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Sample records for bohunice nuclear power

  1. Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant Safety Upgrading Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohunice nuclear Power Plant generation represents almost 50% of the Slovak republic electric power production. Due to such high level of commitment to nuclear power in the power generation system, a special attention is given to safe and reliable operation of NPPs. Safety upgrading and operational reliability improvement of Bohunice V-1 NPP was carried out by the Bohunice staff continuously since the plant commissioning. In the 1990 - 1993 period extensive projects were realised. As a result of 'Small Reconstruction of the Bohunice V-1 NPP', the standards of both the nuclear safety and operational reliability have been significantly improved. The implementation of another modifications that will take place gradually during extended refuelling outages and overhauls in the course of 1996 through 1999, is referred to as the Gradual Reconstruction of the Bohunice V-1 Plant. The general goal of the V-1 NPP safety upgrading is the achievement of internationally acceptable level of nuclear safety. Extensive and financially demanding modification process of Bohunice V-2 NPP is likely to be implemented after a completion of the Gradual Reconstruction of the Bohunice V-1 NPP, since the year 1999. With this in mind, a first draft of the strategy of the Bohunice V-2 NPP upgrading program based on Probabilistic Safety assessment consideration was developed. A number of actions with a general effect on Bohunice site safety is evident. All these activities are aimed at reaching the essential objective of Bohunice NPP Management - to ensure a safe, reliable and effective electric energy and heat generation at the Bohunice site. (author)

  2. Safety first. Nuclear power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this leaflet the production of electricity in nuclear power plants, philosophy of nuclear safety with reactor WWER, influence of ionization radiation on the man, improvement on the reactor, reconstructed system on the Bohunice V-1 reactors, nuclear reactor WWER, nuclear fuel and fission reaction, are described. A briefly history of Bohunice V-1 NPP is presented

  3. Safety culture at the Bohunice nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The approach of the Bohunice nuclear power plant to the safety culture issue is highlighted. Activities performed so far at the plant to improve the plant safety culture with a view to enhancing the awareness of each employee and thus to minimize the effect of the human factor on the evolution of incidents and accidents at the plant are described. (author)

  4. Seismic evaluation and strengthening of Bohunice nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A seismic assessment and strengthening investigation is being performed for selected structures at the Bohunice V1 Nuclear Power Plant in Slovakia. Structures covered in this paper include the reactor building complex and the emergency generator station. The emergency generator station is emphasized in the paper as work is nearly complete while work on the reactor building complex is ongoing at this time. Seismic evaluation and strengthening work is being performed by a cooperative effort of Siemens and EQE along with local contractors. Seismic input is the interim Review Level Earthquake (horizontal peak ground acceleration of 0.3 g). The Bohunice V1 reactor building complex is a WWER 4401230 nuclear power plant that was originally built in the mid-1970s but had extensive seismic upgrades in 1991. Siemens has performed three dimensional dynamic analyses of the reactor building complex to develop seismic demand in structural elements. EQE is assessing seismic capacities of structural elements and developing strengthening schemes, where needed. Based on recent seismic response analyses for the interim Review Level Earthquake which account for soil-structure interaction in a rigorous manner, the 1991 seismic upgrade has been found to be inadequate in both member/connection strength and in providing complete load paths to the foundation. Additional strengthening is being developed. The emergency generator station was built in the 1970s and is a two-story unreinforced brick masonry (URM) shear wall building above grade with a one story reinforced concrete shear wall basement below grade. Seismic analyses and testing of the URM walls has been performed to assess the need for building strengthening. Required structural strengthening for in-plane forces consists of revised and additional vertical steel framing and connections, stiffening of horizontal roof bracing, and steel connections between the roof and supporting walls and pointing of two interior transverse URM

  5. Experience with applying the automated control system to maintenance at the Bohunice nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The automated system of maintenance control at the V-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice uses experience gained with the maintenance of the A-1 nuclear power plant. With regard to the range of work operations, maintenance includes inspection, routine repair, overhaul of equipment and replacement. Also observed is the classification of equipment according to whether it may be repaired without reactor shutdown or whether the reactor will have to be shut down. At present the maintenance of the Jaslovske Bohunice nuclear power plant is being processed by an automated control system into five year variable plans of repairs, annual and monthly plans of repairs, plans of shut-downs and a schedule of unit shutdowns. The repair plan includes over 6000 items. (Z.M.)

  6. Reconstruction of the V-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the 1991 recommendation by the former Czechoslovak nuclear regulatory body - the Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission - the minor reconstruction of the V-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice was aimed at safety improvement in the following fields: reactor pressure vessel and primary circuit integrity, hermetic compartments, instrumentation and control systems and accident protection systems, home consumption electrical systems, fire safety, seismic resistance, and reactor aftercooling in case of steam generator feedwater failure. The results of the reconstruction are presented. The reconstruction provided for all the recommendations. (J.B.). 2 tabs

  7. Long-term corrosion study at nuclear power plant Bohunice (Slovakia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slugen, V.; Lipka, J.; Dekan, J.; Tóth, I.; Smieško, I.

    2010-03-01

    Steam generators of four VVER-440 units at nuclear power plants V-1 and V-2 in Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia) were gradually changed by new original "Bohunice" design in period 1994-1998. Corrosion processes before and after these design and material changes in Bohunice secondary circuit were studied using Mössbauer spectroscopy during last 25 years. Innovations in the feed water pipeline design as well as material composition improvements were evaluated positively. Mössbauer spectroscopy studies of phase composition of corrosion products were performed on real specimens scrapped from water pipelines or in form of filter deposits. The corrosion of new feed water pipelines system (from austenitic steel) in combination to innovated operation regimes goes dominantly to magnetite. The hematite presence is mostly on the internal surface of steam generator body and its concentration increases towards the top of the body. In the results interpretation it is necessary to consider also erosion as well as scope and type of maintenance activities. The long-term study of phase composition of corrosion products at VVER reactors is one of precondition for the safe operation over the projected NPP lifetime.

  8. Environment monitoring and residents health condition monitoring of nuclear power plant Bohunice region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report contents final environment evaluation and selected characteristic of residents health physics of nuclear power plant Bohunice region. Evaluated data were elaborated during analytical period 1993-1997.Task solving which results are documented in this final report was going on between 1996- 1998. The report deals in individual stages with the following: Information obtaining and completing which characterize demographic situation of the area for the 1993-1997 period; Datum obtaining and completing which contain selected health physics characteristics of the area residents; Database structures for individual data archiving from monitoring and collection; Brief description of geographic information system for graphic presentation of evaluation results based on topographic base; Digital mapping structure description; Results and evaluation of radionuclide monitoring in environment performed by Environmental radiation measurements laboratory by the nuclear power plant Bohunice for the 1993-1997 period. Demographic situation evaluation and selected health physics characteristics of the area of nuclear power plant residents for the 1993-1997 period are summarized in the final part of the document. Monitoring results and their evaluation is processed in graph, table, text description and map output forms. Map outputs are processed in the geographic information system Arc View GIS 3.0a environment

  9. Modernization of Nuclear Power Plant V2 Bohunice in Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After successful completion of extensive Gradual Reconstruction (1996-2000) of Nuclear Power Plant V1 (2 x VVER440/V230), there started modernisation project of Nuclear Power Plant V2 (2 x VVER440/V213) in the site Jaslovske Bohunice with planned completion in the year 2008. The main goal and priority of NPP V2 modernisation programme is to increase safety and reliability of the operation, but also to create conditions for extension of the operating life and economy improvement of NPP V2 operation. NPP V2 units in Jaslovske Bohunice were commissioned in the year 1984 and 1985. In the year 1997, management of Slovenske Elektrarne approved goals of modernisation programme and safety increasing of NPP V2. At modernisation programme defining, there were taken into consideration results of safety assessment and recommendations for improvement of NPP with VVER 440/V213 processed within the projects IAEA, WANO, VUJE and the other organisations which have had experiences with the operation of NPP with VVER reactors (basic documents: Safety report NPP V2 after 10 years of operation, VUJE, 1993, Safety issue and their ranking for nuclear power plants WWER 440/V213 type, IAEA, 1996, Safety improvements of NPP V2 and design of their solution, VUJE, 1997). Detail range, content and schedule of programme implementation were elaborated by VUJE in the year 2001. VUJE worked out solution designs into the level of project requirements (Conceptual Design) in the document: 'Safety concept for modernisation and safety increasing of NPP V2' Modernisation works are implemented mainly in I and C and electro part, works in nuclear systems and the civil part are implemented in smaller range. Implementation works in modernisation project are realized mainly during planned units outages for refuelling. VUJE as the general designer provides elaboration of design documentation, safety documentation; support of general contractor and it is responsible for overall coordination and functionality

  10. What the A-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice brought and left to experts, the economy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction history is outlined of A-1 at Jaslovske Bohunice, the first Czechoslovak nuclear power plant. Characteristic operating data of the plant in 1972-1977 are presented. The period following the second accident at the plant and its final shutdown is described. The adverse environmental impacts of the plant are characterized. A safe decommissioning of the plant is a problem that remains to be solved. (J.B.)

  11. Thirtieth anniversary of reactor accident in A-1 Nuclear Power Plant Jaslovske Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The facts about reactor accidents in A-1 Nuclear Power Plant Jaslovske Bohunice, Slovakia are presented. There was the reactor KS150 (HWGCR) cooled with carbon dioxide and moderated with heavy water. A-1 NPP was commissioned on December 25, 1972. The first reactor accident happened on January 5, 1976 during fuel loading. This accident has not been evaluated according to the INES scale up to the present time. The second serious accident in A-1 NPP occurred on February 22, 1977 also during fuel loading. This INES level 4 of reactor accident resulted in damaged fuel integrity with extensive corrosion damage of fuel cladding and release of radioactivity into the plant area. The A-1 NPP was consecutively shut down and is being decommissioned in the present time. Both reactor accidents are described briefly. Some radioecological and radiobiological consequences of accidents and contamination of area of A-1 NPP as well as of Manivier Canal and Dudvah River as result of flooding during the decommissioning are presented (authors)

  12. Risk monitor for unit 3 of the Jaslovske Bohunice V2 nuclear power plant at the full power and for the shut-down reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EOOS (Equipment Out Of Service) Monitor is part of the Risk and Reliability Workstation software package developed by EPRI. The software package was provided to the Jaslovske Bohunice NPP and the Slovak Nuclear Regulatory Authority within a contract with the US Department of Energy (DOE). A risk monitor for unit 3 of the Jaslovske Bohunice V2 NPP was developed by integration of a PSA model into the EOOS monitor. The paper describes the monitor and its application to risk monitoring during full power operation and reactor shutdown. (author)

  13. Experience in modernization of safety I and C in VVER 440 nuclear power plants Bohunice V1 and Paks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For nuclear power plants which have been in operation for more than 15 years, backfitting or even complete replacement of the instrumentation and control (I and C) equipment becomes an increasingly attractive option, motivated not only by the objective to reduce the cost of I and C system maintenance and repair but also to prolong or at least to safeguard the plant life-time: optimized spare-part management through use of standard equipment; reduction of number and variety of different items of equipment by implementing functions stepwise in application software; adding new functionality in the application software which was not possible in the old technology due to lack of space; safeguarding of long-term After-Sales-Service. Some years ago Bohunice V1 NPP, Slovak Republic and Paks NPP, Hungary intended to replace parts of their Safety I and C, mainly the Reactor Trip System, the Reactor Limitation System and the Neutron Flux Excore Instrumentation and Monitoring Systems. After a Basic Engineering Phase in Bohunice V1 and a Feasibility Study in Paks both plants decided to use the Siemens' Digital Safety I and C System TELEPERM XS to modernize their plants. Both Bohunice, Unit 2 and Paks, Unit 1 have been back on line for over six months with the new Digital Safety I and C. At the present time Bohunice, Unit 1 and within the next few months Paks, Unit 2 will be replaced. Trouble-free start-ups and no major problems under operation in the first two plants were based on: thorough understanding of the VVER 440 technology; comprehensive planning together with the plant operators and authorities; the possibility to adapt TELEPERM XS to every plant type; the execution of extensive pre-operational tests. Regarding these modernization measures Siemens, as well as the above Operators, have gained considerable experience in the field of I and C Modernization in VVER 440 NPPs. Important aspects of this experience are: how to transfer the VVER technology to TELEPERM XS; how to

  14. Nuclear power plant (A-1 NPP) SE a.s., Bohunice A-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The A-1 NPP was connected to the grid on 25 December 1972. The first serious refuelling accident happened on 5 April 1976. The second accident occurred on 22 February 1977 when a fouled fuel assembly was overheated, melted, and consequently radioactivity entered the whole primary circuit of steam generators, and a portion of it also leaked into the secondary circuit. The accident was classified as INES 4 level. There were no leaks of radioactivity into environment during the accident. A programme and schedule of bringing the A-1 NPP into a radiation-safe status was precise by subsequent decrees of the Slovak Government in 1993-1994. In January 1995, the Project was submitted to Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) and updated schedule of works was approved by the Government of the Slovak Republic. The radiation-safe status is characterised by minimizing of excluding a risk of negative environmental impacts of a NPP. There were 439 of total of 571 spent fuel assemblies transported to the former Soviet Union in 1984 through 1990. The remaining 132 assemblies are 'difficult-to-handle', ones the assemblies can not be taken out of their cases. Current solution the activities associated with transport and improvement of a safe storage of the spent fuel, issues related to processing, treatment, and storage of liquid radioactive wastes is represented by Bohunice treatment centre that has been built since 1993. In addition to Slovak partners, there are also foreign ones who are involved in bringing A-1 NPP into a radiation-safe status. The largest share of works is taken by British AEA Technology together with SGN, France. Other European countries are involved in A-1 NPP decommissioning, too, by providing technical assistance within PHARE programmes. Japan also provides funding of a broad programme of information exchange about NPPs decommissioning. Activities of nuclear safety inspectors were performed according to NRA SR yearly plan of inspection

  15. Implementation of results of science and technology development project ''Automated system of nuclear power plant control'' at the Bohunice plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implementation of the automated control system at the Jaslovske Bohunice nuclear power plant is taking place in two stages. In the first stage the main computer centre was built with an ES 1055 M computer which has been in operation since January 1985. In the following year, 6 local network terminals of type ES 7927 were installed and one multiplexer ES 8371 for the control of the network. All the equipment operates reliably, the ES 7039 printers are not so reliable. The weakest element are large-size magnetic disc memories. In the next stage, the construction is envisaged of a terminal network with SM 4-20 and SM 52/11 computers and 7202 terminals. The contribution of the implementation of computer technology so far has been in the field of maintenance where it has allowed to centrally plan repairs of some 15,000 items and to coordinate the activities of sub-contractors. Also positive are results in the field of measurement and control technology where the reliability is being evaluated of some 20,000 measurement circuits and elements, and their preventive maintenance and repairs planned. Briefly summed up are items for further increasing the contribution of the deployment of computer technology in nuclear power plants. (Z.M.)

  16. Findings from measurement of vertical displacement of V-1 nuclear power plant buildings in Jaslovske Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertical displacements were measured of the foundations and of selected bearing structures of the V-1 nuclear power plant buildings during the plant's construction and operation. Measured were displacements of the engine room foundations, the reactor building, the boron management building, the turbogenerator building, the cooling towers, the ventilation stack, and the foundations of buildings showing adverse properties. Some results are presented. (E.J.). 4 figs., 2 refs

  17. 30th and 29th anniversary of reactor accidents in A-1 nuclear power plant Jaslovske Bohunice - radioecological and radiobiological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper authors present facts about construction, operation and reactor accidents in A-1 Nuclear Power Plant Jaslovske Bohunice, Slovakia. There was the reactor KS 150 (HWGCR) cooled with carbon dioxide and moderated with heavy water. A-1 NPP was commissioned on December 25, 1972. The first reactor accident happened on January 5, 1976 during fuel loading. Two persons of personal died by suffocation with carbon dioxide. This accident has been not evaluated according to the INES scale up to present time. The second serious accident in A-1 NPP occurred in February 22, 1977 also during fuel loading. This INES level 4 of reactor accident resulted in damaged fuel integrity with extensive corrosion damage of fuel cladding and release of radioactivity into the plant area. The A-1 NPP was consecutively shut down and is being decommissioned in the present time. Both reactor accidents are described in this paper. Some radioecological and radiobiological consequences of accidents and contamination of area of A-1 NPP as well as of Manivier canal and Dudvah River as result of flooding during the decommissioning are presented. (authors)

  18. The human factor and the part it plays in failures of the normal operation of water-cooled, water-moderated WWER-440 reactors at the Bohunice nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the findings of a study of the role of the human factor based on the results of the first four years of operation of the Bohunice B-1 nuclear power plant. It describes the method by which plant personnel are trained and the system of maintaining the level of staff skills. It is expected that there will be an improvement in the quality of personnel training and that an analysis of the role of the human factor will be made in the course of subsequent operation. (author)

  19. Safety upgrading of Bohunice V1 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This CD is multimedia presentation of programme safety upgrading of Bohunice V1 NPP. It consist of next chapters: (1) Introductory speeches; (2) Nuclear power plant WWER 440; (3) Safety improvement; (4) Bohunice Nuclear power plants subsidiary; (5) Siemens; (6) REKON; (7) VUJE Trnava, Inc. - Engineering, Design and Research Organisation; (8) Album

  20. Monitoring of I-131 after Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster and a correction of contribution of I-131 in the discharges of Slovenske elektrarne, Bohunice nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the earthquake and subsequent tsunami in March 2011 Fukushima nuclear power reactors in Japan were damaged. As a result of damage of reactors escaped into air iodine radioactive isotopes which were dispersed by air masses over Europe and Slovakia. Isotope I-131 was identified in samples of the atmosphere and the abstraction of Radiation Control SE EBO. The air from the atmosphere contaminated with isotopes of iodine from the Fukushima ventilation systems that do not contain iodine filters, sucked into the interior of the controlled area, then released in organised way and then measured in the ventilation chimneys of EBO NPP. The measured values thus entered a balance of radioactive discharges. Drain of I-131 from SE EBO was in that period plus a contribution coming from Fukushima NPP and measured activity I-131 had to be corrected.

  1. Lifetime evaluation of Bohunice NPP components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discuss some aspects of the main primary components lifetime evaluation program in Bohunice NPP which is performed by Nuclear Power Plant Research Institute (NPPRI) Trnava in cooperation with Bohunice and other organizations involved. Facts presented here are based on the NPPRI research report which is regularly issued after each reactor fuel campaign under conditions of project resulted from the contract between NPPRI and Bohunice NPP. For the calculations, there has been used some computer codes adapted (or made) by NPPRI and the results are just the conclusive and very brief, presented here in Tables (Figures). (authors)

  2. Internal communication at Bohunice NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Communication is the base of everyday existence of a modern person and every company. It is not easy to work in this area in a changing 'eastern' country. Many tools, which are used are in the mind of people connected with 'propaganda'. I would like to share our experience with you. The goal of an internal communication is to spread and provide continuous current of objective information between the management of Bohunice NPPs and its personnel and between the personnel itself. Communication with the Bohunice NPPs employees helps to get acquainted with their opinions and ideas concerning the subsidiary and nuclear power industry

  3. In-core-sipping in Jaslovske Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Siemens in-core sipping system has proved to work satisfactorily in the Jaslovske Bohunice Nuclear Power Station. In 1990, Siemens (KWU) installed a new version of the system advanced in the light of past operating experience, in which the rectangular eightfold bell had been replaced by rotationally symmetrical sevenfold bell. The number of failed fuel elements detected in the four generating units of the Jaslovske Bohunice Nuclear Power Station is relatively small, documenting reliable operation of the fuel elements in the WWER-440 reactor. (orig./HP)

  4. Bohunice V-1 and V-2 approach for achieving high availability, reliability and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long term operating experience of Bohunice units maintenance activities are overviewed in the paper. Based on common experience of WWER NPP operators, separate maintenance department was established at Bohunice NPP in very early stage of plant operation. Maintenance management, maintenance planning, outage management, diagnostics and monitoring, inspection technologies and backfitting activities are described particularly to demonstrate the capability of Bohunice maintenance department for most complex repairs and maintenance works of nuclear power plant components and equipment, including reactor and turbine itself. (author)

  5. Report of the ASSET (Assessment of Safety Significant Events Team) follow-up mission to the Bohunice (units 1-2) nuclear power plant in Slovakia 5-9 July 1993. Root cause analysis of operational events with a view to enhancing the prevention of accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Report of the IAEA Assessment of Safety Significant Events Team (ASSET) presents the results of the team's review of the status of implementation of the recommendations made by the 1988 ASSET mission to Bohunice nuclear power plant in Slovakia, and of progress made by plant management in prevention of incidents. The findings, conclusions and suggestions presented herein reflect the views of the ASSET experts. They are provided for consideration by the responsible Slovakian authorities. The ASSET team's views presented in this report are based on review of the documentation made available and on the discussions with plant staff. The report includes the official response of the operating and regulatory organizations of Slovakia to the ASSET findings and conclusions. Figs, tabs

  6. Modernization and safety improvement project of the NPP V-2 Jaslovske Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution deals with form, present state and results of Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute (the Slovak acronym is VUJE - Vyskumny Ustav Jadrovych Elektrarni) participation in the NPP V-2 Jaslovske Bohunice Modernization and Safety Improvement Project. Short description of VUJE history, activity and results is also done as well as NPPs Jaslovske Bohunice characterization. (authors)

  7. Slovak Electric, plc, Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this popular scientific brochure a brief description of construction scheme of Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant is presented. Electricity generation in a nuclear power plant is described. Instrumentation and control system as well as nuclear safety principles applied on the NPP are presented

  8. Operating results of nuclear power plants SE, 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentation author deals with operating results of Bohunice nuclear power plants and Mochovce NPP. These operating results are compared with results obtained on other NPPs with WWER reactors.

  9. State supervision of nuclear power technology installation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    State technical supervision of labour safety and technical installations and surveillance of working conditions follows up on the work of the former Institute of Technical Supervision. The work and problems tackled by the two institutions are described in the construction and commissioning of the A-1 nuclear power plant in Bohunice, in designing and construction of the V-1 Bohunice plant and in designing, assembly and commissioning of the active sodium loop at the Power Research Institute at Bohunice. The State Technical Supervision is represented on the Council for Nuclear Safety of the Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission. (J.B.)

  10. Personnel education and training at Bohunice NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedure for education and training of all the personnel employed at Bohunice Nuclear power plant is presented in detail describing the training system structure, kinds of training, staff members qualification development, short term and long term tasks needed to assure attaining the training objectives. The proposed Staff Members Lifetime education implementation project contains basic starting points, measures to be implemented by 1998. It was prepared on the basis of a primary analysis which confirmed the existing need for implementing the lifetime education system

  11. Final results of the gradual reconstruction of Bohunice VI in Slovakia and evaluation of the reconstruction by international missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gradual reconstruction of the Bohunice V1 nuclear power plant (Slovakia) represents the most extensive reconstruction of a nuclear power plant in operation as implemented worldwide up to now. Extensive reconstruction works in both civil construction and process parts, in instrumentation and control part, and in electric part enhanced both nuclear safety and operational reliability of Bohunice V1 in a significant way.(author)

  12. Experience of Bohunice V-1 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovakia remains significantly dependent on imports of primary energy sources, which represent as much as 80% of the demand. Of the total consumption of electricity in Slovakia, 40% was generated in nuclear power plant units in 1998. Slovakia operates 6 units with WWER 440 nuclear reactors. Slovakia is the signatory of all important international agreements and conventions in the field of nuclear energy, and its legislation is in an advanced stage of approximation to European Union law. This is a very important aspect, showing Slovakia's approach to nuclear safety. In 1993 Slovakia accepted the commitments of the UN Convention on Climate Changes, including a reduction of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. Moreover, as an internal target Slovakia has set the reaching of the 'Toronto Objective', i.e. 20% reduction in COx, emissions through the year 2005 as compared to 1988. In our opinion, this is not possible without nuclear energy. Time has shown, that the political aspects are more powerful, especially if you underestimate their importance over the than the technical ones. In the case of Bohunice V-1 NPP the political aspects were on the following levels: 1. Slovak republic (Czechoslovakia), political changes, decisions of the government; 2. European Union - Agenda 2000, Accession criteria, nuclear safety criteria, EBRD; 3. Austria as a neighbouring country. Starting with year 1990, 23 expert missions took place at Bohunice V-1 NPP by now. The only criteria for further operation should have been Nuclear safety, which is supervised by NRA SR. It was fully in compliance with EU policy, each country is solely responsible for its energy sector and for nuclear energy use. Our satisfaction lasted not too long. Following negotiation with EU on the highest political level, driven by willingness to be invited for negotiation of accession on the Helsinki Summit, the Slovak government decided on September 14th, on Bohunice V-1 Units shutdown in 2006 and 2008

  13. Safety improvement programme of WWER 440/230 units in Jaslovske Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief overview is given of the power sources in Slovakia which include 6 operational reactor units (4 at Jaslovske Bohunice and 2 at Mochovce) and 2 units under construction (at Mochovce). The efforts undertaken in the past 10 years and aimed at upgrading the nuclear safety of the two older (V-230 Soviet type) units at Bohunice are highlighted. The relevant regulatory decisions are dealt with and the measures already carried out are listed. Also characterized are several IAEA international safety assessment missions and safety-aimed meetings which took place in 1998 and 1999 and are of concern to the older Bohunice units. (A.K.)

  14. Diagnostics of components of primary and secondary circuits of WWER-440 nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief description is presented of the monitoring diagnostic system installed in both units of the V-1 nuclear power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice. The system manufactured by Brueel and Kjaer, Denmark, operates on the principle of evaluating vibroacoustic signals from selected components of the primary and secondary circuits. Both reactors of the V-2 nuclear power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice are equipped with similar systems manufactured by West German company KWU and home manufacturers. (Z.M.)

  15. Risk-informed decision making during Bohunice NPP safety upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper summarizes some facts of risk-informed regulation developments within UJD regulatory environment. Based on national as well as international operating experience and indications resulted from PSA, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) since its constituting in 1993 has devoted an effort to use PSA technology to support the regulatory policy in Slovakia. The PSA is considered a complement, not a substitute, to the deterministic approach. Suchlike integrated approach is used in decision making processes and the final decision on scope and priorities is based on it. The paper outlines risk insights used in the decision making process concerning Bohunice NPP safety upgrading and focuses on the role of PSA results in Gradual Reconstruction of Bohunice VI NPP. Besides, two other examples of the PSA results application to the decision making process are provided: the assessment of proposal of modifications to the main power supply diagram (incorporation of generator switches) and the assessment of licensee request for motor generator AOT (Allowable Outage Time) extension. As an example of improving support of Bohunice V-2 risk-informed operations, concept of AOT calculations and Bohunice V-2 Risk Monitor Project are briefly described. (author)

  16. Applications of power from Temelin nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 10 papers of which 9 fall under the INIS scope. They all concern the intentions and possibilities of using heat from nuclear power plants, especially from the Temelin power plant. Waste heat will be used for district heating of adjacent conurbations and for agricultural purposes. Various projects are presented using heat from nuclear power plants, such as greenhouse heating, soil heating, cultivation of algae and fish in warmed-up water. The existing experience is described with the use of heat from the Bohunice nuclear power plant. (M.D.). 15 figs., 6 tabs., 17 refs

  17. The common project for completion of Bubbler Condenser Qualification (Bohunice, Mochovce, Dukovany and Paks NPPs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Described is the common project for completion of bubbler condenser qualification for nuclear power plants in Bohunice, Mochovice, Dukovany and Paks. Functionality of the bubbler condenser was elaborated during the simulation of the main steam line brake, medium break and small break LOCA. On this basis the appropriate operation of bubbler condenser containment under accident conditions can be positively confirmed

  18. Skills enhancement in the nuclear power sector: education upgrading, training, and the Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article gives an overview of how the needs of the Slovak power sector and nuclear industry with respect to personnel skills and training are addressed and satisfied. The needs are driven by the recent significant legislative changes, continuing modernization of the Bohunice V-2 units, preparation of the Bohunice V-1 units for shutdown, and completion of the Mochovce 3 and 4 units, in connection with the licence holder's recruitment and training of qualified and competent staff. The forms, methods and means used within the theoretical and practical training, including the use of a reactor simulator, are highlighted. (author)

  19. Bituminization plant Jaslovske Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this leaflet the principle of the bituminization plant for radioactive concentrate (the intermediate liquid radioactive waste generated during the NPP A1, V-1, V-2 operations) solidification used in the Bohunice Radwaste Treatment Centre (BSC RAO) is presented

  20. Early closure of Bohunice V1 contested

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The early closure of the Bohunice V1 nuclear power plant following a time schedule that the Slovak government agreed with the EU three years ago is a political obligation of the government. The only objections to this plan so far have been related to the weakening of the generation base and economy of Slovenske elektrarne (SE), a.s. Neither the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic, nor the International Atomic Energy Agency, nor foreign experts preparing the closure of V1 in Jaslovske Bohunice have raised objections relating to increased security risks. Since he took up office last summer, the Minister of Economy Pavol Rusko has not hidden his personal interest in revising the agreement and extending the operation of the nuclear power plant. The fact that closing the power plant would have a negative impact on Slovakia's economy is not an argument good enough to persuade the original EU members. A proven security risk would be a better argument, especially as the operation of the V1 plant would not be extended literally - rather one of the reactors would work two years longer. Risk increased by 100%, a risk close to the level of acceptability in the EU - that is how in October he described the risks related to closure of V1 units according to the agreed time schedule, i.e. the first unit to be shut down by December 31, 2006 at the latest and the second unit by December 2008. The Minister based his opinion on a study prepared by the engineering and consulting company - Relko that assessed the risks V1 would represent after the first unit has been shut down. 'The only solution is to shut down both units at the same time', he concluded and in a comment addressed to the EU he added: 'If the EU has sincere intentions towards Slovakia, respects its security and does not wish it economic problems it will accept this'. (author)

  1. Post-reconstruction full power and shut down level 2 PSA study for Unit 1 of Bohunice V1 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The level 2 PSA model of the J. Bohunice V1 NPP was developed in the RISK SPECTRUM Professional code with the following objectives: to identify the ways in which radioactive releases from the plant can occur following the core damage; to calculate the magnitudes and frequency of the release; to provide insights into the plant behaviour during a severe accident; to provide a framework for understanding containment failure modes; the impact of the phenomena that could occur during and following core damage and have the potential to challenge the integrity of the confinement; to support the severe accident management and development of SAMGs. The magnitudes of release categories are calculated using: the MAAP4/VVER for reactor operation and shutdown mode with closed reactor vessel and the MELCOR code for shutdown mode with open reactor vessel. In this paper an overview of the Level 2 PSA methodology; description of the confinement; the interface between the level 1 and 2 PSA and accident progression analyses are presented. An evaluation of the confinement failure modes and construction of the confinement event trees as well as definition of release categories, source term analysis and sensitivity analyses are also discussed. The presented results indicate that: 1)for the full power operation - there is an 25% probability that the confinement will successfully maintain its integrity and prevent an uncontrolled fission product release; the most likely mode of release from the confinement is a confinement bypass after SGTM with conditional probability of 30%; the conditional probability for the confinement isolation failure probability without spray is 5%, for early confinement failure at the vessel failure is 4%, for other categories 1% or less; 2) for the shutdown operating modes - the shutdown risk is high for the open reactor vessel and open confinement; important severe accident sequences exists for release categories: RC5.1, RC5.2 and RC6.2

  2. Software of diagnostic systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    23 papers deal with the assessment of the standard of software in in-service diagnostics systems in the Dukovany and the Bohunice nuclear power plants. Research projects, intentions and the scope of research are outlined for the diagnostic systems of the Mochovce and the Temelin nuclear power plants. It is shown that the use is ever more growing of personal computers in this sphere. (J.B.)

  3. Bohunice NPPs - Part of the Slovak's economy (sustainable) development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of the total consumption of electricity in Slovakia, 42% was generated in nuclear power plant units in 1999. Slovakia operates 6 units with a WWER 440 nuclear reactors, 4 of them are at Bohunice site and 2 at Mochovce. The Nuclear Regulatory Authority of SR is not the only regulatory body controlling nuclear activity. Both - the system of nuclear activities regulation in Slovakia as well as the approach to Nuclear Safety enhancement of the operator were positively judged by IAEA and WENRA. In 1993 -Slovakia has accepted the commitments of the UN Convention on Climate Changes, including a reduction of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. Moreover, as an internal target Slovakia has set the reaching of the ,'Toronto Objective', i.e. 20% reduction in COx emissions through the year 2005 as compared to 1988. Taking into account the actual situation as well as natural conditions for some renewable sources utilisation, the target won't be reached without nuclear energy. The nuclear energy is free of emissions, does not burn oxygen, and with the share of production in Slovakia will remain significant contributor. To the environment protection it contributes also by replacing fossil heat plants with heat delivery for the region. In case of radiological wastes the environment protection is ensured by very strict system of control, evidence, treatment and repository. To conclude, Bohunice NPPs were, are and will remain very important part of the Slovak's economy, creating conditions for its (sustainable) development

  4. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is covered in chapters entitled: nuclear power certainties and doubts; nuclear power in the Western World to 2000; the frequency of core meltdown accidents; hidden costs of the accident at Three Mile Island; costs of nuclear accidents - implications for reactor choice; defining the risks of nuclear power; the uncertain economics of a nuclear power program; the economics of enabling decisions (Sizewell B as an enabling decision); trade in nuclear electricity; some pointers to the future. (U.K.)

  5. Nuclear power plant A-1 decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the presentation, some information concerning the historical background of NPP A-1 in Jaslovske Bohunice, Slovakia is given. The main technical parameters used during production activities concerning the decommissioning of the NPP A-1 to a first stage (i.e. to obtain radiologically safe stage) are solved together with the main contractor, Nuclear Power Plant Research Institute, Trnava, according to an approved project by the Slovak Government and Nuclear Authorities. The technological schemes for the radioactive waste treatment at SE-VYZ o.z. and their main technical parameters are shown as well. (author)

  6. Nuclear power

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, David; McDonald, Alan; Greenwald, Judith; Mobbs, Paul

    2005-01-01

    David Waller and Alan McDonald ask whether a nuclear renaissance can be predicted; Judith M. Greenwald discusses keeping the nuclear power option open; Paul Mobbs considers the availability of uranium and the future of nuclear energy.

  7. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discussed the following topics related to the nuclear power: nuclear reactions, nuclear reactors and its components - reactor fuel, fuel assembly, moderator, control system, coolants. The topics titled nuclear fuel cycle following subtopics are covered: , mining and milling, tailings, enrichment, fuel fabrication, reactor operations, radioactive waste and fuel reprocessing. Special topic on types of nuclear reactor highlighted the reactors for research, training, production, material testing and quite detail on reactors for electricity generation. Other related topics are also discussed: sustainability of nuclear power, renewable nuclear fuel, human capital, environmental friendly, emission free, impacts on global warming and air pollution, conservation and preservation, and future prospect of nuclear power

  8. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter of the final report of the Royal Commission on Electric Power Planning in Ontario updates its interim report on nuclear power in Ontario (1978) in the light of the Three Mile Island accident and presents the commission's general conclusions and recommendations relating to nuclear power. The risks of nuclear power, reactor safety with special reference to Three Mile Island and incidents at the Bruce generating station, the environmental effects of uranium mining and milling, waste management, nuclear power economics, uranium supplies, socio-political issues, and the regulation of nuclear power are discussed. Specific recommendations are made concerning the organization and public control of Ontario Hydro, but the commission concluded that nuclear power is acceptable in Ontario as long as satisfactory progress is made in the disposal of uranium mill tailings and spent fuel wastes. (LL)

  9. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The committee concludes that the nature of the proliferation problem is such that even stopping nuclear power completely could not stop proliferation completely. Countries can acquire nuclear weapons by means independent of commercial nuclear power. It is reasonable to suppose if a country is strongly motivated to acquire nuclear weapons, it will have them by 2010, or soon thereafter, no matter how nuclear power is managed in the meantime. Unilateral and international diplomatic measures to reduce the motivations that lead to proliferation should be high on the foreign policy agenda of the United States. A mimimum antiproliferation prescription for the management of nuclear power is to try to raise the political barriers against proliferation through misuse of nuclear power by strengthening the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and to seek to raise the technological barriers by placing fuel-cycle operations involving weapons-usable material under international control. Any such measures should be considered tactics to slow the spread of nuclear weapons and thus earn time for the exercise of statesmanship. The committee concludes the following about technical factors that should be considered in formulating nuclear policy: (1) rate of growth of electricity use is a primary factor; (2) growth of conventional nuclear power will be limited by producibility of domestic uranium sources; (3) greater contribution of nuclear power beyond 400 GWe past the year 2000 can only be supported by advanced reactor systems; and (4) several different breeder reactors could serve in principle as candidates for an indefinitely sustainable source of energy

  10. Seismic re-evaluation criteria for Bohunice V1 reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohunice V1 in Slovakia is a Russian designed two unit WWER 440, Model 230 Pressurized Water Reactor. The plant was not originally designed for earthquake. Subsequent and ongoing reassessments now confirm that the seismic hazard at the site is significant. EBO, the plant owner has contracted with a consortium lead by Siemens AG (REKON) to do major reconstruction of the plant to significantly enhance its safety systems by the addition of new systems and the upgrading of existing systems. As part of the reconstruction, a complete seismic assessment and upgrading is required for existing safety relevant structures, systems and components. It is not practical to conduct this reassessment and upgrading using criteria applied to new design of nuclear power plants. Alternate criteria may be used to achieve adequate safety goals. Utilities in the U.S. have faced several seismic issues with operating NPPs and to resolve these issues, alternate criteria have been developed which are much more cost effective than use of criteria for new design. These alternate criteria incorporate the knowledge obtained from investigation of the performance of equipment in major earthquakes and include provisions for structures and passive equipment to deform beyond the yield point, yet still provide their essential function. IAEA has incorporated features of these alternate criteria into draft Technical Guidelines for application to Bohunice V1 and V2. REKON has developed plant specific criteria and procedures for the Bohunice V1 reconstruction that incorporate major features of the U.S. developed alternate criteria, comply to local codes and which envelop the draft IAEA Technical Guidelines. Included in these criteria and procedures are comprehensive walkdown screening criteria for equipment, piping, HVAC and cable raceways, analytical criteria which include inelastic energy absorption factors defined on an element basis and testing criteria which include specific guidance on interpretation

  11. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power has been seen as an answer to the energy problems of the Third World and Third World markets have been seen as an answer to the problems of the nuclear power industry. For some years during the 1970s both views seemed tenable. This paper examines the progress and setbacks of nuclear power in developing countries. In concentrates mainly on the four countries with real nuclear power commitments (as opposed to all-but-abandoned ambitions) - South Korea and Taiwan, where the interest has been mainly in obtaining cheaper and reliable electricity supplies, and Argentina and India, where the main interest has been in developing indigenous nuclear technological capabilities. A number of possibilities are examined which could influence future nuclear ordering, including smaller reactors to suit Third World electricity grids and a possible way round the constraint of large external debts. (author)

  12. Retrospective study of 14C concentration in the vicinity of NPP Jaslovské Bohunice using tree rings and the AMS technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ješkovský, Miroslav; Povinec, Pavel P.; Steier, Peter; Šivo, Alexander; Richtáriková, Marta; Golser, Robin

    2015-10-01

    Atmospheric radiocarbon has been monitored around the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Jaslovské Bohunice (Slovakia) using CO2 absorption in NaOH solution since 1969. In 2012, tree ring samples were collected from Tilia cordata using an increment borer at Žlkovce monitoring station situated close to the Bohunice NPP. Each tree ring was identified and graphite targets were produced for 14C analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry. The 14C concentrations obtained from the tree-ring samples have been in a reasonable agreement with the averaged annual 14C concentrations in atmospheric CO2.

  13. Bohunice - information within July 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this leaflet results of exploitation of four units of the Bohunice V-1 and V-2 NPPs are presented. The electricity and heat production in July 2004 are reviewed. Within a July 2004 the electricity was produced: 285 GWh (block 1), 292 GWh (block 2), 0 GWh (block 3), 20 GWh (block 4), totally 597 GWh, and 6352 GWh within a January - July 2004. The heat production in July 2004 was 9 417 GJ, and within a January - July 2004 it was produced 941 403 GJ of heat. After enlargement of European Union (EU) by ten new member states on May 1, 2004 the number of nuclear units has been risen by 19 units. 136 nuclear units were in operation in 'old' European Union. The most of nuclear units have been brought by Czech Republic and Slovak Republic (6 operational units, each state); Hungary has brought four units, Lithuania two and Slovenia one nuclear unit. Remaining five countries - Poland, Estonia, Cyprus, Latvia and Malta do not use nuclear energy for electricity production. Nuclear energetics is used in fourteen countries in enlarged European Union. France operates the largest number of nuclear units (59), which generated 77.67 per cent electricity of total French produced electricity in last year. However, France has lasted its dominant position in European Union since May, because two Lithuanian nuclear units generated 79.88 per cent of electricity in last year. In 2003 nuclear units reached 33.1 per cent of electricity generation within European Union. After enlargement of EU in 2004 this share should be raised to 34 per cent

  14. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After three decades of commercial development, nuclear power has failed to fulfil its promise. Why, and what does that failure imply for the future of energy policy? One reason for nuclear power's slow growth is that rich countries have repeatedly found they needed less electricity than they had forecast. Part of the problem is, as it always has been, public unease. Worries about safety affect costs. They make it harder and more time-consuming to find sites for new plants or for storing waste. Complex safety devices mean complex plants, which are more expensive to build (and to relicense when they grow old). The true cost of nuclear power is hard to calculate. However nuclear power now seems to be less economically favourable when compared with its main rival, coal. The only hope for nuclear power is that, apart from hydropower, it is the only commercial alternative to fossil fuels. Concerns over carbon dioxide emissions may tip the balance in nuclear's favour. (Author)

  15. Program increasing of nuclear power plant safeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results achieved within the project of national task 'Program increasing of nuclear power plant safeness' are presented in the document. The project was aimed to extend and deepen activities relating to safety increase of nuclear power units WWER-440 which play significant part in electricity production in the Slovak Republic. The application of advanced foreign calculating programs and calculation of radionuclide spreading in environment and techniques will influence the increase of extent, quality and international acceptance of safety analysis of nuclear power plant blocks WWER-440 and the risk valuation from operating nuclear power plants. Methodic resources for coping in emergency situation in nuclear energetics will be used for support in decision making in real time during radiation emergency on nuclear plant, region and state level. A long-term strategy in dealing with burnt fuel and radioactive substance formatting during nuclear power plant liquidation particularly with waste which is un acceptable in regional dump, has developed into a theoretical and practical preparation of solvable group for operating the converting centre Bohunice and in inactivating the nuclear power plant A-1. The diagnostic activities in nuclear power plants in the Slovak Republic have been elaborated into a project of norm documents in accordance with international norms for diagnostic systems. Presentation of new technologies and materials for repairs and reconstructions of components and nuclear power plant knots qualify increase in their reliability, safety and life. New objective methods and criterions for valuation and monitoring of the residual life and safety of fixed nuclear power plants. Results of problem solving linked with connecting the blocks of nuclear power plants to frequency regulation in electric network in the Slovak Republic are also presented in the document

  16. The nuclear power plant A1 in cube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this book the history of constructing, main characteristics, complex examination, physical commissioning, energetic commissioning, exploitation, active zone, fuel elements, nuclear reactor, primary circuits, circuits of heavy water, secondary circuits, gaseous management, transport-technologic equipment, measurement and regulation, electric schema, dosimetry, system of tightness control of covering fuel elements, equipment of chemical technology and chemical regime, emergency circuits of the reactor, serious accident in A1 NPP, leakages of vapour-generators of the A1 nuclear power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice (the Slovak Republic) are described.

  17. Nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, P.

    1985-01-01

    The question 'Do we really need nuclear power' is tackled within the context of Christian beliefs. First, an estimate is made of the energy requirements in the future and whether it can be got in conventional ways. The dangers of all the ways of supplying energy (eg coal mining, oil and gas production) are considered scientifically. Also the cost of each source and its environmental effects are debated. The consequences of developing a new energy source, as well as the consequences of not developing it, are considered. Decisions must also take into account a belief about the ultimate purpose of life, the relation of men to each other and to nature. Each issue is raised and questions for discussion are posed. On the whole the book comes down in favour of nuclear power.

  18. Nuclear power data 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brochure on nuclear power data 2016 covers the following topics: (I) nuclear power in Germany: nuclear power plants in Germany; shut-down and decommissioned nuclear power plants, gross electricity generation, primary energy consumption; (II) nuclear power worldwide: nuclear electricity production, nuclear power plants.

  19. Safety analysis report, deterministic and probabilistic evaluation after Bohunice V1 NPP gradual upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation describes approach used for nuclear safety assessment at the V -1 Bohunice after the Gradual Upgrading. The deterministic and probabilistic results are presented in detail form. (author)

  20. Statistical analysis of occupational exposure in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occupational doses have wide variations from zero to high values on the logarithmic scale, according to the workers jobs. However as radiation control programmes constrain higher exposures more, the variation of higher doses changes from log to linear scale, while the structure of lower doses remain. In the paper we analyse the annual effective doses of workers in 3 nuclear power plants of Jaslovske Bohunice using various distribution models. The hybrid-lognormal description of the annual dose distribution makes it possible to assess also the annual collective doses below the adopted recording level. Two methods of analysing the 'lost' occupational collective doses are presented

  1. Response of native flora to inducible genotoxic damage from increased radioactivity around NPP Jaslovske Bohunice, Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is not generally known that the first serious failure of nuclear power plant (NPP) technology with loss of human lives occurred in NPP Jaslovske Bohunice (Czechoslovakia) in January 1976. A year later the second accident finally broken reactor A1 with large radioactive contamination. This material was later (in 1980) washed into the nearby drainage by the heavy rain. In cleaning procedure, the contaminated soil particles contaminated the slopes of the drainage. These spots have the shape of 'blurs' about 15 cm wide with a scale of contamination from 0,067; 0,15; 2,38; 9,5; 45.5 up to 322 kBq/kg 137Cs. The research was done in cooperation with the Institute of Tumorbiology, University of Vienna, within the grant Action Austria - Slovak Republic. Details of radioactivity at the area were obtained thanks to the Research Institute of the Nuclear Energy in Trnava, Slovakia. In our ten years long-term study of contaminated soil around nuclear power plant (NPP) Jaslovske Bohunice 24 species of local flora were used to show impact of these accidents. The 19 km long banks of the Jaslovske Bohunice NPP waste water recipient has been identified as contaminated by 137Cs. In total, more than 67,000 m2 of river banks have been found as being contaminated at levels exceeding 1 Bq 137Cs/g of soil. Used phytotoxic and cytogenetic -in situ' tests were extended by analyses of pollen grains. Although the dose of some samples of radioactive soil was relatively high (322 kBq kg-1) no any significant impact on the biological level of tested wild plant species was observed. Possible explanation (such as adaptation and resistance) is discussed. (author)

  2. Nuclear power and nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described

  3. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data concerning the existing nuclear power plants in the world are presented. The data was retrieved from the SIEN (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: nuclear plants, its status and type; installed nuclear power plants by country; nuclear power plants under construction by country; planned nuclear power plants by country; cancelled nuclear power plants by country; shut-down nuclear power plants by country. (E.G.)

  4. Radwaste Treatment Centre Jaslovske Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this leaflet the Bohunice Radwaste Treatment Centre (BSC RAO) is presented. BSC RAO is designed to process and treat liquid and solid radwaste, arising from the NPP A-1 decommissioning, from NPPs V-1, V-2, and Mochovce operations, as well as institutional radwaste of diverse institutional (hospitals, research institutes) in the Slovak Republic. Transport, sorting, incineration, compacting, concentration and cementation of radwaste as well as monitoring of emission are described

  5. Decommissioning Project of Bohunice A1 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first (pilot) nuclear power plant A1 in the Slovak Republic, situated on Jaslovske Bohunice site (60 km from Bratislava) with the capacity of 143 MWel, was commissioned in 1972 and was running with interruptions till 1977. A KS 150 reactor (HWGCR) with natural uranium as fuel, D2O as moderator and gaseous CO2 as coolant was installed in the A1 plant. Outlet steam from primary reactor coolant system with the temperature of 410 C was led to 6 modules of steam generators and from there to turbine generators. Refueling was carried out on-line at plant full power. The first serious incident associated with refueling occurred in 1976 when a locking mechanism at a fuel assembly failed. The core was not damaged during that incident and following a reconstruction of the damaged technology channel, the plant continued in operation. However, serious problems were occurring with the integrity of steam generators (CO2 gas on primary side, water and steam on secondary side) when the plant had to be shut down frequently due to failures and subsequent repairs. The second serious accident occurred in 1977 when a fuel assembly was overheated with a subsequent release of D2O into gas cooling circuit due to a human failure in the course of replacement of a fuel assembly. Subsequent rapid increase in humidity of the primary system resulted in damages of fuel elements in the core and the primary system was contaminated by fission products. In-reactor structures had been damaged, too. Activity had penetrated also into certain parts of the secondary system via leaking steam generators. Radiation situation in the course of both events on the plant site and around it had been below the level of limits specified. Based on a technical and economical justification of the demanding character of equipment repairs for the restoration of plant operation, and also due to a decision made not to continue with further construction of gas cooled reactors in Czechoslovakia, a decision was made in

  6. Analysis of Steam Generators Corrosion Products from Slovak NPP Bohunice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Degmová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals of the nuclear industry is to increase the nuclear safety and reliability of nuclear power plants (NPPs. As the steam generator (SG is the most corrosion sensitive component of NPPs, it is important to analyze the corrosion process and optimize its construction materials to avoid damages like corrosion cracking. For this purpose two different kinds of SGs and its feed water distributing systems from the NPP Jaslovske Bohunice were studied by nondestructive Mössbauer spectroscopy. The samples were scraped from the surface and analyzed in transmission geometry. Magnetite and hematite were found to be the main components in the corrosion layers of both SGs. Dependant of the material the SG consisted of, and the location in the system where the samples were taken, the ratios between magnetite and hematite and the paramagnetic components were different. The obtained results can be used to improve corrosion safety of the VVER-440 secondary circuit as well as to optimize its water chemistry regime.

  7. Comparison of output costs for conventional and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within a comparison of output costs per 1 MWh (consisting of fuel costs, operating and maintenance costs and depreciation costs) from conventional and nuclear power plants in Czechoslovakia, the values are reported of the costs, and their development is discussed over the years 1979-1984. The comparison is favourable for the nuclear power plants. For instance, in 1984 the output costs in the nuclear power plants were 124 CKR/MWh, in conventional steam fired power plants 275 CKR/MWh and in hydros 251 CKR/MWh. This in spite of the adverse effect of the start-up of the V-2 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice in the same year when the availability of the plant was naturally very low. The output costs of the V-1 nuclear power plant in that year were 130 CKR/MWh. It can be expected that in future, the figures will be even more favourable for the nuclear power plants in view of the fact that coal-fired conventional power plants will have to be provided with sulfur separators, which will further increase the production costs per MWh delivered. It is estimated that specific capital costs in the construction of a new conventional power plant provided with the separator will probably approach those for a nuclear power plant. (Z.M.) 2 figs., 6 tabs., 6 refs

  8. Safety of nuclear installations in the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes all nuclear installations in the Slovak Republic. It informs the public about the safety of nuclear installations. The spent fuel activities and nuclear wastes storage matters are discussed separately ((NPP Bohunice V-1, NPP Bohunice V-2, NPP Mochovce, NPP Bohunice A-1, Radioactive wastes repository Mochovce, Interim spent fuel storage Bohunice)

  9. Nuclear power economic database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power economic database (NPEDB), based on ORACLE V6.0, consists of three parts, i.e., economic data base of nuclear power station, economic data base of nuclear fuel cycle and economic database of nuclear power planning and nuclear environment. Economic database of nuclear power station includes data of general economics, technique, capital cost and benefit, etc. Economic database of nuclear fuel cycle includes data of technique and nuclear fuel price. Economic database of nuclear power planning and nuclear environment includes data of energy history, forecast, energy balance, electric power and energy facilities

  10. Nuclear power - anyone interested

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is discussed under the following headings, with illustrative strip cartoons: uranium mining (uranium exploration in Orkney); radiation (hazards); nuclear power and employment; transport (of radioactive materials); nuclear reactor safety (reference to the accident to Three Mile Island-2 reactor); energy in the future; sources of energy; nuclear weapons; suggestions for action; insulation and heating buildings; nuclear security; working in a nuclear power station; nuclear waste; the anti-nuclear movement; nuclear power and politics. (U.K.)

  11. Living near a nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need to expand nuclear power and its advantages are discussed publicly nearly each week. According to politicians and the nuclear lobby investing tens of billions Sk at Mochovce will bring Slovakia the often cited 'independence and energy self-sufficiency'. It will also mean profit for Slovenske elektrarne and the company's shareholders - the state and Italian company, Enel. In addition to the lively discussion on the pros and cons of nuclear energy, TREND was also interested in the living conditions around the concrete and strictly guarded, potentially dangerous plants and in the opinion of the people most affected by Mochovce and Jaslovske Bohunice on expansion of the existing and the building of new nuclear power plants. The construction of nuclear powers stations in these regions was not only about new jobs. The state 'prescribed' iodine pills and did not allow any construction in the region and, in the case of Mochovce, ordered the complete demolition of a village. The only thing that remained from Mochovce village was the church. 'And when it was found that the power plant would not reach it, it was even given a new roof. Former inhabitants, especially the older ones that had problems accepting the evacuation, used to visit it often,' explained Jan Foldy, the head of the local municipality in Kalna nad Hronom. After many years, life in the neighbouring villages is not bad. Their budgets are overflowing and so they can afford to spoil their inhabitants with free cable TV and high standard sport facilities, which should partly compensate for the fact that the people are living so close to a nuclear facility. (authors)

  12. Lifetime of automated control system of technological processes of nuclear power unit and its updating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the analysis of their physical lifetime, components of automated technological process control systems at WWER nuclear power plants are divided into three categories, viz., irreparable equipment, equipment reparable during unit shutdown, and equipment reparable during the unit operation. Conditions for the innovation and upgrading of automated control systems at Czechoslovak WWER-440 nuclear power plants are discussed. Presumably, at the Bohunice V-2 and the Dukovany nuclear power plants the innovation of these systems will proceed in a manner similar to that applied at the Loviisa nuclear power plant in Finland. The decision concerning the global upgrading should be postponed until experience is gained with the new automated control system that will be installed at the first unit of the Mochovce nuclear power plant. The upgrading of the automated control systems at the two Bohunice V-1 power plant units poses specific problems, particularly with respect to the assessment of the true physical lifetime of the technological equipment and to the finding of the best approach to the upgrading. (Z.M.). 2 figs

  13. Nuclear installations in Slovakia accords to the convention definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this part the nuclear power plants Bohunice - Units V-1 and V-2 and NPP Mochovce (description of units, safety reports and safety improvement programs) are described. Description of Bohunice A-1, history and current status of the NPP A-1 and NPP decommissioning program are included. In next parts interim spent fuel storage, technologies of Raw processing and treatment, and treated and solid Raw storage sites are described

  14. Nomogram of economic efficiency of extending the life of the V-1 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation was processed of the economic efficiency of extending the life of the V-1 nuclear power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice. The power plant is expected to be shut down for reconstruction in 1995, i.e., in its 16th year in operation. The evalulation considered reconstruction within a 2 to 5 years' period, the costs at 6 to 12 thousand million crowns and decommissioning between the years 2005 to 2015. The results are processed in a nomogram of specific annual updated costs for supplied electric power. (Z.M.). 2 figs., 1 tab., 2 refs

  15. The ethical implications of nuclear power in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Editor of the journal, the Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission (CSAEC) is opening up a discussion on the basic problems of nuclear power in Czechoslovakia. Renowned authorities from the Czechoslovak political and professional community have been invited to contribute. Initiator of the discussion, the author of the paper formulated 5 principal tasks of Czechoslovak nuclear industry for the nearest period to come. CSAEC should only retain the function of State Surveillance over Nuclear Safety; the lowest permissible degree of nuclear safety should be defined for Czechoslovakia; Czechoslovak nuclear law should be modified so as to be compatible with the EC and not only with the IAEA; after completing the first two units of the Temelin nuclear power plant, links of the Czechoslovak nuclear industry should be established to some Western firm; and attitude to the feasibility of further operation of the Bohunice V-1 nuclear power plant and to the conditions of operation of the V-2 nuclear power plant should be formulated. (Z.M.)

  16. Nuclear power in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Nuclear Association believes that the CANDU nuclear power generation system can play a major role in achieving energy self-sufficiency in Canada. The benefits of nuclear power, factors affecting projections of electric power demand, risks and benefits relative to other conventional and non-conventional energy sources, power economics, and uranium supply are discussed from a Canadian perspective. (LL)

  17. Corrosion at Nuclear Power Plant from Mössbauer Spectroscopy Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slugeň, V.; Lipka, J.; Dekan, J.; Tóth, I.; Smieško, I.

    2010-07-01

    Steam generators of four VVER-440 units at nuclear power plants V-1 and V-2 in Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia) were gradually changed by new original "Bohunice" design in the 1994-1998 period. Corrosion processes before and after these design and material changes in Bohunice secondary circuit were studied using Mössbauer spectroscopy during the last 25 years. Innovations in the feed water pipeline design as well as material composition improvements were evaluated positively. Mössbauer spectroscopy studies of phase composition of corrosion products were performed on real specimens scrapped from water pipelines or in the form of filters deposits. The corrosion of new feed water pipelines system (from austenitic steel) in combination to innovated operation regimes goes dominantly to magnetite. The hematite presence is mostly on the internal surface of steam generator body and its concentration increases towards the top of the body. In the results interpretation it is necessary to consider also erosion as well as scope and type of maintenance activities. The long-term study of phase composition of corrosion products at VVER reactors is one of precondition for the safe operation over the projected NPP lifetime. Keywords: Enter Keywords here. Text should remain 10-pt.

  18. Fuel reliability of Bohunice NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper summarizes experience from last 15 years of operation at NPP Jaslovske Bohunice. During this period, leaking fuel assemblies have had been identified by in-core sipping method and verified by vendor specified canister sipping method. Methodology of operational and outage fuel integrity monitoring is described. Full survey of identified leaking assemblies is given. Fuel failure rates are calculated separately for V-1 (V-230 type) and V-2 (V-213 type) units. Systematic difference - significantly lower fuel failure rate at V-213 units exists for all period investigated. Analysis of potential fuel failure reasons and all related measures (planned and already implemented) are presented. Design, operation and fabrication features have been analyzed with the aim to identify dominant factors contributing to fuel failure. No unambiguous reasons have been found so far. It is believed that there is a superposition of several factors and differences causing higher failure rate at V-230 type units. (author)

  19. Safety enhancement in NPP Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The upgrading and safety enhancement of both the Bohunice V-1 and V-2 reactors is described in detail. The total estimated cost of the gradual reconstruction of these two units during 1996 to 1999 is 180 mil. US dollars. For the 1995 to 1997 period, the actions common for both units include a quality assurance programme, a personnel training programme, installation of a multifunction simulator, implementation of symptom-oriented operation procedures, installation of diagnostic systems, of a site security system, and of a teledosimetric system. At present, the main maintenance tasks are: to carry out major repair of units, to remedy service interruptions, to enhance equipment service availability, to enhance the technical level of corrective actions at equipment. Investment into maintenance level upgrade has grown from 7.5 mil. Slovak crowns in 1994 to estimated 32 mil. in 2000. The partners of international cooperation are mentioned. (M.D.)

  20. Nuclear power and nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanned by the Chernobyl reactor accident the discussion about the safety and insurability of nuclear power plants has also been affecting the insurance companies. The related analyses of the safety concepts of German nuclear power plants have been confirming the companies' risk philosophy of maintaining the insurability of nuclear power plants either meeting German safety standards or equivalent safety standards. Apart from the technical evaluation of the safety of nuclear power plants the fundamental discussion about the pros and cons of nuclear power has also been stressing the damages and liability problem. The particular relevance of possible considerable transfrontier contaminations clearly reveals the urgency of establishing internationally standardized reactor accident liability regulations. (orig./HP)

  1. Foundations and practical applications of the theory of nuclear power plant reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reliability of nuclear power installations is discussed with regard to material fatigue. The concept of reliability is defined and on the basis of the probability theory the probability was computed of failure-free operation. The parametric and nonparametric methods are given of estimating the reliability parameters, and the basic terms introduced of systems analysis. Reliability is assessed using the fault tree method. The probability of accident chains was analysed using the event tree. The reliability information system is described implemented in nuclear power plants with WWER-440 reactors. The system of standardization in nuclear power engineering in the capitalist countries and in CMEA countries is given. The method of stochastic prediction is used for mathematical modelling of the failure-free operation of engineering parts of a nuclear reactor. Operating experience and reliability of the V-1 nuclear power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice is compared with foreign experience. (E.F.)

  2. Prospects for Nuclear Power

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Lucas W.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power has long been controversial because of concerns about nuclear accidents, storage of spent fuel, and how the spread of nuclear power might raise risks of the proliferation of nuclear weapons. These concerns are real and important. However, emphasizing these concerns implicitly suggests that unless these issues are taken into account, nuclear power would otherwise be cost effective compared to other forms of electricity generation. This implication is unwarranted. Throughout the h...

  3. Nuclear Power in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s vigorous efforts to propel development of nuclear power are paying off as the country’s nuclear power sector advances at an amazing pace. At present, China has set up three enormous nuclear power bases, one each in Qinshan of Zhejiang Province, Dayawan of Guangdong

  4. Nuclear power economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a petroleum substitute, the nuclear power in Japan possesses the following four features. (1) Stability in supply: The import of nuclear fuel resources is performed from politically stable advanced countries and in long-term contracts. And, nuclear power can be of semi-domestic energy source due to the nuclear fuel cycle. (2) Low cost of nuclear power generation. (3) Contribution of nuclear power technology to other advanced industries. (4) Favorable effects of nuclear power siting upon the region concerned, such as labor employment and social welfare. Electricity charges are high in Japan, as compared with those in the United States and others where coal and water power are relatively abundant. For Japan without such natural resources, nuclear energy is important in lowering the power rates. (Mori, K.)

  5. Safety aspects of operation of nuclear power plants. Results achieved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three main factors are discussed which affect the safety of nuclear power plant operation in Czechoslovak conditions. In order to assure the quality of components important for nuclear safety and to maintain it throughout their service life, the Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission issued a Decree in 1979 whose essence was in that already the safety report should identity components with a view to nuclear safety. Individual programmes of quality assurance are then drawn up for these components. At present, an amendment is being prepared for the Decree. The second factor is the quality of operating personnel of all categories, and especially of the so-called selected categories. In 1979 a unified system was introduced of nuclear power plant personnel training. Since 1984 the training institution has been provided with a full-size simulator. The third factor is the quality of the operation management of the facility, especially as concerns the observance of limits and conditions of safe operation. The respective document has been available for V-213 reactors since 1982, for V-230 units of the V-1 nuclear power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice since 1988. A system has been introduced of data collection, evaluation and distribution relating to failures in Czechoslovak nuclear power plants, based on IAEA recommendations. It has a very low threshold for reporting failures so that on average some 80 failures are reported for every operating unit. (Z.M.)

  6. Nuclear power prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of the nuclear power needs of the less-developed countries and a study of the technology and economics of small and medium scale power reactors are envisioned by the General Conference. Agency makes its services available to Member States to assist them for their future nuclear power plans, and in particular in studying the technical and economic aspects of their power programs. The Agency also undertakes general studies on the economics of nuclear power, including the collection and analysis of cost data, in order to assist Member States in comparing and forecasting nuclear power costs in relation to their specific situations

  7. RETHINKING NUCLEAR POWER SAFETY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident sounds alarm bells in China’s nuclear power industry In the wake of the Fukushima nucleara ccident caused by the earthquake andt sunami in Japan,the safety of nuclearp ower plants and the development of nuclear power have raised concerns,

  8. Sustainable development of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A treatise consisting of the following sections: Economic efficiency of nuclear power (Growth of nuclear power worldwide; State of the art in the development of nuclear power reactors; Competitiveness of contemporary nuclear power); Environmental acceptability of nuclear power (Non-proliferation of nuclear weapons; Nuclear safety and radioactive waste disposal; Environmental awareness and environmental movements). (P.A.)

  9. Nuclear power development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nealey, S.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine factors and prospects for a resumption in growth of nuclear power in the United States over the next decade. The focus of analysis on the likelihood that current efforts in the United States to develop improved and safer nuclear power reactors will provide a sound technical basis for improved acceptance of nuclear power, and contribute to a social/political climate more conducive to a resumption of nuclear power growth. The acceptability of nuclear power and advanced reactors to five social/political sectors in the U.S. is examined. Three sectors highly relevant to the prospects for a restart of nuclear power plant construction are the financial sector involved in financing nuclear power plant construction, the federal nuclear regulatory sector, and the national political sector. For this analysis, the general public are divided into two groups: those who are knowledgeable about and involved in nuclear power issues, the involved public, and the much larger body of the general public that is relatively uninvolved in the controversy over nuclear power.

  10. Nuclear Power in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents how Swedish technology has combined competence in planning, building, commissioning, maintenance, and operation of nuclear power and waste facilities. The items are elaborated in the following chapters: Nuclear power today and for the future, Sweden and its power supply, The history of nuclear power in Sweden, Nuclear Sweden today, Operating experience in 10 nuclear power units, Maintenance experience, Third-generation BWR-plants commissioned in five years, Personnel and training, Reactor safety, Quality assurance and quality control, Characteristic features of the ASEA-ATOM BWR, Experience of PWR steam generators, Nuclear fuel supply and management, Policy and techniques of radioactive waste management, Nuclear energy authorities and Inherently safe LWR. The publication is concluded by facts in brief and a statement by the Director General of IAEA. (G.B.)

  11. The conditions of utilization of waste and low-potential heat from nuclear power stations for agricultural production in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briefly discussed are the economic aspects of the utilization of waste heat and low-grade heat from power plants for agricultural uses in Czechoslovak conditions. Considered are the heating of greenhouses and similar units as well as other processes in agricultural production. Agricultural complexes are currently being designed which are to be built in the years 1985 to 1990 and which are to utilize waste heat from the nuclear power plants at Jaslovske Bohunice and Dukovany and from coal burning power plants at Detmarovice and Tisova. (Z.M.)

  12. Nuclear power and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the problem of necessity to develop nuclear power, conceivable consequences of this development, its disadvantages and advantages. It is shown that the nuclear power is capable of supplying the world's economy with practically unlimited and the most low-cost energy resources providing the transition from the epoch of organic fuel to the epoch with another energy sources. The analysis of various factors of nuclear power effects on population and environment is presented. Special attention is focused on emergency situations at NPPs. The problem of raising the nuclear power safety is considered. 11 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

  13. Nuclear power debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent resurgence of interest in Australia in the nuclear power option has been largely attributed to growing concerns over climate change. But what are the real pros and cons of nuclear power? Have advances in technology solved the sector's key challenges? Do the economics stack up for Australia where there is so much coal, gas and renewable resources? Is the greenhouse footprint' of nuclear power low enough to justify its use? During May and June, the AIE hosted a series of Branch events on nuclear power across Sydney, Adelaide and Perth. In the interest of balance, and at risk of being a little bit repetitive, here we draw together four items that resulted from these events and that reflect the opposing views on nuclear power in Australia. Nuclear Power for Australia: Irrelevant or Inevitable? - a summary of the presentations to the symposium held by Sydney Branch on 8 June 2005. Nuclear Reactors Waste the Planet - text from the flyer distributed by The Greens at their protest gathering outside the symposium venue on 8 June 2005. The Case For Nuclear Power - an edited transcript of Ian Hore-Lacy's presentation to Adelaide Branch on 19 May 2005 and to Perth Branch on 28 June 2005. The Case Against Nuclear Power - an article submitted to Energy News by Robin Chappie subsequent to Mr Hore-Lacy's presentation to Perth Branch

  14. Sydkraft and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article summarizes the report made by G. Ekberg for the Swedish Sydkraft Power Co. at the company's annual meeting in June 1976. The report comprises the year 1975 and the first five months of 1976 and largely discusses nuclear power. Experience with the running of Oskarshamn and Barsebaeck nuclear power stations is reported. Nuclear power has enabled production in the oil-fired power stations at Karlshamn and Malmoe to be reduced. 750 000 tons of oil have been saved. In the first five months of 1976, nuclear power accounted for 48% of Sydkraft's electricity production, water power 36% and oil only 16%. In 1975, Sydkraft produced 13% of Sweden's electricity. (H.E.G.)

  15. The nuclear power decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power has now become highly controversial and there is violent disagreement about how far this technology can and should contribute to the Western energy economy. More so than any other energy resource, nuclear power has the capacity to provide much of our energy needs but the risk is now seen to be very large indeed. This book discusses the major British decisions in the civil nuclear field, and the way they were made, between 1953 and 1978. That is, it spans the period between the decision to construct Calder Hall - claimed as the world's first nuclear power station - and the Windscale Inquiry - claimed as the world's most thorough study of a nuclear project. For the period up to 1974 this involves a study of the internal processes of British central government - what the author terms 'private' politics to distinguish them from the very 'public' or open politics which have characterised the period since 1974. The private issues include the technical selection of nuclear reactors, the economic arguments about nuclear power and the political clashes between institutions and individuals. The public issues concern nuclear safety and the environment and the rights and opportunities for individuals and groups to protest about nuclear development. The book demonstrates that British civil nuclear power decision making has had many shortcomings and concludes that it was hampered by outdated political and administrative attitudes and machinery and that some of the central issues in the nuclear debate were misunderstood by the decision makers themselves. (author)

  16. Nuclear power in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the energy sector Belgium is 90% dependent on imports. This was clearly felt by the electricity generating economy when the share of hydrocarbons in the energy resources used for electricity generation increased to more than 85% in 1973 as a consequence of rising electricity consumption. Although Belgium had been early to start employing nuclear power for peaceful purposes, only little use had initially been made of this possibility. After the first oil price crisis the Belgian electricity utilities turned more attention to nuclear power. To this day, seven nuclear power plants have been started up, and Belgian utilities hold a fifty percent share in a French nuclear power plant, while the French EdF holds fifty percent in one Belgian nuclear generating unit. The Belgian nuclear power plants, which were built mostly by Belgian industries, have an excellent operating record. Their availabilities are considerably above the worldwide average and they contributed some 60% to the electricity production in Belgium in 1985. Thanks to nuclear power, the cumulative percentage shares of heating oil and gas in electricity production were reduced to well over 15%, compared to 1973, thus meeting the objectives of using nuclear power, i.e., to save foreign exchange and become self-sufficient in supplying the country's needs. The use of nuclear power allowed the Belgian utilities to reduce the price per kilowatthour of electricity and, in this way, remain competitive with other countries. The introduction of nuclear power continues to have a stabilizing influence on electricity generating costs. In the light of the forecast future development of consumption it is regarded as probable that another nuclear power plant of 1390 MWe will have to be built and commissioned before the year 2000. (orig.)

  17. Nuclear power economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economical comparison of nuclear power plants with coal-fired plants in some countries or areas are analyzed. It is not difficult to show that nuclear power will have a significant and expanding role to play in providing economic electricity in the coming decades. (Liu)

  18. Balakovo nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A key means of improving the safety and reliability of nuclear power plants is through effective training of plant personnel. The goal of this paper is to show the progress of the training at the Balakovo Nuclear Power Plant, and the important role that international cooperation programs have played in that progress

  19. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  20. Talk About Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremlett, Lewis

    1976-01-01

    Presents an overview of the relation of nuclear power to human health and the environment, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power as an energy source urging technical educators to inculcate an awareness of the problems associated with the production of energy. Describes the fission reaction process, the hazards of…

  1. Economics of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison of the economics of nuclear and coal-fired power plants operated by Commonwealth Edison was developed. In this comparison, fuel costs, total busbar costs and plant performance were of particular interest. Also included were comparisons of construction costs of nuclear and coal-fired power plants over the past two decades

  2. Nuclear power status 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document gives general statistical information (by country) about electricity produced by nuclear power plants in the world in 1998, and in a table the number of nuclear reactors in operation, under construction, nuclear electricity supplied in 1998, and total operating experience as of 31 December 1998

  3. Nuclear power plant outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) controls nuclear power plant safety in Finland. In addition to controlling the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants, STUK also controls refuelling and repair outages at the plants. According to section 9 of the Nuclear Energy Act (990/87), it shall be the licence-holder's obligation to ensure the safety of the use of nuclear energy. Requirements applicable to the licence-holder as regards the assurance of outage safety are presented in this guide. STUK's regulatory control activities pertaining to outages are also described

  4. Nuclear Power Day '86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings in two volumes of the event ''Nuclear Power Day '86'' held in the Institute of Nuclear Research, contain full texts of 13 papers which all fall under the INIS Scope. The objective of the event was to acquaint broad technical public with the scope of the State Research and Development Project called ''Development of Nuclear Power till the Year 2000''. The papers were mainly focused on increased safety and reliability of nuclear power plants with WWER reactors, on the development of equipment and systems for disposal and burial of radioactive wastes, the introduction of production of nuclear power facilities of an output of 1,000 MW, and on the construction of nuclear heat sources. (Z.M.)

  5. Nuclear power in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claim for economic superiority of the nuclear power over the coal-based thermal power is advanced on various grounds by the authorities concerned with organization of atomic energy in India. This claim is critically examined. At the outset, it is pointed out that data on cost of nuclear power available to the Indian researchers for detailed and rational analysis of the problem are limited only to whatever appears in official publications and are not adequate for working out reasonable cost estimates for scrutiny. Available official data are summarised. Taking into account the cost factors related to capital outlay, fuel input, transportation of fuel supplies and disposal of nuclear wastes from nuclear power plants, it is shown that the superiority of the nuclear power over the thermal one on economic grounds is not established in India in the present context. (M.G.B.)

  6. The nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The processes taking place in a nuclear power plant and the dangers arising from a nuclear power station are described. The means and methods of controlling, monitoring, and protecting the plant and things that can go wrong are presented. There is also a short discourse on the research carried out in the USA and Germany, aimed at assessing the risks of utilising nuclear energy by means of the incident tree analysis and probability calculations. (DG)

  7. Nuclear power under strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German citizen faces the complex problem of nuclear power industry with slight feeling of uncertainty. The topics in question can only be briefly dealt with in this context, e.g.: 1. Only nuclear energy can compensate the energy shortage. 2. Coal and nuclear energy. 3. Keeping the risk small. 4. Safety test series. 5. Status and tendencies of nuclear energy planning in the East and West. (GL)

  8. Nuclear power constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility study and the project design and their role in the process of nuclear power plant construction are analyzed in detail. From the point of view of systems aspects of scientific management, the nuclear power plant is considered to be an element of the power generation and transmission system as well as an intersection of capital investment, scientific and technical development and project designing. Foreign experience is summed up with the planning, designing and building of nuclear power plants. Attention is centred to the feasibility study and project design stages of nuclear power plant construction in the CSSR. The questions are discussed of capital investment, territorial planning activities, pre-project and project documentation; a survey is presented of legislative provisions involving the project design and capital investment spheres. Briefly outlined are topics for further rationalization of feasibility studies, such as standardization and complex project designs of WWER type nuclear power plants, the introduction of data processing in capital investment provision of WWER type nuclear power plants, and international scientific and technical cooperation including the establishment of a international consultancy centre for the designing and methodology of controlling the building, repairs, reconstruction and the decommissioning of WWER type nuclear power plants. (Z.M.). 81 figs., 2 tabs., 12 refs

  9. Nuclear Power in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    In the early years of the United States space program, lightweight batteries, fuel cells, and solar modules provided electric power for space missions. As missions became more ambitious and complex, power needs increased and scientists investigated various options to meet these challenging power requirements. One of the options was nuclear energy. By the mid-1950s, research had begun in earnest on ways to use nuclear power in space. These efforts resulted in the first radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which are nuclear power generators build specifically for space and special terrestrial uses. These RTGs convert the heat generated from the natural decay of their radioactive fuel into electricity. RTGs have powered many spacecraft used for exploring the outer planets of the solar system and orbiting the sun and Earth. They have also landed on Mars and the moon. They provide the power that enables us to see and learn about even the farthermost objects in our solar system.

  10. The nuclear power cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty years after the first nuclear reactor come on-line, nuclear power is fourth among the world's primary energy sources, after oil, coal and gas. In 2002, there were 441 reactors in operation worldwide. The United States led the world with 104 reactors and an installed capacity of 100,000 MWe, or more than one fourth of global capacity. Electricity from nuclear energy represents 78% of the production in France, 57% in Belgium, 46% in Sweden, 40% in Switzerland, 39% in South Korea, 34% in Japan, 30% in Germany, 30% in Finland, 26% in Spain, 22% in Great Britain, 20% in the United States and 16% in Russia. Worldwide, 32 reactors are under construction, including 21 in Asia. This information document presents the Areva activities in the nuclear power cycle: the nuclear fuel, the nuclear reactors, the spent fuel reprocessing and recycling and nuclear cleanup and dismantling. (A.L.B.)

  11. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs

  12. Development of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensive discussion of problems concerning the development of nuclear power took place at the fifth regular session of the IAEA General Conference in September-October 1961. Not only were there many references in plenary meetings to the nuclear power plans of Member States, but there was also a more specific and detailed debate on the subject, especially on nuclear power costs, in the Program, Technical and Budget Committee of the Conference. The Conference had before it a report from the Board of Governors on the studies made by the Agency on the economics of nuclear power. In addition, it had been presented with two detailed documents, one containing a review of present-day costs of nuclear power and the other containing technical and economic information on several small and medium-sized power reactors in the United States. The Conference was also informed of the report on methods of estimating nuclear power costs, prepared with the assistance of a panel of experts convened by the Agency, which was reviewed in the July 1961 issue of this Bulletin

  13. Nuclear power experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Conference on Nuclear Power Experience, organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency, was held at the Hofburg Conference Center, Vienna, Austria, from 13 to 17 September 1982. Almost 1200 participants and observers from 63 countries and 20 organizations attended the conference. The 239 papers presented were grouped under the following seven main topics: planning and development of nuclear power programmes; technical and economic experience of nuclear power production; the nuclear fuel cycle; nuclear safety experience; advanced systems; international safeguards; international co-operation. The proceedings are published in six volumes. The sixth volume contains a complete Contents of Volume 1 to 5, a List of Participants, Authors and Transliteration Indexes, a Subject Index and an Index of Papers by Number

  14. 600 MW nuclear power database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    600 MW Nuclear power database, based on ORACLE 6.0, consists of three parts, i.e. nuclear power plant database, nuclear power position database and nuclear power equipment database. In the database, there are a great deal of technique data and picture of nuclear power, provided by engineering designing units and individual. The database can give help to the designers of nuclear power

  15. Nuclear power's dim future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future of nuclear power in the United States is behind us. At the end of 1992, about one-fifth of the U.S. supply of baseload electric power was generated by nuclear plants. The percentage of the nation's electricity produced by nuclear power will decline and the industry's prospects will remain dim. A main damper on the industry's clear plants for the United States in the last 15 years, and none are expected. Other factors that have hurt the American nuclear power industry include escalating capital and operating costs, lengthening licensing and construction times (which contributed substantially to capital cost escalation), allegations of questionable management at several facilities, and seemingly intractable technical problems that include the storage and disposal of increasing amounts of high- and low-level radioactive wastes

  16. Future nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is no future without nuclear power. Although this view is contested vehemently by dyed-in-the-wool nuclear opponents, more and more indications pointing to a future with nuclear power can be derived from international developments, but are also evident from first principles of the connection between technical development and power supply, especially in the light of global changes over very long periods of time. A qualitative comparison is made of pre-industrial, industrial and post-industrial modes of technical production; the characteristics of the latter are derived from the need for consistency with the unlimited technical possibilities of automation of human labor. It is seen that future requirements to be met in energy supply will be determined chiefly by contraints of reproducing nature. Given proper further development, nuclear power will be able to meet these requirements quickly and extensively. Other sources of primary energy are indispensable over interim periods of time. (orig.)

  17. Safeguarding nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic features of nuclear fuel accounting and control in present-day power reactors are considered. Emphasis is placed on reactor operations and spent-fuel characteristics for Light-Water Reactors (LWRs) and Heavy-Water Reactors (HWRs)

  18. Nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The legal aspects of nuclear power plant construction in Brazil, derived from governamental political guidelines, are presented. Their evolution, as a consequence of tecnology development is related. (A.L.S.L.)

  19. Safety and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Representatives of the supporters and opponents of civil nuclear power put forward the arguments they feel the public should consider when making up their mind about the nuclear industry. The main argument in favour of nuclear power is about the low risk in comparison with other risks and the amount of radiation received on average by the population in the United Kingdom from different sources. The aim is to show that the nuclear industry is fully committed to the cause of safety and this has resulted in a healthy workforce and a safe environment for the public. The arguments against are that the nuclear industry is deceitful, secretive and politically motivated and thus its arguments about safety, risks, etc, cannot be trusted. The question of safety is considered further - in particular the perceptions, definitions and responsibility. The economic case for nuclear electricity is not accepted. (U.K.)

  20. Globalization and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different aspects of the experience of nuclear power as recounted by well-known commentators and new contributors are included in two special issues. In general, the discussions are historical and theoretical and most are retrospective. The current position of nuclear power world wide is considered. Its future seems less than secure especially as it will have to compete alongside other energy sources with many problems of control of its materials still unresolved. (UK)

  1. Commercial nuclear power 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents historical data on commercial nuclear power in the United States, with projections of domestic nuclear capacity and generation through the year 2020. The report also gives country-specific projections of nuclear capacity and generation through the year 2010 for other countries in the world outside centrally planned economic areas (WOCA). Information is also presented regarding operable reactors and those under construction in countries with centrally planned economies. 39 tabs

  2. Nuclear power plant erection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The erection of a nuclear power plant covers all the installation operations related to mechanical and electrical equipment in buildings designed for this specific purpose. Some of these operations are described: erection of the nuclear boiler, erection work carried out in the building accomodating the nuclear auxiliary and ancillary equipment and the methods and the organization set up in order to carry out this work satisfactorily are analyzed

  3. The Korean nuclear power program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the world nuclear power industry may appear to be in decline, continued nuclear power demand in Korea indicates future opportunities for growth and prosperity in this country. Korea has one of the world's most vigorous nuclear power programs. Korea has been an active promoter of nuclear power generation since 1978, when the country introduced nuclear power as a source of electricity. Korea now takes pride in the outstanding performance of its nuclear power plants, and has established a grand nuclear power scheme. This paper is aimed at introducing the nuclear power program of Korea, including technological development, international cooperation, and CANDU status in Korea. (author). 2 tabs

  4. Nuclear power and leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet describes the nature of leukaemia, disease incidence in the UK and the possible causes. Epidemiological studies observing rates of leukaemia near nuclear power stations in the UK and other parts of the world are discussed. Possible causes of leukaemia excesses near nuclear establishments include radioactive discharges into the environment, paternal radiation exposure and viral causes. (UK)

  5. Turkey's nuclear power effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the expected role of nuclear energy in the production of electric power to serve the growing needs of Turkey, examining past activities and recent developments. The paper also reviews Turkey's plans with respect to nuclear energy and the challenges that the country faces along the way

  6. No to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Beazley has again stated a Labor Government would not pursue nuclear power because the economics 'simply don't stack up'. 'We have significant gas, coal and renewable energy reserves and do not have a solution for the disposal of low-level nuclear waste, let alone waste from nuclear power stations.' The Opposition Leader said developing nuclear power now would have ramifications for Australia's security. 'Such a move could result in our regional neighbours fearing we will use it militarily.' Instead, Labor would focus on the practical measures that 'deliver economic and environmental stability while protecting our national security'. Mr Beazley's comments on nuclear power came in the same week as Prime Minister John Howard declined the request of Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh for uranium exports, although seemingly not ruling out a policy change at some stage. The Prime Ministers held talks in New Delhi over whether Australia would sell uranium to India without it signing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. An agreement reached during a visit by US President George W. Bush gives India access to long-denied nuclear technology and guaranteed fuel in exchange for allowing international inspection of some civilian nuclear facilities. Copyright (2006) Crown Content Pty Ltd

  7. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  8. Nuclear power in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of space nuclear power and propulsion in the United States started in 1955 with the initiation of the ROVER project. The first step in the ROVER program was the KIWI project that included the development and testing of 8 non-flyable ultrahigh temperature nuclear test reactors during 1955-1964. The KIWI project was precursor to the PHOEBUS carbon-based fuel reactor project that resulted in ground testing of three high power reactors during 1965-1968 with the last reactor operated at 4,100 MW. During the same time period a parallel program was pursued to develop a nuclear thermal rocket based on cermet fuel technology. The third component of the ROVER program was the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications (NERVA) that was initiated in 1961 with the primary goal of designing the first generation of nuclear rocket engine based on the KIWI project experience. The fourth component of the ROVER program was the Reactor In-Flight Test (RIFT) project that was intended to design, fabricate, and flight test a NERVA powered upper stage engine for the Saturn-class lunch vehicle. During the ROVER program era, the Unites States ventured in a comprehensive space nuclear program that included design and testing of several compact reactors and space suitable power conversion systems, and the development of a few light weight heat rejection systems. Contrary to its sister ROVER program, the space nuclear power program resulted in the first ever deployment and in-space operation of the nuclear powered SNAP-10A in 1965. The USSR space nuclear program started in early 70's and resulted in deployment of two 6 kWe TOPAZ reactors into space and ground testing of the prototype of a relatively small nuclear rocket engine in 1984. The US ambition for the development and deployment of space nuclear powered systems was resurrected in mid 1980's and intermittently continued to date with the initiation of several research programs that included the SP-100, Space Exploration

  9. Nuclear power for tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of nuclear power has established this energy source as a viable mature technology, producing at comparative costs more than 16% of the electricity generated world-wide. After outlining the current status of nuclear power, extreme future scenarios are presented, corresponding respectively to maximum penetration limited by technical-economic characteristics, and nuclear phase-out at medium term. The situation is complex and country specific. The relative perception of the importance of different factors and the compensation of advantages vs. disadvantages, or risk vs. benefits, has predominant influence. In order to proceed with an objective and realistic estimate of the future role of nuclear power worldwide, the fundamental factors indicated below pro nuclear power and against are assessed, including expected trends regarding their evolution: Nuclear safety risk; reduction to levels of high improbability but not zero risk. Reliable source of energy; improvements towards uniform standards of excellence. Economic competitiveness vs. alternatives; stabilization and possible reduction of costs. Financing needs and constraints; availability according to requirements. Environmental effects; comparative analysis with alternatives. Public and political acceptance; emphasis on reason and facts over emotions. Conservation of fossil energy resources; gradual deterioration but no dramatic crisis. Energy supply assurance; continuing concerns. Infrastructure requirements and availability; improvements in many countries due to overall development. Non-proliferation in military uses; separation of issues from nuclear power. IAEA forecasts to the year 2005 are based on current projects, national plans and policies and on prevailing trends. Nuclear electricity generation is expected to reach about 18% of total worldwide electricity generation, with 500 to 580 GW(e) installed capacity. On a longer term, to 2030, a stabilized role and place among available viable

  10. Country nuclear power profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles was initiated within the framework of the IAEA's programme for nuclear power plant performance assessment and feedback. It responded to a need for a database and a technical document containing a description of the energy and economic situation and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. The task was included in the IAEA's programmes for 1993/1994 and 1995/1996. In March 1993, the IAEA organized a Technical Committee meeting to discuss the establishment of country data ''profiles'', to define the information to be included in the profiles and to review the information already available in the IAEA. Two expert meetings were convened in November 1994 to provide guidance to the IAEA on the establishment of the country nuclear profiles, on the structure and content of the profiles, and on the preparation of the publication and the electronic database. In June 1995, an Advisory Group meeting provided the IAEA with comprehensive guidance on the establishment and dissemination of an information package on industrial and organizational aspects of nuclear power to be included in the profiles. The group of experts recommended that the profiles focus on the overall economic, energy and electricity situation in the country and on its nuclear power industrial structure and organizational framework. In its first release, the compilation would cover all countries with operating power plants by the end of 1995. It was also recommended to further promote information exchange on the lessons learned from the countries engaged in nuclear programmes. For the preparation of this publication, the IAEA received contributions from the 29 countries operating nuclear power plants and Italy. A database has been implemented and the profiles are supporting programmatic needs within the IAEA; it is expected that the database will be publicly accessible in the future

  11. Requirements for increasing economic efficiency in construction of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants within the framework of reconstruction and intensification of national economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present economic effectiveness is assessed for the Bohunice V1 and V2, Dukovany, Mochovce and Temelin nuclear power plants. The development of capital investments of the WWER-440 and WWER-1000 units is demonstrated, as is the development of specific (per generated MWh) production costs of nuclear power plants that are in operation or under construction. The specific total cost indices of nuclear power plants are compared with those of conventional power plants; in 1980-1987, the former were a mere 70% with respect to the latter. The effectiveness of nuclear power plants is evaluated from the point of view of return on capital investment (including costs of the future decommissioning). Material indices of the construction of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants are found considerably higher than those for comparable nuclear power plants in developed industrial countries (Middletown, USA, and Biblis B, FRG). Using the overall index (weighted average) of total consumption of the main components in the construction of selected nuclear power plants in Czechoslovakia, the Dukovany nuclear power plant is found 2.6-fold more material and construction-time demanding than the Middletown nuclear power plant and 4.4-fold more demanding than Biblis B. For the Temelin nuclear power plant the results are somewhat more favorable: the index ratios are 2.2 and 3.8, respectively. Selected technical and economic data of the operation of the Bohunice V1 and V2 and the Dukovany nuclear power plants are given, and the positive contribution of construction of nuclear power plants till 2000 to environmental protection is outlined. (Z.S.). 4 tabs

  12. The reality of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following matters are discussed in relation to the nuclear power programmes in USA and elsewhere: siting of nuclear power plants in relation to a major geological fault; public attitudes to nuclear power; plutonium, radioactive wastes and transfrontier contamination; radiation and other hazards; economics of nuclear power; uranium supply; fast breeder reactors; insurance of nuclear facilities; diversion of nuclear materials and weapons proliferation; possibility of manufacture of nuclear weapons by developing countries; possibility of accidents on nuclear power plants in developing countries; radiation hazards from use of uranium ore tailings; sociological alternative to use of nuclear power. (U.K.)

  13. France without nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charmant, A.; Devezeaux de Lavergne, J.-G.; Ladoux, N.; Vielle, M. (Atomic Energy Commission, Paris (France))

    1993-01-01

    As environmental issues (particularly questions associated with the greenhouse effect) become a matter of increasing current concern, so the French nuclear power programme can, in retrospect, be seen to have had a highly positive impact upon emissions of atmospheric pollutants. The most spectacular effect of this programme has been the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions from 530 million tonnes per annum in 1973 to 387 million tonnes per annum today. Obviously, this result cannot be considered in isolation from the economic consequences of the nuclear power programme, which have been highly significant. The most obvious consequence of nuclear power has been the production of cheap electricity, while a further consequence has been the stability of electricity prices resulting from the increasing self-sufficiency of France in energy supplies (from 22% in 1937 to 47% in 1989). The French nuclear industry is also a source of exports, contributing FF 20 billion to the credit side of the balance of payments in 1989. The authors therefore feel that a numerical assessment of the macroeconomic impact of the nuclear power programme is essential to any accurate evaluation of the environmental consequences of that programme. This assessment is set out in the paper using the Micro-Melodie macroeconomic and energy supply model developed by the CEA (Atomic Energy Commission). An assessment of the role of nuclear power in combatting the greenhouse effect is made. 9 refs., 13 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. Future nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book includes an introduction then it speaks about the options to secure sources of energy, nuclear power option, nuclear plants to generate energy including light-water reactors (LWR), heavy-water reactors (HWR), advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGR), fast breeder reactors (FBR), development in the manufacture of reactors, fuel, uranium in the world, current status of nuclear power generation, economics of nuclear power, nuclear power and the environment and nuclear power in the Arab world. A conclusion at the end of the book suggests the increasing demand for energy in the industrialized countries and in a number of countries that enjoy special and economic growth such as China and India pushes the world to search for different energy sources to insure the urgent need for current and anticipated demand in the near and long-term future in light of pessimistic and optimistic outlook for energy in the future. This means that states do a scientific and objective analysis of the currently available data for the springboard to future plans to secure the energy required to support economy and welfare insurance.

  15. The nuclear power alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General of the IAEA stressed the need for energy policies and other measures which would help to slow and eventually halt the present build-up of carbon dioxide, methane and other so-called greenhouse gases, which are held to cause global warming. He urged that nuclear power and various other sources of energy, none of which contribute to global warming, should not be seen as alternatives, but should all be used to counteract the greenhouse effect. He pointed out that the commercially used renewable energies, apart from hydropower, currently represent only 0.3% of the world's energy consumption and, by contrast, the 5% of the world's energy consumption coming from nuclear power is not insignificant. Dr. Blix noted that opposition for nuclear power stems from fear of accidents and concern about the nuclear wastes. But no generation of electricity, whether by coal, hydro, gas or nuclear power, is without some risk. He emphasized that safety can never be a static concept, and that many new measures are being taken by governments and by the IAEA to further strengthen the safety of nuclear power

  16. Nuclear power in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power debate hinges upon three major issues: radioactive waste disposal, reactor safety and proliferation. An alternative strategy for waste disposal is advocated which involves disposing of the radwaste (immobilized in SYNROC, a titanate ceramic waste form) in deep (4 km) drill-holes widely dispersed throughout the entire country. It is demonstrated that this strategy possesses major technical (safety) advantages over centralized, mined repositories. The comparative risks associated with coal-fired power generation and with the nuclear fuel cycle have been evaluated by many scientists, who conclude that nuclear power is far less hazardous. Considerable improvements in reactor design and safety are readily attainable. The nuclear industry should be obliged to meet these higher standards. The most hopeful means of limiting proliferation lies in international agreements, possibly combined with international monitoring and control of key segments of the fuel cycle, such as reprocessing

  17. LDC nuclear power: Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter reviews the evolution of Egypt's nuclear program, the major factors that influenced the successive series of nuclear decisions, and the public debate over the far-reaching program attempted by the late President Anwar El-Sadat. Egypt's program is important, not only because it was the first Arab country to enter the nuclear age, but because it is an ambitious program that includes the installation of eight reactors at a time when many countries are reducing their commitment to nuclear power. Major obstacles remain in terms of human, organizational, and natural resource constraints. 68 references, 1 table

  18. Nuclear power in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japanese movement against nuclear energy reached a climax in its upsurge in 1988 two years after the Chernobyl accident. At the outset of that year, this trend was triggered by the government acknowledgement that the Tokyo market was open to foods contaminated by the fallout from Chernobyl. Anti-nuclear activists played an agitating role and many housewives were persuaded to join them. Among many public opinion surveys conducted at that time by newspapers and broadcasting networks, I would like to give you some figures of results from the poll carried out by NHK: Sixty percent of respondents said that nuclear power 'should be promoted', either 'vigorously' 7 or 'carefully' 53%). Sixty-six percent doubted the 'safety of nuclear power', describing it as either 'very dangerous' 20%) or 'rather dangerous' (46%). Only 27% said it was 'safe'. In other words, those who acknowledged the need for nuclear power were almost equal in number with those who found it dangerous. What should these figures be taken to mean? I would take note of the fact that nearly two-thirds of valid responses were in favor of nuclear power even at the time when public opinion reacted most strongly to the impact of the Chernobyl accident. This apparently indicates that the majority of the Japanese people are of the opinion that they would 'promote nuclear power though it is dangerous' or that they would 'promote it, but with the understanding that it is dangerous'. But the anti-nuclear movement is continuing. It remains a headache for both the government and the electric utilities. But we can regard the anti-nuclear movement in Japan as not so serious as that faced by other industrial nations

  19. Steps to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent increase in oil prices will undoubtedly cause the pace at which nuclear power is introduced in developing countries to quicken in the next decade, with many new countries beginning to plan nuclear power programmes. The guidebook is intended for senior government officials, policy makers, economic and power planners, educationalists and economists. It assumes that the reader has relatively little knowledge of nuclear power systems or of nuclear physics but does have a general technical or management background. Nuclear power is described functionally from the point of view of an alternative energy source in power system expansion. The guidebook is based on an idealized approach. Variations on it are naturally possible and will doubtless be necessary in view of the different organizational structures that already exist in different countries. In particular, some countries may prefer an approach with a stronger involvement of their Atomic Energy Commission or Authority, for which this guidebook has foreseen mainly a regulatory and licensing role. It is intended to update this booklet as more experience becomes available. Supplementary guidebooks will be prepared on certain major topics, such as contracting for fuel supply and fuel cycle requirements, which the present book does not go into very deeply

  20. Space technology needs nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Space technology needs nuclear power to solve its future problems. Manned space flight to Mars is hardly feasible without nuclear propulsion, and orbital nuclear power lants will be necessary to supply power to large satellites or large space stations. Nuclear power also needs space technology. A nuclear power plant sited on the moon is not going to upset anybody, because of the high natural background radiation level existing there, and could contribute to terrestrial power supply. (orig./HP)

  1. Nuclear power: Europe report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last year, 2002, nuclear power plants were available for energy supply, respectively, in 18 countries all over Europe. In 8 of the 15 member countries of the European Union nuclear power plants have been in operation. In 7 of the 13 EU Candidate Countries nuclear energy was used for power production. A total of 213 plants with an aggregate net capacity of 171 814 MWe and an aggregate gross capacity of 181 135 MWe were in operation. One unit, i.e. Temelin-2 in the Czech Republic went critical for the first time and started test operation after having been connected to the grid. Temelin-2 adds about 1 000 MWe (gross) and 953 MWe (net) to the electricity production capacity. The operator of the Bradwell A-1 and Bradwell A-2 power plants in the United Kingdom decided to permanently shut down the plants due to economical reasons. The units Kozloduj-1 and Kozloduj-2 in Bulgaria were permanently shut down due to a request of the European Union. Last year, 9 plants were under construction in Romania (1), Russia (4), Slovakia (2), and the Ukraine (2), that is only in East European Countries. The Finnish parliament approved plans for the construction of the country's fifth nuclear power reactor by a majority of 107 votes to 92. It is the first decision to build a new nuclear power plant in Western Europe since ten years. In eight countries of the European Union 141 nuclear power plants have been operated with an aggregate gross capacity of 128 580 MWe and an aggregate net capacity of 122 517 MWe. Net electricity production in 2002 in the EU amounts to approx. 887.9 TWh gross, which means a share of about 34 per cent of the total production in the whole EU. Shares of nuclear power differ widely among the operator countries. They reach 81% in Lithuania, 78% in France, 58% in Belgium, 55% in the Slovak Republic, and 47% in Sweden. Nuclear power also provides a noticeable share in the electricity supply of countries, which operate no own nuclear power plants, e.g. Italy

  2. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-28

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  3. Nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This press dossier presented in Shanghai (China) in April 1999, describes first the activities of the Framatome group in the people's republic of China with a short presentation of the Daya Bay power plant and of the future Ling Ao project, and with a description of the technological cooperation with China in the nuclear domain (technology transfers, nuclear fuels) and in other industrial domains (mechanics, oil and gas, connectors, food and agriculture, paper industry etc..). The general activities of the Framatome group in the domain of energy (nuclear realizations in France, EPR project, export activities, nuclear services, nuclear fuels, nuclear equipments, industrial equipments) and of connectors engineering are presented in a second and third part with the 1998 performances. (J.S.)

  4. Nuclear power. Europe report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last year, 2001, nuclear power plants were available for energy supply, respectively, in 18 countries all over Europe. In 8 of the 15 member countries of the European Union nuclear power plants have been in operation. In 7 of the 13 EU Candidate Countries nuclear energy was used for power production. A total of 216 plants with an aggregate net capacity of 171 802 MWe and an aggregate gross capacity of 181 212 MWe were in operation. One unit, i.e. Volgodonsk-1 in Russia went critical for the first time and started test operation after having been connected to the grid. Volgodonsk-1 adds about 1 000 MWe (gross) nd 953 MWe (net) to the electricity production capacity. The operator of the Muehlheim-Kaerlich NPP field an application to decommission and dismantle the plant; this plant was only 13 months in operation and has been shut down since 1988 for legal reasons. Last year, 10 plants were under construction in Romania (1), Russia (4), Slovakia (2), the Czech Republic (1) and the Ukraine (2), that is only in East European Countries. In eight countries of the European Union 143 nuclear power plants have been operated with an aggregate gross capacity of 128 758 MWe and an aggregate net capacity of 122 601 MWe. Net electricity production in 2001 in the EU amounts to approx. 880.3 TWh gross, which means a share of 33,1 per cent of the total production in the whole EU. Shares of nuclear power differ widely among the operator countries. The reach 75.6% in France, 74.2% in Lithuania, 58.2% in Belgium, 53.2% in the Slovak Republic, and 47.4% in the Ukraine. Nuclear power also provides a noticeable share in the electricity supply of countries, which operate no own nuclear power plants, e.g. Italy, Portugal, and Austria. On May 24th, 2002 the Finnish Parliament voted for the decision in principle to build a fifth nuclear power plant in the country. This launches the next stage in the nuclear power plant project. The electric output of the plant unit will be 1000-1600 MW

  5. Nuclear power's burdened future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although governments of the world's leading nations are reiterating their faith in nuclear power, Chernobyl has brought into focus the public's overwhelming feeling that the current generation of nuclear technology is simple not working. Despite the drastic slowdown, however, the global nuclear enterprise is large. As of mid-1986, the world had 366 nuclear power plants in operation, with a generating capacity of 255,670 MW. These facilities generate about 15% of the world's electricity, ranging from 65% in France to 31% in West Germany, 23% in Japan, 16% in the United States, 10% in the Soviet Union, and non in most developing nations. Nuclear development is clearly dominated by the most economically powerful and technologically advanced nations. The United States, France, the Soviet Union, Japan, and West Germany has 72% of the world's generating capacity and set the international nuclear pace. The reasons for scaling back nuclear programs are almost as diverse as the countries themselves. High costs, slowing electricity demand growth, technical problems, mismanagement, and political opposition have all had an effect. Yet these various factors actually form a complex web of inter-related problems. For example, rising costs usually represent some combination of technical problems and mismanagement, and political opposition often occurs because of safety concerns or rising costs. 13 references

  6. France without nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As environmental issues (particularly questions associated with the greenhouse effect) become a matter of increasing current concern, the French nuclear power programme can, in retrospect, be seen to have had a highly positive impact upon emissions of atmospheric pollutants. The most spectacular effect of this programme was the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions from 530 million tonnes per annum in 1973 to 387 million tonnes per annum today. Obviously, this result cannot be considered in isolation from the economic consequences of the nuclear power programme, which have been highly significant.The most obvious consequence of nuclear power has been the production of cheap electricity, while a further consequence has been the stability of electricity prices resulting from the increasing self-sufficiency of France in energy supplies (from 22% in 1973 to 49.% in 1992). Moreover, French nuclear industry exports. In 1993, 61.7 TW·h from nuclear production were exported, which contributed F.Fr. 14.2 billion to the credit side of the balance of payment. For the same year, Framatome exports are assessed at about F.Fr. 2 billion, corresponding to manufacturing and erection of heavy components, and maintenance services. Cogema, the French nuclear fuel operator, sold nuclear materials and services for F.Fr. 9.3 billion. Thus, nuclear activities contributed more than F.Fr. 25 billion to the balance of payment. Therefore, a numerical assessment of the macroeconomic impact of the nuclear power programme is essential for any accurate evaluation of the environmental consequences of that programme. For this assessment, which is presented in the paper, the Micro-Melodie macroeconomic and energy supply model developed by the Commissariat a l'energie atomique has been used. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  7. Nuclear Power after Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 11 March 2011 Japan suffered an earthquake of very high magnitude, followed by a tsunami that left thousands dead in the Sendai region, the main consequence of which was a major nuclear disaster at the Fukushima power station. The accident ranked at the highest level of severity on the international scale of nuclear events, making it the biggest since Chernobyl in 1986. It is still impossible to gauge the precise scope of the consequences of the disaster, but it has clearly given rise to the most intense renewed debates on the nuclear issue. Futuribles echoes this in the 'Forum' feature of this summer issue which is entirely devoted to energy questions. Bernard Bigot, chief executive officer of the technological research organization CEA, looks back on the Fukushima disaster and what it changes (or does not change) so far as the use of nuclear power is concerned, particularly in France. After recalling the lessons of earlier nuclear disasters, which led to the development of the third generation of power stations, he reminds us of the currently uncontested need to free ourselves from dependence on fossil fuels, which admittedly involves increased use of renewables, but can scarcely be envisaged without nuclear power. Lastly, where the Fukushima disaster is concerned, Bernard Bigot shows how it was, in his view, predominantly the product of a management error, from which lessons must be drawn to improve the safety conditions of existing or projected power stations and enable the staff responsible to deliver the right response as quickly as possible when an accident occurs. In this context and given France's high level of dependence on nuclear power, the level of use of this energy source ought not to be reduced on account of the events of March 2011. (author)

  8. Reviewing nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK government has proposed a review of the prospects for nuclear power as the Sizewell B pressurized water reactor project nears completion in 1994. However, a delay in the completion of Sizewell B or a change of government could put off the review for some years beyond the mid 1990s. Anticipating, though, that such a review will eventually take place, issues which it should consider are addressed. Three broad categories of possible benefit claimed for nuclear power are examined. These are that nuclear power contributes to the security of energy supply, that it provides protection against long run fossil fuel price increases and that it is a means of mitigating the greenhouse effect. Arguments are presented which cost doubt over the reality of these benefits. Even if these benefits could be demonstrated, they would have to be set against the financial, health and accident costs attendant on nuclear power. It is concluded that the case may be made that nuclear power imposes net costs on society that are not justified by the net benefits conferred. Some comments are made on how a government review, if and when it takes place, should be conducted. (UK)

  9. France without nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As coal production declined and France found herself in a condition of energy dependency, the country decided to turn to nuclear power and a major construction program was undertaken in 1970. The consequences of this step are examined in this article, by imagining where France would be without its nuclear power. At the end of the sixties, fuel-oil incontestably offered the cheapest way of producing electricity; but the first petroleum crisis was to upset the order of economic performance, and coal then became the more attractive fuel. The first part of this article therefore presents coal as an alternative to nuclear power, describing the coal scenario first and then comparing the relative costs of nuclear and coal investment strategies and operating costs (the item that differs most is the price of the fuel). The second part of the article analyzes the consequences this would have on the electrical power market, from the supply and demand point of view, and in terms of prices. The third part of the article discusses the macro-economic consequences of such a step: the drop in the level of energy dependency, increased costs and the disappearance of electricity exports. The article ends with an analysis of the environmental consequences, which are of greater and greater concern today. The advantage here falls very much in favor of nuclear power, if we judge by the lesser emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and especially carbon dioxide. 22 refs.; 13 figs.; 10 tabs

  10. The politics of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents of the book are: introduction; (part 1, the economy of nuclear power) nuclear power and the growth of state corporatism, ownership and control - the power of the multi-nationals, economic and political goals - profit or control, trade union policy and nuclear power; (part 2, nuclear power and employment) nuclear power and workers' health and safety, employment and trade union rights, jobs, energy and industrial strategy, the alternative energy option; (part 3, political strategies) the anti-nuclear movement, trade unions and nuclear power; further reading; UK organisations. (U.K.)

  11. Chapter No.3. Assessment and inspection of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment activity of UJD in relation to nuclear installation lies in assessment of safety documentation for constructions realised as nuclear installations, or construction through which changes on nuclear installations are realised. The assessment activity of UJD in 2001 was focused on National Repository of Radwaste in Mochovce, on Radwaste conditioning and treatment technology in Jaslovske Bohunice and on the assessment of documentation for the project of modernisation of Bohunice V-2 NPPs which is under preparation. The assessment of the technical condition of equipment, important in terms of nuclear safety, primarily based on results of in-service inspections and surveillance testing of safety related components and systems, is also a part of the safety assessment of nuclear installation operation. The inspectors take part in training courses and participate in other technical meetings and workshops organised by the IAEA and also take part in special training courses organised by the Nuclear Authorities of European countries, USA and Japan. Bohunice V-1 NPP is equipped with two reactors of WWER 440 type V-230 and was put into operation in 1978-1980 as one of the last nuclear power plants with this type of reactor. Both units of NPP V-1 Bohunice operated in 2001 according to the requirements of energy dispatching at nominal power, or in a regime of tertiary regulation. November 2000, a mission of experts invited by UJD and delegated by IAEA took place at the Bohunice NPPs. The mission members together with experts of the plant operator assessed the safety of the units of WWER-440/V-230 of Bohunice V-1 NPP after the reconstruction. The members of the mission prepared the report on the current status of safety of these units for the IAEA. In 2001, UJD by its decision, issued the approval for further operation of both reactor units of Bohunice V-1 NPP. In sense of the relevant decree on operational events, 20 events have been recorded, at Bohunice V-1 NPP in

  12. Environment and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aimed at the general public this leaflet, one of a series prepared by AEA Technology, on behalf of the British Nuclear Industry Forum, seeks to put the case for generating electricity to meet United Kingdom and world demand using nuclear power. It examines the environmental problems linked to the use of fossil-fuels in power stations and other uses, such as the Greenhouse Effect. Problems associated with excess carbon dioxide emissions are also discussed, such as acid rain, the effects of deforestation and lead in petrol. The role of renewable energy sources is mentioned briefly. The leaflet also seeks to reassure on issues such as nuclear waste managements and the likelihood and effects of nuclear accidents. (UK)

  13. Nuclear power production costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic competitiveness of nuclear power in different highly developed countries is shown, by reviewing various international studies made on the subject. Generation costs (historical values) of Atucha I and Embalse Nuclear Power Plants, which are of the type used in those countries, are also included. The results of an international study on the economic aspects of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle are also reviewed. This study shows its relatively low incidence in the generation costs. The conclusion is that if in Argentina the same principles of economic racionality were followed, nuclear energy would be economically competitive in the future, as it is today. This is of great importance in view of its almost unavoidable character of alternative source of energy, and specially since we have to expect an important growth in the consumption of electricity, due to its low share in the total consumption of energy, and the low energy consumption per capita in Argentina. (Author)

  14. Thai Nuclear Power Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT), the main power producer in Thailand, was first interested in nuclear power as an electricity option in 1967 when the electricity demand increased considerably for the first time as a result of the economic and industrial growth. Its viability had been assessed several times during the early seventies in relation to the changing factors. Finally in the late 1970s, the proceeding with nuclear option was suspended for a variety of reasons, for instance, public opposition, economic repercussion and the uncovering of the indigenous petroleum resources. Nonetheless, EGAT continued to maintain a core of nuclear expertise. During 1980s, faced with dwindling indigenous fossil fuel resources and restrictions on the use of further hydro as an energy source, EGAT had essentially reconsidered introducing nuclear power plants to provide a significant fraction to the long term future electricity demand. The studies on feasibility, siting and environmental impacts were conducted. However, the project was never implemented due to economics crisis in 1999 and strong opposition by environmentalists and activists groups. The 1986 Chernobyl disaster was an important cause. After a long dormant period, the nuclear power is now reviewed as one part of the solution for future energy supply in the country. Thailand currently relies on natural gas for 70 percent of its electricity, with the rest coming from oil, coal and hydro-power. One-third of the natural gas consumed in Thailand is imported, mainly from neighbouring Myanmar. According to Power Development Plan (PDP) 2007 rev.2, the total installed electricity capacity will increase from 28,530.3 MW in 2007 to 44,281 MW by the end of plan in 2021. Significantly increasing energy demand, concerns over climate change and dependence on overseas supplies of fossil fuels, all turn out in a favor of nuclear power. Under the current PDP (as revised in 2009), two 1,000- megawatt nuclear

  15. Design basis and design features of WWER-440 model 213 nuclear power plants. Reference plant: Bohunice V2 (Slovakia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prime objective of the IAEA Technical Co-operation Project on Evaluation of Safety Aspects of WWER-440 model 213 NPPs is to co-ordinate and to integrate assistance to national organizations in studying selected aspects of safety for the same type of reactors. Consequently, the study integrated the results generated by national activities carried out in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia and Ukraine and co-ordinated through the IAEA. Valuable assistance in carrying out the tasks was also provided by Bulgaria and Poland. A set of publications is being prepared to present the results of the project. The publications are intended to facilitate the review and utilization of the results of the project. They are also providing assistance in further refinement and/or extension of plant specific safety evaluation of model 213 NPPs. This Technical Document addressing the design basis and safety related design features of WWER-440 model 213 plants is the first of the series to be published. It is hoped that this document will be useful to anyone working in the field of WWER safety, and in particular to experts planning, executing or reviewing studies related to the subject. Refs, 36 figs, tabs

  16. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Before the economical adaptability of nuclear power plants was achieved, many ways were tried to technically use nuclear fission. In the course of a selection process, of numerous types of reactors, only a few have remained which are now taking part in the competition. The most important physical fundamentals, the occurence of various reactor concepts and the most important reactor types are the explained. (orig./TK)

  17. Nuclear power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I want to give some ideas on the situation of public and utility acceptance of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany and perhaps a little bit on Europe. Let me start with public perception. I think in Germany we have a general trend in the public perception of technology during the last decade that has been investigated in a systematic manner in a recent study. It is clear that the general acceptance of technology decreased substantially during the last twenty years. We can also observe during this time that aspects of the benefits of technology are much less reported in the media, that most reporting by the media now is related to the consequences of technologies, such as negative environmental consequences. hat development has led to a general opposition against new technological projects, in particular unusual and large. That trend is related not only to nuclear power, we see it also for new airports, trains, coal-fired plants. here is almost no new technological project in Germany where there is not very strong opposition against it, at least locally. What is the current public opinion concerning nuclear power? Nuclear power certainly received a big shock after Chernobyl, but actually, about two thirds of the German population wants to keep the operating plants running. Some people want to phase the plants out as they reach the end-of-life, some want to substitute newer nuclear technology, and a smaller part want to increase the use of nuclear power. But only a minority of the German public would really like to abandon nuclear energy

  18. Nuclear power: Europe report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last year, 1999, nuclear power plants were available for energy supply, respectively, in 18 countries all over Europe. In eight of the fifteen member countries of the European Union nuclear power plants have been in operation. A total of 218 plants with an aggregate net capacity of 181,120 MWe and an aggregate gross capacity of 171,802 MWe were in operation. Two units, i.e. Civaux 2 in France and Mochovce-2 in Slovakia went critical for the first time and started commercial operation after having been connected to the grid. Three further units in France, Chooz 1 and 2 and Civaux 1, started commercial operation in 1999 after the completion of technical measures in the primary circuit. Last year, 13 plants were under construction in Romania, Russia, Slovakia and the Czech Republic, that is only in East European countries. In eight countries of the European Union 146 nuclear power plants have been operated with an aggregate gross capacity of 129.772 MWe and an aggregate net capacity of 123.668 MWe. Net electricity production in 1999 in the EU amounts to approx. 840.2 TWh, which means a share of 35 per cent of the total production. Shares of nuclear power differ widely among the operator countries. They reach 75 per cent in France, 73 per cent in Lithuania, 58 per cent in Belgium and 47 per cent in Bulgaria, Sweden and Slovakia. Nuclear power also provides a noticeable share in the electricity supply of countries, which operate no own nuclear power plants, e.g. Italy, Portugal and Austria. (orig.)

  19. How nuclear power began

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of the features of the story of nuclear power, both in nuclear weapons and nuclear power stations, derive from their timing. Usually, in the history of science the precise timing of discovery does not make much difference, but in the case of nuclear fission there was the coincidence that crucial discoveries were made and openly published in the same year, 1939, as the outbreak of the Second World War. It is these events of the 1930s and the early post-war era that are mainly discussed. However, the story began a lot earlier and even in the early 1900s the potential power within the atom had been foreseen by Soddy and Rutherford. In the 1930s Enrico Fermi and his team saw the technological importance of their discoveries and took out a patent on their process to produce artificial radioactivity from slow neutron beams. The need for secrecy because of the war, and the personal trusts and mistrusts run through the story of nuclear power. (UK)

  20. Nuclear power energy mixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report contains the papers presented at the conference held on 23/24 February 1994 at the RWTH in Aachen. The goal of this conference was to analyse key issues of future energy management from different viewpoints and to attempt to achieve objective estimations. This VDI Report treats the following main themes: - is the climate question relevant? - chances and limits of renewable energy sources - does nuclear power have a future? - are the nuclear and non-nuclear waste problems solvable? - external costs in energy management -company and energy management decision criteria. (orig.)

  1. Performance of TEP 1 computer code for automated evaluation of technical and economic parameters of WWER-440 nuclear power plant units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TEP 1 program has been written for automatic evaluation of technical and economic parameters of a nuclear power plant with WWER-440 units. The results are discussed of the trial run of the program within the framework of the KOMPLEX-URAN 2M information system at the Jaslovske Bohunice V-2 nuclear power plant between December 1985 and March 1986. The program provides mean and integral values of such variables as are the temperature and flow rate of feed water, the temperature of cooling water before the main condenser, etc., but also data on the thermal power of the reactor, on own heat consumption and own power consumption and on terminal power output. The trial run of TEP 1 showed that it serves to considerably improve the information system and contributes to an increased efficiency of the nuclear power plant operation. After the trial run the TEP 1 program was put into routine operation at the Jaslovske Bohunice power plant and it is expected to be put into operation at the Dukovany power plant. (Z.M.) l tab., 3 refs

  2. Japan's nuclear power tightrope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that early in February, just as Japan's nuclear energy program was regaining a degree of popular support after three years of growing opposition, an aging pressurized-water reactor at Mihama in western Japan sprang a leak in its primary cooling system. The event occasioned Japan's first nontest use of an emergency core-cooling system. It also elicited a forecast of renewed public skepticism about nuclear power form the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), the Government body responsible for promoting and regulating Japan's ambitious nuclear power program. Public backing for this form of energy has always been a delicate flower in Japan, where virtually every school child visits the atomic bomb museums at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Yet the country, which imports 80 percent of its energy and just about all its oil, is behind only the United States, France, and the Soviet Union in installed nuclear capacity. In fiscal 1989, which started in April, Japan's 39 nuclear power stations accounted for 25.5 percent of electricity generated - the largest contribution - followed b coal and natural gas. Twelve more plants are under construction

  3. Nuclear Power in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, John W.

    1983-01-01

    Energy consumption in Japan has grown at a faster rate than in any other major industrial country. To maintain continued prosperity, the government has embarked on a crash program for nuclear power. Current progress and issues/reactions to the plan are discussed. (JN)

  4. Biblis nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short constructive description of the components of the Biblis nuclear power station is given here. In addition to the heat flow diagram, the coolant cycle and the turbine control system, some details of construction and reactor safety are presented. (TK/AK)

  5. Fessenheim nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fessenheim nuclear power plant includes two PWR type units each with net electrical output of 890MW(e). The site and layout of the station, geological features and cooling water characteristics are described. Reference is made to other aspects of the environment such as population density and agronomy. (U.K.)

  6. The abuse of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different aspects of possible abuse of nuclear power by countries or individuals are discussed. Special attention is paid to the advantage of nuclear power, despite the risk of weapon proliferation or terrorism. The concepts of some nuclear power critics, concerning health risks in the nuclear sector are rejected as untrue and abusive

  7. Labor and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, R.; Nelkin, D.

    1980-03-01

    The AFL-CIO is officially pro-nuclear, but tensions within unions are taking issue over ideological differences. The Labor movement, having looked to nuclear power development as an economic necessity to avoid unemployment, has opposed efforts to delay construction or close plants. As many as 42% of union members or relatives of members, however, were found to oppose new power plants, some actively working against specific construction projects. The United Mine Workers and Teamsters actively challenged the nuclear industry while the auto workers have been ambivalent. The differences between union orientation reflects the history of unionism in the US and explains the emergence of social unionism with its emphasis on safety and working conditions as well as economic benefits. Business union orientation trends to prevail during periods of prosperity; social unions during recessions. The labor unions and the environmentalists are examined in this conext and found to be hopeful. 35 references. (DCK)

  8. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is the fifth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2007 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events of nuclear power, and international relations and conflicts. (LN)

  9. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is the fourth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe National Laboratory and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2006 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development and development of emergency management systems, safety related events of nuclear power, and international relations and conflicts. (LN)

  10. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is the third report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe National Laboratory and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2005 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development and development of emergency management systems, safety related events of nuclear power and international relations and conflicts. (ln)

  11. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is the second report in a new series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe National Laboratory and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2004 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development and development of emergency management systems, safety related events of nuclear power and international relations and conflicts. (ln)

  12. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is the fifth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2008 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events of nuclear power, and international relations and conflicts. (LN)

  13. The most extensive reconstruction of nuclear power plant with VVER 440/V230 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power plant V-1 Bohunice consists of two VVER-440 units with V-230 reactors. Unit 1 was commissioned in 1978 and Unit 2 in 1980. Large experience and knowledge from the operation of previous units with V-230 reactors were incorporated into the V-1 design, which resulted in a higher level of safety and operational reliability of these units. The Siemens company which won an international bidding process developed these basic goals for the Gradual Upgrading into the so called Basic Engineering (BE). For the implementation of the Gradual Upgrading in line with the BE, Rekon consortium was established consisting of Siemens and VUJE. The implementation of the Gradual Upgrading is scheduled for the time period of 1996 - 2000. Siemens was responsible for the upgrading strategy - based on the approved results of the basic engineering phase and the PSAR, the engineering and realization of all I and C improvements, and also for the seismic upgrade. VUJE's responsibility covered the detailed engineering and implementation of mechanical, electrical and civil part of upgrading measures as well as overall organisation and evaluation of verification tests. The consortium awarded contracts for final planning and design, installation services and commissioning to other Slovakian subcontractors in order to ensure the largest possible local content. The gradual reconstruction of the V-1 Bohunice with V230 reactors represents a comprehensive reconstruction of safety-related systems and equipment. Following its completion, the units will be operated with a safety level accepted internationally. (author)

  14. Nuclear power plant simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, real time nuclear power plant simulator for student education is described. The simulator is composed of a hybrid computer and an operating console. Simulated power plant is a 36 MWt PWR plant, and the average temperature of the primary coolant within the reactor is controlled to be constant. Reactor Kinetics, fuel temperature, primary coolant temperature, temperature and pressure of steam within the steam generator, steam flow, control rod driving system, and feed water controlling system are simulated. The use of the hybrid computer made it possible to simulate a relatively large scale power plant with a comparatively small size computing system. (auth.)

  15. REKO - Bohunice V-1. Experience with instrumentation and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper and in presentation some results of upgrading of the NPP Bohunice V-1 are presented. For the first time, extensive upgrades are performed in all safety-related areas of both units with VVER 440/230 reactors. These upgrades focused on: - Expansion and upgrading of the process safety systems; - Replacement of the safety I and C system with a TELEPERM XS-based system; - Spatial separation of safety equipment; - Modernisation of the electrical auxiliary power systems; - Seismic upgrading and fire protection; - Improvement of the man-machine interface. This upgrade is considered exemplary around the world. The most extensive stage of gradual reconstruction of Unit 2 was completed according to the schedule in January 1999. For the first time, a reactor which incorporates state-of-the-art digital I and C in its reactor protection system is on-line. (author)

  16. National approach to economic performance indicators for nuclear power plants: Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The size of the Slovak Republic is 49,036 km2. In 2000, there were about 5.4 millions inhabitants and the population density was 110/km2. In 2000, the GDP decreased to $19.7 billion compared with $21.3 billion in 1998. Slovakia has only limited domestic energy resources, i.e. lignite, oil, natural gas and renewable resources. The energy potential of renewable resources in Slovakia represents approximately 5% of the total annual consumption of primary energy resources. In 2000, the electricity production from Slovak Electric was 26.3 TW·h (about 85%) and from other producers 4.6 TW·h (15%). The latter group consists mainly of energy generators in factories (car producers). The dominant producer of electricity in Slovakia is Slovak Electric, which is owned by the National Property Fund. About 90% of the distribution and sale of electricity are done by regional energy enterprises. The power grid operates within the framework of the Central Regional Net (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia). In October 1995, a long term trial test of the joint operation with the UCPTE started. Another important measure related to the nuclear power sector is the Government decree on the closure of the two oldest units at the Bohunice V-1 nuclear power plant in 2006 and 2008, respectively. By implementing a programme of modernization and safety upgrading of the Bohunice V-2 nuclear power plant, extension of the V-2 design lifetime will be enabled and the high level of safety maintained. The decision on the completion of Mochovce units 3 and 4 will depend on any interest shown by a strategic partner, as no guaranty of the State is possible. It is expected that a major part of the increase in electricity demand will be covered by developing the production of independent generators, mainly based on the steam-gas cycle

  17. Facts about nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The argument concerning the introduction and the further expansion of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany has been existing for several years in differing intensities and most different forms. The arguments and theses of the discussion deal with the various aspects of the reciprocity between nuclear energy and environment. This is the key-note for the scientists to treat the relevant problems and questions in the discussion about nuclear energy. The controversy in which often emotional theses are stated instead of reasonably deliberating the pros and contras includes civil initiatives, societies, and environment protection organisations on the one hand and authorities, producers, and operators of nuclear-technical plants on the other. And the scale of the different opinions reaches from real agreement to deep condemnation of a technology which represents an option to meet the energy need in the future. In this situation, this book is an attempt to de-emotionalize the whole discussion. Most of the authors of the articles come from research centres and have been working on the problems they deal with for years. The spectrum of the topics includes the energy-political coherences of nuclear energy, the technical fundaments of the individual reactor types, safety and security of nuclear-technical plants the fuel cycle, especially the waste management in nuclear power plants, environmental aspects of energy generation in general and nuclear energy in special, the question of Plutonium and the presentation of alternative energy sources including nuclear fusion. The arrangement of these topics is meant to help to clarify the complex coherences of nuclear energy and to help those interested in problems of energy policy to make their own personal decisions. (orig./RW)

  18. MELCOR Comparative Analyses of Severe Accident of Medium LOCA for the NPP V2 Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of safety analysis of a medium LOCA (break size 100 mm in cold leg) for the V2 Bohunice nuclear power plant (VVER-440/V-213), and compares the results calculated by various computer codes (MELCOR, MAAP, RELAP/SCADAP). The analysis is performed within the SWISSLOVAK project by the safety analysis group at the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic. The medium LOCA accident is combined with station blackout scenario which leads to the core uncovery and meltdown of the reactor core. The core meltdown is followed by the core relocation to the lower plenum, heat up of the reactor pressure vessel lower head, failure of the lower head, and debris ejection into the reactor cavity. The time of key events calculated by various computer codes is similar. The start of core melt is predicted within 0.8 to 1.08 hours and the reactor pressure vessel lower head failure is predicted within 4.1 to 6.3 hours since the initiation of the accident. A substantial release of noble gases to the environment through the permanent containment leakage is calculated. The compartmentalization of the containment and the presence of the bubble condenser affect the release of the fission products. (author)

  19. Economics of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economics of electricity supply and production in the FRG is to see on the background of the unique European interconnected grid system which makes very significant contributions to the availability of standby energy and peak load power. On this basis and the existing high voltage grid system, we can build large nuclear generating units and realise the favorable cost aspects per installed KW and reduced standby power. An example of calculating the overall electricity generating costs based on the present worth method is explained. From the figures shown, the sensitivity of the generating costs with respect to the different cost components can be derived. It is apparent from the example used, that the major advantage of nuclear power stations compared with fossil fired stations lies in the relatively small percentage fraction contributed by the fuel costs to the electricity generating costs. (orig.)

  20. Nuclear Power Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present trend is to construct larger plants: the average power of the plants under construction at present, including prototypes, is 300 MW(e), i.e. three times higher than in the case of plants already in operation. Examples of new large-scale plants ares (a) Wylfa, Anglesey, United Kingdom - scheduled power of 1180 MW(e) (800 MW to be installed by 1967), to be completed in 1968; (b) ''Dungeness B'', United Kingdom - scheduled power of 1200 MW(e); (c) second unit for United States Dresden power plant - scheduled power of 715 MW(e) minimum to almost 800 MW(e). Nuclear plants on the whole serve the same purpose as conventional thermal plants

  1. Space Nuclear Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Fission power and propulsion systems can enable exciting space exploration missions. These include bases on the moon and Mars; and the exploration, development, and utilization of the solar system. In the near-term, fission surface power systems could provide abundant, constant, cost-effective power anywhere on the surface of the Moon or Mars, independent of available sunlight. Affordable access to Mars, the asteroid belt, or other destinations could be provided by nuclear thermal rockets. In the further term, high performance fission power supplies could enable both extremely high power levels on planetary surfaces and fission electric propulsion vehicles for rapid, efficient cargo and crew transfer. Advanced fission propulsion systems could eventually allow routine access to the entire solar system. Fission systems could also enable the utilization of resources within the solar system.

  2. Nuclear power for desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water is one of the most important assets to mankind and without which the human race would cease to exist. Water is required by us right from domestic to industrial levels. As notified by the 'American Nuclear Society' and 'World Nuclear Association' about 1/5th of the world population does not access to portable water especially in the Asian and African subcontinent. The situation is becoming adverse day by day due to rise in population and industrialization. The need of alternative water resource is thus becoming vital. About 97.5% of Earth is covered by oceans. Desalination of saline water to generate potable water is thus an important topic of research. Currently about 12,500 desalination plants are operating worldwide with a capacity of about 35 million m3/day using mainly fossil fuels for generation of large amount of energy required for processing water. These thermal power station release large amount of carbon dioxide and other green house gases. Nuclear reactors are capable of delivering energy to the high energy-intensive processes without any environmental concerns for climate change etc., giving a vision to sustainable growth of desalination process. These projects are currently employed in Kazakhstan, India, Japan, and Pakistan and are coupled to the nuclear reactor for generating electricity and potable water as well. The current climatic scenario favors the need for expanding dual purpose nuclear power plants producing energy and water at the same location. (author)

  3. Computation code TEP 1 for automated evaluation of technical and economic parameters of operation of WWER-440 nuclear power plant units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TEP 1 program is used for automated evaluation of the technical and economic parameters of nuclear power plant units with WWER-440 reactors. This is an application program developed by the Research Institute for Nuclear Power Plants in Jaslovske Bohunice for the KOMPLEX-URAN 2M information system, delivered by the USSR to the V-2 nuclear power plants in Jaslovske Bohunice and in Dukovany. The TEP 1 program is written in FORTRAN IV and its operation has two parts. First the evaluation of technical and economic parameters of operation for a calculation interval of 10 mins and second, the control of the calculation procedure, follow-up on input data, determination of technical and economic parameters for a lengthy time interval, and data printout and storage. The TEP 1 program was tested at the first unit of the V-2 power plant and no serious faults appeared in the process of the evaluation of technical and economic parameters. A modification of the TEP 1 programme for the Dukovany nuclear power plant is now being tested on the first unit of the plant. (Z.M.)

  4. Economics of nuclear power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power development in Taiwan was initiated in 1956. Now Taipower has five nuclear units in smooth operation, one unit under construction, two units under planning. The relatively short construction period, low construction costs and twin unit approach had led to the significant economical advantage of our nuclear power generation. Moreover betterment programmes have further improved the availability and reliability factors of our nuclear power plants. In Taipower, the generation cost of nuclear power was even less than half of that of oil-fired thermal power in the past years ever since the nuclear power was commissioned. This made Taipower have more earnings and power rates was even dropped down in March 1983. As Taiwan is short of energy sources and nuclear power is so well-demonstrated nuclear power will be logically the best choice for Taipower future projects

  5. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report provides data and assessments of the status and prospects of nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle. The report discusses the economic competitiveness of nuclear electricity generation, the extent of world uranium resources, production and requirements, uranium conversion and enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel treatment and radioactive waste management. A review is given of the status of nuclear fusion research

  6. Geomorphologic specificities of selected sites for nuclear power plants in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution of geomorphology to the complex evaluation of properties of sites for the construction and operation of nuclear facilities is demonstrated. The unique manifestation of the present geodynamics at the Jaslovske Bohunice nuclear power plant locality and the spatial correlations of annals of the specific morphotectonic development of georeliefs of that nuclear power plant with the location of the epicentral earthquake zones are shown. The results of the geomorphological survey in the surroundings of the Temelin nuclear power plant construction site are described and a drawing is reproduced showing how the georelief of this locality divides into areas with different categories of occurrence of morpho-structural formations. For the Tetov locality, where the construction of a nuclear power plant is planned, the changes in the course of the Labe (Elbe) river which occurred in the Pleistocene are of importance in the assessment of the intensity of geodynamic processes. The geomorphological and geotectonic complexity of the planned Blahutovice nuclear power plant construction site is demonstrated. A drawing shows the morphotectonic situation in the surroundings of that construction site. (Z.S.). 4 figs

  7. Nuclear power and ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author can see no sense in demanding an ethical regime to be applied exclusively to nuclear power but rather calls for an approach that discusses nuclear power as one constituent of the complex energy issue in a way spanning all dimensions involved, as e.g. the technological, economic, cultural, humanitarian, and humanistic aspects. An ethical approach does not question scientific research, or science or technology, but examines their relation to man and the future of humanity, so that an ethical approach will first of all demand that society will bring forward conscientious experts as reliable partners in the process of discussing the ethical implications of progress and development in a higly industrialised civilisation. (orig./CB)

  8. Nuclear turbine power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose : To improve the heat cycle balance in a nuclear turbine power plant or the like equipped with a moisture separating and reheating device, by eliminating undesired overcooling of the drains in the pipes of a heat transmission pipe bundle. Constitution : A high pressure turbine is driven by main steams from a steam generator. The steams after driving the high pressure turbine are removed with moistures by way of a moisture separator and then re-heated. Extracted steams from the steam generator or the high pressure turbine are used as a heating source for the reheating. In the nuclear turbine power plant having such a constitution, a vessel for separating the drains and the steams resulted from the heat exchange is provided at the outlet of the reheating device and the steams in the vessel are introduced to the inlet of the moisture separator. (Aizawa, K.)

  9. Kruemmel nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This short description of the site and the nuclear power plant with information on the presumable effects on the environment and the general public is to provide some data material to the population in a popular form so that the citizens may in form themselves about the plant. In this description which shall be presented to the safety report, the site, the technical design and the operation mode of the nuclear power plant are described. Some problems of the emission and the effects of radioactive materials as well as other issues related to the plant which are of interest to the public are dealt with. The supposed accidents and their handling are discussed. The description shows that the selected site is suitable for both setting-up and operation of the plant without affecting the safety of the people living there and that in admissible burdens of the environment shall not have to be expected. (orig./HP)

  10. Jobs and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To guarantee the existence of Germany as an industrialized country, and to protect jobs, the country needs a comprehensive energy consensus not restricted to the solution of the debate about the future of nuclear power. From the point of view of IGBCE, the Mining, Chemistry and Energy Workers Union, striving for continuity remains a basic prerequisite. The energy mix currently existing offers the best preconditions for a future energy supply in the light of the worldwide development to be expected. Nuclear power cannot be replaced for a foreseeable time without this giving rise to considerable damage to the national economy and ecology alike. An overall objective should be to keep electricity generation in the country. Consistent resource conservation, more efficient energy use, and stricter energy conservation must further enhance the environmental acceptability of energy generation and energy consumption. (orig.)

  11. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To suppress corrosion at the inner surfaces of equipments and pipeways in nuclear power plants. Constitution: An injection device comprising a chemical injection tank and a plunger type chemical injection pump for injecting hydrazine as an oxygen remover and ammonia as a pH controller is disposed to the downstream of a condensate desalter column for primary coolant circuits. Since dessolved oxygen in circuit water injected with these chemicals is substantially reduced to zero and pH is adjuted to about 10 - 11, occurrence of stress corrosion cracks in carbon steels and stainless steels as main constituent materials for the nuclear power plant and corrosion products are inhibited in high temperature water, and of corrosion products are inhibited from being introduced as they are through leakage to the reactor core, by which the operators' exposure does can be decreased significantly. (Sekiya, K.)

  12. Nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case for nuclear power, from both a world and a British standpoint, is first discussed, with particular reference to oil supply and demand. It is considered that oil and gas should in future be used as a feedstock for the chemical industry, for transportation purposes, and as a starting point for protein food for animals and later for humans; to squander so much by burning simply as a crude fuel cannot be right. It is considered that Britain should continue constructing nuclear stations at a steady modest rate, and that the fast reactor should receive increasing attention, despite the anti-nuclear lobby. The case for the fast breeder reactor is discussed in detail, including its development at UKAEA Harwell and Dounreay. Accusations against the fast reactor are considered, particularly those concerned with safety, and with the use or misuse of Pu. Public debates are discussed. (U.K.)

  13. Pragmatics of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In context of depletion of fossil fuels and continuous increase of global warming, nuclear power is highly solicited by world energy congress for solving energy crisis for ever. No doubt, a small amount of nuclear fuel can provide immense amount of energy but in exchange of what? Safety, security, large compensation and huge risk of lives, gift of radio-activity to environment and so many adverse effects. Yet are we in a position to reject or neglect it exclusively? Can we show such luxury? Again are we capable to control such a demon for the benefit of human being. Either is it magic lamp of Aladdin or a Frankenstein? Who will give the answer? Likely after nuclear war, is there anybody left in this planet to hide or is there any place available to hide. Answers are not yet known. (author)

  14. US nuclear power programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United States, coal provided 56 percent of the electricity generated in 1992. Nuclear energy was the next largest contributor, supplying 22 percent. Natural gas provided 9 percent, while hydro-electric and renewables together supplied another 9 percent. Currently, the 109 nuclear power plants in the U.S. have an overall generating capacity of 99,000 MWe. To improve efficiency, safety, and performance, the lessons of 30 years of experience with nuclear powerplants are being incorporated into design criteria for the next generation of U.S. plants. The new Advanced Light Water Reactor plants will feature simpler designs, which will enable more cost-effective construction and maintenance. To enhance safety, design margins are being increased, and human factors are being considered and incorporated into the designs

  15. Preparedness against nuclear power accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet contains information about the organization against nuclear power accidents, which exist in the four Swedish counties with nuclear power plants. It is aimed at classes 7-9 of the Swedish schools. (L.E.)

  16. Initiative against nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication of the Initiative of Austrian Nuclear Power Plant Opponents contains articles on radiactive waste dispoasal in Austria and and discusses safety issues of the nuclear power plant 'Zwentendorf'. (kancsar)

  17. Nuclear power and public perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text presents and analyzes a survey dealing with public opinion about nuclear power. The author suggests ways to improve communication and information in order to lead people to have a better opinion concerning nuclear power. (TEC)

  18. Nuclear Power: Epilogue or Prologue?

    OpenAIRE

    Harold R. Denton

    1983-01-01

    Judging by the continuing stream of nuclear power plant cancellations and downward revisions of nuclear energy forecasts, there is nothing riskier than predicting the future of commercial nuclear power. U.S. Nuclear Regulation Commissioner John Ahearne (1981) likens the recent events affecting the nuclear power industry in the United States to a Greek tragedy. Others, particularly other nations, take a different view about the future.

  19. Ethical aspects of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear controversy comprises many ethical aspects, e.g. the waste disposal problem. Nuclear opponents should not neglect the environmental protection aspect; for example, the use of nuclear power alone brought about an 8% reduction of the CO2 burden in 1987. Our responsibility towards nature and humans in the Third World leaves us no alternative to nuclear power. On the other hand, the nuclear power debate should not become a matter of religious beliefs. (DG)

  20. Vietnam and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, N.T.; Hong, L.V. [Viet Nam Atomic Energy Commission (VAEC), Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    1997-12-31

    Economy of Vietnam is developing fast and the electricity demand is growing drastically, last five years about 12.5% per year. The Government puts high target for the future with GDP rating about 8% per year up to 2020. In this case, the electricity demand in 2020 will be tenfold bigger in comparison with 1995`s level. The deficient of domestic resources and the security of energy supply invoke the favorable consideration on nuclear power. (author)

  1. Nuclear power in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lecture describes the energy-political situation in Sweden after the change of Government in October 1976. The present announced nuclear power plant-hostile energy politic, has to face the viewpoints of a technical and economical dependent reality. Disagreements and transgressions of political competences must be reduced, due to the fact that a constructive cooperation between politicians and energy producing corporations is a necessity, to guarantee a safe energy supply in Sweden. (orig.)

  2. Vietnam and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economy of Vietnam is developing fast and the electricity demand is growing drastically, last five years about 12.5% per year. The Government puts high target for the future with GDP rating about 8% per year up to 2020. In this case, the electricity demand in 2020 will be tenfold bigger in comparison with 1995's level. The deficient of domestic resources and the security of energy supply invoke the favorable consideration on nuclear power. (author)

  3. Nuclear power generation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a PWR type reactor, a free piston type stirling engine is disposed instead of a conventional steam generator and a turbine. Since the stirling engine does not cause radiation leakage in view of the structure, safety and reliability of the nuclear power generation are improved. Further, the thermal cycle, if it operates theoretically, is equivalent with a Carnot cycle having the highest thermodynamical heat efficiency, thereby enabling to obtain a high heat efficiency in an actual engine. (N.H.)

  4. Nuclear power in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As is known to most of this audience in November of 1987 a referendum determined a rejection of nuclear power in Italy. The referendum may be taken into consideration here as a large scale experiment which offers points of interest to this conference and problems to be aware of, in approaching a severe confrontation with the public. To give a synopsis of the Italian perspective I will examine: first the public acceptance in the situation before Chernobyl, then the most disturbing and sensitive factors of Chernobyl's consequences; how the opposition to nuclear energy worked with the support of most media and the strong pressures of an anti-nuclear political party, the syllogism of the opponents and the arguments used, the causes of major weakness of the defenders and how a new perception of nuclear risk was generated in the public. I will come to the topic of utility acceptance by mentioning that ENEL, as the National Utility, in its role is bound to a policy of compliance with Government decisions. It is oriented today to performance of feasibility studies and development of requirements for the next generation of reactors in order to maintain an updated proposal for a future recovery of the nuclear option. I will then try to identify in general terms the factors determining the future acceptance of nuclear power. They will be determined in the interdisciplinary area of politics, media and public interactions with the utilities the uses of the technology are forced to follow, by political constraints, two main directives: working only in new projects to achieve, if possible, new safety goals

  5. Programmes design for Bohunice NPP personnel other than control room operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with project development of training programmes for non-licenced NPP personnel-masters, field operators, maintenance and technical supporting personnel. The programme development focuses on the part stage and on the job training at NPP. Bohunice NPP belongs to plants with higher specific number of personnel per installed power capacity. This factor also influenced the choice of programmes design. Undermentioned procedure is one of various approaches to SAT exploitation for training programmes design. (author)

  6. World status: nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power situation in 1988 in briefly reviewed. The prospects for the 1990s are then considered. Apart from the use of nuclear power to fuel spacecraft the prospects are not that bright. The European fast breeder programme is coming to a premature end with the winding down of the fast breeder research centre at Dounreay and the delay with the French programme because of the sodium leak at Superphenix. If plutonium is no longer needed to fuel the fast breeder reactors, the reprocessing of spent fuels is less attractive. However, seven new reprocessing plants are due to be commissioned in the next six years. The THORP plant in Britain may be affected by the privatization plans for the electricity supply industry. Decommissioning and waste storage/disposal are issues which will have to be resolved in the 1990s. The risk of accidents especially from aircraft crashes is discussed. Altogether the prospects for nuclear power are not very good. The keynote of the decade will be cleaning up rather than expansion. (U.K.)

  7. Submarine nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To provide a ballast tank, and nuclear power facilities within the containment shell of a pressure resistance structure and a maintenance operator's entrance and a transmission cable cut-off device at the outer part of the containment shell, whereby after the construction, the shell is towed, and installed by self-submerging, and it can be refloated for repairs by its own strength. Constitution: Within a containment shell having a ballast tank and a pressure resisting structure, there are provided nuclear power facilities including a nuclear power generating chamber, a maintenance operator's living room and the like. Furthermore, a maintenance operator's entrance and exit device and a transmission cable cut-off device are provided within the shell, whereby when it is towed to a predetermined a area after the construction, it submerges by its own strength and when any repair inspection is necessary, it can float up by its own strength, and can be towed to a repair dock or the like. (Yoshihara, H.)

  8. The future of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power is an extremely sensitive issue and its future has been hotly debated. Conflicting arguments have been put forward regarding the viability of nuclear power. The question of whether the world should look to nuclear power for its electricity generating needs is addressed. 2 ills

  9. Overview paper on nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper was prepared as an input to ORNL's Strategic Planning Activity, ORNL National Energy Perspective (ONEP). It is intended to provide historical background on nuclear power, an analysis of the mission of nuclear power, a discussion of the issues, the technology choices, and the suggestion of a strategy for encouraging further growth of nuclear power

  10. Nuclear power plants: 2006 atw compact statistics; atw Schnellstatistik Kernkraftwerke 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2007-01-15

    At the turn of 2006/2007, nuclear power plants were available for energy supply, or under construction, in 32 countries of the world. A total of 437 nuclear power plants, which is 7 plants less than at the 2005/2006 turn, were in operation in 31 countries with an aggregate gross power of approx. 388 GWe and an aggregate net power, respectively, of 369 GWe. The available gross power of nuclear power plants dropped by approx. 1.6 GWe, the available net power, by approx. 1.2 GWe. The Tarapur 3 nuclear generating unit was commissioned in India, a D{sub 2}O PWR of 540 MWe gross power. Power operation was discontinued for good in 2006 only in nuclear power plants in Europe: Bohunice 1 (Slovak Republic, 440/408 MWe, VVER PWR); Kozloduy 3 and Kozloduy 4 (Bulgaria, 440/408 MWe each, VVER PWR); Dungeness A1 and Dungeness A2 (United Kingdom, 245/219 MWe each, Magnox GGR); Sizewell A1 and Sizewell A2 (United Kingdom, 236/210 MWe each, Magnox GGR), and Jose Cabrera 1 (Zorita) (Spain, 160/153 MWe, PWR). 29 nuclear generating units, i.e. 8 plants more than at the end of 2005, with an aggregate gross power of approx. 28 GWe, were under construction in 10 countries end of 2006. In China, construction of the Qinshan II-3, Qinshan II-4 nuclear generating units was started. In the Republic of Korea, construction work began on 4 new projects: Shin Kori 1, Shin Kori 2, and Shin Wolsong 1, Shin Wolsong 2. In Russia, work was resumed on the BN-800 sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor project at Beloyarsk and the RBMK Kursk 5. Some 40 new nuclear power plants are in the concrete project design, planning and licensing phases worldwide; on some of them, contracts have already been awarded. Another approximately seventy units are in their preliminary project phases. (orig.)

  11. Nuclear eclectic power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, D J

    1974-04-19

    The uranium and thorium resources, the technology, and the social impacts all seem to presage an even sharper increase in nuclear power for electric generation than had hitherto been predicted. There are more future consequences. The "hydrogen economy." Nuclear power plants operate best at constant power and full load. Thus, a largely nuclear electric economy has the problem of utilizing substantial off-peak capacity; the additional energy generation can typically be half the normal daily demand. Thus, the option of generating hydrogen as a nonpolluting fuel receives two boosts: excess nuclear capacity to produce it, plus much higher future costs for oil and natural gas. However, the so-called "hydrogen economy" must await the excess capacity, which will not occur until the end of the century. Nonelectric uses. By analyses similar to those performed here, raw nuclear heat can be shown to be cheaper than heat from many other fuel sources, especially nonpolluting ones. This will be particularly true as domestic natural gas supplies become more scarce. Nuclear heat becomes attractive for industrial purposes, and even for urban district heating, provided (i) the temperature is high enough (this is no problem for district heating, but could be for industry; the HTGR's and breeders, with 600 degrees C or more available, have the advantage); (ii) there is a market for large quantities (a heat rate of 3800 Mw thermal, the reactor size permitted today, will heat Boston, with some to spare); and (iii) the social costs become more definitely resolved in favor of nuclear power. Capital requirements. Nuclear-electric installations are very capital-intensive. One trillion dollars for the plants, backup industry, and so forth is only 2 percent of the total gross national product (GNP) between 1974 and 2000, at a growth rate of 4 percent per year. But capital accumulation tends to run at about 10 percent of the GNP, so the nuclear requirements make a sizable perturbation. Also

  12. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This small folder presents a digest of some useful information concerning the nuclear power plants worldwide and the situation of nuclear industry at the end of 1997: power production of nuclear origin, distribution of reactor types, number of installed units, evolution and prediction of reactor orders, connections to the grid and decommissioning, worldwide development of nuclear power, evolution of power production of nuclear origin, the installed power per reactor type, market shares and exports of the main nuclear engineering companies, power plants constructions and orders situation, evolution of reactors performances during the last 10 years, know-how and development of nuclear safety, the remarkable facts of 1997, the future of nuclear power and the energy policy trends. (J.S.)

  13. Nuclear power renaissance or demise?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dossani, Umair

    2010-09-15

    Nuclear power is going through a renaissance or demise is widely debated around the world keeping in mind the facts that there are risks related to nuclear technology and at the same time that is it environmentally friendly. My part of the argument is that there is no better alternative than Nuclear power. Firstly Nuclear Power in comparison to all other alternative fuels is environmentally sustainable. Second Nuclear power at present is at the dawn of a new era with new designs and technologies. Third part of the debate is renovation in the nuclear fuel production, reprocessing and disposal.

  14. The need for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This leaflet examines our energy future and concludes that nuclear power is an essential part of it. The leaflet also discusses relative costs, but it does not deal with social and environmental implications of nuclear power in any detail, since these are covered by other British Nuclear Forum publications. Headings are: present consumption; how will this change in future; primary energy resources (fossil fuels; renewable resources; nuclear); energy savings; availability of fossil fuels; availability of renewable energy resources; the contribution of thermal nuclear power; electricity; costs for nuclear power. (U.K.)

  15. Economics of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Difficulties of nuclear power include higher than expected generating costs, rising construction costs, problems of safety and waste disposal, and the general level of excess capacity in the electric utilities sector. Recently, the debate has turned to cost effectiveness, with critics proposing that nuclear power is not competitive with other generating technologies. Despite the importance of costs in evaluating the nuclear option, there has never been a careful examination of the cost structure of the industry. Much of the existing literature on the subject has either focused on the rising capital costs in the industry or has made strong assumptions about the production process. Aspects of the technology, such as returns to scale or input responses to changing prices, have been omitted from consideration. This thesis, carefully examines the industry's cost structure. This study accounts for the many features peculiar to the technology such as the stoichastic nature of production and the inability of firms to optimize overall inputs. In addition, particular attention is given to make sure that capital is measured consistently. The results of the model indicate that significant substitution possibilities exist among inputs, that increasing returns to scale is present throughout the range of observed output and that plants in the sample tend to be overcapitalized. Further, no evidence of embodied technical change is found

  16. Nuclear power regional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a regional analysis of the Argentine electricity market was carried out considering the effects of regional cooperation, national and international interconnections; additionally, the possibilities of insertion of new nuclear power plants in different regions were evaluated, indicating the most suitable areas for these facilities to increase the penetration of nuclear energy in national energy matrix. The interconnection of electricity markets and natural gas due to the linkage between both energy forms was also studied. With this purpose, MESSAGE program was used (Model for Energy Supply Strategy Alternatives and their General Environmental Impacts), promoted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This model performs a country-level economic optimization, resulting in the minimum cost for the modelling system. Regionalization executed by the Wholesale Electricity Market Management Company (CAMMESA, by its Spanish acronym) that divides the country into eight regions. The characteristics and the needs of each region, their respective demands and supplies of electricity and natural gas, as well as existing and planned interconnections, consisting of power lines and pipelines were taken into account. According to the results obtained through the model, nuclear is a competitive option. (author)

  17. Nuclear Power Plant 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Again this year, our magazine presents the details of the conference on Spanish nuclear power plant operation held in February and that was devoted to 1996 operating results. The Protocol for Establishment of a New Electrical Sector Regulation that was signed last December will undoubtedly represent a new challenge for the nuclear industry. By clearing stating that current standards of quality and safety should be maintained or even increased if possible, the Protocol will force the Sector to improve its productivity, which is already high as demonstrated by the results of the last few years described during this conference and by recent sectorial economic studies. Generation of a nuclear kWh that can compete with other types of power plants is the new challenge for the Sector's professionals, who do not fear the new liberalization policies and approaching competition. Lower inflation and the resulting lower interest rates, apart from being representative indices of our economy's marked improvement, will be very helpful in facing this challenge. (Author)

  18. Resin intrusion into the primary circuit of NPP Jaslovske Bohunice V-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the refueling at the first unit of Bohunice NPP in 2005 a lot of sediment was found on the upper storage rack. This sediment was identification as a filter resin. Resin was found in most of the fuel assemblies, pipes and tanks of the primary circuit and his auxiliary systems. Resin producer and WANO network was contacted in order to get information about similar events. Management of Bohunice NPP made a decision that primary circuit, fuel assemblies and auxiliary systems have to be cleaned. Subsequent cleaning extended outage by 31 days. This paper summarizes causes, existing consequences and corrective actions. Accent was put on the hydraulic characteristics of the primary circuit measurement, power distribution core monitoring and the primary circuit water quality verification (Authors)

  19. Nuclear power in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweden uses 16,000 kWh of electricity per person, by far the highest consumption in EU. The reason is a well-developed electricity intensive industry and a cold climate with high share of electric heating. The annual power consumption has for several years been about 140 TWh and a normal year almost 50 per cent is produced by hydro and 50 percent by nuclear. A new legislation, giving the Government the right to ordering the closure nuclear power plants of political reasons without any reference to safety, has been accepted by the Parliament. The new act, in force since January 1, 1998, is a specially tailored expropriation act. Certain rules for the economical compensation to the owner of a plant to be closed are defined in the new act. The common view in the Swedish industry is that the energy conservation methods proposed by the Government are unrealistic. During the first period of about five years the import from coal fired plants in Denmark and Germany is the only realistic alternative. Later natural gas combi units and new bioenergy plants for co-production of heat and power (CHP) might be available. (orig.)

  20. Is nuclear power acceptable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy shortage forecast for the early 21st century is considered. Possible energy sources other than fossil fuel are stated as geothermal, fusion, solar and fission, of which only fission has been demonstrated technically and economically. The environmental impacts of fission are examined. The hazards are discussed under the following headings: nuclear accident, fatality risk, safe reactor, property damage, acts of God, low-level release of radioactivity, diversion of fissile material and sabotage, radioactive waste disposal, toxicity of plutonium. The public reaction to nuclear power is analyzed, and proposals are made for a programme of safety and security which the author hopes will make it acceptable as the ultimate energy source. (U.K.)

  1. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization maintains an ongoing assessment of the world's nuclear technology developments, as a core activity of its Strategic Plan. This publication reviews the current status of the nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle in Australia and around the world. Main issues discussed include: performances and economics of various types of nuclear reactors, uranium resources and requirements, fuel fabrication and technology, radioactive waste management. A brief account of the large international effort to demonstrate the feasibility of fusion power is also given. 11 tabs., ills

  2. Floating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article examines the legal regime for floating nuclear power plants (FNPs), in view of the absence of specific US legislation and the very limited references to artificial islands in the Law of the Sea Convention. The environmental impacts of FNPs are examined and changes in US regulation following the Three Mile Island accident and recent US court decisions are described. References in the Law of the Sea Convention relevant to FNPs are outlined and the current status of international law on the subject is analysed. (author)

  3. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiba, James M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scherer, Carolynn P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  4. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  5. Minimization of formation of wastes from the operation of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of generation of liquid radioactive wastes at VVER 440 reactor type nuclear power plants at Jaslovske Bohunice, and Dukovany is discussed. Treatment processes at the NPPs are described. The process during which the operating liquid radioactive wastes emerge is analyzed and the major contributors are identified. The technical approaches to the optimization of the performance of the purification stations that have been implemented at the NPPs with the aim to reduce the generation of radioactive wastes are outlined. The basic results of investigation into the potential of membrane processes are given, as are the results of pilot scale experiments concerned with the use of reverse osmosis in the purification of selected water streams. Attention is also devoted to technical solutions that have been introduced in the design of the Temelin NPP. These solutions are based on the acquired experience and recommendations of foreign experts

  6. Declare of radionuclides content in radioactive wastes of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of the classification of radioactive waste involves two consideration. First, consideration must be given to the concentration of long-lived radionuclides and their shorter-lived precursors and second, consideration must be given to the concentration of shorter-lived radionuclides for which requirements on institutional controls waste form, and disposal methods are effective. Final disposal low and intermediate level radioactive waste have to meet certain requirements of regulations, one of this is the estimation of the radionuclide inventory. As most of nuclides are difficult to measure, the correlation between critical nuclides and some other easily measurable key nuclides such as 60Co and 137Cs are investigate for typical waste streams of Nuclear Power Plant Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia). Scaling factors for difficult to measure nuclides can be derived with acceptable correlation from samples collected annually from the waste stream. (authors)

  7. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is the ninth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2011 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events, international relations and conflicts, and the Fukushima accident. (LN)

  8. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is the eighth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2010 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events, international relations, and conflicts and the Fukushima accident. (LN)

  9. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is the seventh report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2009 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events, international relations, conflicts and the European safety directive. (LN)

  10. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is the tenth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is prepared in collaboration between DTU Nutech and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2012 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events, international relations and conflicts, and the results of the EU stress test. (LN)

  11. Nuclear power generation modern power station practice

    CERN Document Server

    1971-01-01

    Nuclear Power Generation focuses on the use of nuclear reactors as heat sources for electricity generation. This volume explains how nuclear energy can be harnessed to produce power by discussing the fundamental physical facts and the properties of matter underlying the operation of a reactor. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with an overview of nuclear physics, first by considering the structure of matter and basic physical concepts such as atomic structure and nuclear reactions. The second chapter deals with the requirements of a reactor as a heat source, along with the diff

  12. International nuclear power status 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the ninth in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 2002, the report contains: 1) General trends in the development of nuclear power; 2) Decommissioning of the nuclear facilities at Risoe National Laboratory: 3) Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 2001); 4) An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 2002; 5) The development in West Europe; 6) The development in East Europe; 7) The development in the rest of the world; 8) Development of reactor types; 9) The nuclear fuel cycle; 10) International nuclear organisations. (au)

  13. International nuclear power status 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the eighth in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 2001, the report contains: 1) General trends in the development of nuclear power; 2) Nuclear terrorism; 3) Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 2000); 4) An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 2001; 5) The development in West Europe; 6) The development in East Europe; 7) The development in the rest of the world; 8) Development of reactor types; 9) The nuclear fuel cycle; 10) International nuclear organisations. (au)

  14. Voices of nuclear power monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system of nuclear power monitors was started in fiscal 1977 for the purpose of hearing the opinions of general people on nuclear energy development and utilization and reflecting them to the nuclear power administration. The monitors were a total of 509 persons selected throughout the nation. First, the voices received in the period from January to March, 1980, are summarized. Then, the results of a questionnaire survey conducted in January, 1980, are presented. The survey was made by means of the questionnaire sent by mail. Of the total 509 persons, 372 (73.1%) answered the questions. The items of the questionnaire were: Atomic Energy Day, energy problem, nuclear power development, nuclear power safety administration. Three Mile Island nuclear power accident in U.S., and nuclear power P.R. activities. (J.P.N.)

  15. International nuclear power status 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the sixth in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 1999, the report contains: General trends in the development of nuclear power; The past and possible future of Barsebaeck Nuclear Power Plant; Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 1998); An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 1999; The development in Sweden; The development in Eastern Europe; The development in the rest of the world; Trends in the development of reactor types; Trends in the development of the nuclear fuel cycle. (au)

  16. The Brazilian nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The booklet contains survey articles on the nuclear power problems of Brazil, the German-Brazilian nuclear power agreement, the application of international safety measures, and 'Brazil and the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons'. The agreement is given in full wording. (HP)

  17. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides a nuclear power plant which generates thermoelectric power by utilizing heat generated by fission reaction. Namely, a fuel/thermoelectric material is made of a semiconductor material containing fission products or a semimetal material containing fission products. A reactor container contains the fuel/thermoelectric material and a reactor core constituted by the fuel/thermoelectric material. The reactor container comprises coolants for removing heat generated by nuclear reaction of fission products from the reactor core and a high temperature side electrode connected to a central portion of the fuel/thermoelectric material and a low temperature side electrode connected to the outside of the fuel/thermoelectric material. Electromotive force is caused in the fuel/thermoelectric material by temperature difference upon combustion caused at the central portion and the outer surface of the fuel/thermoelectric material. The electromotive force is taken out of the high temperature side electrode and the low temperature side electrode. (I.S.)

  18. Nuclear power, nuclear weapons, and international stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Energy Plan included as one of its key components a revision of this country's long-standing policy on the development of civilian nuclear power. The proposed change, which would have the effect of curtailing certain aspects of the U.S. nuclear-power program and of placing new restrictions on the export of nuclear materials, equipment, and services, was based explicitly on the assumption that there is a positive correlation between the worldwide spread of nuclear-power plants and their associated technology on the one hand, and the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the risk of nuclear war on the other. The authors advance here the heretical proposition that the supposed correlation may go the other way, and that the recent actions and statements of the U.S. Government have taken little account of this possibility. In brief, they suggest that if the U.S. were to forgo the option of expanding its nuclear-energy supply, the global scarcity of usable energy resources would force other countries to opt even more vigorously for nuclear power and, moreover, to do so in ways that would tend to be internationally destabilizing. Thus, actions taken with the earnest intent of strengthening world security would ultimately weaken it. They believe further that any policy that seeks to divide the world into nuclear ''have'' and ''have not'' nations by attempting to lock up the assets of nuclear technologywill lead to neither a just nor a sustainable world society but to the inverse. In any event the technology itself probably cannot be effectively contained. They believe that the dangers of nuclear proliferation can be eliminated only by building a society that sees no advantage in having nuclear weapons in the first place. Accordingly, they view the problem of the proliferation of nuclear weapons as an important issue not just in the context of nuclear power but in a larger context

  19. Obrigheim nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gross output of the 345MWe pressurized water nuclear power station at Obrigheim, operation on base load, amounted to about 2.57TWh in 1974, the net power fed to the grid being about 2.44TWh. The core was used to its full capacity until 10 May 1974. Thereafter, the reactor was on stretch-out operation with steadily decreasing load until refuelled in August 1974. Plant availability in 1974 amounted to 92.1%. Of the 7.9% non-availability, 7.87% was attributable to the refuelling operation carried out from 16 August to 14 September and to the inspection, overhaul and repair work and the routine tests performed during this period. The plant was in good condition. Only two brief shutdowns occurred in 1974, the total outage time being 21/2 hours. From the beginning of trial operation in March 1969 to the end of 1974, the plant achieved an availability factor of 85.2%. The mean core burnup at the end of the fifth cycle was 19600 MWd/tonne U, with one fuel element that had been used for four cycles achieving a mean burnup of 39000 MWd/tonne U. The sipping test on the fuel elements revealed defective fuel-rods in a prototype plutonium fuel element, a high-efficiency uranium fuel element and a uranium fuel element. The quantities of radioactive substances released to the environment in 1974 were far below the officially permitted values. In july 1974, a reference preparation made up in the nuclear power station in October 1973 was discovered by outsiders on the Obrigheim municipality rubbish tip. The investigations revealed that this reference preparation had very probably been abstracted from the plant in October 1973 and arrived at the rubbish tip in a most irregular manner shortly before its discovery

  20. Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analia Bonelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A description of the results for a Station Black-Out analysis for Atucha 2 Nuclear Power Plant is presented here. Calculations were performed with MELCOR 1.8.6 YV3165 Code. Atucha 2 is a pressurized heavy water reactor, cooled and moderated with heavy water, by two separate systems, presently under final construction in Argentina. The initiating event is loss of power, accompanied by the failure of four out of four diesel generators. All remaining plant safety systems are supposed to be available. It is assumed that during the Station Black-Out sequence the first pressurizer safety valve fails stuck open after 3 cycles of water release, respectively, 17 cycles in total. During the transient, the water in the fuel channels evaporates first while the moderator tank is still partially full. The moderator tank inventory acts as a temporary heat sink for the decay heat, which is evacuated through conduction and radiation heat transfer, delaying core degradation. This feature, together with the large volume of the steel filler pieces in the lower plenum and a high primary system volume to thermal power ratio, derives in a very slow transient in which RPV failure time is four to five times larger than that of other German PWRs.

  1. Nuclear power: An economic geography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mounfield, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    This book presents a major study of the economic and social geography of nuclear power. Starting with descriptions of the distribution of nuclear power on a national and international level using maps and graphs, the book goes on to discuss a whole range of topics ranging from reactor design to the socio-economic impact of nuclear power stations. The book discuses the issues as they apply throughout the world.

  2. Discharges from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HM Inspectorate of Pollution commissioned, with authorising responsibilities in England and Wales, a study into the discharges of radioactive effluents from Nuclear Power Stations. The study considered arisings from nuclear power stations in Europe and the USA and the technologies to treat and control the radioactive discharges. This report contains details of the technologies used at many nuclear power stations to treat and control radioactive discharges and gives, where information was available, details of discharges and authorised discharge limits. (author)

  3. Manpower development for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Guidebook provides policy-makers and managers of nuclear power programmes with information and guidance on the role, requirements, planning and implementation of manpower development programmes. It presents and discusses the manpower requirements associated with the activities of a nuclear power programme, the technical qualifications of this manpower and the manpower development corresponding to these requirements and qualifications. The Guidebook also discusses the purpose and conditions of national participation in the activities of a nuclear power programme

  4. Nuclear power program in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korea is a nation making great progress with its nuclear power development program despite the current worldwide nuclear industry slump resulting from the global recession. The reason for this is that Korea does not have sufficient energy resources to meet demand. Six 950 MW nuclear power plants are under construction, and these units are scheduled for completion by 1989. This paper describes the status of Korea's nuclear power development program and the activities of local nuclear industries. It also discusses the efforts being made by local industries to achieve self-reliance

  5. France's nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prospects of development of France's consumption of electricity will widen the deficit of her national energy resources. Nuclear power stations should enable this deficit to be reduced, provided a certain number of uncertainties prevailing today are resolved. The first programme, put forward by Messrs. AILLERET and TARANGER at the 1955 Geneva Conference aimed at commissioning 850 MWe by 1965; the programme was devoted to developing the natural uranium graphite-gas sequence and reaches its completion with the construction of EDF 3, the world's first unit capable of 500 MWe. Before changing over from the prototype stage to their duplication, Electricite De France decided, in agreement with the Commissariat A L'energie Atomique to build EDF 4, which, while reproducing EDF 3's reactor, together with the referring equipment, the entire control equipment and various other systems, pioneers an important innovation by incorporating the heat exchangers and fans inside the prestressed concrete pressure vessel housing the core. At the same time, studies are being carried on on the same type of reactor enabling possible use of a new annular-shaped fuel element, whose use would considerably improve the performance of EDF 5, to be envisaged. On the heavy water side, the construction of EL 4 at Brennilis jointly by the Commissariat A L'energie Atomique and Electricite De France is continuing. Design work on a 500 MWe reactor of this type has already started. As regards pressurized water reactors, the Chooz power station is built jointly by Electricite De France and Belgian Utilities. Finally, the Commissariat A L'energie Atomique is continuing the construction of the 'Rapsodie' rapid neutron reactor at Cadarache, together with studies on a larger power reactor. It may thus be seen that the technical and economic knowledge gained on these various types of reactor mean that an equipment program may be contemplated which will endow nuclear power stations with a place of ever

  6. Nuclear power reactor physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this book is to explain the physical working conditions of nuclear reactors for the benefit of non-specialized engineers and engineering students. One of the leading ideas of this course is to distinguish between two fundamentally different concepts: - a science which could be called neutrodynamics (as distinct from neutron physics which covers the knowledge of the neutron considered as an elementary particle and the study of its interactions with nuclei); the aim of this science is to study the interaction of the neutron gas with real material media; the introduction will however be restricted to its simplified expression, the theory and equation of diffusion; - a special application: reactor physics, which is introduced when the diffusing and absorbing material medium is also multiplying. For this reason the chapter on fission is used to introduce this section. In practice the section on reactor physics is much longer than that devoted to neutrodynamics and it is developed in what seemed to be the most relevant direction: nuclear power reactors. Every effort was made to meet the following three requirements: to define the physical bases of neutron interaction with different materials, to give a correct mathematical treatment within the limit of necessary simplifying hypotheses clearly explained; to propose, whenever possible, numerical applications in order to fix orders of magnitude

  7. Nuclear power ecology: comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecological effects of different energy sources are compared. Main actions for further nuclear power development - safety increase and waste management, are noted. Reasons of restrained public position to nuclear power and role of social and political factors in it are analyzed. An attempt is undertaken to separate real difficulties of nuclear power from imaginary ones that appear in some mass media. International actions of environment protection are noted. Risk factors at different energy source using are compared. The results of analysis indicate that ecological influence and risk for nuclear power are of minimum

  8. Nuclear power perspective in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China started developing nuclear technology for power generation in the 1970s. A substantial step toward building nuclear power plants was taken as the beginning of 1980 s. The successful constructions and operations of Qinshan - 1 NPP, which was an indigenous PWR design with the capacity of 300 MWe, and Daya Bay NPP, which was an imported twin-unit PWR plant from France with the capacity of 900 MWe each, give impetus to further Chinese nuclear power development. Now there are 8 units with the total capacity of 6100 MWe in operation and 3 units with the total capacity of 2600 MWe under construction. For the sake of meeting the increasing demand for electricity for the sustainable economic development, changing the energy mix and mitigating the environment pollution impact caused by fossil fuel power plant, a near and middle term electrical power development program will be established soon. It is preliminarily predicted that the total power installation capacity will be 750-800GWe by the year 2020. The nuclear share will account for at least 4.0-4.5 percent of the total. This situation leaves the Chinese nuclear power industry with a good opportunity but also a great challenge. A practical nuclear power program and a consistent policy and strategy for future nuclear power development will be carefully prepared and implemented so as to maintain the nuclear power industry to be healthfully developed. (author)

  9. Nuclear power plant operator licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guide applies to the nuclear power plant operator licensing procedure referred to the section 128 of the Finnish Nuclear Energy Degree. The licensing procedure applies to shift supervisors and those operators of the shift teams of nuclear power plant units who manipulate the controls of nuclear power plants systems in the main control room. The qualification requirements presented in the guide also apply to nuclear safety engineers who work in the main control room and provide support to the shift supervisors, operation engineers who are the immediate superiors of shift supervisors, heads of the operational planning units and simulator instructors. The operator licensing procedure for other nuclear facilities are decided case by case. The requirements for the basic education, work experience and the initial, refresher and complementary training of nuclear power plant operating personnel are presented in the YVL guide 1.7. (2 refs.)

  10. Nuclear Power Plant Module, NPP-1: Nuclear Power Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Robert L.

    The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…

  11. Nuclear power - the Hydra's head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the accident at Chernobyl, the nuclear policies of many governments have been reconsidered and restated. Those in favour of nuclear power are those with highly centralised state bureaucracies, such as France and the USSR, where public opinion is disregarded. In more democratic countries, where referenda are held, such as Austria and Sweden, the people have chosen to do away with nuclear power. Indeed, the author states that nuclear power represents the State against the people, the State against democracy. Reference is made to the IAEA Reactor Safety Conference held in September, 1986, in Vienna, and the declaration sent to it by AntiAtom International. This called for the United Nations to promote the phasing out of nuclear power facilities throughout the world. It also called on the IAEA to support the phasing out of nuclear power and promote benign energy forms instead. (UK)

  12. Nuclear power and the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This series of slides describes the policy of the UK government concerning nuclear power. In January 2008 the UK Government published the White Paper on the Future of Nuclear Power. The White Paper concluded that new nuclear power stations should have a role to play in this country's future energy mix. The role of the Government is neither to build nuclear power plants nor to finance them. The White Paper set out the facilitative actions the Government planned to take to reduce regulatory and planning risks associated with investing in new nuclear power stations. The White Paper followed a lengthy period of consultation where the UK Government sought a wide variety of views from stakeholders and the public across the country on the future of nuclear power. In total energy companies will need to invest in around 30-35 GW of new electricity generating capacity over the next two decades. This is equivalent to about one-third of our existing capacity. The first plants are expected to enter into service by 2018 or sooner. The Office for Nuclear Development (OND) has been created to facilitate new nuclear investment in the UK while the Nuclear Development Forum (NDF) has been established to lock in momentum to secure the long-term future of nuclear power generation in the UK. (A.C.)

  13. Nuclear power in human medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public widely associate nuclear power with the megawatt dimensions of nuclear power plants in which nuclear power is released and used for electricity production. While this use of nuclear power for electricity generation is rejected by part of the population adopting the polemic attitude of ''opting out of nuclear,'' the application of nuclear power in medicine is generally accepted. The appreciative, positive term used in this case is nuclear medicine. Both areas, nuclear medicine and environmentally friendly nuclear electricity production, can be traced back to one common origin, i.e. the ''Atoms for Peace'' speech by U.S. President Eisenhower to the U.N. Plenary Assembly on December 8, 1953. The methods of examination and treatment in nuclear medicine are illustrated in a few examples from the perspective of a nuclear engineer. Nuclear medicine is a medical discipline dealing with the use of radionuclides in humans for medical purposes. This is based on 2 principles, namely that the human organism is unable to distinguish among different isotopes in metabolic processes, and the radioactive substances are employed in amounts so small that metabolic processes will not be influenced. As in classical medicine, the application of these principles serves two complementary purposes: diagnosis and therapy. (orig.)

  14. Trends in nuclear power developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern state and prospects of nuclear power development in industrial states are considered. Structure of power consumption, dynamics of nuclear capacity commissioning, the growth of specific capital expenses for reactor construction, orders for NPP production are analyzed. Electric power production costs at NPPs and coal TPPs in Canada, USA, Western Europe and Japan are compared. It is underlined that inspite of certain depressions nuclear power is being developed further on. Increase of electric power consumption for commercial and public purposes and growth of fresh water shortage appear to be the main prerequisites of its further development

  15. Power peaking nuclear reliability factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Calculational Nuclear Reliability Factor (CNRF) assigned to the limiting power density calculated in reactor design has been determined. The CNRF is presented as a function of the relative power density of the fuel assembly and its radial local. In addition, the Measurement Nuclear Reliability Factor (MNRF) for the measured peak hot pellet power in the core has been evaluated. This MNRF is also presented as a function of the relative power density and radial local within the fuel assembly

  16. Power generation costs. Coal - nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This supplement volume contains 17 separate chapters investigating the parameters which determine power generation costs on the basis of coal and nuclear power and a comparison of these. A detailed calculation model is given. The complex nature of this type of cost comparison is shown by a review of selected parameter constellation for coal-fired and nuclear power plants. The most favourable method of power generation can only be determined if all parameters are viewed together. One quite important parameter is the load factor, or rather the hours of operation. (UA) 891 UA/UA 892 AMO

  17. Mineralogical determination, distribution ration, speciation and radionuclides mobility in soil samples from objects 41 and 44/10 NPP Jaslovske Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineralogical characterization of a soil from the Nuclear Power Plant Jaslovske Bohunice object 41 and 44/10 was performed by x-ray diffraction method and surface measuring. It was find that the main component was smectite but other minerals like quartz, illite, chlorite and K-feldspar, were observed. Sorption and speciation of 137Cs, 85Sr, 241Am and 60Co in the mix soil was done with continuous leaching and Tessier scheme. It was found that distribution ration for Co and Cs is the highest. Strontium was in ionic form, Cs was leached with nitric acid, americium was fixed on carbonate fraction and cobalt was predominantly leached with reduction solutions as can be observed from the Tessier sequence method. Sorption of iodine on the soil used in the experiment was negligible (authors)

  18. Nuclear power project in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Thailand has been highly relied on fossil fuels for electricity generation. In fact 66% of today's electric power is supplied from natural gas. With current unprecedented increase of oil and gas prices, the country is in need of alternative energy sources more than ever. The Government recognizes the problem and seeks sustainable solution not only to improve energy security but also to reduce greenhouse gases emission, the root of threatening global warming problem. For base load power generation, however, nuclear power is perhaps the only practical option currently available. As a result, in Thailand Power Development Plan 2007-2021 (PDP 2007), there will be a 1,000 MWe nuclear power plant commercialized in 2020 and another in 2021. By the end of 2021, nuclear share of electricity generation of Thailand will be about 5%. Due to the fact that this is Thailand's first nuclear power plant, necessary infrastructures are not currently in place. To cope with this requirement, on April 11, 2007, the National Energy Policy Council (NEPC) appointed the Nuclear Power Infrastructure Preparation Committee (NPIPC) to develop the Nuclear Power Infrastructure Establishment Plan (NPIEP). NPIEP comprises two major plans: nuclear power infrastructure and nuclear power utility preparation plans. Required infrastructures include: legal and regulatory systems and international commitments; industrial infrastructure and commerce; technology development and transfer and human resources development; nuclear safety and environmental protection; and public relations and public acceptance. Utility planning comprises preparations for setting up organizational structure to accommodate a nuclear power project, technology selection, assessment of nuclear safety and technical aspects of nuclear power generation, and implementation of project feasibility study and site selection. NPIEP had been effectively developed under guidelines and technical support from the International Atomic

  19. Low-power nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief development history of low-power nuclear reactors is presented in this paper. Nowadays, some countries have plans to build a series of small nuclear power plants (also floating ones) for use in remote regions. Present constructions of such NPP are presented in this paper. (author)

  20. Competitive economics of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some 12 components of a valid study of the competitive economics of a newly ordered nuclear power plant are identified and explicated. These are then used to adjust the original cost projections of four authoritative studies of nuclear and coal power economics

  1. Islands for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety principles, design criteria and types of artificial island for an offshore nuclear power station are discussed with particular reference to siting adjacent to an industrial island. The paper concludes that the engineering problems are soluble and that offshore nuclear power stations will eventually be built but that much fundamental work is still required. (author)

  2. Nuclear Power Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Chengge; Li Shulan

    2009-01-01

    @@ China's nuclear power industry experienced such three stages as initiation, moderate development and active development. So far, there have been 11 nuclear power units in service in the Chinese mainland with a total installed capacity of 9 100 MW. In addition, there are 24 units being constructed or to be constructed as listed in the 11th Five-Year Plan.

  3. Nuclear power - the moral question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power has raised moral and ethical as well as technological issues and the British Council of churches, recognising this, has participated in the UK nuclear power debate. In this short article, Mr Philip Searby, Secretary of the UKAEA, considers some of the views adopted by the Council. (author)

  4. International nuclear power status 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the seventh in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 2000, the report contains: 1. General trends in the development of nuclear power. 2. Deposition of low-level radioactive waste. 3. Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 1999). 4. An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 2000. 5. The development in Sweden. 6. The development in Eastern Europe. 7. The development in the rest of the world. 8. Trends in the development of reactor types. 9. Trends in the development of the nuclear fuel cycle. (au)

  5. Nuclear power supply (Japan Nuclear Safety Institute)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After experienced nuclear disaster occurred on March 11, 2011, role of nuclear power in future energy share in Japan became uncertain because most public seemed to prefer nuclear power phase out to energy security or costs. Whether nuclear power plants were safe shutdown or operational, technologies were requisite for maintaining their equipment by refurbishment, partly replacement or pressure proof function recovery works, all of which were basically performed by welding. Nuclear power plants consisted of tanks, piping and pumps, and considered as giant welded structures welding was mostly used. Reactor pressure vessel subject to high temperature and high pressure was around 200mm thick and made of low-alloy steels (A533B), stainless steels (308, 316) and nickel base alloys (Alloy 600, 690). Kinds of welding at site were mostly shielded-metal arc welding and TIG welding, and sometimes laser welding. Radiation effects on welding of materials were limited although radiation protection was needed for welding works under radiation environment. New welding technologies had been applied after their technical validation by experiments applicable to required regulation standards. Latest developed welding technologies were seal welding to prevent SCC propagation and temper-bead welding for cladding after removal of cracks. Detailed procedures of repair welding of Alloy 600 at the reactor outlet pipe at Oi Nuclear Power Plants unit 3 due to PWSCC were described as an example of crack removal and water jet peening, and then overlay by temper-bead welding using Alloy 600 and clad welding using Alloy 690. (T. Tanaka)

  6. The collapse of nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffery, J.W. (Birkbeck Coll., London (UK))

    1991-06-01

    The decision of the UK government of 9 November 1989, withdrawing all nuclear stations from privatization and cancelling the three PWRs which were to have followed on from Sizewell B, was a shattering blow to the nuclear industry. The reversal (at least temporarily) of decades of government support for nuclear power, and the figures which were becoming available of its relatively high-cost (confirmed by the levy on electricity sales to subsidize nuclear and other non-fossil generation), caused the House of Commons Energy Select Committee to conduct the inquiry culminating in its Report The Cost of Nuclear power. (author).

  7. Nuclear power and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Director General pointed out that continued and expanded use of nuclear power must be one among several measures to restrain the use of fossil fuels and thereby limit the emissions of greenhouse gases. With regards to future trends in world electricity demands, the Director General emphasized the existing gap between the frequent claims as to what conservation can achieve and actual energy plans. The objections to nuclear power which are related to safety, waste disposal and the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons are also discussed. His conclusion is that nuclear power can help significantly to meet growing needs of electricity without contributing to global warming, acid rains or dying forests, responsible management and disposal of nuclear wastes is entirely feasible, and the safety of nuclear power must be continuously strengthened through technological improvement and methods of operation

  8. Safety improvement of nuclear power plants with WWER-440 reactors type V-230

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety analysis was performed for the V-230 type WWER-440 un of the V-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice in Czechoslovakia. As compared with the improved V-213 type, differences occur mainly in the automated control systems of technological processes and in the main circulation pumps. The Soviet 1986 recommendations for increasing the V-1 nuclear power plant safety are given. It is concluded that all aspects have to be taken into consideration when making decisions with respect t the reconstruction of the V-1 units. For instance, owing to the low investment costs the price of 1 MWh power generated at this plant is 100 CSC lower than at the V-2 nuclear power plant; and this favorable relation would be disturbed by in-depth reconstruction. Hence, the decisions to be made must take into account the plant operation economy, the technical state of the pressure devices as well as the out-of-dateness of the safety conception, which, however, may seem different today and in 5 to 10 years when the reconstruction will be accomplished. (Z.M.). 4 tabs., 1 ref

  9. Nuclear power in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In early 1988, 417 nuclear power plants were in opration worldwide, which is twenty more than in early 1987. The total installed power of 300 GWe corresponds to 11% of the total generating capacity and contributes more than 16% of the worldwide electricity production. Fifty of these nuclear power plants, with an aggregate 28 GWe, have been built in developing countries, where they contribute 7% to the electricity requirement. With respect to installed power, the growth of nuclear power lags behind the plans made ten years ago, because some developing countries have stretched out their nuclear power programs for the next decade. This is due to various reasons. In some cases, the availability of alternative energies has reduced the use of nuclear power. In other cases, the delay has been due to funding and to the long planning and construction periods. The main problem facing the developing countries, however, is financing nuclear power plant projects in the light of the high capital costs of nuclear power plants. (orig.)

  10. Construction costs - nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to present development plans in the western industrial nations nuclear power will be able to cover 35 to 45% of power requirements in the mid 1980's. Although specific investment costs are higher for nuclear power plants than for other thermal power stations, nuclear plants are in a position today to generate power more economically than fossil fired plants into the upper part of the middle load sector. The relatively high proportion of fixed costs of the total power generation costs, and a still considerable potential to exploit the economy of scale, will contribute to minimize the inflationary burden on electric power generation. Nevertheless price development of nuclear power plants should be watched attentively, rapid price escalation for components, extremely long planning and construction times and exaggerated environmental protection requirements which serve no real purpose may reduce the economic benefit gained by nuclear energy. Electrical utilities will try to hold investment cost down by all means; for instance they will encourage standardization of nuclear power plants or order twin stations. For long term utilization of nuclear energy the development of high temperature reactors and fast breeders is a logical step forward. (author)

  11. Developing countries curtail nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power programmes in developing countries, following the accident at the Chernobyl power plant are summarized. Many of these have abandoned plans for nuclear power (eg Gabon), mothballed existing reactors (eg Philippines) or deferred decisions on a reactor programme (eg Egypt, Taiwan, Libya). Economic and political pressures are usually the underlying reasons, but the Chernobyl incident has proved a useful excuse. Other countries (Nigeria, Korea, India, Pakistan) have not let the accident change their nuclear policy. In China, Israel and Turkey the debate about nuclear power has been sharpened by the accident. Although Chernobyl has hastened decisions on nuclear power in some countries it has not affected the long-term policies of developing countries. (UK)

  12. Solid-State Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    A strategy for "Solid-State" Nuclear Power is proposed to guide development of technologies and systems into the second 50 years of nuclear spaceflight. The strategy emphasizes a simple and highly integrated system architecture with few moving parts or fluid loops; the leverage of modern advances in materials, manufacturing, semiconductors, microelectromechanical and nanotechnology devices; and the targeted advancement of high temperature nuclear fuels, materials and static power conversion to enable high performance from simple system topologies.

  13. Strategy for utilizing nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the national goals is to achieve independence in the area of energy supplies in the next few years. It is believed that attaining this goal will require extensive utilization of nuclear power in conventional fission reactors. It is proposed that the best way to develop the nuclear resource is through government ownership of the reactors. It is argued that this will minimize the risks associated with the nuclear-power option and clear the way for its exploitation

  14. Special aspects of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses how, with almost 300 nuclear power plants operating worldwide, the safety of nuclear power will soon be better known. Over the next decade we will learn whether or not the lessons learned from these accidents have made nuclear power safer. In the meantime, we must be well prepared to take care of patients injured in accidents at normally operating and at malfunctioning power plants. It would be tragic if lack of preparation and/or fear of radiation resulted in mistreatment of patients

  15. Medical perspective on nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Is generating electricity with nuclear power safe in the United States? Could the explosion of a nuclear power reactor cause widespread dissemination of radioactivity, as the Chernobyl explosion did in 1986? How do power reactors operate, and what principles safeguard their operation? What should be the role of the physician with regard to nuclear power? A recent report of the Council on Scientific Affairs of the American Medical Association (AMA) considered such questions. The report, prepared by an expert committee, received the endorsement of the AMA's House of Delegates. Major issues delineated in the report and all of its conclusions appear in this summary. 20 refs

  16. Garigliano nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period under review, the Garigliano power station produced 1,028,77 million kWh with a utilization factor of 73,41% and an availability factor of 85,64%. The disparity between the utilization and availability factors was mainly due to a shutdown of about one and half months owing to lack of staff at the plant. The reasons for nonavailability (14.36%) break down as follows: nuclear reasons 11,49%; conventional reasons 2,81%; other reasons 0,06%. During the period under review, no fuel replacements took place. The plant functioned throughout with a single reactor reticulation pump and resulting maximum available capacity of 150 MWe gross. After the month of August, the plant was operated at levels slightly below the maximum available capacity in order to lengthen the fuel cycle. The total number of outages during the period under review was 11. Since the plant was brought into commercial operation, it has produced 9.226 million kWh

  17. Nuclear reactor power monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The device of the present invention monitors phenomena occurred in a nuclear reactor more accurately than usual case. that is, the device monitors a reactor power by signals sent from a great number of neutron monitors disposed in the reactor. The device has a means for estimating a phenomenon occurred in the reactor based on the relationship of a difference of signals between each of the great number of neutron monitors to the positions of the neutron monitors disposed in the reactor. The estimation of the phenomena is conducted by, for example, conversion of signals sent from the neutron monitors to a code train. Then, a phenomenon is estimated rapidly by matching the code train described above with a code train contained in a data base. Further. signals sent from the neutron monitors are processed statistically to estimate long term and periodical phenomena. As a result, phenomena occurred in the reactor are monitored more accurately than usual case, thereby enabling to improve reactor safety and operationability. (I.S.)

  18. Obrigheim nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1973 the 345 MW pressurized water nuclear power plant at Obrigheim operated on base load, generating approximately 2.63 TWh, approximately 2.5 TWh of which was supplied to the KWO members. The plant availability for the year was 89.9%. Of the 10.1% non-availability, 6.4% (23 d) was caused by refuelling, including inspection, overhaul and repair operations and routine tests carried out in September 1973. 3.3% was due to stoppages for repairs to a steam generator and the two main cooling pumps, while 0.4% resulted from failures in the electrical section of the plant. The plant was shut down seven times in all, including three scrams. The average core burnup at the end of the fourth cycle (1 September 1973) was 18900 MWd/tU, representing an average burnup of approximately 37500 MWd/tU for a fuel element used in all four cycles. The operating performance of the steam generators and the result of the steam generator inspection carried out during refuelling in 1973 suggest no progressive damage. The quantities of radioactive materials released to the environment in 1973 were well below the officially permitted levels. The availability of the plant from the beginning of pilot operation in 1969 to the end of 1973 was 83.7 %

  19. Climate change and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry has increased its efforts to have nuclear power plants integrated into the post- Kyoto negotiating process of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) states: ''For many reasons, current and future nuclear energy projects are a superior method of generating emission credits that must be considered as the US expands the use of market- based mechanisms designed around emission credit creation and trading to achieve environmental goals ''. The NEI considers that nuclear energy should be allowed to enter all stages of the Kyoto ''flexibility Mechanisms'': emissions trading, joint implementation and the Clean Development Mechanism. The industry sees the operation of nuclear reactors as emission ''avoidance actions'' and believes that increasing the generation of nuclear power above the 1990 baseline year either through extension and renewal of operating licenses or new nuclear plant should be accepted under the flexibility mechanisms in the same way as wind, solar and hydro power. For the time being, there is no clear definition of the framework conditions for operating the flexibility mechanisms. However, eligible mechanisms must contribute to the ultimate objective of the Climate Convention of preventing ''dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system''. The information presented in the following sections of this report underlines that nuclear power is not a sustainable source of energy, for many reasons. In conclusion, an efficient greenhouse gas abatement strategy will be based on energy efficiency and not on the use of nuclear power. (author)

  20. Nuclear power for environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power does not produce CO2 or other greenhouse gases, and also does not produce any SO2, NOx or other gases which contribute to acid rain. These characteristics of nuclear power are especially important in comparison to coal-fired generation of electricity. As an example, in comparison with a coal-fired power plant of the same size, with abatement systems, a 1300 MW(e) nuclear power plant eliminates annually emissions to the air of about: 2000 t of particulates; 8.5 million t of CO2: 12,000 t of SO2; and 6,000 t of NOx, the precise quantities being dependent on coal quality, power plant design and thermal efficiency, and on the effectiveness of the abatement systems. Opponents of nuclear power concede these facts, but argue that nuclear power is such a small part of the world energy balance that it is insignificant to the big issue of CO2. This is hardly correct. Today, 16% of the world's electricity (and 5% of the world's total primary energy) is generated using nuclear power. If this electricity were to have been generated using coal, it would have resulted in about 1600 million tons of CO2 annually. This is 8% of the 20,000 million tons of CO2 now emitted annually from the burning of fossil fuels, an amount which the Toronto Conference proposed should be cut by 20% up to the year 2005. A further major difference in the two energy systems is that the relatively smaller amount of nuclear wastes is fully isolated from the environment. In addition to discussing the global contributions of nuclear power to environmental improvement, the paper presents actual results achieved in a number of countries, demonstrating the positive contribution which nuclear power has made to reducing the environmental impacts of electricity production. 7 figs, 12 tabs

  1. Principles of nuclear safety and operation reliability upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safe operation of Nuclear Power Plants in Jaslovske Bohunice is of the highest priority of NPPs employees and the management. The management decided to improve the power plant safety to the level acceptable by international institutions, such as IAEA, WENRA, etc. The power plant initiated a systematic programme preparation, its evaluation by international missions, design process and implementation stage, which was successfully completed in the first half of 2000. (author)

  2. Nuclear power sector in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to a recent Romanian Government Decision on restructuring strategy of the power sector in Romania the first step was the creation of the National Power Company (CONEL) and splitting off the nuclear research, design-engineering and some support activities. At the same time, the former Nuclear Power Group split into the National Nuclear Electric Company ('Nuclearelectrica'-S.A.) and Regia Autonoma pentru Activitati Nucleare. The 'Nuclearelectrica'-S.A. (SNN) includes three subsidiaries, one for nuclear power production, CNE-PROD (Cernavoda Unit 1), one for nuclear power development, CNE-INVEST (Cernavoda Units 2 to 5) and one for nuclear fuel fabrication FCN (Pitesti Nuclear Fuel Plant). The other branches of the former Nuclear Power Group, as Heavy Water Plant (ROMAG-Drobeta), Institute for Nuclear Research (INR-Pitesti) and Center for Nuclear Projects Engineering (CITON-Bucharest) are parts of the new created 'Regia Autonoma pentru Activitati Nucleare'. On 11 July 1996 Romania joined the 'Nuclear Club' and the first nuclear megawatt-hour was supplied by the Cernavoda NPP into our national grid. On December 2, 1996 the Cernavoda Unit 1 reached the level of commercial operation. Planned to produce 4.5 TWh yearly the Cernavoda NPP-Unit 1 represents about 10% of the overall power production of the country. Up to the end of August 1998, the Unit 1 generated a total of 9.17 TWh at a gross capacity factor of 85%. The plant's good performance to date demonstrates the SNN's total commitment to meet world class standards and to ensure that Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 is among the best performing stations in the world. Romanian Power Sector Least Cost Development Studies demonstrate the opportunity to complete and put Unit 2 of Cernavoda NPP in commercial operation up to the year 2001, in cooperation with AECL and ANSALDO. The author emphasizes the strong help and support which the IAEA granted to Romania Nuclear Power Program, especially after 1989 in all areas of

  3. Nuclear power, economy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The explanations in this article aim at clarifying the background of the problem of nuclear energies. Why did countries give up developing nuclear energy? Which roles do economic political and psychological factors play in making energy political decisions? How could a balance be found in using the various energy sources which must meet the constantly increasing demand for electric power? Which preconditions must be fulfilled to return to nuclear energy world-wide (as using coal is connected with many environmental risks) and how long would it take? If, however, nuclear power is even to be included in the energy-political discussions of the governments and the public opinions in each country, there are a number of sensitive topics waiting for an answer: Safety and costs of power plants; recycling and storing nuclear wastes; the relationship between civil energy and the availability of nuclear weapons and the future plutonium economy. (orig./UA)

  4. Nuclear power for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy demand continues to grow in spite of drastic efforts, especially in OECD countries for efficiency and energy savings. At the same time, the concept of sustainable development is calling for the alleviating and/or mitigating of environmental impacts. A limited number of options, that are technically mature and economically competitive, can substitute fossil fuel burning for electricity generation. Nuclear power is one of the electricity generating options that can contribute to an environmentally friendly development. The paper investigates the potential role of nuclear power in global energy supply up to 2050 and analyses the opportunities and challenges, for governments and nuclear industries, of a broad nuclear power deployment in response to environmental concerns. It concludes that, in the long term, increasing substantially the share of nuclear power in electricity generation is feasible and would contribute significantly to enhancing the sustainability of energy supply systems world-wide. (author)

  5. Nuclear power: a Greek tragedy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present state and expected future of nuclear power and its regulation in the United States is outlined. The two major influences on the nuclear regulatory environment in the US, outside of the Three Mile Island accident, are the legal profession and the Congress. The increasing influence of the lawyers and the diverse and increasing interaction with the Congress is examined. It is concluded that nuclear power in the US has one fatal flaw - it cannot get public acceptance. The deep hatred and divisions within the US public on the issues of nuclear power, the uncertainties of accidents, the confusion over what is radiation, the fear of abnormalities and serious cancers in future generations, the author believes will lead to the demise of commercial nuclear power in the US. (U.K.)

  6. Nuclear power: a Greek tragedy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahearne, J. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (USA))

    1981-01-01

    The present state and expected future of nuclear power and its regulation in the United States is outlined. The two major influences on the nuclear regulatory environment in the US, outside of the Three Mile Island accident, are the legal profession and the Congress. The increasing influence of the lawyers and the diverse and increasing interaction with the Congress is examined. It is concluded that nuclear power in the US has one fatal flaw - it cannot get public acceptance. The deep hatred and divisions within the US public on the issues of nuclear power, the uncertainties of accidents, the confusion over what is radiation, the fear of abnormalities and serious cancers in future generations, the author believes will lead to the demise of commercial nuclear power in the US.

  7. Nuclear power in the Midwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Twelfth Annual Illinois Energy Conference, held in Chicago, Illinois, October 1984 was sponsored by the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources, the Illinois Energy Resources Commission, and the Illinois Commerce Commission. The theme for the conference was ''Nuclear Power in the Midwest.'' The topic of Nuclear Power is particularly appropriate in view of the fact that the State of Illinois, as well as the Midwest region, has made a major commitment to the use of this option for electric power generation. This is evidenced by the fact that some twenty-three of the eighty-six currently licensed nuclear reactors in the United States are located in the Midwest region. Illinois alone contains ten licensed nuclear reactors with four other nuclear plants either under construction or waiting for an operating license. In rated capacity of electric power generated by nuclear reactors, the region is capable of producing 21.5% of the national total of 70,000 MWe. The problems surrounding nuclear power involve complex technologies, environmental and public health concerns, economic and legal factors as well as numerous other policy questions. The goal of the 12th Annual Illinois Energy Conference was to review these issues in order to educate the public and to assist government policy makers in making rational judgements regarding the use and development of the nuclear power option

  8. Towards sustainable nuclear power development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrianov, Andrei A.; Murogov, Victor M.; Kuptsov, Ilya S. [Obninsk Institute for Nuclear Power Engineering of NNRU MEPhl, Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-15

    The review of the current situation in the nuclear energy sector carried out in this article brings to light key problems and contradictions, development trends and prospects, which finally determine the role and significance of nuclear power as a factor ensuring a sustainable energy development. Authors perspectives on the most appropriate developments of nuclear power, which should be based on a balanced use of proven innovative nuclear technologies and comprehensive multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle are expressed. The problems of wording appropriate and essential requirements for new countries with respect to their preparedness to develop nuclear programs, taking into account their development level of industry and infrastructure as well as national heritages and peculiarities, are explained. It is also indicated that one of the major components of sustainability in the development of nuclear power, which legitimates its public image as a power technology, is the necessity of developing and promoting the concepts of nuclear culture, nuclear education, and professional nuclear ethics. (orig.)

  9. Towards sustainable nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review of the current situation in the nuclear energy sector carried out in this article brings to light key problems and contradictions, development trends and prospects, which finally determine the role and significance of nuclear power as a factor ensuring a sustainable energy development. Authors perspectives on the most appropriate developments of nuclear power, which should be based on a balanced use of proven innovative nuclear technologies and comprehensive multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle are expressed. The problems of wording appropriate and essential requirements for new countries with respect to their preparedness to develop nuclear programs, taking into account their development level of industry and infrastructure as well as national heritages and peculiarities, are explained. It is also indicated that one of the major components of sustainability in the development of nuclear power, which legitimates its public image as a power technology, is the necessity of developing and promoting the concepts of nuclear culture, nuclear education, and professional nuclear ethics. (orig.)

  10. Nuclear power - a reliable future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ministry of Education and Research - Department of Research has implemented a national Research and Development program taking into consideration the following: - the requirements of the European Union on research as a factor of development of the knowledge-based society; - the commitments to the assimilation and enforcement of the recommendations of the European Union on nuclear power prompted by the negotiations of the sections 'Science and Research' and ' Energy' of the aquis communautaire; - the major lines of interest in Romania in the nuclear power field established by National Framework Program of Cooperation with IAEA, signed on April 2001; - the short and medium term nuclear options of the Romanian Government; - the objectives of the National Nuclear Plan. The major elements of the nuclear research and development program MENER (Environment, Energy, Resources) supported by the Department of Research of the Ministry of Education and Research are the following: - reactor physics and nuclear fuel management; - operation safety of the Power Unit 1 of Cernavoda Nuclear Electric Power Station; - improved nuclear technological solutions at the Cernavoda NPP; - development of technologies for nuclear fuel cycle; - operation safety of the other nuclear plants in Romania; - assessment of nuclear risks and estimation of the radiological impact on the environment; - behavior of materials under the reactor service conditions and environmental conditions; - design of nuclear systems and equipment for the nuclear power stations and nuclear facilities; - radiological safety; - application of nuclear techniques and technologies in industry, agriculture, medicine and other fields of social life. Research to develop high performance methods and equipment for monitoring nuclear impact on environment are conducted to endorse the measures for radiation protection. Also mentioned are the research on implementing a new type of nuclear fuel cycle in CANDU reactors as well as

  11. Emergency power systems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Guide applies to nuclear power plants for which the total power supply comprises normal power supply (which is electric) and emergency power supply (which may be electric or a combination of electric and non-electric). In its present form the Guide provides general guidance for all types of emergency power systems (EPS) - electric and non-electric, and specific guidance (see Appendix A) on the design principles and the features of the emergency electric power system (EEPS). Future editions will include a second appendix giving specific guidance on non-electric power systems. Section 3 of this Safety Guide covers information on considerations that should be taken into account relative to the electric grid, the transmission lines, the on-site electrical supply system, and other alternative power sources, in order to provide high overall reliability of the power supply to the EPS. Since the nuclear power plant operator does not usually control off-site facilities, the discussion of methods of improving off-site reliability does not include requirements for facilities not under the operator's control. Sections 4 to 11 of this Guide provide information, recommendations and requirements that would apply to any emergency power system, be it electric or non-electric

  12. Nuclear power prospects in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of its programme to assist the development of nuclear power, IAEA undertakes, on r e quest, reviews of the prospects for nuclear power in individual Member States. A general finding of the Pakistan report is that nuclear power should be considered 'a leading contender for the supply of future energy needs'. A principal reason for this is that the conventional energy resources available, both of hydroelectric energy and of fossil fuels, appear insufficient by themselves to give in the long run the high per capita consumption of electricity which is characteristic of a developed country. Thus, an alternative source of energy to supplement the existing resources appears desirable. The analysis comparing nuclear power economics with those of conventional alternatives is performed separately for the Karachi area, for West Pakistan and for East Pakistan, since the power supply systems serving these regions are not now, nor in the near future likely to be, interconnected

  13. Checking nuclear power station safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the test facilities and research projects for Sizewell-B and other nuclear power stations, directed by the National Nuclear Corporation (NNC). The NNC is Britain's nuclear power station design and construction company, and is currently carrying out commissioning on both the Heysham and Torness AGRs. A description is given of NNC's nuclear research and development work, which includes: the production of Cobalt-free alloy, coatings for the primary containment shell, and ''fitness for purpose'' tests on reactor components using its 'Loki' rig to put the equipment through postulated accident conditions. NNC also has a rig to test structural features under extreme thermal shock conditions. (U.K.)

  14. On PA of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present state of things relating to the nuclear power generation are described first, focusing on the Chernobyl accident, power control test, old-wave and new-wave antinuclear movements, move toward elimination of nuclear power plants, and trend in government-level argument concerning nuclear power generation. Then the importance of public relations activities for nuclear power generation is emphasized. It is stressed that information should be supplied positively to the public to obtain public understanding and confidence. Various activities currently made to promote public relations for nuclear power generation are also outlined, focusing on the improvement in the nuclear power public relations system and practical plans for these activities. Activities for improvement in the public relations system include the organization of public relations groups, establishment and effective implementation of an overall public relations plan, training of core workers for public relations, and management of the public relations system. Other practical activities include the encouragement of the public to come and see the power generation facilities and distribution of pamphlets, and use of the media. (N.K.)

  15. Emergency power systems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the Nuclear Safety Standards programme for establishing Codes and Safety Guides relating to nuclear power plants (NPPs). The first edition of the present Safety Guide was developed in the early 1980s. The text has now been brought up-to-date, refined in several details and amended to include non-electrical diverse and independent power sources. This Guide applies to NPP for which the total power supply comprises a normal power supply and an emergency power supply (EPS), which may be electrical or a combination of electrical and non-electrical. The Guide provides general guidance for all types of EPS and specific guidance on the design safety requirements and the features of the electrical and non-electrical portions of the EPS. 9 figs, 2 tabs

  16. Greenfield nuclear power for Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarenpaa, Tapio

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, licensing for new nuclear power is ongoing. The political approval is to be completed in 2010. Fennovoima's project is unique in various ways: (i) the company was established only in 2007, (ii) its ownership includes a mixture of local energy companies, electricity-intensive industries and international nuclear competence through E.ON, and (iii) it has two alternative greenfield sites. There are five prerequisites for a successful nuclear power project in a transparent democracy of today: (1) need for additional power capacity, (2) actor prepared to invest, (3) established competence, (4) available site, (5) open communications, and (6) favorable public opinion.

  17. The economics of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power is seen by some as a partial solution to climate change. The obvious supporters include nuclear establishments, but the 'surprising' supporters comprise some environmentalists like James Lovelock. One of the 15 strategies proposed by Stephen Pacala and Robert Socolow as part of their wedge model is to substitute nuclear power for coal power. The addition of 700 GW of nuclear power, i.e. roughly twice the current global capacity, would constitute one wedge and could reduce one billion tonnes of carbon by mid-century. (The other 14 strategies include: efficient vehicles; reduced use of vehicles; efficient buildings; efficient baseload coal plants; gas baseload power for coal baseload power capture CO2 at baseload power plant capture CO2 at H2 plant; capture CO2 at coal-to-synfuels plant and geological storage; wind power for coal power; PV power for coal power; wind H2 in fuel-cell car for gasoline in hybrid car; biomass fuel for fossil fuel; reduced deforestation, plus reforestation, afforestation, and new plantations, and conservation tillage

  18. Nuclear power stations licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The judicial aspects of nuclear stations licensing are presented. The licensing systems of the United States, Spain, France and Federal Republic of Germany are focused. The decree n0 60.824 from July 7 sup(th), 1967 and the following legislation which define the systematic and area of competence in nuclear stations licensing are analysed

  19. Nuclear power: An evolving scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The past two years have found the IAEA often in the spotlight - primarily because of our role as the world's 'nuclear watchdog', as we are sometimes referred to on the evening news. The most visible, and often controversial, peaceful nuclear application is the generation of electricity, the focus of this article largely from a European perspective. At the end of last year there were 440 nuclear power units operating worldwide. Together, they supply about 16% of the world's electricity. That percentage has remained relatively steady for almost 20 years. Expansion and growth prospects for nuclear power are centred in Asia. Of the 31 units under construction worldwide, 18 are located in India, Japan, South Korea and China, including Taiwan. Twenty of the last 29 reactors to be connected to the grid are also in the Far East and South Asia. That is probably more active construction than most Europeans would guess, given how little recent growth has occurred in the West. For Western Europe and North America, nuclear construction has been a frozen playing field - the last plant to be completed being Civaux-2 in France in 1999. That should raise a question: with little to no new construction, how has nuclear power been able to keep up with other energy sources, to maintain its share of electricity generation? Interestingly enough, the answer is tied directly to efforts to improve safety performance. The accident at Chernobyl in 1986 prompted the creation of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO), and revolutionized the IAEA approach to nuclear power plant safety. Some analysts believe the case for new nuclear construction in Europe is gaining new ground, for a number of reasons: efforts to limit greenhouse gas emissions and reduce the risk of climate change; security of energy supply; Comparative Public Health Risk; different set of variables when choosing Each country's and region energy strategy. Looking to the future, certain key challenges are, of direct

  20. Nuclear power development in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The Chinese nuclear power programme for electricity generation is in an early stage. Two nuclear power stations are under construction. One is the Qinshan nuclear power plant, a 300-mega-watt-electric (MWe) unit located in the Zhejiang Province. The plant was domestically designed and most of its equipment was manufactured in China. It is expected to be connected to the electrical grid in 1991. The other nuclear power station is being built at Daya Bay in Guangdong Province. It has two 900-MWe units purchased from foreign suppliers that are scheduled to be put into operation in 1992 and 1993. Overall, China's nuclear power programme for electricity generation has progressed very slowly in contrast to the successful experience in other areas of nuclear development over the last 30 years. Many factors have influenced the development of nuclear power, in particular the structure and development of the national economy and energy system, which is based on domestic energy resources. (author).

  1. Nuclear power and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Power is a new, innovative technology for energy production, seen in the longer historic perspective. Nuclear technology has a large potential for further development and use in new applications. To achieve this potential the industry needs to develop the arguments to convince policy makers and the general public that nuclear power is a real alternative as part of a sustainable energy system. This paper examines the basic concept of sustainable development and gives a quality review of the most important factors and requirements, which have to be met to quality nuclear power as sustainable. This paper intends to demonstrate that it is not only in minimising greenhouse gas emissions that nuclear power is a sustainable technology, also with respect to land use, fuel availability waste disposal, recycling and use of limited economic resources arguments can be developed in favour of nuclear power as a long term sustainable technology. It is demonstrated that nuclear power is in all aspects a sustainable technology, which could serve in the long term with minimal environmental effects and at minimum costs to the society. And the challenge can be met. But to achieve need political leadership is needed, to support and develop the institutional and legal framework that is the basis for a stable and long-term energy policy. Industry leaders are needed as well to stand up for nuclear power, to create a new industry culture of openness and communication with the public that is necessary to get the public acceptance that we have failed to do so far. The basic facts are all in favour of nuclear power and they should be used

  2. Nuclear power and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental impacts and the impacts on man are compared for nuclear power plants and solid-fossil-fuel power plants. Practical experience points to significant advantages of nuclear power facilities. While coal-fired power plants in normal operation pollute the environment up to 30% of the permissible limits, the actual exposures caused by nuclear power plants are less than one per mille of the limits given by legal regulations. Some problems are also discussed of radiation protection. It is stated that thanks to the systematic research in this field which has been carried out for nearly sixty years, the knowledge of ionizing radiation hazards is now much more profound and complex than, e.g., that of toxic chemical pollutants released from fossil-fuel power plants and from chemical plants or contained in vehicle exhaust gases. (Z.M.). 5 tabs

  3. Nuclear power for economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various sources of energy available in India are discussed and it is emphatically stated that nuclear power is the only answer to the energy problem of the world and in particular of India. Advantages of atomic power over other sources of energy such as oil, hydel, coal etc. are described. Oil is still imported and petrolium consumption is required in petro-chemical industries and transportation. Hydro-electric potential available in India is limited as estimated by the erstwhile Central Water and Power Commission. As regards coal, India cannot entirely depend on this source for production of electricity since uneven distribution of the coal deposits necessitates its transportation over long distances from the mines to the points of consumption. Transportation required for nuclear fuel is almost non-existant as compared to that required for coal-fired plant, hence the generation cost is also low. Nuclear power potential, taking breeding into consideration turns out to be enormous. As regards safety, results of analysis carried out in the U.S. are given to show that safety of mining for nuclear power is much superior to that for coal-fired power plants. It is stated that there is no fear about nuclear wastes getting into water streams since they are carefully stored in underground depositories. Nuclear power program in India is described in brief. (B.G.W.)

  4. The debate on nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for nuclear power is pointed out. The Study Group on Nuclear Fuel Cycles of the American Physical Society has studied the problem of waste disposal in detail and has found that geological emplacement leads to safe waste disposal. The relation between nuclear power and weapons proliferation is discussed. The problem of preventing proliferation is primarily a political problem, and the availability of nuclear power will contribute little to the potential for proliferation. However, to further reduce this contribution, it may be desirable to keep fast-breeder reactors under international control and to use only converters for national reactors. The desirable converter is one which has a high conversion ratio, probably one using the thorium cycle, 233U, and heavy water as the moderator. The nuclear debate in the United States of America is discussed. Work on physical and technical safeguards in the USA against diversion of fissile materials is mentioned. (author)

  5. Space nuclear reactor power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requirements for electrical and propulsion power for space are expected to increase dramatically in the 1980s. Nuclear power is probably the only source for some deep space missions and a major competitor for many orbital missions, especially those at geosynchronous orbit. Because of the potential requirements, a technology program on space nuclear power plant components has been initiated by the Department of Energy. The missions that are foreseen, the current power plant concept, the technology program plan, and early key results are described

  6. Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Fran

    1979-01-01

    Presents a nuclear power plant simulation game which is designed to involve a class of 30 junior or senior high school students. Scientific, ecological, and social issues covered in the game are also presented. (HM)

  7. The politics of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Long Island Lighting Company (LILCO) built the Shoreham Nuclear Power plant, on New York State's Long Island, at a cost of over $5 billion. In 1989, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission granted LILCO a full operating license for Shoreham. yet, that year New York State and LILCO signed an agreement under which LILCO would sell the plant to New York State for $1. new York, in turn, would dismantle Shoreham, despite great uncertainties regarding future power supplies for Long Island. The Shoreham project brought a major public utility to the brink of bankruptcy, forced the question of state versus federal control of nuclear power, and for over a decade dominated the politics of a region of 2.7 million people. This book examines how technology, economics, managements, politics, and personal commitments interacted to produce one of the most spectacular and pivotal failures of nuclear power policy in the United States

  8. The future of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy production and use will contribute to global warming through greenhouse gas emissions in the next 50 years. Although nuclear power is faced with a lot of problems to be accepted by the public, it is still a significant option for the world to meet future needs without emitting carbon dioxide (CO2) and other atmospheric pollutants. In 2002, nuclear power provided approximately 17% of world energy consumption. There is belief that worldwide electricity consumption will increase in the next few years, especially in the developing countries followed by economic growth and social progress. Official forecasts shows that there will be a mere increase of 5% in nuclear electricity worldwide by 2020. There are also predictions that electricity use may increase at 75%. These predictions require a necessity for construction of new nuclear power plants. There are only a few realistic options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from electricity generation: Increase efficiency in electricity generation and use; Expand use of renewable energy sources such as wind, solar, biomass and geothermal; Capture carbon dioxide emissions at fossil-fuelled electric generating plants and permanently sequester the carbon; Increase use of nuclear power. In spite of the advantages that nuclear power has, it is faced with stagnation and decline today. Nuclear power is faced with four critical problems that must be successfully defeat for the large expansion of nuclear power to succeed. Those problems are cost, safety, waste and proliferation. Disapproval of nuclear power is strengthened by accidents that occurred at Three Mile Island in 1979, at Chernobyl in 1986 and by accidents at fuel cycle facilities in Japan, Russia and in the United States of America. There is also great concern about the safety and security of transportation of nuclear materials and the security of nuclear facilities from terrorist attack. The paper will provide summarized review regarding cost, safety, waste and

  9. Nuclear power - razing and creating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the book a studies fulfilled by the author is summarized, and issues of modern status for nuclear reactors safety; worldwide statement of nuclear power; nuclear waste disposal; radiation ecology; military polygons infrastructure conversion are considered. Works - fulfilled under scientific supervision of the author - on getting a new information about nuclear tests consequences on the Kazakhstan territory, its effect on the environment and human health, problems of determination of radiation contamination levels of the Republic's regions, suffered population rehabilitation from these tests, reimbursement of former agricultural areas after nuclear tests activity into national economy are discussed, and implementation of up-to-date technologies is given. The book is intended for a wide circle of readers, specialists, teachers, postgraduates and students and all who are interesting of nuclear power use issues for a prosperity and well-being of mankind

  10. History on foundation of Korea nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reports the history on foundation of Korea nuclear power from 1955 to 1980, which is divided ten chapters. The contents of this book are domestic and foreign affairs before foundation of nuclear power center, establishment of nuclear power and research center, early activity and internal conflict about nuclear power center, study for nuclear power business and commercialization of the studying ordeal over nuclear power administration and new phase, dispute for jurisdiction on nuclear power business and the process, permission for nuclear reactor, regulation and local administration, the process of deliberation and decision of reactor 3. 4 in Yonggwang, introduction of nuclear reprocessing facilities and activities for social organization.

  11. Investor perceptions of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence is provided that investor concerns about nuclear power have recently been reflected in the common stock returns of all utilities with such facilities and have resulted in a risk premium. In particular, over the 1978-1982 period, three nuclear-related events occurred at the same time as, and therefore appear to have caused, significant drops in the market values of nuclear utilities relative to their non-nuclear counterparts. The three events were as follows: the accident at TMI, which occurred in March 1979; the realization in the summer of 1980 that an accident of the magnitude of TMI could result in cleanup costs of over $1 billion, which are not completely insurable and could therefore result in substantial losses; and the summer 1982 decision by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) to cancel some if its nuclear power plant construction projects, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) decision to stop work on the construction of the Zimmer reactor, followed by a warning that it might close the Indian Point 2 and 3 reactors. If an individual had invested $100 in an average nuclear utility on the day before the TMI accident and reinvested all dividends, the value of this investment would have fallen by 10% relative to an identical investment in the average non-nuclear utility. The risk of investments in nuclear power versus conventional generating technologies shows nuclear power to be a relatively risky investment. However, relative to all investments, nuclear power was less risky in terms of the type of risk that would cause investors to require a premium before purchasing their securities. 6 figures, 6 tables

  12. Nuclear power and CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temperatures in the atmosphere have risen by nearly one degree in the twentieth century. To contain changes in global climate and their consequences, worldwide emissions of CO2 need to be curbed drastically in the future. Even if CO2 emissions are not taken into account, nuclear power has no economic disadvantages compared to fossil fuels. On the basis of an amount of money per ton of carbon emitted, nuclear power is cheaper than coal and, in most cases, also than natural gas. Actually, the worldwide CO2 problem and energy generation are part of the ongoing 'sustainability' debate. The following arguments, among others, used in the discussion show the sustainable character of nuclear power: - Comparison of the risks associated with major accidents for various sources of energy show nuclear power to be relatively free from hazard. - The introduction of fast breeders and other technical factors will make it possible to use nuclear fission as an important source of energy for many centuries. - The radiotoxicity of waste over very long periods of time can be influenced, for instance, by transmutation. The need to further develop CO2-free nuclear power has been recognized by many countries, among them Switzerland. The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) works towards developing a new generation of nuclear power plants by 2030. It will be the symbiosis of the new types of reactors with today's modern plants which finally will establish CO2-free nuclear fission as a sustainable cornerstone of energy generation worldwide. That nuclear power has this potential for further development must be acknowledged generally. (orig.)

  13. The economics of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generating electricity from nuclear power involves a complicated chain of processes, from mining uranium ore through to managing the wastes for hundreds of thousands of years. In trying to understand the economics of nuclear power we have to consider both the individual stages and the whole system. It is possible for some individual stages to be profitable (especially when they are heavily subsidised by taxpayers) and for the whole system to be uneconomical.

  14. Robotics for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demand for robots in nuclear power plants is increasing of late in order to reduce workers' exposure to radiations. Especially, owing to the progress of microelectronics and robotics, earnest desire is growing for the advent of intellecturized robots that perform indeterminate and complicated security work. Herein represented are the robots recently developed for nuclear power plants and the review of the present status of robotics. (author)

  15. Nuclear power to aid development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Before nuclear power can play its full role in contributing to the development of less advanced countries, full understanding of the capital investment, fuel costs and other economic factors as well as of the place it must take in existing power programmes is essential. Some insight into the problems and prospects was gained at the symposium arranged by the Agency, and held in Istanbul in October, on 'Nuclear Energy Costs and Economic Development'. (author)

  16. Nuclear Power Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China's nuclear power industry experienced such three stages as initiation,moderate development and active development.So far,there have been 11 nuclear power units in service in the Chinese mainland with a total installed capacity of 9 100 MW.In addition,there are 24 units being constructed or to be constructed as listed in the 11th Five-Year Plan.

  17. Nuclear power and childhood leukaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimston, M. (AEA Technology, London (UK))

    1991-06-19

    The possibility of illness caused by exposure to emissions from nuclear power plants continues to raise enormous public concern. Nowhere is this more evident than in the debate over the aetiology of childhood leukaemias. This review explores the evidence in relation to this and other diseases which are linked in the public's mind to nuclear power. The scientific evidence presented suggests that these links are more tenuous than is commonly believed. (author).

  18. Nuclear power: Issues and misunderstandings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sizeable sector of the public remains hesitant or opposed to the use of nuclear power. With other groups claiming nuclear power has a legitimate role in energy programs, there is a need to openly and objectively discuss the concerns limiting its acceptance: the perceived health effects, the consequences of severe accidents, and the disposal of high level waste. This paper discusses these concerns using comparisons with other energy sources. (author)

  19. Nuclear power cap opposed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-01-17

    This article is a review of litigation in Canada that challenges the country`s Nuclear Liability Act. Both parties agree that repeal of this law would raise operating costs, lead to earlier closing of older units, and reduce the likelihood of future plant construction. The suit is brought by the city of Toronto and the Energy Probe watchdog group. Comments by the plaintiffs and several Canadian nuclear utilities are offered.

  20. Nuclear power - the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, R. (Nuclear Electric plc. (United Kingdom))

    1993-09-01

    Following the Coal Review earlier this year, the UK government took the decision to bring forward the Nuclear Review from 1994 to this year. When the nuclear element was removed from the privatisation of the UK electricity industry, decommissioning costs were perceived to be too great a burden for the private sector to bear. Four years on a more optimistic picture is beginning to emerge. (author).

  1. Space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials of the 19-th Symposium on Space Nuclear Energetic and Engine Units taking place in 2002, in Albuquerque, USA are reviewed. Reports on transformation of heat energy produced by nuclear reactors in electrical one are presented in the reports. Result of works on improvement as traditional (Brayton and Rankine cycles, thermoelectricity and thermionic emission), so innovation converter systems (Stirling engine, alkali metal thermal to electric converter - AMTEC, thermoacoustic engine) are represented

  2. Nuclear power: policy and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, P.M.S. (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    This comprehensive book covers many aspects of nuclear power. The first section is on the technical background and covers the physical principles, nuclear reactor types, the nuclear fuel cycle and the uses of nuclear energy other than to generate electricity. The next section deals with areas of public interest; radiation, safety, risks, waste management and decommissioning. Experience of nuclear power, its development, current position and future prospects in the United States of America, France, Canada, the United Kingdom, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, India and the developing countries is discussed in section III. The opportunities for the civil nuclear industry are considered in the next section; the present world scene, the potential possible if nuclear power is developed, the incentives for developing this method, the constraints on this development and a summary of the past, present and future of nuclear power is made. The appendices, on discounting and the case for economic growth are also included. All the chapters and the appendices are indexed separately (24 chapters in total). (U.K.).

  3. Nuclear power and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Romania, the nuclear power is an element of sustainable development, being competitive, efficient and viable in the market economy. Fuel supply is ensured as nuclear fuel is manufactured in the country out of local uranium resources available in Romania. As for the environmental protection, it is known that, unlike the thermal power plants, the nuclear power plants do not release sulfur and nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide and do not generate slag and ashes. The operation of nuclear power units does not release pollutants and, accordingly, these stations can contribute to the limitation and the abatement of environmental pollution. After seven years of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 operation, a facility for storing low and medium level nuclear fuel wastes was built at the plant site as well as an intermediate dry storage for spent nuclear fuel whose first modules were commissioned in July 2003. They shall provide safe storage conditions for nuclear fuel wastes for many decades ahead. After Chernobyl accident in 1986, many improvements have been initiated and effected in area of both engineering solutions and plant operation practices. These have led to the increase of the nuclear safety level and, accordingly, to better production performance. (author)

  4. Sustainable development and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sustainability of specific technology became the important issue in future developement perspective as the environmental issue occupies the most priority in adopting the relevant technology. This study summarizes the concepts of sustainable development and analyses the nuclear future under the pressure of sustainable development. Also, it shows the fields that need the concentrated research in nuclear power

  5. Is nuclear power safe enough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vice-chairman of the Nuclear Power Safety Commission presents here the background for the Commission's work. He summarises informally the conclusions reached and quotes the minority dissensions. He also criticises many of the arguments made by anti-nuclear organisations. (JIW)

  6. Nuclear power - the reason why

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: mankind's need for energy; energy sources; energy conservation; safety; what level of safety is acceptable; the effects of nuclear accidents; the risks of nuclear power in normal operation; waste disposal; plutonium; quantity and cost; which reactor; wider issues (socio-economic aspects). (U.K.)

  7. Operate a Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimpter, Bonnie J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes classroom use of a computer program originally published in Creative Computing magazine. "The Nuclear Power Plant" (runs on Apple II with 48K memory) simulates the operating of a nuclear generating station, requiring students to make decisions as they assume the task of managing the plant. (JN)

  8. Nuclear power: the political challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief overview of the political and economical situation and nuclear energy problems in Europe is given. The author presented his opinion on topic such as need of nuclear power, Kozloduy NPP units 1-4 shutdown, climate change , energy security, environmental problems

  9. The dangerous dream: Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After Chernobyl: Necessary basic knowledge and information, data on safety hazards and risks, sketches of all German nuclear power plants and brief accounts of incidents reported so far, consequences of the Chernobyl and Harrisburg accidents for man and the environment, emergency control plans. With an attached short dictionary of terms in nuclear energy. (orig./HP)

  10. Public attitudes to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The British public is very poorly informed about nuclear power. 55 % express concern about it, but few can explain why. Some of the reasons given are extraordinary: 37 % of the public think nuclear power causes acid rain which pollutes lakes and kills trees; 47 % think coal is a safer fuel for making electricity than nuclear; a quarter think natural radiation is less harmful than that from nuclear stations. And a very large number of people have greatly exaggerated views of the amount of radiation released from power stations and the harm that it is doing people. Also, a quarter of everyone asked thought that nuclear power stations make bombs as well as electricity. Most of these concerns come from the media, and in particular from television which has broadcast many programmes which are strongly anti-nuclear, often inaccurate, and usually sensational. Fortunately, the effect of these stories is less damaging than one might think. At present about 42 % of the adult British population are not in favour of nuclear power, so there is still a majority who are not against. About 44 % are positively in favour, and the remainder are not sure or have no view

  11. Climate change and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M

    2000-04-01

    The nuclear industry has increased its efforts to have nuclear power plants integrated into the post- Kyoto negotiating process of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) states: ''For many reasons, current and future nuclear energy projects are a superior method of generating emission credits that must be considered as the US expands the use of market- based mechanisms designed around emission credit creation and trading to achieve environmental goals ''. The NEI considers that nuclear energy should be allowed to enter all stages of the Kyoto ''flexibility Mechanisms'': emissions trading, joint implementation and the Clean Development Mechanism. The industry sees the operation of nuclear reactors as emission ''avoidance actions'' and believes that increasing the generation of nuclear power above the 1990 baseline year either through extension and renewal of operating licenses or new nuclear plant should be accepted under the flexibility mechanisms in the same way as wind, solar and hydro power. For the time being, there is no clear definition of the framework conditions for operating the flexibility mechanisms. However, eligible mechanisms must contribute to the ultimate objective of the Climate Convention of preventing ''dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system''. The information presented in the following sections of this report underlines that nuclear power is not a sustainable source of energy, for many reasons. In conclusion, an efficient greenhouse gas abatement strategy will be based on energy efficiency and not on the use of nuclear power. (author)

  12. Real issue with nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The voter referendums on nuclear power planned in some states can affect the energy supply and economic health of the public at large more than it affects the industry that provides nuclear power, the author states. He makes the point that those responsible for energy supplies in the U. S.--the President and all relevant Federal agencies, the majority of Congress, the national utility industry, major laboratories, universities and consulting firms, and other energy industries--all favor nuclear power. The complex U.S. energy situation is reviewed, and the hope of alternative energy sources, practice of energy conservation, and benefits of nuclear power are summarized. Specifically, the California Initiative and its three conditions which it says should dictate the future of nuclear power are reviewed. The author does not believe that the reasons that are usually given in opposing nuclear power are the real reasons. He states that ''it seems clear that the principal philosophy behind the initiatives is one of halting economic growth by striking at the energy source that would make that growth possible.'' Attention is called to the morality of nuclear power by asking where is the morality: in leaving future generations an insufficient amount of energy, limiting their abilities to solve the economic and employment problems; in squandering our finite supply of fossil fuels while ignoring nuclear fuels; in forcing the nation into further dependence on unpredictable foreign nations for its energy supply; in expecting other states to provide California with the energy that it does not want to generate itself; and in allowing an arbitrary limit on growth to be set by groups of political activists

  13. OE Management at Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant, Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Brief description of nuclear facility. Slovenske elektrarne - ENEL utility operates two nuclear power plants in southern Slovakia - Bohunice and Mochovce nuclear power plants. Both plants are of the same design (WWER 440/V213). The Mochovce plant operates two units; Unit 1 has supplied electricity to the network since 1998, and Unit 2 since 2000. The Mochovce units rank among the newest WWER 440/V 213 nuclear blocks and benefit from all the improvements already made at the plant. Overview of OE arrangements. The basic management expectations concerning the OE programme are defined by the utility's policy. Assessment of the effectiveness of the OE programme is performed locally at the plant and independently at the utility level. This utility assessment serves as input to overall improvement process of OE programme at the plant. Management arrangements. The IAEA performed a pre-OSART mission in 1994 before the Mochovce plant began operation. Based on the recommendations of the mission, the Mochovce plant established an OE programme and an organizational structure to support it. The plant operation started with a fully functioning OE system. The plant director is responsible for implementation of an effective OE programme, in accordance with the national regulatory body requirements, WANO and IAEA expectations and the utility's policy. The OE programme owner is head of the safety division, who ensures that reported events and near misses are screened and analysed, and that corrective actions are taken with regard to the safety significance of the problem. Implementation of daily activities connected with the OE programme, screening, investigation of events, assessment of effective implementation of the corrective actions taken, assessment of OE programme effectiveness through performance indicators, and updating information in the OE database are the responsibility of head of the OE section. The section is located in the Safety Division and consists of

  14. Nuclear power - the glittering prizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper on the benefits of nuclear power is based on a lecture given for the Institution of Nuclear Engineers, London, 1986. Suggestions for short term benefits include a clean environment and a cheap energy source, whereas suggestions for long term benefits include freedom from want in the world and avoidance of 'energy wars'. These benefits are discussed along with alternative energy sources, the financial savings to be saved from nuclear power, world energy wealth, depletion of world energy reserves, and risks due to radiation exposure. (UK)

  15. Nuclear power - the glittering prizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, C.C.

    The paper on the benefits of nuclear power is based on a lecture given for the Institution of Nuclear Engineers, London, 1986. Suggestions for short term benefits include a clean environment and a cheap energy source, whereas suggestions for long term benefits include freedom from want in the world and avoidance of 'energy wars'. These benefits are discussed along with alternative energy sources, the financial savings to be saved from nuclear power, world energy wealth, depletion of world energy reserves, and risks due to radiation exposure.

  16. Owners of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, C.R.; White, V.S.

    1996-11-01

    Commercial nuclear power plants in this country can be owned by a number of separate entities, each with varying ownership proportions. Each of these owners may, in turn, have a parent/subsidiary relationship to other companies. In addition, the operator of the plant may be a different entity as well. This report provides a compilation on the owners/operators for all commercial power reactors in the United States. While the utility industry is currently experiencing changes in organizational structure which may affect nuclear plant ownership, the data in this report is current as of July 1996. The report is divided into sections representing different aspects of nuclear plant ownership.

  17. Owners of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, R.L.

    2000-01-12

    Commercial nuclear power plants in this country can be owned by a number of separate entities, each with varying ownership proportions. Each of these owners may, in turn, have a parent/subsidiary relationship to other companies. In addition, the operator of the plant may be a different entity as well. This report provides a compilation on the owners/operators for all commercial power reactors in the United States. While the utility industry is currently experiencing changes in organizational structure which may affect nuclear plant ownership, the data in this report is current as of November 1999. The report is divided into sections representing different aspects of nuclear plant ownership.

  18. Nuclear power vs. solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    What should a long-term energy policy strategy look like. Nuclear power is still a controversial issue. Can solar energy be a realistic alternative. The book presents a detailed comparison of the two energy sources, showing that a combined strategy of solar energy and energy conservation is better suited to the future ecological, social and economic needs than nuclear energy. Bauerschmidt's detailed investigation, in which the advantages and drawbacks of the two alternatives are carefully weighed against each other, makes it impossible for anybody to consider nuclear power as the only feasible alternative. (orig.)

  19. Nuclear power without joy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A partial report against the peaceful application of nuclear energy without exact details of literature quotation. Escape rates from NPPs and WAAs are changed with slogans such as 'enourmously big' or 'the radioactivity escaping into the air and water an increasing extermination is threatening the peoples of the world'. The end with the words 'one of the pre-conditions is the elimination of the distinguishing between knowing and unknowing people and the exploitation of both as a privilege of the ruling persons' shows that it is not the authors' concern to show the problems of nuclear energy in an objective way but to knowingly raise emotions. This is a contribution to the nuclear controversy which makes the gap between pros and cons even bigger. (GL)

  20. Training Nuclear Power Specialists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Situation of preparation of nuclear energy specialists in Lithuania is presented. Nuclear engineers are being prepared at Kaunas University of Technology. In view with decision to shut down Unit 1, the Ignalina NPP is limiting the number of new personnel to fill in vacancies. The main attention is given to the training courses for improvement skills of existing Ignalina NPP, VATESI personnel. Main topics of the training courses are listed. Information on number of the personnel who extended their knowledge and improved skills by the type of training is presented

  1. Women and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surveys in most countries show, that women's attitude towards nuclear energy differ quite a bit from that of men. Why is this so and what can be done about it? The difference is that a cigarette is a familiar risk. But only few women are familiar with nuclear risks, especially radioactivity, be it scientifically or emotionally. Women in general are less inclined to technical subjects. Technical matters still are male. Technical issues are - by education and in schools - (at least in Switzerland) no female subjects. Therefore we have to change this in order to change women's attitudes towards technical subjects. How can women become more technology-oriented?

  2. Nuclear power and public opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public opinion on Nuclear Power is not favorable. A purposeful work with public perception is necessary. One way to create a positive image of the nuclear industry is to improve public radiological education. This challenge can be resolved in the close cooperation with state school and preschool education. The formation about nuclear power should be simple and symbolical. Our society can be divided into 4 parts which can be called as target groups: First group - People from the nuclear industry with special education working at nuclear facilities or related to the industry. Second group - People working in the fields connected with nuclear power. Third group - People not related to nuclear power or even with negative impression to the industry. This group is the largest and the work required is the most difficult. Fourth group - The number of this group's members is the least, but it has strong influence on public opinion. 'Greens' and a broad spectrum of ecological organizations can be included in this group. (Authors)

  3. Nuclear power bankrupts the Northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Washington Public Power Supply System's nuclear power project is discussed. The author contends that cost overruns, mismanagement, and inflation finally led to the cancellation of the 5 reactor project after more than $8 billion was spent. The need for the reactors is questioned, and the possible impact on electrical rates is discussed

  4. Providing emergency supply of nuclear power plants

    OpenAIRE

    ROZMILER, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Work "Providing emergency power nuclear power plant" describes how solving their own consumption nuclear power plant, as emergency power supply is designed and how it should be a solution of known states of emergency, having an immediate impact on the power consumption of their own nuclear power plants. The aim of this thesis is to propose options to strengthen its own emergency power consumption of nuclear power plants, one might say-more resistant to harsh extremes, which could lead to loss...

  5. Nuclear Power and Sustainable Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Any discussion of 21st century energy trends must take into account the global energy imbalance. Roughly 1.6 billion people still lack access to modern energy services, and few aspects of development - whether related to living standards, health care or industrial productivity - can take place without the requisite supply of energy. As we look to the century before us, the growth in energy demand will be substantial, and 'connecting the unconnected' will be a key to progress. Another challenge will be sustainability. How can we meet these growing energy needs without creating negative side effects that could compromise the living environment of future generations? Nuclear power is not a 'fix-all' option. It is a choice that has a place among the mix of solutions, and expectations for the expanding use of nuclear power are rising. In addition to the growth in demand, these expectations are driven by energy security concerns, nuclear power's low greenhouse gas emissions, and the sustained strong performance of nuclear plants. Each country must make its own energy choices; one size does not fit all. But for those countries interested in making nuclear power part of their sustainable development strategies, it is important that the nuclear power option be kept open and accessible

  6. Climate change and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, the nuclear power industry is an established, experienced industry that generates one sixth of the world's electricity, one fifth of the USA's, and almost one third of Western Europe's. The recent SIRES scenarios highlight that, even in the absence of policies to limit GHG emissions, meeting the energy needs and economic development aspirations of the 21st century will require the full range of energy supply options available including nuclear power. None of the world's available energy supplies should be excluded. Fossil, nuclear, and renewable resources are all large, and the future evolution of the world's energy system is less likely to be determined by resource constraints than by active choices made by governments, the private sector, and individuals. Nuclear power has the potential to fill a substantial part of the gap between where emissions from Annex I countries are now headed, and where they are required to be in 2008-2012 according to the Kyoto Protocol. If the CDM is taken into account, nuclear power's potential approximately doubles. And if the path charted by the Kyoto Protocol is to continue beyond the 2008-2012 commitment window, the potential importance of nuclear power only grows. The best chance for sustainable development - for meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs - lies in allowing all energy supply options to compete, improve, and contribute on a level playing field directly on the basis of cost-effectiveness, environmental protection, and safety

  7. Nuclear power infrastructure and planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several stages in the process of introducing nuclear power in a country. These include feasibility studies; technology evaluation; request for proposals and proposal evaluation; project and contracts development and financing; supply, construction, and commissioning; and finally operation. The IAEA is developing guidance directed to provide criteria for assessing the minimum infrastructure necessary for: a) a host country to consider when engaging in the implementation of nuclear power, or b) a supplier country to consider when assessing that the recipient country would be in an acceptable condition to begin the implementation of nuclear power. There are Member States that may be denied the benefits of nuclear energy if the infrastructure requirements are too large or onerous for the national economy. However if co-operation could be achieved, the infrastructure burden could be shared and economic benefits gained by several countries acting jointly. The IAEA is developing guidance on the potential for sharing of nuclear power infrastructure among countries adopting or extending nuclear power programme

  8. Sustainable development and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although there is an awareness on both the technical and political levels of the advantages of nuclear power, it is not a globally favoured option in a sustainable energy future. A sizeable sector of public opinion remains hesitant or opposed to its increased use, some even to a continuation at present levels. With various groups calling for a role for nuclear power, there is a need openly and objectively to discuss the concerns that limit its acceptance: the perceived health effects, the consequences of severe accidents, the disposal of high level waste and nuclear proliferation. This brochure discusses these concerns, and also the distinct advantages of nuclear power. Extensive comparisons with other energy sources are made

  9. Nuclear power: obstacles and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power has a history extending over more than 50 years; it has been pursued both for military power applications (primarily aircraft carrier and submarine propulsion) and for commercial power applications. Nuclear power has benefited from many hundreds of billions of dollars in research, development, design, construction, and operations expenditures, and has received substantial attention and support world-wide, having being implemented by most developed countries, including all of the G-7 countries, and several developing countries (for example, India, China, and Republic of Korea). In spite of this long history, massive development effort, and unprecedented financial commitment, nuclear power has failed to achieve commercial success, having captured less than 5% of the world's primary energy supply market. There are many factors contributing to the stagnation/decline of the commercial nuclear power business. These factors include: non competitive economics, lengthy construction schedules, large and demanding human resource requirements, safety concerns, proliferation concerns, waste management concerns, the high degree of government financial and political involvement necessary, and the incompatibility of the available nuclear power plant designs with most process heat applications due to their temperature limitations and/or large heat output. An examination of the obstacles to deployment of nuclear power plants of current design suggest a set of requirements for new nuclear power plants, which may overcome or circumvent these obstacles. These requirements include: inherent characteristics that will achieve reactor shutdown under any postulated accident condition; the removal of decay heat by natural and passive means; no safety dependence on operator actions and tolerant to operator error, and malicious or incompetent operator action; and, economic viability in relatively small unit sizes. Many innovative reactor technologies and concepts are under

  10. Public attitudes to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public is influenced against nuclear power by fear of a large accident, fear of radiation, worry about nuclear waste, and by the fact that it is a symbol of the bureaucratic, impersonal aspects of industrialized society. The nuclear industry must do several things to overcome this public concern. It must be more articulate in speaking to the public in a language the public understands and not in nuclear jargon; it must be strictly accurate and truthful in all statements, and if it believes the case it is putting forward is sound, it should defend the proposal and not promise to do even more to buy off criticism. Acceptance of nuclear power will either have to wait until the energy situation is desperate, or until the industry puts enough effort into presenting and defending its case to convince all objective people

  11. Infrastructure needs for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power is a significant component of electricity systems world-wide and in OECD countries as a whole it accounts for about 25% of the electricity supply. The current stagnation in nuclear power orders and the expectation of diminishing nuclear programmes in several countries might jeopardize industrial infrastructures based on nuclear activities. Questions arise as to whether special measures are needed to ensure that the nuclear option will be available when wanted and if so, who would take these measures. This paper provides at first an attempt to define what can be considered as ''structure'' and ''infrastructure'' and then a review of relevant issues related to industrial and governmental supporting infrastructure. In particular, the manpower availability and educational implications are examined

  12. Nuclear power research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research in the nuclear field must change, at least in the sense that more attention must be devoted to questions raised by non-specialists. This is necessary in order to convince society that nuclear energy can be applied safely and economically. Special attention must be paid to the prevention of accidents. There are several ways of approaching this aspect. One is the further development of the boiling-water reactor with natural circulation, such as operated by KEMA and GKN at Dodewaard. If communication with the non-specialists is improved, society will accept nuclear power, thus increasing the potential for nuclear growth throughout the world. (author)

  13. Topics in nuclear power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnitz, Robert J.

    2015-03-01

    The 101 nuclear plants operating in the US today are far safer than they were 20-30 years ago. For example, there's been about a 100-fold reduction in the occurrence of "significant events" since the late 1970s. Although the youngest of currently operating US plants was designed in the 1970s, all have been significantly modified over the years. Key contributors to the safety gains are a vigilant culture, much improved equipment reliability, greatly improved training of operators and maintenance workers, worldwide sharing of experience, and the effective use of probabilistic risk assessment. Several manufacturers have submitted high quality new designs for large reactors to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for design approval, and several companies are vigorously working on designs for smaller, modular reactors. Although the Fukushima reactor accident in March 2011 in Japan has been an almost unmitigated disaster for the local population due to their being displaced from their homes and workplaces and also due to the land contamination, its "lessons learned" have been important for the broader nuclear industry, and will surely result in safer nuclear plants worldwide - indeed, have already done so, with more safety improvements to come.

  14. Nuclear power: in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Agnew, former director of Los Alamos Scientific Lab., observes that modern communications have made the over-populated and less-developed countries impatient to have the energy-intensive living standards enjoyed by Europe and the US. More cartels can be expected, he feels, to give these people economic leverage unless they are supplied with cheap, available energy. He notes that all energy sources, including nuclear, have a role and must be developed. The economic and environmental impacts of nuclear energy compare favorably with other major energy sources, but the public neds to be given factual rather than sensational information about nuclear energy so that realistic comparisons can be made. Dr. Agnew points to new types of reactors for land-based facilities that can be designed and that will be safer than the water-cooled design and eliminate some risks. He also finds fuel reprocessing removing some risks, in contrast to the failing nonproliferation policy. He admonishes opponents of nuclear energy to recognize that their position has serious social and economic implications for developing countries and possibly grave political and security repercussions for the US

  15. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear part with the negative pressure control system is installed in an underground chamber of a mountain. The containment consists of a sealing concrete layer directly sprayed to the rock and containing reinforcement inserts as well as of a consolidating concrete shell. The sealing concrete layer is combined with the rock by means of prestressed concrete tie rods. (DG)

  16. Topics in nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 101 nuclear plants operating in the US today are far safer than they were 20-30 years ago. For example, there's been about a 100-fold reduction in the occurrence of 'significant events' since the late 1970s. Although the youngest of currently operating US plants was designed in the 1970s, all have been significantly modified over the years. Key contributors to the safety gains are a vigilant culture, much improved equipment reliability, greatly improved training of operators and maintenance workers, worldwide sharing of experience, and the effective use of probabilistic risk assessment. Several manufacturers have submitted high quality new designs for large reactors to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for design approval, and several companies are vigorously working on designs for smaller, modular reactors. Although the Fukushima reactor accident in March 2011 in Japan has been an almost unmitigated disaster for the local population due to their being displaced from their homes and workplaces and also due to the land contamination, its 'lessons learned' have been important for the broader nuclear industry, and will surely result in safer nuclear plants worldwide - indeed, have already done so, with more safety improvements to come

  17. Topics in nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budnitz, Robert J. [Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-03-30

    The 101 nuclear plants operating in the US today are far safer than they were 20-30 years ago. For example, there's been about a 100-fold reduction in the occurrence of 'significant events' since the late 1970s. Although the youngest of currently operating US plants was designed in the 1970s, all have been significantly modified over the years. Key contributors to the safety gains are a vigilant culture, much improved equipment reliability, greatly improved training of operators and maintenance workers, worldwide sharing of experience, and the effective use of probabilistic risk assessment. Several manufacturers have submitted high quality new designs for large reactors to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for design approval, and several companies are vigorously working on designs for smaller, modular reactors. Although the Fukushima reactor accident in March 2011 in Japan has been an almost unmitigated disaster for the local population due to their being displaced from their homes and workplaces and also due to the land contamination, its 'lessons learned' have been important for the broader nuclear industry, and will surely result in safer nuclear plants worldwide - indeed, have already done so, with more safety improvements to come.

  18. Environmental aspects of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power provides the world with an important option for generating electricity. To successfully and safely utilize this power, engineering and environmental factors should be carefully considered throughout a nuclear power plant project, especially during the planning stages. This paper discusses the major environmental aspects of a nuclear power plant project from site selection to retirement. During the site selection process, both engineering and environmental resources must be identified and evaluated. Environmental resources include areas that support agricultural or aquatic commercial activities, habitats for commercial or endangered species, population centers, transportation systems, and recreational areas. Also, during the site selection process, the potential impacts of both construction and operating activities must be considered. In addition to the area actually disturbed by construction, construction activities also affect local services, such as transportation systems, housing, school systems, and other social services. Since nuclear power plants use a 'clean fuel,' generally the most significant operating activity having a potential environmental impact is the discharge of cooling water. The potential effect of this discharge on commercial activities and sensitive habitats should be thoroughly evaluated. Lastly, the method of decommissioning can affect long-range land use planning and should therefore be considered during the planning process. With appropriate planning, nuclear power plants can be constructed and operated with minimum environmental impact. (author)

  19. Pumps for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    16 nuclear power plants are in commercial operation in Japan, and nuclear power generation holds the most important position among various substitute energies. Hereafter also, it is expected that the construction of nuclear power stations will continue because other advantageous energy sources are not found. In this paper, the outline of the pumps used for BWR plants is described. Nuclear power stations tend to be large scale to reduce the construction cost per unit power output, therefore the pumps used are those of large capacity. The conditions to be taken in consideration are high temperature, high pressure, radioactive fluids, high reliability, hydrodynamic performances, aseismatic design, relevant laws and regulations, and quality assurance. Pumps are used for reactor recirculation system, control rod driving hydraulic system, boric acid solution injecting system, reactor coolant purifying system, fuel pool cooling and purifying system, residual heat removing system, low pressure and high pressure core spraying systems, and reactor isolation cooling system, for condensate, feed water, drain and circulating water systems of turbines, for fresh water, sea water, make-up water and fire fighting services, and for radioactive waste treating system. The problems of the pumps used for nuclear power stations are described, for example, the requirement of high reliability, the measures to radioactivity and the aseismatic design. (Kako, I.)

  20. Starting of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedure is briefly characterized of jobs in nuclear power plant start-up and the differences are pointed out from those used in conventional power generation. Pressure tests are described oriented to tightness, tests of the secondary circuit and of the individual nodes and facilities. The possibility is shown of increased efficiency of such jobs on an example of the hydraulic tests of the second unit of the Dukovany nuclear power plant where the second and the third stages were combined in the so-colled integrated hydraulic test. (Z.M.). 5 figs

  1. LDC nuclear power: Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venezuela had an aggressive nuclear program when it was under a dictatorship in the 1950s, but it is currently assuming a wait-and-see stance. The country has one small research reactor, but it may have a reactor on-line in the mid-1990s. CONADIN, Venezuela's nuclear energy planning agency, has commissioned feasibility studies and requested proposals for a reactor-siting survey. A recent study for the Venezuelan state oil company suggests tha a natural-uranium, gas-cooled reactor could provide process steam to extract oil from the bituminous tar sands of the Orinoco Basin. Venezuela is also exploring for uranium reserves. 23 references, 1 figure, 2 tables

  2. Church and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This position paper is the result of talks conducted by natural scientists and engineers with ethical specialists and theologists in 1980/81. To cope with the difficulty of the authenticity of ecclesiastical statements, the report was worked out as an independent paper giving not only a negative response to past ecclesiastical pronouncements but taking a stand regarding nuclear energy from the point of view of the natural sciences respectively technology. As it was not possible to reach agreement in all points, the partners in the talks consider this position paper to be a statement on nuclear energy by natural scientists and engineers grown from the discussions with ethical specialists and theologists. The partners in the discussions agree that this can only be a first step. (orig./HSCH)

  3. Nuclear power and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the focus of the nuclear energy discussion in the FRG was and still is the damaging effect of ionizing radiation on the life and health of man which, in the population, is an indistinct fear. In the foreground mostly is the possible exposure to radiation of personnel and people living near nuclear plants. The booklet contains statements, often also from the medical sector, and their analysis by radiation biologists and physicists. In order to verify these statement, an extensive bibliography is given. For argumentation important tables and illustrations were taken from the sources and appended to the individual analyses. For quick reference to interesting topics an extensive index was set up. It is the aim of the booklet to provide physicians and those interested with information and with the possibility of weighing arguments, evaluating scientific results and forming individual opinions. (orig./HSCH)

  4. Nuclear power and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ontario has been using CANDU reactors to produce electricity since 1962. The province does not have an electricity shortage, but it does have a shortage of liquid fuels. The government of Ontario is encouraging research into the production of hydrogen using electricity generated by a dedicated nuclear plant, and the safe and economical use of hydrogen both in the production of synthetic petroleum fuels and as a fuel in its own right

  5. Nuclear power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To reduce radioactivity exposure by optionally and surely controlling the concentration ratio of nickel-iron in a feedwater system, and reducing the ionic radioactivity concentration in the nuclear reactor and substituting radioactive sources in nuclear reactor pipeways. Constitution: Condensated water in a nuclear reactor is caused to flow from a condensate pump through a reactor condensate-feed water system and condensate pipeways into hollow thread membrane filters. Most of iron oxide in the condensate is captured by the hollow thread membrane filters. When the filters are back-washed, the captured iron oxide is stored passing through an iron receiving tank of a feedwater iron injection device. The iron oxide thus stored is passed through a desalter, removed with ionic impurities and then stored as iron oxide equivalent with leak ion oxide in the condensate desalter into an iron storage tank. On the other hand, necessary ion oxide is injected into feed water by adjusting the opening degree of an iron injection controlling valve by a feedwater sampling device such that the concentration ratio of nickel-iron in the reactor feedwater system is maintained at 1/2. (Ikeda, J.)

  6. Nuclear power : exploding the myths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critique of the Canadian government's unaccountability in terms of nuclear decisions was presented. The federal government has spent more than $13 billion building dozens of nuclear facilities, and spreading Canadian nuclear technology to India, Pakistan, Taiwan, Korea, Argentina and Romania. The author argued that this was done without any public consultation or public debate. In addition, the federal government announced in 1996 that it will play a role in nuclear disarmament and would accept tonnes of leftover plutonium from dismantled nuclear warheads to be used as fuel in CANDU reactors. Samples of weapons plutonium fuels from Russia and the United States are currently being tested in a reactor at Chalk River, Ontario. In addition, China received a $1.5 billion loan from the Treasury of Canada to help finance a CANDU reactor. It was the largest loan in Canadian history, yet had no procedure to obtain taxpayer's permission. Turkey was promised an equal amount if it would build a CANDU reactor. Despite this activity, the nuclear industry is in a dying state. No reactors have been ordered in North America for the past 25 years and there are no future prospects. Nuclear expansion has also ground to a halt in western Europe, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland and France. The author discussed the association of nuclear energy with nuclear weapons and dispelled the myth that the nuclear energy programs have nothing to do with nuclear weapons. He also dispelled the myth that plutonium extracted from dismantled warheads can be destroyed by burning it as fuel in civilian reactors. The author emphasized that nuclear warheads are rendered useless when their plutonium cores are removed, but there is no method for destroying the plutonium, which constitutes a serious danger. The third myth which he dispelled was that nuclear power can significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Studies show that each dollar invested in energy efficiency saves 5 to 7 times as much carbon

  7. The abuse of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reproduces an address by Sir John Hill, Chairman of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, at a conference in London organised by the Financial Times in July 1976. Actions that, in the author's view, could be regarded as constituting abuse of nuclear power are first summarised, and the various aspects of the use and abuse of nuclear power are discussed. The author considers that achieving the maximum degree of acceptance of the Non-Proliferation Treaty is the most important political objective in nuclear power, but considers that nuclear terrorism would be abortive and that, so far as the UK is concerned, the present precautions are adequate and will remain so. It is considered that much abuse of nuclear power arises from the prevalence of its critics, particularly with reference to Pu hazards, the health of nuclear employees, and possible damage to the health of the public. The Pu problem is considered to be far more emotive than rational. The possibility of lung cancer and leukaemia is discussed. It is concluded that atomic energy is one of the best of industries in which to work, both from the health and interest points of view. (U.K.)

  8. World nuclear power plant capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides the background information for statistics and analysis developed by NUKEM in its monthly Market Report on the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The assessments in this Special Report are based on the continuous review of individual nuclear power plant projects. This Special Report begins with tables summarizing a variety of nuclear power generating capacity statistics for 1990. It continues with a brief review of the year's major events regarding each country's nuclear power program. The standard NUKEM Market Report tables on nuclear plant capacity are given on pages 24 and 25. Owing to space limitations, the first year shown is 1988. Please refer to previous Special Reports for data covering earlier years. Detailed tables for each country list all existing plants as well as those expected by NUKEM to be in commercial operation by the end of 2005. An Appendix containing a list of abbreviations can be found starting on page 56. Only nuclear power plants intended for civilian use are included in this Special Report. Reactor lifetimes are assumed to be 35 years for all light water reactors and 30 years for all other reactor types, unless other data or definite decommissioning dates have been published by the operators. (orig./UA)

  9. Safety partnership in nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear safety is composed of responsible plant design and, in addition, of a human component comprising the technical skills of the personnel and adequate administrative structures, especially in the form of independent supervisory organizations, summed up under the concept of 'safety culture'. This component becomes the more important, the smaller the product of design reserves and the degree of plant automation. The exchange of experience therefore is a key factor within the concept of safety culture. Realizing this need, the operators of 439 nuclear generating units worldwide have joined forces at various different levels in the best possible way under the prevailing circumstances in order to profit from each other's experience. The background of experience of nuclear power plant operators worldwide approaches the mark of 10,000 years of reactor operation. This helps to minimize further the residual risk associated with the civilian use of nuclear power. Numerous threshold countries have recognized the opportunities offered by nuclear power and, weighing the pros and cons, are pursuing a constructive and expansive nuclear power policy. All the more important is the further development of the joint operational effort in the sense of a global safety partnership. (orig.)

  10. Nuclear power and durable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper highlights the role that the nuclear power can play in a durable development of society. From a comparative analysis of different energy sources capable to fulfil the national energy demand it turns out that for Romania the optimal alternative is nuclear power. The nuclear power proved its attributes and characteristics in ensuring durable development by: 1. the technological maturation of the CANDU system as demonstrated by the good functioning of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1; 2. optimal utilization of the uranium national resources as well as the mining industry; 3. uranium processing and nuclear fuel and heavy water manufacturing as entailed by an educational infrastructure, research and industrial development; 4. low environmental impact; 5. high professional skill of the nuclear personnel. In addition, the low cost of the energy produced by the nuclear sector, as well as the social effects, namely, a 100% utilization of industrial infrastructure and national research capacity, urges the decision makers to develop the Cernavoda NPP, to increase the weight of nuclear energy in the energy production of the country

  11. The economics of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main economic concern about nuclear power reactors is their high capital cost, which currently contributes approximately 70% to the total cost of nuclear generated electricity. Nuclear capital costs are also rising rapidly -by as much as 10-14% per annum in the USA. The economics and technical aspects of the 'back-end' processes of reprocessing, waste storage and disposal and reactor decommisioning are also receiving more attention than before. In particular the cost of reprocessing spent fuel elements from the Magnox reactors has almost doubled the overall nuclear fuel costs in only 6 or 7 years. The economics of irradiated fuel transport is considered briefly first. Then the ways in which economic forces are likely to influence the future of nuclear development in general are considered. The four main factors which emerge as important are expectation about electricity, demand growth, nuclear capital and operating costs, the economics of coal-fired power stations and the degree of public opposition to nuclear power. (UK)

  12. Nuclear power and technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the majority of developing countries, nuclear power is yet to become a practical means of producing heat and electricity. Most of the IAEA's technical assistance to them, therefore, has consisted of the transfer of radioisotope-related nuclear science techniques. These are playing a valuable role in treating diseases, eradicating pests, augmenting agricultural production, improving the quality of food, assessing and managing water resources and increasing the efficiency of industrial products. There is hardly any field of human endeavour to which nuclear science does not have an application. Such techniques may be usefully integrated into national agricultural, water resource, health and medical, and industrial research programmes. In helping to create cadres of scientists, technicians and administrators familiar with the economic use of nuclear science and able to handle radiation safely, their application in these areas can be seen as a first step towards the eventual use of nuclear power. This is even more important for the thirty developing countries that are already operating research reactors. There is a distinction, therefore, between the transfer of nuclear power technology, at present to a dozen developing countries, and that of nuclear science techniques which have useful applications in almost all of the other developing countries, more than 120 in number

  13. Nuclear power data; Kernenergie in Zahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-15

    The report ''nuclear power data'' includes data on the following issues: nuclear power plants in Germany including their operational characteristics, gross data on electricity generation in Germany, primary energy consumption in Germany, nuclear power plants worldwide, top ten nuclear power plants worldwide with respect to electricity generation in 2012.

  14. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modular design for an internal heat exchanger for a power reactor with separate primary and secondary cooling circuits, eg. a PWR, is described. The purpose of the design is to reduce the thermal stresses in the feed water system by a special arrangement of this. (JIW)

  15. Nuclear power generation incorporating modern power system practice

    CERN Document Server

    Myerscough, PB

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power generation has undergone major expansion and developments in recent years; this third edition contains much revised material in presenting the state-of-the-art of nuclear power station designs currently in operation throughout the world. The volume covers nuclear physics and basic technology, nuclear station design, nuclear station operation, and nuclear safety. Each chapter is independent but with the necessary technical overlap to provide a complete work on the safe and economic design and operation of nuclear power stations.

  16. Elections: nuclear power confirmed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007 was an election year in France and the presidential campaign was an opportunity to bring in the debate a lot of topics, it appears that this year sustainable development was a concern shared by a lot of politicians. Candidate Sarkozy said that nuclear energy is consistent with the preservation of the environment and must be an essential part of the energy mix. He compelled himself to pursue the construction of the EPR reactor on the Flamanville site and to organize as soon as possible a large debate on all the topics involved in sustainable development. (A.C.)

  17. 2011 nuclear power world report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of 2011, 437 nuclear power plants were available for energy supply in 31 countries of the world. This are 6 plants less than at the end of 2010. The aggregate gross power of the plants amounted to approx. 389,367 MWe, the aggregate net power, to 369,371 MWe. This capacity numbers are also less than one year before (gross: 396,118 MWe, net: 375,947 MWe). Seven units were commissioned in 2011; 3 units in China and one unit in the Iran, the Rep. Korea, Pakistan and Russia each. Thirteen units were shut down permanently in 2011 or finished power production; 8 units in Germany, 4 units in Japan and 1 unit in the United Kingdom. The 8 units in Germany were forced to stop electricity production by political decisions. The 4 units in Japan have been destroyed by the effects of the March 11 Tsunami. The shut down in the United Kingdom was planned due to the operational age of the reactor. 63 nuclear generating units were under construction in late 2011 in 14 countries with an aggregate gross power of approx. 64,706 MWe. Worldwide, some 90 new nuclear power plants are in the concrete project design, planning, and licensing phases; in some of these cases license applications have been submitted or contracts have already been signed. Some 120 further projects are planned. Net electricity generation in nuclear power plants worldwide in 2011 achieved another reasonable ranking level of approx. 2,497.1 billion kWh (2010: approx. 2,627.5 billion kWh). Since the first generation of electricity in a nuclear power plant in the EBR-I fast breeder (USA) on December 20, 1951, cumulated net production has reached approx. 65,600 billion kWh, and operating experience has grown to some 14,750 reactor years. (orig.)

  18. Nuclear power world report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of 2013, 435 nuclear power plants were available for energy supply in 31 countries of the world. This means that the number decreased by 2 units compared to the previous year's number on 31 December 2012. The aggregate gross power of the plants amounted to approx. 398,861 MWe, the aggregate net power, to 378,070 MWe (gross: 392,793 MWe, net: 372,572 MWe, new data base as of 2013: nameplate capacities). Four units were commissioned in 2014; three units in China and one in India. Eight units were shut down permanently in 2013; 2 units in Japan, and four units in the USA. Two units in Canada were declared permanently shut-down after a long-term shutdown. 70 nuclear generating units - 2 more than at the end of 2012 - were under construction in late 2013 in 15 countries with an aggregate gross power of approx. 73,814 MWe and net power of approx. 69,279 MWe. Six new projects have been started in 2013 in four countries (Belarus, China, the Republic of Korea, and the United Arab Emirates). Worldwide, some 125 new nuclear power plants are in the concrete project design, planning, and licensing phases; in some of these cases license applications have been submitted or contracts have already been signed. Some 100 further projects are planned. Net electricity generation in nuclear power plants worldwide in 2013 achieved a level of approx. 2,364.15 billion (109) kWh (2012: approx. 2,350.80 billion kWh). Since the first generation of electricity in a nuclear power plant in the EBR-I fast breeder (USA) on December 20, 1951, cumulated net production has reached approx. 70,310 billion kWh, and operating experience has grown to some 15,400 reactor years. (orig.)

  19. Current status of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public is aware of nuclear plants that are in serious financial trouble, but hears little about the 84 plants that operate quietly to reduce US dependence on oil. There are 25 countries producing nuclear power and nine more will join them in this decade, with the US producing about one-third of the 180 million kW generated worldwide. Public opposition and economic recession over the past 10 years have caused utilities to cancel or postpone some plant construction, but the overall financial condition of utilities is improving even though electric rates must go up to recover the capital and other fixed costs of new plants. Other countries proceeded with their nuclear programs, and will benefit from the inflation-resistance and potential for cost improvement that nuclear power offers. Utilities are concerned that underestimating the growth in demand could cause a shortfall in supply unless regulatory and legislative uncertainty can be eased

  20. Nuclear Power Project in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT), the main power producer in Thailand, was first interested in nuclear power as an electricity option in 1967 when the electricity demand increased considerably for the first time as a result of the economic and industrial growth. Its viability had been assessed several times during the early seventies in relation to the changing factors. Finally in the late 1970s, the proceeding with nuclear option was suspended for a variety of reasons, for instance, public opposition, economic repercussion and the uncovering of the indigenous petroleum resources. Nonetheless, EGAT continued to maintain a core of nuclear expertise. During 1980s, faced with dwindling indigenous fossil fuel resources and restrictions on the use of further hydro as an energy source, EGAT had essentially reconsidered introducing nuclear power plants to provide a significant fraction to the long term future electricity demand. The studies on feasibility, siting and environmental impacts were conducted. However, the project was never implemented due to economics crisis in 1999 and strong opposition by environmentalists and activists groups. The 1986 Chernobyl disaster was an important cause. After a long dormant period, the nuclear power is now reviewed as one part of the solution for future energy supply in the country. Thailand currently relies on natural gas for 70 percent of its electricity, with the rest coming from oil, coal and hydro-power. One-third of the natural gas consumed in Thailand is imported, mainly from neighbouring Myanmar. According to Power Development Plan (PDP) 2007 rev.2, the total installed electricity capacity will increase from 28,530.3 MW in 2007 to 44,281 MW by the end of plan in 2021. Significantly increasing energy demand, concerns over climate change and dependence on overseas supplies of fossil fuels, all turn out in a favor of nuclear power. Under the current PDP (as revised in 2009), two 1,000- megawatt nuclear

  1. Financing nuclear power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much is at stake in developing a financial strategy for decommissioning nuclear power plants. Since decommissioning experience is limited to relatively small reactors, will the costs associated with larger reactors be significantly higher. Certainly the decommissioning issue intersects with other critical issues that will help to determine the future of commercial nuclear power in the US. The author examines briefly the basic concepts and terms related to decommissioning expenses, namely: (1) segregated fund; (2) non-segregated fund; (3) external method; and (4) internal method. He concludes that state regulatory commissions have turned increasingly to the external funding method because of increasing costs and related problems associated with nuclear power, changing conditions and uncertainties concerned with utility restructuring, and recent changes in federal tax laws related to decommissioning. Further, this trend is likely to continue if financial assurance remains a primary concern of regulators to protect this public interest

  2. TVA's nuclear power plant experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews TVA's nuclear power plant design and construction experience in terms of schedule and capital costs. The completed plant in commercial operation at Browns Ferry and six additional plants currently under construction represent the nation's largest single commitment to nuclear power and an ultimate investment of $12 billion by 1986. The presentation is made in three separate phases. Phase one will recapitulate the status of the nuclear power industry in 1966 and set forth the assumptions used for estimating capital costs and projecting project schedules for the first TVA units. Phase two describes what happened to the program in the hectic early 1979's in terms of expansion of scope (particularly for safety features), the dramatic increase in regulatory requirements, vendor problems, stretchout of project schedules, and unprecedented inflation. Phase three addresses the assumptions used today in estimating schedules and plant costs for the next ten-year period

  3. The benefits of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of the article is to indicate in fairly general terms the nature and magnitude of the benefits of nuclear power. The paper argues that significant economic gains have been obtained and that investment in civil nuclear development has fully justified itself. The justification for these claims is discussed under the topic headings: scale of the industry and world fuel savings, environment, health, fuel prices, United Kingdom benefits, generation costs, security of fuel supply, and the third world. (U.K.)

  4. American acceptance of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristic adventurous spirit that built American technology will eventually lead to American acceptance of nuclear power unless an overpowering loss of nerve causes us to reject both nuclear technology and world leadership. The acceptance of new technology by society has always been accompanied by activist opposition to industralization. To resolve the debate between environmental and exploitive extremists, we must accept with humility the basic premise that human accomplishment is a finite part of nature

  5. American acceptance of nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, W.

    The characteristic adventurous spirit that built American technology will eventually lead to American acceptance of nuclear power unless an overpowering loss of nerve causes us to reject both nuclear technology and world leadership. The acceptance of new technology by society has always been accompanied by activist opposition to industralization. To resolve the debate between environmental and exploitive extremists, we must accept with humility the basic premise that human accomplishment is a finite part of nature. (DCK)

  6. Architecture of nuclear power units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear units with circulation cooling using cooling towers are dominating points of the landscape. The individual cooling towers or pairs of cooling towers should be situated in the axes of double units and should also linearly be arranged, rhythmically in the respective zone. Examples are shown of the architectural designs of several nuclear power plants in the USA, the UK, the USSR, France, the FRG and Italy. (H.S.)

  7. Nuclear power and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the beginning of their development, the use of railroads, the streetcars, the subway, the automobile, the airplane, all raised not only a great skepticism, but also a strong fear or even hostility on the part of the general public, the media and some officials. Contrary to the development of other technologies, in the beginning there was even support and enthusiasm about the possibilities of the wide uses of nuclear energy. However, the voices against the use of nuclear power increased with time. Now the future of nuclear power is dependent on reversing this situation. The present paper addresses the role of nuclear power in the global energy sector in a broader context, that of sustainable social and economic development and the environmental impacts arising from the use of different sources of energy. The main objective of this paper is to provide clear and complete information and to demonstrate that nuclear power is a mature technology that has environmental advantages. The paper is destined to the energy community, energy policy and decision makers, environmentalists and the wider public in order to understand and accept the benefits of nuclear as a fundamental energy source toward sustainable development and a better standard of life. The decisive fact that nuclear power is environmentally benign, makes it an energy source consistent with the goals of sustainable development and environmental protection that should be taken into consideration in discussing the future energy mix in different countries. A special attention is accorded in the paper on the subject of radioactive waste management disposal where are provided top-level information, because this seems to be the warmest subject of the moment. (authors)

  8. Nuclear power in Japan and the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the nuclear power industry in Japan and the USA is discussed. The author lists the number of nuclear power plants operating, under construction and planned and considers the contribution made by nuclear power stations to the total electricity generated. The advantages of nuclear power to both countries are outlined and forecasts are made of the role to be played by nuclear power in future years

  9. Information letter 2. Information about operation of plants SE-NPP Bohunice and SE-VYZ during February 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this leaflet results of exploitation of four units of the Bohunice V-1 and V-2 NPPs are presented. The electricity and heat production in February 2005 are reviewed. Within a February 2005 the electricity was produced: 217 GWh (block 1), 281 GWh (block 2), 277 GWh (block 3), 282 GWh (block 4), totally 1057 GWh, and 2271 GWh within a January - February 2005. The heat production in February 2005 was 266 506 GJ, and within a January - February 2005 it was produced 531 849 GJ of heat. On February 17 Slovak minister of economy Pavol Rusko and general director of ENEL Paolo Scaroni signed the agreement on acquisition of 66 per cent of Slovenske elektrarne (SE) by Italian ENEL for 840 million Eur. SE has capacity of around 7 GW (83 per cent of total Slovakian capacity). In 2004 SE generated 26 TWh of electricity. Processing and storage of radioactive wastes in Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations and Spent Fuel and Rad-waste Management (SE-VYZ) is presented. Since beginning of this year 58 fibre-concrete containers have been filled up in Bohunice processing centre of radioactive wastes. Twenty-three pieces of fibre-concrete containers were processed into fibre-concrete containers in Bohunice processing centre of radioactive wastes (BSC RAO) in February 2005. Twenty fibre-concrete containers were stored into Republic storage of radioactive wastes (RU RAO). Total number in RU RAO reached 830 pieces of fibre-concrete containers, which represent 11.53 per cent of storage capacity (7200 containers). Bohunice processing centre of radioactive wastes was put into active operation just before five years

  10. Safe and green nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy development plays an important role in the national economic growth. Presently the per capita consumption of energy in our country is about 750 kWh including captive power generation which is low in comparison to that in the developed countries like USA where it is about 12,000 kWh. As of now the total installed capacity of electricity generation is about 152,148 MW(e) which is drawn from Thermal (65%), Hydel (24%), Nuclear (3%) power plants and Renewables (8%). It is expected that by the end of year 2020, the required installed capacity would be more than 3,00,000 MW(e), if we assume per capita consumption of about 800-1000 kWh for Indian population of well over one billion. To meet the projected power requirement in India, suitable options need to be identified and explored for generation of electricity. For choosing better alternatives various factors such as availability of resources, potential to generate commercial power, economic viability, etc. need to be considered. Besides these factors, an important factor which must be taken into consideration is protection of environment around the operating power stations. This paper attempts to demonstrate that the nuclear power generation is an environmentally benign option for meeting the future requirement of electricity in India. It also discusses the need for creating the public awareness about the safe operations of the nuclear power plants and ionising radiation. (author)

  11. Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and its effect on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three basic steps of nuclear power plant decommissioning are discussed. Each of them is characterized by two parameters: the physical state of the plant and its equipment, and the extent of inspections, surveillance and tests that must be performed or ensured in accordance with the physical state. The decommissioning involves two kinds of effort which are contradictory with respect to environmental risk: first, efforts are made to reduce to minimum the amount of radioactive products in the power plant equipment and buildings; this, however, is associated with substantial interventions into the contaminated facilities, which bring about enhanced risk of personnel exposure and radioactivity leaks into the environment. The basic principles are given that must be adhered to in order to protect the surroundings during the decommissioning. Actually, the surroundings and environment can be stressed appreciably by the large amounts of radioactive wastes emerging from the decommissioning activities. The composition of the wastes is diverse. The majority is solid waste, mostly scrap: for the decommissioned A-1 nuclear power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice the total amount of contaminated steel will be about 10 600 t. Liquid wastes are largely consist of spent decontamination solutions. As compared with normal operation, the risk of external irradiation as well as of internal contamination during the disassembling of the technological equipment is higher. In Czechoslovakia, the problem of nuclear power plant decommissioning became topical as early as 1977, after an accident during which a serious fuel element failure gave rise to a marked contamination of the primary and auxiliary circuits. For these reasons, the decommissioning process is very complicated and has not yet been fully solved. Some experience from the decommissioning of the A-1 nuclear power plant is summarized; in this activity, minimization of potential sources of radioactivity leaks into the environment is

  12. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To prevent liquid wastes from being discharged out of the system by processing to recover them in the nuclear reactor and reusing them. Constitution: Discharge of liquid wastes to the surrounding atmosphere are completely eliminated by collecting floor drains, a part of processing water for the regeneration of liquid wastes, non-radioactive steam drains and laundry drains conventionally discharged so far out of the system, processing them in a concentrator, a desalter or the like into water of a high purity and extremely low radioactive concentration, storing the water in an exclusive storage tank and supplying it as a steam or supplementing water to each portion in the plant that requires water of such high purity and extremely low radioactivity. (Yoshihara, H.)

  13. Global Protest Against Nuclear Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhof, Astrid Mignon; Meyer, Jan-Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Protest against nuclear power plants, uranium mining and nuclear testing played a pivotal role in the rise of a mass environmental movement around the globe in the 1970s and 1980s. Nevertheless, the history of anti-nuclear activism has largely been told from a strictly national perspective. This...... focus issue approaches the phenomenon from a transnational perspective for the first time. Against the backdrop of the debate on transnational history, this article develops a framework of analysis, and contextualizes anti-nuclear protest in a broader postwar perspective. The contributions show that...... anti-nuclear movements across the globe were transnationally connected. First, scientific expertise and protest practices were transferred between movements, and subsequently adapted to local requirements. Secondly, transnational cooperation and networks did indeed emerge, playing an important role in...

  14. The outlook for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article takes a look at the present conditions and prospects of the world's nuclear energy industry. The high hopes that attended its beginning a quarter of a century ago have for many been clouded. The most dramatic setback to the industry was the accident at the Three Mile Island station. Apart from the emotional opposition, another more basic reason for the slump in the industry in the USA, is the sharp decline in the growth of electricity demand in that country. American experience has an immense impact on world opinion. However, it seems as if the nuclear power industry worldwide is in a better shape than in America. In many industrialized countries the nuclear component of the national electricity need is estimated to rise. Japan produces nuclear energy cheaper than coal- or oil-generated electricity while in France 48% of its electricity is produced by nuclear reactors

  15. Nuclear-powered submarine accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of nuclear-powered ships are military ships and submarines represent 95% of the total. Most of the propulsion reactors used are of PWR type. This paper gives the principal technical characteristics of PWR ship propulsion reactors and the differences with their civil homologues. The principal accidents that occurred on US and Russian nuclear-powered submarines are also listed and the possible effects of a shipwreck on the reactor behaviour are evaluated with their environmental impact. (J.S.). 1 tab., 1 photo

  16. The controversy about nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short review of the events of the past several years in the conflict in the USA between the groups supporting or opposing nuclear power. Reference is made to publications on both sides of the controversy which the author considers to be well reasoned and useful sources of information. Mention is also made of the legal and legislative actions taken by both sides. The arguments against nuclear power are summarized and solutions to the problems which are the source of these arguments are suggested

  17. The future of nuclear power

    CERN Document Server

    Mahaffey, James

    2012-01-01

    Newly conceived, safer reactor designs are being built in the United States (and around the world) to replace the 104 obsolete operating nuclear power reactors in this country alone. The designs--which once seemed exotic and futuristic--are now 40 years old, and one by one these vintage Generation II plants will reach the end of productive service in the next 30 years. The Future of Nuclear Power examines the advanced designs, practical concepts, and fully developed systems that have yet to be used. This book introduces readers to the traditional, American system of units, with some archaic te

  18. The future of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When it was announced in June that France had beaten Japan in the race to host the world's next big fusion lab, the news made headlines around the world. The media reported in generally positive tones how the 10 bn Euro International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) will be the next step on the path to a commercially viable nuclear fusion reactor (Physics World August p5). The coverage was a clear sign of the growing debate surrounding the future of nuclear power. Nuclear Renaissance is a welcome contribution to that debate. The book bills itself as a 'semi-technical overview of modern technologies', which perhaps underplays what the author has achieved. It reviews past, current and prospective nuclear technologies, but links them clearly to the wider topics of energy policy, climate change and energy supply. Apart from being 'semi-technical', the book is also 'semi-British'. Although those sections on technology have a global scope, the lengthy first part - devoted to the 'policy landscape' - is firmly UK in its perspective. It provides a basic description of nuclear power, the economics of nuclear generation, and how nuclear energy could combat climate change. The contribution of nuclear power to a balanced energy supply and its links with weapons proliferation are also discussed. This opening part ends with a chapter on waste management. While the first part of the book could be a stand-alone introduction to nuclear power for layreaders, the second and third parts - on nuclear fission and nuclear fusion - seem to be aimed at a different readership altogether. In particular, they will help students who have some scientific training to understand in more detail how specific types of nuclear technology work. If you want to know how a Westinghouse Advanced Passive Reactor differs from a European Pressurised Water Reactor - or learn the specifics of the Canadian CANDU reactor or the South African pebble-bed modular reactor - then this is for you. Nuttall

  19. Generation 'Next' and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    My generation was labeled by Russian mass media as generation 'Next.' My technical education is above average. My current position is as a mechanical engineer in the leading research and development institute for Russian nuclear engineering for peaceful applications. It is noteworthy to point out that many of our developments were really first-of-a-kind in the history of engineering. However, it is difficult to grasp the importance of these accomplishments, especially since the progress of nuclear technologies is at a standstill. Can generation 'Next' be independent in their attitude towards nuclear power or shall we rely on the opinions of elder colleagues in our industry? (authors)

  20. Manufacturing industry and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manufacturing industry and nuclear power is discussed at two levels. There is the supplier level where the problems tend to be orthodox but take on a special peculiarity when applied to the nuclear market, and there is the level that may be termed nuclear politics and which has a number of aspects including energy policy, choice of reactor system, efficient uses of industrial resources and public acceptability. The role of the supplier is seen as searching for new orders, having secured an order performing the contract, and finally looking at the long term requirements of the industry. The choice of thermal reactor system, PWR, AGR, or BWR is discussed. (author)

  1. Nuclear power, society and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This rubric reports on 12 short notes about sociological and environmental aspects of nuclear power in France and other countries: the epidemiological inquiry widened to all French nuclear sites; the sanitary and radioecological effects of nuclear activities in Northern Cotentin (France); the WONUC (World National Council of Nuclear Workers) anger with the French government about the shutdown of Superphenix reactor; the new more informative promotional campaign of Electricite de France (EdF) for nuclear power; the scientific and research prices attributed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) to its searchers; the creation of a committee of inquiry in the French senate for the careful examination of the economical, social and financial consequences of the shutdown of Superphenix; the 31.2% increase of CEA-Industrie benefits for 1997; the decrease of nuclear contestation in Germany; the French-German communication efficiency during the Fessenheim accident simulation in October 7, 1997; the 3.5% increase of CO2 emissions in the USA; the decommissioning of 3 Russian reactors for military plutonium production; Greenpeace condemnation for abusive purposes against British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) and its activities at Sellafield (UK). (J.S.)

  2. Nuclear power and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Kyoto Protocol, agreed upon by the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in December 1997, Annex I countries committed to reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Also, the Protocol states that Annex I countries shall undertake promotion, research, development and increased use of new and renewable forms of energy, of carbon dioxide sequestration technologies and of advanced and innovative environmentally sound technologies. One important option that could be covered by the last phrase, and is not specifically mentioned, is nuclear energy which is essentially carbon-free. Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has investigated the role that nuclear power could play in alleviating the risk of global climate change. The main objective of the study is to provide a quantitative basis for assessing the consequences for the nuclear sector and for the reduction of GHG emissions of alternative nuclear development paths. The analysis covers the economic, financial, industrial and potential environmental effects of three alternative nuclear power development paths ('nuclear variants'). (K.A.)

  3. The costs of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been made by Scandpower A/S of the costs of nuclear power in Sweden. It is based on the known costs of existing Swedish nuclear power plants and forecasts of the expected costs of the Swedish nuclear power programme. special emphasis has been put on the fuel cycle costs and future costs of spent fuel processing, waste disposal and decommissioning. Costs are calculated in 1978 Swedish crowns, using the retail price index. An actual interest rate of 4% is used, with depreciation period of 25 years and a plant lifetime of 30 years. Power production costs are estimated to be about 7.7 oere/kWh in 1978, rising to 10.5 oere/kWh in 2000. The cost is distributed with one third each to capital costs, operating costs and fuel costs, the last rising to 40% of the total at the end of the century. The main single factor in future costs is the price of uranium. If desired, Sweden can probably be self-sufficient in uranium in 2000 at a lower cost than assumed here. National research costs which, in Scandpower's opinion, can be debited to the commercial nuclear power programme are about 0.3 oere/kWh. (JIW)

  4. Nuclear fuel procurement management at nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The market situation of nuclear fuel cycles is highlighted. It also summarises the possible contract models and the elements of effective management for nuclear fuel procurement at nuclear power station based upon the nuclear fuel procurement practice of Guangdong Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (GNPS)

  5. Nuclear power generation cost methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simplified calculational procedure for the estimation of nuclear power generation cost is outlined. The report contains a discussion of the various components of power generation cost and basic equations for calculating that cost. An example calculation is given. The basis of the fixed-charge rate, the derivation of the levelized fuel cycle cost equation, and the heavy water charge rate are included as appendixes

  6. Environmental aspects of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is discussed under the headings: background (scope of paper is a consideration of the radioactive by-products that arise from normal operation of nuclear power generating facilities; how regulated and their relative significance); legislation and regulation; the fuel cycle - fuel fabrication; use (of the fuel in the reactor; wastes from a typical CEGB Magnox power station); reprocessing (wastes from reprocessing); other wastes; disposal (including sea disposal). (U.K.)

  7. Do we need nuclear power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With rising fuel costs, concerns about global warming and the growing demand from the developing world, the burning question is whether the world needs nuclear power. Peter Hodgson, a nuclear physicist, says yes. Dennis Anderson, an economist, says that we should first explore the possibilities of renewables and other forms of energy. The common ground in debating the question 'Do we need nuclear power?' is therefore the fact that the world is likely to need yet more energy, despite the immense amount of energy consumed today. The environmental problems associated with energy production and use will also need to be addressed, including local and regional pollution, and the much-discussed problem of global warming. Can nuclear provide the energy we need? It already generates about 20% of the world's electricity, including 50% in Western Europe and 80% in France. It is reliable, having high 'load factors' - typically more than 90% - with nearly all of the remaining time spent on planned maintenance. Its long-term costs are similar to those of coal. It has little harmful effect on the environment and it is safer than all other sources, apart from natural gas. In the longer term, there are high hopes that fusion energy will ultimately become available. Intensive work is in progress on several possible designs for a fusion reactor. The energy available from fusion reactors would be practically limitless. It is indeed fortunate that, just as other major energy sources are becoming exhausted or are recognized as seriously polluting, a new energy source, nuclear power, has become available to meet our needs. Nevertheless, nuclear power has been unable to compete in terms of cost with fossil fuels, and there is no commercial interest in it outside state-run electricity sectors. The subsidies for nuclear power over the past five decades have been colossal - about a hundred times the amount we have spent on developing renewable energy, for example - and further immense

  8. 2012 nuclear power world report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of 2012, 437 nuclear power plants were available for energy supply in 31 countries of the world. This means that the number was unchanged compared to the previous year's number on 31 December 2011. The aggregate gross power of the plants amounted to approx. 392,793 MWe, the aggregate net power, to 372,572 MWe. This indicates a slight increase of gross and net capacity (gross: 389,367 MWe, net: 369,371 MWe) Two units were commissioned in 2012; 1 unit in China and the Republic of Korea each. Two reactors in Canada resumed commercial operation after a long-term shutdown. The units have been layed-up since the mid 1990ies. Four units were shut down permanently in 2012; 2 units in the United Kingdom, and one unit in Canada and Spain each. The shut-downs in the United Kingdom and Canada have been planned on a long-term base. 68 nuclear generating units - 5 more than at the end of 2011 - were under construction in late 2012 in 14 countries with an aggregate gross power of approx. 70,933 MWe and net power of approx. 66,244 MWe. 9 new projects have been started in 2012 in 3 countries (China, United Arab Emirates, USA). Worldwide, some 110 new nuclear power plants are in the concrete project design, planning, and licensing phases; in some of these cases license applications have been submitted or contracts have already been signed. Some 100 further projects are planned. Net electricity generation in nuclear power plants worldwide in 2012 achieved a level of approx. 2,346.16 billion kWh (2011: approx. 2,497.1 billion kWh). The main cause for the lower production have been the permanent shut-downs of almost all nuclear power plants in Japan since the natural disaster on 11 March 2011. Since the first generation of electricity in a nuclear power plant in the EBR-I fast breeder (USA) on December 20, 1951, cumulated net production has reached approx. 67,946 billion kWh, and operating experience has grown to some 15,050 reactor years. (orig.)

  9. A renaissance in nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an analysis of the worldwide evolution of the fleet of nuclear power plants until the 1980s; the reasons why in the same era this contingent was rejected in various developed countries due to a complete lack of public acceptance, being condemned to a phaseout planned to eliminate more than half of the operating power plants by 2020; and finally, what are the reasons for this competent base-load power source to silently resist for more than a quarter of a century, having been the focus of studies and improvements in the most renowned research centers in the world and the most traditional universities of the developed countries, resurging as one of the main allies of worldwide sustainable development, even with all the difficulties of deployment, ecological risks, and nuclear proliferation. However, after more than 30 years of intense debates involving a wide variety of interrelated problems, scientists have collected irrefutable proof that the actions of humankind have caused climate changes that represent an imminent threat to the survival of the human species on Earth, requiring coordinated international action that seeks to determine the economic aspects of the stabilization of levels of GHGs (greenhouse gases) in the atmosphere. The transition to a worldwide low-carbon economy presents political challenges, where, the most complex political question, is the supply of energy which would depends on a change in the supply of energy from fossil fuels to renewable, hydro and nuclear. Undoubtedly the nuclear power plants are, by far, the most controversial. (author)

  10. How safe is nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is discussed, with particular reference to nuclear power in the UK, as follows: ionising radiations; components of the radiation dose to which on average each person in the UK is exposed; regulation and control; mining; reactor operations - accidents, safety; transport of spent fuel; radioactive wastes; fast reactors and plutonium; insurance. (U.K.)

  11. Nuclear Power on Energy Agenda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The big debate on whether or not to use nuclear power as an energy option has raged among countries like the U.S., Britain, and Germany for decades, with not even the advent and threat of global warming forcing a conclusion. China, however, has always stressed energy diversity and been determined to develop and use this alternative energy source.

  12. Nuclear power program in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear program in Indonesia is derived from the long-range national development plan. The main aim of this plan is to realize a just and prosperous society within a united and democratic nation, and to contribute to world peace. A research and development infrastructure is being developed to establish the necessary technological foundations, to train technical personnel, and to develop the capacity for technical adaptation and innovation. BATAN, the National Atomic Energy Agency, is responsible for nuclear R and D, and also has a regulatory function and implements the national nuclear program. The author describes the functions of the eight BATAN laboratories, and surveys the energy resources available to Indonesia. In the ten years preceding 1983 electric energy consumption increased at a rate of 12.4 percent per year. It is projected that an electric capacity of 42,000 MW(e) will be required in the year 2003. The nuclear contribution could be around 10 percent. The decision to adopt nuclear power generation depends, among other factors, on financial considerations, the perception that nuclear power would perpetuate the dependence on developed nations, and safety concerns

  13. Nuclear power systems: Their safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankind utilizes energy in many forms and from a variety of sources. Canada is one of a growing number of countries which have chosen to embrace nuclear-electric generation as a component of their energy systems. As of August 1992 there were 433 power reactors operating in 35 countries and accounting for more than 15% of the world's production of electricity. In 1992, thirteen countries derived at least 25% of their electricity from nuclear units, with France leading at nearly 70%. In the same year, Canada produced about 16% of its electricity from nuclear units. Some 68 power reactors are under construction in 16 countries, enough to expand present generating capacity by close to 20%. No human endeavour carries the guarantee of perfect safety and the question of whether or not nuclear-electric generation represents an 'acceptable' risk to society has long been vigorously debated. Until the events of late April 1986, nuclear safety had indeed been an issue for discussion, for some concern, but not for alarm. The accident at the Chernobyl reactor in the USSR has irrevocably changed all that. This disaster brought the matter of nuclear safety back into the public mind in a dramatic fashion. This paper discusses the issue of safety in complex energy systems and provides brief accounts of some of the most serious reactor accidents which have occurred to date. (author). 7 refs

  14. QA programs in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an overview of quality assurance programs in nuclear power plants, the energy picture as it appears today is reviewed. Nuclear power plants and their operations are described and an attempt is made to place in proper perspective the alleged ''threats'' inherent in nuclear power. Finally, the quality assurance programs being used in the nuclear industry are described

  15. Benefits and hazards of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compilation of a seminar at the KFA Juelich on topical problems of nuclear power. Subjects: Energy demand, its expected development and possibilities of coverage; physical fundamentals and technical realisation of power generation by nuclear fission; fuel cycle problems and solutions; effects of radioactive radiation; safety of nuclear power plants and the nuclear hazard as compared with other hazards. (orig./RW)

  16. The japan a nuclear power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work analyzes the Japan nuclear policy, in the frame of its foreign and safety policy in Pacific Asia, since the end of the cold war, especially the relations with the Usa and China. The Japan is a civil power because it has submitted the military institution to juridical restrictions and because it does not rely on the armed force to promote its national interests. The anti nuclear speech is joined with the acknowledgement of the dissuasion necessity, of the control of industrial processes and energy channels susceptible of military applications. Cultivating the ambiguity, the Japanese government can send a dissuasive message, perfectly legible, kind of communication of latent intimidation constituted by the virtual nuclear power of a state that takes part to the non proliferation treaty. (N.C.)

  17. Nuclear power and its alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For nuclear power to contribute significantly to the alleviation of demands for increased electricity by the year 2000, a further obstacle must be overcome, namely the present nuclear phobia of the American public. This phobia can be addressed only through public education leading to a balanced perspective of the benefits and hazards of nuclear power compared with those of alternate sources of energy and to the risks associated with an insufficient supply of energy in a few years. Also to be considered in a public education effort should be the precarious and capricious nature of this country's continued reliance on energy sources imported from politically unstable countries, as well as the risk this importation poses for the nation's economic, social and military security

  18. The future for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lord Marshall explains how the situation for nuclear power in late 1989 in the United Kingdom had come about. Despite warnings that for a successful nuclear programme a large generator which has the obligation to supply in a defined geographical area should operate, this is not what will happen under the plans to privatise the electricity supply industry in the UK. Under these no body will have the obligation to supply electricity and the distribution Company will not have the obligation to supply after the first few years. Other problems with the privatisation plans are discussed. The implications of the government's decisions on nuclear power, first to maintain the Magnox stations in the government sector, second to abandon the full PWR construction programme and thirdly not to transfer the AGRs to the private sector, are discussed. (UK)

  19. Marine nuclear power plant simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a real time simulator of nuclear power plant for ship propulsion is described. The simulator is composed of a hybrid computer and an operating console. Simulated power plant is a 36 MWt PWR plant. Reactor kinetics, fuel temperature, primary coolant temperature, primary pressure, temperature and pressure of steam in the steam generator, steam flow, rotating speed of the propeller shaft, and various controlling system are simulated. Using this simulator, frequency response functions of the reactor power to the variation of reactivity and load were measured. (author)

  20. Nuclear power: tomorrow's energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In France, 76% of electricity is produced by nuclear power. The industry's pricing levels are among the most competitive in Europe. Thanks to its 58 nuclear reactors France enjoys almost 50% energy autonomy thus ensuring a highly stable supply. Equally, as a non-producer of greenhouse gases, the nuclear sector can rightfully claim to have an environmentally friendly impact. Against a background to increasing global demand with predictions that fossil fuels will run out and global warming a central issue, it is important to use production methods which face up to problems of this nature. There is no question that nuclear energy has a vital role to play alongside other energy sources. (authors)

  1. Nuclear power and energy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the rapid depletion of conventional energy sources such as coal and oil and the growing world demand for energy the question of how to provide the extra energy needed in the future is addressed. Relevant facts and figures are presented. Coal and oil have disadvantages as their burning contributes to the greenhouse gases and they will become scarcer and more expensive. Renewable sources such as wind and wave power can supply some but not all future energy requirements. The case made for nuclear power is that it is the only source which offers the long term prospect of meeting the growing world energy demand whilst keeping energy costs close to present levels and which does not add to atmospheric pollution. Reassurance as to the safety of nuclear power plants and the safe disposal of radioactive wastes is given. (UK)

  2. Towards the end of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors that have changed public attitudes towards the use of nuclear power are reviewed. These are seen as the link between nuclear weapons and nuclear power, radiation leaks and reactor accidents and the uneconomic nature of nuclear power. These aspects have resulted in the growth of the anti-nuclear movement. The strength of the nuclear lobby and the trades unions are considered. A programme for action to end the use of nuclear power in the UK is outlined. It is hoped that a major nuclear accident will not provide the final argument. (U.K.)

  3. Swedish Opinion on Nuclear Power 1986 - 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Soeren

    2012-11-01

    This report contains the Swedish opinion on Nuclear Power and European Attitudes on Nuclear Power. It also includes European Attitudes Towards the Future of Three Energy Sources; Nuclear Energy, Wind Power and Solar Power - with a focus on the Swedish opinion. Results from measurements done by the SOM Inst. are presented.

  4. Global warming and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, L., LLNL

    1998-07-10

    Nuclear fission power reactors represent a potential solution to many aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high-grade heat for large-scale electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-energizing around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates; importantly, electricity production costs from the best nuclear plants presently are closely comparable with those of the best fossil-fired plants. However, a substantial number of issues currently stand between nuclear power and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems. These include perceptual ones regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps most seriously- readily quantifiable concerns regarding long-term fuel supply and total unit electrical energy cost. We sketch a road-map for proceeding from the present situation toward a nuclear power-intensive world, addressing along the way each of the concerns which presently impede widespread nuclear substitution for fossil fuels, particularly for coal in the most populous and rapidly developing portions of the world, e.g., China and India. This `design to societal specifications` approach to large-scale nuclear fission power systems may lead to energy sources meeting essentially all stationary demands for high-temperature heat. Such advanced options offer a human population of ten billion the electricity supply levels currently enjoyed by Americans for 10,000 years. Nuclear power systems tailored to local needs-and-interests and having a common advanced technology base could reduce present-day world-wide C0{sub 2} emissions by two-fold, if universally employed. By application to small mobile demands, a second two

  5. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 2003 version of Elecnuc contents information, data and charts on the nuclear power plants in the world and general information on the national perspectives concerning the electric power industry. The following topics are presented: 2002 highlights; characteristics of main reactor types and on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; the worldwide status of nuclear power plants on 2002/12/3; units distributed by countries; nuclear power plants connected to the Grid by reactor type groups; nuclear power plants under construction; capacity of the nuclear power plants on the grid; first electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit; electrical generation from nuclear plants by country at the end 2002; performance indicator of french PWR units; trends of the generation indicator worldwide from 1960 to 2002; 2002 cumulative Load Factor by owners; nuclear power plants connected to the grid by countries; status of license renewal applications in Usa; nuclear power plants under construction; Shutdown nuclear power plants; exported nuclear power plants by type; exported nuclear power plants by countries; nuclear power plants under construction or order; steam generator replacements; recycling of Plutonium in LWR; projects of MOX fuel use in reactors; electricity needs of Germany, Belgium, Spain, Finland, United Kingdom; electricity indicators of the five countries. (A.L.B.)

  6. Nuclear power in rock. Principal report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September 1975 the Swedish Government directed the Swedish State Power Board to study the question of rock-siting nuclear power plants. The study accounted for in this report aims at clarifying the advantages and disadvantages of siting a nuclear power plant in rock, compared to siting on ground level, considering reactor safety, war protection and sabotage. The need for nuclear power production during war situations and the closing down of nuclear power plants after terminated operation are also dealt with. (author)

  7. Progress of China's nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From a long-term point of view, nuclear power is the only solution for the shortage of energy resource. Nuclear power development strategy has been specified in China according to national condition: The electricity development of nuclear power optimizes the national energy structure and ensure the power supply, particularly in east China. China's first self-designed and self-constructed nuclear power plant--Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant (300MWe PWR) is now well under commercial operation. China is willing to cooperate with IAEA, other countries and regions in the field of nuclear energy for peaceful use on basis of mutual benefit. (author)

  8. Nuclear floating power desalination complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russia is a single country in the world which possesses a powerful ice-breaker transport fleet that allows a solution of important social-economic tasks of the country's northern regions by maintaining a year-round navigation along the Arctic sea route. A total operating record of the marine nuclear reactors up until till now exceeds 150 reactor-years, with their main equipment operating life reacting 120 thousand hours. Design and constructional progresses have been made continuously during forty years of nuclear-powered ships construction in Russia. Well proven technology of all components experienced in the marine nuclear reactors give grounds to recommend marine NSSSs of KLT-40 type as energy sources for the heat and power co-generation plants and the sea water desalination complexes, particularly as a floating installation. Co-generation stations are considered for deployment in the extreme Northern Region of Russia. Nuclear floating desalination complexes can be used for drinkable water production in the coastal regions of Northern Africa, the Near East, India etc. (author)

  9. Insurance of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical utility companies have invested large sums in the establishment of nuclear facilities. For this reason it is normal for these companies to attempt to protect their investments as much as possible. One of the methods of protection is recourse to insurance. For a variety of reasons traditional insurance markets are unable to function normally for a number of reasons including, the insufficient number of risks, an absence of meaningful accident statistics, the enormous sums involved and a lack of familiarity with nuclear risks on the part of insurers, resulting in a reluctance or even refusal to accept such risks. Insurers have, in response to requests for coverage from nuclear power station operators, established an alternative system of coverage - insurance through a system of insurance pools. Insurers in every country unite in a pool, providing a net capacity for every risk which is a capacity covered by their own funds, and consequently without reinsurance. All pools exchange capacity. The inconvenience of this system, for the operators in particular, is that it involves a monopolistic system in which there are consequently few possibilities for the negotiation of premiums and conditions of coverage. The system does not permit the establishment of reserves which could, over time, reduce the need for insurance on the part of nuclear power station operators. Thus the cost of nuclear insurance remains high. Alternatives to the poor system of insurance are explored in this article. (author)

  10. Nuclear power consensus and nuclear transports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transports of spent fuel elements to the reprocessing plants of La Hague, France, and Sellafield, UK, as well as of casks with vitrified high-level waste returned to Germany were resumed in early 2001. These transports had been interrupted in 1998 after elevated levels of surface contamination had been found on the out-sides of the shipping casks. The transport issue was settled immediately in all countries affected except Germany, after the situation had been clarified. Numerous agencies involved as well as independent ones found that the increased contamination had to be removed, but had been neither dangerous nor, at that time, notifiable. The outcome of the German federal parliamentary elections in 1998 had produced a new government majority, thus changing the political environment for nuclear power. Opting out of the peaceful use of nuclear power in a properly arranged way and without having to pay compensation is the declared goal of the federal government. Accordingly, also transports of fuel elements for reprocessing are to be abandoned from 2005 on, and transports of spent fuel elements are to be minimized, for the time being, by building on-site-interim stores. The government's policy and opt-out legislation raise a number of questions which will have to be answered in a satisfactory way in the future. (orig.)

  11. Seismic and geological conditions at the Bohunice NPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper brings basic information on geological and seismic characteristics of the site of NPP Jaslovske Bohunice, Slovakia. Western Carpathians and Trnava, bay geological properties are briefly introduced. The most important macroseismic data and data obtained from field measurements are analysed. Main features of the expected strong seismic motion are discussed. The attention is devoted to local soil characteristics just under the site of NPP. (author)

  12. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all the numerical data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the French CEA/DSE/SEE Elecnuc database. The following aspects are reviewed: 1997 highlights; main characteristics of the reactor types in operation, under construction or on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; worldwide status of nuclear power plants at the end of 1997; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction and on order; capacity of nuclear power plants in operation; net and gross capacity of nuclear power plants on the grid and in commercial operation; forecasts; first power generation of nuclear origin per country, achieved or expected; performance indicator of PWR units in France; worldwide trend of the power generation indicator; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction, on order, planned, cancelled, shutdown, and exported; planning of steam generators replacement; MOX fuel program for plutonium recycling. (J.S.)

  13. Economic competitiveness of nuclear power in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of nuclear power in China has made a good progress. Currently, economic competitiveness of nuclear power compared to fossil-fuelled power plants is one of the major problems which hamper its development. This article presents the economic competitiveness of nuclear power in China with two-level analyses. First, levelized lifetime cost method is adopted for electricity generation cost comparisons. Important factors influencing economic competitiveness of nuclear power are described. Furthermore, a broad economic evaluation of the full fuel chain of nuclear power and fossil-fuelled plants is discussed concerning macro social-economic issues, environmental and health impacts. The comprehensive comparative assessment would be carried out for decision making to implement nuclear power programme. In consideration of external costs and carbon value, the economic competitiveness of nuclear power would be further improved. Facing swift economic growth, huge energy demand and heavy environmental burden, nuclear power could play a significant role in sustainable development in China. (authors)

  14. Loviisa nuclear power plant analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The APROS Simulation Environment has been developed since 1986 by Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) and the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). It provides tools, solution algorithms and process components for use in different simulation systems for design, analysis and training purposes. One of its main nuclear applications is the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant Analyzer (LPA). The Loviisa Plant Analyzer includes all the important plant components both in the primary and in the secondary circuits. In addition, all the main control systems, the protection system and the high voltage electrical systems are included. (orig.)

  15. Nuclear power in New Brunswick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New Brunswick Power is a medium-utility with gross production for the past fiscal year for domestic and external sales of about 16.5 billion kilowatt hours. Of this figure 33.5% was supplied through nuclear generation. The financial risks involved with the production of the Point Lepreau nuclear generating station were discussed. Further, questions of assurances given for schedule and cost, licencing, and long-term plant performance of the Point Lepreau no. 2 unit were addressed. These were discussed with particular emphasis on the competition for the New England market

  16. The future for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this annual lecture presented to the British Nuclear Energy Society, the chairman of the Central Electricity Board outlines his ideas about the future for nuclear power in the United Kingdom. Two major problems are outlined, one institutional, the other financial, which have arisen as a result of the government's privatization policy. The former relates to the structure of the industry because of priority given to competition leading to the abandonment of the obligation to supply. Rate of return on investment required by the private sector, and its rejection of risk is the crux of the financial problem. (UK)

  17. Nuclear power a reference handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson, Harry R

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century, nuclear power has been identified as a viable alternative to traditional energy sources to stem global climate change, and condemned as risky to human health and environmentally irresponsible. Do the advantages of nuclear energy outweigh the risks, especially in light of the meltdown at the Fukushima plant in 2011? This guide provides both a comprehensive overview of this critical and controversial technology, presenting reference tools that include important facts and statistics, biographical profiles, a chronology, and a glossary. It covers major controversies and proposed solutions in detail and contains contributions by experts and important stakeholders that provide invaluable perspective on the topic.

  18. Nuclear power at Ontario Hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This case study shows that the diffusion of nuclear power in the electric public utility industry in Canada approximates the logistic growth curve, in agreement with previous results on technological innovation diffusion in the U.S. private sector. Many of the economic variables that affect this diffusion in the private sectors in the U.S. and Canada are also significant in the public sector in Canada. Too few utilities have adopted nuclear technology to permit using regression analysis to study the effect of environmental and regulatory factors on the growth of Ontario Hydro. Thus, cost-benefit analysis for each province might be more effective

  19. How safe is nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In summarising Prof. N.C. Rasmussens' lecture to the Thomas Alva Edison foundation, The anthor first outlines the background and results of the WASH - 1400 report. The statistical mortality figures for a number of human activities, accidents and natural catastrophes are presented and discussed. Natural catastrophes a risk several orders of magnitude greater than 100 nuclear power plants, as do accidents due to human activities. In conclusion the environmental consequences of replacing a 1000 MW nuclear plant by a coal-fired plant are summarised. (JIW)

  20. Docommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German utilities operating nuclear power plants have long concerned themselves with aspects of decommissioning and for this purpose an engineering company was given a contract to study the entire spectrum of decommissioning. The results of this study have been available in autumn 1980 and it is possible to discuss all the aspects of decommissioning on a new basis. Following these results no change in the design concept of LWR nuclear power plants in operation or under construction is necessary because the techniques, necessary for decommissioning, are fully available today. The technical feasibility of decommissioning for power plants of Biblis A and KRB type has been shown in detail. The calculations of the quantity of waste produced during removal of a nuclear power plant could be confirmed and it could be determined with high procedure. The radiation dose to the decommissioning personnel is in the range of the radiation protection regulations and is in the same range as the radiation dose to the personnel within a yearly inservice inspection. (AF)

  1. Nuclear powered electrodyalysis for desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is concerned to compare electrodyalysis and flash distillation as means for the production of water when a nuclear reactor also producing power is the heat source. Special attention is paid to the flexibility introduced by the possibility of diverting electric power from the primary load to electrodyalysis plant. On the basis of the costs taken, and assuming that adequate reliability can be obtained from both processes, it is confirmed that electrodyalysis is not an economic process as compared with flash distillation for the desalination of sea water but is fully competitive with salt contents up to 5000 ppm. (Use of nuclear power does not affect the situation). In the case where a nuclear reactor is supplying an isolated economy with power and water and the electric load factor is less than the reactor availability, it can be economic to use off-peak electricity to produce fresh water by high-current electrodyalysis of brackish water (up to 10,000 ppm). At the higher salt contents the amount of water which can be produced in this way is comparatively small, but it rises rapidly as the initial salt concentration falls. If additional water is needed, it is best produced by base-load distillation. (author). Abstract only

  2. Ukrainian 'greens' and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the First Constituent Congress of the Ukrainian Ecology Association 'Zelenyj svit' started in 1989 under antinuclear banners the as an organization of 'greens'. Since a great many of the Ukrainian citizens shared the attitude of the 'greens' to the Chernobyl accident, we faced the problem to stand our ground at least on our 'territory', i,e. the towns-NPP satellites. It is this factor that specified the urgent tasks for our activities at the regional level, carried out in cooperation with public relations services at the NPP. He arranged giving lectures in these towns, sent the public relations services all kind of information which sight be of use for efficient work, and performed sociological studies, which included: i) clearing up the attitude of the public to different aspects of nuclear energy industry, the level of public knowledge concerning the problem involved, ii) finding the channels and most preferable forms of disseminating information on nuclear power, and iii) developing recommendations for NPP administration and public relations services. He started our work three years ago. it may be noted that at the end of the last year there was a conference in Kiev 'The power industry of independent Ukraine and ecology', held by the Union of power engineers and Zelenyj svit. It is rather significant that at this conference, for the first time in the history of the ecological movement in the Ukraine, the 'greens' have admitted the possibility of having a creative dialogue with power engineers on nuclear power problems. Re consider it to be a serious progress in the perception of our opponents may be noted that at the end of the last year there was a conference in Kiev The power industry of independent Ukraine and ecology, held by the Union of power engineers and Zelenyj svit. It is rather significant that at this conference, for the first time in the history of the ecological movement in the Ukraine, the 'greens' have admitted the possibility of having a

  3. Economic challenges of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The costs of nuclear power is detailed. Concerning the construction costs, the mean value over the French fleet of reactors is 1,2 billions euros/GWe and 1.5 billions euros/GWe when the engineering and pre-exploitation costs are included. The construction costs of future reactors will be far higher than expected: 6 billion euros versus 3.5 billions euros for the EPR. The Audit Office has recently made public the real cost of today's nuclear electricity in France: 54 euros/MWh, this value is given by the CCE method and includes all the aspects of nuclear energy: construction, operation, dismantling, maintenance, upgrading works required for life extension, new safety requirements due to Fukushima feedback and long-term managing of wastes. The cost of nuclear accidents is not taken into account. The costs of dismantling can be estimated from the feedback experience from the dismantling of nuclear reactors in the Usa, the value obtained is consistent with the OECD rule that states that it represents 15% of the construction cost. The economic impact of decommissioning a plant after 40 years of operating life while its operating life could have been extended to reach 50 or even 60 years has a cost of losing 1 billion to 2 billion euros per reactor. Despite the fact that tomorrow's nuclear systems will be more expensive than today's, it will stay in a competitive range. (A.C.)

  4. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the IAEA's PRIS and AREVA-CEA's GAIA databases. The following aspects are reviewed: 2007 highlights; Main characteristics of reactor types; Map of the French nuclear power plants on 2007/01/01; Worldwide status of nuclear power plants (12/31/2007); Units distributed by countries; Nuclear power plants connected to the Grid- by reactor type groups; Nuclear power plants under construction on 2007; Evolution of nuclear power plants capacities connected to the grid; First electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit in each country; Electrical generation from nuclear power plants by country at the end 2007; Performance indicator of French PWR units; Evolution of the generation indicators worldwide by type; Nuclear operator ranking according to their installed capacity; Units connected to the grid by countries at 12/31/2007; Status of licence renewal applications in USA; Nuclear power plants under construction at 12/31/2007; Shutdown reactors; Exported nuclear capacity in net MWe; Exported and national nuclear capacity connected to the grid; Exported nuclear power plants under construction; Exported and national nuclear capacity under construction; Nuclear power plants ordered at 12/31/2007; Long term shutdown units at 12/31/2007; COL (combined licences) applications in the USA; Recycling of Plutonium in reactors and experiences; Mox licence plants projects; Appendix - historical development; Meaning of the used acronyms; Glossary

  5. From nuclear power to fusion nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of thermonuclear fusion, which is over 50 years long, now has come to a stage expected to pave the way to the industrial implementation of fusion energy. The euphoria, which has spread in the society after the success of thermonuclear arms' tests and first fission reactors, has also influenced plasma physicists, which then promised to launch fusion power plants within the next 20 years. However, the science development has shown once again, how cautiously such projections should be treated. Specialists have clearly underestimated the complexity of the task to create a fusion energy source for the Earth conditions. It took several decades of fundamental plasma process research to give birth to a new area of science-the hot plasma physics. Only thanks to the development of this discipline, parameters of fusion installations have gradually approached the diapason, which was of interest for a fusion power reactor. Today the plasma physics has enough theoretical and experimental achievements to transfer, from theory to practice, the issue of constructing the first fusion reactor, with power yielded from fusion reactions exceeding by an order of magnitude the energy spent for supporting the reactor plasma. Physicist have reasons to believe that the prospects of nuclear fusion energy (thermonuclear energy), which is called to eliminate the problem of limited energy resources, could become a reality in the second half of the XXI century

  6. Adoption of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article develops a model of the innovation-adoption decision. The model allows the economic situation of a utility and its perception of uncertainty associated with an innovation to affect the probability of adopting it. This model is useful when uncertainties affecting decisions about adoption persist throughout the diffusion process, thereby making the usual adoption model implicit in rate-of-diffusion studies inappropriate. An empirical test of the model finds that firm size, power pool size, and selected aspects of uncertainty about the innovation are significant predictors of US utility companies' decisions on whether or not to adopt nuclear power generation. 17 references, 2 tables

  7. Owners of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following list indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies as of December 1, 1979. The list includes all plants licensed to operate, under construction, docketed for NRC safety and envionmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review. It does not include those plants announced but not yet under review or those plants formally cancelled. In many cases, ownership may be in the process of changing as a result of antitrust license conditions and hearings, altered financial conditions, changed power needs, and other reasons. However, this list reflects only those ownership percentages of which the NRC has been formally notified

  8. Nuclear energy and electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal scientific aspects of some technical problems posed by the nuclear energy utilization and its transformation into electric power. Two types of reactors are envisaged in the framework of the present French programs: pressurized water and enriched uranium reactors, and the sodium cooled, fast neutron breeder reactors. After having introduced the concepts of cross sections and radioactive equilibrium, some important questions are outlined: the concept of reactor criticality, the role of delayed neutrons in reactor control, the enrichment of uranium in the 235 isotope. The scientific bases of radioprotection are given: definition of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent; examples of dose determination during an irradiation, of external origin or due to a radioactive contamination. Some aspects including the economy of nuclear power production have been voluntarily rejected, emphasis being put on the bases allowing a fruitful consultation of a more specialized technical and scientific litterature in the field

  9. Ergonomics and nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and construction of nuclear power plants are executed to rigorous standards of safety and reliability. Similarly the human interface within the nuclear power plant must meet very high standards, and these must be demonstrated to be maintained and assured through time. The control room, as the operating nerve-centre of the plant, carries a large part of this responsibility. It is the work space dimension within which the operator-instrumentation interface must function as efficiently as possible. This paper provides an overview of how ergonomics has been used as a major tool in reshaping the man-machine interface within the control room in the interest of safety and reliability. Topics covered in the paper include workspace design, control panel layout, demarcation and labelling, switch and meter types, and annunciated and unannunciated alarms

  10. WASP in Nuclear Power Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main modules of WASP are presented in details in the introduction paragraph. The authors have emphasized on the probabilistic simulation used in WASP for evaluating different costs of the objective function and the Bellman principle for finding the optimal trajectory in dynamic programming. In the second paragraph the principal results obtained by the Nuclear Power Dept. of VINATOM are enumerated: a/the most cost-effective solution for Vietnam is to introduce a nuclear power capacity of 800-1200 MW by around the year 2010; b/ different types of reactors for the first NPP are ranked according to their economic criteria; c/ the sensitivity analysis is also carried out with respect to discount rates, LOLP (loss of load probability), ENS (energy non served), construction cost. (author). 4 figs, 7 tabs

  11. Nuclear power plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current licensing emphasis is different from that existing when older nuclear power plants received their operating licenses. Today, there is increased regulatory focus on utility performance measured through new inspections such as the safety system functional inspection and the safety systems outage modifications inspection; and the use of performance indicators. These programs are intended to identify poorer performing plants and concentrate on improving overall plant performance. This paper discusses how, in an attempt to improve the maintenance performance of the nuclear industry, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission recently began work on a maintenance rule. In addition, the NRC will require partial probabilistic risk evaluations for each plant that will provide new insights as to a plant's risk. Risk information is being used to prioritize inspections

  12. New Zealand code for nuclear powered shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report recommends guidelines for the safety precautions and procedures to be implemented when New Zealand ports and approaches are used by nuclear powered merchant ships and nuclear powered naval ships

  13. Alternative institutional arrangements for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates how alternative organizations of nuclear power generation would effect the regulatory environment for nuclear power production, how it would effect financial constraints on new construction, and what governmental barriers to such reorganization exist

  14. Nuclear power in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic deregulation in the power sector raises new challenges for the prospects of nuclear power. A key issue is to assess whether nuclear power can be competitive in a de-regulated electricity market. Other important considerations include safety, nuclear liability and insurance, the nuclear power infrastructure, and health and environmental protection. This study, conducted by a group of experts from twelve OECD Member countries and three international organisations, provides a review and analysis of these issues, as related to both existing and future nuclear power plants. It will be of particular interest to energy analysts, as well as to policy makers in the nuclear and government sectors. (author)

  15. Industrial technology of nuclear power and annual report of nuclear power center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces nuclear power industry in France, which includes position of nuclear power in the world energy market, state of nuclear power in France energy market, a fast-breeder reactor, the function of nuclear power plant, current situation of enriched uranium in France and the world and disposal of radioactive waste in France. It also report the nuclear department condition of the year 1979 about nuclear materials, nuclear application, foundation research, international relationship and publicity activities.

  16. Nuclear power: A competitive option? Annex 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because the future development of nuclear power will depend largely on its economic performance compared to alternatives, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) investigates continuously the economic aspects of nuclear power. This paper provides key findings from a series of OECD studies on projected costs of generating electricity and other related NEA activities. It addresses the cost economics necessary for nuclear units to be competitive, and discusses the challenges and opportunities currently faced by nuclear power. (author)

  17. Nuclear power news no 40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following matters are dealt with: - Independent international evaluation of the safety of Barsebaeck renders high rating. - What did the Russians reporting on the Chernobyl accident teach us? - There is no risk with xenon poisoning in Swedish reactors. - Could a reactor explode as an atomic bomb? - The decommissioning plan of the centre party is wrong about the Swedish reactor safety. OECD: safe final disposal of nuclear power waste is possible

  18. Nuclear power plants and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of nuclear power plants is analysed in details. The fundamental principles of reactors are described as well as the problems of safety involved with the reactor operation and the quantity and type of radioactive released to the environment. It shows that the amount of radioactive is very long. The reactor accidents has occurred, as three mile island, are also analysed. (M.I.A.)

  19. Maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide provides detailed guidance on the provisions of the Code on the Safety in Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, IAEA Safety Series No. 50-C-O(Rev.1) on the maintenance of structures, systems and components. Like the Code, the Guide forms part of the IAEA's programme, referred to as the NUSS programme, for establishing Codes and Safety Guides relating to nuclear power plants. Effective maintenance is essential for safe operation of a nuclear power plant. It not only ensures that the level of reliability and effectiveness of all plant structures, systems and components having a bearing on safety remains in accordance with design assumptions and intent, but also that the safety status of the plant is not adversely affected after commencement of operation. Nuclear power plant maintenance requires special attention because of: Limitations set by requirements that a minimum number of components remain operable even when the plant is shut down in order to ensure that all necessary safety functions are guaranteed; Difficulty of access to some plant items even when the plant is shut down, due to radiation protection constraints; Potential radiological hazards to site personnel and the public. This Guide covers the organizational and procedural aspects of maintenance but does not give detailed technical advice on the maintenance of particular plant items. It gives guidance on preventive and remedial measures necessary to ensure that all structures, systems and components important to safety are capable of performing as intended. The Guide covers the organizational and administrative requirements for establishing and implementing preventive maintenance schedules, repairing defective plant items, selecting and training maintenance personnel, providing maintenance facilities and equipment, procuring stores and spare parts, reviewing, controlling and carrying out plant modifications, and generating, collecting and retaining maintenance records for establishing and

  20. Sustainable development and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The substantial increase in global energy consumption in coming decades will be driven principally by the developing world. Although there is some awareness on both the technical and political levels of the advantages of nuclear power, it is not a globally favored option in a sustainable energy future. This paper, after discussion of rising energy consumption, concentrates on a comparison of the environmental impacts of the available energy options. (author)

  1. World outlook on nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication presents and overview of information from various countries on the attitude of the governments, parliaments, political parties, industries and the public to nuclear power. A total of 29 countries are surveyed, divided as follows: Europe, North America, Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and other countries. Sources are given for each piece of information. It is concluded that although the situation is different in different countries, the overall trend is towards a further development of this unique energy source. (author)

  2. Owners of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The list indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies as of September 1, 1982. The list includes all plants licensed to operate, under construction, docketed for NRC safety and environmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review. Part I lists plants alphabetically with their associated applicants and percentage ownership. Part II lists applicants alphabetically with their associated plants and percentage ownership. Part I also indicates which plants have received operating licenses

  3. Nuclear power and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power demands throughout the world are increasing: energy is essential to assure public health and to provide for the quality of life to which man aspires. Interest in the environmental aspects of nuclear power stations led the IAEA, in co-operation with the US Atomic Energy Commission, to convene a symposium in New York on this topic in August 1970. The enthusiastic response both during and after that meeting, and the interest in environmental matters evidenced by the convening of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm in June this year, led to a decision to summarize the information presented in New York in a condensed and readily understandable form for those not engaged directly in this field of work. The resultant booklet, prepared in co-operation with the World Health Organization, has now been published under the title of this note. It is intended for wide distribution, especially among delegates and others attending the Stockholm conference. This initial distribution is free; it is probable that the booklet will be up-dated later for re-issue as a sales publication at a price to be fixed. 'Nuclear Power and the Environment' is presented in five sections, each treating a specific aspect of the general topic: the role of atomic energy in meeting future power needs; radiation protection standards; safe handling of radioactive materials; other impacts of the nuclear power industry; and public health considerations. The booklet concludes with a summary of the material presented, and annexes listing pertinent publications of the IAEA, WHO and other international organizations, for further reading. Contributions to the booklet were supplied by 28 experts from the IAEA and WHO and a number of Member States; these were compiled and edited in house. The interests and technical background of the prospective audience have a broader spectrum than one would normally try to cover with a single publication. For the lay public the IAEA has

  4. Sabotage at Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purvis, James W.

    1999-07-21

    Recently there has been a noted worldwide increase in violent actions including attempted sabotage at nuclear power plants. Several organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have guidelines, recommendations, and formal threat- and risk-assessment processes for the protection of nuclear assets. Other examples are the former Defense Special Weapons Agency, which used a risk-assessment model to evaluate force-protection security requirements for terrorist incidents at DOD military bases. The US DOE uses a graded approach to protect its assets based on risk and vulnerability assessments. The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigation conduct joint threat and vulnerability assessments on high-risk US airports. Several private companies under contract to government agencies use formal risk-assessment models and methods to identify security requirements. The purpose of this paper is to survey these methods and present an overview of all potential types of sabotage at nuclear power plants. The paper discusses emerging threats and current methods of choice for sabotage--especially vehicle bombs and chemical attacks. Potential consequences of sabotage acts, including economic and political; not just those that may result in unacceptable radiological exposure to the public, are also discussed. Applicability of risk-assessment methods and mitigation techniques are also presented.

  5. Cost escalation in nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is concerned with the escalation of capital costs of nuclear central station power plants between the early 1960s and the present. The report presents an historical overview of the development of the nuclear power industry and cost escalation in the industry, using existing data on orders and capital costs. New data are presented on regulatory delays in the licensing process, derived from a concurrent study being carried on in the Social Science group at Caltech. The conclusions of the study are that nuclear capital costs have escalated more rapidly than the GNP deflator or the construction industry price index. Prior to 1970, cost increases are related to bottleneck problems in the nuclear construction and supplying industries and the regulatory process; intervenors play only a minor role in cost escalation. After 1970, generic changes introduced into the licensing process by intervenors (including environmental impact reviews, antitrust reviews, more stringent safety standards) dominate the cost escalation picture, with bottlenecks of secondary importance. Recent increases in the time from application for a construction permit to commercial operation are related not only to intervenor actions, but also to suspensions, cancellations or postponements of construction by utilities due to unfavorable demand or financing conditions

  6. Sabotage at Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently there has been a noted worldwide increase in violent actions including attempted sabotage at nuclear power plants. Several organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have guidelines, recommendations, and formal threat- and risk-assessment processes for the protection of nuclear assets. Other examples are the former Defense Special Weapons Agency, which used a risk-assessment model to evaluate force-protection security requirements for terrorist incidents at DOD military bases. The US DOE uses a graded approach to protect its assets based on risk and vulnerability assessments. The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigation conduct joint threat and vulnerability assessments on high-risk US airports. Several private companies under contract to government agencies use formal risk-assessment models and methods to identify security requirements. The purpose of this paper is to survey these methods and present an overview of all potential types of sabotage at nuclear power plants. The paper discusses emerging threats and current methods of choice for sabotage--especially vehicle bombs and chemical attacks. Potential consequences of sabotage acts, including economic and political; not just those that may result in unacceptable radiological exposure to the public, are also discussed. Applicability of risk-assessment methods and mitigation techniques are also presented

  7. Safety for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York have reopened the debate in Germany abut the safety of existing nuclear power plants. On the one hand, it culminated in the demand, made from a prominent political position, to disconnect from the grid prematurely five of the older nuclear power plants because they offered no sufficient protection from terrorist attacks carried out by means of commercial airliners. On the other hand, the competent German Federal Ministry of the Interior to this day has not been able to detect a hazardous situation for Germany which would require nuclear power plants (or other facilities) to be shut down - temporarily -so as to reduce their hazard potential. The legal situation is discussed in detail. It is evident that the debate about the safety of any kind of industrial plants will go on and will be revived by any kind of event. Despite the growing need for public safety, it must not be overlooked in the public debate that an absolute exclusion of risk is impossible and that, consequently, there can be no absolute protection of any legal object. (orig.)

  8. Nuclear power development in the Far East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power development of selected Far Eastern countries is presented in this paper. This paper consists of three sections. Section 1 describes the current power/nuclear power status of Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and China. The first three countries already have operating nuclear power units, while mainland China will have a nuclear power commissioned this year according to their schedule. The power development plan for these countries is also presented. All of them have included nuclear power as part of their energy sources for the future. Section 2 briefly describes the nuclear power industry in these countries which basically covers design, manufacturing and R and D activities. Public Acceptance programs (PAPs) will play a significant role in the future of nuclear power. Section 3 discusses the PAPs of these countries. (author)

  9. Nuclear power in Czech and Slovak Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power in Czech and Slovak Republics has been described. Nuclear power plants contribute 28% to the whole energy production (12.1 TWh in Czech republic and 11.7 in Slovak Republic). The Czech and Slovak Republics' nuclear power generation programme assumes to build in these Republics further nuclear power stations with higher efficiency and better safety parameters. 12 figs, 5 tabs

  10. Atucha I nuclear power plant transients analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program for the transients simulation thermohydraulic calculation without loss of coolant (KWU-ENACE development) to evaluate Atucha I nuclear power plant behaviour is used. The program includes systems simulation and nuclear power plants control bonds with real parameters. The calculation results show a good agreement with the output 'protocol' of various transients of the nuclear power plant, keeping the error, in general, lesser than ± 10% from the variation of the nuclear power plant's state variables. (Author)

  11. Czechoslovakia: nuclear power in a socialist society

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, F. W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is an evaluation of the impact nuclear power planning policies have had on Czechoslovakia's socialist society, particularly for the post-Chernobyl era. Poor indigenous energy resources and the leading role that nuclear power has played in the COMECON's energy-intensive manufacturing sector has made nuclear power into an attractive proposition from the 1960s onwards. Discussion in this paper centres around nuclear-power plant siting and operation, and media coverage of the industry ...

  12. Nuclear power revolution is far away

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The real nuclear debate is as much about money and time as it is about radioactivity and security. While the industry's own people want nuclear power plant to be recognized as climate initiative, said UNFCCC currently no. Nuclear power is virtually CO2-free. The world has 436 nuclear reactors and build 44 new right now. Total this will give a capacity of over 400 G Wh of power. But straightforward power is it not. (AG)

  13. Current status of nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power is not a viable energy source for Sri Lanka at present because of a number of reasons, the main reason being the non-availability of small and economically viable nuclear power plants. However several suppliers of nuclear power plants are in the process of developing small and medium power plants (SMPRs) which could be economically competitive with coal. The paper deals with past and future trends of nuclear power plants, their economics and safety. It also deals with environmental effects and public acceptance of nuclear power plants

  14. A future for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two decades after the Chernobyl accident, Tony Goddard believes that nuclear power must continue to be used to generate electricity. Exactly 20 years ago this month, on 21 April 1986, workers at the Chernobyl nuclear plant in the former Soviet Union carried out an experiment at very low power with one of the facility's two 'RBMK' reactors. They were, however, unaware that their actions would make the reactor dangerously unstable. Its power rapidly increased, leading to the destruction of the core and a massive chemical explosion. The World Health Organisation estimates that between 40 and 50 staff and emergency workers died as a result of radiation released during the accident. It also resulted in widespread contamination and radiation exposure. The Chernobyl disaster was a significant moment in the development of nuclear power, particularly in terms of the public's attitude to this form of energy. It also highlighted how the Soviet nuclear industry was badly regulated, suffered from lax operation and training, and tolerated weak reactor designs. Surprisingly, one power station in Lithuania and three in Russia are still using RBMK reactors after design deficiencies related to Chernobyl were corrected, although the former is due to close in 2009 following appeals by the European Union on safety grounds. Now, however, it appears that the tide is turning back in favour of nuclear power as countries contemplate the problems of climate change, rising energy prices and the fact that many nuclear plants are reaching the end of their lives. The review contains a consultation document entitled 'Our energy challenge' that sets out four goals: to cut carbon-dioxide emissions; to ensure reliable supplies of energy; to achieve sustainable economic growth; and to ensure that every home is adequately and affordably heated. While the UK hesitates, several other countries are already taking action. Finland has commissioned a new European pressurised water (EPR) reactor at Olkiluoto

  15. Robots for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many industrial applications of robots, the objective is to replace human workers with machines that are more productive, efficient, and accurate. But for nuclear applications, the objective is not so much to replace workers as it is to extend their presence - for example, to project their reach into areas of a nuclear plant where the thermal or radiation environment prohibits or limits a human presence. The economic motivation to use robots for nuclear plant inspection and maintenance is centered on their potential for improving plant availability; a by-product is the potential for reducing the occupational radiation exposure of plant personnel. Robotic equipment in nuclear applications may be divided into two broad categories: single-purpose devices with limited ability to perform different operations, and reprogrammable, multi-purpose robots with some degree of computer-based artificial intelligence. Preliminary assessments of the potential for applying robotics in nuclear power plants - mainly at surveillance and inspection tasks - have been carried out. Future developments are considered

  16. Nuclear power and political conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is limited to the first phase of conflict up to 1977. The various forms of controversy on the issue of nuclear energy are examined. The conflict is explained as being the result of relevant research and (energy) infrastructure policies. The first task of such an investigation is to analyse the depoliticization of nuclear energy policy which took place over a period of nearly 20 years (1955-1973/4). This depoliticization and non-decisionmaking on the social consequences of nuclear energy have laid the foundations for the development of the conflict which occured in the first cycle of the nuclear energy conflict. The second task is to highlight the social structure of the opposition movement, its forms of struggle, and the response of the state apparatus, The crisis of the nuclear power policy has led to a more or less distinct paralysis of the state apparatus because the political and industrial decisionmaking processes in this area were not designed to cope with social conflicts. In fact, their very structure had excluded the possibility of political opposition to a specific technology. (orig./HP)

  17. The Canadian nuclear power program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review of the Canadian nuclear power program is presented. Domestically developed CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) reactors account for all of Canada's nuclear electric capacity (5000 MWe in operation and 10,000 MWe under construction or in commissioning) and have also been exported. CANDU reactors are reliable, efficient, and consistently register in the world's top ten in performance. The safety record is excellent. Canada has excess capability in heavy water and uranium production and can easily service export demands. The economic activity generated in the nuclear sector is high and supports a large number of jobs. The growth in nuclear commitments has slowed somewhat as a result of the worldwide recession; however, the nuclear share of expected electricity demand is likely to continue to rise in the next decade. Priorities in the future direction of the program lie in the areas of maintaining high response capability to in-service problems, improving technology, high-level waste management, and advanced fuel cycles. (author)

  18. Public enlightment seminar on nuclear power. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seminar considered different aspects of nuclear power development, including the following issues: electricity generation, power supply and demand, energy sources, consumption of electricity, energy outlook in Europe, comparative analysis of energy options, safety of modern nuclear power plants, radiation and human health, radioactive waste management, nuclear techniques to promote world food security, public information issues

  19. Guangdong Daya Bay nuclear power station project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station is the largest joint-venture project which is also the largest commercial nuclear power plant currently under construction in China mainland. Organized and executed strictly in accordance with international standards, the Daya Bay project is seen as the first step taken by China in the development programme of large-capacity commercial nuclear power units

  20. Nuclear power in the World Energy Outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, I shall discuss nuclear power in the context of the International Energy Agency's World Energy Outlook. I shall also draw on the implications for nuclear power of three major energy policy issues: sustainability, climate change and electricity market competition. Those issues were addressed in detail in a recent IEA publication, entitled Nuclear Power. (author)

  1. Nuclear power newsletter. Vol. 1, no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This first issue of newsletter describes the Nuclear Power Division of the Department of Nuclear Energy responsible for implementation of the IAEA programme on Nuclear Power. The mission of the Division is to increase the capability of interested Member States to implement and maintain competitive and sustainable nuclear power programmes and to develop and apply advanced nuclear technologies. The topics covered in this publication are: Engineering and Management Support for Competitive Nuclear Power; Improving Human Performance, Quality and Technical Infrastructure; Co-ordination of International Collaboration for the Development of Innovative Nuclear Technology; Technology Developments and Applications for Advanced Reactors; The International Conference on 'Fifty Years of Nuclear Power - the Next Fifty Years'. A list of documents published recently by the Nuclear Power Division in enclosed

  2. Role of nuclear power in the Philippine power development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reintroduction of nuclear power in the Philippines is favored by several factors such as : the inclusion of nuclear energy in the energy sector of the science and technology agenda for national development; the large gap between electricity demand and available local supply for the medium-term power development plan; the relatively lower health risks in nuclear power fuel cycle systems compared to the already acceptable power systems; the lower environmental impacts of nuclear power system compared to fossil fuelled systems and the availability of a regulatory framework and trained personnel who could form a core for implementing a nuclear power program. It is estimated that the electricity supply gap of 9600 MW for the period 1993-2005 could be partly supplied by nuclear power. The findings of a recent study are described, as well as the issues that have to be addressed in the reintroduction of nuclear power. 6 refs

  3. Nuclear power program and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Access to energy is one of the basic requirements for human development. To meet these growing energy needs without creating negative side effects is a challenge. The possibility of global climate change resulting from an increase in GHG concentrations in the atmosphere due to developmental activities is a major global concern. India is passing through the process of economic growth. Although India has not created the problem of climate change, India stands ready to be a part of the solution. The largest chunk of emissions was from electricity generation amounting to 65 percent of the total CO2 equivalent emissions from the energy sector. Nuclear energy and renewables stand as sources for electricity with minimum GHG emission. Production of electricity from any form of primary energy has some environmental effect. A balanced assessment is needed. Nuclear power is of importance to India because it has potentially unlimited resource base, does not emit GHGs and, depending on location, has potentially favourable economics versus coal. In the long term, if we are to preserve the environment, it will be necessary to tap this source to the maximum extent feasible, In nuclear power stations, all its wastes are contained. India being home to nearly a third of the entire world's thorium, the strategies for large scale deployment of nuclear energy is focused towards utilization of thorium. The electricity potential of 3-stage programme is estimated to be about 2 lakh GWe-yr. Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited is currently operating 20 reactors and has accumulated more than 337 reactor-years of experience in safe operation. A defence-in-depth approach is at the heart of safety philosophy, where there are several lines of defence, one backing another. Radiation is relevant for nuclear, coal, oil, gas and geothermal power plants. The essential task is to prevent excessive amounts now or in the future. One of the guiding principles adopted is to ensure that radiation

  4. Similarities and differences between conventional power and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the implementation of the national guideline of 'proactively promoting nuclear power development', especially after China decided in 2006 to introduce Westinghouse's AP1000 technology, some of the power groups specialized in conventional power generation, have been participating in the preliminary work and construction of nuclear power projects in certain degrees. Meanwhile, such traditional nuclear power corporations as China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) and China Guangdong Nuclear Power Corporation (CGNPC) have also employed some employees with conventional power generation experience. How can these employees who have long been engaged in conventional power generation successfully adapt to the new work pattern, ideology, knowledge, thinking mode and proficiency of nuclear power, so that they can fit in with the work requirements of nuclear power and become qualified as soon as possible? By analyzing the technological, managerial and cultural features of nuclear power, as well as some issues to be kept in mind when engaged in nuclear power, this paper intends to make some contribution to the nuclear power development in the specific period. (author)

  5. Damage of primary collector bolts of steam generators of units I and II of SEP Bohunice nuclear power plant in 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    115 out of 204 bolts were defected. The manufacturer's records showed that the bolt material was free of faults, and thus the causes of the defects were sought elsewhere. The material was subjected to capillary, ultrasonic, eddy current and metallographic analyses. Metallographic analysis of the lubricant was also performed. Intergranular cracks were detected; these were due to stress corrosion cracking, probably caused by chemical changes in the lubricant (molybdenum sulfide) bringing about changes in the corrosion medium and deposition of chlorides in the threads. Mechanical stress is another risk factor. It is recommended that a different lubricant be used and tensometric measurements be performed, or alternatively, a more suitable type of steel be developed. (M.D.). 3 tabs., 1 fig., 4 refs

  6. Merchant marine nuclear-powered vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of civil nuclear-powered vessels development in Russia is highlighted. Advantages of nuclear propulsion for icebreakers operating in the Arctic are discussed. The operation of nuclear-powered icebreakers and the nuclear lighters-aboard ship in the Arctic has changed the situation on the Northern Sea Way. The all year round navigation there now is a reality. The reliability, safety and ecological cleanness of nuclear-powered vessels are discussed. The necessity of internationally recognized standards, rules and codes for safe operation of nuclear-powered trade vessels is underlined. (orig.)

  7. The economics of nuclear power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Ronald L.

    We extend economic analysis of the nuclear power industry by developing and employing three tools. They are (1) compilation and unification of operating and accounting data sets for plants and sites, (2) an abstract industry model with major economic agents and features, and (3) a model of nuclear power plant operators. We build a matched data set to combine dissimilar but mutually dependant bodies of information. We match detailed information on the activities and conditions of individual plants to slightly more aggregated financial data. Others have exploited the data separately, but we extend the sets and pool available data sets. The data reveal dramatic changes in the industry over the past thirty years. The 1980s proved unprofitable for the industry. This is evident both in the cost data and in the operator activity data. Productivity then improved dramatically while cost growth stabilized to the point of industry profitability. Relative electricity prices may be rising after nearly two decades of decline. Such demand side trends, together with supply side improvements, suggest a healthy industry. Our microeconomic model of nuclear power plant operators employs a forward-looking component to capture the information set available to decision makers and to model the decision-making process. Our model includes features often overlooked elsewhere, including electricity price equations and liability. Failure to account for changes in electricity price trends perhaps misled earlier scholars, and they attributed to other causes the effects on profits of changing price structures. The model includes potential losses resulting from catastrophic nuclear accidents. Applications include historical simulations and forecasts. Nuclear power involves risk, and accident costs are borne both by plant owners and the public. Authorities regulate the industry and balance conflicting desires for economic gain and safety. We construct an extensible model with regulators, plant

  8. Ten years of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten years have elapsed since the world's first nuclear power station began to supply electricity in Russia, and this in turn marked the end of a twelve year stage following the first controlled nuclear chain reaction at Chicago. These periods mark major stages in the development of atomic energy from the realm of abstract ideas to that of everyday industrial application. They followed a period of fundamental research and laboratory work, culminating in Enrico Fermi's demonstration of a system whereby the forces of the atom could be brought under control. Then it was necessary to find ways and means of using the chain reaction for practical purposes and on an industrial scale. And after this had been shown in 1954 to be technically possible, it had still to be developed into an economic process. The nuclear power station has proved itself from the technical and engineering standpoint. The third phase of development has been to bring it to the stage of being economically competitive with alternative sources of energy, and it would appear that we are now reaching that goal - though more slowly than had been envisaged ten years ago

  9. Modelling of nuclear power plant decommissioning financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants create a significant financial burden for nuclear power plant operators. This article discusses the various methodologies employed by selected European countries for financing of the liabilities related to the nuclear power plant decommissioning. The article also presents methodology of allocation of future decommissioning costs to the running costs of nuclear power plant in the form of fee imposed on each megawatt hour generated. The application of the methodology is presented in the form of a case study on a new nuclear power plant with installed capacity 1000 MW. (authors)

  10. Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2013 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Country Nuclear Power Profiles compile background information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in Member States. The CNPP summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programs and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory, and international framework in each country. Its descriptive and statistical overview of the overall economic, energy, and electricity situation in each country and its nuclear power framework is intended to serve as an integrated source of key background information about nuclear power programs in the world. This 2013 edition, issued on CD-ROM and Web pages, contains updated country information for 51 countries

  11. Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2015 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Country Nuclear Power Profiles compile background information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in Member States. The publication summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international framework in each State. Its descriptive and statistical overview of the overall economic, energy and electricity situation in each State and its nuclear power framework is intended to serve as an integrated source of key background information about nuclear power programmes throughout the world. This 2015 edition, issued on CD-ROM, contains updated country information for 51 States

  12. Nuclear power development, safety and environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current state is described of power production by conventional power plants and the problems of burning fossil fuels are discussed. A survey is presented of the development of world nuclear power production and of the planned construction of nuclear power plants in Czechoslovakia. The questions of the safety of nuclear installations and their environmental impacts in normal operation and in case of accident are outlined. In the analysis of these aspects of nuclear power production the probability data on the potential hazards of operating nuclear reactors as published in the Rasmussen Safety Report are discussed. (O.K.)

  13. Nuclear power data 2016; Kernenergie in Zahlen 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-04-15

    The brochure on nuclear power data 2016 covers the following topics: (I) nuclear power in Germany: nuclear power plants in Germany; shut-down and decommissioned nuclear power plants, gross electricity generation, primary energy consumption; (II) nuclear power worldwide: nuclear electricity production, nuclear power plants.

  14. Optimization in the scale of nuclear power generation and the economy of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the not too distant future, the economy of nuclear power will have to be restudied. Various conditions and circumstances supporting this economy of nuclear power tend to change, such as the decrease in power demand and supply, the diversification in base load supply sources, etc. The fragility in the economic advantage of nuclear power may thus be revealed. In the above connection, on the basis of the future outlook of the scale of nuclear power generation, that is, the further reduction of the current nuclear power program, and of the corresponding supply and demand of nuclear fuel cycle quantities, the aspect of the economic advantage of nuclear power was examined, for the purpose of optimizing the future scale of nuclear power generation (the downward revision of the scale, the establishment of the schedule of nuclear fuel cycle the stagnation of power demand and nuclear power generation costs). (Mori, K.)

  15. The environmental impact of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major environmental hazards associated with nuclear power stations are outlined. The environmental and biological effects of air pollution, thermal pollution, radioactive effluent from power stations and fuel reprocessing plants, and radioactive waste disposal are dealt with, and the safety of nuclear power stations is discussed. In addition, some comparisons are made of the environmental hazards associated with alternative methods of power generation. (author)

  16. Energy supply without nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a first phase of work (1979-1980), the four energy paths were developed as an attempt to describe on a technical basis in quantitative terms, and combine in a consistent picture, the variety of opinions then prevailing in the Federal Republic with respect to future energy supply structures. The social compatibility of energy supply systems was the subject of investigation in the early eighties by two groups of scientists working on behalf, and following a suggestion, respectively, of the German Federal Ministry for Research and Technology, i.e., one group headed by K.M. Meyer-Abich and B. Schefold, and another group at the Juelich Nuclear Research Center. The final report by the Meyer-Abich/Schefold group, which was written for public release, is a book entitled 'Die Grenzen der Atomwirtschaft' (The Limits to the Nuclear Economy). This latter book came out in spring of 1986 and soon played a major role in the energy policy debate after the Chernobyl disaster. In their conclusions the authors clearly express themselves against using nuclear power on the grounds that it was a socially incompatible source of energy. This article compairs the energy scenarios K and S described in the book with the energy paths 2 and 3 of the Fact Finding Committee on Future Nuclear Energy Policy. (orig.)

  17. Small, moveable nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most reliable projections indicate that by the year 2000 approximately 25% of the world's electrical energy and possibly 10% of its process heat for industry will be provided by nuclear power plants. Whilst much of this will come from large nuclear steam raising units-in excess of 900 M.W.(e)-an increasing proportion will be provided from small modular plant, designed for portabiity or mobility. The technical, environmental and economic parameters of such a plant which will usually be of a size around 600 M.W.(e) or less and which in general terms derives its basic design features from nuclear marine propulsion units is reviewed. If suitably standardised, such a nuclear plant, mounted on barges, installed in ships or even airlifted into difficult locations, could provide an attractive solution to the energy problems of developing countries or remote communities. Apart from electrical energy production, the units could operate in a duplex mode to supply steam for central heating, sea-water or bore water distillation or industrial process heat. (Author)

  18. Reviewing nuclear power station achievement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For measurement of nuclear power station achievement against original purchase the usual gross output figures are of little value since the term loosely covers many different definitions. An authentically designed output figure has been established which relates to net design output plus house load at full load. Based on these figures both cumulative and moving annual load factors are measured, the latter measuring the achievement over the last year, thus showing trends with time. Calculations have been carried out for all nuclear stations in the Western World with 150 MW(e) gross design output and above. From these are shown: moving annual load factor indicating relative station achievements for all the plants; cumulative load factors from which return of investment can be calculated; average moving annual load factors for the four types of system Magnox, PWR, HWR, and BWR; and a relative comparison of achievement by country in a few cases. (U.K.)

  19. Experiences with electronic personal dosimeters at Dukovany Nuclear Power Plant-Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dukovany Nuclear Power Plant operates four WWER-440 type reactors. Unit 1 has been operating since 1985, Unit 2 and Unit 3 since 1986, Unit 4 was connected to the grid in 1987. At Dukovany NPP occupational dosimetry is performed by approved Personal Dosimetry Service. The basic facilities for measuring external exposure are film badge (legal dosimeter), electronic personal dosimeter (EPD) and radio-photoluminescent dosimeter (RPL) as operational dosimeter, TLD for measuring doses to the extremities and TLD albedo dosimeter as neutron dosimeter. The presentation is based on the experiences with electronic personal dosimeters gathered at Dukovany NPP for the last three years. Electronic Personal Dosimetry System (EPDS) was developing by Czech company VF, a.s. and from 2002 year is also used at Temelin NPP (Czech Republic), SE VYZ Bohunice (Slovakia) and SE Mochovce NPP (Slovakia) as well. EPDS is designed for Merlin Gerin, Siemens and RADOS electronic dosimeters. Application SW for data analysis is used for daily monitoring of personal doses and for evaluation of collective doses during outages. System gives information about collective doses on devices and collective doses for select work tasks during outages. In addition EPDS allows the calculation of dose indexes ID. (ID is the ratio of the relevant collective dose and the number of equivalent working hours). This information is applicable for planning doses on special working activities for next outages and allows a detection radiation sources also

  20. The future of nuclear power in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future of nuclear power in Mexico shows interesting aspects: the nuclear power is the source of energy that can supply large proportions of energy, that the country needs; the Kw/h of nuclear power is the most economic energy; the installation of 20 nucleoelectric plants will grant future jobs, the associated nuclear industry can be nationally integrated in the natural uranium cycle. (author)