suggested that the biosorption process for Cs is more efficient at pH 6 and 30 minutes of contact time and for Am-241 the most efficient pH was also 6 and 40 min of contact time with 93% of removal of this radionuclide from the solution. (author)

  15. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING WITH ACUTAL HANFORD LOW ACTIVITY WASTES VERIFYING FBSR AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Bannochie, C.; Daniel, G.; Nash, C.; Cozzi, A.; Herman, C.

    2012-01-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the cleanup mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA). Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is one of the supplementary treatments being considered. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and other secondary wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates/nitrites, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, and/or radio-nuclides like I-129 and Tc-99. Radioactive testing of Savannah River LAW (Tank 50) shimmed to resemble Hanford LAW and actual Hanford LAW (SX-105 and AN-103) have produced a ceramic (mineral) waste form which is the same as the non-radioactive waste simulants tested at the engineering scale. The radioactive testing demonstrated that the FBSR process can retain the volatile radioactive components that cannot be contained at vitrification temperatures. The radioactive and nonradioactive mineral waste forms that were produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process are shown to be as durable as LAW glass.

  16. Performance of evaporators in high level radioactive chemical waste service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C.F.

    1997-12-01

    Chemical processing of nuclear fuels and targets at Savannah River Site resulted in generation of millions of gallons of liquid wastes. The wastes were further processed to reduce volume and allow for extended temporary storage of a more concentrated material. Waste evaporators have been a central point for waste reduction for many years. Currently, the transfer and processing of the concentrated wastes for permanent storage requires dilution and results in generation of significant quantities of additional liquid wastes. A new round of volume reduction is required to fit existing storage capacity and to allow for removal of older vessels from service. Evaporator design, performance and repairs are discussed in this report.

  17. Evaluation of sulfur polymer cement as a waste form for the immobilization of low-level radioactive or mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattus, C.H.; Mattus, A.J.

    1994-03-01

    Sulfur polymer cement (SPC), also called modified sulphur cements, is a relatively new material in the waste immobilization field, although it was developed in the late seventies by the Bureau of Mines. The physical and chemical properties of SPC are interesting (e.g., development of high mechanical strength in a short time and high resistance to many corrosive environments). Because of its very low permeability and porosity, SPC is especially impervious to water, which, in turn, has led to its consideration for immobilization of hazardous or radioactive waste. Because it is a thermosetting process, the waste is encapsulated by the sulfur matrix; therefore, very little interaction occurs between the waste species and the sulfur (as there can be when waste prevents the set of portland cement-based waste forms).

  18. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management at the Nevada Test Site (NTS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, B.D. [Bechtel Nevada, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Gertz, C.P.; Clayton, W.A.; Crowe, B.M. [Dept. of Energy, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Nevada Operations Office

    1998-12-31

    In 1978, the Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), established a managed LLW disposal project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Two, sites which were already accepting limited amounts of on-site generated waste for disposal and off-site generated Transuranic Waste for interim storage, were selected to house the disposal facilities. In those early days, these sites, located about 15 miles apart, afforded the DOE/NV the opportunity to use at least two technologies to manage its waste cost effectively. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose packaged waste while the Area 3 RWMS uses subsidence craters formed from underground testing of nuclear weapons for the disposal of packaged and unpackaged bulk waste. The paper describes the technical attributes of both Area 5 and Area 3 facilities, the acceptance process, the disposal processes, and present and future capacities of both sites.

  19. A robotic inspector for low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrd, J.S.; Pettus, R.O. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1996-06-01

    The Department of Energy has low-level radioactive waste stored in warehouses at several facilities. Weekly visual inspections are required. A mobile robot inspection system, ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System), has been developed to survey and inspect the stored drums. The robot will travel through the three- foot wide aisles of drums stacked four high and perform a visual inspection, normally performed by a human operator, making decisions about the condition of the drums and maintaining a database of pertinent information about each drum. This mobile robot system will improve the quality of inspection, generate required reports, and relieve human operators from low-level radioactive exposure.

  20. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation - second worldwide review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, P.A. [ed.

    1996-09-01

    The first world wide review of the geological problems in radioactive waste isolation was published by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1991. This review was a compilation of reports that had been submitted to a workshop held in conjunction with the 28th International Geological Congress that took place July 9-19, 1989 in Washington, D.C. Reports from 15 countries were presented at the workshop and four countries provided reports after the workshop, so that material from 19 different countries was included in the first review. It was apparent from the widespread interest in this first review that the problem of providing a permanent and reliable method of isolating radioactive waste from the biosphere is a topic of great concern among the more advanced, as well as the developing, nations of the world. This is especially the case in connection with high-level waste (HLW) after its removal from nuclear power plants. The general concensus is that an adequate isolation can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the underground system with its engineered barriers. This document contains the Second Worldwide Review of Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation, dated September 1996.

  1. Confinement matrices for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverov, N. P.; Omel'Yanenko, B. I.; Yudintsev, S. V.; Stefanovsky, S. V.

    2012-02-01

    Mining of uranium for nuclear fuel production inevitably leads to the exhaustion of natural uranium resources and an increase in market price of uranium. As an alternative, it is possible to provide nuclear power plants with reprocessed spent nuclear fuel (SNF), which retains 90% of its energy resource. The main obstacle to this solution is related to the formation in the course of the reprocessing of SNF of a large volume of liquid waste, and the necessity to concentrate, solidify, and dispose of this waste. Radioactive waste is classified into three categories: low-, intermediate-, and high-level (LLW, ILW, and HLW); 95, 4.4, and 0.6% of the total waste are LLW, ILW, and HLW, respectively. Despite its small relative volume, the radioactivity of HLW is approximately equal to the combined radioactivity of LLW + ILW (LILW). The main hazard of HLW is related to its extremely high radioactivity, the occurrence of long-living radionuclides, heat release, and the necessity to confine HLW for an effectively unlimited time period. The problems of handling LILW are caused by the enormous volume of such waste. The available technology for LILW confinement is considered, and conclusion is drawn that its concentration, vitrification, and disposal in shallow-seated repositories is a necessary condition of large-scale reprocessing of SNF derived from VVER-1000 reactors. The significantly reduced volume of the vitrified LILW and its very low dissolution rate at low temperatures makes borosilicate glass an ideal confinement matrix for immobilization of LILW. At the same time, the high corrosion rate of the glass matrix at elevated temperatures casts doubt on its efficient use for immobilization of heat-releasing HLW. The higher cost of LILW vitrification compared to cementation and bitumen impregnation is compensated for by reduced expenditure for construction of additional engineering barriers, as well as by substantial decrease in LLW and ILW volume, localization of shallow

  2. Detector Development for Neutron Imaging System for Radioactive-Waste Analysis (NISRA) with 14 MeV Neutrons

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive waste has to undergo a process of quality checking in order to check its conformance with national regulations prior to its transport, intermediate storage and final disposal. Within the quality checking of radioactive waste packages non-destructive assays are required to characterize their radiotoxic and chemotoxic contents. In a cooperation framework Forschungszentrum Jülich, RWTH Aachen University and the Siemens AG are studying the feasibility of a compact Neutron Imaging Syst...

  3. Radioactive Waste Management information for 1994 and record-to-date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, D.L.; Lisee, D.J.; Taylor, K.A.

    1995-07-01

    This document, Radioactive Waste Management Information for 1994 and Record-To-Date, contains computerized radioactive waste data records from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Data are compiled from information supplied by the US Department of Energy (DOE) contractors. Data listed are on airborne and liquid radioactive effluents and solid radioactive waste that is stored, disposed, and sent to the INEL for reduction. Data are summarized for the years 1952 through 1993. Data are detailed for the calendar year 1994.

  4. Hanford environment as related to radioactive waste burial grounds and transuranium waste storage facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.J.; Isaacson, R.E.

    1977-06-01

    A detailed characterization of the existing environment at Hanford was provided by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) in the Final Environmental Statement, Waste Management Operations, Hanford Reservation, Richland, Washington, December 1975. Abbreviated discussions from that document are presented together with current data, as they pertain to radioactive waste burial grounds and interim transuranic (TRU) waste storage facilities. The discussions and data are presented in sections on geology, hydrology, ecology, and natural phenomena. (JRD)

  5. Ocean dumping of low-level radioactive wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, W. L.

    1982-10-01

    Scientific bases, developed internationally over the last 20 years, to control and restrict to acceptable levels the resultant radiation doses that potentially could occur from the dumping of low-level radioactive wastes in the deep oceans were presented. It is concluded that present evaluations of the disposal of radioactive wastes into the oceans, coastal and deep ocean, indicate that these are being conducted within the ICRP recommended dose limits. However, there are presently no international institutions or mechanisms to deal with the long-term radiation exposure at low-levels to large numbers of people on a regional basis if not a global level. Recommendations were made to deal with these aspects through the established mechanisms of NEA/OECD and the London Dumping Convention, in cooperation with ICRP, UNSCEAR and the IAEA.

  6. Radioactive materials and waste. Planning act of 28 jun 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The English translation contained in this booklet is based on Planning Act No. 2006-739 of 28 June 2006 and on articles L. 542-1 and following of the Environmental Code (as modified). It gathers all articles of the French law dealing with the activities of the ANDRA, the French national agency of radioactive wastes, and with the sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste. It is provided for convenience purposes only. The French version remains the only valid and legally binding version. In order to enhance readability, all articles relating to ANDRA's activities are consolidated in this self-supporting document. The original French version of the new Act and of the Environmental Code, already published in the 'Journal officiel', are the only authentic biding texts.

  7. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 Areas during calendar year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J.D.; Hagel, D.L.

    1995-08-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office, under contract DE-AC06-87RL10930. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive material that has been buried and stored in the 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities from startup in 1944 through calendar year 1994. This report does not include backlog waste: solid radioactive wastes in storage or disposed of in other areas or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria (WHC 1988), liquid waste data are not included in this document.

  8. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management annual report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-12-01

    This sixth Annual Report to Congress by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) describes activities and expenditures of the Office during fiscal year 1988. An epilogue chapter reports significant events from the end of the fiscal year on September 30, 1988 through March 1989. The Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act (NWPA) of 1987 made significant changes to the NWPA relating to repository siting and monitored retrievable storage and added new provisions for the establishment of several institutional entities with which OCRWM will interact. Therefore, a dominant theme throughout this report is the implementation of the policy focus and specific provisions of the Amendments Act. 50 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. The study on recycle scheme of the metallic radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, J. I.; Jung, K. J.; Paik, S. T.; Chung, U. S.; Park, J. H.; Park, S. K.; Hwang, D. S.; Lee, D. G.; Kim, H. R

    2002-01-01

    It was understood that regulation criteria for material release varied with countries and that international standards were not setup. But, most advanced countries are continuously studying on the recycling of metallic wastes for the purpose of the reuse of resources and disposal cost reduction. Practically, the advanced countries make a lot of cost profits compared with disposal as their metallic wastes are recycled and reused through technology like melting. The reasonable international standards are also expected to be set in the near future because of the aggressive cooperation between international agencies such as IAEA and NEA toward recycling these wastes. In our case, the recycle criteria for radioactive waste containing radioactive nuclide with long half-life such as Cs-137(half-life: 30y) and Co-60(half-life: 5.26y) including others, which are generated from the nuclear fission or dismantling of nuclear facilities, are not yet established. Therefore, it is required that the recommendation and legalization of the regulatory criteria be carried out for the recycle and reuse of metallic wastes to be generated from the dismantling of domestic nuclear facilities in the future.

  10. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages sew be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  11. Academic Design of On-line Radiation Monitoring Instrument for Gaseous Radioactive Waste Processing System%核电站废气处理系统在线辐射监测仪理论设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪; 刘春雨; 罗鹏; 陈祥磊

    2013-01-01

    针对核电站废气处理系统对所排含氢废气的放射性监测要求,提出了一种在线监测方案,有效地解决了废气处理系统含氢废气中85 Kr、133 Xe核素放射性监测的问题。并利用模拟程序对监测仪的探测效率、环境γ本底影响等进行了蒙特卡罗模拟计算,为设备的研制生产提供了重要的理论参考和依据。计算结果表明:采用尺寸为φ15 mm ×0.5 mm的圆形薄片塑料闪烁体,基于在线监测方案,在理论设计上可满足AP1000核电站废气处理系统对所排含氢废气的放射性监测要求,在γ环境本底小于10μGy/h条件下无需增加铅屏蔽体。%According to the radioactivity monitoring requirements for exhaust air with the hydrogen waste gas from the waste gas processing system of the nuclear power plant , a kind of on-line monitoring scheme is de-signed to efficiently solve the problem of radiation monitoring of 85 Kr and 133 Xe in waste gas containing hydro-gen.The detection efficiency and the influences of the environmental gamma background for the monitor have been calculated by Monte Carlo code .Thereby , important theoretical references are provided for the equipment development and production .The calculated results show that plastic scintillator with the size of φ10 ×0.5mm that is based on the on -line monitoring scheme fully meets the radioactivity monitoring requirements for exhaust air with the hydrogen waste gas from the waste gas processing system of AP 1000 nuclear power plant .If the gamma environmental background is smaller than 10μGy/h, the lead shielding is not needed .

  12. WASTE CONTAINER AND WASTE PACKAGE PERFORMANCE MODELING TO SUPPORT SAFETY ASSESSMENT OF LOW AND INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.

    2004-06-30

    Prior to subsurface burial of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes, a demonstration that disposal of the wastes can be accomplished while protecting the health and safety of the general population is required. The long-time frames over which public safety must be insured necessitates that this demonstration relies, in part, on computer simulations of events and processes that will occur in the future. This demonstration, known as a Safety Assessment, requires understanding the performance of the disposal facility, waste containers, waste forms, and contaminant transport to locations accessible to humans. The objective of the coordinated research program is to examine the state-of-the-art in testing and evaluation short-lived low- and intermediate-level waste packages (container and waste form) in near surface repository conditions. The link between data collection and long-term predictions is modeling. The objective of this study is to review state-of-the-art modeling approaches for waste package performance. This is accomplished by reviewing the fundamental concepts behind safety assessment and demonstrating how waste package models can be used to support safety assessment. Safety assessment for low- and intermediate-level wastes is a complicated process involving assumptions about the appropriate conceptual model to use and the data required to support these models. Typically due to the lack of long-term data and the uncertainties from lack of understanding and natural variability, the models used in safety assessment are simplistic. However, even though the models are simplistic, waste container and waste form performance are often central to the case for making a safety assessment. An overview of waste container and waste form performance and typical models used in a safety assessment is supplied. As illustrative examples of the role of waste container and waste package performance, three sample test cases are provided. An example of the impacts of

  13. Status of low-level radioactive waste management in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.J. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1993-03-01

    The Republic of Korea has accomplished dramatic economic growth over the past three decades; demand for electricity has rapidly grown more than 15% per year. Since the first nuclear power plant, Kori-1 [587 MWe, pressurized water reactor (PWR)], went into commercial operation in 1978, the nuclear power program has continuously expanded and played a key role in meeting the national electricity demand. Nowadays, Korea has nine nuclear power plants [eight PWRs and one Canadian natural uranium reactor (CANDU)] in operation with total generating capacity of 7,616 MWe. The nuclear share of total electrical capacity is about 36%; however, about 50% of actual electricity production is provided by these nine nuclear power plants. In addition, two PWRs are under construction, five units (three CANDUs and two PWRs) are under design, and three more CANDUs and eight more PWRs are planned to be completed by 2006. With this ambitious nuclear program, the total nuclear generating capacity will reach about 23,000 MWe and the nuclear share will be about 40% of the total generating capacity in the year 2006. In order to expand the nuclear power program this ambitiously, enormous amounts of work still have to be done. One major area is radioactive waste management. This paper reviews the status of low-level radioactive waste management in Korea. First, the current and future generation of low-level radioactive wastes are estimated. Also included are the status and plan for the construction of a repository for low-level radioactive wastes, which is one of the hot issues in Korea. Then, the nuclear regulatory system is briefly mentioned. Finally, the research and development activities for LLW management are briefly discussed.

  14. Radioactive waste management and the Rio Conference of 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tourtellotte, James R.

    1995-12-31

    Among other items adopted by the Plenary of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, were Agenda 21, Chapter 22, entitled Safe and Environmentally Sound Management of Radioactive Wastes and Agenda 9, The Rio Declaration of Environment and Development. This report presents an overview and relevant text concerning these two Agendas, with the objectives, activities, international and regional cooperation and coordination, implementation and principles.

  15. Bibliography of articles on radioactive waste from 1973-1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronfman, L.M.

    1979-10-01

    This bibliography of approximately 900 citations is a supplement to a study on the content of public information on radioactive waste. The bibliography distinguishes between diferent information sources: national press; general scientific press; nuclear scientific press; nuclear industry/utility; environmental press; and local press. In this bibliography articles which appeared in local newspapers in Michigan and Louisiana were included for the years 1976 and 1977, a time of considerable controversy within these states over the OWI's actions.

  16. Identifying industrial best practices for the waste minimization of low-level radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, V.

    1996-04-01

    In US DOE, changing circumstances are affecting the management and disposal of solid, low-level radioactive waste (LLW). From 1977 to 1991, the nuclear power industry achieved major reductions in solid waste disposal, and DOE is interested in applying those practices to reduce solid waste at DOE facilities. Project focus was to identify and document commercial nuclear industry best practices for radiological control programs supporting routine operations, outages, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The project team (DOE facility and nuclear power industry representatives) defined a Work Control Process Model, collected nuclear power industry Best Practices, and made recommendations to minimize LLW at DOE facilities.

  17. A research paper of `the basic sciences of the radioactive waste treatment` (Jul. 28,29, 1994) and `Interface and surface science of solid waste processing and disposal -differences between cement and bentonite` (Dec. 14, 1995)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report contains copies of OHP at the meetings of which discussions were centered upon the points of sameness and difference between cement and bentonite. There are sixteen papers, eleven in the first meeting and five in the second one. The following studies were read as under, on the first meeting, the role of retardation effect on the safety of high level atomic waste stratum processing, determination of colloid particle diameters by use of fieldflow fractionation, adsorption behavior of uranium, into black mica in granite, masstransfer mechanism of Cs and Se in the compression-bentonite, delay mechanism under conditions of mineral alteration, effects of humus on the behavior of radionuclides in stratum, formation of actinoids - humic acid complex and its effect on adsorption behavior, characteristic properties of water in bentonite, measurement of solubility of uranium and niobium, behavior of colloidal Am in the bentonite, illite - water system, effects of aging deterioration of bentonite on diffusion of nuclides, and on the second meeting, a view of cement materials, chemical behavior and long period stability of cement - relating to Atkinson model -, the present conditions of studies about sorption in cement, chemical properties of pore water in bentonite and interaction of bentonite and nuclides in solid - liquid interface. (S.Y.)

  18. Biosorption of uranium in radioactive liquid organic waste by coconut fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marumo, Julio Takehiro; Ferreira, Eduardo Gurzoni Alvares; Vieira, Ludmila Cabreira; Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua, E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Edson Antonio da, E-mail: edson.silva2@unioeste.br [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Toledo, PR (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive liquid organic waste needs special attention because the available treatment processes are often expensive and difficult to be managed. Biosorption is a potential technique since it allies low cost with relatively high efficiency. Biosorption has been defined as the property of certain biomolecules to bind and remove selected ions or other molecules from aqueous solutions. Biosorption using vegetable biomass from agricultural waste has become a very attractive technique because it involves the removal of heavy metal ions by low cost biosorbent. This technique could be employed in the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes. Among the biosorbent reported in the literature, coconut fiber (Cocos nucifera L.) is highlighted due to the large number of functional groups in its composition. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of coconut fiber to remove uranium from radioactive liquid organic waste. This work was divided into three stages: 1) Preparation and activation of the coconut fiber; 2) Physical characterization of the biomass, 3) Batch biosorption experiments. Two forms of coconut fiber were tested, raw and activated. The activation was performed with dilute HNO3 and NaOH solutions. The parameters evaluated for physical characterization of biomass were morphological characteristics of coconut fiber, real and apparent density and surface area. The biomass was suspended in 10 ml of solutions prepared with distillate water and radioactive liquid waste for 2 hours in the proportion of 0.2% w/v. After the contact time, the coconut fiber was removed by filtration and the supernatant, analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).The results were evaluated using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum capacity for the raw coconut fiber was lower than the activated one, removing only 1.14mg/g against 2.61mg/g. These results suggest that biosorption with coconut fiber in activated form can be applied in the

  19. 1. round table - Nuclear wastes and radioactive materials. 2. round table - risks linked with nuclear wastes and materials. 3. round table - the problem of long-term management of medium-high activity and long lived wastes. The process defined by the 1991 law; 1. table ronde - dechets nucleaires et matieres radioactives. 2. table ronde - Les risques des dechets et matieres nucleaires. 3. table ronde - Le probleme de la gestion a long terme des dechets a MA/HAVL. Le processus defini par la loi de 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the debates of the first round table of Paris about the problems raised by nuclear wastes in the case of the geologic disposal option. Four families of questions have been tackled: 1 - the exhaustiveness of ANDRA's inventory, the solutions foreseen for the different types of wastes; 2 - the high-medium activity wastes and their processing; 3 - the management of non-reprocessed spent MOX fuels; 4 - the safety and security standards used and their establishment. Four presentations are attached to these proceedings and deal with: the measured and estimated inventory of all radioactive wastes; the inventory and management of radioactive wastes and the place of citizens; the point of view of the nuclear safety authority; conditioning and storage. (J.S.)

  20. Analysis of the Institutional Framework For Radioactive Waste Management in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Wisnubroto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the infrastructure for radioactive waste management in Indonesia has been studied using several parameters, i.e. policy, regulatory authorities and their regulations, implementing organizations and financial system. By considering the international trends and the Indonesian program to utilize nuclear power, the infrastructure of radioactive waste management needs to be improved. The Act No. 10/1997 on Nuclear Energy for the future beneficence will have to be amended to incorporate several missing key points on waste management, such as definition of radioactive waste, disposal of Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW, and classification of waste. Full involvement of some important stakeholders, especially the State Ministry of Environment, on the radioactive waste management infrastructure is required since some radioactive waste is generated from non nuclear waste. Assigning full authority to the State Ministry of Environment for regulating radioactive waste generated by non nuclear facilities may be more effective, whereas BAPETEN is still holding onto control over the waste generated from nuclear facilities. In the near future, several regulations on clearance level, classification of waste, NORM/TENORM, and financial system are expected to be set up for urgent need. By considering the high risk for handling of radioactivity, including for transportation and storage, the liability or assurance of the safety for such activities must be accounted for. Finally, establishment of financial system for long term waste management in Indonesia needs to be implemented to ensure that the radioactive waste will not be the burden on future generations.

  1. Decontamination of liquid radioactive waste by thorium phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousselle, J.; Grandjean, S.; Dacheux, N.; Genet, M

    2004-07-01

    In the field of the complete reexamination of the chemistry of thorium phosphate and of the improvement of the homogeneity of Thorium Phosphate Diphosphate (TPD, Th{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}) prepared at high temperature, several crystallized compounds were prepared as initial powdered precursors. Due to the very low solubility products associated to these phases, their use in the field of the efficient decontamination of high-level radioactive liquid waste containing actinides (An) was carefully considered. Two main processes (called 'oxalate' and 'hydrothermal' chemical routes) were developed through a new concept combining the decontamination of liquid waste and the immobilization of the actinides in a ceramic matrix (TPD). In phosphoric media ('hydrothermal route'), the key-precursor was the Thorium Phosphate Hydrogen Phosphate hydrate (Th{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}). H{sub 2}O, TPHP, solubility product log(K{sub S,0}{sup 0}) {approx} - 67). The replacement of thorium by other tetravalent actinides (U, Np, Pu) in the structure, leading to the preparation of Th{sub 2-x/2}An{sub x/2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}). H{sub 2}O solid solutions, was examined. A second method was also considered in parallel to illustrate this concept using the more well-known precipitation of oxalate as the initial decontamination step. For this method, the final transformation to single phase TPD containing actinides was purchased by heating a mixture of phosphate ions with the oxalate precipitate at high temperature. (authors)

  2. Unsaturated zone investigation at the radioactive waste storage facility site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuratovic, Zana; Mazeika, Jonas; Petrosius, Rimantas; Jakimaviciute-Maseliene, Vaidote [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos St. 2, LT-08412, Vilnius (Lithuania); Klizas, Petras; Mokrik, Robert [Vilnius University, M.K. Ciurlionio St. 21/27, LT-03101 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2014-07-01

    Unsaturated zone is an important part of water circulation cycle and an integral part of many hydrological and hydrogeological factors and processes. The soils of unsaturated zone are regarded as the first natural barrier to a large extent able to limit the spread of contaminants. Nuclear waste disposal site (Maisiagala radioactive waste storage facility site) was analysed in terms of the moisture movement through the unsaturated zone. Extensive data sets of the hydraulic properties, water content and isotope composition have been collected and summarized. The main experimental and observational tasks included the collection of soil samples; determination of the physical properties and the hydraulic conductivity values of soil samples, moisture extraction from the soil sample for isotopic studies; observation of the groundwater dynamics at the Maisiagala piezometer; groundwater sampling for isotopic analysis ({sup 3}H, {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O, {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H ); and monthly precipitation isotopic analysis. Distribution features of globally widespread radionuclide tritium ({sup 3}H) and the water molecule tracer isotopes in precipitation, unsaturated zone soil moisture profiles and groundwater were determined. It was used the well-known unsaturated flow and transport model of HYDRUS-1D (Simunek et al., 2008). In this study, van Genuchten equations for the retention and conductivity estimations have been used. The retention characteristics and van Genuchten model parameters were estimated internally by HYDRUS based on the empirical equations involved in the program. Basic inputs of the tritium transport simulation are the tritium input function and meteorological variables (precipitation and potential evapotranspiration). In order to validate the representativeness of the hydraulic parameters, the model has been used to estimate the tritium distribution in the unsaturated zone, which properly represents the dynamics of the unsaturated zone. The uniformity of the daily

  3. Status report on the disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culler, F.L. Jr.; McLain, S. (comps.)

    1957-06-25

    A comprehensive survey of waste disposal techniques, requirements, costs, hazards, and long-range considerations is presented. The nature of high level wastes from reactors and chemical processes, in the form of fission product gases, waste solutions, solid wastes, and particulate solids in gas phase, is described. Growth predictions for nuclear reactor capacity and the associated fission product and transplutonic waste problem are made and discussed on the basis of present knowledge. Biological hazards from accumulated wastes and potential hazards from reactor accidents, ore and feed material processing, chemical reprocessing plants, and handling of fissionable and fertile material after irradiation and decontamination are surveyed. The waste transportation problem is considered from the standpoints of magnitude of the problem, present regulations, costs, and cooling periods. The possibilities for ultimate waste management and/or disposal are reviewed and discussed. The costs of disposal, evaporation, storage tanks, and drum-drying are considered.

  4. Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography. [416 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, C.S.; Carrier, R.F.; Brewster, R.H.; Hyder, L.K.; Barnes, K.A.

    1981-10-01

    This annotated bibliography of 416 references represents the third in a series to be published by the Hazardous Materials Information Center containing scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on disposal site, environmental transport, and waste treatment studies as well as general reviews on the subject. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1951 to 1981. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology, and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Social Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Entries in each of the chapters are further classified as a field study, laboratory study, theoretical study, or general overview involving one or more of these research areas.

  5. Safety Case for Disposal of Radioactive Waste:Some Implications from IAEA and OECD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Jin-feng; ZHANG; Yan-qi; LI; Jing-jing; LIAO; Hai-tao; WEN; Bao-yin; JIN; Xiao; JIANG; Zi-ying; LIU; Sen-lin

    2015-01-01

    "The Safety Case and Safety Assessment for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste(SSG-23)"was published by IAEA in 2012,which provides guidance to assess and validate the safety of all kinds of disposal facilities of radioactive waste.OECD/NEA set up agroup involved with 17countries to move on the research on the safety case of radioactive

  6. Process for encapsulating toxic or radioactive wastes into thermosetting resins. Procede de conditionnement de dechets radioactifs ou toxiques dans des resines thermodurcissables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlou, A.; Beltritti, A.; Gramondi, P.; Vidal, H.

    1989-05-26

    A liquid hardener non miscible with water and with a density higher than water density is mixed to wastes stored in water. After decantation water is removed and the wastes with the hardening agent are mixed with the epoxy resin to obtain a solid block. In particular wastes can be ion exchange resins. Addition of hardener to wastes in water limits temperature increase during hardening and improves density of solid products.

  7. Disposal Concepts for Radioactive Waste. Final Report of the Expert Group on Disposal Concepts for Radioactive Waste (EKRA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildi, Walter; Dermange, Francois [Univ. of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Appel, Detlef [PanGeo, Hannover (Germany); Buser, Marcos [Buser and Finger, Zurich (Switzerland); Eckhardt, Anne [Basler and Hofmann, Zurich (Switzerland); Hufschmied, Peter [Emch and Berger, Bern (Switzerland); Keusen, Hans-Rudolf [Geotest, Zollikofen (Switzerland); Aebersold, Michael [Swiss Federal Office of Energy (BFE), CH-3003 Bern (Switzerland)

    2000-01-15

    At the beginning of 1999, talks between the Swiss Federal Government, the siting Cantons (Cantons in which nuclear power plants are located and Canton Nidwalden), environmental organisations and the nuclear power plant operators on the lifetime of the existing power plants and solution of the waste management problem failed to reach a satisfactory outcome. In view of this, the Head of the Federal Department for the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication (UVEK) decided to set up the Expert Group on Disposal Concepts for Radioactive Waste (EKRA) in June 1999. EKRA then worked on providing the background for a comparison of different waste management concepts. The group developed the concept of monitored long-term geological disposal and compared this with geological disposal, interim storage and indefinite storage. The aspects of active and passive safety, monitoring and control, as well as retrievability of waste were at the fore-front of these deliberations. This report presents the conclusions and recommendations of EKRA.

  8. Reductive capacity measurement of waste forms for secondary radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Wooyong; Yang, Jung-Seok; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2015-12-01

    The reductive capacities of dry ingredients and final solid waste forms were measured using both the Cr(VI) and Ce(IV) methods and the results were compared. Blast furnace slag (BFS), sodium sulfide, SnF2, and SnCl2 used as dry ingredients to make various waste forms showed significantly higher reductive capacities compared to other ingredients regardless of which method was used. Although the BFS exhibits appreciable reductive capacity, it requires greater amounts of time to fully react. In almost all cases, the Ce(IV) method yielded larger reductive capacity values than those from the Cr(VI) method and can be used as an upper bound for the reductive capacity of the dry ingredients and waste forms, because the Ce(IV) method subjects the solids to a strong acid (low pH) condition that dissolves much more of the solids. Because the Cr(VI) method relies on a neutral pH condition, the Cr(VI) method can be used to estimate primarily the waste form surface-related and readily dissolvable reductive capacity. However, the Cr(VI) method does not measure the total reductive capacity of the waste form, the long-term reductive capacity afforded by very slowly dissolving solids, or the reductive capacity present in the interior pores and internal locations of the solids.

  9. Non-radioactive waste management in a Nuclear Energy Research Institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Helio A.; Martins, Elaine A.J.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria A. F., E-mail: helioaf@ipen.br, E-mail: elaine@ipen.br, E-mail: mecotrim@ipen.br, E-mail: mapires@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEM-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente

    2013-07-01

    For more than 50 years, non-radioactive materials have been used in processes at IPEN to support the nuclear fuel development and all related activities. Reagents, raw materials, products and by-products have been stored. Many of these are hazardous highly toxic or reactants materials. Some years ago actions sent part of these non-radioactive waste materials to proper disposal (technical incineration) resulting in an Institutional Non-Radioactive Waste Management Program. In 2005, an internal set of procedures and information entitled - Guia de Procedimentos para Armazenamento, Tratamento e Descarte de Residuos de Laboratorio Quimico - (Guide of Procedures for Storage, Treatment, and Disposal of Chemistry Laboratory Wastes) - was published to be used at the IPEN's facilities. A data base managed by software was created in order to allow the Units to input data and information about the routinely generated wastes and those already existing. Even after disposing so huge amount of wastes, a latent demand still exists. Several goals were achieved notably a well-organized and roomy space; safer storage places; local, state, and nationwide laws enforcement (for radioactive and non-radioactive materials); and improvement in chemicals control as hazardous and aged materials are more frequently disposed. A special stress was conducted to know and follow laws, regulations, and technical norms as the entire process is very detailed and this is not a day-by-day routine for the IPEN's technical personnel. The immediate consequence is that the safer the workplace the safer the nuclear related activities are done. (author)

  10. Adsorption of {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 201}Tl and {sup 24}Na in soil of the Storage Center of Radioactive Wastes; Adsorcion de {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 201}Tl y {sup 24}Na en suelo del Centro de Almacenamiento de Desechos Radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez N, C. E. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Tecnologico s/n, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Monroy G, F.; Anguiano A, J.; De la Cruz S, E., E-mail: estefany_rodriguezn@hotmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (MX)

    2011-11-15

    One of the alternatives for the radioactive wastes disposition is to confine them in the soil, due to the ion retention properties that it has. The objective of this work is to determine the soil adsorption capacity (kD) coming from a cavity of the Storage Center of Radioactive Wastes for two cations (thallium and sodium) and an anion (technetium); with the purpose of knowing the retention capacity of this soil type. The distribution coefficients were determined to different particle sizes of the soil and solvent volume relationships: land mass. Three radioactive tracers were used: {sup 201}Tl{sup 3+}, {sup 24}Na and {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}. Additionally the organic matter contained in the soil was determined. The results indicate that the soil of this site not adsorb technetium (anion), while present a great affinity for sodium and thallium (cations). At the same time, it was found that the sodium distribution coefficient is affected by the particle size of the soil, observing that when the size is bigger, the adsorption is major. On the other hand, it was found that the land adsorb more quantity of Tl-201 when the relationship solvent volume: land mass is equal to 10000. The quantity of organic matter present in the soil is not a parameter that affects the soil capacity of adsorb sodium, however is necessary to carry out more specific studies to confirm this result. (Author)

  11. Subsides for optimization of transfer of radioactive liquid waste from {sup 99}MO production plant to the waste treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rego, Maria Eugenia de Melo; Vicente, Roberto; Hiromoto, Goro, E-mail: maria.eugenia@ipen.br, E-mail: rvicente@ipen.br, E-mail: hiromoto@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The increasing need for radioisotopes lead Brazil to consider the domestic production of {sup 99}Mo from fission of low enriched uranium targets. In order to meet the present demand of {sup 99m}Tc generators the planned 'end of irradiation' activity of {sup 99}Mo is about 170 TBq per week. The radioactive waste from the production plant will be transferred to a waste treatment facility at the same site. The total activity of the actinides, fission and activation products present in the waste were predicted based on the fission yield and activation data for the irradiation conditions, such as composition and mass of uranium targets, irradiation time, neutron flux, production process and schedule, already established by the project management. The transfer of the waste from the production plant to the treatment facility will be done by means of special shielded packages. In the present study, the commercially available code Scale 6.0 was used to simulate the irradiation of the targets and the decay of radioactive products, assuming that an alkaline dissolution process would be performed on the targets before the removal and purification of {sup 99}Mo. The assessment of the shielding required for the packages containing liquid waste was done using MicroShield 9 code. The results presented here are part of a project that aims at contributing to the design of the waste management system for the {sup 99}Mo production facility. (author)

  12. Descriptive catalogue of radioactive waste families; Catalogue descriptif des familles de dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document describes the different types of radioactive wastes produced in France or which are expected to be produced in the future. The wastes have been shared into different families having similar characteristics. A description is made for each family: general presentation, photos, position of the family in the French classification, industrial origin, status of production. Some informations about the raw waste and its conditioning process are also given. The qualitative description is completed by some numerical data like: the quantity produced in the past and to be produced in the future, the evaluation of the radioactivity in 2002 and 2020, and the evaluation of the thermal power when it exists. Finally, some informations are given about the risk of toxicity of some chemical species or compounds. (J.S.)

  13. Teaching Radioactive Waste Management in an Undergraduate Engineering Program - 13269

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Brian M. [Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The University of Ontario Institute of Technology is Ontario's newest university and the only one in Canada that offers an accredited Bachelor of Nuclear Engineering (Honours) degree. The nuclear engineering program consists of 48 full-semester courses, including one on radioactive waste management. This is a design course that challenges young engineers to develop a fundamental understanding of how to manage the storage and disposal of various types and forms of radioactive waste, and to recognize the social consequences of their practices and decisions. Students are tasked with developing a major project based on an environmental assessment of a simple conceptual design for a waste disposal facility. They use collaborative learning and self-directed exploration to gain the requisite knowledge of the waste management system. The project constitutes 70% of their mark, but is broken down into several small components that include, an environmental assessment comprehensive study report, a technical review, a facility design, and a public defense of their proposal. Many aspects of the project mirror industry team project situations, including the various levels of participation. The success of the students is correlated with their engagement in the project, the highest final examination scores achieved by students with the strongest effort in the project. (authors)

  14. A MODULAR STORE FOR DRUMS OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, J.; Holden, G.

    2003-02-27

    Currently, the United Kingdom has no facility for the disposal of any waste above the low level category, indicating that all intermediate and high level waste, apart from spent fuel, has to be stored on the site of origin. To meet this storage requirement, nuclear sites are resorting to converting existing buildings or contemplating the construction of dedicated facilities, resulting in considerable cost implications. These financing aspects not only concern the construction strategy but also impinge on the ultimate decommissioning costs associated with each particular nuclear site. This paper reports on an investigation to apply the commercially available interlocking hollow block system to the design of a store for drums of radioactive waste. This block system can be quickly, and cost effectively, erected and filled with a choice of dense material. Later, the store can be dismantled with a minimum of disposable radioactive waste and the complete facility re - erected at another location if required, considerably reducing both capital construction and decommissioning costs. The investigation also encompassed a detailed review of the equipment required to place the drums of waste into the store, resulting in a scheme for a remotely operated vehicle that did not rely on umbilical control cables. The drum handler design included for 100% redundancy of all functions, meaning that whichever component failed, the handler was always recoverable to effect the necessary repair. The ultimate aim of the waste drum store review was to produce a facility that was as safe as a conventionally constructed unit, but at a lower overall building and decommissioning cost.

  15. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 areas during calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagel, D.L.

    1998-06-25

    Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford Inc. manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office under contract DE-AC06-87RL10930. These facilities include storage areas and disposal sites for radioactive solid waste. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive materials that have been buried and stored in the 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities from startup in 1944 through calendar year 1997. This report does not include backlog waste, solid radioactive wastes in storage or disposed of in other areas, or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Cafeteria, liquid waste data are not included in this document.

  16. 77 FR 20078 - Request for a License To Import Radioactive Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... application No. docket No. Perma-Fix Northwest Richland, Radioactive waste Up to 500 tons of Thermal Mexico..., various noncombustible volume reduction 11005985. radioactively materials. Total at Perma-Fix...

  17. Perspectives on Radioactive Waste Disposal: A Consideration of Economic Efficiency and Intergenerational Equity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neill, H. R.; Neill, R. H.

    2003-02-25

    There are both internal and external pressures on the U.S. Department of Energy to reduce the estimated costs of isolating radioactive waste, $19 billion for transuranic waste at Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and $57 billion for high level waste at Yucca Mountain. The question arises whether economic analyses would add to the decision-making process to reduce costs yet maintain the same level of radiological protection. This paper examines the advantages and disadvantages of using cost-benefit analysis (CBA), a tool used to measure economic efficiency as an input for these decisions. Using a comparative research approach, we find that CBA analyses appear particularly applicable where the benefits and costs are in the near term. These findings can help policymakers become more informed on funding decisions and to develop public confidence in the merits of the program for waste disposal.

  18. Annual Report of Airborne Discharge Station for Treated Radioactive Waste Water with Tritium in 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN; Yi-dan; FENG; Chun-xiao; LONG; Bo-kang; ZHAO; Yu-hang; WANG; Jian-xin

    2015-01-01

    The airborne discharge station for radioactive purity liquid waste water is officially put into operation in 2010,and it is the first facility for treated radioactive waste water with tritium in China.The station is primarily based on the"air humidification"principle for treated waste water

  19. 78 FR 26813 - Request To Amend a License To Import Radioactive Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... COMMISSION Request To Amend a License To Import Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public... the licensee name 2013, IW022/03, 11005700. A radioactive total of 5,500 from ``Perma-Fix waste). tons of low- Environmental level waste). Services, Inc.'' to ``Perma-Fix Northwest, Inc.'', and (2)...

  20. Molten salt oxidation of mixed wastes: Separation of radioactive materials and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.T.; Haas, P.A.; Rudolph, J.C.

    1993-12-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is involved in a program to apply a molten salt oxidation (MSO) process to the treatment of mixed wastes at Oak Ridge and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Mixed wastes are defined as those wastes that contain both radioactive components, which are regulated by the atomic energy legislation, and hazardous waste components, which are regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). A major part of our ORNL program involves the development of separation technologies that are necessary for the complete treatment of mixed wastes. The residues from the MSO treatment of the mixed wastes must be processed further to separate the radioactive components, to concentrate and recycle residues, or to convert the residues into forms acceptable for final disposal. This paper is a review of the MSO requirements for separation technologies, the information now available, and the concepts for our development studies.

  1. Characterization of radioactive organic liquid wastes; Caracterizacion de desechos liquidos organicos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez A, I.; Monroy G, F.; Quintero P, E.; Lopez A, E.; Duarte A, C., E-mail: ivonne-arce@hotmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    With the purpose of defining the treatment and more appropriate conditioning of radioactive organic liquid wastes, generated in medical establishments and research centers of the country (Mexico) and stored in drums of 208 L is necessary to characterize them. This work presents the physical-chemistry and radiological characterization of these wastes. The samples of 36 drums are presented, whose registrations report the presence of H-3, C-14 and S-35. The following physiochemical parameters of each sample were evaluated: ph, conductivity, density and viscosity; and analyzed by means of gamma spectrometry and liquid scintillation, in order to determine those contained radionuclides in the same wastes and their activities. Our results show the presence of H-3 (61%), C-14 (13%) and Na-22 (11%) and in some drums low concentrations of Co-60 (5.5%). In the case of the registered drums with S-35 (8.3%) does not exist presence of radioactive material, so they can be liberated without restriction as conventional chemical wastes. The present activities in these wastes vary among 5.6 and 2312.6 B g/g, their ph between 2 and 13, the conductivities between 0.005 and 15 m S, the densities among 1.05 and 1.14, and the viscosities between 1.1 and 39 MPa. (Author)

  2. State of the art report on bituminized waste forms of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Kook; Shon, Jong Sik; Kim, Kil Jeong; Lee, Kang Moo; Jung, In Ha

    1998-03-01

    In this report, research and development results on the bituminization of radioactive wastes are closely reviewed, especially those regarding waste treatment technologies, waste solidifying procedures and the characteristics of asphalt and solidified forms. A new concept of the bituminization method is suggested in this report which can improve the characteristics of solidified forms. Stable solid forms with high leach resistance, high thermal resistance and good compression strength were produced by the suggested bituminization method, in which spent polyethylene from agricultural farms was added. This report can help further research and development of improved bituminized forms of radioactive wastes that will maintain long term stabilities in disposal sites. (author). 59 refs., 19 tabs., 18 figs

  3. Management of radioactive wastes; Gestion des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the round table debates which took place at Joinville, i.e. in the same area as the Bure underground laboratory of Meuse/Haute-Marne. Therefore, the discussion focuses more on the local impacts of the setting up of a waste disposal facility (environmental aspects, employment, economic development). (J.S.)

  4. Radioactive waste management and disposal scenario for fusion power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabara, Takashi; Yamano, Naoki [Sumitomo Atomic Energy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Seki, Yasushi; Aoki, Isao

    1997-10-01

    The environmental and economic impact of radioactive waste (radwaste) generated from fusion power reactors using five types of structural materials and a light water reactor (LWR) have been evaluated and compared. At first, the amount and the radioactive level of the radwaste generated in five fusion reactors ware evaluated by an activation calculation code. Next, a possible radwaste disposal scenario applicable to fusion radwaste in Japan is considered and the disposal cost evaluated under certain assumptions. The exposure doses are evaluated for the skyshine of gamma-rays during the disposal operation, groundwater migration scenario during the institutional control period of 300 years and future site use scenario after the institutional period. The radwaste generated from a typical LWR was estimated based on a literature survey and the disposal cost was evaluated using the same assumptions as for the fusion reactors. It is found that the relative cost of disposal is strongly dependent on the cost for interim storage of medium level waste of fusion reactors and the cost of high level waste for the LWR. (author)

  5. Fifteenth annual U.S. Department of Energy low-level radioactive waste management conference: Agenda and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The goal of the conference was to give the opportunity to identify and discuss low-level radioactive waste management issues, share lessons learned, and hear about some of the latest advances in technology. Abstracts of the presentations are arranged into the following topical sections: (1) Performance Management Track: Performance assessment perspectives; Site characterization; Modeling and performance assessment; and Remediation; (2) Technical Track: Strategic planning; Tools and options; Characterization and validation; Treatment updates; Technology development; and Storage; (3) Institutional Track: Orders and regulatory issues; Waste management options; Legal, economic, and social issues; Public involvement; Siting process; and Low-level radioactive waste policy amendment acts.

  6. Problems with the management of non-nuclear radioactive waste in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindhe, J.C. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-09-15

    There are shortcomings in the current system for the management of non-nuclear radioactive waste. Old disused sources i.e. from industry, research and hospitals are sometimes quite expensive to dispose of. The sources are then kept longer than needed and with time there is an increasing risk that they might end up as orphan. SSI has at present no legal rights to make this situation change. Natural radioactivity may be accumulated in large volumes from industrial processes and will then require safe disposal in places yet to find. The Government will have to consider the proposals that have been presented by a committee that has investigated the problems. The legislation needs some changes and SSI needs new authorizations and resources to be able to reach the goal to have a functional and safe handling of all radioactive waste in Sweden. Decisions are also needed on how to implement the two EC-directives in connection with these questions (WEEE 2002/96/EG [2] and HASS 2003/122/EURATOM [3]). These directives are both supporting the goal and should be implemented and put into force during 2005. This is a small essay with selected examples of unsolved problems with the management of radioactive waste from activities outside of the nuclear power production sector that we have to find practical and safe ways to handle.

  7. Management of the radioactive waste of European Spallation Source within the Swedish waste disposal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ene, Daniela [European Spallation Source AB, ESS-AB (Sweden); Forsstroem, H. [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB, SKB (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    The European Spallation Source AB (ESS) is the European common effort in designing and building a next generation large-scale user facility for studies of the structure and dynamics of materials. The proposed schematic layout of the ESS facility is based on a linear driver (linac) directing the proton beam (5 MW of 2.5 GeV) of 2.8 ms long pulses with a 20 Hz on a tungsten target where neutrons are produced via spallation reactions. Further the neutrons will be moderated to thermal and sub-thermal energies in a couple of moderators placed around the target. The moderators feed 22 beam-lines guiding the neutrons to the scattering instruments, mainly for neutron scattering research, as has been previously mentioned. The ESS will generate specific types of radioactive waste. This waste should be handled and disposed of within the Swedish radioactive waste management system, which is owned and operated by Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB, (SKB). The main objectives of this work are: i) To estimate types and quantities of waste that the ESS project will generate at different stages: commission, operation, decommissioning; ii) To allocate the waste to specific disposal route; iii) To assess the disposal volumes needed and to ensure that the ESS waste may safely be accommodated within the Swedish disposal system, SKB The amounts of ESS waste and classifications were derived using: i) precise Monte Carlo calculations ii) scaling the activity from the operation experience of the existing spallation source installations for waste such it is difficult to predict level of activation or for components of the facility in stage of the pre-conceptual model. Associated waste treatment/conditioning options were further analyzed in order to define the waste type and packet descriptions in agreement with Swedish regulations and policy. The potential final disposal routes for high activated components were decided via the comparison of the activity levels of the isotopes inside the

  8. Radioactive wastes management: what is the situation?; Gestion des dechets radioactifs: ou en est-on?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This presentation takes stock on the situation of the radioactive wastes management in France. It gives information on the deep underground disposal, the public information, the management of the radioactive wastes in France, the researches in the framework of the law of the 30 december 1991, the underground laboratory of Meuse/Haute-Marne, the national agency for the radioactive wastes management (ANDRA) and its sites. (A.L.B.)

  9. Fifty years of federal radioactive waste management: Policies and practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, R.G.

    1997-04-01

    This report provides a chronological history of policies and practices relating to the management of radioactive waste for which the US Atomic Energy Commission and its successor agencies, the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Department of Energy, have been responsible since the enactment of the Atomic Energy Act in 1946. The defense programs and capabilities that the Commission inherited in 1947 are briefly described. The Commission undertook a dramatic expansion nationwide of its physical facilities and program capabilities over the five years beginning in 1947. While the nuclear defense activities continued to be a major portion of the Atomic Energy Commission`s program, there was added in 1955 the Atoms for Peace program that spawned a multiplicity of peaceful use applications for nuclear energy, e.g., the civilian nuclear power program and its associated nuclear fuel cycle; a variety of industrial applications; and medical research, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications. All of these nuclear programs and activities generated large volumes of radioactive waste that had to be managed in a manner that was safe for the workers, the public, and the environment. The management of these materials, which varied significantly in their physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics, involved to varying degrees the following phases of the waste management system life cycle: waste characterization, storage, treatment, and disposal, with appropriate transportation linkages. One of the benefits of reviewing the history of the waste management program policies and practices if the opportunity it provides for identifying the lessons learned over the years. Examples are summarized at the end of the report and are listed in no particular order of importance.

  10. Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Swift, Peter N.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2009-07-01

    Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of {approx}100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole {approx}45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

  11. The management of radioactive waste. A description of ten countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidskog, Rolf; Andersson, Ann-Catrin [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden). Man-Technology-Environment Research Centre

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this report is to provide a description of how the responsible authorities/companies in ten EDRAM countries (International Association for Environmentally Safe Disposal of Radioactive Materials) deal with the management of radioactive waste. The focus is on how the responsible organisation currently handles this issue, including technical, economic and socio-political aspects. The material used was primarily produced by the companies/authorities themselves. The report describes the development and situation in each country up to the end of 2001, or later if noted as such in the country report. The scope of this report does not permit an evaluation of how successful and effective the companies and authorities have been in implementing their plans and ambitions. The report does not include the views of other national stakeholders concerning radwaste management, or their opinions of the way that the authorities/companies handle the issue of radwaste. The description is based on a series of questions that were drawn up and discussed at the initial stage of the EDRAM co-operation. Technological aspects: 1. What technology is used? How is research and development promoted and executed? 2. Where is the waste to be put? What criteria does each country search for? 3. How is security to be maintained? Who can obtain a license for handling nuclear waste? Economic aspects: 1. In what way do the countries in question discuss the time aspects as regards delays and similar? 2. How are the economic and financial aspects of the process dealt with? Where does the money come from? Socio-political aspects: 4. What role do politicians play and to what extent is social acceptance a part of the process? What part does public opinion play? 5. How flexible is the decision-making process and can decisions be revised? 6. Does the public have confidence in the industry and the decision-makers? 7. What kind of institutional problems arise? With regard to public involvement in

  12. Radioactive waste management: exploratory survey among Rio de Janeiro state university students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Danielle Monegalha; Almeida, Ivan Pedro Salati de, E-mail: drodrigues@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: ivsalati@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Social approval is a fundamental part of the site selection process of a radioactive waste repository. Such approval requires the involvement of the local community in the decision-making process and is deemed essential to the success of an enterprise of this kind. A major problem when it comes to nuclear energy is the poor knowledge on the issue among the general population. For effective participation in the decision-making process, the community of the candidate site should be well informed on nuclear issues, because efficient community interaction depends on the level of knowledge of their citizens on the subject. One way to identify this level of knowledge is through opinion polls on attitudes and beliefs regarding the use of nuclear energy and on radioactive waste. In the European Union research is carried out periodically seeking to know people's opinion about their participation in the decision-making process. In order to assess in a preliminary way the attitude on this matter of university students of the state of Rio de Janeiro, the research method used in the European Union was adapted and subsequently applied to a sample of 200 students from public and private universities within the state. The results indicate that the majority of respondents, though possessing little information on nuclear issues, would like to participate in the decision-making process for site selection of a low and intermediate level radioactive waste repository, if that repository was to be built close to their living area. The collected data also identifies the sources of information that are considered trustworthy by the surveyed sample. Although exploratory, this research provides guidelines for future work to be developed within the scope of the site selection for a radioactive waste repository in Brazil. (author)

  13. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 areas during calendar year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hladek, K.L.

    1997-05-21

    Rust Federal Services of Hanford Inc. manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office under contract DE-AC06-87RL10930. These facilities include storage areas and disposal sites for radioactive solid waste. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive materials that have been buried and stored in the 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities from startup in 1944 through calendar year 1996. This report does not include backlog waste, solid radioactive wastes in storage or disposed of in other areas, or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria, liquid waste data are not included in this document.

  14. Characterizations of the radioactive waste by the remotely-controlled collimated spectrometric system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanov, Vyacheslav E.; Potapov, Victor N.; Smirnov, Sergey V.; Ivanov, Oleg P. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-01

    Decontamination and decommissioning of the research reactors MR (Testing Reactor) and RFT (Reactor of Physics and Technology) has recently been initiated in the National Research Center (NRC) 'Kurchatov institute', Moscow. In the building, neighboring to the reactor, the storage of HLRW is located. The storage is made of monolithic concrete in which steel cells depth 4 m are located. In cells of storage the HLRW packed into cases are placed. These the radioactive waste are also subject to export on long storage in the specialized organization. For characterization of the radioactive waste in cases the remote-controlled collimated spectrometer system was used. The system consists of a spectrometric collimated gamma-ray detector, a color video camera and a control unit, mounted on a rotator, which are mounted on a tripod with the host computer. For determination of specific activity of radionuclides in cases, it is developed programs of calculation of coefficients of proportionality of specific activity to the corresponding speeds of the account in peaks of full absorption at single specific activity of radionuclides in cases. For determination of these coefficients the mathematical model of spectrometer system based on the Monte-Carlo method was used. Dependences of calibration coefficients for various radionuclides from distance between the detector and a case at various values of the radioactive waste density in cases are given. Measurements of specific activity in cases are taken and are discussed. By results of measurements decisions on the appeal of the radioactive waste being in cases are made. (authors)

  15. Voluntarism, public engagement and the role of geoscience in radioactive waste management policy-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilham, Nic

    2014-05-01

    In the UK, as elsewhere in Europe, there has been a move away from previous 'technocratic' approaches to radioactive waste management (RWM). Policy-makers have recognised that for any RWM programme to succeed, sustained engagement with stakeholders and the public is necessary, and any geological repository must be constructed and operated with the willing support of the community which hosts it. This has opened up RWM policy-making and implementation to a wider range of (often contested) expert inputs, ranging across natural and social sciences, engineering and even ethics. Geoscientists and other technical specialists have found themselves drawn into debates about how various types of expertise should be prioritised, and how they should be integrated with diverse public and stakeholder perspectives. They also have a vital role to play in communicating to the public the need for geological disposal of radioactive waste, and the various aspects of geoscience which will inform the process of implementing this, from identifying potential volunteer host communities, to finding a suitable site, developing the safety case, construction of a repository, emplacement of waste, closure and subsequent monitoring. High-quality geoscience, effectively communicated, will be essential to building and maintaining public confidence throughout the many decades such projects will take. Failure to communicate effectively the relevant geoscience and its central role in the UK's radioactive waste management programme arguably contributed to West Cumbria's January 2013 decision to withdraw from the site selection process, and may discourage other communities from coming forward in future. Across countries needing to deal with their radioactive waste, this unique challenge gives an unprecedented urgency to finding ways to engage and communicate effectively with the public about geoscience.

  16. Measurement and Monte Carlo Calculation of Waste Drum Filled With Radioactive Aqueous Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Li-jun; ZHANG; Wei-dong; YE; Hong-sheng; LIN; Min; CHEN; Xi-lin; GUO; Xiao-qing

    2012-01-01

    <正>Theoretically the best calibrating source of gamma scan system (SGS) is a waste drum filled with uniform distribution of medium and radioactive nuclides. However, in reality, waste drums usually full of solid substance, which are difficult to be prepared in a completely uniformly distributed state. To reduce measurement uncertainty of the radioactivity of waste drums prepared using the method of shell source, a waste drum filled with radioactive aqueous solution was prepared. Besides, its radioactivity was measured by a SGS device and calculated using Monte Carlo method to verify the exact geometric model, which

  17. Engineering study of 50 miscellaneous inactive underground radioactive waste tanks located at the Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1994-03-02

    This engineering study addresses 50 inactive underground radioactive waste tanks. The tanks were formerly used for the following functions associated with plutonium and uranium separations and waste management activities in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Site: settling solids prior to disposal of supernatant in cribs and a reverse well; neutralizing acidic process wastes prior to crib disposal; receipt and processing of single-shell tank (SST) waste for uranium recovery operations; catch tanks to collect water that intruded into diversion boxes and transfer pipeline encasements and any leakage that occurred during waste transfer operations; and waste handling and process experimentation. Most of these tanks have not been in use for many years. Several projects have, been planned and implemented since the 1970`s and through 1985 to remove waste and interim isolate or interim stabilize many of the tanks. Some tanks have been filled with grout within the past several years. Responsibility for final closure and/or remediation of these tanks is currently assigned to several programs including Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS), Environmental Restoration and Remedial Action (ERRA), and Decommissioning and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure (D&RCP). Some are under facility landlord responsibility for maintenance and surveillance (i.e. Plutonium Uranium Extraction [PUREX]). However, most of the tanks are not currently included in any active monitoring or surveillance program.

  18. Naturally occurring crystalline phases: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaker, R.F.; Ewing, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Naturally occurring mineral analogues to crystalline phases that are constituents of crystalline radioactive waste forms provide a basis for comparison by which the long-term stability of these phases may be estimated. The crystal structures and the crystal chemistry of the following natural analogues are presented: baddeleyite, hematite, nepheline; pollucite, scheelite;sodalite, spinel, apatite, monazite, uraninite, hollandite-priderite, perovskite, and zirconolite. For each phase in geochemistry, occurrence, alteration and radiation effects are described. A selected bibliography for each phase is included.

  19. Haematological indices in Nigerians exposed to radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogunranti, J.O. (Port Harcourt Univ. (Nigeria). Coll. of Health Sciences)

    1989-09-16

    The haematological indices in 26 workers who came in contact with radioactive and toxic wastes dumped in Koko village, Nigeria, were compared with those in 26 workers at a port 1 km away from the dump site and with those in 26 controls derived from Port Harcourt, which is about 200 km from the dump site. The site workers showed a macrocytic anaemia and a leucopenia that affected the minority components rather than the neutrophils or lymphocytes. Radiation injury was the likely cause of the findings in the site workers.

  20. Processing of food wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosseva, Maria R

    2009-01-01

    Every year almost 45 billion kg of fresh vegetables, fruits, milk, and grain products is lost to waste in the United States. According to the EPA, the disposal of this costs approximately $1 billion. In the United Kingdom, 20 million ton of food waste is produced annually. Every tonne of food waste means 4.5 ton of CO(2) emissions. The food wastes are generated largely by the fruit-and-vegetable/olive oil, fermentation, dairy, meat, and seafood industries. The aim of this chapter is to emphasize existing trends in the food waste processing technologies during the last 15 years. The chapter consists of three major parts, which distinguish recovery of added-value products (the upgrading concept), the food waste treatment technologies as well as the food chain management for sustainable food system development. The aim of the final part is to summarize recent research on user-oriented innovation in the food sector, emphasizing on circular structure of a sustainable economy.

  1. Development of a computer code to predict a ventilation requirement for an underground radioactive waste storage tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.J.; Dalpiaz, E.L. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Computer code, WTVFE (Waste Tank Ventilation Flow Evaluation), has been developed to evaluate the ventilation requirement for an underground storage tank for radioactive waste. Heat generated by the radioactive waste and mixing pumps in the tank is removed mainly through the ventilation system. The heat removal process by the ventilation system includes the evaporation of water from the waste and the heat transfer by natural convection from the waste surface. Also, a portion of the heat will be removed through the soil and the air circulating through the gap between the primary and secondary tanks. The heat loss caused by evaporation is modeled based on recent evaporation test results by the Westinghouse Hanford Company using a simulated small scale waste tank. Other heat transfer phenomena are evaluated based on well established conduction and convection heat transfer relationships. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. Design and Experimental Analysis of Thermal Plasma Processing System for Simulative Radioactive Resin Waste%模拟放射性废树脂热等离子体处理系统设计及试验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程昌明; 童洪辉; 兰伟; 张劲松; 耿少飞; 朱海龙

    2013-01-01

    为了解决低放射性废树脂的处理难题,提高最终废物体的减容效果和稳定性,采用等离子体高温焚烧熔融方法,将树脂中的有机成分和无机成分分别高温分解和熔融.针对废离子交换树脂,研制了等离子体高温焚烧冷实验台架,开展了模拟废物等离子体高温焚烧特性及工艺的初步研究.研究结果表明:等离子体高温焚烧技术能够彻底分解废树脂,系统减容比达到53.5,玻璃体抗压强度>74 MPa,尾气中氮氧化物质量浓度为20~300mg/m3,二氧化硫质量浓度为0~95mg/m3,达到《危险废物焚烧污染控制标准》的要求.等离子体技术可以实现低放射性废树脂减容的稳定化处理,放射性核素被包容在玻璃体中,固化体性能稳定.%In order to solve the difficulties in processing low-level radioactive resin,and to improve the volumereducing effect and stability of the waste body,we introduced a high temperature plasma molten method to pyrolyze the organic composition in resin and to melt the inorganic components.Aiming at spent ion exchange resin,we developed a cold experiment platform for plasma high-temperature incineration.Furthermore,we investigated the characteristic and simulated waste incineration,as well as the techniques involved in the process.The results indicate that the plasma high-temperature incineration technology can decompose the spent ion exchange resin completely,with a volume reducing factor up to 53.5 and a compressive strength of glass more than 74 MPa.The contamination of nitrogen oxides is 20~300 mg/m3 in off-gas,and that of sulfur dioxide is 0~95 mg/m3,which meet the requirements of the Pollution Control Standard for Hazardous Wastes Incineration.It is concluded that using plasma technology can achieve volume reduction and stabilization treatment of radioactive waste resin by having radioactive nuclide solidified in glass to stabilize the performances of solidified body.

  3. Waste Analysis Plan for the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TRINER, G.C.

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for dangerous, mixed, and radioactive waste accepted for confirmation, nondestructive examination (NDE) and nondestructive assay (NDA), repackaging, certification, and/or storage at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP). Mixed and/or radioactive waste is treated at WRAP. WRAP is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge.

  4. Risk methodology for geologic disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cranwell, R.M.; Campbell, J.E.; Ortiz, N.R. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Guzowski, R.V. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-04-01

    This report contains the description of a procedure for selecting scenarios that are potentially important to the isolation of high- level radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations. In this report, the term scenario is used to represent a set of naturally occurring and/or human-induced conditions that represent realistic future states of the repository, geologic systems, and ground-water flow systems that might affect the release and transport of radionuclides from the repository to humans. The scenario selection procedure discussed in this report is demonstrated by applying it to the analysis of a hypothetical waste disposal site containing a bedded-salt formation as the host medium for the repository. A final set of 12 scenarios is selected for this site. 52 refs., 48 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS FROM VARIOUS POTENTIAL NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE OPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Soelberg; Steve Piet

    2010-11-01

    Five fuel cycle options, about which little is known compared to more commonly known options, have been studied in the past year for the United States Department of Energy. These fuel cycle options, and their features relative to uranium-fueled light water reactor (LWR)-based fuel cycles, include: • Advanced once-through reactor concepts (Advanced Once-Through, or AOT) – intended for high uranium utilization and long reactor operating life, use depleted uranium in some cases, and avoid or minimize used fuel reprocessing • Fission-fusion hybrid (FFH) reactor concepts – potential variations are intended for high uranium or thorium utilization, produce fissile material for use in power generating reactors, or transmute transuranic (TRU) and some radioactive fission product (FP) isotopes • High temperature gas reactor (HTGR) concepts - intended for high uranium utilization, high reactor thermal efficiencies; they have unique fuel designs • Molten salt reactor (MSR) concepts – can breed fissile U-233 from Th fuel and avoid or minimize U fuel enrichment, use on-line reprocessing of the used fuel, produce lesser amounts of long-lived, highly radiotoxic TRU elements, and avoid fuel assembly fabrication • Thorium/U-233 fueled LWR (Th/U-233) concepts – can breed fissile U-233 from Th fuel and avoid or minimize U fuel enrichment, and produce lesser amounts of long-lived, highly radiotoxic TRU elements. These fuel cycle options could result in widely different types and amounts of used or spent fuels, spent reactor core materials, and waste streams from used fuel reprocessing, such as: • Highly radioactive, high-burnup used metal, oxide, or inert matrix U and/or Th fuels, clad in Zr, steel, or composite non-metal cladding or coatings • Spent radioactive-contaminated graphite, SiC, carbon-carbon-composite, metal, and Be reactor core materials • Li-Be-F salts containing U, TRU, Th, and fission products • Ranges of separated or un-separated activation

  6. Technical and Economic Problems Associated with the Development of Methods of Processing and Using Radioactive Waste; Problemes techniques et economiques lies au developpement des methodes de traitement et d'utilisation des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiriet, L.; Sauteron, J.; Oger, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The paper briefly reviews the various techniques used in processing the radioactive wastes which unavoidably result from the generation of electric power from nuclear sources. The paper goes on to define the relative importance, in nuclear fuel cycles, of the problem raised by these wastes. Emphasis is placed on the economic influence of management policies on the cost of power generation, and hence on the relative position of nuclear energy. A substantial percentage of these wastes can be economically utilized. Attention is drawn to the major technical and economic features of the industry which will come into being as a result of this utilization. The major uses anticipated are discussed: radiation sources, heat sources, auxiliary power generation. The paper concludes that satisfactory solutions have already been found to these problems, and describes possible improvements. (author) [French] La communication rappelle d'abord succinctement les differentes techniques de traitement des dechets radioactifs resultant necessairement de la production d'electricite d'origine nucleaire. On situe ensuite l'importance du probleme pose par ces residus dans le cycle du combustible nucleaire. On fait ressortir l'influence economique du choix des methodes de gestion sur le cout de production de l'energie, et par consequent sur la place devolue a l'energie nucleaire. Une part importante de ces dechets peut faire l'objet d'une utilisation rentable de l'industrie qui naitra de cette utilisation. Les principales applications envisagees sont evoquees: sources d'irradiation, sources chauffantes, generateurs auxiliaires d'energie. On conclut que d'ores et deja des solutions satisfaisantes ont ete apportees a ces problemes, et l'on decrit les perspectives d'amelioration concevables. (auteur)

  7. Properties of radioactive wastes and waste containers. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morcos, N.; Weiss, A.J.

    1980-08-01

    A study was initiated to determine the effect of varying V/S (the ratio of the waste form volume to its surface area) on the leachability of radioisotopes incorported in cement forms. Cesium-137 and strontium-85 mixed with a simulated formulation of waste derived from forced recirculation evaporator bottoms of LWR's were solidified in portland II cement. The V/S ratios of the forms varied from 0.41 to 2.77. The resulting forms were leached using a modified IAEA procedure. Leaching data indicate an inverse relationship between the amount of leached radioactivity and V/S value. Experiments were undertaken to determine the degree of desorption of Cs-137 initially adsorbed on cation organic ion exchange resins upon mixing with cement paste and during the plastic phase of the curing process. Portland II and lumnite cements were used as the solidification agents. Twenty seven percent of the Cs-137 was removed from the ion exchange resins after two hours of contact with portland II cement, whereas, 43% of the activity was removed from the resins after the same contact period with lumnite cement. 15 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Fast Tritium Separation From the Low Level Radioactive Liquid Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG; Xiao-hu; YANG; Su-liang; YANG; Lei; YANG; Jin-ling

    2012-01-01

    <正>Due to the needed of high efficiency monitoring and controlling of the waste water generated from the spent fuel reprocessing process, analyzing work need to be done quickly. Tritium is an important nuclide in the liquid waste and its content must be determined. But the existing tritium analysis method

  9. Aggradational and erosional history of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dechert, T.V.; McDaniel, P.A.; Falen, A.L. [Idaho Univ., Moscow, ID (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Long-term performance of the low-level waste disposal site at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is partially dependent on the stability of the land surface with respect to erosion of cover materials. This document discusses the aggradational and erosional history of the naturally occurring sediments and soils in and around the RWMC, focusing on the late-Pleistocene and Holocene epochs. Other related issues include the ages of the various deposits, the extent to which they have been altered by soil formation and other processes, their relationships to the basalt flows in the area, and the impact of human activity on the materials at the RWMC.

  10. Research on Health Risk-Based Radioactive Acceptance Criteria of Municipal Solid Waste Landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The article focuses on the topics of Health Risk-Based Radioactive Acceptance Criteria of Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWL, including municipal refuse landfills or industrial solid waste landfills, MSWL). At first, health risk assessment

  11. Information from the Radioactive Waste Section of the Radiation Protection Group

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Treatment Centre will be closed on Thursday 23 October 2008. No waste will be received and no equipment issued on this day. Users are kindly requested to organise themselves accordingly.

  12. Survey of agents and techniques applicable to the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuhrmann, M.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Colombo, P.

    1981-12-01

    A review of the various solidification agents and techniques that are currently available or potentially applicable for the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes is presented. An overview of the types and quantities of low-level wastes produced is presented. Descriptions of waste form matrix materials, the wastes types for which they have been or may be applied and available information concerning relevant waste form properties and characteristics follow. Also included are descriptions of the processing techniques themselves with an emphasis on those operating parameters which impact upon waste form properties. The solidification agents considered in this survey include: hydraulic cements, thermoplastic materials, thermosetting polymers, glasses, synthetic minerals and composite materials. This survey is part of a program supported by the United States Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program (LLWMP). This work provides input into LLWMP efforts to develop and compile information relevant to the treatment and processing of low-level wastes and their disposal by shallow land burial.

  13. Progress in long-lived radioactive waste management and disposal at the waste isolation pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triay, I.R.; Matthews, M.L. [U.S. Dept. of Energy Carlsbad Field Office, New Mexico (United States); Eriksson, L.G. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The Salado Formation is buried more than 350 m beneath the sands and cacti of the Chihuahuan Desert and hosts the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) deep geological repository at a depth of approximately 650 m. Since the WIPP repository is at least 10 years ahead of any other repository development for long-lived radioactive waste, other radioactive waste management organizations and institutions could benefit both scientifically and politically from sharing the lessons learned at WIPP. Benefits would include using existing expertise and facilities to cost-effectively address and solve program-specific issues and to train staff. The characteristics of the WIPP repository and infrastructure are described in this paper. (author)

  14. Radioactive Waste Management Complex low-level waste radiological performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, S.J.; Rood, A.S.; Magnuson, S.O.; Sussman, M.E.; Bhatt, R.N.

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the projected radiological dose impacts associated with the disposal of radioactive low-level waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This radiological performance assessment was conducted to evaluate compliance with applicable radiological criteria of the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the public and the environment. The calculations involved modeling the transport of radionuclides from buried waste, to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the public via air, groundwater, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses were made for both offsite receptors and individuals inadvertently intruding onto the site after closure. In addition, uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were performed. The results of the analyses indicate compliance with established radiological criteria and provide reasonable assurance that public health and safety will be protected.

  15. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TREATMENT FOR HANFORD'S LOW ACTIVITY WASTE AND SECONDARY WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Cozzi, A.; Bannochie, C.; Burket, P.; Daniel, G.

    2011-02-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as Cs-137, I-129, Tc-99, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap. The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to recycle it to the supplemental LAW treatment to avoid a large steady state accumulation in the pretreatment-vitrification loop. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and/or WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates

  16. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management annual report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-08-01

    This is the fifth Annual Report to Congress by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The report covers the activities and expenditures of OCRWM during fiscal year 1987, which ended on September 30, 1987. The activities and accomplishments of OCRWM during fiscal year 1987 are discussed in chapters 1 through 9 of this report. The audited financial statements of the Nuclear Waste Fund are provided in chapter 10. Since the close of the fiscal year, a number of significant events have occurred. Foremost among them was the passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 (Amendments Act) on December 21, 1987, nearly 3 months after the end of the fiscal year covered by this report. As a result, some of the plans and activities discussed in chapters 1 through 9 are currently undergoing significant change or are being discontinued. Most prominent among the provisions of the Amendments Act is the designation of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the only candidate first repository site to be characterized. Therefore, the site characterization plans for Deaf Smith, Texas, and Hanford, Washington, discussed in chapter 3, will not be issued. The refocusing of the waste management program under the Amendments Act is highlighted in the epilogue, chapter 11. 68 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. IGRIS for characterizing low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, C.W. [Nuclear Diagnostic Systems, Springfield, VA (United States); Swanson, P.J. [Concord Associates, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to noninvasively characterize low-level radioactive waste in bulk soil samples, containers such as 55-gallon barrels, and in pipes, valves, etc. The probe interrogates the target with a low-intensity beam of 14-MeV neutrons produced from the deuterium-tritium reaction in a specially designed sealed-tube neutron-generator (STNG) that incorporates an alpha detector to detect the alpha particle associated with each neutron. These neutrons interact with the nuclei in the target to produce inelastic-, capture-, and decay-gamma rays that are detected by gamma-ray detectors. Time-of-flight methods are used to separate the inelastic-gamma rays from other gamma rays and to determine the origin of each inelastic-gamma ray in three dimensions through Inelastic-Gamma Ray Imaging and Spectroscopy (IGRIS). The capture-gamma ray spectrum is measured simultaneously with the IGRIS measurements. The decay-gamma ray spectrum is measured with the STNG turned off. Laboratory proof-of-concept measurements were used to design prototype systems for Bulk Soil Assay, Barrel Inspection, and Decontamination and Decommissioning and to predict their minimum detectable levels for heavy toxic metals (As, Hg, Cr, Zn, Pb, Ni, and Cd), uranium and transuranics, gamma-ray emitters, and elements such as chlorine, which is found in PCBs and other pollutants. These systems are expected to be complementary and synergistic with other technologies used to characterize low-level radioactive waste.

  18. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation - A world wide review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, P.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-06-01

    The problem of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere presents specialists in the earth sciences with some of the most complicated problems they have ever encountered. This is especially true for high-level waste (HLW), which must be isolated in the underground and away from the biosphere for thousands of years. The most widely accepted method of doing this is to seal the radioactive materials in metal canisters that are enclosed by a protective sheath and placed underground in a repository that has been carefully constructed in an appropriate rock formation. Much new technology is being developed to solve the problems that have been raised, and there is a continuing need to publish the results of new developments for the benefit of all concerned. Table 1 presents a summary of the various formations under investigation according to the reports submitted for this world wide review. It can be seen that in those countries that are searching for repository sites, granitic and metamorphic rocks are the prevalent rock type under investigation. Six countries have developed underground research facilities that are currently in use. All of these investigations are in saturated systems below the water table, except the United States project, which is in the unsaturated zone of a fractured tuff.

  19. Water, vapour and heat transport in concrete cells for storing radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carme Chaparro, M.; W. Saaltink, Maarten

    2016-08-01

    Water is collected from a drain situated at the centre of a concrete cell that stores radioactive waste at 'El Cabril', which is the low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility of Spain. This indicates flow of water within the cell. 2D numerical models have been made in order to reproduce and understand the processes that take place inside the cell. Temperature and relative humidity measured by sensors in the cells and thermo-hydraulic parameters from laboratory test have been used. Results show that this phenomenon is caused by capillary rise from the phreatic level, evaporation and condensation within the cell produced by temperature gradients caused by seasonal temperature fluctuations outside. At the centre of the cell, flow of gas and convection also play a role. Three remedial actions have been studied that may avoid the leakage of water from the drain.

  20. The management of radioactive waste. A description of ten countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidskog, Rolf; Andersson, Ann-Catrin [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden). Man-Technology-Environment Research Centre

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this report is to provide a description of how the responsible authorities/companies in ten EDRAM countries (International Association for Environmentally Safe Disposal of Radioactive Materials) deal with the management of radioactive waste. The focus is on how the responsible organisation currently handles this issue, including technical, economic and socio-political aspects. The material used was primarily produced by the companies/authorities themselves. The report describes the development and situation in each country up to the end of 2001, or later if noted as such in the country report. The scope of this report does not permit an evaluation of how successful and effective the companies and authorities have been in implementing their plans and ambitions. The report does not include the views of other national stakeholders concerning radwaste management, or their opinions of the way that the authorities/companies handle the issue of radwaste. The description is based on a series of questions that were drawn up and discussed at the initial stage of the EDRAM co-operation. Technological aspects: 1. What technology is used? How is research and development promoted and executed? 2. Where is the waste to be put? What criteria does each country search for? 3. How is security to be maintained? Who can obtain a license for handling nuclear waste? Economic aspects: 1. In what way do the countries in question discuss the time aspects as regards delays and similar? 2. How are the economic and financial aspects of the process dealt with? Where does the money come from? Socio-political aspects: 4. What role do politicians play and to what extent is social acceptance a part of the process? What part does public opinion play? 5. How flexible is the decision-making process and can decisions be revised? 6. Does the public have confidence in the industry and the decision-makers? 7. What kind of institutional problems arise? With regard to public involvement in

  1. Microbial degradation of low-level radioactive waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, R.D.; Hamilton, M.A.; Veeh, R.H.; McConnell, J.W. Jr

    1996-06-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission stipulates in 10 CFR 61 that disposed low-level radioactive waste (LLW) be stabilized. To provide guidance to disposal vendors and nuclear station waste generators for implementing those requirements, the NRC developed the Technical Position on Waste Form, Revision 1. That document details a specified set of recommended testing procedures and criteria, including several tests for determining the biodegradation properties of waste forms. Information has been presented by a number of researchers, which indicated that those tests may be inappropriate for examining microbial degradation of cement-solidified LLW. Cement has been widely used to solidify LLW; however, the resulting waste forms are sometimes susceptible to failure due to the actions of waste constituents, stress, and environment. The purpose of this research program was to develop modified microbial degradation test procedures that would be more appropriate than the existing procedures for evaluation of the effects of microbiologically influenced chemical attack on cement-solidified LLW. The procedures that have been developed in this work are presented and discussed. Groups of microorganisms indigenous to LLW disposal sites were employed that can metabolically convert organic and inorganic substrates into organic and mineral acids. Such acids aggressively react with cement and can ultimately lead to structural failure. Results on the application of mechanisms inherent in microbially influenced degradation of cement-based material are the focus of this final report. Data-validated evidence of the potential for microbially influenced deterioration of cement-solidified LLW and subsequent release of radionuclides developed during this study are presented.

  2. Geological challenges in radioactive waste isolation: Third worldwide review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon Editor, P.A.; Bodvarsson Editor, G.S.

    2001-12-01

    The broad range of activities on radioactive waste isolation that are summarized in Table 1.1 provides a comprehensive picture of the operations that must be carried out in working with this problem. A comparison of these activities with those published in the two previous reviews shows the important progress that is being made in developing and applying the various technologies that have evolved over the past 20 years. There are two basic challenges in perfecting a system of radioactive waste isolation: choosing an appropriate geologic barrier and designing an effective engineered barrier. One of the most important developments that is evident in a large number of the reports in this review is the recognition that a URL provides an excellent facility for investigating and characterizing a rock mass. Moreover, a URL, once developed, provides a convenient facility for two or more countries to conduct joint investigations. This review describes a number of cooperative projects that have been organized in Europe to take advantage of this kind of a facility in conducting research underground. Another critical development is the design of the waste canister (and its accessory equipment) for the engineered barrier. This design problem has been given considerable attention in a number of countries for several years, and some impressive results are described and illustrated in this review. The role of the public as a stakeholder in radioactive waste isolation has not always been fully appreciated. Solutions to the technical problems in characterizing a specific site have generally been obtained without difficulty, but procedures in the past in some countries did not always keep the public and local officials informed of the results. It will be noted in the following chapters that this procedure has caused some problems, especially when approval for a major component in a project was needed. It has been learned that a better way to handle this problem is to keep all

  3. Kinetics analysis and quantitative calculations for the successive radioactive decay process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhiping, E-mail: zhouzp@ujs.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Road, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Yan, Deyue [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2015-01-15

    The general radioactive decay kinetics equations with branching were developed and the analytical solutions were derived by Laplace transform method. The time dependence of all the nuclide concentrations can be easily obtained by applying the equations to any known radioactive decay series. Taking the example of thorium radioactive decay series, the concentration evolution over time of various nuclide members in the family has been given by the quantitative numerical calculations with a computer. The method can be applied to the quantitative prediction and analysis for the daughter nuclides in the successive decay with branching of the complicated radioactive processes, such as the natural radioactive decay series, nuclear reactor, nuclear waste disposal, nuclear spallation, synthesis and identification of superheavy nuclides, radioactive ion beam physics and chemistry, etc.

  4. Kinetics analysis and quantitative calculations for the successive radioactive decay process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiping; Yan, Deyue; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang

    2015-01-01

    The general radioactive decay kinetics equations with branching were developed and the analytical solutions were derived by Laplace transform method. The time dependence of all the nuclide concentrations can be easily obtained by applying the equations to any known radioactive decay series. Taking the example of thorium radioactive decay series, the concentration evolution over time of various nuclide members in the family has been given by the quantitative numerical calculations with a computer. The method can be applied to the quantitative prediction and analysis for the daughter nuclides in the successive decay with branching of the complicated radioactive processes, such as the natural radioactive decay series, nuclear reactor, nuclear waste disposal, nuclear spallation, synthesis and identification of superheavy nuclides, radioactive ion beam physics and chemistry, etc.

  5. Study for reducing radioactive solid waste at ITER decommissioning period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Shinichi; Araki, Masanori; Ohmori, Junji; Ohno, Isamu; Sato, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Michinori; Nishitani, Takeo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    It is one of the foremost goals for ITER to demonstrate the attractiveness with regard to safety and environmental potential. This implies that the radioactive materials and waste at decommissioning phase should carefully be treated with prescribed regulations. As possible activities during the Coordinated Technical Activity (CTA), the authors have performed a feasibility study for searching the possibility of effective reduction in the activated level as reasonably achievable as possible by taking account of minimum material changes while keeping original design concept and structure. Major induced activation in ITER comes from activated nickel and cobalt so that it is effective for the major structural components to minimize their material contents. Employing less Ni and Co steel in place of high-Ni austenitic stainless steel for blanket shield block, vacuum vessel shield material and TF coil casing has been considered as one of the effective plans to reduce the activated materials at the decommissioning phase. In this study, two less-Ni austenitic stainless steels are evaluated; one is high-Mn austenitic stainless steel JK2 which is developing for jacket material of ITER CS coil and the other is SS204L/ASTM-XM-11 which is also high-Mn steel specified in the popular standards such as American Society of Testing and Material (ASTM). Based on the material changes, activation analyses have been performed to investigate the possibility of reducing radioactive wastes. As a most impressive result, at 40 years after the termination some of main components such as a TF coil casing will reach to the clearance level which is specified by IAEA, and most components will be categorized into extremely low level waste except for limited components. These results will give the appropriate short decommissioning period that is assumed to start at 100 years after the termination in the original design. (author)

  6. The Role of the Engineered Barrier System in Safety Cases for Geological Radioactive Waste Repoitories: An NEA Initiaive in Co-Operations with the EC, Process Issues and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.G. Bennett; A.J. Hooper; S. Voinis; H. Umeki; A.V. Luik; J. Alonso

    2006-02-07

    The Integration Group for the Safety Case (IGSC) of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Radioactive Waste Management Committee in co-operation with the European Commission (EC) is conducting a project to develop a greater understanding of how to achieve the necessary integration for successful design, construction, testing, modeling, and assessment of engineered barrier systems. The project also seeks to clarify the role that the EBS plays in assuring the overall safety of a repository. A framework for the EBS Project is provided by a series of workshops that allow discussion of the wide range of activities necessary for the design, assessment and optimization of the EBS, and the integration of this information into the safety case. The topics of this series of workshops have been planned so that the EBS project will work progressively through the main aspects comprising one cycle of the design and optimization process. This paper seeks to communicate key results from the EBS project to a wider audience. The paper focuses on two topics discussed at the workshops: process issues and the role of modeling.

  7. The Danish inventory of radioactive waste and the required repository type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Gerhard [Oeko-Institut e.V., Darmstadt (Germany). Div. on Nuclear Engineering and Facility Safety

    2014-11-15

    Denmark has a relatively small inventory of radioactive wastes. As Denmark never built and operated nuclear power plants, the wastes resulted only from various research activities. In order to manage those wastes, the Danish Government has ordered to describe those wastes and the available management options. Based on vague criteria, most of the waste types were termed as ''short-lived'' and as suitable for a surface-near disposal facility. The Government then ordered the Geological survey organization of Denmark, GEUS, to scan Denmark for suitable locations. ''Suitable'' depth was defined as 0 to 100 m below ground. Neither were isolation properties or other requirements for geological layers defined nor were those criteria agreed in a broader sense (with experts, with the public). GEUS identified a number of potentially suitable locations and selected six of those as the most promising. In this paper the basic decision of preferring surface-near disposal for most of the waste types is analysed. As a central criterion for the suitability of the waste types for surface-near disposal is defined that those waste types decay within 300 years to below today's clearance levels. The results show, that none of the Danish types of waste meets this simple requirement. All are above that criterion, most of them by several orders of magnitude and over very much longer times such as 100.000 years or even longer. The basic assumption of the performed site selection procedure, to search for near-surface locations for short-lived wastes, so proves to be invalid. The whole process should be re-done on the basis that the long-term isolation of those wastes in impermeable layers has to be guaranteed. The suitability criteria should focus on the long-term isolation of all wastes and should be agreed in advance.

  8. 78 FR 26812 - Request To Amend a License To Export Radioactive Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... COMMISSION Request To Amend a License To Export Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public... Canada waste). tons of low- Limited facilities as level waste). ``Ultimate Foreign Consignee(s).'' No other changes to the existing license which authorizes the export of non- conforming waste and/ or...

  9. Disposal of radioactive waste in Swedish crystalline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greis Dahlberg, Christina; Wikberg, Peter [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-07-01

    SKB, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is tasked with managing Swedish nuclear and radioactive waste. Crystalline rock is the obvious alternative for deep geological disposal in Sweden. SKB is, since 1988, operating a near surface repository for short-lived low and intermediate-level waste, SFR. The waste in SFR comprises operational and decommissioning waste from nuclear plants, industrial waste, research-related waste and medical waste. Spent nuclear fuel is currently stored in an interim facility while waiting for a license to construct a deep geological repository. The Swedish long-lived low and intermediate-level waste consists mainly of BWR control rods, reactor internals and legacy waste from early research in the Swedish nuclear programs. The current plan is to dispose of this waste in a separate deep geological repository, SFL, sometimes after 2045. Understanding of the rock properties is the basis for the design of the repository concepts. Swedish crystalline rock is mechanical stable and suitable for underground constructions. The Spent Fuel Repository is planned at approximately 500 meters depth in the rock at the Forsmark site. The host rock will keep the spent fuel isolated from human and near-surface environment. The rock will also provide the stable chemical and hydraulic conditions that make it possible to select suitable technical barriers to support the containment provided by the rock. A very long lasting canister is necessary to avoid release and transport of radionuclides through water conducting fractures in the rock. A canister designed for the Swedish rock, consists of a tight, 5 cm thick corrosion barrier of copper and a load-bearing insert of cast iron. To restrict the water flow around the canister and by that prevent fast corrosion, a bentonite buffer will surround the canister. Secondary, the bentonite buffer will retard a potential release by its strong sorption of radionuclides. The SFR repository is situated in

  10. Public debate - radioactive wastes management; Debat public - gestion des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Between September 2005 and January 2006 a national debate has been organized on the radioactive wastes management. This debate aimed to inform the public and to allow him to give his opinion. This document presents, the reasons of this debate, the operating, the synthesis of the results and technical documents to bring information in the domain of radioactive wastes management. (A.L.B.)

  11. Status of Drum Assay System for disposal of Radioactive Waste Drums stored at KAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Won Hyuk; Kwak, Kyung Kil; Hong, Dae Seok; Shin, Ki Baek [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    According to the construction schedule for the final repository at Kyeong-ju in the southeast of Korea, a disposal plan for the radioactive waste drums at KAERI was required. More than 95% of all radionuclides contained in radioactive waste package should be identified for final disposal. To characterize the radioactive waste drums at KAERI, a radioactive waste drum assay facility equipped with a Wide-Range SGS system manufactured by ANTECH has been constructed. According to the acceptance criteria of KORAD and the government, KAERI make thorough preparation of disposal plan. To characterize the radioactive waste drums at KAERI, a radioactive waste drum assay facility equipped with a Wide-Range SGS system manufactured by ANTECH has been constructed. Since then, about 400 drums have been completed gamma radionuclide assay. Co-60 and Cs-137 were major radionuclides of the radioactive waste drums at KAERI. We have a plan to examine radionuclides and activity of a radioactive waste drum and secure reliability of analysis results with cross analysis using drum assay equipment at institute for inspection.

  12. 18th U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference. Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-05-20

    This conference explored the latest developments in low-level radioactive waste management through presentations from professionals in both the public and the private sectors and special guests. The conference included two continuing education seminars, a workshop, exhibits, and a tour of Envirocare of Utah, Inc., one of America's three commercial low-level radioactive waste depositories.

  13. Management of radioactive wastes of iodine therapy; Gerenciamento de rejeitos radioativos da iodoterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Andre R.M.; Santos, Helena C., E-mail: andrerichard88@bol.com.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The main objective of waste radioactive management is to ensure the protection of man and the preservation of the environment. The regulation that established the basis for the good radioactive waste management was elaborated by the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), in 1985. It is the CNEN-NE-6:05: 'Management radioactive waste in radioactive facilities', which although it an important standard related to radioactive waste management and help largely in the design of a management system in radioactive facilities of radioisotope users, covers the topics in a general way and does not consider individuals aspects of the different plants, as is the case of nuclear medicine units. The main objective of this study is to show the segregation and safe packaging, avoiding unnecessary exposure of professionals involved and public individuals in general.

  14. Radioactive waste management complex low-level waste radiological composite analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, J.M.; Becker, B.H.; Magnuson, S.O.; Keck, K.N.; Honeycutt, T.K.

    1998-05-01

    The composite analysis estimates the projected cumulative impacts to future members of the public from the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) and all other sources of radioactive contamination at the INEEL that could interact with the LLW disposal facility to affect the radiological dose. Based upon the composite analysis evaluation, waste buried in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the RWMC is the only source at the INEEL that will significantly interact with the LLW facility. The source term used in the composite analysis consists of all historical SDA subsurface disposals of radionuclides as well as the authorized LLW subsurface disposal inventory and projected LLW subsurface disposal inventory. Exposure scenarios evaluated in the composite analysis include all the all-pathways and groundwater protection scenarios. The projected dose of 58 mrem/yr exceeds the composite analysis guidance dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr; therefore, an options analysis was conducted to determine the feasibility of reducing the projected annual dose. Three options for creating such a reduction were considered: (1) lowering infiltration of precipitation through the waste by providing a better cover, (2) maintaining control over the RWMC and portions of the INEEL indefinitely, and (3) extending the period of institutional control beyond the 100 years assumed in the composite analysis. Of the three options investigated, maintaining control over the RWMC and a small part of the present INEEL appears to be feasible and cost effective.

  15. Control of radioactive waste in dismantling of a nuclear facility; Control de residuos radiactivos en desmantelamiento de una instalacion nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campayo, E.

    2014-07-01

    In the dismantling of a nuclear facility are generated radioactive waste that must be suitably processed. The overall process, in a simplified manner, contemplates the characterization in origin, their segregation on the basis of physical, mechanical, and radiological characteristics and their packaging. (Author)

  16. Synthesis and evaluation of potential ligands for nuclear waste processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iqbal, M.

    2012-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis deals with the synthesis and evaluation of new potential ligands for the complexation of actinide and lanthanide ions either for their extraction from bulk radioactive waste or their stripping from an extracted organic phase for final processing of the waste. In

  17. Inventory of radioactive waste and spent fuel. Edition 2004; Inventario de residuos radiactivos y combustible gastado. Edificio 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    , including the inventory of the Disposal Facility at El Cabril, which, due to the mission entrusted to it, is responsible for providing information on the current stock of waste and the forecasts of waste to be received in the future, and the waste currently stored in foreign installations which, in time, will be returned to Spain as it had been waste treated in Spain and then Exported to these installations abroad. Chapter 5 of this document summarises the data given in the previous chapters, providing an inventory of each of the types of waste which require a differentiated management process. This chapter also refers to the situation on 31 December 2004, as well as the inventory for each type of waste which will have to be managed in Spain in the future. Finally, it should be mentioned that in the 2004 inventory, it was decided not to include contaminated material stored temporarily in the nuclear power plants where a management process had not yet been decided on with regard to classification as radioactive waste. Moreover, contaminated liquid waste or suspension of ion exchange resins which are stored in nuclear power plants, awaiting conditioning as LILW package pieces, were not included in this study. And lastly it should be stressed that fuel elements which are irradiating in the reactors of the nuclear power plants have also been excluded from this study. (Author)

  18. Summary of national and international fuel cycle and radioactive waste management programs, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, K.M.; Lakey, L.T.; Leigh, I.W.

    1984-07-01

    Worldwide activities related to nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste management programs are summarized. Several trends have developed in waste management strategy: All countries having to dispose of reprocessing wastes plan on conversion of the high-level waste (HLW) stream to a borosilicate glass and eventual emplacement of the glass logs, suitably packaged, in a deep geologic repository. Countries that must deal with plutonium-contaminated waste emphasize pluonium recovery, volume reduction and fixation in cement or bitumen in their treatment plans and expect to use deep geologic repositories for final disposal. Commercially available, classical engineering processing are being used worldwide to treat and immobilize low- and intermediate-level wastes (LLW, ILW); disposal to surface structures, shallow-land burial and deep-underground repositories, such as played-out mines, is being done widely with no obvious technical problems. Many countries have established extensive programs to prepare for construction and operation of geologic repositories. Geologic media being studied fall into three main classes: argillites (clay or shale); crystalline rock (granite, basalt, gneiss or gabbro); and evaporates (salt formations). Most nations plan to allow 30 years or longer between discharge of fuel from the reactor and emplacement of HLW or spent fuel is a repository to permit thermal and radioactive decay. Most repository designs are based on the mined-gallery concept, placing waste or spent fuel packages into shallow holes in the floor of the gallery. Many countries have established extensive and costly programs of site evaluation, repository development and safety assessment. Two other waste management problems are the subject of major R and D programs in several countries: stabilization of uranium mill tailing piles; and immobilization or disposal of contaminated nuclear facilities, namely reactors, fuel cycle plants and R and D laboratories.

  19. Chemical stability of seven years aged cement-PET composite waste form containing radioactive borate waste simulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, H. M.; Tawfik, M. E.; Bayoumi, T. A.

    2011-04-01

    Different samples of radioactive borate waste simulate [originating from pressurized water reactors (PWR)] have been prepared and solidified after mixing with cement-water extended polyester composite (CPC). The polymer-cement composite samples were prepared from recycled poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) waste and cement paste (water/cement ratio of 40%). The prepared samples were left to set at room temperature (25 °C ± 5) under humid conditions. After 28 days curing time the obtained specimens were kept in their molds to age for 7 years under ambient conditions. Cement-polymer composite waste form specimens (CPCW) have been subjected to leach tests for both 137Cs and 60Co radionuclides according to the method proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Leaching tests were justified under various factors that may exist within the disposal site (e.g. type of leachant, surrounding temperature, leachant behavior, the leachant volume to CPCW surface area…). The obtained data after 260 days of leaching revealed that after 7 years of aging the candidate cement-polymer composite (CPC) containing radioactive borate waste samples are characterized by adequate chemical stability required for the long-term disposal process.

  20. Chemical stability of seven years aged cement-PET composite waste form containing radioactive borate waste simulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, H.M., E-mail: hosamsaleh70@yahoo.com [Radioisotope Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Dokki (Egypt); Tawfik, M.E. [Department of Polymers and Pigments, National Research Center, Dokki (Egypt); Bayoumi, T.A. [Radioisotope Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Dokki (Egypt)

    2011-04-15

    Different samples of radioactive borate waste simulate [originating from pressurized water reactors (PWR)] have been prepared and solidified after mixing with cement-water extended polyester composite (CPC). The polymer-cement composite samples were prepared from recycled poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) waste and cement paste (water/cement ratio of 40%). The prepared samples were left to set at room temperature (25 deg. C {+-} 5) under humid conditions. After 28 days curing time the obtained specimens were kept in their molds to age for 7 years under ambient conditions. Cement-polymer composite waste form specimens (CPCW) have been subjected to leach tests for both {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co radionuclides according to the method proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Leaching tests were justified under various factors that may exist within the disposal site (e.g. type of leachant, surrounding temperature, leachant behavior, the leachant volume to CPCW surface area...). The obtained data after 260 days of leaching revealed that after 7 years of aging the candidate cement-polymer composite (CPC) containing radioactive borate waste samples are characterized by adequate chemical stability required for the long-term disposal process.

  1. Natural analogue studies for the safety case development of radioactive waste disposal in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyung-Woo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 305-338 Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Baik, Min-Hoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 305-353 Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    The natural analogue study is an analogy approach to investigate natural occurrences of materials, conditions and processes that are similar to those known or predicted to occur in some part of a radioactive waste disposal system. Countries considering the disposal of radioactive waste have been working on their domestic natural analogue studies for developing the safety case and improving the disposal safety. Natural analogue study can effectively be applied to the understanding of a long-term behavior of the post-closure repository, the provision of quantitative data required for the safety assessment models, and the supplementary safety indicator to prove the safety of deep geological disposal. Therefore the natural analogue studies play an important role in the safety case which requires a multiple lines of evidence including the safety assessment for the geological disposal of radioactive wastes. In this study, current status of foreign natural analogue studies was investigated by summarizing their results related with repository materials, radionuclide migration and retardation. Main results, issues, and their applicability of the foreign natural analogue studies were also analyzed. The results of natural analogue studies in Korea were categorized and summarized according to the studies on the uranium ore bodies, rocks, groundwater, and archeological artifacts. Although so many studies on the natural analogue have been carried out during last several decades in Korea, their results have not been actively applied to the safety assessment and safety case development for radioactive waste disposal. Therefore, applicable methods of natural analogues were summarized and a methodology for improving their applicability was examined. Additionally, in order to improve the application of these results from natural analogue studies, build-up of a natural analogue information database was in progress and its status will be presented. (authors)

  2. Water hyacinth for phytoremediation of radioactive waste simulate contaminated with cesium and cobalt radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, H.M., E-mail: hosamsaleh70@yahoo.com [Radioisotope Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Dokki 12311, Giza (Egypt)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phytoremediation of radioactive wastes containing {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co radionuclides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using water hyacinth for radioactive waste treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioaccumulation of radionuclides from radioactive waste streams. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Factors affecting bioaccumulation of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co using floating plants. - Abstract: Phytoremediation is based on the capability of plants to remove hazardous contaminants present in the environment. This study aimed to demonstrate some factors controlling the phytoremediation efficiency of live floating plant, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), towards the effluents contaminated with {sup 137}Cs and/or {sup 60}Co. Cesium has unknown vital biological role for plant while cobalt is one of the essential trace elements required for plant. The main idea of this work i.e. using undesirable species, water hyacinth, in purification of radiocontaminated aqueous solutions has been receiving much attention. The controlling factors such as radioactivity concentration, pH values, the amount of biomass and the light were studied. The uptake rate of radiocesium from the simulated waste solution is inversely proportional to the initial activity content and directly proportional to the increase in mass of plant and sunlight exposure. A spiked solution of pH Almost-Equal-To 4.9 was found to be the suitable medium for the treatment process. The uptake efficiency of {sup 137}Cs present with {sup 60}Co in mixed solution was higher than if it was present separately. On the contrary, uptake of {sup 60}Co is affected negatively by the presence of {sup 137}Cs in their mixed solution. Sunlight is the most required factor for the plant vitality and radiation resistance. The results of the present study indicated that water hyacinth may be a potential candidate plant of high concentration ratios (CR) for phytoremediation of radionuclides

  3. Low sintering temperature glass waste forms for sequestering radioactive iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Krumhansl, James L.; Garino, Terry J.; Ockwig, Nathan W.

    2012-09-11

    Materials and methods of making low-sintering-temperature glass waste forms that sequester radioactive iodine in a strong and durable structure. First, the iodine is captured by an adsorbant, which forms an iodine-loaded material, e.g., AgI, AgI-zeolite, AgI-mordenite, Ag-silica aerogel, ZnI.sub.2, CuI, or Bi.sub.5O.sub.7I. Next, particles of the iodine-loaded material are mixed with powdered frits of low-sintering-temperature glasses (comprising various oxides of Si, B, Bi, Pb, and Zn), and then sintered at a relatively low temperature, ranging from 425.degree. C. to 550.degree. C. The sintering converts the mixed powders into a solid block of a glassy waste form, having low iodine leaching rates. The vitrified glassy waste form can contain as much as 60 wt % AgI. A preferred glass, having a sintering temperature of 500.degree. C. (below the silver iodide sublimation temperature of 500.degree. C.) was identified that contains oxides of boron, bismuth, and zinc, while containing essentially no lead or silicon.

  4. Rhode Island State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive-waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    The Rhode Island State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Rhode Island. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Rhode Island. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Rhode Island.

  5. Research and Education Campus Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Harvego; Brion Bennett

    2011-11-01

    U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory Research and Education Campus facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool to develop the radioactive waste management basis.

  6. Materials and Fuels Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Harvego; Brion Bennett

    2011-09-01

    Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Materials and Fuels Complex facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

  7. Central Facilities Area Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Harvego; Brion Bennett

    2011-11-01

    Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Central Facilities Area facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facilityspecific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

  8. Conditioning and management of radioactive waste; Behandlung und Entsorgung radioaktiver Abfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gliha, V. [Siemens AG, Bereich Energieerzeugung (KWU), Offenbach (Germany); Werschnik, W. [Siemens AG, Bereich Energieerzeugung (KWU), Offenbach (Germany)

    1996-10-01

    Pursuant to the directive issued by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, waste conditioning for volume reduction must be carried out at the source, if possible. The article contains an outline of waste conditioning systems for liquid and solid radioactive wastes. Points described in greater detail are the criteria established by customers and projects, and the integration of systems in existing logistics and infrastructure facilities. Even for rather clearcut processes there is a trend to move away from isolated processes in favor of a complete waste management concept. In addition to specific procedures for radioactive waste conditioning, also a complete waste treatment building is described from the basic design concept to completion. Siemens has basic modules for such specific issues as licensing, fire protection, radiology, systems. This is the basis on which customized versions are planned and built in the light of special criteria required by a customer or a project. In addition to the growing importance of complete waste management concepts, also a positive cost-benefit assessment is a basic necessity. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Abfallkonditionierung hat gemaess der BMU-Richtlinie unter dem Ziel der Volumenreduktion moeglichst am Entstehungsort zu erfolgen. Es werden realisierte Abfallbehandlungssysteme fuer fluessige und feste radioaktive Abfaelle dargestellt. Im besonderen werden dabei die projekt- und kundenspezifischen Vorgaben und die Einbindung von Systemen in die vorhandene Logistik und Infrastruktur beschrieben. Dabei zeigt sich auch bei ueberschaubaren Verfahren der Trend vom Einzelverfahren hin zu einem geschlossenen Entsorgungskonzept. Neben Einzelverfahren fuer die Behandlung von radioaktiven Abfaellen wird beispielhaft ein komplettes Abfallbehandlungsgebaeude von der Konzeption bis zur Realisation beschrieben. Bei Siemens liegen fuer Einzelfragen (z.B. Genehmigung, Brandschutz, Radiologie, Systeme) modulare Grundversionen vor. Auf dieser

  9. Separation of aromatic precipitates from simulated high level radioactive waste by hydrolysis, evaporation and liquid-liquid extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, S.R.; Shah, H.B.; Carter, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the SRS will be the United States' first facility to process High Level radioactive Waste (HLW) into a borosilicate glass matrix. The removal of aromatic precipitates by hydrolysis, evaporation and liquid-liquid extraction will be a key step in the processing of the HLW. This step, titled the Precipitate Hydrolysis Process, has been demonstrated by the Savannah River Laboratory with the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF). The mission of the PHEF is to demonstrate processing of simulated high level radioactive waste which contains tetraphenylborate precipitates and nitrite. Reduction of nitrite by hydroxylamine nitrate and hydrolysis of the tetraphenylborate by formic acid is discussed. Gaseous production, which is primarily benzene, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide, has been quantified. Production of high-boiling organic compounds and the accumulation of these organic compounds within the process are addressed.

  10. Separation of aromatic precipitates from simulated high level radioactive waste by hydrolysis, evaporation and liquid-liquid extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, S.R.; Shah, H.B.; Carter, J.T.

    1991-12-31

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the SRS will be the United States` first facility to process High Level radioactive Waste (HLW) into a borosilicate glass matrix. The removal of aromatic precipitates by hydrolysis, evaporation and liquid-liquid extraction will be a key step in the processing of the HLW. This step, titled the Precipitate Hydrolysis Process, has been demonstrated by the Savannah River Laboratory with the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF). The mission of the PHEF is to demonstrate processing of simulated high level radioactive waste which contains tetraphenylborate precipitates and nitrite. Reduction of nitrite by hydroxylamine nitrate and hydrolysis of the tetraphenylborate by formic acid is discussed. Gaseous production, which is primarily benzene, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide, has been quantified. Production of high-boiling organic compounds and the accumulation of these organic compounds within the process are addressed.

  11. Characterization of Class A low-level radioactive waste 1986--1990. Volume 3: Main report -- Part B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehmel, J.C.; Loomis, D.; Mauro, J. [S. Cohen & Associates, Inc., McLean, VA (United States); Kaplan, M. [Eastern Research Group, Inc., Lexington, MA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Under contract to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, the firms of S. Cohen & Associates, Inc. (SC&A) and Eastern Research Group (ERG) have compiled a report that describes the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of Class-A low-level radioactive waste. The report also presents information characterizing various methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste. A database management program was developed for use in accessing, sorting, analyzing, and displaying the electronic data provided by EG&G. The program was used to present and aggregate data characterizing the radiological, physical, and chemical properties of the waste from descriptions contained in shipping manifests. The data thus retrieved are summarized in tables, histograms, and cumulative distribution curves presenting radionuclide concentration distributions in Class-A waste as a function of waste streams, by category of waste generators, and regions of the United States. The report also provides information characterizing methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste, including industrial, municipal, and hazardous waste regulated under Subparts C and D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The information includes a list of disposal options, the geographical locations of the processing and disposal facilities, and a description of the characteristics of such processing and disposal facilities. Volume 1 contains the Executive Summary, Volume 2 presents the Class-A waste database, Volume 3 presents the information characterizing non-radioactive waste management practices and facilities, and Volumes 4 to 7 contain Appendices A to P with supporting information.

  12. Characterization of Class A low-level radioactive waste 1986--1990. Volume 6: Appendices G--J

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehmel, J.C.; Loomis, D.; Mauro, J. [S. Cohen & Associates, Inc., McLean, VA (United States); Kaplan, M. [Eastern Research Group, Inc., Lexington, MA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Under contract to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, the firms of S. Cohen & Associates, Inc. (SC&A) and Eastern Research Group (ERG) have compiled a report that describes the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of Class-A low-level radioactive waste. The report also presents information characterizing various methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste. A database management program was developed for use in accessing, sorting, analyzing, and displaying the electronic data provided by EG&G. The program was used to present and aggregate data characterizing the radiological, physical, and chemical properties of the waste from descriptions contained in shipping manifests. The data thus retrieved are summarized in tables, histograms, and cumulative distribution curves presenting radionuclide concentration distributions in Class-A waste as a function of waste streams, by category of waste generators, and regions of the United States. The report also provides information characterizing methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste, including industrial, municipal, and hazardous waste regulated under Subparts C and D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The information includes a list of disposal options, the geographical locations of the processing and disposal facilities, and a description of the characteristics of such processing and disposal facilities. Volume 1 contains the Executive Summary, Volume 2 presents the Class-A waste database, Volume 3 presents the information characterizing non-radioactive waste management practices and facilities, and Volumes 4 through 7 contain Appendices A through P with supporting information.

  13. Characterization of Class A low-level radioactive waste 1986--1990. Volume 7: Appendices K--P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehmel, J.C.; Loomis, D.; Mauro, J. [S. Cohen & Associates, Inc., McLean, VA (United States); Kaplan, M. [Eastern Research Group, Inc., Lexington, MA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Under contract to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, the firms of S. Cohen & Associates, Inc. (SC&A) and Eastern Research Group (ERG) have compiled a report that describes the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of Class-A low-level radioactive waste. The report also presents information characterizing various methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste. A database management program was developed for use in accessing, sorting, analyzing, and displaying the electronic data provided by EG&G. The program was used to present and aggregate data characterizing the radiological, physical, and chemical properties of the waste from descriptions contained in shipping manifests. The data thus retrieved are summarized in tables, histograms, and cumulative distribution curves presenting radionuclide concentration distributions in Class-A waste as a function of waste streams, by category of waste generators, and regions of the United States. The report also provides information characterizing methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste, including industrial, municipal, and hazardous waste regulated under Subparts C and D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The information includes a list of disposal options, the geographical locations of the processing and disposal facilities, and a description of the characteristics of such processing and disposal facilities. Volume 1 contains the Executive Summary, Volume 2 presents the Class-A waste database, Volume 3 presents the information characterizing non-radioactive waste management practices and facilities, and Volumes 4 through 7 contain Appendices A through P with supporting information.

  14. Management processes of radioactive lightning arresters at Brazil; Procesos para la gestion de los pararrayos radioactivos en Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Luis Efrain Torres de; Vicente, Roberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1999-11-01

    Radioactive lightning rods were manufactured in Brazil until 1989, when the national nuclear authority lifted the licences to using radioactive sources in this consumer product. Since then, the installed devices are being replaced by Franklin type rods and being collected for treatment as radioactive waste. In this report we present options for the treatment of this radioactive waste. The conclusions may serve as input to the process of decision on the overall management strategies to be adopted by the authorities. (author) 11 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL's Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste.

  16. Radioactive waste management in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: 25 years since the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskolkov, Boris Y; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Zinkevich, Lubov I; Proskura, Nikolai I; Farfán, Eduardo B; Jannik, G Timothy

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities in the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste-related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and, in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program.

  17. Removal of cesium using coconut fiber in raw and modified forms for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Nella N.M. de; Nobre, Vanessa B.; Potiens Junior, Ademar J.; Sakata, Solange K., E-mail: sksakata@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Di Vitta, Patricia B. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2013-07-01

    Sorption is one of the most studied methods to reduce the volume of radioactive waste streams. Cesium-137 is a radioisotope formed by the fission of uranium and it can cause health problems due to its easy assimilation by cells. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of coconut fiber in removing cesium from radioactive liquid wastes; this process can help in disposing radioactive waste. The experiments were performed in batch and the particle size of the fiber ranged between 0.30 mm and 0.50 mm. The fiber was treated with hydrogen peroxide in alkaline medium. The following parameters were analyzed: contact time, pH and concentration of cesium ions in aqueous solution. After the experiments the samples were filtered and cesium remaining in solution was quantified by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. (author)

  18. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE USSR: A REVIEW OF UNCLASSIFIED SOURCES, 1963-1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D. J.; Schneider, K. J.

    1990-03-01

    The Soviet Union operates a vast and growing radioactive waste management system. Detailed information on this system is rare and a general overall picture only emerges after a review of a great deal of literature. Poor waste management practices and slow implementation of environmental restoration activities have caused a great deal of national concern. The release of information on the cause and extent of an accident involving high-level waste at the Kyshtym production reactor site in 1957, as well as other contamination at the site, serve to highlight past Soviet waste management practices. As a result, the area of waste management is now receiving greater emphasis, and more public disclosures. Little is known about Soviet waste management practices related to uranium mining, conversion, and fuel fabrication processes. However, releases of radioactive material to the environment from uranium mining and milling operations, such as from mill tailings piles, are causing public concern. Official Soviet policy calls for a closed fuel cycle, with reprocessing of power reactor fuel that has been cooled for five years. For power reactors, only VVER-440 reactor fuel has been reprocessed in any significant amount, and a decision on the disposition of RBMK reactor fuel has been postponed indefinitely. Soviet reprocessing efforts are falling behind schedule; thus longer storage times for spent fuel will be required, primarily at multiple reactor stations. Information on reprocessing in the Soviet Union has been severely limited until 1989, when two reprocessing sites were acknowledged by the Soviets. A 400-metric ton (MT) per year reprocessing facility, located at Kyshtym, has been operational since 1949 for reprocessing production reactor fuel. This facility is reported to have been reprocessing VVER-440 and naval reactor fuel since 1978, with about 2000 MT of VVER-440 fuel being reprocessed by July 1989. A second facility, located near Krasnoyarsk and having a 1500 MT per

  19. Soil gas surveying at low-level radioactive waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crockett, A.B.; Moor, K.S.; Hull, L.C. [EG and G Idaho Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1989-11-01

    Soil gas sampling is a useful screening technique for determining whether volatile organic compounds are present at low-level radioactive waste burial sites. The technique was used at several DOE sites during the DOE Environmental Survey to determine the presence and extent of volatile organic compound contamination. The advantages of the soil gas sampling are that near real time data can be obtained, no excavation is required, safety concerns are relatively minor, costs are relatively low, and large amounts of data can be obtained rapidly on the contaminants that may pose the greatest threat to groundwater resources. The disadvantages are that the data are difficult to interpret and relate to soil concentrations and environmental standards. This paper discusses the experiences of INEL sampling and analysis personnel, the advantages and disadvantages of the technique, and makes recommendations for improving the sampling and analytical procedures.

  20. Transmutation of high-level radioactive waste - Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Junghans, Arnd; Grosse, Eckart; Hannaske, Roland; Kögler, Toni; Massarczyk, Ralf; Schwengner, Ronald; Wagner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In a fast neutron spectrum essentially all long-lived actinides (e.g. Plutonium) undergo fission and thus can be transmuted into generally short lived fission products. Innovative nuclear reactor concepts e.g. accelerator driven systems (ADS) are currently in development that foresee a closed fuel cycle. The majority of the fissile nuclides (uranium, plutonium) shall be used for power generation and only fission products will be put into final disposal that needs to last for a historical time scale of only 1000 years. For the transmutation of high-level radioactive waste a lot of research and development is still required. One aspect is the precise knowledge of nuclear data for reactions with fast neutrons. Nuclear reactions relevant for transmutation are being investigated in the framework of the european project ERINDA. First results from the new neutron time-of-flight facility nELBE at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf will be presented.

  1. Russian Containers for Transportation of Solid Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrushenko, V. G.; Baal, E. P.; Tsvetkov, D. Y.; Korb, V. R.; Nikitin, V. S.; Mikheev, A. A.; Griffith, A.; Schwab, P.; Nazarian, A.

    2002-02-28

    The Russian Shipyard ''Zvyozdochka'' has designed a new container for transportation and storage of solid radioactive wastes. The PST1A-6 container is cylindrical shaped and it can hold seven standard 200-liter (55-gallon) drums. The steel wall thickness is 6 mm, which is much greater than standard U.S. containers. These containers are fully certified to the Russian GOST requirements, which are basically identical to U.S. and IAEA standards for Type A containers. They can be transported by truck, rail, barge, ship, or aircraft and they can be stacked in 6 layers in storage facilities. The first user of the PST1A-6 containers is the Northern Fleet of the Russian Navy, under a program sponsored jointly by the U.S. DoD and DOE. This paper will describe the container design and show how the first 400 containers were fabricated and certified.

  2. The study on safety facility criteria for radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. H.; Choi, M. H.; Han, S. H. and others [Dongbang Electron Industry Corporation, (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-12-15

    The radioactive waste repository are necessary to install the engineered safety systems to secure the safety for operation of the repository in the event of fire and earthquake. Since the development of safety facility criteria requires a thorough understanding about the characteristics of the engineered safety systems, we should investigate by means of literature survey and visit SKB. In particular, definition, composition of the systems, functional requirement of the systems, engineered safety systems of foreign countries, system design, operation and maintenance requirement should be investigated : fire protection system, ventilation system, drainage system, I and C system, electric system, radiation monitoring system. This proposed criteria consist of purpose, scope of application, ventilation system, fire protection system, drainage system, electric system and this proposed criteria can be applied as a basic reference for the final criteria.

  3. Preliminary study of radioactive waste disposal in the vadose zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    To investigate the characteristics of the vadose zone with respect to radioactive waste disposal, the mechanics of unsaturated flow in arid regions and the geohydrology of four areas with a deep water table were studied. The studies indicated that (1) arid sites with a water table deeper than 200 m can be found in at least three distinct geologic settings in the western United States, (2) the physics of unsaturated flow in soils and rock with interstitial porosity at low water contents, particularly under thermal gradients, is not yet completely understood, and (3) under certain conditions unsaturated flow can be so slow that analytic modeling of an unflawed repository is unnecessary to prove effective containment.

  4. Structure and Vibrational Spectra of Slags Produced from Radioactive Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinina, G. A.; Stefanovsky, S. V.

    2014-05-01

    The structure of the anionic motif of aluminosilicate and aluminoborosilicate glasses containing simulated slags from a solid radioactive waste incinerator was studied by IR and Raman spectroscopy. Spectra of melted slag were consistent with Si-O tetrahedra with various numbers of bridging O ions and Al-O tetrahedra embedded in the Si-O network in the slag vitreous and crystalline phases (nepheline, nagelschmidtite). Vibrations of doubly and triply bound Si-O tetrahedra and Al-O tetrahedra embedded between them were mainly responsible for the spectra as the content of sodium disilicate fl ux and the glass fraction in the materials increased. Addition of sodium tetraborate fl ux caused the appearance of B-O vibrations of predominantly three-coordinate B and a tendency toward chemical differentiation preceding phase separation.

  5. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AT A RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Stephen; Welling, Steven; Bell, Simon

    2003-02-27

    The use of hazardous waste disposal facilities permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (''RCRA'') to dispose of low concentration and exempt radioactive materials is a cost-effective option for government and industry waste generators. The hazardous and PCB waste disposal facility operated by US Ecology Idaho, Inc. near Grand View, Idaho provides environmentally sound disposal services to both government and private industry waste generators. The Idaho facility is a major recipient of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP program waste and received permit approval to receive an expanded range of radioactive materials in 2001. The site has disposed of more than 300,000 tons of radioactive materials from the federal government during the past five years. This paper presents the capabilities of the Grand View, Idaho hazardous waste facility to accept radioactive materials, site-specific acceptance criteria and performance assessment, radiological safety and environmental monitoring program information.

  6. Real-time alpha monitoring of a radioactive liquid waste stream at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.D.; Whitley, C.R.; Rawool-Sullivan, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This poster display concerns the development, installation, and testing of a real-time radioactive liquid waste monitor at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The detector system was designed for the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility so that influent to the plant could be monitored in real time. By knowing the activity of the influent, plant operators can better monitor treatment, better segregate waste (potentially), and monitor the regulatory compliance of users of the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System. The detector system uses long-range alpha detection technology, which is a nonintrusive method of characterization that determines alpha activity on the liquid surface by measuring the ionization of ambient air. Extensive testing has been performed to ensure long-term use with a minimal amount of maintenance. The final design was a simple cost-effective alpha monitor that could be modified for monitoring influent waste streams at various points in the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System.

  7. Material Not Categorized As Waste (MNCAW) data report. Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, C.; Heath, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Headquarters, requested all DOE sites storing valuable materials to complete a questionnaire about each material that, if discarded, could be liable to regulation. The Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program entered completed questionnaires into a database and analyzed them for quantities and type of materials stored. This report discusses the data that TSP gathered. The report also discusses problems revealed by the questionnaires and future uses of the data. Appendices contain selected data about material reported.

  8. Program of environmental radiological surveillance of the radioactive wastes storage center of Maquixco in the period January-December 1991; Programa de vigilancia radiologica ambiental del centro de almacenamiento de deschos radiactivos de Maquixco en el periodo Enero-Diciembre dde 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaso P, M.I

    1991-12-15

    The primary objective of all program of environmental radiological surveillance (PVRA), it is to follow the evolution of the radioactive content of the links of the chains that constitute the different ways of transfer of the radioactivity toward the man, with the purpose of making a realistic evaluation of the environmental impact produced by the installation under surveillance. In the CADER in Mexico, only accidents or escapes of radioactivity of slow evolution can be detected. At the moment the radioactive wastes in this installation are not treated. In this report the results obtained during the year 1991 are presented. (Author)

  9. Report of safety of the characterizing system of radioactive waste; Informe de seguridad del sistema caracterizador de desechos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles C, A.; Jimenez D, J.; Reyes L, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1998-09-15

    Report of safety of the system of radioactive waste of the ININ: Installation, participant personnel, selection of the place, description of the installation, equipment. Proposed activities: operations with radioactive material, calibration in energy, calibration in efficiency, types of waste. Maintenance: handling of radioactive waste, physical safety. Organization: radiological protection, armor-plating, personal dosemeter, risks and emergency plan, environmental impact, medical exams. (Author)

  10. A proposed classification system for high-level and other radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocher, D. C.; Croff, A. G.

    1987-06-01

    This report presents a proposal for quantitative and generally applicable risk-based definitions of high-level and other radioactive wastes. On the basis of historical descriptions and definitions of high-level waste (HLW), in which HLW has been defined in terms of its source as waste from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, we propose a more general definition based on the concept that HLW has two distinct attributes: HLW is (1) highly radioactive and (2) requires permanent isolation. This concept leads to a two-dimensional waste classification system in which one axis, related to ''requires permanent isolation,'' is associated with long-term risks from waste disposal and the other axis, related to ''highly radioactive,'' is associated with shorter-term risks due to high levels of decay heat and external radiation. We define wastes that require permanent isolation as wastes with concentrations of radionuclides exceeding the Class-C limits that are generally acceptable for near-surface land disposal, as specified in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's rulemaking 10 CFR Part 61 and its supporting documentation. HLW then is waste requiring permanent isolation that also is highly radioactive, and we define ''highly radioactive'' as a decay heat (power density) in the waste greater than 50 W/m/sup 3/ or an external radiation dose rate at a distance of 1 m from the waste greater than 100 rem/h (1 Sv/h), whichever is the more restrictive. This proposal also results in a definition of Transuranic (TRU) Waste and Equivalent as waste that requires permanent isolation but is not highly radioactive and a definition of low-level waste (LLW) as waste that does not require permanent isolation without regard to whether or not it is highly radioactive.

  11. Radioactive wastes transport. A safety logic; Le transport des dechets radioactifs. Une logique de surete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The safety principle which applies to transport operations of radioactive wastes obeys to a very strict regulation. For the conditioning of wastes in package, the organisation of shipments and the qualification of carriers, the ANDRA, the French national agency of radioactive wastes, has implemented a rigorous policy based on the respect of a quality procedure and on the mastery of delivery fluxes. This brochure presents in a simple, illustrated and detailed manner the different steps of these transports. (J.S.)

  12. Radioactive waste from decommissioning of fast reactors (through the example of BN-800)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybin, A. A.; Momot, O. A.

    2017-01-01

    Estimation of volume of radioactive waste from operating and decommissioning of fast reactors is introduced. Preliminary estimation has shown that the volume of RW from decommissioning of BN-800 is amounted to 63,000 cu. m. Comparison of the amount of liquid radioactive waste derived from operation of different reactor types is performed. Approximate costs of all wastes disposal for complete decommissioning of BN-800 reactor are estimated amounting up to approx. 145 million.

  13. Modeling of Stress Corrosion Cracking for High Level Radioactive-Waste Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, S C; Gordon, G M; Andresen, P L; Herrera, M L

    2003-06-20

    A stress corrosion cracking (SCC) model has been adapted for performance prediction of high level radioactive-waste packages to be emplaced in the proposed Yucca Mountain radioactive-waste repository. SCC is one form of environmentally assisted cracking due to three factors, which must be present simultaneously: metallurgical susceptibility, critical environment, and static (or sustained) tensile stresses. For waste packages of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository, the outer barrier material is Alloy 22, a highly corrosion resistant alloy, the environment is represented by the water film present on the surface of the waste package from dripping or deliquescence of soluble salts present in any surface deposits, and the stress is principally the weld induced residual stress. SCC has historically been separated into ''initiation'' and ''propagation'' phases. Initiation of SCC will not occur on a smooth surface if the surface stress is below a threshold value defined as the threshold stress. Cracks can also initiate at and propagate from flaws (or defects) resulting from manufacturing processes (such as welding). To account for crack propagation, the slip dissolution/film rupture (SDFR) model is adopted to provide mathematical formulas for prediction of the crack growth rate. Once the crack growth rate at an initiated SCC is determined, the time to through-wall penetration for the waste package can be calculated. The SDFR model relates the advance (or propagation) of cracks, subsequent to the crack initiation from bare metal surface, to the metal oxidation transients that occur when the protective film at the crack tip is continually ruptured and repassivated. A crack, however, may reach the ''arrest'' state before it enters the ''propagation'' phase. There exists a threshold stress intensity factor, which provides a criterion for determining if an initiated crack or pre

  14. Radioactive waste management in European countries; Entsorgung hoch radioaktiver Abfaelle in europaeischen Laendern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falck, W. Eberhard [Univ. de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Guyancourt CEDEX (France). Lab. REEDS; Riotte, Hans G. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    2011-07-01

    This paper reviews the status of radioactive waste management programmes in some selected European countries, both in some that favour direct disposal like Sweden and Finland, and in some that reprocess spent nuclear fuel like France and the United Kingdom. This paper also discusses the approaches taken of some other countries such as the Netherlands, where implementation has been deferred. On the bottom line it can be concluded that disposal of low and intermediate level waste is implemented successfully, however, that the status of national programmes for high level waste or spent fuel differ considerably between the countries observed. The societal process for siting of such facilities proves to be particular sensitive and one may observe that siting procedures based on volunteerism and partnership with potential host communities are potentially most successful. (orig.)

  15. GIVE THE PUBLIC SOMETHING, SOMETHING MORE INTERESTING THAN RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codee, Hans D.K.

    2003-02-27

    In the Netherlands the policy to manage radioactive waste is somewhat different from that in other countries, although the practical outcome is not much different. Long-term, i.e. at least 100 years, storage in above ground engineered structures of all waste types is the first element in the Dutch policy. Second element, but equally important, is that deep geologic disposal is foreseen after the storage period. This policy was brought out in the early eighties and was communicated to the public as a practical, logical and feasible management system for the Dutch situation. Strong opposition existed at that time to deep disposal in salt domes in the Netherlands. Above ground storage at principle was not rejected because the need to do something was obvious. Volunteers for a long term storage site did not automatically emerge. A site selection procedure was followed and resulted in the present site at Vlissingen-Oost. The waste management organization, COVRA, was not really welcomed here , but was tolerated. In the nineties facilities for low and medium level waste were erected and commissioned. In the design of the facilities much attention was given to emotional factors. The first ten operational years were needed to gain trust from the local population. Impeccable conduct and behavior was necessary as well as honesty and full openness to the public Now, after some ten years, the COVRA facilities are accepted. And a new phase is entered with the commissioning of the storage facility for high level waste, the HABOG facility. A visit to that facility will not be very spectacular, activities take place only during loading and unloading. Furthermore it is a facility for waste, so unwanted material will be brought into the community. In order to give the public something more interesting the building itself is transformed into a piece of art and in the inside a special work of art will be displayed. Together with that the attitude of the company will change. We are

  16. Characteristics of high-level radioactive waste forms for their disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kang, Chul Hyung

    2000-12-01

    In order to develop a deep geological repository for a high-level radioactive waste coming from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels discharged from our domestic nuclear power plants, the the required characteristics of waste form are dependent upon a solidifying medium and the amount of waste loading in the medium. And so, by the comparative analysis of the characteristics of various waste forms developed up to the present, a suitable medium is recommended.The overall characteristics of the latter is much better than those of the former, but the change of the properties due to an amorphysation by radiation exposure and its thermal expansion has not been clearly identified yet. And its process has not been commercialized. However, the overall properties of the borosilicate glass waste forms are acceptable for their disposal, their production cost is reasonable and their processes have already been commercialized. And plenty informations of their characteristics and operational experiences have been accumulated. Consequently, it is recommended that a suitable medium solidifying the HLW is a borosilicate glass and its composition for the identification of a reference waste form would be based on the glass frit of R7T7.

  17. Evaluating and planning the radioactive waste options for dismantling the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rule, K.; Scott, J.; Larson, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is a one-of-a kind tritium fusion research reactor, and is planned to be decommissioned within the next several years. This is the largest fusion reactor in the world and as a result of deuterium-tritum reactions is tritium contaminated and activated from 14 Mev neutrons. This presents many unusual challenges when dismantling, packaging and disposing its components and ancillary systems. Special containers are being designed to accommodate the vacuum vessel, neutral beams, and tritium delivery and processing systems. A team of experienced professionals performed a detailed field study to evaluate the requirements and appropriate methods for packaging the radioactive materials. This team focused on several current and innovative methods for waste minimization that provides the oppurtunmost cost effective manner to package and dispose of the waste. This study also produces a functional time-phased schedule which conjoins the waste volume, weight, costs and container requirements with the detailed project activity schedule for the entire project scope. This study and project will be the first demonstration of the decommissioning of a tritium fusion test reactor. The radioactive waste disposal aspects of this project are instrumental in demonstrating the viability of a fusion power reactor with regard to its environmental impact and ultimate success.

  18. Microbiology of formation waters from the deep repository of liquid radioactive wastes Severnyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazina, Tamara N; Kosareva, Inessa M; Petrunyaka, Vladimir V; Savushkina, Margarita K; Kudriavtsev, Evgeniy G; Lebedev, Valeriy A; Ahunov, Viktor D; Revenko, Yuriy A; Khafizov, Robert R; Osipov, George A; Belyaev, Sergey S; Ivanov, Mikhail V

    2004-07-01

    The presence, diversity, and geochemical activity of microorganisms in the Severnyi repository of liquid radioactive wastes were studied. Cultivable anaerobic denitrifiers, fermenters, sulfate-reducers, and methanogens were found in water samples from a depth of 162-405 m below sea level. Subsurface microorganisms produced methane from [2-(14)C]acetate and [(14)C]CO(2), formed hydrogen sulfide from Na(2) (35)SO(4), and reduced nitrate to dinitrogen in medium with acetate. The cell numbers of all studied groups of microorganisms and rates of anaerobic processes were higher in the zone of dispersion of radioactive wastes. Microbial communities present in the repository were able to utilise a wide range of organic and inorganic compounds and components of waste (acetate, nitrate, and sulfate) both aerobically and anaerobically. Bacterial production of gases may result in a local increase of the pressure in the repository and consequent discharge of wastes onto the surface. Microorganisms can indirectly decrease the mobility of radionuclides due to consumption of oxygen and production of sulfide, which favours deposition of metals. These results show the necessity of long-term microbiological and radiochemical monitoring of the repository.

  19. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-lin W.

    1994-01-01

    According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention is a process for treating alkaline waste materials, including high level radioactive wastes, for vitrification. The process involves adjusting the pH of the wastes with nitric acid, adding formic acid (or a process stream containing formic acid) to reduce mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2} to the Mn(II) ion, and mixing with class formers to produce a melter feed. The process minimizes production of hydrogen due to noble metal-catalyzed formic acid decomposition during, treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product. An important feature of the present invention is the use of different acidifying and reducing, agents to treat the wastes. The nitric acid acidifies the wastes to improve yield stress and supplies acid for various reactions; then the formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2}) to the Mn(II) ion. When the pH of the waste is lower, reduction of mercury compounds and MnO{sub 2}) is faster and less formic acid is needed, and the production of hydrogen caused by catalytically-active noble metals is decreased.

  20. Development and design of an integrated information management system for safe management of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Dong Chan; Hong, Suk Young; An, Kyoung Il [Daesang Information Technology Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-05-15

    An integrated data management system for the safe management of radioactive waste and spent fuel in Korea is developed to collect basic information, provide the framework for national regulation, and improve national competition and efficiency in the management of radioactive waste and spent fuel. This system can also provide public access to information such as a statistical graphs and integrated data from various waste generators to meet increased public needs and interests. Objectives can be summarized as; the five principles (independence, openness, clearance, efficiency and reliance) of safety regulation can be realized. Public understanding and reliance on the safety of spent fuel and radioactive waste management can be promoted by providing reliable information. Ensure an openness within the international nuclear community and efficiently support international agreements among contracting parties by operating safe and efficient management of spent fuel and radioactive waste (IAEA joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management). The system can compensate for the imperfections In safe regulation of radioactive waste and spent fuel management related to waste generation, storage and disposal, and make it possible to holistic control. Re-organize the basic framework of KINS's intermediate and long term research organization and trends, regarding waste management policy is to integrate safe management and unit safe disposal.

  1. Design of an integrated information management system for safe management of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Dong Chan; Hong, Suk Young; An, Kyoung Il [Daesang Information Technology Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2003-05-15

    An integrated data management system for the safe management of radioactive waste and spent fuel in Korea is developed to collect basic information, provide the framework for national regulation, and improve national competition and efficiency in the management of radioactive waste and spent fuel. This system can also provide public access to information such as a statistical graphs and integrated data from various waste generators to meet increased public needs and interests. Objectives can be summarized as: the five principles (independence, openness, clearance, efficiency and reliance) of safety regulation can be realized. Public understanding and reliance on the safety of spent fuel and radioactive waste management can be promoted by providing reliable information. Ensure an openness within the international nuclear community and efficiently support international agreements among contracting parties by operating safe and efficient management of spent fuel and radioactive waste (IAEA joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management). The system can compensate for the imperfections in safe regulation of radioactive waste and spent fuel management related to waste generation, storage and disposal, and make it possible to holistic control. Re-organize the basic framework of KINS's intermediate and long term research organization and trends, regarding waste management policy is to integrate safe management and unit safe disposal.

  2. Integrated data management system for radioactive waste and spent fuel in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Young Ho [Korea Power Engineering Co., Inc., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    An integrated data management system for the safe management of radioactive waste and spent fuel in Korea is developed to collect basic information, provide the framework for national regulation, and improve national competition and efficiency in the management of radioactive waste and spent fuel. This system can also provide public access to information such as a statistical graphs and integrated data from various waste generators to meet increased public needs and interests. So through the system, the five principles (independence, openness, clearance, efficiency and reliance) of safety regulation can be realized, and public understanding and reliance on the safety of spent fuel and radioactive waste management can be promoted by providing reliable information, it can ensure an openness within the international nuclear community and efficiently support international agreements among contracting parties by operating safe and efficient management of spent fuel and radioactive waste (IAEA joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management), the system can compensate for the imperfections in safe regulation of radioactive waste and spent fuel management related to waste generation, storage and disposal, and make it possible to holistic control and finally re-organize the basic framework of KINS's intermediate and long term research organization and trends, regarding waste management policy is to integrate safe management and unit safe disposal. For this objectives, benchmark study was performed on similar data base system worldwide and data specification with major input/output data during the first phase of this project.

  3. Radioactive wastes. From where, how much, to where?; Radioaktive Abfaelle. Woher, wieviel, wohin?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammann, M

    2008-09-15

    This report helps to the popularization of the Nagra's works accomplished for the management and disposal of the radioactive wastes in Switzerland. The radioactive wastes are partitioned into 3 different types: high level waste (HLW), alpha-toxic waste (ATW) and low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW). Most of the radioactive wastes are produced in the nuclear power plants, but also by many applications in medicine, industry and research. They have to be correctly disposed of. Mankind and environment have to be protected against them in the long term. The type and quantity of the wastes are accurately known. At the nuclear power plants as well as in the central storage pool of the Zwilag AG and in the federal interim storage facility in Wuerenlingen, there is enough storage capacity for all radioactive wastes in Switzerland. Radioactive wastes can be safely disposed of in deep geological repositories for a time period long enough that the radioactivity is reduced to natural values. Nagra has proved the feasibility of such repositories and its results were accepted by the Federal Council.

  4. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank Farm Blend) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation (FBSR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Daniel, W. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hall, H. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, D. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Supplemental Treatment is likely to be required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP’s LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750°C) continuous method by which LAW can be processed irrespective of whether the waste contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be comparable to LAW glass, i.e. leaches Tc-99, Re and Na at <2g/m2 during ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency) durability testing. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product was investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage. Monolithing in an inorganic geopolymer binder, which is

  5. Recycling of solid wastes at kindergartens centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed R.M.S.R.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to conduct an activity on environmental awareness campaign at a kindergarten center, with the children age 4-6 years old. The activity included identify the various types of waste generated at the kindergarten and to realize the conservation practice by participating in simple waste management strategies and an explanation about recycling, reusing and reducing waste (3R. The activity provided the children more awareness about the importance of minimizing the plastic wastes. The activity had created an interesting experience to the young generation through practice activity and has given a light on the nature conservation along their growing years. It can be concluded that the awareness of environmental issues among children have risen up as noted by looking at students physical expression. Children have understood the potential to conserve nature from a simple action which is recycling. After the activity, children’s were able to identify and divide the rubbish.

  6. Application of Heat Pump Evaporator in Radioactive Liquid Waste Processing%热泵蒸发技术在放射性废液处理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄镜宇; 黄珏

    2012-01-01

    Based on the process of heat pump evaporator technology, a method of using heat pump evaporator technology instead of traditional natural (or forced) circulation evaporator technology was proposed in the nuclear power plant radioactive liquid waste processing. According to the results of material balance and heat balance of the heat pump evaporator process, analysis of thermodynamic methods was carried out to clarify the advantages of energy saving of heat pump evaporator technology. The results show that the energy and exergy efficiency can reach 75% and 90% in the specific design conditions, which theoretically proves the advantages of energy saving.%简要介绍热泵蒸发技术的工艺流程,提出利用热泵蒸发技术替代传统的自然(或强制)循环蒸发技术处理核电站放射性废液.根据热泵蒸发过程的物料衡算与热量衡算结果,采用热力学方法对热泵蒸发过程进行分析,阐明热泵蒸发技术的节能优势.结果表明:在特定的设计条件下,热泵蒸发过程的热力完善度和有效能利用率可分别达75%和90%,从理论上证明了热泵蒸发的节能优势.

  7. Maine State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The Maine State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Maine. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Maine. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested partices including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant goverment agencies and activities, all of which may impact management practices in Maine.

  8. EUROPEANS AND RADIOACTIVE WASTE - OPINIONS, BELIEFS AND CONCERNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, S.; Taylor, D.M.

    2003-02-27

    In the autumn of 1998, the European Commission conducted a public opinion survey on radioactive waste. Roughly 16,000 people across the European Union (EU) were questioned in face to face interviews. A similar survey was carried out three years later in October and November of 2001, though this time questions of a broader nature concerning nuclear issues in general were also introduced. A comparison of the results of the two surveys shows that in the intervening period there have been very few significant changes in opinion. In particular, the events of 11 September 2001 appear to have had no measurable impact on people's views. The results of the surveys have been analyzed and the key findings extracted and, where possible, interpreted. Though some of these findings might perhaps have been expected, others are somewhat surprising or even worrying, especially for the nuclear sector. However, people still seem prepared to accept that nuclear power should remain an option for electricity production in the EU, but the policy makers and the nuclear industry must demonstrate that the waste issue can be managed both safely and with respect for future generations.

  9. SRS: Site ranking system for hazardous chemical and radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Brown, S.L.

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the rationale and presents instructions for a site ranking system (SRS). SRS ranks hazardous chemical and radioactive waste sites by scoring important and readily available factors that influence risk to human health. Using SRS, sites can be ranked for purposes of detailed site investigations. SRS evaluates the relative risk as a combination of potentially exposed population, chemical toxicity, and potential exposure of release from a waste site; hence, SRS uses the same concepts found in a detailed assessment of health risk. Basing SRS on the concepts of risk assessment tends to reduce the distortion of results found in other ranking schemes. More importantly, a clear logic helps ensure the successful application of the ranking procedure and increases its versatility when modifications are necessary for unique situations. Although one can rank sites using a detailed risk assessment, it is potentially costly because of data and resources required. SRS is an efficient approach to provide an order-of-magnitude ranking, requiring only readily available data (often only descriptive) and hand calculations. Worksheets are included to make the system easier to understand and use. 88 refs., 19 figs., 58 tabs.

  10. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237.

  11. Recent trends and developments in dialogue on radioactive waste management: experience from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, R V; Bennett, D G; White, M J

    2006-12-01

    This paper highlights some recent trends and developments in dialogue on radioactive waste management in the UK. In particular, it focuses on the use of dialogue around options for the management of risk, and describes techniques for stakeholder dialogue in the field of radioactive waste management. The paper summarises past and on-going experience in the UK, and provides an overview of some practical examples from decommissioning of the former reprocessing facility at Dounreay in Scotland. In common with developments and trend in other countries, the UK has moved to a position where there is now widespread recognition that radioactive waste management requires not only sound technical assessment of risk, but also public participation, consultation and stakeholder dialogue on proposed solutions and the associated risks. In fact, the shift of position has arguably been quite pronounced, with formal procedures to identify, clarify and integrate stakeholders' issues and concerns within the decision-making processes. Experience suggests that citizens are capable of engaging with complex technical issues such as radioactive waste. Indeed, the earlier in the decision-making process that public and stakeholder engagement (PSE) occurs--for example, on the consideration of options and alternatives--the greater the chance of reaching a successful outcome that properly reflects the values and opinions of stakeholders. In the UK, the assessment of alternative waste management options is increasingly being addressed through Best Practical Environmental Option (BPEO) studies. Responses to stakeholder engagement processes and experience of conducting BPEO studies emphasise that consultation must be open, transparent, deliberative and inclusive. However, while early consideration of generic approaches and option choices is necessary to generate a climate of openness and understanding, it remains essential to fully engage with local stakeholder and community groups to consider

  12. Analysis of liquid radioactive wastes of Angra-1 reactor; Analise de efluentes liquidos radioativos de Angra-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Nadia Soido F.; Peres, Sueli da Silva [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); S. Filho, Aluisio Mendes [Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto, Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    Any activity that produces or uses radioactive materials generates radioactive wastes. Normal operation of nuclear power plant produces radioactive waste that can be in gas, liquid or solid form and its level of radioactivity can vary. Gases and liquids wastes are treated and released into environment. The main source of radioactivity released to environment from Angra 1 are liquids from Waste Monitor Tanks. Those releases are under administrative control to meet the discharge limits established by Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN). A representative sample of each batch is taken for analysis for principal gamma- emitting radionuclides and, if the analysis indicate that release can be made, the quantity of activity is recorded. Within the licensing process of Angra 1, monthly a proportional composite samples are made up with a aliquot of each batch and sent to Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD) to analyze and compare with the results reported. This comparative analyses showed that when the activity of that samples was very high, the activity measured on composite samples was higher than the sum of the activities measured on each batch. The operator was advised and requested to identify and solve the problem. This work presents the problem occurred and the solution found to improve the performance of measurements. (author)

  13. A Database for Reviewing and Selecting Radioactive Waste Treatment Technologies and Vendors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. C. Marushia; W. E. Schwinkendorf

    1999-07-01

    Several attempts have been made in past years to collate and present waste management technologies and solutions to waste generators. These efforts have been manifested as reports, buyers' guides, and databases. While this information is helpful at the time it is assembled, the principal weakness is maintaining the timeliness and accuracy of the information over time. In many cases, updates have to be published or developed as soon as the product is disseminated. The recently developed National Low-Level Waste Management Program's Technologies Database is a vendor-updated Internet based database designed to overcome this problem. The National Low-Level Waste Management Program's Technologies Database contains information about waste types, treatment technologies, and vendor information. Information is presented about waste types, typical treatments, and the vendors who provide those treatment methods. The vendors who provide services update their own contact information, their treatment processes, and the types of wastes for which their treatment process is applicable. This information is queriable by a generator of low-level or mixed low-level radioactive waste who is seeking information on waste treatment methods and the vendors who provide them. Timeliness of the information in the database is assured using time clocks and automated messaging to remind featured vendors to keep their information current. Failure to keep the entries current results in a vendor being warned and then ultimately dropped from the database. This assures that the user is dealing with the most current information available and the vendors who are active in reaching and serving their market.

  14. A Database for Reviewing and Selecting Radioactive Waste Treatment Technologies and Vendors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinkendorf, William Erich; Marushia, Patrick Charles

    1999-07-01

    Several attempts have been made in past years to collate and present waste management technologies and solutions to waste generators. These efforts have been manifested as reports, buyers’ guides, and databases. While this information is helpful at the time it is assembled, their principal weakness is maintaining the timeliness and accuracy of the information over time. In many cases, updates have to be published or developed as soon as the product is disseminated. The recently developed National Low-Level Waste Management Program’s Technologies Database is a vendor-updated Internet based database designed to overcome this problem. The National Low-Level Waste Management Program’s Technologies Database contains information about waste types, treatment technologies, and vendor information. Information is presented about waste types, typical treatments, and the vendors who provide those treatment methods. The vendors who provide services update their own contact information, their treatment processes, and the types of wastes for which their treatment process is applicable. This information is queriable by a generator of low-level or mixed low-level radioactive waste who is seeking information on waste treatment methods and the vendors who provide them. Timeliness of the information in the database is assured using time clocks and automated messaging to remind featured vendors to keep their information current. Failure to keep the entries current results in a vendor being warned and then ultimately dropped from the database. This assures that the user is dealing with the most current information available and the vendors who are active in reaching and serving their market.

  15. Commissioning of the very low level radioactive waste disposal facility; Mise en service du Centre de stockage de dechets de tres faible activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-01

    This press kit presents the solution retained by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) for the management of very low level radioactive wastes. These wastes mainly come from the dismantling of decommissioned nuclear facilities and also from other industries (chemical, metal and other industries). The storage concept is a sub-surface disposal facility (Morvilliers center, Aube) with a clay barrier and a synthetic membrane system. The regulatory framework, and the details of the licensing, of the commissioning and of the environment monitoring are recalled. The detailed planing of the project and some exploitation data are given. (J.S.)

  16. Project Management Unit for decommissioning of NPP Bohunice VI (2003-2014); Project Management Unit para el desmantelamiento de CN Bohunice V1 (2003-2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Fernandez-conde, A.; Brochet, I.; Ferreira, A.

    2015-07-01

    From October 2003 until december 2014 the Consortium consisting of Iberdrola Engineering and Construction (leader). Empresarios Agrupados Internacional, and Indra Sistemas has carried out the project Project Management Unit ((PMU) for the decommissioning of Bohunice V1 NPP (units 1 and 2), type VVER-440/V-230 in Slovakia. during the first phase (2003-2007) EdF was also part of the Consortium. The project is funded by the Bohunice International Decommissioning Support Fund (BIDSF) administered by the RBRD. The main objective of the project is to provide the necessary engineering and resources of project management for planning, execution, management, coordination and monitoring of all tasks in support of the decommissioning. (Author)

  17. Conditioning of sludge produced through chemical treatment of radioactive liquid waste - Operating experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, D. Anji, E-mail: anji@igcar.gov.i [Centralised Waste Management Facility, Nuclear Recycle Group, BARC Facilities, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India); Khandelwal, S.K.; Muthiah, R.; Shanmugamani, A.G.; Paul, Biplob; Rao, S.V.S.; Sinha, P.K. [Centralised Waste Management Facility, Nuclear Recycle Group, BARC Facilities, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2010-07-15

    At Centralised Waste Management Facility (CWMF) 160 m{sup 3} of radioactive chemical sludge, generated from treatment of several batches of category-II and category-III radioactive liquid wastes by chemical precipitation method was stored in clariflocculator (CF) for downstream processing. The sludge needed conditioning before disposal. The analysis of the sludge samples collected at different radial locations and depths from the CF showed suspended solid content of 2.37-13.07% and radioactive content of gross {beta}-{gamma} 5000-27,000 Bq/g and {alpha} 100-600 Bq/g. After comparing different options available for conditioning of the sludge based on their technological and economical aspects, it was decided to dewater it using centrifuge before fixing in cement matrix with additives. Process Control Laboratory of CWMF studied the process in detail to optimize the relevant parameters for fixation of the concentrate obtained from centrifuge. Based on these results, conditioning of the stored sludge was undertaken. The process consisted of diluting the sludge with low active effluents/water for homogenisation and facilitating the transfer of sludge, dewatering of the slurry utilising decanter centrifuge, fixation of dewatered concentrate in Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) with vermiculite as an additive using in-drum mixing method, providing sufficient time for hardening of fixed mass, transportation and safe disposal into Near Surface Disposal Facility (NSDF). Total 150 m{sup 3} of conditioned waste was produced (750 numbers of drums containing cement fixed concentrate). The paper includes the results of the studies conducted on cement fixed concentrate blocks for finding out their compressive strength and leaching characteristics. It also describes the experiences gained from the above operations.

  18. South Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    The South Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in South Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in South Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in South Dakota.

  19. Massachusetts State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-12

    The Massachusetts State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Massachusetts. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Massachusetts. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Massachusetts.

  20. Kentucky State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The Kentucky State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Kentucky. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Kentucky. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Kentucky.

  1. Oregon State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The Oregon State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Oregon. The profile is a result of a survey of NRC licensees in Oregon. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Oregon.

  2. Tennessee State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The Tennessee State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Tennessee. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Tennessee. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Tennessee.

  3. New Jersey State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    The New Jersey state Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in New Jersey. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in New Jersey. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in New Jersey.

  4. Radioactive waste management in the USSR: A review of unclassified sources. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1991-03-01

    The Soviet Union does not currently have an overall radioactive waste management program or national laws that define objectives, procedures, and standards, although such a law is being developed, according to the Soviets. Occupational health and safety does not appear to receive major attention as it does in Western nations. In addition, construction practices that would be considered marginal in Western facilities show up in Soviet nuclear power and waste management operations. The issues involved with radioactive waste management and environmental restoration are being investigated at several large Soviet institutes; however, there is little apparent interdisciplinary integration between them, or interaction with the USSR Academy of Sciences. It is expected that a consensus on technical solutions will be achieved, but it may be slow in coming, especially for final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and environmental restoration of contaminated areas. Meanwhile, many treatment, solidification, and disposal options for radioactive waste management are being investigated by the Soviets.

  5. Radioactive waste management in the USSR: A review of unclassified sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1991-03-01

    The Soviet Union does not currently have an overall radioactive waste management program or national laws that define objectives, procedures, and standards, although such a law is being developed, according to the Soviets. Occupational health and safety does not appear to receive major attention as it does in Western nations. In addition, construction practices that would be considered marginal in Western facilities show up in Soviet nuclear power and waste management operations. The issues involved with radioactive waste management and environmental restoration are being investigated at several large Soviet institutes; however, there is little apparent interdisciplinary integration between them, or interaction with the USSR Academy of Sciences. It is expected that a consensus on technical solutions will be achieved, but it may be slow in coming, especially for final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and environmental restoration of contaminated areas. Meanwhile, many treatment, solidification, and disposal options for radioactive waste management are being investigated by the Soviets.

  6. South Carolina State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The South Carolina State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in South Carolina. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in South Carolina. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as definied by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in South Carolina.

  7. Florida State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-06-01

    The Florida State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Florida. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Florida. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Florida.

  8. Connecticut State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-06-01

    The Connecticut State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Connecticut. The profile is the result of a survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees in Connecticut. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Connecticut.

  9. Wisconsin State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    The Wisconsin State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wisconsin. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wisconsin. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wisconsin.

  10. North Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-10-01

    The North Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Dakota.

  11. Utah State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    The Utah State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Utah. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Utah. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Utah.

  12. Ohio State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    The Ohio State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Ohio. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Ohio. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Ohio.

  13. North Carolina State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The North Carolina State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Carolina. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Carolina. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Carolina.

  14. Wyoming State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    The Wyoming State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wyoming. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wyoming. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wyoming.

  15. Mississippi State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-08-01

    The Mississippi State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state an federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Mississippi. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Mississippi. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Mississippi.

  16. Research on the assessment technology of the radionuclide inventory for the radioactive waste disposal(I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. J.; Hong, D. S.; Hwang, G. H.; Shin, J. J.; Yuk, D. S. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Characteristics and states of management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in site : state of management for each type of wastes, characteristics of low and intermediate level solid radioactive waste, stage of management of low and intermediate level solid radioactive waste. Survey of state of management and characteristics of low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility in foreign countries : state of management of disposal facilities, classification criteria and target radionuclides for assessment in foreign disposal facilities. Survey of the assessment methods of the radionuclides inventory and establishing the direction of requirement : assessment methods of the radionuclides inventory, analysis of radionuclides assay system in KORI site, establishment the direction of requirement in the assessment methods.

  17. Washington State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The Washington State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Washington. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Washington. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Washington.

  18. Puerto Rico State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    The Puerto Rico State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Puerto Rico. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Puerto Rico. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Puerto Rico.

  19. Vermont State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    The Vermont State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Vermont. The profile is the result of a survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees in Vermont. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Vermont.

  20. Pennsylvania State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    The Pennsylvania State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Pennsylvania. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Pennsylvania. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Pennsylvania.

  1. Survey on non-nuclear radioactive waste; Kartlaeggning av radioaktivt avfall fraan icke kaernteknisk verksamhet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-11-01

    On request from the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, the Swedish government has in May 2002 set up a non-standing committee for non-nuclear radioactive waste. The objective was to elaborate proposals for a national system for the management of all types of non-nuclear radioactive wastes with special consideration of inter alia the polluter pays principle and the responsibility of the producers. The committee will deliver its proposals to the government 1 December 2003. SSI has assisted the committee to the necessary extent to fulfill the investigation. This report is a summery of SSI's background material concerning non-nuclear radioactive waste in Sweden.

  2. Development and properties of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) ion exchangers for radioactive waste applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.E.; Brown, N.E.

    1997-04-01

    Crystalline silicotitanates (CSTs) are a new class of ion exchangers that were jointly invented by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A&M University. One particular CST, known as TAM-5, is remarkable for its ability to separate parts-per-million concentrations of cesium from highly alkaline solutions (pH> 14) containing high sodium concentrations (>5M). It is also highly effective for removing cesium from neutral and acidic solutions, and for removing strontium from basic and neutral solutions. Cesium isotopes are fission products that account for a large portion of the radioactivity in waste streams generated during weapons material production. Tests performed at numerous locations with early lab-scale TAM-5 samples established the material as a leading candidate for treating radioactive waste volumes such as those found at the Hanford site in Washington. Thus Sandia developed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) partnership with UOP, a world leader in developing, commercializing, and supplying adsorbents and associated process technology to commercialize and further develop the material. CSTs are now commercially available from UOP in a powder (UOP IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-910 ion exchanger) and granular form suitable for column ion exchange operations (UOP IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-911 ion exchanger). These materials exhibit a high capacity for cesium in a wide variety of solutions of interest to the Department of Energy, and they are chemically, thermally, and radiation stable. They have performed well in tests at numerous sites with actual radioactive waste solutions, and are being demonstrated in the 100,000 liter Cesium Removal Demonstration taking place at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with Melton Valley Storage Tank waste. It has been estimated that applying CSTs to the Hanford cleanup alone will result in a savings of more than $300 million over baseline technologies.

  3. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Newly Generated Liquid Waste Demonstration Project Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, A.K.

    2000-02-01

    A research, development, and demonstration project for the grouting of newly generated liquid waste (NGLW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center is considered feasible. NGLW is expected from process equipment waste, decontamination waste, analytical laboratory waste, fuel storage basin waste water, and high-level liquid waste evaporator condensate. The potential grouted waste would be classed as mixed low-level waste, stabilized and immobilized to meet RCRA LDR disposal in a grouting process in the CPP-604 facility, and then transported to the state.

  4. Process for the Production of Radioactive Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermi, Enrico; Amaldi, Edoardo; Pontecorvo, Bruno; Rasetti, Franco; Segré, Emilio

    neutroni (Method for increasing the efficiency of the processes for the production of artificial radioactivities by neutron bombardment), was submitted in Italy just after the achievement (on October 22, 1934) of the first experimental results, and later extended to U.S.A. and other countries. The intriguing story about this Patent (seemingly without reference to its content), which resulted to be of fundamental relevance for the subsequent development of the atomic energy, is well described in the literature.2 The reference article3 for the material here contained is of February 15, 1935, to which we refer the reader for further details. However, at least in part, specific results discussed here are somewhat different from those in the article mentioned.

  5. Process Waste Assessment - Paint Shop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, N.M.

    1993-06-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate hazardous wastes generated in the Paint Shop, Building 913, Room 130. Special attention is given to waste streams generated by the spray painting process because it requires a number of steps for preparing, priming, and painting an object. Also, the spray paint booth covers the largest area in R-130. The largest and most costly waste stream to dispose of is {open_quote}Paint Shop waste{close_quotes} -- a combination of paint cans, rags, sticks, filters, and paper containers. These items are compacted in 55-gallon drums and disposed of as solid hazardous waste. Recommendations are made for minimizing waste in the Paint Shop. Paint Shop personnel are very aware of the need to minimize hazardous wastes and are continuously looking for opportunities to do so.

  6. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank SX-105 And AN-103) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, Carol; Herman, Connie; Crawford, Charles; Bannochie, Christopher; Burket, Paul; Daniel, Gene; Cozzi, Alex; Nash, Charles; Miller, Donald; Missimer, David

    2014-01-10

    One of the immobilization technologies under consideration as a Supplemental Treatment for Hanford’s Low Activity Waste (LAW) is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR). The FBSR technology forms a mineral waste form at moderate processing temperatures thus retaining and atomically bonding the halides, sulfates, and technetium in the mineral phases (nepheline, sodalite, nosean, carnegieite). Additions of kaolin clay are used instead of glass formers and the minerals formed by the FBSR technology offers (1) atomic bonding of the radionuclides and constituents of concern (COC) comparable to glass, (2) short and long term durability comparable to glass, (3) disposal volumes comparable to glass, and (4) higher Na2O and SO{sub 4} waste loadings than glass. The higher FBSR Na{sub 2}O and SO{sub 4} waste loadings contribute to the low disposal volumes but also provide for more rapid processing of the LAW. Recent FBSR processing and testing of Hanford radioactive LAW (Tank SX-105 and AN-103) waste is reported and compared to previous radioactive and non-radioactive LAW processing and testing.