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Sample records for bohr-van leeuwen theorem

  1. Dwaasheid of retoriek? Cornelis van Leeuwen en de ‘Belachelijke Geometristen’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Nicolaije

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Foolishness or rhetoric? Cornelis van Leeuwen and the 'Ridiculous Geometrists'In 1663–1664 the inhabitants of Amsterdam were – probably much to their amusement – confronted with a pamphlet war between teachers of mathematics. This exchange of verbal and mathematical violence was instigated by Cornelis van Leeuwen, a young mathematics master ('rekenmeester' who had just taken over the school of his former teacher at the Zeedijk. In his pamphlet he ridiculed some of his colleagues who, according to Van Leeuwen, were loudly proclaiming their mathematical skills while their publications merely showed trivialities or ideas they had stolen from others. The fact that Van Leeuwen resorted to such abusive language and mockery is generally seen as foolishness and an act of desperation on the part of someone who did not have the mathematical skills to keep up with his fellow 'rekenmeesters'. In this article, however, it is argued that when analysing the content of Van Leeuwen's name-calling, a rhetorical strategy can be discovered that aimed at undermining the expertise and the honour of his opponents. Van Leeuwen argued that since they presented textbooks or exercises of others as their own, his opponents clearly did not comprehend the material themselves, thereby making them unsuitable to be teachers of mathematics. He furthermore claimed that by stealing from the works of other mathematicians, these 'ridiculous geometrists' had acted dishonourably and should be seen as unreliable, an accusation with potentially serious consequences given the importance of honour and reliability in early-modern Dutch society. Even though Van Leeuwen's attempt to discredit and dishonour some of his competitors on the Amsterdam mathematical market completely backfired, it is nevertheless instructive to see the rhetorical strategy of his pamphlet, which shows us how interwoven mathematical practices were with the general culture of that time.

  2. Commentary on the book 'Nuclear Energy versus Coal. An Analysis' by ir. J.W. Storm van Leeuwen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report gives a documented reaction to Storm van Leeuwen's book and also includes a response from the Minister to parliamentary questions over the Energy Policy Bill, with regard to the consequences of industrial energy generation for the energy analysis. The book has been studied by a panel of experts, all with practical experience in their own specific fields, and it is ascertained that a large number of findings need to be criticised. This report deals only with the following: the significance of the device energy analysis, energy analysis for the generation of electrical energy, safety and ecological aspects of nuclear energy. It is emphasised that other findings in the book have yet to be approved. The panel's conclusions are summarised in the bulk of the report and are accounted for in a number of appendices. (C.F.)

  3. Bell's Theorem from Moore's Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Fields, Chris

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that the restrictions of what can be inferred from classically-recorded observational outcomes that are imposed by the no-cloning theorem, the Kochen-Specker theorem and Bell's theorem also follow from restrictions on inferences from observations formulated within classical automata theory. Similarities between the assumptions underlying classical automata theory and those underlying universally-unitary quantum theory are discussed.

  4. Waldhausen's Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Schleimer, Saul

    2009-01-01

    This note is an exposition of Waldhausen's proof of Waldhausen's Theorem: the three-sphere has a single Heegaard splitting, up to isotopy, in every genus. As a necessary step we also give a sketch of the Reidemeister-Singer Theorem.

  5. Frege's theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Heck, Richard G

    2011-01-01

    Frege's Theorem collects eleven essays by Richard G Heck, Jr, one of the world's leading authorities on Frege's philosophy. The Theorem is the central contribution of Gottlob Frege's formal work on arithmetic. It tells us that the axioms of arithmetic can be derived, purely logically, from a single principle: the number of these things is the same as the number of those things just in case these can be matched up one-to-one with those. But that principle seems so utterlyfundamental to thought about number that it might almost count as a definition of number. If so, Frege's Theorem shows that a

  6. Noether's theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noether's theorem attains its maximum simplicity and depth when formulated in curved space-time, gravitation being included. Extension to curved space-times is here made simple by the use of a formulation, for the flat case, due to Jackiw. The exposition purports to be pedagogical. (Author)

  7. A soft scalar theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine a soft scalar theorem which has proved useful in the evaluation of certain Feynman graphs. The use of this theorem is described in connection with the determination of the Λnphi coupling in a unified model of weak and electromagnetic interactions. (author)

  8. The Parity Theorem Shuffle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    The Parity Theorem states that any permutation can be written as a product of transpositions, but no permutation can be written as a product of both an even number and an odd number of transpositions. Most proofs of the Parity Theorem take several pages of mathematical formalism to complete. This article presents an alternative but equivalent…

  9. Godel's theorem is invalid

    OpenAIRE

    Saa, Diego

    2005-01-01

    Goedel's results have had a great impact in diverse fields such as philosophy, computer sciences and fundamentals of mathematics. The fact that the rule of mathematical induction is contradictory with the rest of clauses used by Goedel to prove his undecidability and incompleteness theorems is proved in this paper. This means that those theorems are invalid.

  10. Algorithmic Meta-Theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Kreutzer, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Algorithmic meta-theorems are general algorithmic results applying to a whole range of problems, rather than just to a single problem alone. They often have a "logical" and a "structural" component, that is they are results of the form: every computational problem that can be formalised in a given logic L can be solved efficiently on every class C of structures satisfying certain conditions. This paper gives a survey of algorithmic meta-theorems obtained in recent years and the methods used to prove them. As many meta-theorems use results from graph minor theory, we give a brief introduction to the theory developed by Robertson and Seymour for their proof of the graph minor theorem and state the main algorithmic consequences of this theory as far as they are needed in the theory of algorithmic meta-theorems.

  11. Intersection homology Kunneth theorems

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Greg

    2008-01-01

    Cohen, Goresky and Ji showed that there is a Kunneth theorem relating the intersection homology groups $I^{\\bar p}H_*(X\\times Y)$ to $I^{\\bar p}H_*(X)$ and $I^{\\bar p}H_*(Y)$, provided that the perversity $\\bar p$ satisfies rather strict conditions. We consider biperversities and prove that there is a K\\"unneth theorem relating $I^{\\bar p,\\bar q}H_*(X\\times Y)$ to $I^{\\bar p}H_*(X)$ and $I^{\\bar q}H_*(Y)$ for all choices of $\\bar p$ and $\\bar q$. Furthermore, we prove that the Kunneth theorem...

  12. To string together six theorems of physics by Pythagoras theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, H. Y.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we point out that there are at lest six theorems in physics sharing common virtue of Pythagoras theorem, so that it is possible to string these theorems together with the Pythagoras theorem for physics teaching, the six theorems are Newton's three laws of motion, universal gravitational force, Coulomb's law, and the formula of relativistic dynamics. Knowing the internal relationships between them, which have never been clearly revealed by other author, will benefit the logic of...

  13. Virial Theorem and Hypervirial Theorem in a spherical geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Fu-Lin; Chen, Jing-Ling

    2010-01-01

    The Virial Theorem in the one- and two-dimensional spherical geometry are presented, in both classical and quantum mechanics. Choosing a special class of Hypervirial operators, the quantum Hypervirial relations in the spherical spaces are obtained. With the aid of the Hellmann-Feynman Theorem, these relations can be used to formulate a \\emph{perturbation theorem without wave functions}, corresponding to the Hypervirial-Hellmann-Feynman Theorem perturbation theorem of Euclidean geometry. The o...

  14. Two preservation theorems

    OpenAIRE

    Zapletal, Jindrich

    2005-01-01

    I prove preservation theorems for countable support iteration of proper forcing concerning certain classes of capacities and submeasures. New examples of forcing notions and connections with measure theory are included.

  15. The Fermi's Bayes Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    D'Agostini, G

    2005-01-01

    It is curious to learn that Enrico Fermi knew how to base probabilistic inference on Bayes theorem, and that some influential notes on statistics for physicists stem from what the author calls elsewhere, but never in these notes, {\\it the Bayes Theorem of Fermi}. The fact is curious because the large majority of living physicists, educated in the second half of last century -- a kind of middle age in the statistical reasoning -- never heard of Bayes theorem during their studies, though they have been constantly using an intuitive reasoning quite Bayesian in spirit. This paper is based on recollections and notes by Jay Orear and on Gauss' ``Theoria motus corporum coelestium'', being the {\\it Princeps mathematicorum} remembered by Orear as source of Fermi's Bayesian reasoning.

  16. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a converse barrier certificate theorem for a generic dynamical system.We show that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system defined on a compact manifold. Other authors have developed a related result, by assuming that the dynamical system has no singular...... points in the considered subset of the state space. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with generic dynamical systems with multiple singularities. Afterwards, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorem and illustrate the differences between ours and previous work by...

  17. On Sylow's theorems

    OpenAIRE

    Poutiainen, H. (Hayley)

    2015-01-01

    Group theory is a mathematical domain where groups and their properties are studied. The evolution of group theory as an area of study is said to be the result of the parallel development of a variety of different studies in mathematics. Sylow’s Theorems were a set of theorems proved around the same time the concept of group theory was being established, in the 1870s. Sylow used permutation groups in his proofs which were then later generalized and shown to hold true for all finite groups....

  18. Goldstone theorem revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Kartavtsev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    According to the Goldstone theorem a scalar theory with a spontaneously broken global symmetry contains strictly massless states. In this letter we identify a loophole in the current-algebra proof of the theorem. Therefore, the question whether in models with Mexican hat potential the tangential excitations are strictly massless or are just almost massless as compared to the radial ones remains open. We also argue that mass of the tangential excitations approaches zero even if the symmetry is not spontaneously broken but a combination of the field components invariant under the symmetry transformations acquires a large vacuum expectation value.

  19. Formality theorem for gerbes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bressler, Paul; Gorokhovsky, Alexander; Nest, Ryszard;

    2015-01-01

    The main result of the present paper is an analogue of Kontsevich formality theorem in the context of the deformation theory of gerbes. We construct an L∞L∞ deformation of the Schouten algebra of multi-vectors which controls the deformation theory of a gerbe.......The main result of the present paper is an analogue of Kontsevich formality theorem in the context of the deformation theory of gerbes. We construct an L∞L∞ deformation of the Schouten algebra of multi-vectors which controls the deformation theory of a gerbe....

  20. Virial Theorem and Scale Transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleban, Peter

    1979-01-01

    Discussed is the virial theorem, which is useful in classical, quantum, and statistical mechanics. Two types of derivations of this theorem are presented and the relationship between the two is explored. (BT)

  1. Gödel's Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Dalen, D. van

    2008-01-01

    The following pages make form a new chapter for the book Logic and Structure. This chapter deals with the incompleteness theorem, and contains enough basic material for the treatment of the required notions of computability, representability and the like. This chapter will appear in the next edition of Logic and Structure. Comments are welcome.

  2. Gödel's Theorem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalen, D. van

    2008-01-01

    The following pages make form a new chapter for the book Logic and Structure. This chapter deals with the incompleteness theorem, and contains enough basic material for the treatment of the required notions of computability, representability and the like. This chapter will appear in the next edition

  3. An Improved Subadditive Ergodic Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Liggett, Thomas M.

    1985-01-01

    A new version of Kingman's subadditive ergodic theorem is presented, in which the subadditivity and stationarity assumptions are relaxed without weakening the conclusions. This result applies to a number of situations that were not covered by Kingman's original theorem. The proof involves a rather simple reduction to the additive case, where Birkhoff's ergodic theorem can be applied.

  4. How to Understand a Theorem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitz, Buma; Berezina, Miryam; Berman, Abraham; Shvartsman, Ludmila

    2009-01-01

    In this article we describe the process of studying the assumptions and the conclusion of a theorem. We tried to provide the students with exercises and problems where we discuss the following questions: What are the assumptions of a theorem and what are the conclusions? What is the geometrical meaning of a theorem? What happens when one or more…

  5. Virial theorem and hypervirial theorem in a spherical geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yan; Chen Jingling [Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhang Fulin, E-mail: flzhang@tju.edu.cn, E-mail: chenjl@nankai.edu.cn [Physics Department, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2011-09-09

    The virial theorem in the one- and two-dimensional spherical geometry are presented in both classical and quantum mechanics. Choosing a special class of hypervirial operators, the quantum hypervirial relations in the spherical spaces are obtained. With the aid of the Hellmann-Feynman theorem, these relations can be used to formulate a perturbation theorem without wavefunctions, corresponding to the hypervirial-Hellmann-Feynman theorem perturbation theorem of Euclidean geometry. The one-dimensional harmonic oscillator and two-dimensional Coulomb system in the spherical spaces are given as two sample examples to illustrate the perturbation method. (paper)

  6. Fixed points, intersection theorems, variational inequalities, and equilibrium theorems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehie Park

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available From a fixed point theorem for compact acyclic maps defined on admissible convex sets in the sense of Klee, we first deduce collectively fixed point theorems, intersection theorems for sets with convex sections, and quasi-equilibrium theorems. These quasi-equilibrium theorems are applied to give simple and unified proofs of the known variational inequalities of the Hartman-Stampacchia-Browder type. Moreover, from our new fixed point theorem, we deduce new variational inequalities which can be used to obtain fixed point results for convex-valued maps. Finally, various general economic equilibrium theorems are deduced in the forms of the Nash type, the Tarafdar type, and the Yannelis-Prabhakar type. Our results are stated for not-necessarily locally convex topological vector spaces and for abstract economies with arbitrary number of commodities and agents. Our new results extend a lot of known works with much simpler proofs.

  7. A tale of three theorems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noether's theorem relates symmetries and conservation laws of Hamiltonians systems. Arnol'd's theorem uses those integrals of motion for the construction of sufficient stability conditions of hydrodynamical problems, which are Hamiltonian with a singular Poisson bracket. Finally, Andrews' theorem imposes restriction on the existence of Arnol'd stable solutions of symmetric systems. It is shown that denial of Andrews'theorem implies the divergence of the velocity component normal to the symmetric coordinate. This proof by reductio ad absurdum may be used to determine the strength of the symmetry breaking elements, necessary to overcome the limitations imposed by this theorem (Author)

  8. The holographic F theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Marika

    2016-01-01

    The F theorem states that, for a unitary three dimensional quantum field theory, the F quantity defined in terms of the partition function on a three sphere is positive, stationary at fixed point and decreases monotonically along a renormalization group flow. We construct holographic renormalization group flows corresponding to relevant deformations of three-dimensional conformal field theories on spheres, working to quadratic order in the source. For these renormalization group flows, the F quantity at the IR fixed point is always less than F at the UV fixed point, but F increases along the RG flow for deformations by operators of dimension $3/2 < \\Delta < 5/2$. Therefore the strongest version of the F theorem is in general violated.

  9. Some Approximation Theorems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N V Rao

    2003-02-01

    The general theme of this note is illustrated by the following theorem: Theorem 1. Suppose is a compact set in the complex plane and 0 belongs to the boundary . Let $\\mathcal{A}(K)$ denote the space of all functions on such that is holomorphic in a neighborhood of and (0) = 0. Also for any given positive integer , let $\\mathcal{A}(m, K)$ denote the space of all such that is holomorphic in a neighborhood of and $f(0) = f'(0) = \\cdots = f^{(m)}(0) = 0$. Then $\\mathcal{A}(m, K)$ is dense in $\\mathcal{A}(K)$ under the supremum norm on provided that there exists a sector $W = \\{re^{i}; 0 ≤ r ≤ , ≤ ≤ \\}$ such that $W \\cap K = \\{0\\}$. (This is the well-known Poincare's external cone condition).} We present various generalizations of this result in the context of higher dimensions replacing holomorphic with harmonic.

  10. The Recovery Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen A. Ross

    2011-01-01

    We can only estimate the distribution of stock returns but we observe the distribution of risk neutral state prices. Risk neutral state prices are the product of risk aversion - the pricing kernel - and the natural probability distribution. The Recovery Theorem enables us to separate these and to determine the market's forecast of returns and the market's risk aversion from state prices alone. Among other things, this allows us to determine the pricing kernel, the market risk premium, the pro...

  11. Negishi's Theorem and Method

    OpenAIRE

    Vela Velupillai, K.

    2011-01-01

    Takashi Negishi's remarkable youthful contribution to welfare economics, general equilibrium theory and, with the benefit of hindsight, also to one strand of computable general equilibrium theory, all within the span of six pages in one article, has become one of the modern classics of general equilibrium theory and mathematical economics. Negishi's celebrated theorem and what has been called Negishi's Method have formed one foundation for computable general equilibrium theory. In this paper ...

  12. Coevolution. Extending Prigogine Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Leon, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    The formal consideration of the concept of interaction in thermodynamic analysis makes it possible to deduce, in the broadest terms, new results related to the coevolution of interacting systems, irrespective of their distance from thermodynamic equilibrium. In this paper I prove the existence of privileged coevolution trajectories characterized by the minimum joint production of internal entropy, a conclusion that extends Prigogine theorem to systems evolving far from thermodynamic equilibri...

  13. Bourgain's discretization theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Giladi, Ohad; Schechtman, Gideon

    2011-01-01

    Bourgain's discretization theorem asserts that there exists a universal constant $C\\in (0,\\infty)$ with the following property. Let $X,Y$ be Banach spaces with $\\dim X=n$. Fix $D\\in (1,\\infty)$ and set $\\d= e^{-n^{Cn}}$. Assume that $\\mathcal N$ is a $\\d$-net in the unit ball of $X$ and that $\\mathcal N$ admits a bi-Lipschitz embedding into $Y$ with distortion at most $D$. Then the entire space $X$ admits a bi-Lipschitz embedding into $Y$ with distortion at most $CD$. This mostly expository article is devoted to a detailed presentation of a proof of Bourgain's theorem. We also obtain an improvement of Bourgain's theorem in the important case when $Y=L_p$ for some $p\\in [1,\\infty)$: in this case it suffices to take $\\delta= C^{-1}n^{-5/2}$ for the same conclusion to hold true. The case $p=1$ of this improved discretization result has the following consequence. For arbitrarily large $n\\in \\N$ there exists a family $\\mathscr Y$ of $n$-point subsets of ${1,...,n}^2\\subseteq \\R^2$ such that if we write $|\\mathscr ...

  14. The Non-Signalling theorem in generalizations of Bell's theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Walleczek, Jan; Groessing, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Does "epistemic non-signalling" ensure the peaceful coexistence of special relativity and quantum nonlocality? The possibility of an affirmative answer is of great importance to deterministic approaches to quantum mechanics given recent developments towards generalizations of Bell's theorem. By generalizations of Bell's theorem we here mean efforts that seek to demonstrate the impossibility of any deterministic theories to obey the predictions of Bell's theorem, including even nonlocal hidden...

  15. Arrow's Theorem in Judgement Aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Franz Dietrich; Christian List

    2005-01-01

    In response to recent work on the aggregation of individual judgements on logically connected propositions into collective judgements, it is often asked whether judgement aggregation is a special case of Arrowian preference aggregation. We argue the opposite. After proving a general impossibility theorem, we construct an embedding of preference aggregation into judgement aggregation and prove Arrow's theorem as a corollary of our result. Although we provide a new proof of Arrow's theorem, our...

  16. Perspectives on the CAP Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Seth; Lynch, Nancy Ann

    2012-01-01

    Almost twelve years ago, in 2000, Eric Brewer introduced the idea that there is a fundamental trade-off between consistency, availability, and partition tolerance. This trade-off, which has become known as the CAP Theorem, has been widely discussed ever since. In this paper, we review the CAP Theorem and situate it within the broader context of distributed computing theory. We then discuss the practical implications of the CAP Theorem, and explore some general techniques for coping with the i...

  17. A theorem in relativistic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongjian, Yu

    1990-04-01

    This paper presents a theorem that connects the dispersion relation of the Electron Cyclotron Maser' and the oscillation equation of the Gyromonotron. This theorem gives us a simple way of obtaining the osscillating characteristics of the Gyromonotron provided that dispersion relation of the ECRM is given. Though the theorem is proved only with the case of ECRM and Gyromonotron, it holds for other kinds of Electron Masers, FEL4etc. and corresponding osscillators.

  18. Goedel's theorem and leapfrog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We in the nuclear power industry consider ourselves to be at the forefront of civilised progress. Yet, all too often, even we ourselves don't believe our public relations statements about nuclear power. Why is this? Let us approach the question by considering Godel's Theorem. Godel's Theorem is extremely complicated mathematically, but for our purposes can be simplified to the maxim that one cannot validate a system from within that system. Scientists, especially those in the fields of astronomy and nuclear physics, have long realised the implications of Godel's Theorem. The people to whom we must communicate look to us, who officially know everything about our industry, to comfort and reassure them. And we forget that we can only comfort them by addressing their emotional needs, not by demonstrating our chilling objectivity. Let us try something completely new in communication. Instead of looking for incremental rules which will help us marginally differentiate the way we communicate about minor or major incidents, let us leapfrog across 'objectivity' to meaning and relevance. If we truly believe that nuclear energy is a good thing, this leap should not be difficult. Finally, if we as communicators are not prepared to be meaningful and relevant - not prepared to leapfrog beyond weasel terms like 'minor incident' - what does that say about the kinds of people we believe the nuclear community to be? Are nuclear people a group apart, divisible from the rest of the human race by their evil? In fact the nuclear community is a living, laughing, normal part of a whole society; and is moreover a good contributor to the technological progress that society demands. When we ourselves recognise this, we will start to communicate nuclear issues in the same language as the rest of society. We will start to speak plainly and convincingly, and our conviction will leapfrog our audience into being able to believe us

  19. Cobham's theorem for substitutions

    CERN Document Server

    Durand, Fabien

    2010-01-01

    The seminal theorem of Cobham has given rise during the last 40 years to a lot of works around non-standard numeration systems and has been extended to many contexts. In this paper, as a result of fifteen years of improvements, we obtain a complete and general version for the so-called substitutive sequences. Let $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ be two multiplicatively independent Perron numbers. Then, a sequence $x\\in A^\\mathbb{N}$, where $A$ is a finite alphabet, is both $\\alpha$-substitutive and $\\beta$-substitutive if and only if $x$ is ultimately periodic.

  20. Fluctuation theorem in spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microscopic reversibility is a key in deriving the Onsager relation. It even leads a new exact relationship that would be valid far from equilibrium, called fluctuation theorem (FT). The FT provides a precise statement for the second law of thermodynamics; and remarkably, reproduces the linear response theory. We consider the FT in the spin-dependent transport and derive universal relations among nonlinear spin and charge transport coefficients. We apply the relations to a quantum dot embedded in a two-terminal Aharonov-Bohm interferometer and check that the relations are satisfied.

  1. The Clique Density Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Reiher, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Tur\\'{a}n's theorem is a cornerstone of extremal graph theory. It asserts that for any integer $r \\geq 2$ every graph on $n$ vertices with more than ${\\tfrac{r-2}{2(r-1)}\\cdot n^2}$ edges contains a clique of size $r$, i.e., $r$ mutually adjacent vertices. The corresponding extremal graphs are balanced $(r-1)$-partite graphs. The question as to how many such $r$-cliques appear at least in any $n$-vertex graph with $\\gamma n^2$ edges has been intensively studied in the literature. In particula...

  2. Abelian theorems for Whittaker transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D. Carmichael

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Initial and final value Abelian theorems for the Whittaker transform of functions and of distributions are obtained. The Abelian theorems are obtained as the complex variable of the transform approaches 0 or ∞ in absolute value inside a wedge region in the right half plane.

  3. Geometry of the Adiabatic Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Augusto Cesar; Ribeiro, Rafael Antunes; Ribeiro, Clyffe de Assis; Dieguez, Pedro Ruas

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple and pedagogical derivation of the quantum adiabatic theorem for two-level systems (a single qubit) based on geometrical structures of quantum mechanics developed by Anandan and Aharonov, among others. We have chosen to use only the minimum geometric structure needed for the understanding of the adiabatic theorem for this case.…

  4. Andreev's Theorem on hyperbolic polyhedra

    CERN Document Server

    Roeder, R K W; Dunbar, W D; Roeder, Roland K. W.; Hubbard, John H.; Dunbar, William D.

    2004-01-01

    In 1970, E. M. Andreev published a classification of all three-dimensional compact hyperbolic polyhedra having non-obtuse dihedral angles. Given a combinatorial description of a polyhedron, $C$, Andreev's Theorem provides five classes of linear inequalities, depending on $C$, for the dihedral angles, which are necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a hyperbolic polyhedron realizing $C$ with the assigned dihedral angles. Andreev's Theorem also shows that the resulting polyhedron is unique, up to hyperbolic isometry. Andreev's Theorem is both an interesting statement about the geometry of hyperbolic 3-dimensional space, as well as a fundamental tool used in the proof for Thurston's Hyperbolization Theorem for 3-dimensional Haken manifolds. It is also remarkable to what level the proof of Andreev's Theorem resembles (in a simpler way) the proof of Thurston. We correct a fundamental error in Andreev's proof of existence and also provide a readable new proof of the other parts of the proof of And...

  5. Some Theorems on Generalized Basic Hypergeometric Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Wadhwa

    1972-07-01

    Full Text Available In an earlier paper the author has established two theorems on generalized hypergeometric functions. In each theorem a numerator differs from a denominator by a positive integer. These theorems were further used to prove some theorems on the sums of Kampe de Feriet functions. Here, we have established the theorems which are the basic analogues of the theorems proved in the earlier paper.

  6. Herbrand's Fundamental Theorem - an encyclopedia article

    OpenAIRE

    Wirth, Claus-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Herbrand's Fundamental Theorem provides a constructive characterization of derivability in first-order predicate logic by means of sentential logic. Sometimes it is simply called "Herbrand's Theorem", but the longer name is preferable as there are other important "Herbrand theorems" and Herbrand himself called it "Th\\'eor\\`eme fondamental". It was ranked by Bernays [1957] as follows: "In its proof-theoretic form, Herbrand's Theorem can be seen as the central theorem of predicate logic. It exp...

  7. Combinatorial Reciprocity Theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    A common theme of enumerative combinatorics is formed by counting functions that are polynomials evaluated at positive integers. In this expository paper, we focus on four families of such counting functions connected to hyperplane arrangements, lattice points in polyhedra, proper colorings of graphs, and $P$-partitions. We will see that in each instance we get interesting information out of a counting function when we evaluate it at a \\emph{negative} integer (and so, a priori the counting function does not make sense at this number). Our goals are to convey some of the charm these "alternative" evaluations of counting functions exhibit, and to weave a unifying thread through various combinatorial reciprocity theorems by looking at them through the lens of geometry, which will include some scenic detours through other combinatorial concepts.

  8. Complex integration and Cauchy's theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, GN

    2012-01-01

    This brief monograph by one of the great mathematicians of the early twentieth century offers a single-volume compilation of propositions employed in proofs of Cauchy's theorem. Developing an arithmetical basis that avoids geometrical intuitions, Watson also provides a brief account of the various applications of the theorem to the evaluation of definite integrals.Author G. N. Watson begins by reviewing various propositions of Poincaré's Analysis Situs, upon which proof of the theorem's most general form depends. Subsequent chapters examine the calculus of residues, calculus optimization, the

  9. -Dimensional Fractional Lagrange's Inversion Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Abd El-Salam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Riemann-Liouville fractional differential operator, a fractional extension of the Lagrange inversion theorem and related formulas are developed. The required basic definitions, lemmas, and theorems in the fractional calculus are presented. A fractional form of Lagrange's expansion for one implicitly defined independent variable is obtained. Then, a fractional version of Lagrange's expansion in more than one unknown function is generalized. For extending the treatment in higher dimensions, some relevant vectors and tensors definitions and notations are presented. A fractional Taylor expansion of a function of -dimensional polyadics is derived. A fractional -dimensional Lagrange inversion theorem is proved.

  10. Opechowski's theorem and commutator groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the conditions of application of Opechowski's theorem for double groups of subgroups of O(3) are directly associated to the structure of their commutator groups. Some characteristics of the structure of classes are also discussed. (Author)

  11. KAM Theorem and Renormalization Group

    OpenAIRE

    E. Simone; Kupiainen, A.

    2007-01-01

    We give an elementary proof of the analytic KAM theorem by reducing it to a Picard iteration of a PDE with quadratic nonlinearity, the so called Polchinski renormalization group equation studied in quantum field theory.

  12. The Kramer sampling theorem revisited

    OpenAIRE

    García García, Antonio; Hernandez Medina, Miguel Angel; Muñoz Bouto, María José

    2013-01-01

    The classical Kramer sampling theorem provides a method for obtaining orthogonal sampling formulas. Besides, it has been the cornerstone for a significant mathematical literature on the topic of sampling theorems associated with differential and difference problems. In this work we provide, in an unified way, new and old generalizations of this result corresponding to various different settings; all these generalizations are illustrated with examples. All the different situations along the pa...

  13. Complex extension of Wigner's theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Brody, Dorje C

    2013-01-01

    Wigner's theorem asserts that an isometric (probability conserving) transformation on a quantum state space must be generated by a Hamiltonian that is Hermitian. It is shown that when the Hermiticity condition on the Hamiltonian is relaxed, we obtain the following complex generalisation of Wigner's theorem: a holomorphically projective (complex geodesic-curves preserving) transformation on a quantum state space must be generated by a Hamiltonian that is not necessarily Hermitian.

  14. Kazhdan's Theorem on Arithmetic Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Milne, J S

    2001-01-01

    Define an arithmetic variety to be the quotient of a bounded symmetric domain by an arithmetic group. An arithmetic variety is algebraic, and the theorem in question states that when one applies an automorphism of the field of complex numbers to the coefficients of an arithmetic variety the resulting variety is again arithmetic. This article simplifies Kazhdan's proof. In particular, it avoids recourse to the classification theorems. It was originally completed on March 28, 1984, and distribu...

  15. Noether theorems and higher derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    A simple proof of Noether's first theorem involves the promotion of a constant symmetry parameter $\\epsilon$ to an arbitrary function of time, the Noether charge $Q$ is then the coefficient of $\\dot\\epsilon$ in the variation of the action. Here we examine the validity of this proof for Lagrangian mechanics with arbitrarily-high time derivatives, in which context "higher-level" analogs of Noether's theorem can be similarly proved, and "Noetherian charges" read off from, e.g. the coefficient of...

  16. Acceptable Complexity Measures of Theorems

    OpenAIRE

    Grenet, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    In 1931, G\\"odel presented in K\\"onigsberg his famous Incompleteness Theorem, stating that some true mathematical statements are unprovable. Yet, this result gives us no idea about those independent (that is, true and unprovable) statements, about their frequency, the reason they are unprovable, and so on. Calude and J\\"urgensen proved in 2005 Chaitin's "heuristic principle" for an appropriate measure: the theorems of a finitely-specified theory cannot be significantly more complex than the t...

  17. Goedel's Incompleteness Theorems hold vacuously

    OpenAIRE

    Anand, Bhupinder Singh

    2002-01-01

    In an earlier paper, "Omega-inconsistency in Goedel's formal system: a constructive proof of the Entscheidungsproblem" (math/0206302), I argued that a constructive interpretation of Goedel's reasoning establishes any formal system of Arithmetic as omega-inconsistent. It follows from this that Goedel's Theorem VI holds vacuously. In this paper I show that Goedel's Theorem XI essentially states that, if we assume there is a P-formula [Con(P)] whose standard interpretation is equivalent to the a...

  18. Local virial and tensor theorems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Leon

    2011-11-17

    We show that for any wave function and potential the local virial theorem can always be satisfied 2K(r) = r·ΔV by choosing a particular expression for the local kinetic energy. In addition, we show that for each choice of local kinetic energy there are an infinite number of quasi-probability distributions which will generate the same expression. We also consider the local tensor virial theorem. PMID:21863837

  19. Soft theorems from anomalous symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yu-tin

    2015-01-01

    We discuss constraints imposed by soft limits for effective field theories arising from symmetry breaking. In particular, we consider those associated with anomalous conformal symmetry as well as duality symmetries in supergravity. We verify these soft theorems for the dilaton effective action relevant for the a-theorem, as well as the one-loop effective action for N=4 supergravity. Using the universality of leading transcendental coefficients in the alpha' expansion of string theory amplitudes, we study the matrix elements of operator R^4 with half maximal supersymmetry. We construct the non-linear completion of R^4 that satisfies both single and double soft theorems up to seven points. This supports the existence of duality invariant completion of R^4.

  20. Fluctuation theorems for quantum processes

    CERN Document Server

    Albash, Tameem; Marvian, Milad; Zanardi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    We present fluctuation theorems and moment generating function equalities for generalized thermodynamic observables and quantum dynamics described by completely positive trace preserving (CPTP) maps, with and without feedback control. Our results include the quantum Jarzynski equality and Crooks fluctuation theorem, and clarify the special role played by the thermodynamic work and thermal equilibrium states in previous studies. We show that unitality replaces micro-reversibility as the condition for the physicality of the reverse process in our fluctuation theorems. We present an experimental application of our theory to the problem of extracting the system-bath coupling magnitude, which we do for a system of pairs of coupled superconducting flux qubits undergoing quantum annealing.

  1. Nonperturbative Adler-Bardeen theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Adler-Bardeen theorem has been proven only as a statement valid at all orders in perturbation theory, without any control on the convergence of the series. In this paper we prove a nonperturbative version of the Adler-Bardeen theorem in d=2 by using recently developed technical tools in the theory of Grassmann integration. The proof is based on the assumption that the boson propagator decays fast enough for large momenta. If the boson propagator does not decay, as for Thirring contact interactions, the anomaly in the WI (Ward Identities) is renormalized by higher order contributions

  2. Two extensions of Ramsey's theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Conlon, David; Fox, Jacob; Sudakov, Benny

    2011-01-01

    Ramsey’s theorem, in the version of Erdős and Szekeres, states that every $2$ -coloring of the edges of the complete graph on $\\{1,2,\\ldots,n\\}$ contains a monochromatic clique of order $({1}/{2})\\log n$ . In this article, we consider two well-studied extensions of Ramsey’s theorem. Improving a result of Rödl, we show that there is a constant $c\\gt 0$ such that every $2$ -coloring of the edges of the complete graph on $\\{2,3,\\ldots,n\\}$ contains a monochromatic clique $S$ for which the sum of...

  3. Noether theorems and higher derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, Paul K

    2016-01-01

    A simple proof of Noether's first theorem involves the promotion of a constant symmetry parameter $\\epsilon$ to an arbitrary function of time; the Noether charge $Q$ is then the coefficient of $\\dot\\epsilon$ in the variation of the action. Here we examine the validity of this proof for Lagrangian mechanics with arbitrarily-high time derivatives, in which context "higher-level" analogs of Noether's theorem can be similarly proved, and "Noetherian charges" read off from, e.g. the coefficient of $\\ddot \\epsilon$ in the variation of the action. While $Q=0$ implies a restricted gauge invariance, an unrestricted gauge invariance requires zero Noetherian charges too. Some illustrative examples are considered.

  4. On the Putnam-Fuglede theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Chen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend the Putnam-Fuglede theorem and the second-degree Putnam-Fuglede theorem to the nonnormal operators and to an elementary operator under perturbation by quasinilpotents. Some asymptotic results are also given.

  5. Angle Defect and Descartes' Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Rene Descartes lived from 1596 to 1650. His contributions to geometry are still remembered today in the terminology "Descartes' plane". This paper discusses a simple theorem of Descartes, which enables students to easily determine the number of vertices of almost every polyhedron. (Contains 1 table and 2 figures.)

  6. Global Lie-Tresse theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Kruglikov, Boris

    2011-01-01

    We prove a global algebraic version of the Lie-Tresse theorem which states that the algebra of differential invariants of an algebraic pseudogroup action on a differential equation is generated by a finite number of polynomial-rational differential invariants and invariant derivations.

  7. Birkhoff Theorems in General Relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Torre, Charles G.

    2014-01-01

    In the following Maple worksheet I demonstrate three versions of Birkhoff's theorem, which is a characterization of spherically symmetric solutions of the Einstein equations. The three versions considered here correspond to taking the "Einstein equations" to be: (1) the vacuum Einstein equations; (2) the Einstein equations with a cosmological constant (3) the Einstein-Maxwell equations.

  8. Microwave electronics Slater's perturbation theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater's perturbation theorem is one of the most useful for both experiments and theories of microwave electronics. In particular, this is applied to measurements of the field strengths in standing-wave systems. Since a traveling wave can be represented by a linear combination of two standing waves, the field measurement is also possible in a traveling-wave system. The theorem tells us the amount of the shift in a resonant frequency arising from a metallic body. Since the amount is dependent upon the square of the electric and magnetic field strengths at the metallic body, one can obtain the field strengths at the metallic body from the measured frequency shift. First the theorem is derived in Sec. 2. We then discuss the implications of the theorem by deriving it intuitively in Sec. 3. The perturbation of the field due to a metallic body is described in Sec. 4, where the frequency shift is actually related to the field strengths. In Sec. 5, we describe how to determine the impedance by using the data thus measured. Examples of field measurement are shown in Sec. 6 together with the impedance measurement. (author)

  9. JACKSON'S THEOREM FOR COMPACT GROUPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Vaezi; S. F. Rzaev

    2002-01-01

    In this article we consider the generalized shift operator defined by(Sh.f)(g) = ∫Gf (tut-1g)dton compact group G and by help of this operator we define "Spherical" modulus of continuity. So we proveStechkin and Jackson type theorems.

  10. Illustrating the Central Limit Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Mimi

    2016-01-01

    Statistics is enjoying some well-deserved limelight across mathematics curricula of late. Some statistical concepts, however, are not especially intuitive, and students struggle to comprehend and apply them. As an AP Statistics teacher, the author appreciates the central limit theorem as a foundational concept that plays a crucial role in…

  11. Discovering the Inscribed Angle Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Matt B.

    2012-01-01

    Learning to play tennis is difficult. It takes practice, but it also helps to have a coach--someone who gives tips and pointers but allows the freedom to play the game on one's own. Learning to act like a mathematician is a similar process. Students report that the process of proving the inscribed angle theorem is challenging and, at times,…

  12. Almost Subadditive Extensions of Kingman's Ergodic Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Schurger, Klaus

    1991-01-01

    Based on two notions of almost subadditivity which were introduced by Derriennic and Schurger, two a.s. limit theorems are proved which both generalize Kingman's subadditive ergodic theorem. These results, being valid under weak moment conditions, are obtained by short proofs. One of these proofs is completely elementary and does not even make use of Birkhoff's ergodic theorem which, instead, is obtained as a by-product. Finally, an improvement of Liggett's a.s. limit theorem is given.

  13. On Brayton and Moser's missing stability theorem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeltsema, D.; Scherpen, J. M. A.

    2005-01-01

    In the early 1960s, Brayton and Moser proved three theorems concerning the stability of nonlinear electrical circuits. The applicability of each theorem depends on three different conditions on the type of admissible nonlinearities in circuit. Roughly speaking, this means that the theorems apply to

  14. Pythagorean Theorem Proofs: Connecting Interactive Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Yao

    2007-01-01

    There are over 400 proofs of the Pythagorean Theorem. Some are visual proofs, others are algebraic. This paper features several proofs of the Pythagorean Theorem in different cultures--Greek, Chinese, Hindu and American. Several interactive websites are introduced to explore ways to prove this beautiful theorem. (Contains 8 figures.)

  15. An Algebraic Identity Leading to Wilson Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Sebastian Martin

    2004-01-01

    In most text books on number theory Wilson Theorem is proved by applying Lagrange theorem concerning polynomial congruences.Hardy and Wright also give a proof using cuadratic residues. In this article Wilson theorem is derived as a corollary to an algebraic identity.

  16. A generalized no-broadcasting theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Barnum, H.; Barrett, J; Leifer, M.; Wilce, A.

    2007-01-01

    We prove a generalized version of the no-broadcasting theorem, applicable to essentially \\emph{any} nonclassical finite-dimensional probabilistic model satisfying a no-signaling criterion, including ones with ``super-quantum'' correlations. A strengthened version of the quantum no-broadcasting theorem follows, and its proof is significantly simpler than existing proofs of the no-broadcasting theorem.

  17. Tight closure and vanishing theorems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tight closure has become a thriving branch of commutative algebra since it was first introduced by Mel Hochster and Craig Huneke in 1986. Over the past few years, it has become increasingly clear that tight closure has deep connections with complex algebraic geometry as well, especially with those areas of algebraic geometry where vanishing theorems play a starring role. The purpose of these lectures is to introduce tight closure and to explain some of these connections with algebraic geometry. Tight closure is basically a technique for harnessing the power of the Frobenius map. The use of the Frobenius map to prove theorems about complex algebraic varieties is a familiar technique in algebraic geometry, so it should perhaps come as no surprise that tight closure is applicable to algebraic geometry. On the other hand, it seems that so far we are only seeing the tip of a large and very beautiful iceberg in terms of tight closure's interpretation and applications to algebraic geometry. Interestingly, although tight closure is a 'characteristic p' tool, many of the problems where tight closure has proved useful have also yielded to analytic (L2) techniques. Despite some striking parallels, there had been no specific result directly linking tight closure and L∼ techniques. Recently, however, the equivalence of an ideal central to the theory of tight closure was shown to be equivalent to a certain 'multiplier ideal' first defined using L2 methods. Presumably, deeper connections will continue to emerge. There are two main types of problems for which tight closure has been helpful: in identifying nice structure and in establishing uniform behavior. The original algebraic applications of tight closure include, for example, a quick proof of the Hochster-Roberts theorem on the Cohen-Macaulayness of rings of invariants, and also a refined version of the Brianqon-Skoda theorem on the uniform behaviour of integral closures of powers of ideals. More recent, geometric

  18. The Classical Version of Stokes' Theorem Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2005-01-01

    of the vector field in a tubular shell around the given surface. The intuitive appeal of the divergence theorem is thus applied to bootstrap a corresponding intuition for Stokes' theorem. The two stated classical theorems are (like the fundamental theorem of calculus) nothing but shadows of the......Using only fairly simple and elementary considerations - essentially from first year undergraduate mathematics - we prove that the classical Stokes' theorem for any given surface and vector field in $\\mathbb{R}^{3}$ follows from an application of Gauss' divergence theorem to a suitable modification...... general version of Stokes' theorem for differential forms on manifolds. The main points in the present paper, however, is firstly that this latter fact usually does not get within reach for students in first year calculus courses and secondly that calculus textbooks in general only just hint at the...

  19. The relativistic virial theorem and scale invariance

    CERN Document Server

    Gaite, Jose

    2013-01-01

    The virial theorem is related to the dilatation properties of bound states. This is realized, in particular, by the Landau-Lifshitz formulation of the relativistic virial theorem, in terms of the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. We construct a Hamiltonian formulation of dilatations in which the relativistic virial theorem naturally arises as the condition of stability against dilatations. A bound state becomes scale invariant in the ultrarelativistic limit, in which its energy vanishes. However, for very relativistic bound states, scale invariance is broken by quantum effects and the virial theorem must include the energy-momentum tensor trace anomaly. This quantum field theory virial theorem is directly related to the Callan-Symanzik equations. The virial theorem is applied to QED and then to QCD, focusing on the bag model of hadrons. In massless QCD, according to the virial theorem, 3/4 of a hadron mass corresponds to quarks and gluons and 1/4 to the trace anomaly.

  20. Navier Stokes Theorem in Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2005-12-01

    In a paper presented at the 2004 AGU International Conference, the author outlined and stressed the importance of studying and teaching certain important mathematical techniques while developing a course in Hydrology and Fluid Mechanics. The Navier-Stokes equations are the foundation of fluid mechanics, and Stokes' theorem is used in nearly every branch of mechanics as well as electromagnetics. Stokes' Theorem also plays a vital role in many secondary theorems such as those pertaining to vorticity and circulation. Mathematically expressed, Stokes' theorem can be expressed by considering a surface S having a bounding curve C. Here, V is any sufficiently smooth vector field defined on the surface and its bounding curve C. In an article entitled "Corrections to Fluid Dynamics" R. F. Streater, (Open Systems and Information Dynamics, 10, 3-30, 2003.) proposes a kinetic model of a fluid in which five macroscopic fields, the mass, energy, and three components of momentum, are conserved. The dynamics is constructed using the methods of statistical dynamics, and results in a non-linear discrete-time Markov chain for random fields on a lattice. In the continuum limit he obtains a non-linear coupled parabolic system of field equations, showing a correction to the Navier-Stokes equations. In 2001, David Hoff published an article in Journees Equations aux derivees partielles. (Art. No. 7, 9 p.). His paper is entitled : Dynamics of Singularity Surfaces for Compressible Navier-Stokes Flows in Two Space Dimensions. In his paper, David Hoff proves the global existence of solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations of compressible, barotropic flow in two space dimensions with piecewise smooth initial data. These solutions remain piecewise smooth for all time, retaining simple jump discontinuities in the density and in the divergence of the velocity across a smooth curve, which is convected with the flow. The strengths of these discontinuities are shown to decay exponentially in time

  1. A Randomized Central Limit Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2010-05-01

    The Central Limit Theorem (CLT), one of the most elemental pillars of Probability Theory and Statistical Physics, asserts that: the universal probability law of large aggregates of independent and identically distributed random summands with zero mean and finite variance, scaled by the square root of the aggregate-size (√{n}), is Gaussian. The scaling scheme of the CLT is deterministic and uniform - scaling all aggregate-summands by the common and deterministic factor √{n}. This Letter considers scaling schemes which are stochastic and non-uniform, and presents a "Randomized Central Limit Theorem" (RCLT): we establish a class of random scaling schemes which yields universal probability laws of large aggregates of independent and identically distributed random summands. The RCLT universal probability laws, in turn, are the one-sided and the symmetric Lévy laws.

  2. A Randomized Central Limit Theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Central Limit Theorem (CLT), one of the most elemental pillars of Probability Theory and Statistical Physics, asserts that: the universal probability law of large aggregates of independent and identically distributed random summands with zero mean and finite variance, scaled by the square root of the aggregate-size (√(n)), is Gaussian. The scaling scheme of the CLT is deterministic and uniform - scaling all aggregate-summands by the common and deterministic factor √(n). This Letter considers scaling schemes which are stochastic and non-uniform, and presents a 'Randomized Central Limit Theorem' (RCLT): we establish a class of random scaling schemes which yields universal probability laws of large aggregates of independent and identically distributed random summands. The RCLT universal probability laws, in turn, are the one-sided and the symmetric Levy laws.

  3. Bell's theorem, accountability and nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell's theorem is a fundamental theorem in physics concerning the incompatibility between some correlations predicted by quantum theory and a large class of physical theories. In this paper, we introduce the hypothesis of accountability, which demands that it is possible to explain the correlations of the data collected in many runs of a Bell experiment in terms of what happens in each single run. Under this assumption, and making use of a recent result by Colbeck and Renner (2011 Nature Commun. 2 411), we then show that any nontrivial account of these correlations in the form of an extension of quantum theory must violate parameter independence. Moreover, we analyze the violation of outcome independence of quantum mechanics and show that it is also a manifestation of nonlocality. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell's theorem’. (paper)

  4. Lectures on Fermat's last theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the main ideas involved in the approach towards the so-called Fermat's last theorem (FLT). The discussion leads to the point where recent work of A. Wiles starts and his work is not discussed. After a short history of the FLT and of the present approach, are discussed the elliptic curves and the modular forms with their relations, the Taniyama-Shimura-Well conjecture and the FLT

  5. Expectation Value in Bell's Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zheng-Chuan

    2006-01-01

    We will demonstrate in this paper that Bell's theorem (Bell's inequality) does not really conflict with quantum mechanics, the controversy between them originates from the different definitions for the expectation value using the probability distribution in Bell's inequality and the expectation value in quantum mechanics. We can not use quantum mechanical expectation value measured in experiments to show the violation of Bell's inequality and then further deny the local hidden-variables theor...

  6. Dynamic Newton-Puiseux Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Mannaa, Bassel; Coquand, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    A constructive version of Newton-Puiseux theorem for computing the Puiseux expansions of algebraic curves is presented. The proof is based on a classical proof by Abhyankar. Algebraic numbers are evaluated dynamically; hence the base field need not be algebraically closed and a factorization algorithm of polynomials over the base field is not needed. The extensions obtained are a type of regular algebras over the base field and the expansions are given as formal power series over these algebras.

  7. A Polar de Rham Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Khesin, B.; Rosly, A.; Thomas, R. P.

    2003-01-01

    We prove an analogue of the de Rham theorem for polar homology; that the polar homology $HP_q(X)$ of a smooth projective variety $X$ is isomorphic to its $H^{n,n-q}$ Dolbeault cohomology group. This analogue can be regarded as a geometric complexification where arbitrary (sub)manifolds are replaced by complex (sub)manifolds and de Rham's operator $d$ is replaced by Dolbeault's $\\bar\\partial$.

  8. Notes on the area theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawking's area theorem can be understood from a quasi-stationary process in which a black hole accretes positive energy matter, independent of the details of the gravity action. I use this process to study the dynamics of the inner as well as the outer horizons for various black holes which include the recently discovered exotic black holes and three-dimensional black holes in higher derivative gravities as well as the usual BTZ black hole and the Kerr black hole in four dimensions. I find that the area for the inner horizon 'can decrease', rather than increase, with the quasi-stationary process. However, I find that the area for the outer horizon 'never decreases' such that the usual area theorem still works in our examples, though this is quite non-trivial in general. There exists an instability problem of the inner horizons but it seems that the instability is not important in my analysis. I also find a generalized area theorem by combining those of the outer and inner horizons

  9. On Harnack's theorem and extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Antonio F.; Parlier, Hugo

    Harnack's theorem states that the fixed points of an orientation reversing involution of a compact orientable surface of genus g are a set of k disjoint simple closed geodesic where 0≤ k≤ g+1 . The first goal of this article is to give a purely geometric, complete and self-contained proof of this fact. In the case where the fixed curves of the involution do not separate the surface, we prove an extension of this theorem, by exhibiting the existence of auxiliary invariant curves with interesting properties. Although this type of extension is well known (see, for instance, Comment. Math. Helv. 57(4): 603-626 (1982) and Transl. Math. Monogr., vol. 225, Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 2004), our method also extends the theorem in the case where the surface has boundary. As a byproduct, we obtain a geometric method on how to obtain these auxiliary curves. As a consequence of these constructions, we obtain results concerning presentations of Non-Euclidean crystallographic groups and a new proof of a result on the set of points corresponding to real algebraic curves in the compactification of the Moduli space of complex curves of genus g , overline{M_{g}} . More concretely, we establish that given two real curves there is a path in overline{M_{g}} which passes through at most two singular curves, a result of M. Seppaelae (Ann. Sci. Ecole Norm. Sup. (4), 24(5), 519-544 (1991)).

  10. Carnot's theorem as Noether's theorem for thermoacoustic engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onset in thermoacoustic engines, the transition to spontaneous self-generation of oscillations, is studied here as both a dynamical critical transition and a limiting heat engine behavior. The critical transition is interesting because it occurs for both dissipative and conservative systems, with common scaling properties. When conservative, the stable oscillations above the critical point also implement a reversible engine cycle satisfying Carnot's theorem, a universal conservation law for entropy flux. While criticality in equilibrium systems is naturally associated with symmetries and universal conservation laws, these are usually exploited with global minimization principles, which dynamical critical systems may not have if dissipation is essential to their criticality. Acoustic heat engines furnish an example connecting equilibrium methods with dynamical and possibly even dissipative critical transitions: A reversible engine is shown to map, by a change of variables, to an equivalent system in apparent thermal equilibrium; a Noether symmetry in the equilibrium field theory implies Carnot's theorem for the engine. Under the same association, onset is shown to be a process of spontaneous symmetry breaking and the scaling of the quality factor predicted for both the reversible and irreversible engines is shown to arise from the Ginzburg-Landau description of the broken phase. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  11. Symbolic logic and mechanical theorem proving

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Chin-Liang

    1969-01-01

    This book contains an introduction to symbolic logic and a thorough discussion of mechanical theorem proving and its applications. The book consists of three major parts. Chapters 2 and 3 constitute an introduction to symbolic logic. Chapters 4-9 introduce several techniques in mechanical theorem proving, and Chapters 10 an 11 show how theorem proving can be applied to various areas such as question answering, problem solving, program analysis, and program synthesis.

  12. Bringing Theorem Proving to the (sonic) Masses

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego Arias, Emilio Jesús; Pin, Benoît; Jouvelot, Pierre,

    2015-01-01

    We explore the intersection of interactive theorem proving and digital signal processing through the use of web-based, rich interfaces. Traditionally, the barrier to entry to interactive theorem proving has been high.Provers are complex systems using obscure programming languages, and libraries may be underdocumented and use formalisms and notations far from the standard domain-specific practice. Thus, it doesn't come at a surprise that interactive theorem proving has seldom been explored in ...

  13. The relativistic virial theorem and scale invariance

    OpenAIRE

    Gaite, Jose

    2013-01-01

    The virial theorem is related to the dilatation properties of bound states. This is realized, in particular, by the Landau-Lifshitz formulation of the relativistic virial theorem, in terms of the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. We construct a Hamiltonian formulation of dilatations in which the relativistic virial theorem naturally arises as the condition of stability against dilatations. A bound state becomes scale invariant in the ultrarelativistic limit, in which its energy vanishes. H...

  14. The Equivalence Theorem and Effective Lagrangians

    OpenAIRE

    Grosse-Knetter, Carsten; Kuss, Ingolf

    1994-01-01

    We point out that the equivalence theorem, which relates the amplitude for a process with external longitudinally polarized vector bosons to the amplitude in which the longitudinal vector bosons are replaced by the corresponding pseudo-Goldstone bosons, is not valid for effective Lagrangians. However, a more general formulation of this theorem also holds for effective interactions. The generalized theorem can be utilized to determine the high-energy behaviour of scattering processes just by p...

  15. The exchange fluctuation theorem in quantum mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Akagawa, Shiho; Hatano, Naomichi

    2009-01-01

    We study the heat transfer between two finite quantum systems initially at different temperatures. We find that a recently proposed fluctuation theorem for heat exchange, namely the exchange fluctuation theorem [C. Jarzynski and D. K. Wojcik, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 230602 (2004)], does not generally hold in the presence of a finite heat transfer as in the original form proved for weak coupling. As the coupling is weakened, the deviation from the theorem and the heat transfer vanish in the same ...

  16. Expanding the Interaction Equivalency Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Cecilia Padilla Rodriguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although interaction is recognised as a key element for learning, its incorporation in online courses can be challenging. The interaction equivalency theorem provides guidelines: Meaningful learning can be supported as long as one of three types of interactions (learner-content, learner-teacher and learner-learner is present at a high level. This study sought to apply this theorem to the corporate sector, and to expand it to include other indicators of course effectiveness: satisfaction, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations. A large Mexican organisation participated in this research, with 146 learners, 30 teachers and 3 academic assistants. Three versions of an online course were designed, each emphasising a different type of interaction. Data were collected through surveys, exams, observations, activity logs, think aloud protocols and sales records. All course versions yielded high levels of effectiveness, in terms of satisfaction, learning and return on expectations. Yet, course design did not dictate the types of interactions in which students engaged within the courses. Findings suggest that the interaction equivalency theorem can be reformulated as follows: In corporate settings, an online course can be effective in terms of satisfaction, learning, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations, as long as (a at least one of three types of interaction (learner-content, learner-teacher or learner-learner features prominently in the design of the course, and (b course delivery is consistent with the chosen type of interaction. Focusing on only one type of interaction carries a high risk of confusion, disengagement or missed learning opportunities, which can be managed by incorporating other forms of interactions.

  17. Shell theorem for spontaneous emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Lodahl, Peter; Stobbe, Søren

    2013-01-01

    We investigate spontaneous emission from excitons beyond the point source dipole approximation and show how the symmetry of the exciton wave function plays a crucial role. We find that for spherically symmetric wave functions, the Purcell effect is independent of the wave function size and...... therefore is given exactly by the dipole approximation theory. This surprising result is a spontaneous emission counterpart to the shell theorems of classical mechanics and electrostatics and provides insights into the physics of mesoscopic emitters as well as great simplifications in practical calculations....

  18. Herbrand Theorems for Substructural Logics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr; Metcalfe, G.

    Berlin: Springer, 2013 - (McMillan, K.; Middeldorp, A.; Voronkov, A.), s. 584-600. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Advanced Research in Computing and Software Science. 8312). ISBN 978-3-642-45221-5. ISSN 0302-9743. [LPAR-19. International Conference /19./. Stellenbosch (ZA), 14.12.2013-19.12.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1826 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : substructural logics * residuated lattices * Herbrand theorem * Skolemization * predicate logics Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  19. The inverse Fueter mapping theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Colombo, Fabrizio; Sabadini, Irene; Sommen, Franciscus

    2011-01-01

    In a recent paper the authors have shown how to give an integral representation of the Fueter mapping theorem using the Cauchy formula for slice monogenic functions. Specifically, given a slice monogenic function f of the form f = alpha + (omega) under bar beta (where alpha, beta satisfy the Cauchy-Riemann equations) we represent in integral form the axially monogenic function f = A + (omega) under barB (where A, B satisfy the Vekua's system) given by f(x) = Delta n-1/2 f (x) where Delta is t...

  20. A generalized preimage theorem in global analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; Jipu

    2001-01-01

    [1]Ma Jipu, (1.2) inverses of operators between Banach spaces and conjugacy theorem, Chinese Annals of Math., B, 1999, 20(1): 57.[2]Ma Jipu, Rank theorem of operators between Banach spaces, Science in China, Ser. A, 2000, 43(1): 1.[3]Ma Jipu, Local conjugacy theorem, rank theorems in advenced calculus and a generalized principle constructing Banach manifolds, Science in China, Ser. A, 2000, 43(12): 1233.[4]Zeidler, A. E., Nonlinear Function Analysis and Its Applications, IV: Applications to Mathematical Physics, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1988.

  1. Bit-Blasting ACL2 Theorems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol Swords

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Interactive theorem proving requires a lot of human guidance. Proving a property involves (1 figuring out why it holds, then (2 coaxing the theorem prover into believing it. Both steps can take a long time. We explain how to use GL, a framework for proving finite ACL2 theorems with BDD- or SAT-based reasoning. This approach makes it unnecessary to deeply understand why a property is true, and automates the process of admitting it as a theorem. We use GL at Centaur Technology to verify execution units for x86 integer, MMX, SSE, and floating-point arithmetic.

  2. Cosmological Perturbations and the Weinberg Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Akhshik, Mohammad; Jazayeri, Sadra

    2015-01-01

    The celebrated Weinberg theorem in cosmological perturbation theory states that there always exist two adiabatic scalar modes in which the comoving curvature perturbation is conserved on super-horizon scales. In particular, when the perturbations are generated from a single source, such as in single field models of inflation, both of the two allowed independent solutions are adiabatic and conserved on super-horizon scales. There are few known examples in literature which violate this theorem. We revisit the theorem and specify the loopholes in some technical assumptions which violate the theorem in models of non-attractor inflation, fluid inflation, solid inflation and in the model of pseudo conformal universe.

  3. Constructive and Computable Hahn-Banach Theorems for the (Second) Fundamental Theorem of Welfare Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Vela Velupillai, K.

    2014-01-01

    The Hahn-Banach Theorem plays a crucial role in the second fundamental theorem of welfare economics. To date, all mathematical economics and advanced general equilibrium textbooks concentrate on using nonconstructive or incomputable versions of this celebrated theorem. In this paper we argue for the introduction of constructive or computable Hahn-Banach theorems in mathematical economics and advanced general equilibrium theory. The suggested modification would make applied and policy-oriented...

  4. An elementary derivation of the quantum virial theorem from Hellmann–Feynman theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    İpekoğlu, Y.; Turgut, S.

    2016-07-01

    A simple proof of the quantum virial theorem that can be used in undergraduate courses is given. The proof proceeds by first showing that the energy eigenvalues of a Hamiltonian remain invariant under a scale transformation. Then invoking the Hellmann–Feynman theorem produces the final statement of the virial theorem.

  5. Two extensions of Ramsey's theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Conlon, David; Sudakov, Benny

    2011-01-01

    Ramsey's theorem, in the version of Erd\\H{o}s and Szekeres, states that every 2-coloring of the edges of the complete graph on {1, 2,...,n} contains a monochromatic clique of order 1/2\\log n. In this paper, we consider two well-studied extensions of Ramsey's theorem. Improving a result of R\\"odl, we show that there is a constant $c>0$ such that every 2-coloring of the edges of the complete graph on \\{2, 3,...,n\\} contains a monochromatic clique S for which the sum of 1/\\log i over all vertices i \\in S is at least c\\log\\log\\log n. This is tight up to the constant factor c and answers a question of Erd\\H{o}s from 1981. Motivated by a problem in model theory, V\\"a\\"an\\"anen asked whether for every k there is an n such that the following holds. For every permutation \\pi of 1,...,k-1, every 2-coloring of the edges of the complete graph on {1, 2, ..., n} contains a monochromatic clique a_1a_{\\pi(2)+1}-a_{\\pi(2)}>...>a_{\\pi(k-1)+1}-a_{\\pi(k-1)}. That is, not only do we want a monochromatic clique, but the difference...

  6. Abel's Theorem in the Noncommutative Case

    OpenAIRE

    Leitenberger, Frank

    2005-01-01

    We define noncommutative binary forms. Using the typical representation of Hermite we prove the fundamental theorem of algebra and we derive a noncommutative Cardano formula for cubic forms. We define quantized elliptic and hyperelliptic differentials of the first kind. Following Abel we prove Abel's Theorem.

  7. The classical version of Stokes' Theorem revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2008-01-01

    Using only fairly simple and elementary considerations - essentially from first year undergraduate mathematics - we show how the classical Stokes' theorem for any given surface and vector field in $\\mathbb{R}^{3}$ follows from an application of Gauss' divergence theorem to a suitable modification...

  8. Anisotropic weak Hardy spaces and interpolation theorems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the authors establish the anisotropic weak Hardy spaces associated with very general discrete groups of dilations. Moreover, the atomic decomposition theorem of the anisotropic weak Hardy spaces is also given. As some applications of the above results, the authors prove some interpolation theorems and obtain the boundedness of the singular integral operators on these Hardy spaces.

  9. Convergence theorems for intermediate problems. II

    OpenAIRE

    Beattie, C. A.; Greenlee, W. M.

    2002-01-01

    Convergence theorems for the practical eigenvector free methods of Gay and Goerisch are obtained under a variety of hypotheses, so that our theorems apply to both traditional boundary-value problems and atomic problems. In addition, we prove convergence of the T*T method of Bazley and Fox without an alignment of projections hypothesis required in previous literature.

  10. Interpolation theorems on weighted Lorentz martingale spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper several interpolation theorems on martingale Lorentz spaces are given.The proofs are based on the atomic decompositions of martingale Hardy spaces over weighted measure spaces.Applying the interpolation theorems,we obtain some inequalities on martingale transform operator.

  11. AN ABSTRACT ORLICS: PETTIS THEOREM AND APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI RONGLU

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we establish two abstract versions of the classical Orlicz-Pettis Theorem for multiplier convergent series. We show that these abstract results yield known versions of the Orlicz-Pettis Theorem for locally convex spaces as well as versions for operator valued series. We also give applications to vector valued measures and spaces of continuous functions.

  12. The Ahlfors lemma and Picard's theorems

    OpenAIRE

    Simonič, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces Ahlfors' generalization of the Schwarz lemma. With this powerful geometric tool of complex functions in one variable, we are able to prove some theorems concerning the size of images under holomorphic mappings, including the celebrated Picard's theorems. The article concludes with a brief insight into the theory of Kobayashi hyperbolic complex manifolds.

  13. Generalized Fibonacci Numbers and Blackwell's Renewal Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Sören

    2010-01-01

    We investigate a connection between generalized Fibonacci numbers and renewal theory for stochastic processes. Using Blackwell's renewal theorem we find an approximation to the generalized Fibonacci numbers. With the help of error estimates in the renewal theorem we figure out an explicit representation.

  14. Szemeredi's theorem and problems on arithmetic progressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szemeredi's famous theorem on arithmetic progressions asserts that every subset of integers of positive asymptotic density contains arithmetic progressions of arbitrary length. His remarkable theorem has been developed into a major new area of combinatorial number theory. This is the topic of the present survey.

  15. No-cloning theorem in thermofield dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Prudencio, Thiago

    2011-01-01

    Here we apply the no-cloning theorem from quantum information in the thermofield dynamics (TFD) scenario, relating the doubling procedure of TFD to a cloning machine process. As a consequence we use the no-cloning theorem to demonstrate that the thermal vaccuum state defined in TFD is necessarilly a mixed state.

  16. No-cloning theorem in thermofield dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Prudencio, Thiago

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the relation between the no-cloning theorem from quantum information and the doubling procedure used in the formalism of thermofield dynamics (TFD). We also discuss how to apply the no-cloning theorem in the context of thermofield states defined in TFD. Consequences associated to mixed states, von Neumann entropy and thermofield vacuum are also addressed.

  17. A New Fixed Point Theorem and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Fang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new fixed point theorem is established under the setting of a generalized finitely continuous topological space (GFC-space without the convexity structure. As applications, a weak KKM theorem and a minimax inequalities of Ky Fan type are also obtained under suitable conditions. Our results are different from known results in the literature.

  18. Non perturbative Adler-Bardeen Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Mastropietro, Vieri

    2006-01-01

    The Adler-Bardeen theorem has been proved only as a statement valid at all orders in perturbation theory, without any control on the convergence of the series. In this paper we prove a nonperturbative version of the Adler-Bardeen theorem in $d=2$ by using recently developed technical tools in the theory of Grassmann integration.

  19. The Classical Version of Stokes' Theorem Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2008-01-01

    Using only fairly simple and elementary considerations--essentially from first year undergraduate mathematics--we show how the classical Stokes' theorem for any given surface and vector field in R[superscript 3] follows from an application of Gauss' divergence theorem to a suitable modification of the vector field in a tubular shell around the…

  20. A Metrized Duality Theorem for Markov Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozen, Dexter; Mardare, Radu Iulian; Panangaden, Prakash

    2014-01-01

    We extend our previous duality theorem for Markov processes by equipping the processes with a pseudometric and the algebras with a notion of metric diameter. We are able to show that the isomorphisms of our previous duality theorem become isometries in this quantitative setting. This opens the wa...

  1. A Generalization of the Prime Number Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, Paul S.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author begins with the prime number theorem (PNT), and then develops this into a more general theorem, of which many well-known number theoretic results are special cases, including PNT. He arrives at an asymptotic relation that allows the replacement of certain discrete sums involving primes into corresponding differentiable…

  2. Visualizing the Central Limit Theorem through Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Central Limit Theorem is one of the most important concepts taught in an introductory statistics course, however, it may be the least understood by students. Sure, students can plug numbers into a formula and solve problems, but conceptually, do they really understand what the Central Limit Theorem is saying? This paper describes a simulation…

  3. Boundary contributions to the hypervirial theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Esteve, J. G.; Falceto, F.; Giri, Pulak Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that under certain boundary conditions the virial theorem has to be modified. We analyze the origin of the extra term and compute it in particular examples. The Coulomb and harmonic oscillator with point interaction have been studied in the light of this generalization of the virial theorem.

  4. A Simple Vector Proof of Feuerbach's Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Scheer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The celebrated theorem of Feuerbach states that the nine-point circle of a nonequilateral triangle is tangent to both its incircle and its three excircles. In this note, we give a simple proof of Feuerbach's Theorem using straightforward vector computations. All required preliminaries are proven here for the sake of completeness.

  5. A density Corradi-Hajnal theorem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Allen, P.; Böttcher, J.; Hladký, Jan; Piguet, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 4 (2015), s. 721-758. ISSN 0008-414X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : extremal graph theory * Mantel's theorem * Corradi-Hajnal theorem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.765, year: 2014 http://cms.math.ca/10.4153/CJM-2014-030-6

  6. New proofs of basic theorems in calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Reem, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    In this note we present new proofs of three basic theorems in calculus. Although these theorems are well-known, in each proof we obtain something which seems to be unknown. We start with the Heine-Cantor theorem about uniform continuity and obtain explicitly the optimal delta for the given epsilon. We then proceed with the Weierstrass extreme value theorem and present two proofs of it: the ``envelope proof'' in which the largest possible maximal point is found using an envelope function, and the ``programmer proof'', which does not use the costume argument of proving boundedness first, and in which an explicit sequence is shown to converge monotonically to the maximal value. We finish with the intermediate value theorem, which is generalized to a class of discontinuous functions and in which the meaning of the intermediate value property is re-examined. In the end we discuss in which sense the proofs are constructive.

  7. Uniqueness theorems in linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Knops, Robin John

    1971-01-01

    The classical result for uniqueness in elasticity theory is due to Kirchhoff. It states that the standard mixed boundary value problem for a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic material in equilibrium and occupying a bounded three-dimensional region of space possesses at most one solution in the classical sense, provided the Lame and shear moduli, A and J1 respectively, obey the inequalities (3 A + 2 J1) > 0 and J1>O. In linear elastodynamics the analogous result, due to Neumann, is that the initial-mixed boundary value problem possesses at most one solution provided the elastic moduli satisfy the same set of inequalities as in Kirchhoffs theorem. Most standard textbooks on the linear theory of elasticity mention only these two classical criteria for uniqueness and neglect altogether the abundant literature which has appeared since the original publications of Kirchhoff. To remedy this deficiency it seems appropriate to attempt a coherent description ofthe various contributions made to the study of uniquenes...

  8. Dirac's theorem for random graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Choongbum

    2011-01-01

    A classical theorem of Dirac from 1952 asserts that every graph on $n$ vertices with minimum degree at least $\\lceil n/2 \\rceil$ is Hamiltonian. In this paper we extend this result to random graphs. Motivated by the study of resilience of random graph properties we prove that if $p \\gg \\log n /n$, then a.a.s. every subgraph of $G(n,p)$ with minimum degree at least $(1/2+o(1))np$ is Hamiltonian. Our result improves on previously known bounds, and answers an open problem of Sudakov and Vu. Both, the range of edge probability $p$ and the value of the constant 1/2 are asymptotically best possible.

  9. Ehrenfest Theorem in Precanonical Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Kanatchikov, I V

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the precanonical quantization of fields, which is based on the De Donder-Weyl (DW) Hamiltonian formulation and does not distinguish between the space and time variables. Classical field equations in DW Hamiltonian form are derived as the equations on the expectation values of the corresponding precanonical quantum operators. This field-theoretic generalization of the quantum mechanical Ehrenfest theorem demonstrates the consistency of three aspects of precanonical field quantization: the precanonical representation of operators in terms of the Clifford (Dirac) algebra valued partial differential operators, the Dirac-like precanonical generalization of the Schr\\"odinger equation without the distinguished time dimension, and the prescription of calculating the expectation values of operators using the Clifford-valued precanonical wave functions.

  10. Singlet and triplet instability theorems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Tomonori; Hirata, So, E-mail: sohirata@illinois.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2015-09-21

    A useful definition of orbital degeneracy—form-degeneracy—is introduced, which is distinct from the usual energy-degeneracy: Two canonical spatial orbitals are form-degenerate when the energy expectation value in the restricted Hartree–Fock (RHF) wave function is unaltered upon a two-electron excitation from one of these orbitals to the other. Form-degenerate orbitals tend to have isomorphic electron densities and occur in the highest-occupied and lowest-unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs and LUMOs) of strongly correlated systems. Here, we present a mathematical proof of the existence of a triplet instability in a real or complex RHF wave function of a finite system in the space of real or complex unrestricted Hartree–Fock wave functions when HOMO and LUMO are energy- or form-degenerate. We also show that a singlet instability always exists in a real RHF wave function of a finite system in the space of complex RHF wave functions, when HOMO and LUMO are form-degenerate, but have nonidentical electron densities, or are energy-degenerate. These theorems provide Hartree–Fock-theory-based explanations of Hund’s rule, a singlet instability in Jahn–Teller systems, biradicaloid electronic structures, and a triplet instability during some covalent bond breaking. They also suggest (but not guarantee) the spontaneous formation of a spin density wave (SDW) in a metallic solid. The stability theory underlying these theorems extended to a continuous orbital-energy spectrum proves the existence of an oscillating (nonspiral) SDW instability in one- and three-dimensional homogeneous electron gases, but only at low densities or for strong interactions.

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic stability comparison theorems revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability comparison theorems are presented for several different plasma models, each one corresponding to a different level of collisionality: a collisional fluid model (ideal MHD), a collisionless kinetic model (kinetic MHD), and two intermediate collisionality hybrid models (Vlasov-fluid and kinetic MHD-fluid). Of particular interest is the re-examination of the often quoted statement that ideal MHD makes the most conservative predictions with respect to stability boundaries for ideal modes. Some of the models have already been investigated in the literature and we clarify and generalize these results. Other models are essentially new and for them we derive new comparison theorems. Three main conclusions can be drawn: (1) it is crucial to distinguish between ergodic and closed field line systems; (2) in the case of ergodic systems, ideal MHD does indeed make conservative predictions compared to the other models; (3) in closed line systems undergoing perturbations that maintain the closed line symmetry this is no longer true. Specifically, when the ions are collisionless and their gyroradius is finite, as in the Vlasov-fluid model, there is no compressibility stabilization. The Vlasov-fluid model is more unstable than ideal MHD. The reason for this is related to the wave-particle resonance associated with the perpendicular precession drift motion of the particles (i.e., the ExB drift and magnetic drifts), combined with the absence of any truly toroidally trapped particles. The overall conclusion is that to determine macroscopic stability boundaries for ideal modes for any magnetic geometry using a simple conservative approach, one should analyze the ideal MHD energy principle for incompressible displacements.

  12. Singlet and triplet instability theorems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A useful definition of orbital degeneracy—form-degeneracy—is introduced, which is distinct from the usual energy-degeneracy: Two canonical spatial orbitals are form-degenerate when the energy expectation value in the restricted Hartree–Fock (RHF) wave function is unaltered upon a two-electron excitation from one of these orbitals to the other. Form-degenerate orbitals tend to have isomorphic electron densities and occur in the highest-occupied and lowest-unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs and LUMOs) of strongly correlated systems. Here, we present a mathematical proof of the existence of a triplet instability in a real or complex RHF wave function of a finite system in the space of real or complex unrestricted Hartree–Fock wave functions when HOMO and LUMO are energy- or form-degenerate. We also show that a singlet instability always exists in a real RHF wave function of a finite system in the space of complex RHF wave functions, when HOMO and LUMO are form-degenerate, but have nonidentical electron densities, or are energy-degenerate. These theorems provide Hartree–Fock-theory-based explanations of Hund’s rule, a singlet instability in Jahn–Teller systems, biradicaloid electronic structures, and a triplet instability during some covalent bond breaking. They also suggest (but not guarantee) the spontaneous formation of a spin density wave (SDW) in a metallic solid. The stability theory underlying these theorems extended to a continuous orbital-energy spectrum proves the existence of an oscillating (nonspiral) SDW instability in one- and three-dimensional homogeneous electron gases, but only at low densities or for strong interactions

  13. OTTER, Resolution Style Theorem Prover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: OTTER (Other Techniques for Theorem-proving and Effective Research) is a resolution-style theorem-proving program for first-order logic with equality. OTTER includes the inference rules binary resolution, hyper-resolution, UR-resolution, and binary para-modulation. These inference rules take as small set of clauses and infer a clause. If the inferred clause is new and useful, it is stored and may become available for subsequent inferences. Other capabilities are conversion from first-order formulas to clauses, forward and back subsumption, factoring, weighting, answer literals, term ordering, forward and back demodulation, and evaluable functions and predicates. 2 - Method of solution: For its inference process OTTER uses the given-clause algorithm, which can be viewed as a simple implementation of the set of support strategy. OTTER maintains three lists of clauses: axioms, sos (set of support), and demodulators. OTTER is not automatic. Even after the user has encoded a problem into first-order logic or into clauses, the user must choose inference rules, set options to control the processing of inferred clauses, and decide which input formulae or clauses are to be in the initial set of support and which, if any, equalities are to be demodulators. If OTTER fails to find a proof, the user may try again different initial conditions. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 5000 characters in an input string, 64 distinct variables in a clause, 51 characters in any symbol. The maxima can be changed by finding the appropriate definition in the header.h file, increasing the limit, and recompiling OTTER. There are a few constraints on the order of commands

  14. The pointwise Hellmann-Feynman theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Carfì

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study from a topological point of view the Hellmann-Feynman theorem of Quantum Mechanics. The goal of the paper is twofold: On one hand we emphasize the role of the strong topology in the classic version of the theorem in Hilbert spaces, for what concerns the kind of convergence required on the space of continuous linear endomorphisms, which contains the space of (continuous observables.On the other hand we state and prove a new pointwise version of the classic Hellmann-Feynman theorem. This new version is not yet present in the literature and follows the idea of A. Bohm concerning the topology which is desiderable to use in Quantum Mechanics. It is indeed out of question that this non-trivial new version of the Hellmann-Feynman theorem is the ideal one - for what concerns the continuous observables on Hilbert spaces, both from a theoretical point of view, since it is the strongest version obtainable in this context - we recall that the pointwise topology is the coarsest one compatible with the linear structure of the space of continuous observables -, and from a practical point of view, because the pointwise topology is the easiest to use among topologies: it brings back the problems to the Hilbert space topology. Moreover, we desire to remark that this basic theorem of Quantum Mechanics, in his most desiderable form, is deeply interlaced with two cornerstones of Functional Analysis: the Banach-Steinhaus theorem and the Baire theorem.

  15. An algebraic spin and statistics theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Guido, I D

    1994-01-01

    Abstract. A spin-statistics theorem and a PCT theorem are obtained in the context of the superselection sectors in Quantum Field Theory on a 4-dimensional space-time. Our main assumption is the requirement that the modular groups of the von Neumann algebras of local observables associated with wedge regions act geometrically as pure Lorentz transformations. Such a property, satisfied by the local algebras generated by Wightman fields because of the Bisognano-Wichmann theorem, is regarded as a natural primitive assumption.

  16. A Generalization of Chaplygin's Reducibility Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez, O E; Bloch, A M

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we study Chaplygin's Reducibility Theorem and extend its applicability to nonholonomic systems with symmetry described by the Hamilton-Poincare-d'Alembert equations in arbitrary degrees of freedom. As special cases we extract the extension of the Theorem to nonholonomic Chaplygin systems with nonabelian symmetry groups as well as Euler-Poincare-Suslov systems in arbitrary degrees of freedom. In the latter case, we also extend the Hamiltonization Theorem to nonholonomic systems which do not possess an invariant measure. Lastly, we extend previous work on conditionally variational systems using the results above. We illustrate the results through various examples of well-known nonholonomic systems.

  17. Existence theorems for ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, Francis J

    2007-01-01

    Theorems stating the existence of an object-such as the solution to a problem or equation-are known as existence theorems. This text examines fundamental and general existence theorems, along with the Picard iterants, and applies them to properties of solutions and linear differential equations.The authors assume a basic knowledge of real function theory, and for certain specialized results, of elementary functions of a complex variable. They do not consider the elementary methods for solving certain special differential equations, nor advanced specialized topics; within these restrictions, th

  18. Limit theorems for 2D invasion percolation

    CERN Document Server

    Damron, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We prove limit theorems and variance estimates for quantities related to ponds and outlets for 2D invasion percolation. We first exhibit several properties of a sequence (O(n)) of outlet variables, the n-th of which gives the number of outlets in the box centered at the origin of side length 2^n. The most important of these properties describe the sequence's renewal structure and exponentially fast mixing behavior. We use these to prove a central limit theorem and strong law of large numbers for (O(n)). We then show consequences of these limit theorems for the pond radii and outlet weights.

  19. Quadratic Goldreich-Levin Theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Tulsiani, Madhur

    2011-01-01

    Decomposition theorems in classical Fourier analysis enable us to express a bounded function in terms of few linear phases with large Fourier coefficients plus a part that is pseudorandom with respect to linear phases. The Goldreich-Levin algorithm can be viewed as an algorithmic analogue of such a decomposition as it gives a way to efficiently find the linear phases associated with large Fourier coefficients. In the study of "quadratic Fourier analysis", higher-degree analogues of such decompositions have been developed in which the pseudorandomness property is stronger but the structured part correspondingly weaker. For example, it has previously been shown that it is possible to express a bounded function as a sum of a few quadratic phases plus a part that is small in the $U^3$ norm, defined by Gowers for the purpose of counting arithmetic progressions of length 4. We give a polynomial time algorithm for computing such a decomposition. A key part of the algorithm is a local self-correction procedure for Re...

  20. Lorentz violating kinematics: threshold theorems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Valentina; Tate, Kyle; Visser, Matt

    2012-03-01

    Recent tentative experimental indications, and the subsequent theoretical speculations, regarding possible violations of Lorentz invariance have attracted a vast amount of attention. An important technical issue that considerably complicates detailed calculations in any such scenario, is that once one violates Lorentz invariance the analysis of thresholds in both scattering and decay processes becomes extremely subtle, with many new and naively unexpected effects. In the current article we develop several extremely general threshold theorems that depend only on the existence of some energy momentum relation E(p), eschewing even assumptions of isotropy or monotonicity. We shall argue that there are physically interesting situations where such a level of generality is called for, and that existing (partial) results in the literature make unnecessary technical assumptions. Even in this most general of settings, we show that at threshold all final state particles move with the same 3-velocity, while initial state particles must have 3-velocities parallel/anti-parallel to the final state particles. In contrast the various 3-momenta can behave in a complicatedand counter-intuitive manner.

  1. Security Theorems via Model Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Guttman

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A model-theoretic approach can establish security theorems for cryptographic protocols. Formulas expressing authentication and non-disclosure properties of protocols have a special form. They are quantified implications for all xs . (phi implies for some ys . psi. Models (interpretations for these formulas are *skeletons*, partially ordered structures consisting of a number of local protocol behaviors. *Realized* skeletons contain enough local sessions to explain all the behavior, when combined with some possible adversary behaviors. We show two results. (1 If phi is the antecedent of a security goal, then there is a skeleton A_phi such that, for every skeleton B, phi is satisfied in B iff there is a homomorphism from A_phi to B. (2 A protocol enforces for all xs . (phi implies for some ys . psi iff every realized homomorphic image of A_phi satisfies psi. Hence, to verify a security goal, one can use the Cryptographic Protocol Shapes Analyzer CPSA (TACAS, 2007 to identify minimal realized skeletons, or "shapes," that are homomorphic images of A_phi. If psi holds in each of these shapes, then the goal holds.

  2. TRANSVERSAL SPACES AND FIXED POINT THEOREMS

    OpenAIRE

    Sinia N. Ješić; Milan R. Tasković; Nataša Babačev

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we define Transversal functional probabilistic spaces (upper and lower) as a natural extension of Metric spaces, Probabilistic metric spaces and Fuzzy metric spaces. Also, we formulate and prove some fixed and common fixed point theorems.

  3. Remarks on the Cayley-Hamilton Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Gatto, Letterio; Scherbak, Inna

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the classical theorem by Cayley and Hamilton, "{\\em each endomorphism is a root of its own characteristic polynomial}", from the point of view of {\\em Hasse--Schmidt derivations on an exterior algebra}

  4. Yet another proof of Szemeredi's theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Using the density-increment strategy of Roth and Gowers, we derive Szemeredi's theorem on arithmetic progressions from the inverse conjectures GI(s) for the Gowers norms, recently established by the authors and Ziegler.

  5. Limit Theorems in Free Probability Theory I

    OpenAIRE

    Chistyakov, G. P.; Götze, F.

    2006-01-01

    Based on a new analytical approach to the definition of additive free convolution on probability measures on the real line we prove free analogs of limit theorems for sums for non-identically distributed random variables in classical Probability Theory.

  6. Two No-Go Theorems on Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Tada, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    We study lattice superconductors such as attractive Hubbard models. As is well known, Bloch's theorem asserts absence of persistent current in ground states and equilibrium states for general fermion systems. While the statement of the theorem is true, we can show that the theorem cannot exclude possibility of a surface persistent current. Such a current can be stabilized by boundary magnetic fields which do not penetrate into the bulk region of a superconductor, provided emergence of massive photons, i.e., Meissner effect. Therefore, we can expect that a surface persistent current is realized for a ground/equilibrium state in the sense of stability against local perturbations. We also apply Elitzur's theorem to superconductors at finite temperatures. As a result, we prove absence of symmetry breaking of the global U(1) phase of electrons for almost all gauge fixings. These observations suggest that the nature of superconductivity is the emergence of massive photons rather than the symmetry breaking of the U(...

  7. A generalized preimage theorem in global analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The concept of locally fine point and generalized regular valueof a C1 map between Banach spaces were carried over C1 map between Banach manifolds. Hence the preimage theorem, a principle constructing Banach manifolds in global analysis, is generalized.

  8. Interval logic. Proof theory and theorem proving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Marthedal

    2002-01-01

    Real-time systems are computer systems which have to meet real-time constraints. To increase the confidence in such systems, formal methods and formal verification are utilized. The class of logics known as interval logics can be used for expressing properties and requirements of real-time systems...... labelled natural deduction system. We conduct theoretical investigations of the systems with respect to subformula properties, proof search, etc. The generic theorem proving system Isabelle is used as a framework for encoding both proof theoretical systems. We consider a number of examples/small case....... By theorem proving we understand the activity of proving theorems of a logic with the assistance of a computer. The goal of this thesis is to improve theorem proving support for interval logics such that larger and more realistic case-studies of real-time systems can be conducted using these...

  9. Lambda-mu-calculus and Bohm's theorem

    OpenAIRE

    David, René; Py, Walter

    2001-01-01

    The lambda mu-calculus is an extension of the lambda-calculus that has been introduced by M. Parigot to give an algorithmic content to classical proofs. We show that Bohm's theorem fails in this calculus.

  10. Transformation groups and the virial theorem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, N.G. van

    1972-01-01

    A generalization of Noether's result for classical mechanics is given, which shows that the virial theorem is related to an invariance property of the Lagrange function. Two examples are discussed in detail.

  11. Lie Algebras and the Four Color Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Bar-Natan, Dror

    1996-01-01

    We present a ``reasonable'' statement about Lie algebras that is equivalent to the Four Color Theorem. The notions appearing in the statement also appear in the theory of finite-type invariants of knots (Vassiliev invariants) and 3-manifolds.

  12. On the failure of Bell's theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Bene, Gyula

    1997-01-01

    Using a new approach to quantum mechanics we revisit Hardy's proof for Bell's theorem and point out a loophole in it. We also demonstrate on this example that quantum mechanics is a local realistic theory.

  13. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  14. Slowly changing potential problems in Quantum Mechanics: Adiabatic theorems, ergodic theorems, and scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, S.; Soffer, A.

    2016-07-01

    We employ the recently developed multi-time scale averaging method to study the large time behavior of slowly changing (in time) Hamiltonians. We treat some known cases in a new way, such as the Zener problem, and we give another proof of the adiabatic theorem in the gapless case. We prove a new uniform ergodic theorem for slowly changing unitary operators. This theorem is then used to derive the adiabatic theorem, do the scattering theory for such Hamiltonians, and prove some classical propagation estimates and asymptotic completeness.

  15. The matrix Euler-Fermat theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We prove many congruences for binomial and multinomial coefficients as well as for the coefficients of the Girard-Newton formula in the theory of symmetric functions. These congruences also imply congruences (modulo powers of primes) for the traces of various powers of matrices with integer elements. We thus have an extension of the matrix Fermat theorem similar to Euler's extension of the numerical little Fermat theorem

  16. A Theorem on Combinatorial Group Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何伯和

    2000-01-01

    Let F= F(X) be a free group of rand n, A be a finite subset of F(X) and x∈X be a generator. The theorem states that x can be denoted as a rotation-inserting word of A if x is in the normal closure of A in F(X). Finally, an application of the theorem in Heegaard splitting of 3manifolds is given.

  17. On Newton’s shell theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present letter, Newton’s theorem for the gravitational field outside a uniform spherical shell is considered. In particular, a purely geometric proof of proposition LXXI/theorem XXXI of Newton’s Principia, which is suitable for undergraduates and even skilled high-school students, is proposed. Minimal knowledge of elementary calculus and three-dimensional Euclidean geometry are required. (letters and comments)

  18. Fluctuation theorems for a molecular refrigerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hyuk; Qian, Hong

    2007-02-01

    We extend fluctuation theorems to a molecular refrigeration system that consists of Brownian particles in a heat bath under feedback control of their velocities. Such control can actively remove heat from the bath due to an entropy-pumping mechanism [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 120602 (2004)]. The presence of entropy pumping in an underdamped Brownian system modifies both the Jarzynski equality and the fluctuation theorems. We discover that the entropy pumping has a dual role of work and heat. PMID:17358382

  19. Levi-Civita's Theorem for Noncommutative Tori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Rosenberg

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We show how to define Riemannian metrics and connections on a noncommutative torus in such a way that an analogue of Levi-Civita's theorem on the existence and uniqueness of a Riemannian connection holds. The major novelty is that we need to use two different notions of noncommutative vector field. Levi-Civita's theorem makes it possible to define Riemannian curvature using the usual formulas.

  20. Double Soft Theorem for Perturbative Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Arnab Priya

    2016-01-01

    Following up on the recent work of Cachazo, He and Yuan \\cite{arXiv:1503.04816 [hep-th]}, we derive the double soft graviton theorem in perturbative gravity. We show that the double soft theorem derived using CHY formula precisely matches with the perturbative computation involving Feynman diagrams. In particular, we find how certain delicate limits of Feynman diagrams play an important role in obtaining this equivalence.

  1. Levi-Civita's Theorem for Noncommutative Tori

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Rosenberg

    2013-01-01

    We show how to define Riemannian metrics and connections on a noncommutative torus in such a way that an analogue of Levi-Civita's theorem on the existence and uniqueness of a Riemannian connection holds. The major novelty is that we need to use two different notions of noncommutative vector field. Levi-Civita's theorem makes it possible to define Riemannian curvature using the usual formulas.

  2. The two Bell's theorems of John Bell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of the heated arguments about the meaning of ‘Bell's theorem’ arise because this phrase can refer to two different theorems that John Bell proved, the first in 1964 and the second in 1976. His 1964 theorem is the incompatibility of quantum phenomena with the dual assumptions of locality and determinism. His 1976 theorem is the incompatibility of quantum phenomena with the unitary property of local causality. This is contrary to Bell's own later assertions, that his 1964 theorem began with that single, and indivisible, assumption of local causality (even if not by that name). While there are other forms of Bell's theorems—which I present to explain the relation between Jarrett-completeness, ‘fragile locality’, and EPR-completeness—I maintain that Bell's two versions are the essential ones. Although the two Bell's theorems are logically equivalent, their assumptions are not, and the different versions of the theorem suggest quite different conclusions, which are embraced by different communities. For realists, the notion of local causality, ruled out by Bell's 1976 theorem, is motivated implicitly by Reichenbach's principle of common cause and explicitly by the principle of relativistic causality, and it is the latter which must be forgone. Operationalists pay no heed to Reichenbach's principle, but wish to keep the principle of relativistic causality, which, bolstered by an implicit ‘principle of agent-causation’, implies their notion of locality. Thus for operationalists, Bell's theorem is the 1964 one, and implies that it is determinism that must be forgone. I discuss why the two ‘camps’ are drawn to these different conclusions, and what can be done to increase mutual understanding. (review article)

  3. A new proof of Goodstein's Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, Juan A.

    2009-01-01

    Goodstein sequences are numerical sequences in which a natural number m, expressed as the complete normal form to a given base a, is modified by increasing the value of the base a by one unit and subtracting one unit from the resulting expression. As initially defined, the first term of the Goodstein sequence is the complete normal form of m to base 2. Goodstein's Theorem states that, for all natural numbers, the Goodstein sequence eventually terminates at zero. Goodstein's Theorem was origin...

  4. Epistemological Consequences of the Incompleteness Theorems

    OpenAIRE

    Raguní, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    After highlighting the cases in which the semantics of a language cannot be mechanically reproduced (in which case it is called inherent), the main epistemological consequences of the first incompleteness Theorem for the two fundamental arithmetical theories are shown: the non-mechanizability for the truths of the first-order arithmetic and the peculiarities for the model of the second-order arithmetic. Finally, the common epistemological interpretation of the second incompleteness Theorem is...

  5. Virial theorems for trapped cold atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Félix

    2008-01-01

    A few small corrections We present a general virial theorem for quantum particles with arbitrary zero-range or finite-range interactions in an arbitrary external potential. We deduce virial theorems for several situations relevant to trapped cold atoms: zero-range interactions with and without Efimov effect, hard spheres, narrow Feshbach resonances, and finite-range interactions. If the scattering length $a$ is varied adiabatically in the BEC-BCS crossover, we find that the trapping potent...

  6. Virial theorem for radiating accretion discs

    OpenAIRE

    Mach, Patryk

    2011-01-01

    A continuum version of the virial theorem is derived for a radiating self-gravitating accretion disc around a compact object. The central object is point-like, but we can avoid the regularization of its gravitational potential. This is achieved by applying a modified Pohozaev-Rellich identity to the gravitational potential of the disk only. The theorem holds for general stationary configurations, including discontinuous flows (shock waves, contact discontinuities). It is used to test numerica...

  7. Shafranov's virial theorem and magnetic plasma confinement

    OpenAIRE

    Faddeev, Ludvig; Freyhult, Lisa; Niemi, Antti J.; Rajan, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Shafranov's virial theorem implies that nontrivial magnetohydrodynamical equilibrium configurations must be supported by externally supplied currents. Here we extend the virial theorem to field theory, where it relates to Derrick's scaling argument on soliton stability. We then employ virial arguments to investigate a realistic field theory model of a two-component plasma, and conclude that stable localized solitons can exist in the bulk of a finite density plasma. These solitons entail a non...

  8. q-Deformed Dynamics and Virial Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jian-Zu

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the q-deformed Heisenberg algebra the investigation of $q$-deformation of Virial theorem explores that q-deformed quantum mechanics possesses better dynamical property. It is clarified that in the case of the zero potential the theoretical framework for the q-deformed Virial theorem is self-consistent. In the selfadjoint states the q-deformed uncertainty relation essentially deviates from the Heisenberg one.

  9. The Fundamental Theorem of Vassiliev Invariants

    OpenAIRE

    Bar-Natan, Dror; STOIMENOW, Alexander

    1997-01-01

    The "fundamental theorem of Vassiliev invariants" says that every weight system can be integrated to a knot invariant. We discuss four different approaches to the proof of this theorem: a topological/combinatorial approach following M. Hutchings, a geometrical approach following Kontsevich, an algebraic approach following Drinfel'd's theory of associators, and a physical approach coming from the Chern-Simons quantum field theory. Each of these approaches is unsatisfactory in one way or anothe...

  10. Has the Goldstone theorem been revisited?

    CERN Document Server

    Guerrieri, A

    2014-01-01

    A recent paper (arXiv:1404.5619) claimed the presence of a loophole in the current-algebra proof of Goldstone Theorem. The enforcing of manifest covariance would lead to contradictory results also in scalar theory. We show that the argument proposed is not in contradiction with covariance, thus not invalidating the theorem. Moreover, the counterexample proposed of a scalar operator with a non-zero vacuum expectation value in an unbroken theory is ill-defined.

  11. Positive energy theorems in General Relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Dain, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to present an introduction and also an overview of some of the most relevant results concerning positivity energy theorems in General Relativity. These theorems provide the answer to a long standing problem that has been proved remarkably difficult to solve. They constitute one of the major results in classical General Relativity and they uncover a deep self-consistence of the theory.

  12. Integral fluctuation theorem for the housekeeping heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The housekeeping heat Qhk is the dissipated heat necessary to maintain the violation of detailed balance in nonequilibrium steady states. By analysing the evolution of its probability distribution, we prove an integral fluctuation theorem (exp[-βQhk]) = 1 valid for arbitrary-driven transitions between steady states. We discuss Gaussian limiting cases and the difference between the new theorem and both the Hatano-Sasa and the Jarzynski relation. (letter to the editor)

  13. Integral fluctuation theorem for the housekeeping heat

    OpenAIRE

    Speck, T.; Seifert, U.

    2005-01-01

    The housekeeping heat $Q\\hk$ is the dissipated heat necessary to maintain the violation of detailed balance in nonequilibrium steady states. By analyzing the evolution of its probability distribution, we prove an integral fluctuation theorem $\\mean{\\exp[-\\beta Q\\hk]}=1$ valid for arbitrary driven transitions between steady states. We discuss Gaussian limiting cases and the difference between the new theorem and both the Hatano-Sasa and the Jarzynski relation.

  14. A Converse of Fermat's Little Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, P. S.

    2007-01-01

    As the name of the paper implies, a converse of Fermat's Little Theorem (FLT) is stated and proved. FLT states the following: if p is any prime, and x any integer, then x[superscript p] [equivalent to] x (mod p). There is already a well-known converse of FLT, known as Lehmer's Theorem, which is as follows: if x is an integer coprime with m, such…

  15. Sperner and KKM-type theorems on trees and cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Niedermaier, Andrew; Su, Francis Edward

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we prove a new combinatorial theorem for labellings of trees, and show that it is equivalent to a KKM-type theorem for finite covers of trees and to discrete and continuous fixed point theorems on finite trees. This is in analogy with the equivalence of the classical Sperner's lemma, KKM lemma, and the Brouwer fixed point theorem on simplices. Furthermore, we use these ideas to develop new KKM and fixed point theorems for infinite covers and infinite trees. Finally, we extend the KKM theorem on trees to an entirely new KKM theorem for cycles, and discuss interesting social consequences, including an application in voting theory.

  16. Combinatorial theorems in sparse random sets

    CERN Document Server

    Conlon, D

    2010-01-01

    We develop a new technique that allows us to show in a unified way that many well-known combinatorial theorems, including Tur\\'an's theorem, Szemer\\'edi's theorem and Ramsey's theorem, hold almost surely inside sparse random sets. For instance, we extend Tur\\'an's theorem to the random setting by showing that for every epsilon > 0 and every positive integer t >= 3 there exists a constant C such that, if G is a random graph on n vertices where each edge is chosen independently with probability at least C n^{-2/(t+1)}, then, with probability tending to 1 as n tends to infinity, every subgraph of G with at least (1 - \\frac{1}{t-1} + epsilon) e(G) edges contains a copy of K_t. This is sharp up to the constant C. We also show how to prove sparse analogues of structural results, giving two main applications, a stability version of the random Tur\\'an theorem stated above and a sparse hypergraph removal lemma. Many similar results have recently been obtained independently in a different way by Schacht and by Friedgut...

  17. Optical theorem detectors for active scatterers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Edwin A.; Tu, Jing

    2015-10-01

    We develop a new theory of the optical theorem for scalar fields in nonhomogeneous media which can be bounded or unbounded. It applies to arbitrary lossless backgrounds and quite general probing fields. The derived formulation holds for arbitrary passive scatterers, which can be dissipative, as well as for the more general class of active scatterers which are composed of a (passive) scatterer component and an active, radiating (antenna) component. The generalization of the optical theorem to active scatterers is relevant to many applications such as surveillance of active targets including certain cloaks and invisible scatterers and wireless communications. The derived theoretical framework includes the familiar real power optical theorem describing power extinction due to both dissipation and scattering as well as a novel reactive optical theorem related to the reactive power changes. The developed approach naturally leads to three optical theorem indicators or statistics which can be used to detect changes or targets in unknown complex media. The paper includes numerical simulation results that illustrate the application of the derived optical theorem results to change detection in complex and random media.

  18. A novel sampling theorem on the sphere

    CERN Document Server

    McEwen, J D

    2011-01-01

    We develop a novel sampling theorem on the sphere and corresponding fast algorithms by associating the sphere with the torus through a periodic extension. The fundamental property of any sampling theorem is the number of samples required to represent a band-limited signal. To represent exactly a signal on the sphere band-limited at L, all sampling theorems on the sphere require O(L^2) samples. However, our sampling theorem requires less than half the number of samples of other equiangular sampling theorems on the sphere and an asymptotically identical, but smaller, number of samples than the Gauss-Legendre sampling theorem. The complexity of our algorithms scale as O(L^3), however, the continual use of fast Fourier transforms reduces the constant prefactor associated with the asymptotic scaling considerably, resulting in algorithms that are fast. Furthermore, we do not require any precomputation and our algorithms apply to both scalar and spin functions on the sphere without any change in computational comple...

  19. Mental Constructions for The Group Isomorphism Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Mena-Lorca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The group isomorphism theorem is an important subject in any abstract algebra undergraduate course; nevertheless, research shows that it is seldom understood by students. We use APOS theory and propose a genetic decomposition that separates it into two statements: the first one for sets and the second with added structure. We administered a questionnaire to students from top Chilean universities and selected some of these students for interviews to gather information about the viability of our genetic decomposition. The students interviewed were divided in two groups based on their familiarity with equivalence relations and partitions. Students who were able to draw on their intuition of partitions were able to reconstruct the group theorem from the set theorem, while those who stayed on the purely algebraic side could not. Since our approach to learning this theorem was successful, it may be worthwhile to gather data while teaching it the way we propose here in order to check how much the learning of the group isomorphism theorem is improved. This approach could be expanded to other group homomorphism theorems provided further analysis is conducted: going from the general (e.g., sets to the particular (e.g., groups might not always the best strategy, but in some cases we may just be turning to more familiar settings.

  20. The modified Poynting theorem and the concept of mutual energy

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Shuang-ren; Yang, Kang; Yang, Xingang; Yang, Xintie

    2015-01-01

    The Poynting theorem is generalized to the modified Poynting theorem. In the modified Poynting theorem the electromagnetic field is superimposition of different electromagnetic fields including the field of retarded potential and advanced potential. The media epsilon (permittivity) and mu (permeability) can also be different in the different fields. The concept of mutual energy is introduced which is the difference between the total energy and self-energy. Using the modified Poynting theorem with the concept of the mutual energy the modified mutual energy theorem is derived. Applying time-offset transform and time integral to the modified mutual energy theorem, the time-correlation modified mutual energy theorem is obtained. Assume there are only two fields which are retarded potential, and there is only one media, the modified time-correlation energy theorem becomes the time-correlation energy theorem, which is also referred as the time-correlation reciprocity theorem. Assume there are two electromagnetic fi...

  1. Coincidence Theorems with Applications to Minimax Inequalities, Section Theorem, Best Approximation and Multiobjective Games in Topological Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei DENG; Ming Ge YANG

    2006-01-01

    Some new coincidence theorems involving admissible set-valued mappings are proved in general noncompact topological spaces. As applications, some new minimax inequalities, section theorem, best approximation theorem, existence theorems of weighted Nash equilibria and Pareto equilibria for multiobjective games are given in general topological spaces.

  2. A Unifying Impossibility Theorem for Compact Metricsocial Alternatives Space

    OpenAIRE

    Priscilla Man; Shino Takayama

    2013-01-01

    In Man and Takayama (2013) (henceforth MT) we show that many classical impossibility theorems follow from three simple and intuitive axioms on the social choice correspondence when the set of social alternatives is finite. This note extends the main theorem (Theorem 1) in MT to the case where the set of social alternatives is a compact metric space. We also qualify how versions of Arrow's Impossibility Theorem and the Muller-Satterthwaite Theorem (Muller and Satterthwaite, 1977) can be obtain...

  3. Stability theorems for multidimensional linear systems with variable parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, S. K.

    1981-01-01

    A Liapunov-type approach is used to derive two equivalent theorems which govern the stability of coupled linear systems with varying multiple parameters. The theorems generalize some of the existing theorems applicable to systems with constant parameters and the Sonin-Polya theorem applicable to a single-degree-of-freedom system with variable coefficients. As an illustration, the proposed theorems are applied to mechanical systems with varying inertia, stiffness, gyroscopic, and damping terms, and velocity and position-dependent forces.

  4. Theorem on magnet fringe field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transverse particle motion in particle accelerators is governed almost totally by non-solenoidal magnets for which the body magnetic field can be expressed as a series expansion of the normal (bn) and skew (an) multipoles, By + iBx = summation(bn + ian)(x + iy)n, where x, y, and z denote horizontal, vertical, and longitudinal (along the magnet) coordinates. Since the magnet length L is necessarily finite, deflections are actually proportional to ''field integrals'' such as bar BL ≡ ∫ B(x,y,z)dz where the integration range starts well before the magnet and ends well after it. For bar an, bar bn, bar Bx, and bar By defined this way, the same expansion Eq. 1 is valid and the ''standard'' approximation is to neglect any deflections not described by this expansion, in spite of the fact that Maxwell's equations demand the presence of longitudinal field components at the magnet ends. The purpose of this note is to provide a semi-quantitative estimate of the importance of |Δp∝|, the transverse deflection produced by the ion-gitudinal component of the fringe field at one magnet end relative to |Δp0|, the total deflection produced by passage through the whole magnet. To emphasize the generality and simplicity of the result it is given in the form of a theorem. The essence of the proof is an evaluation of the contribution of the longitudinal field Bx from the vicinity of one magnet end since, along a path parallel to the magnet axis such as path BC

  5. Kharitonov's theorem: Generalizations and algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rublein, George

    1989-01-01

    In 1978, the Russian mathematician V. Kharitonov published a remarkably simple necessary and sufficient condition in order that a rectangular parallelpiped of polynomials be a stable set. Here, stable is taken to mean that the polynomials have no roots in the closed right-half of the complex plane. The possibility of generalizing this result was studied by numerous authors. A set, Q, of polynomials is given and a necessary and sufficient condition that the set be stable is sought. Perhaps the most general result is due to Barmish who takes for Q a polytope and proceeds to construct a complicated nonlinear function, H, of the points in Q. With the notion of stability which was adopted, Barmish asks that the boundary of the closed right-half plane be swept, that the set G is considered = to (j(omega)(bar) - infinity is less than omega is less than infinity) and for each j(omega)(sigma)G, require H(delta) is greater than 0. Barmish's scheme has the merit that it describes a true generalization of Kharitonov's theorem. On the other hand, even when Q is a polyhedron, the definition of H requires that one do an optimization over the entire set of vertices, and then a subsequent optimization over an auxiliary parameter. In the present work, only the case where Q is a polyhedron is considered and the standard definition of stability described, is used. There are straightforward generalizations of the method to the case of discrete stability or to cases where certain root positions are deemed desirable. The cases where Q is non-polyhedral are less certain as candidates for the method. Essentially, a method of geometric programming was applied to the problem of finding maximum and minimum angular displacements of points in the Nyquist locus (Q(j x omega)(bar) - infinity is less than omega is less than infinity). There is an obvious connection with the boundary sweeping requirement of Barmish.

  6. The Hellmann–Feynman theorem, the comparison theorem, and the envelope theory

    OpenAIRE

    Claude Semay

    2015-01-01

    The envelope theory is a convenient method to compute approximate solutions for bound state equations in quantum mechanics. It is shown that these approximate solutions obey a kind of Hellmann–Feynman theorem, and that the comparison theorem can be applied to these approximate solutions for two ordered Hamiltonians.

  7. Ergodic theorem, ergodic theory, and statistical mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Calvin C

    2015-02-17

    This perspective highlights the mean ergodic theorem established by John von Neumann and the pointwise ergodic theorem established by George Birkhoff, proofs of which were published nearly simultaneously in PNAS in 1931 and 1932. These theorems were of great significance both in mathematics and in statistical mechanics. In statistical mechanics they provided a key insight into a 60-y-old fundamental problem of the subject--namely, the rationale for the hypothesis that time averages can be set equal to phase averages. The evolution of this problem is traced from the origins of statistical mechanics and Boltzman's ergodic hypothesis to the Ehrenfests' quasi-ergodic hypothesis, and then to the ergodic theorems. We discuss communications between von Neumann and Birkhoff in the Fall of 1931 leading up to the publication of these papers and related issues of priority. These ergodic theorems initiated a new field of mathematical-research called ergodic theory that has thrived ever since, and we discuss some of recent developments in ergodic theory that are relevant for statistical mechanics. PMID:25691697

  8. Anti-Bell - Refutation of Bell's theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barukčić, Ilija

    2012-12-01

    In general, Albert Einstein as one of "the founding fathers of quantum mechanics" had some problems to accept especially the Copenhagen dominated interpretation of quantum mechanics. Einstein's dissatisfaction with Copenhagen's interpretation of quantum mechanics, the absence of locality and causality within the Copenhagen dominated quantum mechanics lead to the well known Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen thought experiment. According to Einstein et al., the Copenhagen dominated quantum mechanics cannot be regarded as a complete physical theory. The Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen thought experiment was the origin of J. S. Bell's publication in 1964; known as Bell's theorem. Meanwhile, some dramatic violations of Bell's inequality (by so called Bell test experiments) have been reported which is taken as an empirical evidence against local realism and causality at quantum level and as positive evidence in favor of the Copenhagen dominated quantum mechanics. Thus far, Quantum mechanics is still regarded as a "strictly" non-local theory. The purpose of this publication is to refute Bell's original theorem. Thus far, if we accept Bell's theorem as correct, we must accept that +0> = +1. We can derive a logical contradiction out of Bell's theorem, Bell's theorem is refuted.

  9. The Non-Signalling theorem in generalizations of Bell's theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Does 'epistemic non-signalling' ensure the peaceful coexistence of special relativity and quantum nonlocality? The possibility of an affirmative answer is of great importance to deterministic approaches to quantum mechanics given recent developments towards generalizations of Bell's theorem. By generalizations of Bell's theorem we here mean efforts that seek to demonstrate the impossibility of any deterministic theories to obey the predictions of Bell's theorem, including not only local hidden-variables theories (LHVTs) but, critically, of nonlocal hidden-variables theories (NHVTs) also, such as de Broglie-Bohm theory. Naturally, in light of the well-established experimental findings from quantum physics, whether or not a deterministic approach to quantum mechanics, including an emergent quantum mechanics, is logically possible, depends on compatibility with the predictions of Bell's theorem. With respect to deterministic NHVTs, recent attempts to generalize Bell's theorem have claimed the impossibility of any such approaches to quantum mechanics. The present work offers arguments showing why such efforts towards generalization may fall short of their stated goal. In particular, we challenge the validity of the use of the non-signalling theorem as a conclusive argument in favor of the existence of free randomness, and therefore reject the use of the non-signalling theorem as an argument against the logical possibility of deterministic approaches. We here offer two distinct counter-arguments in support of the possibility of deterministic NHVTs: one argument exposes the circularity of the reasoning which is employed in recent claims, and a second argument is based on the inconclusive metaphysical status of the non-signalling theorem itself. We proceed by presenting an entirely informal treatment of key physical and metaphysical assumptions, and of their interrelationship, in attempts seeking to generalize Bell's theorem on the

  10. Equilibrium fluctuation theorems compatible with anomalous response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, L.; Curilef, S.

    2010-12-01

    Previously, we have derived a generalization of the canonical fluctuation relation between heat capacity and energy fluctuations C = β2langδU2rang, which is able to describe the existence of macrostates with negative heat capacities C < 0. In this work, we extend our previous results for an equilibrium situation with several control parameters to account for the existence of states with anomalous values in other response functions. Our analysis leads to the derivation of three different equilibrium fluctuation theorems: the fundamental and the complementary fluctuation theorems, which represent the generalization of two fluctuation identities already obtained in previous works, and the associated fluctuation theorem, a result that has no counterpart in the framework of Boltzmann-Gibbs distributions. These results are applied to study the anomalous susceptibility of a ferromagnetic system, in particular, the case of the 2D Ising model.

  11. On Bayes' theorem for improper mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    McCullagh, Peter; 10.1214/11-AOS892

    2011-01-01

    Although Bayes's theorem demands a prior that is a probability distribution on the parameter space, the calculus associated with Bayes's theorem sometimes generates sensible procedures from improper priors, Pitman's estimator being a good example. However, improper priors may also lead to Bayes procedures that are paradoxical or otherwise unsatisfactory, prompting some authors to insist that all priors be proper. This paper begins with the observation that an improper measure on Theta satisfying Kingman's countability condition is in fact a probability distribution on the power set. We show how to extend a model in such a way that the extended parameter space is the power set. Under an additional finiteness condition, which is needed for the existence of a sampling region, the conditions for Bayes's theorem are satisfied by the extension. Lack of interference ensures that the posterior distribution in the extended space is compatible with the original parameter space. Provided that the key finiteness conditio...

  12. Bayes' theorem: scientific assessment of experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lex Rutten

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Homeopathy is based on experience and this is a scientific procedure if we follow Bayes' theorem. Unfortunately this is not the case at the moment. Symptoms are added to our materia medica based on absolute occurrence, while Bayes theorem tells us that this should be based on relative occurrence. Bayes theorem can be applied on prospective research, but also on retrospective research and consensus based on a large number of cases. Confirmation bias is an important source of false data in experience based systems like homeopathy. Homeopathic doctors should become more aware of this and longer follow-up of cases could remedy this. The existing system of adding symptoms to our materia medica is obsolete.

  13. Spectral mapping theorems a bluffer's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Harte, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Written by an author who was at the forefront of developments in multi-variable spectral theory during the seventies and the eighties, this guide sets out to describe in detail the spectral mapping theorem in one, several and many variables. The basic algebraic systems – semigroups, rings and linear algebras – are summarised, and then topological-algebraic systems, including Banach algebras, to set up the basic language of algebra and analysis. Spectral Mapping Theorems is written in an easy-to-read and engaging manner and will be useful for both the beginner and expert. It will be of great importance to researchers and postgraduates studying spectral theory.

  14. Asymptotic symmetries and subleading soft graviton theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campiglia, Miguel; Laddha, Alok

    2014-12-01

    Motivated by the equivalence between the soft graviton theorem and Ward identities for the supertranslation symmetries belonging to the Bondi, van der Burg, Metzner and Sachs (BMS) group, we propose a new extension (different from the so-called extended BMS) of the BMS group that is a semidirect product of supertranslations and Diff(S2) . We propose a definition for the canonical generators associated with the smooth diffeomorphisms and show that the resulting Ward identities are equivalent to the subleading soft graviton theorem of Cachazo and Strominger.

  15. Pauli and the spin-statistics theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Duck, Ian M

    1997-01-01

    This book makes broadly accessible an understandable proof of the infamous spin-statistics theorem. This widely known but little-understood theorem is intended to explain the fact that electrons obey the Pauli exclusion principle. This fact, in turn, explains the periodic table of the elements and their chemical properties. Therefore, this one simply stated fact is responsible for many of the principal features of our universe, from chemistry to solid state physics to nuclear physics to the life cycle of stars.In spite of its fundamental importance, it is only a slight exaggeration to say that

  16. Jarzynski's theorem for lattice gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Caselle, Michele; Nada, Alessandro; Panero, Marco; Toniato, Arianna

    2016-01-01

    Jarzynski's theorem is a well-known equality in statistical mechanics, which relates fluctuations in the work performed during a non-equilibrium transformation of a system, to the free-energy difference between two equilibrium states. In this article, we extend Jarzynski's theorem to lattice gauge theory, and present examples of applications for two challenging computational problems, namely the calculation of interface free energies and the determination of the equation of state. We conclude with a discussion of further applications of interest in QCD and in other strongly coupled gauge theories, in particular for the Schroedinger functional and for simulations at finite density using reweighting techniques.

  17. Generalizations of the Abstract Boundary singularity theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Whale, Ben E; Scott, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    The Abstract Boundary singularity theorem was first proven by Ashley and Scott. It links the existence of incomplete causal geodesics in strongly causal, maximally extended spacetimes to the existence of Abstract Boundary essential singularities, i.e., non-removable singular boundary points. We give two generalizations of this theorem: the first to continuous causal curves and the distinguishing condition, the second to locally Lipschitz curves in manifolds such that no inextendible locally Lipschitz curve is totally imprisoned. To do this we extend generalized affine parameters from $C^1$ curves to locally Lipschitz curves.

  18. GENERALIZATIONS OF THE ORLICZ-PETTIS THEOREM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOPHER STUART

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The Orlicz-Pettis Theorem for locally convex spaces asserts that a series in the space which is subseries convergent in the weak topology is actually subseries convergent in the original topology of the space. A subseries convergent series can be viewed as a multiplier convergent series where the terms of the series are multiplied by elements of the scalar sequence space m0 of sequences with finite range. In this paper we show that the conclusion of the Orlicz-Pettis Theorem holds (and can be strengthened if the multiplier space m0 is replaced by a sequence space with the signed weak gliding hump property

  19. Two extensions of Ramsey’s theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Conlon, David; Fox, Jacob; Sudakov, Benny

    2013-01-01

    Ramsey’s theorem, in the version of Erdos and Szekeres, states that every 2-coloring of the edges of the complete graph on {1,2,…,n} contains a monochromatic clique of order (1/2)logn. In this article, we consider two well-studied extensions of Ramsey’s theorem. Improving a result of Rodl, we show that there is a constant c > 0 such that every 2-coloring of the edges of the complete graph on {2,3,…,n} contains a monochromatic clique S for which the sum of 1/logi over all vertices i ∈ S is at ...

  20. Central Limit Theorem for Nonlinear Hawkes Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Lingjiong

    2012-01-01

    Hawkes process is a self-exciting point process with clustering effect whose jump rate depends on its entire past history. It has wide applications in neuroscience, finance and many other fields. Linear Hawkes process has an immigration-birth representation and can be computed more or less explicitly. It has been extensively studied in the past and the limit theorems are well understood. On the contrary, nonlinear Hawkes process lacks the immigration-birth representation and is much harder to analyze. In this paper, we obtain a functional central limit theorem for nonlinear Hawkes process.

  1. Limit theorems for fragmentation processes with immigration

    CERN Document Server

    Knobloch, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we extend two limit theorems which were recently obtained for fragmentation processes to such processes with immigration. More precisely, in the setting with immigration we consider a limit theorem for the process counted with a random characteristic as well as the asymptotic behaviour of an empirical measure associated with the stopping line corresponding to the first blocks, in their respective line of descent, that are smaller than a given size. In addition, we determine the asymptotic decay rate of the size of the largest block in a homogeneous fragmentation process with immigration. The techniques used to proves these results are based on submartingale arguments.

  2. Jarzynski's theorem for lattice gauge theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselle, Michele; Costagliola, Gianluca; Nada, Alessandro; Panero, Marco; Toniato, Arianna

    2016-08-01

    Jarzynski's theorem is a well-known equality in statistical mechanics, which relates fluctuations in the work performed during a nonequilibrium transformation of a system, to the free-energy difference between two equilibrium ensembles. In this article, we apply Jarzynski's theorem in lattice gauge theory, for two examples of challenging computational problems, namely the calculation of interface free energies and the determination of the equation of state. We conclude with a discussion of further applications of interest in QCD and in other strongly coupled gauge theories, in particular for the Schrödinger functional and for simulations at finite density using reweighting techniques.

  3. Limit Theorems for Dispersing Billiards with Cusps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bálint, P.; Chernov, N.; Dolgopyat, D.

    2011-12-01

    Dispersing billiards with cusps are deterministic dynamical systems with a mild degree of chaos, exhibiting "intermittent" behavior that alternates between regular and chaotic patterns. Their statistical properties are therefore weak and delicate. They are characterized by a slow (power-law) decay of correlations, and as a result the classical central limit theorem fails. We prove that a non-classical central limit theorem holds, with a scaling factor of {sqrt{nlog n}} replacing the standard {sqrt{n}} . We also derive the respective Weak Invariance Principle, and we identify the class of observables for which the classical CLT still holds.

  4. The Goldstone boson equivalence theorem with fermions

    OpenAIRE

    Durand, Loyal; Riesselmann, Kurt

    1995-01-01

    The calculation of the leading electroweak corrections to physical transition matrix elements in powers of $M_H^2/v^2$ can be greatly simplified in the limit $M_H^2\\gg M_W^2,\\, M_Z^2$ through the use of the Goldstone boson equivalence theorem. This theorem allows the vector bosons $W^\\pm$ and $Z$ to be replaced by the associated scalar Goldstone bosons $w^\\pm$, $z$ which appear in the symmetry breaking sector of the Standard Model in the limit of vanishing gauge couplings. In the present pape...

  5. Adiabatic Theorems and Reversible Isothermal Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Abou-Salem, W K

    2005-01-01

    Reversible isothermal processes of a finitely extended, driven quantum system in contact with an infinite heat bath are studied from the point of view of quantum statistical mechanics. Notions like heat flux, work and entropy are defined for trajectories of states close to, but distinct from states of joint thermal equilibrium. A theorem characterizing reversible isothermal processes as quasi-static processes ("isothermal theorem") is described. Corollaries concerning the changes of entropy and free energy in reversible isothermal processes and on the 0th law of thermodynamics are outlined.

  6. A Note on a Broken-Cycle Theorem for Hypergraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinks Martin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Whitney’s Broken-cycle Theorem states the chromatic polynomial of a graph as a sum over special edge subsets. We give a definition of cycles in hypergraphs that preserves the statement of the theorem there

  7. An existence theorem for Volterra integrodifferential equations with infinite delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Izsak

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Schauder's fixed point theorem, we prove an existence theorem for Volterra integrodifferential equations with infinite delay. As an appplication, we consider an $n$ species Lotka-Volterra competitive system.

  8. Hindman's Theorem: An Ultrafilter Argument in Second Order Arithmetic

    CERN Document Server

    Towsner, Henry

    2009-01-01

    Hindman's Theorem is a prototypical example of a combinatorial theorem with a proof that uses the topology of the ultrafilters. We show how the methods of this proof, including topological arguments about ultrafilters, can be translated into second order arithmetic.

  9. A multivariate central limit theorem for continuous local martingales

    OpenAIRE

    Zanten, van, M.

    1998-01-01

    A theorem on the weak convergence of a properly normalized multivariate continuous local martingale is proved. The time-change theorem used for this purpose allows for short and transparent arguments.

  10. Automated theorem proving theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Newborn, Monty

    2001-01-01

    As the 21st century begins, the power of our magical new tool and partner, the computer, is increasing at an astonishing rate. Computers that perform billions of operations per second are now commonplace. Multiprocessors with thousands of little computers - relatively little! -can now carry out parallel computations and solve problems in seconds that only a few years ago took days or months. Chess-playing programs are on an even footing with the world's best players. IBM's Deep Blue defeated world champion Garry Kasparov in a match several years ago. Increasingly computers are expected to be more intelligent, to reason, to be able to draw conclusions from given facts, or abstractly, to prove theorems-the subject of this book. Specifically, this book is about two theorem-proving programs, THEO and HERBY. The first four chapters contain introductory material about automated theorem proving and the two programs. This includes material on the language used to express theorems, predicate calculus, and the rules of...

  11. Some Generalizations of Jungck's Fixed Point Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Morales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We are going to generalize the Jungck's fixed point theorem for commuting mappings by mean of the concepts of altering distance functions and compatible pair of mappings, as well as, by using contractive inequalities of integral type and contractive inequalities depending on another function.

  12. A simpler derivation of the coding theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Lomnitz, Yuval

    2012-01-01

    A simple proof for the Shannon coding theorem, using only the Markov inequality, is presented. The technique is useful for didactic purposes, since it does not require many preliminaries and the information density and mutual information follow naturally in the proof. It may also be applicable to situations where typicality is not natural.

  13. On the Non-Abelian Stokes Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Diakonov, Dmitri; Petrov, Victor

    2000-01-01

    We present the non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the Wilson loop in various forms and discuss its meaning. Its validity has been recently questioned by Faber, Ivanov, Troitskaya and Zach. We demonstrate that all points of their criticism are based on mistakes in mathematics. Finally, we derive a variant of our formula for the Wilson loop in lattice regularization.

  14. A coupling approach to Doob's theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Kulik, Alexei; Scheutzow, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We provide a coupling proof of Doob's theorem which says that the transition probabilities of a regular Markov process which has an invariant probability measure $\\mu$ converge to $\\mu$ in the total variation distance. In addition we show that non-singularity (rather than equivalence) of the transition probabilities suffices to ensure convergence of the transition probabilities for $\\mu$-almost all initial conditions.

  15. Gap theorems for Ricci-harmonic solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Tadano, Homare

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, by using estimates for the generalized Ricci curvature, we shall give some gap theorems for Ricci-harmonic solitons showing some necessary and sufficient conditions for the solitons to be harmonic-Einstein. Our results may be regarded as a generalization of recent works by H. Li, and M. Fernandez-Lopez and E. Garcia-Rio.

  16. A strictly-positive mass theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that the ADM 4-momentum of an isolated gravitational system (spatially asymptotically flat spacetime) satisfying the dominant energy condition cannot be null-like unless it is flat. Together with the positive mass theorem, this implies that the ADM 4-momentum of an isolated gravitational system must be strictly time-like. (orig.)

  17. Multiplier theorems for special Hermite expansions on

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张震球; 郑维行

    2000-01-01

    The weak type (1,1) estimate for special Hermite expansions on Cn is proved by using the Calderon-Zygmund decomposition. Then the multiplier theorem in Lp(1 < p < ω ) is obtained. The special Hermite expansions in twisted Hardy space are also considered. As an application, the multipli-ers for a certain kind of Laguerre expansions are given in Lp space.

  18. Sandwich reactor lattices and Bloch's theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the neutron flux distribution in repetitive sandwiches of reactor material leads to results analogous to the 1-dimensional form of Bloch's theorem for the electronic structure in crystals. This principle makes it possible to perform analytically accurate homogenisations of sandwich lattices The method has been extended to cover multi group diffusion and transport theory. (author)

  19. Non-Archimedean Big Picard Theorems

    OpenAIRE

    Cherry, William

    2002-01-01

    A non-Archimedean analog of the classical Big Picard Theorem, which says that a holomorphic map from the punctured disc to a Riemann surface of hyperbolic type extends accross the puncture, is proven using Berkovich's theory of non-Archimedean analytic spaces.

  20. INTERPOLATION THEOREMS FOR SELF-ADJOINT OPERATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shijun Zheng

    2009-01-01

    We prove a complex and a real interpolation theorems on Besov spaces and Triebel-Lizorkin spaces associated with a selfadjoint operator L, without assuming the gra-dient estimate for its spectral kernel. The result applies to the cases where L is a uniformly elliptic operator or a Schr(o)dinger operator with electro-magnetic potential.

  1. Donsker-Type Theorem for BSDEs

    OpenAIRE

    Briand, Philippe; Delyon, Bernard; Mémin, Jean

    2001-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the proof of Donsker's theorem for backward stochastic differential equations (BSDEs for short). The main objective is to give a simple method to discretize in time a BSDE. Our approach is based upon the notion of ``convergence of filtrations'' and covers the case of a $(y,z)$-dependent generator.

  2. A Fixed Point Theorem for Discontinuous Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Herings, Jean-Jacques; Laan, Gerard van der; Talman, Dolf; Yang, Zaifu

    2004-01-01

    Any function from a non-empty polytope into itself that is locally gross direction preserving is shown to have the fixed point property. Brouwer's fixed point theorem for continuous functions is a special case. We discuss the application of the result in the area of non-cooperative game theory.

  3. Green's Theorem for Generalized Fractional Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Odzijewicz, Tatiana; Malinowska, Agnieszka B.; Delfim F. M. Torres

    2012-01-01

    We study three types of generalized partial fractional operators. An extension of Green's theorem, by considering partial fractional derivatives with more general kernels, is proved. New results are obtained, even in the particular case when the generalized operators are reduced to the standard partial fractional derivatives and fractional integrals in the sense of Riemann-Liouville or Caputo.

  4. Central Limit Theorem for Coloured Hard Dimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Simonetta Bernabei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the central limit theorem for a class of coloured graphs. This means that we investigate the limit behavior of certain random variables whose values are combinatorial parameters associated to these graphs. The techniques used at arriving this result comprise combinatorics, generating functions, and conditional expectations.

  5. Generalizations of the Lax-Milgram Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimosthenis Drivaliaris

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We prove a linear and a nonlinear generalization of the Lax-Milgram theorem. In particular, we give sufficient conditions for a real-valued function defined on the product of a reflexive Banach space and a normed space to represent all bounded linear functionals of the latter. We also give two applications to singular differential equations.

  6. Generalizations of the Lax-Milgram Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannakakis Nikos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove a linear and a nonlinear generalization of the Lax-Milgram theorem. In particular, we give sufficient conditions for a real-valued function defined on the product of a reflexive Banach space and a normed space to represent all bounded linear functionals of the latter. We also give two applications to singular differential equations.

  7. Deduction Theorems in Weakly Implicative Logics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr

    Barcelona: Universitat de Barcelona, 2005. s. 19-20. [Algebraic and Topological Methods in Non-Classical Logics /2./. 15.06.2005-18.06.2005, Barcelona] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : deduction theorem * substructural logic * BCI logic * weakly implicative logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  8. Random fixed point theorems on product spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Ismat Beg; Naseer Shahzad

    1993-01-01

    The existence of random fixed point of a locally contractive random operator in first variable on product spaces is proved. The concept “continuous random height-selection” is discussed. Some random fixed point theorems for nonexpansive self and nonself maps are also obtained in product spaces.

  9. A non-archimedean Montel's theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Favre, Charles; Trucco, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    We prove a version of Montel's theorem for analytic functions over a non-archimedean complete valued field. We propose a definition of normal family in this context, and give applications of our results to the dynamics of non-archimedean entire functions.

  10. On Noethers theorem in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extending an earlier construction of local generators of symmetries in (S. Doplicher, 1982) to space-time and supersymmetries, we establish a weak form of Noethers theorem in quantum field theory. We also comment on the physical significance of the 'split property', underlying our analysis, and discuss some local aspects of superselection rules following from our results. (orig./HSI)

  11. An extension theorem for conformal gauge singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Tod, Paul

    2007-01-01

    We analyse conformal gauge, or isotropic, singularities in cosmological models in general relativity. Using the calculus of tractors, we find conditions in terms of tractor curvature for a local extension of the conformal structure through a cosmological singularity and prove a local extension theorem.

  12. Crum's Theorem for 'Discrete' Quantum Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Odake, Satoru; Sasaki, Ryu

    2009-01-01

    In one-dimensional quantum mechanics, or the Sturm-Liouville theory, Crum's theorem. describes the relationship between the original and the associated Hamiltonian systems, which are iso-spectral except for the lowest energy state. Its counterpart in 'discrete' quantum mechanics is formulated algebraically, elucidating the basic structure of the discrete quantum mechanics, whose Schrodinger equation is a difference equation.

  13. Crum's Theorem for `Discrete' Quantum Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Odake, Satoru; Sasaki, Ryu

    2009-01-01

    In one-dimensional quantum mechanics, or the Sturm-Liouville theory, Crum's theorem describes the relationship between the original and the associated Hamiltonian systems, which are iso-spectral except for the lowest energy state. Its counterpart in `discrete' quantum mechanics is formulated algebraically, elucidating the basic structure of the discrete quantum mechanics, whose Schr\\"odinger equation is a difference equation.

  14. Lagrange’s Four-Square Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watase Yasushige

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a formalized proof of the so-called “the four-square theorem”, namely any natural number can be expressed by a sum of four squares, which was proved by Lagrange in 1770. An informal proof of the theorem can be found in the number theory literature, e.g. in [14], [1] or [23].

  15. JACKSON‘S THEOREM FOR COMPACT GROUPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Vaezi; S.F.Rzaev

    2002-01-01

    In this article we consider the generalized shift operator defined by (Shuf)(g)=∫Gf(tut-1g)dt on compact group G and by help of this operator we define “Spherical” modulus of continuity.So we prove Stechkin and Jackson type theorems.

  16. Extended Kelvin theorem in relativistic magnetohydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bekenstein, Jacob D.; Oron, Asaf

    2000-01-01

    We prove the existence of a generalization of Kelvin's circulation theorem in general relativity which is applicable to perfect isentropic magnetohydrodynamic flow. The argument is based on a new version of the Lagrangian for perfect magnetohydrodynamics. We illustrate the new conserved circulation with the example of a relativistic magnetohydrodynamic flow possessing three symmetries.

  17. The virial theorem and planetary atmospheres

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, Viktor T.

    2010-01-01

    We derive a version of the virial theorem that is applicable to diatomic planetary atmospheres that are in approximate thermal equilibrium at moderate temperatures and pressures and are sufficiently thin such that the gravitational acceleration can be considered constant. We contrast a pedagogically inclined theoretical presentation with the actual measured properties of air.

  18. The virial theorem for nonlinear problems

    OpenAIRE

    Amore, Paolo; Fernández, Francisco M.

    2009-01-01

    We show that the virial theorem provides a useful simple tool for approximating nonlinear problems. In particular we consider conservative nonlinear oscillators and a bifurcation problem. In the former case we obtain the same main result derived earlier from the expansion in Chebyshev polynomials.

  19. Tennis Rackets and the Parallel Axis Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Derek

    2014-01-01

    This simple experiment uses an unusual graph straightening exercise to confirm the parallel axis theorem for an irregular object. Along the way, it estimates experimental values for g and the moment of inertia of a tennis racket. We use Excel to find a 95% confidence interval for the true values.

  20. A Bijective Proof For Forest Reciprocity Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, ShinnYih

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study the graph polynomial that counts spanning rooted forests f_g of a given graph. This polynomial has a remarkable reciprocity property. We give a new bijective proof for this theorem which has Prufer coding as a special case.

  1. Limit theorems for Markov random fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov Random Fields (MRF's) have been extensively applied in Statistical Mechanics as well as in Bayesian Image Analysis. MRF's are a special class of dependent random variables located at the vertices of a graph whose joint distribution includes a parameter called the temperature. When the number of vertices of the graph tends to infinity, the normalized distribution of statistics based on these random variables converge in distribution. It can happen that for certain values of the temperature, that the rate of growth of these normalizing constants change drastically. This feature is generally used to explain the phenomenon of phase transition as understood by physicist. In this dissertation the author will show that this drastic change in normalizing constants occurs even in the relatively smooth case when all the random variables are Gaussian. Hence any image analytic MRF ought to be checked for such discontinuous behavior before any analysis is performed. Mixed limit theorems in Bayesian Image Analysis seek to replace intensive simulations of MRF's with limit theorems that approximate the distribution of the MRF's as the number of sites increases. The problem of deriving mixed limit theorems for MRF's on a one dimensional lattice graph with an acceptor function that has a second moment has been studied by Chow. A mixed limit theorem for the integer lattice graph is derived when the acceptor function does not have a second moment as for instance when the acceptor function is a symmetric stable density of index 0 < α < 2

  2. Kelvin's Canonical Circulation Theorem in Hall Magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shivamoggi, B K

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that, thanks to the restoration of the legitimate connection between the current density and the plasma flow velocity in Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), Kelvin's Circulation Theorem becomes valid in Hall MHD. The ion-flow velocity in the usual circulation integral is now replaced by the canonical ion-flow velocity.

  3. Scaling Identities for Solitons beyond Derrick's Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Manton, Nicholas S.

    2008-01-01

    New integral identities satisfied by topological solitons in a range of classical field theories are presented. They are derived by considering independent length rescalings in orthogonal directions, or equivalently, from the conservation of the stress tensor. These identities are refinements of Derrick's theorem.

  4. Pauli and The Spin-Statistics Theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book makes broadly accessible an understandable proof of the infamous spin-statistics theorem. This widely known but little-understood theorem is intended to explain the fact that electrons obey the Pauli exclusion principle. This fact, in turn, explains the periodic table of the elements and their chemical properties.Therefore, this one simply stated fact is responsible for many of the principal features of our universe, from chemistry to solid state physics to nuclear physics to the life cycle of stars.In spite of its fundamental importance, it is only a slight exaggeration to say that 'everyone knows the spin-statistics theorem, but no one understands it'. This book simplifies and clarifies the formal statements of the theorem, and also corrects the invariably flawed intuitive explanations which are frequently put forward. The book will be of interest to many practising physicists in all fields who have long been frustrated by the impenetrable discussions on the subject which have been available until now.It will also be accessible to students at an advanced undergraduate level as an introduction to modern physics based directly on the classical writings of the founders, including Pauli, Dirac, Heisenberg, Einstein and many others

  5. Fundamental theorems of extensional untyped $\\lambda$-calculus revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Lyaletsky

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new proofs of three following fundamental theorems of the untyped extensional $\\lambda$-calculus: the $\\eta$-Postpo-nement theorem, the $\\beta\\eta$-Normal form theorem, and the Norma-lization theorem for $\\beta\\eta$-reduction. These proofs do not involve any special extensions of the standard language of $\\lambda$-terms but nevertheless are shorter and much more comprehensive than their known analogues.

  6. Ehrenfest theorem, Galilean invariance and nonlinear Schr"odinger equations

    CERN Document Server

    Kälbermann, G

    2003-01-01

    Galilean invariant Schr"odinger equations possessing nonlinear terms coupling the amplitude and the phase of the wave function can violate the Ehrenfest theorem. An example of this kind is provided. The example leads to the proof of the theorem: A Galilean invariant Schr"odinger equation derived from a lagrangian density obeys the Ehrenfest theorem. The theorem holds for any linear or nonlinear lagrangian.

  7. Theorems of Tarski's Undefinability and Godel's Second Incompleteness - Computationally

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    We show that the existence of a finitely axiomatized theory which can prove all the true $\\Sigma_1$ sentences may imply Godel's Second Incompleteness Theorem, by incorporating some bi-theoretic version of the derivability conditions (first discussed by Detlefsen~2001). We also argue that Tarski's theorem on the undefinability of truth is Godel's first incompleteness theorem relativized to definable oracles; here a unification of these two theorems is shown.

  8. Applications of square-related theorems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2014-04-01

    The square centre of a given square is the point of intersection of its two diagonals. When two squares of different side lengths share the same square centre, there are in general four diagonals that go through the same square centre. The Two Squares Theorem developed in this paper summarizes some nice theoretical conclusions that can be obtained when two squares of different side lengths share the same square centre. These results provide the theoretical basis for two of the constructions given in the book of H.S. Hall and F.H. Stevens , 'A Shorter School Geometry, Part 1, Metric Edition'. In page 134 of this book, the authors present, in exercise 4, a practical construction which leads to a verification of the Pythagorean theorem. Subsequently in Theorems 29 and 30, the authors present the standard proofs of the Pythagorean theorem and its converse. In page 140, the authors present, in exercise 15, what amounts to a geometric construction, whose verification involves a simple algebraic identity. Both the constructions are of great importance and can be replicated by using the standard equipment provided in a 'geometry toolbox' carried by students in high schools. The author hopes that the results proved in this paper, in conjunction with the two constructions from the above-mentioned book, would provide high school students an appreciation of the celebrated theorem of Pythagoras. The diagrams that accompany this document are based on the free software GeoGebra. The author formally acknowledges his indebtedness to the creators of this free software at the end of this document.

  9. A Full Characterization on Fixed-Point Theorem, Minimax Inequality, Saddle Point, and KKM Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Guoqiang

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides necessary and sufficient conditions for fixed-point theorems, minimax inequalities and some related theorems defined on arbitrary topological spaces that may be discrete, continuum, non-compact or non-convex. We establish a single condition, γ-recursive transfer lower semicontinuity, which fully characterizes the existence of equilibrium of minimax inequality without imposing any kind of convexity nor any restriction on topological space. The result then is employed to ful...

  10. ON GÖDEL'S INCOMPLETENESS THEOREM(S), ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE/LIFE, AND HUMAN MIND

    OpenAIRE

    CHRISTIANTO, V.; FLORENTIN SMARANDACHE

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we have discussed concerning Gödel’s incompleteness theorem(s) and plausible implications to artificial intelligence/life and human mind. Perhaps we should agree with Sullins III, that the value of this finding is not to discourage certain types of research in AL, but rather to help move us in a direction where we can more clearly define the results of that research.

  11. The direct Flow parametric Proof of Gauss' Divergence Theorem revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    The standard proof of the divergence theorem in undergraduate calculus courses covers the theorem for static domains between two graph surfaces. We show that within first year undergraduate curriculum, the flow proof of the dynamic version of the divergence theorem - which is usually considered...

  12. Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a survey of results related to the Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. The first part of the paper discusses Goedel's own formulations along with modern strengthenings of the first incompleteness theorem. Various forms and proofs of this theorem are compared. Incompleteness results related to algorithmic problems and mathematically natural examples of unprovable statements are discussed. Bibliography: 68 titles.

  13. Limit theorems for extremes with random sample size

    OpenAIRE

    Silvestrov, Dmitrii S.; Teugels, Jozef L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the investigation of limit theorems for extremes with random sample size under general dependence-independence conditions for samples and random sample size indexes. Limit theorems of weak convergence type are obtained as well as functional limit theorems for extremal processes with random sample size indexes.

  14. The Interpretability of Inconsistency: Feferman's Theorem and Related Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Albert

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an exposition of Feferman's Theorem concerning the interpretability of inconsistency and of further insights directly connected to this result. Feferman's Theorem is a strengthening of the Second Incompleteness Theorem. It says, in metaphorical paraphrase, that it is not just the case

  15. Causarum Investigatio and the Two Bell's Theorems of John Bell

    CERN Document Server

    Wiseman, Howard M

    2015-01-01

    "Bell's theorem" can refer to two different theorems that John Bell proved, the first in 1964 and the second in 1976. His 1964 theorem is the incompatibility of quantum phenomena with the joint assumptions of Locality and Predetermination. His 1976 theorem is their incompatibility with the single property of Local Causality. This is contrary to Bell's own later assertions, that his 1964 theorem began with the assumption of Local Causality, even if not by that name. Although the two Bell's theorems are logically equivalent, their assumptions are not. Hence, the earlier and later theorems suggest quite different conclusions, embraced by operationalists and realists, respectively. The key issue is whether Locality or Local Causality is the appropriate notion emanating from Relativistic Causality, and this rests on one's basic notion of causation. For operationalists the appropriate notion is what is here called the Principle of Agent-Causation, while for realists it is Reichenbach's Principle of common cause. By...

  16. On c-theorems in arbitrary dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, Arpan; Sen, Kallol; Sinha, Aninda

    2012-01-01

    The dilaton action in 3+1 dimensions plays a crucial role in the proof of the a-theorem. This action arises using Wess-Zumino consistency conditions and crucially relies on the existence of the trace anomaly. Since there are no anomalies in odd dimensions, it is interesting to ask how such an action could arise otherwise. Motivated by this we use the AdS/CFT correspondence to examine both even and odd dimensional CFTs. We find that in even dimensions, by promoting the cut-off to a field, one can get an action for this field which coincides with the WZ action in flat space. In three dimensions, we observe that by finding an exact Hamilton-Jacobi counterterm, one can find a non-polynomial action which is invariant under global Weyl rescalings. We comment on how this finding is tied up with the F-theorem conjectures.

  17. Weinberg Soft Theorems from Weinberg Adiabatic Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Mirbabayi, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    Soft theorems for the scattering of low energy photons and gravitons and cosmological consistency conditions on the squeezed-limit correlation functions are both understood to be consequences of invariance under large gauge transformations. We apply the same method used in cosmology -- based on the identification of an infinite set of "adiabatic modes" and the corresponding conserved currents -- to derive flat space soft theorems for electrodynamics and gravity. We discuss how the recent derivations based on the asymptotic symmetry groups (BMS) can be continued to a finite size sphere surrounding the scattering event, when the soft photon or graviton has a finite momentum. We give a finite distance derivation of the antipodal matching condition previously imposed between future and past null infinities, and explain why all but one radiative degrees of freedom decouple in the soft limit. In contrast to earlier works on BMS, we work with adiabatic modes which correspond to large gauge transformations that are $...

  18. Locomotion in complex fluids: Integral theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Lauga, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The biological fluids encountered by self-propelled cells display complex microstructures and rheology. We consider here the general problem of low-Reynolds number locomotion in a complex fluid. {Building on classical work on the transport of particles in viscoelastic fluids,} we demonstrate how to mathematically derive three integral theorems relating the arbitrary motion of an isolated organism to its swimming kinematics {in a non-Newtonian fluid}. These theorems correspond to three situations of interest, namely (1) squirming motion in a linear viscoelastic fluid, (2) arbitrary surface deformation in a weakly non-Newtonian fluid, and (3) small-amplitude deformation in an arbitrarily non-Newtonian fluid. Our final results, valid for a wide-class of {swimmer geometry,} surface kinematics and constitutive models, at most require mathematical knowledge of a series of Newtonian flow problems, and will be useful to quantity the locomotion of biological and synthetic swimmers in complex environments.

  19. Parameterized quantum field theory without Haag's theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Seidewitz, Ed

    2015-01-01

    Under the normal assumptions of quantum field theory, Haag's theorem states that any field unitarily equivalent to a free field must itself be a free field. Unfortunately, the derivation of the Dyson series perturbation expansion relies on the use of the interaction picture, in which the interacting field is unitarily equivalent to the free field but must still account for interactions. Thus, the traditional perturbative derivation of the scattering matrix in quantum field theory is mathematically ill defined. Nevertheless, perturbative quantum field theory is currently the only practical approach for addressing scattering for realistic interactions, and it has been spectacularly successful in making empirical predictions. This paper explains this success by showing that quantum field theory can be formulated, using an invariant, fifth path parameter in addition to the usual four position parameters, in such a way that Haag's theorem no longer applies, but such that the Dyson perturbation expansion for the sc...

  20. Kinesin and the Crooks and Carnot theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Calzetta, E

    2008-01-01

    The literature on the thermodynamic analysis of the kinesin cycle regarded as a molecular motor is quite bewildering to the uninitiated. For example, the published predictions for thermal efficiency at stalling range from 0 (A. W. C. Lau, D. Lacoste and K. Mallick, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 158102 (2007); D. Lacoste, A. W. C. Lau and K. Mallick, Phys. Rev. E78, 011915 (2008)) to 100% (G. Oster and H. Wang, in Molecular Motors, edited by M. Schliwa (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim (2003), p. 207). This latter statement is worrysome since it seems to make Carnot's theorem irrelevant. In this note we show there is a sensible ideal kinesin cycle to which the real cycle may be compared. The ideal cycle has a thermal efficiency of less than one, and the real one is less efficient than the ideal one always, in compliance with Carnot's theorem.

  1. Aging and nonergodicity beyond the Khinchin theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, S; Metzler, R; Barkai, E

    2010-07-27

    The Khinchin theorem provides the condition that a stationary process is ergodic, in terms of the behavior of the corresponding correlation function. Many physical systems are governed by nonstationary processes in which correlation functions exhibit aging. We classify the ergodic behavior of such systems and suggest a possible generalization of Khinchin's theorem. Our work also quantifies deviations from ergodicity in terms of aging correlation functions. Using the framework of the fractional Fokker-Planck equation, we obtain a simple analytical expression for the two-time correlation function of the particle displacement in a general binding potential, revealing universality in the sense that the binding potential only enters into the prefactor through the first two moments of the corresponding Boltzmann distribution. We discuss applications to experimental data from systems exhibiting anomalous dynamics. PMID:20624984

  2. Optimizing the Graph Minors Weak Structure Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Giannopoulou, Archontia C

    2011-01-01

    One of the major results of [N. Robertson and P. D. Seymour. Graph minors. XIII. The disjoint paths problem. J. Combin. Theory Ser. B, 63(1):65--110, 1995], also known as the weak structure theorem, revealed the local structure of graphs excluding some graph as a minor: each such graph $G$ either has small treewidth or contains the subdivision of a wall that can be arranged "bidimensionally" inside $G$, given that some small set of vertices are removed. We prove an optimized version of that theorem where (i) the relation between the treewidth of the graph and the height of the wall is linear (thus best possible) and (ii) the number of vertices to be removed is minimized.

  3. A Dirichlet unit theorem for Drinfeld modules

    OpenAIRE

    Taelman, Lenny

    2009-01-01

    We show that the module of integral points on a Drinfeld module satisfies a an analogue of Dirichlet's unit theorem, despite its failure to be finitely generated. As a consequence, we obtain a construction of a canonical finitely generated sub-module of the module of integral points. We use the results to give a precise formulation of a conjectural analogue of the class number formula.

  4. Arrow’s theorem in judgment aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich, Franz; List, Christian

    2005-01-01

    In response to recent work on the aggregation of individual judgments on logically connected propositions into collective judgments, it is often asked whether judgment aggregation is a special case of Arrowian preference aggregation. We argue for the converse claim. After proving two impossibility theorems on judgment aggregation (using “systematicity” and “independence” conditions, respectively), we construct an embedding of preference aggregation into judgment aggregation and prove Arrow’s ...

  5. Stability theorems for symplectic and contact pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Bande, G.; Ghiggini, P.; Kotschick, D.

    2004-01-01

    We prove Gray--Moser stability theorems for complementary pairs of forms of constant class defining symplectic pairs, contact-symplectic pairs and contact pairs. We also consider the case of contact-symplectic and contact-contact structures, in which the constant class condition on a one-form is replaced by the condition that its kernel hyperplane distribution have constant class in the sense of E. Cartan.

  6. A new comparison theorem of multidimensional BSDEs

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Panyu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we define a new total order on R^N and use this order together with backward stochastic viability property(for short BSVP) to study the property of the generator of backward stochastic differential equation(for short BSDE) when the price of contingent claim can be represented by a BSDE in the no-arbitrage financial market. The main result is the necessary and sufficient condition for comparison theorem of multidimensional BSDEs under this order.

  7. Thermal Tachyons and the "g"-Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhuri, Shyamoli

    2002-01-01

    We give a pedagogical introduction to Affleck and Ludwig's g-theorem, distinguishing its applications in field theory vs string theory. We clarify the recent proposal that the vacuum degeneracy $g$ of a noncompact worldsheet sigma model with a continuous spectrum of scaling dimensions is lowered under renormalization group flow while preserving the central charge. As an illustration we argue that the IR stable endpoint of the relevant flow of the worldsheet RG induced by a thermal tachyon in ...

  8. A Central Limit Theorem for Punctuated Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Bartoszek, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Current evolutionary biology models usually assume that a phenotype undergoes gradual change. This is in stark contrast to biological intuition, which indicates that change can also be punctuated - the phenotype can jump. Such a jump can especially occur at speciation, i.e. dramatic change occurs that drives the species apart. Here we derive a central limit theorem for punctuated equilibrium. We show that, if adaptation is fast, for weak convergence to hold, dramatic change has to be a rare e...

  9. Virial Theorem in Nonlocal Newtonian Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Bahram Mashhoon

    2016-01-01

    Nonlocal gravity is the recent classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein’s theory of gravitation in which the past history of the gravitational field is taken into account. In this theory, nonlocality appears to simulate dark matter. The virial theorem for the Newtonian regime of nonlocal gravity theory is derived and its consequences for “isolated” astronomical systems in virial equilibrium at the present epoch are investigated. In particular, for a sufficiently isolated nearby galaxy in...

  10. Limit theorems for sequences of random trees

    OpenAIRE

    Balding, David; Ferrari, Pablo A.; Fraiman, Ricardo; Sued, Mariela

    2004-01-01

    We consider a random tree and introduce a metric in the space of trees to define the ``mean tree'' as the tree minimizing the average distance to the random tree. When the resulting metric space is compact we have laws of large numbers and central limit theorems for sequence of independent identically distributed random trees. As application we propose tests to check if two samples of random trees have the same law.

  11. The Lebesgue decomposition theorem for arbitrary contents

    OpenAIRE

    König, Heinz

    2005-01-01

    The decomposition theorem named after Lebesgue asserts that certain set functions have canonical representations as sums of particular set functions called the absolutely continuous and the singular ones with respect to some fixed set function. The traditional versions are for the bounded measures with respect to some fixed measure on a \\sigma algebra, in final form due to Hahn 1921, and for the bounded contents with respect to some fixed content on an algebra, due to Bochner-Phillips 194...

  12. From the Goldbach Conjecture to the Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Pereyra, P H

    2007-01-01

    In the present work we demonstrate that the so called Goldbach conjecture from 1742, All positive even numbers greater than two can be expressed as a sum of two primes, due to Leonhard Euler, is a true statement. This result is partially based on the Wilson theorem, and complementary on our reasoning to cast the problem into a diophantine equation. The latter is the master equation for the conjectures proof.

  13. A New Extension Theorem for Concave Operators

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-wen Peng; Wei-dong Rong; Jen-Chih Yao

    2009-01-01

    We present a new and interesting extension theorem for concave operators as follows. Let be a real linear space, and let be a real order complete PL space. Let the set be convex. Let be a real linear proper subspace of , with , where for some . Let be a concave operator such that whenever and . Then there exists a concave operator such that (i) is an extension of , that is, for all , and (ii) whenever .

  14. A simple proof of Sarkozy's theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Lyall, Neil

    2011-01-01

    It is a striking and elegant fact (proved independently by Furstenberg and Sarkozy) that in any subset of the natural numbers of positive upper density there necessarily exist two distinct elements whose difference is given by a perfect square. In this article we present a new and simple proof of this result by adapting an argument originally developed by Croot and Sisask to give a new proof of Roth's theorem.

  15. Limit theorems for self-similar tilings

    CERN Document Server

    Bufetov, Alexander I

    2012-01-01

    We study deviation of ergodic averages for dynamical systems given by self-similar tilings on the plane and in higher dimensions. The main object of our paper is a special family of finitely-additive measures for our systems. An asymptotic formula is given for ergodic integrals in terms of these finitely-additive measures, and, as a corollary, limit theorems are obtained for dynamical systems given by self-similar tilings.

  16. On the Danilov-Gizatullin Isomorphism Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Flenner, Hubert; Kaliman, Shulim; ZAIDENBERG, MIKHAIL

    2008-01-01

    A Danilov-Gizatullin surface is a normal affine surface V, which is a complement to an ample section S in a Hirzebruch surface of index d. By a surprising result due to Danilov and Gizatullin, V depends only on the self-intersection number of S and neither on d nor on S. In this note we provide a new and simple proof of this Isomorphism Theorem.

  17. Uniform Zariski's Theorem On Fundamental Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Kaliman, Shulim

    1997-01-01

    The Zariski theorem says that for every hypersurface in a complex projective (resp. affine) space of dimension at least 3 and for every generic plane in the projective (resp. affine) space the natural embedding generates an isomorphism of the fundamental groups of the complements to the hypersurface in the plane and in the space. If a family of hypersurfaces depends algebraically on parameters then it is not true in general that there exists a plane such that the natural embedding generates i...

  18. Stochastic Reynolds theorem and generalized subgrid tensor

    OpenAIRE

    Resseguier, Valentin; Mémin, Etienne; Chapron, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    International audience We propose a representation that allows decomposing the flow velocity in terms of a smooth component and a highly oscillating random component. This decomposion leads through a stochastic representation of the Reynolds transport theorem to a large-scale expression of the Navier-Stokes equations. In this work we show the benefit of such a representation to construct low order dynamical systems that include naturally a dissipative term related to the action of the smal...

  19. Fixed point theorems and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Farmakis, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    This is the only book that deals comprehensively with fixed point theorems overall of mathematics. Their importance is due, as the book demonstrates, to their wide applicability. Beyond the first chapter, each of the other seven can be read independently of the others so the reader has much flexibility to follow his/her own interests. The book is written for graduate students and professional mathematicians and could be of interest to physicists, economists and engineers.

  20. Asymptotic representation theorems for poverty indices

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Gane Samb; Sall, Serigne Touba

    2010-01-01

    We set general conditions under which the general poverty index, which summarizes all the available indices, is asymptotically represented with some empirical processes. This representation theorem offers a general key, in most directions, for the asymptotics of the bulk of poverty indices and issues in poverty analysis. Our representation results uniformly hold on a large collection of poverty indices. They enable the continuous measure of poverty with longitudinal data.

  1. User interaction widgets for interactive theorem proving

    OpenAIRE

    Zacchiroli, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    Matita (that means pencil in Italian) is a new interactive theorem prover under development at the University of Bologna. When compared with state-of-the-art proof assistants, Matita presents both traditional and innovative aspects. The underlying calculus of the system, namely the Calculus of (Co)Inductive Constructions (CIC for short), is well-known and is used as the basis of another mainstream proof assistant—Coq—with which Matita is to some extent compatible. In the sam...

  2. The untyped stack calculus and Bohm's theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Carraro

    2013-01-01

    The stack calculus is a functional language in which is in a Curry-Howard correspondence with classical logic. It enjoys confluence but, as well as Parigot's lambda-mu, does not admit the Bohm Theorem, typical of the lambda-calculus. We present a simple extension of stack calculus which is for the stack calculus what Saurin's Lambda-mu is for lambda-mu.

  3. Two beautiful proofs of Pick's theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Raman Sundström, Manya; Öhman, Lars-Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We present two different proofs of Pick’s theorem and analyse in what ways might be perceived as beautiful by working mathematicians. In particular, we discuss two concepts, generality and specificity, that appear to contribute to beauty in different ways. We also discuss possible implications on insight into the nature of beauty in mathematics, and how the teaching of mathematics could be impacted, especially in countries in which discussions of beauty and aesthetics are notably absent from...

  4. An isomorphism theorem for random interlacements

    OpenAIRE

    Sznitman, Alain-Sol

    2011-01-01

    We consider continuous-time random interlacements on a transient weighted graph. We prove an identity in law relating the field of occupation times of random interlacements at level u to the Gaussian free field on the weighted graph. This identity is closely linked to the generalized second Ray-Knight theorem, and uniquely determines the law of occupation times of random interlacements at level u.

  5. Voting, Lobbying, and the Decentralization Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Lockwood, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    This paper revisits the fiscal "decentralization theorem", by relaxing the role of the assumption that governments are benevolent, while retaining the assumption of policy uniformity. If instead, decisions are made by direct majority voting, (i) centralization can welfare-dominate decentralization even if there are no externalities and regions are heterogenous; (ii) decentralization can welfare-dominate centralization even if there are positive externalities and regions are hom...

  6. Central limit theorem and deformed exponentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central limit theorem (CLT) can be ranked among the most important ones in probability theory and statistics and plays an essential role in several basic and applied disciplines, notably in statistical thermodynamics. We show that there exists a natural extension of the CLT from exponentials to so-called deformed exponentials (also denoted as q-Gaussians). Our proposal applies exactly in the usual conditions in which the classical CLT is used. (fast track communication)

  7. Virial Theorem in Nonlocal Newtonian Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Bahram Mashhoon

    2015-01-01

    Nonlocal gravity is the recent classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein’s theory of gravitation in which the past history of the gravitational field is taken into account. In this theory, nonlocality appears to simulate dark matter. The virial theorem for the Newtonian regime of nonlocal gravity theory is derived and its consequences for “isolated” astronomical systems in virial equilibrium at the present epoch are investigated. In particular, for a sufficiently isolated nearby galaxy in...

  8. Virial theorem for confined universal Fermi gases

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, J E

    2008-01-01

    Optically-trapped two-component Fermi gases near a broad Feshbach resonance exhibit universal thermodynamics, where the properties of the gas are independent of the details of the two-body scattering interactions. We present a global proof that such a universal gas obeys the virial theorem for {\\it any} trapping potential $U$ and any spin mixture, without assuming either the local density approximation or harmonic confinement. The total energy of the gas is given in scale invariant form by $E...

  9. Degeneracy, the virial theorem, and stellar collapse

    OpenAIRE

    Cardall, Christian Y.

    2008-01-01

    Formulae for the energies of degenerate non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic Fermi gases play multiple roles in simple arguments related to the collapse of a stellar core to a neutron star. These formulae, deployed in conjunction with the virial theorem and a few other basic physical principles, provide surprisingly good estimates of the temperature, mass, and radius (and therefore also density and entropy) of the core at the onset of collapse; the final radius and composition of the cold ...

  10. Higgs Physics and the Equivalence Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Riesselmann, Kurt

    1995-01-01

    The equivalence theorem is an extremely useful tool to calculate heavy Higgs {\\it and} top-quark effects for processes that have center-of-mass-energies (much) larger than the $W$ boson mass. After an explanation of the renormalization procedures involved, the results for one- and two-loop radiative corrections to the fermionic Higgs decay, $H\\rightarrow f\\bar f$, are given and discussed. Finally, the renormalization scheme dependence is examined, and the reliability of the perturbative serie...

  11. Theorems for Asymptotic Safety of Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    We classify the weakly interacting fixed points of general gauge theories coupled to matter and explain how the competition between gauge and matter fluctuations gives rise to a rich spectrum of high- and low-energy fixed points. The pivotal role played by Yukawa couplings is emphasized. Necessary and sufficient conditions for asymptotic safety of gauge theories are also derived, in conjunction with strict no go theorems. Implications for phase diagrams of gauge theories and physics beyond the Standard Model are indicated.

  12. Generalizations of the primitive element theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Nikolopoulos

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we generalize the primitive element theorem to the generation of separable algebras over fields and rings. We prove that any finitely generated separable algebra over an infinite field is generated by two elements and if the algebra is commutative it can be generated by one element. We then derive similar results for finitely generated separable algebras over semilocal rings.

  13. Fluctuation Theorem in an Atmospheric Circulation Model

    CERN Document Server

    Schalge, Bernd; Wouters, Jeroen; Fraedrich, Klaus; Lunkeit, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Evidence for the validity of the Fluctuation Theorem (FT) in an atmospheric Global Circulation Model is found. The model is hydrostatic with variable numbers of vertical levels and different horizontal resolutions. For finite time intervals the largest local Lyapunov exponent (LLLE) is found to be negative consistent with predictions of the FT. The effect is present for resolutions up to wave numbers l=42 (~ 250km) and 10 levels.

  14. Soft Theorems from Conformal Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lipstein, Arthur E

    2015-01-01

    Strominger and collaborators recently proposed that soft theorems for gauge and gravity amplitudes can be interpreted as Ward identities of a 2d CFT at null infinity. In this paper, we will consider a specific realization of this CFT known as ambitwistor string theory, which describes 4d Yang-Mills and gravity with any amount of supersymmetry. Using 4d ambitwistor string theory, we derive soft theorems in the form of an infinite series in the soft momentum which are valid to subleading order in gauge theory and sub-subleading order in gravity. Furthermore, we describe how the algebra of soft limits can be encoded in the braiding of soft vertex operators on the worldsheet and point out a simple relation between soft gluon and soft graviton vertex operators which suggests an interesting connection to color-kinematics duality. Finally, by considering ambitwistor string theory on a genus one worldsheet, we compute the 1-loop correction to the subleading soft graviton theorem due to infrared divergences.

  15. Soft Theorems from Effective Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Larkoski, Andrew J; Stewart, Iain W

    2014-01-01

    The singular limits of massless gauge theory amplitudes are described by an effective theory, called soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), which has been applied most successfully to make all-orders predictions for observables in collider physics and weak decays. At tree-level, the emission of a soft gauge boson at subleading order in its energy is given by the Low-Burnett-Kroll theorem, with the angular momentum operator acting on a lower-point amplitude. For well separated particles at tree-level, we prove the Low-Burnett-Kroll theorem using matrix elements of subleading SCET Lagrangian and operator insertions which are individually gauge invariant. These contributions are uniquely determined by gauge invariance and the reparametrization invariance (RPI) symmetry of SCET. RPI in SCET is connected to the infinite-dimensional asymptotic symmetries of the S-matrix. The Low-Burnett-Kroll theorem is generically spoiled by on-shell corrections, including collinear loops and collinear emissions. We demonstrate t...

  16. Coherent cyclotron motion beyond Kohn's theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, T.; Bayer, A.; Baierl, S.; Hohenleutner, M.; Korn, T.; Schüller, C.; Schuh, D.; Bougeard, D.; Lange, C.; Huber, R.; Mootz, M.; Sipe, J. E.; Koch, S. W.; Kira, M.

    2016-02-01

    In solids, the high density of charged particles makes many-body interactions a pervasive principle governing optics and electronics. However, Walter Kohn found in 1961 that the cyclotron resonance of Landau-quantized electrons is independent of the seemingly inescapable Coulomb interaction between electrons. Although this surprising theorem has been exploited in sophisticated quantum phenomena, such as ultrastrong light-matter coupling, superradiance and coherent control, the complete absence of nonlinearities excludes many intriguing possibilities, such as quantum-logic protocols. Here, we use intense terahertz pulses to drive the cyclotron response of a two-dimensional electron gas beyond the protective limits of Kohn's theorem. Anharmonic Landau ladder climbing and distinct terahertz four- and six-wave mixing signatures occur, which our theory links to dynamic Coulomb effects between electrons and the positively charged ion background. This new context for Kohn's theorem unveils previously inaccessible internal degrees of freedom of Landau electrons, opening up new realms of ultrafast quantum control for electrons.

  17. Two Forbidden Induced Minor Theorems for Antimatroids

    CERN Document Server

    Altomare, Christian Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Antimatroids were discovered by Dilworth in the context of lattices [4] and introduced by Edelman and Jamison as convex geometries in[5]. The author of the current paper independently discovered (possibly infinite) antimatroids in the context of proof systems in mathematical logic [1]. Carlson, a logician, makes implicit use of this view of proof systems as possibly infinite antimatroids in [2]. Though antimatroids are in a sense dual to matroids, far fewer antimatroid forbidden minor theorems are known. Some results of this form are proved in [6], [7], [8], and [9]. This paper proves two forbidden induced minor theorems for these objects, which we think of as proof systems. Our first main theorem gives a new proof of the forbidden induced minor characterization of partial orders as proof systems, proved in [8] in the finite case and stated in [10] for what we call strong aut descendable proof systems. It essentially states that, pathologies aside, there is a certain unique simplest nonposet. Our second main ...

  18. Theorem Proving In Higher Order Logics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreno, Victor A. (Editor); Munoz, Cesar A.; Tahar, Sofiene

    2002-01-01

    The TPHOLs International Conference serves as a venue for the presentation of work in theorem proving in higher-order logics and related areas in deduction, formal specification, software and hardware verification, and other applications. Fourteen papers were submitted to Track B (Work in Progress), which are included in this volume. Authors of Track B papers gave short introductory talks that were followed by an open poster session. The FCM 2002 Workshop aimed to bring together researchers working on the formalisation of continuous mathematics in theorem proving systems with those needing such libraries for their applications. Many of the major higher order theorem proving systems now have a formalisation of the real numbers and various levels of real analysis support. This work is of interest in a number of application areas, such as formal methods development for hardware and software application and computer supported mathematics. The FCM 2002 consisted of three papers, presented by their authors at the workshop venue, and one invited talk.

  19. The universality of the Carnot theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is common in many thermodynamics textbooks to illustrate the Carnot theorem through the use of diverse state equations for gases, paramagnets, and other simple thermodynamic systems. As is well known, the universality of the Carnot efficiency is easily demonstrated in a temperature–entropy diagram, which means that ηC is independent of the working substance. In this paper we remark that the universality of the Carnot theorem goes beyond conventional state equations, and is fulfilled by gas state equations that do not correspond to an ideal gas in the dilution limit, namely V → ∞. Some of these unconventional state equations have certain thermodynamic ‘anomalies’ that nonetheless do not forbid them from obeying the Carnot theorem. We discuss how this very general behaviour arises from Maxwell relations, which are connected with a geometrical property expressed through preserving area transformations. A rule is proposed to calculate the Maxwell relations associated with a thermodynamic system by using the preserving area relationships. In this way it is possible to calculate the number of possible preserving area mappings by giving the number of possible Jacobian identities between all pairs of thermodynamic variables included in the corresponding Gibbs equation. This paper is intended for undergraduates and specialists in thermodynamics and related areas. (paper)

  20. Soft theorems from conformal field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipstein, Arthur E.

    2015-06-01

    Strominger and collaborators recently proposed that soft theorems for gauge and gravity amplitudes can be interpreted as Ward identities of a 2d CFT at null infinity. In this paper, we will consider a specific realization of this CFT known as ambitwistor string theory, which describes 4d Yang-Mills and gravity with any amount of supersymmetry. Using 4d ambtwistor string theory, we derive soft theorems in the form of an infinite series in the soft momentum which are valid to subleading order in gauge theory and sub-subleading order in gravity. Furthermore, we describe how the algebra of soft limits can be encoded in the braiding of soft vertex operators on the worldsheet and point out a simple relation between soft gluon and soft graviton vertex operators which suggests an interesting connection to color-kinematics duality. Finally, by considering ambitwistor string theory on a genus one worldsheet, we compute the 1-loop correction to the subleading soft graviton theorem due to infrared divergences.

  1. Four theorems on the psychometric function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A May

    Full Text Available In a 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC discrimination task, observers choose which of two stimuli has the higher value. The psychometric function for this task gives the probability of a correct response for a given stimulus difference, Δx. This paper proves four theorems about the psychometric function. Assuming the observer applies a transducer and adds noise, Theorem 1 derives a convenient general expression for the psychometric function. Discrimination data are often fitted with a Weibull function. Theorem 2 proves that the Weibull "slope" parameter, β, can be approximated by β(Noise x β(Transducer, where β(Noise is the β of the Weibull function that fits best to the cumulative noise distribution, and β(Transducer depends on the transducer. We derive general expressions for β(Noise and β(Transducer, from which we derive expressions for specific cases. One case that follows naturally from our general analysis is Pelli's finding that, when d' ∝ (Δx(b, β ≈ β(Noise x b. We also consider two limiting cases. Theorem 3 proves that, as sensitivity improves, 2AFC performance will usually approach that for a linear transducer, whatever the actual transducer; we show that this does not apply at signal levels where the transducer gradient is zero, which explains why it does not apply to contrast detection. Theorem 4 proves that, when the exponent of a power-function transducer approaches zero, 2AFC performance approaches that of a logarithmic transducer. We show that the power-function exponents of 0.4-0.5 fitted to suprathreshold contrast discrimination data are close enough to zero for the fitted psychometric function to be practically indistinguishable from that of a log transducer. Finally, Weibull β reflects the shape of the noise distribution, and we used our results to assess the recent claim that internal noise has higher kurtosis than a Gaussian. Our analysis of β for contrast discrimination suggests that, if internal noise is

  2. QUASI-LOCAL CONJUGACY THEOREMS IN BANACH SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG WEIRONG; MA JIPU

    2005-01-01

    Let f: U(xo)() E → F be a C1 map and f'(x0) be the Frechet derivative of f at x0. In local analysis of nonlinear functional analysis, implicit function theorem, inverse function theorem, local surjectivity theorem, local injectivity theorem, and the local conjugacy theorem are well known. Those theorems are established by using the properties: f'(x0) is double splitting and R(f'(x)) ∩ N(T0+) = {0} near x0. However,in infinite dimensional Banach spaces, f'(x0) is not always double splitting (i.e., the generalized inverse of f'(x0) does not always exist), but its bounded outer inverse of f'(x0) always exists.Only using the C1 map f and the outer inverse T0# of f'(x0), the authors obtain two quasi-local conjugacy theorems, which imply the local conjugacy theorem if x0 is a locally fine point of f. Hence the quasi-local conjugacy theorems generalize the local conjugacy theorem in Banach spaces.

  3. No ghost theorem and cohomology theorem for strings in arbitrary static backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers a string moving in an arbitrary time-independent background given by an arbitrary conformal field theory of appropriate central charge (e.g., c = 25 for bosonic string) and one flat time-like dimension. The authors show that the physical subspace of the Hilbert space is positive semi-definite (no ghost theorem) and that the cohomology of the BRST operator is trivial except for the ghost number one (for open bosonic string) sector (cohomology theorem). Both the proofs are reductio ad absurdum proofs based on the corresponding theorems for the strings moving in flat background. In cases where there is an extra flat space-like dimension (besides the flat time-like one), the transverse subspace with positive-definite norm can be constructed

  4. The implicit function theorem history, theory, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, Steven G

    2003-01-01

    The implicit function theorem is part of the bedrock of mathematics analysis and geometry. Finding its genesis in eighteenth century studies of real analytic functions and mechanics, the implicit and inverse function theorems have now blossomed into powerful tools in the theories of partial differential equations, differential geometry, and geometric analysis. There are many different forms of the implicit function theorem, including (i) the classical formulation for Ck functions, (ii) formulations in other function spaces, (iii) formulations for non-smooth function, (iv) formulations for functions with degenerate Jacobian. Particularly powerful implicit function theorems, such as the Nash-Moser theorem, have been developed for specific applications (e.g., the imbedding of Riemannian manifolds). All of these topics, and many more, are treated in the present volume. The history of the implicit function theorem is a lively and complex store, and intimately bound up with the development of fundamental ideas in a...

  5. Fluctuation theorem for out-of-time-ordered correlator

    CERN Document Server

    Halpern, Nicole Yunger

    2016-01-01

    The out-of-time-ordered correlator (OTOC) diagnoses quantum chaos and the scrambling of quantum information via the spread of entanglement. The OTOC encodes forward and reverse evolutions and has deep connections with the flow of time. So do fluctuation theorems such as Jarzynski's Equality, derived in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. I unite these two powerful, seemingly disparate tools by deriving a fluctuation theorem for the OTOC. The fluctuation theorem is analogous to Jarzynski's Equality. The theorem's left-hand side equals the OTOC. The right-hand side implies a platform-nonspecific protocol for experimentally measuring the OTOC in an indirect manner fundamentally different from existing proposals. Time evolution need not be reversed in any trial. The theorem opens holography, condensed matter, and quantum information to new insights from fluctuation theorems and vice versa.

  6. Convolution Theorems for Quaternion Fourier Transform: Properties and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ryuichi Ashino; Mawardi Bahri; Rémi Vaillancourt

    2013-01-01

    General convolution theorems for two-dimensional quaternion Fourier transforms (QFTs) are presented. It is shown that these theorems are valid not only for real-valued functions but also for quaternion-valued functions. We describe some useful properties of generalized convolutions and compare them with the convolution theorems of the classical Fourier transform. We finally apply the obtained results to study hypoellipticity and to solve the heat equation in quaternion al...

  7. Extending Bell's Theorem: Ruling out Paramater Independent Hidden Variable Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leegwater, G. J.

    2016-03-01

    Bell's Theorem may well be the best known result in the foundations of quantum mechanics. Here, it is presented as stating that for any hidden variable theory the combination of the conditions Parameter Independence, Outcome Independence, Source Independence and Compatibility with Quantum Theory leads to a contradiction. Based on work by Roger Colbeck and Renato Renner, an extension of Bell's Theorem is considered. In this extension the theorem is strengthened by replacing Outcome Independence by a strictly weaker condition.

  8. Reflexivity and the diagonal argument in proofs of limitative theorems

    OpenAIRE

    Młynarski, Kajetan

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses limitations of reflexive and diagonal arguments as methods of proof of limitative theorems (e.g. G\\"odel's theorem on Entscheidungsproblem, Turing's halting problem or Chaitin-G\\"odel's theorem). The fact, that a formal system contains a sentence, which introduces reflexitivity, does not imply, that the same system does not contain a sentence or a proof procedure which solves this problem. Second basic method of proof - diagonal argument (i.e. showing non-eqiunumerosity o...

  9. Automated Theorem Proving for Cryptographic Protocols with Automatic Attack Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Juerjens; Thomas A. Kuhn

    2016-01-01

    Automated theorem proving is both automatic and can be quite efficient. When using theorem proving approaches for security protocol analysis, however, the problem is often that absence of a proof of security of a protocol may give little hint as to where the security weakness lies, to enable the protocol designer to improve the protocol. For our approach to verify cryptographic protocols using automated theorem provers for first-order logic (such as e-SETHEO or SPASS), we demonstrate a method...

  10. A reconstruction theorem for almost-commutative spectral triples

    OpenAIRE

    Ćaćić, Branimir

    2012-01-01

    We propose an expansion of the definition of almost-commutative spectral triple that accommodates non-trivial fibrations and is stable under inner fluctuation of the metric, and then prove a reconstruction theorem for almost-commutative spectral triples under this definition as a simple consequence of Connes's reconstruction theorem for commutative spectral triples. Along the way, we weaken the orientability hypothesis in the reconstruction theorem for commutative spectral triples, and follow...

  11. Non-equilibrium thermodynamic potential and flux fluctuation theorem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criado-Sancho, M. [Departamento de Ciencias y Tecnicas Fisicoquimicas, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Casas-Vazquez, J. [Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Jou, D., E-mail: David.Jou@uab.e [Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain)] [Institut d' Estudis Catalans, Carme 47, 08001 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2009-09-07

    A flux fluctuation theorem proposed recently [Seitaridou, et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 111 (2007) 2288] on the relative probability of direct and reverse diffusion fluxes in a non-equilibrium steady state is related here to a non-equilibrium thermodynamic potential used in extended irreversible thermodynamics. This connection allows one to provide a new derivation of the theorem, which complements the previous one, to generalize it to other fluxes, and illustrates the thermodynamic relevance of this theorem.

  12. Logic for computer science foundations of automatic theorem proving

    CERN Document Server

    Gallier, Jean H

    2015-01-01

    This advanced text for undergraduate and graduate students introduces mathematical logic with an emphasis on proof theory and procedures for algorithmic construction of formal proofs. The self-contained treatment is also useful for computer scientists and mathematically inclined readers interested in the formalization of proofs and basics of automatic theorem proving. Topics include propositional logic and its resolution, first-order logic, Gentzen's cut elimination theorem and applications, and Gentzen's sharpened Hauptsatz and Herbrand's theorem. Additional subjects include resolution in fir

  13. Proceedings Workshop on Partiality and Recursion in Interactive Theorem Provers

    CERN Document Server

    Bove, Ana; Niqui, Milad; 10.4204/EPTCS.43

    2010-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Workshop on Partiality and Recursion in Interactive Theorem Provers (PAR 2010) which took place on July 15 in Edinburgh, UK. This workshop was held as a satellite workshop of the International Conference on Interactive Theorem Proving (ITP 2010), itself part of the Federated Logic Conference 2010 (FLoC 2010). This workshop is a venue for researchers working on new approaches to cope with partial functions and terminating general (co)recursion in theorem provers.

  14. A Fundamental Theorem on the Structure of Symplectic Integrators

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, Siu A.

    2005-01-01

    I show that the basic structure of symplectic integrators is governed by a theorem which states {\\it precisely}, how symplectic integrators with positive coefficients cannot be corrected beyond second order. All previous known results can now be derived quantitatively from this theorem. The theorem provided sharp bounds on second-order error coefficients explicitly in terms of factorization coefficients. By saturating these bounds, one can derive fourth-order algorithms analytically with arbi...

  15. Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beklemishev, Lev D [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-25

    This is a survey of results related to the Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. The first part of the paper discusses Goedel's own formulations along with modern strengthenings of the first incompleteness theorem. Various forms and proofs of this theorem are compared. Incompleteness results related to algorithmic problems and mathematically natural examples of unprovable statements are discussed. Bibliography: 68 titles.

  16. The Interpretability of Inconsistency: Feferman's Theorem and Related Results

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, Albert

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an exposition of Feferman's Theorem concerning the interpretability of inconsistency and of further insights directly connected to this result. Feferman's Theorem is a strengthening of the Second Incompleteness Theorem. It says, in metaphorical paraphrase, that it is not just the case that a theory fails to prove its own consistency, but that a theory actively holds its own inconsistency for possible. We first give a careful presentation of the result. Then, we provide two versi...

  17. The Surprise Examination Paradox and the Second Incompleteness Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Kritchman, Shira; Raz, Ran

    2010-01-01

    We give a new proof for Godel's second incompleteness theorem, based on Kolmogorov complexity, Chaitin's incompleteness theorem, and an argument that resembles the surprise examination paradox. We then go the other way around and suggest that the second incompleteness theorem gives a possible resolution of the surprise examination paradox. Roughly speaking, we argue that the flaw in the derivation of the paradox is that it contains a hidden assumption that one can prove the consistency of the...

  18. Average Kinetic Energy of Heavy Quark and Virial Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Dae Sung; Kim, C.S.(Department of Physics, IPAP, Yonsei University, Seoul, 120-749, Republic of Korea); Namgung, Wuk

    1996-01-01

    We derive the virial theorem of the relativistic two-body system for the study of the B-meson physics. It is also shown that the solution of the variational equation always satisfies the virial theorem. From the virial theorem we also obtained $\\mu_\\pi^2 \\equiv -\\lambda_1 \\equiv = 0.40\\sim 0.58$ GeV$^2$, which is consistent with the result of the QCD sum rule calculations of Ball $et$ $al.$

  19. Fluctuation theorems for excess and housekeeping heats for underdamped systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lahiri, Sourabh; Jayannavar, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a simple derivation of the integral fluctuation theorems for excess housekeeping heat for an underdamped Langevin system, without using the concept of dual dynamics. In conformity with the earlier results, we find that the fluctuation theorem for housekeeping heat holds when the steady state distributions are symmetric in velocity, whereas there is no such requirement for the excess heat. We first prove the integral fluctuation theorem for the excess heat, and then show that it nat...

  20. A Many-Body RAGE Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampart, Jonas; Lewin, Mathieu

    2015-12-01

    We prove a generalized version of the RAGE theorem for N-body quantum systems. The result states that only bound states of systems with {0 ≤slant n ≤slant N} particles persist in the long time average. The limit is formulated by means of an appropriate weak topology for many-body systems, which was introduced by the second author in a previous work, and is based on reduced density matrices. This topology is connected to the weak-* topology of states on the algebras of canonical commutation or anti-commutation relations, and we give a formulation of our main result in this setting.

  1. Jackson's Theorem on Bounded Symmetric Domains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Zhi WANG; Guang Bin REN

    2007-01-01

    Polynomial approximation is studied on bounded symmetric domain Ω in C n for holo-morphic function spaces X ,such as Bloch-type spaces,Bergman-type spaces,Hardy spaces,Ω algebra and Lipschitz space.We extend the classical Jackson ’s theorem to several complex variables:E k f,X ) ω (1 /k,f,X ),where E k f,X )is the deviation of the best approximation of f ∈X by polynomials of degree at mostk with respect to the X -metric and ω (1/k,f,X )is the corresponding modulus of continuity.

  2. A pattern theorem for lattice clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Madras, Neal

    1999-01-01

    We consider general classes of lattice clusters, including various kinds of animals and trees on different lattices. We prove that if a given local configuration ("pattern") of sites and bonds can occur in large clusters, then it occurs at least cN times in most clusters of size n, for some constant c>0. An analogous theorem for self-avoiding walks was proven in 1963 by Kesten. The results also apply to weighted sums, and in particular we can take a$sub n$ to be the probability that the perco...

  3. Penrose's singularity theorem in a Finsler spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babak Aazami, Amir; Javaloyes, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    We translate Penrose's singularity theorem to a Finsler spacetime. To that end, causal concepts in Lorentzian geometry are extended, including definitions and properties of focal points and trapped surfaces, with careful attention paid to the differences that arise in the Finslerian setting. This activity is supported by the programme 'Young leaders in research' 18942/JLI/13 by Fundación Séneca, Regional Agency for Science and Technology from the Region of Murcia, and by the World Premier International Research Center Initiative (WPI), MEXT, Japan.

  4. Region-Based Borsuk-Ulam Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, J. F.; Tozzi, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a region-based extension of the Borsuk-Ulam Theorem (denoted by reBUT). A region is a subset of a surface on a finite-dimensional $n$-sphere. In topology, an $n$-sphere is a generalization of the circle. For a continuous function on an $n$-sphere into $n$-dimensional Euclidean space, there exists a pair of antipodal n-sphere regions with matching descriptions that map into Euclidean space $\\mathbb{R}^n$. Applications of reBUT are given in the evaluation of brain activity...

  5. A singularity theorem based on spatial averages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J M M Senovilla

    2007-07-01

    Inspired by Raychaudhuri's work, and using the equation named after him as a basic ingredient, a new singularity theorem is proved. Open non-rotating Universes, expanding everywhere with a non-vanishing spatial average of the matter variables, show severe geodesic incompletness in the past. Another way of stating the result is that, under the same conditions, any singularity-free model must have a vanishing spatial average of the energy density (and other physical variables). This is very satisfactory and provides a clear decisive difference between singular and non-singular cosmologies.

  6. Fixed point theorems in spaces and -trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk WA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that if is a bounded open set in a complete space , and if is nonexpansive, then always has a fixed point if there exists such that for all . It is also shown that if is a geodesically bounded closed convex subset of a complete -tree with , and if is a continuous mapping for which for some and all , then has a fixed point. It is also noted that a geodesically bounded complete -tree has the fixed point property for continuous mappings. These latter results are used to obtain variants of the classical fixed edge theorem in graph theory.

  7. An extension of Harrington's noncupping theorem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻良; 丁德成

    2003-01-01

    (i) Call a c.e. degree b anti-cupping relative to x, if there is a c.e. a < b such that foranyc.e. w w ximpliesaUw bUx.(ii) Call a c.e. degree b everywhere anti-cupping (e.a.c.), if it is anti-cupping relative to x foreach c.e. degree x.By a tree method, we prove that every high c.e. degree has e.a.c. property by extendingHarrington's anti-cupping theorem.

  8. No-cloning theorem on quantum logics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyadera, Takayuki; Imai, Hideki

    2009-10-01

    This paper discusses the no-cloning theorem in a logicoalgebraic approach. In this approach, an orthoalgebra is considered as a general structure for propositions in a physical theory. We proved that an orthoalgebra admits cloning operation if and only if it is a Boolean algebra. That is, only classical theory admits the cloning of states. If unsharp propositions are to be included in the theory, then a notion of effect algebra is considered. We proved that an atomic Archimedean effect algebra admitting cloning operation is a Boolean algebra. This paper also presents a partial result, indicating a relation between the cloning on effect algebras and hidden variables.

  9. Godel's Incompleteness Theorems and Platonic Metaphysics

    CERN Document Server

    Mikovic, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    We argue by using Godel's incompletness theorems in logic that platonism is the best metaphysics for science. This is based on the fact that a natural law in a platonic metaphysics represents a timeless order in the motion of matter, while a natural law in a materialistic metaphysics can be only defined as a temporary order which appears at random in the chaotic motion of matter. Although a logical possibility, one can argue that this type of metaphysics is highly implausible. Given that mathematics fits naturally within platonism, we conclude that a platonic metaphysics is more preferable than a materialistic metaphysics.

  10. On Clifford's theorem for singular curves

    CERN Document Server

    Franciosi, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Let C be a 2-connected Gorenstein curve either reduced or contained in a smooth algebraic surface and let S be a subcanonical cluster (i.e. a 0-dim scheme such that the space H^0(C, I_S K_C) contains a generically invertible section). Under some general assumptions on S or C we show that h^0(C, I_S K_C) <= p_a(C) - deg (S)/2 and if equality holds then either S is trivial, or C is honestly hyperelliptic or 3-disconnected. As a corollary we give a generalization of Clifford's theorem for reduced curves.

  11. On Grothendieck's Riemann-Roch Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    We prove that, for smooth quasi-projective varieties over a field, the $K$-theory $K(X)$ of vector bundles is the universal cohomology theory where $c_1(L\\otimes \\bar L)=c_1(L)+c_1(\\bar L)-c_1(L)c_1(\\bar L)$. Then, we show that Grothendieck's Riemann-Roch theorem is a direct consequence of this universal property, as well as the universal property of the graded $K$-theory $GK^\\bullet (X)\\otimes \\mathbb{Q}$.

  12. Bernstein's Lethargy Theorem in Frechet Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Aksoy, Asuman Guven; Lewicki, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider Bernstein's Lethargy Theorem (BLT) in the context of Fr\\'{e}chet spaces. Let $X$ be an infinite-dimensional Fr\\'echet space and let $\\mathcal{V}=\\{V_n\\}$ be a nested sequence of subspaces of $ X$ such that $ \\bar{V_n} \\subseteq V_{n+1}$ for any $ n \\in \\mathbb{N}$ and $ X=\\bar{\\bigcup_{n=1}^{\\infty}V_n}.$ Let $ e_n$ be a decreasing sequence of positive numbers tending to 0. Under an additional natural condition on $\\sup\\{\\{dist}(x, V_n)\\}$, we prove that there exists...

  13. New proofs of the trace theorem of Sobolev spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, Yoichi

    2008-01-01

    We present three new proofs of the trace theorem of $L_{p}$ Sobolev spaces, which do not rely on the theory of interpolation spaces. The first method originates in Morrey’s proof for the Sobolev embedding theorem concerning the Hölder-Zygmund space. The second method is based on Muramatu’s integral formula and the third method is based on an integral operator with Gauss kernel. These methods give unified viewpoints for the proofs of the trace theorem and the Sobolev embedding theorem.

  14. Raychaudhuri equation and singularity theorems in Finsler spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguzzi, E.

    2015-09-01

    The Raychaudhuri equation and its consequences for chronality are studied in the context of Finsler spacetimes. It is proved that the notable singularity theorems of Lorentzian geometry extend to the Finslerian domain. Indeed, so do the theorems by Hawking, Penrose, Hawking and Penrose, Geroch, Gannon, Tipler and Kriele, and also the Topological Censorship theorem and so on. It is argued that the notable results in causality theory connected to achronal sets, future sets, domains of dependence, limit curve theorems, length functional, Lorentzian distance and geodesic connectedness, extend to the Finslerian domain. Results concerning the spacetime asymptotic structure, horizons differentiability and conformal transformations are also included.

  15. Cosmological singularity theorems and splitting theorems for N-Bakry-Émery spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolgar, Eric, E-mail: ewoolgar@ualberta.ca [Department of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G1 (Canada); Wylie, William, E-mail: wwylie@syr.edu [215 Carnegie Building, Department of Mathematics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    We study Lorentzian manifolds with a weight function such that the N-Bakry-Émery tensor is bounded below. Such spacetimes arise in the physics of scalar-tensor gravitation theories, including Brans-Dicke theory, theories with Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction, and low-energy approximations to string theory. In the “pure Bakry-Émery” N = ∞ case with f uniformly bounded above and initial data suitably bounded, cosmological-type singularity theorems are known, as are splitting theorems which determine the geometry of timelike geodesically complete spacetimes for which the bound on the initial data is borderline violated. We extend these results in a number of ways. We are able to extend the singularity theorems to finite N-values N ∈ (n, ∞) and N ∈ (−∞, 1]. In the N ∈ (n, ∞) case, no bound on f is required, while for N ∈ (−∞, 1] and N = ∞, we are able to replace the boundedness of f by a weaker condition on the integral of f along future-inextendible timelike geodesics. The splitting theorems extend similarly, but when N = 1, the splitting is only that of a warped product for all cases considered. A similar limited loss of rigidity has been observed in a prior work on the N-Bakry-Émery curvature in Riemannian signature when N = 1 and appears to be a general feature.

  16. De Finetti theorem on the CAR algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Crismale, Vito

    2012-01-01

    The symmetric states on a quasi local C*-algebra on the infinite set of indices J are those invariant under the action of the group of the permutations moving only a finite, but arbitrary, number of elements of J. The celebrated De Finetti Theorem describes the structure of the symmetric states (i.e. exchangeable probability measures) in classical probability. In the present paper we extend De Finetti Theorem to the case of the CAR algebra, that is for physical systems describing Fermions. Namely, after showing that a symmetric state is automatically even under the natural action of the parity automorphism, we prove that the compact convex set of such states is a Choquet simplex, whose extremal (i.e. ergodic w.r.t. the action of the group of permutations previously described) are precisely the product states in the sense of Araki-Moriya. In order to do that, we also prove some ergodic properties naturally enjoyed by the symmetric states which have a self--containing interest.

  17. A metric Kan-Thurston theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Leary, Ian J

    2010-01-01

    For every simplicial complex X, we construct a locally CAT(0) cubical complex T_X, a cellular isometric involution i on T_X and a map t_X from T_X to X with the following properties: t_Xi = t_X; t_X is a homology isomorphism; the induced map from the quotient of T_X by the involution i to X is a homotopy equivalence; the induced map from the fixed point subspace for i in T_X to X is a homology isomorphism. The construction is functorial in X. One corollary is an equivariant Kan-Thurston theorem: every connected proper G-CW-complex has the same equivariant homology as the classifying space for proper actions of some other group. From this we obtain an extension of Quillen's theorem on the spectrum of an equivariant cohomology ring and an extension of a result of Block concerning assembly conjectures. Another corollary of our main result is that there can be no algorithm to decide whether a CAT(0) cubical group is generated by torsion. In appendices we prove some foundational results concerning cubical complexe...

  18. Birth of a theorem a mathematical adventure

    CERN Document Server

    Villani, Cédric

    2015-01-01

    This man could plainly do for mathematics what Brian Cox has done for physics" (Sunday Times). What goes on inside the mind of a rock-star mathematician? Where does inspiration come from? With a storyteller's gift, Cedric Villani takes us on a mesmerising journey as he wrestles with a new theorem that will win him the most coveted prize in mathematics. Along the way he encounters obstacles and setbacks, losses of faith and even brushes with madness. His story is one of courage and partnership, doubt and anxiety, elation and despair. We discover how it feels to be obsessed by a theorem during your child's cello practise and throughout your dreams, why appreciating maths is a bit like watching an episode of Columbo, and how sometimes inspiration only comes from locking yourself away in a dark room to think. Blending science with history, biography with myth, Villani conjures up an inimitable cast of characters including the omnipresent Einstein, mad genius Kurt Godel, and Villani's personal hero, John Nash. Bir...

  19. A vector bundle proof of Poncelet theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Vallès, Jean

    2012-01-01

    In the town of Saratov where he was prisonner, Poncelet, continuing the work of Euler and Steiner on polygons simultaneously inscribed in a circle and circumscribed around an other circle, proved the following generalization : "Let C and D be two smooth conics in the projective complex plane. If D passes through the n(n-1)/2 vertices of a complete polygon with n sides tangent to C then D passes through the vertices of infinitely many such polygons." According to Marcel Berger this theorem is the nicest result about the geometry of conics. Even if it is, there are few proofs of it. To my knowledge there are only three. The first proof, published in 1822 and based on infinitesimal deformations, is due to Poncelet. Later, Jacobi proposed a new proof based on finite order points on elliptic curves; his proof, certainly the most famous, is explained in a modern way and in detail by Griffiths and Harris. In 1870 Weyr proved a Poncelet theorem in space (more precisely for two quadrics) that implies the one above whe...

  20. Ground-state-energy theorem and the virial theorem of a many-particle system in d dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, N.

    1984-01-01

    The equivalence of Pauli's ground-state-energy theorem and the virial theorem is demonstrated for a many-particle system interacting with an interparticle potential in d dimensions at zero and finite temperatures. Pauli's theorem has an integral form in which the variable is the coupling constant e-squared, while the virial theorem has a differential form in which the variable has the number density n. The essence of the equivalence proof consists in changing the variable from n to e-squared by noting the dependence of the excess free energy on dimensionless quantities for zero-temperature and classical cases.

  1. Fixed Point Theorems in Quaternion-Valued Metric Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. First, we introduce the concept of quaternion metric spaces which generalizes both real and complex metric spaces. Further, we establish some fixed point theorems in quaternion setting. Secondly, we prove a fixed point theorem in normal cone metric spaces for four self-maps satisfying a general contraction condition.

  2. The Kochen-Specker Theorem Revisited in Quantum Measure Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Dowker, Fay; Ghazi-Tabatabai, Yousef

    2007-01-01

    The Kochen-Specker Theorem is widely interpreted to imply that non-contextual hidden variable theories that agree with the predictions of Copenhagen quantum mechanics are impossible. The import of the theorem for a novel observer independent interpretation of quantum mechanics, due to Sorkin, is investigated.

  3. Some dual theorems for convex inclusion and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper consists of a study of duality and optimality for a general optimization problem. From a general proposition on inconsistent systems of convex inclusions we give some dual theorems for general extreme problem. As consequence we have some dual theorems for mathematical programming problems and optimal control problems described by discrete inclusions with delay. (author). 6 refs

  4. An Algebraic Proof of Quillen's Resolution Theorem for K_1

    CERN Document Server

    Whale, Ben

    2009-01-01

    In his 1973 paper Quillen proved a resolution theorem for the K-Theory of an exact category; his proof was homotopic in nature. By using the main result of a paper by Nenashev, we are able to give an algebraic proof of Quillen's Resolution Theorem for K_1 of an exact category.

  5. Nonlinear Contractive Conditions for Coupled Cone Fixed Point Theorems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Wei-Shih

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish some new coupled fixed point theorems for various types of nonlinear contractive maps in the setting of quasiordered cone metric spaces which not only obtain several coupled fixed point theorems announced by many authors but also generalize them under weaker assumptions.

  6. Computer Algebra Systems and Theorems on Real Roots of Polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidoo, Anthony Y.; Manthey, Joseph L.; Ward, Kim Y.

    2010-01-01

    A computer algebra system is used to derive a theorem on the existence of roots of a quadratic equation on any bounded real interval. This is extended to a cubic polynomial. We discuss how students could be led to derive and prove these theorems. (Contains 1 figure.)

  7. Rainwater-Simons-type convergence theorems for generalized convergence methods

    OpenAIRE

    Hardtke, Jan-David

    2010-01-01

    We extend the well-known Rainwater-Simons convergence theorem to various generalized convergence methods such as strong matrix summability, statistical convergence and almost convergence. In fact we prove these theorems not only for boundaries but for the more general notion of (I)-generating sets introduced by Fonf and Lindenstrauss.

  8. Yan Theorem in L∞ with Applications to Asset Pricing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We prove an L∞ version of the Yan theorem and deduce from it a necessary condition for the absence of free lunches in a model of financial markets, in which asset prices are a continuous Rd valued process and only simple investment strategies are admissible. Our proof is based on a new separation theorem for convex sets of finitely additive measures.

  9. A unified optical theorem for scalar and vectorial wave fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Douma, H.

    2012-01-01

    The generalized optical theorem is an integral relation for the angle-dependent scattering amplitude of an inhomogeneous scattering object embedded in a homogeneous background. It has been derived separately for several scalar and vectorial wave phenomena. Here a unified optical theorem is derived t

  10. Tensor product theorem for Hitchin pairs -An algebraic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Balaji, V

    2010-01-01

    We give an algebraic approach to the study of Hitchin pairs and prove the tensor product theorem for Higgs semistable Hitchin pairs over smooth projective curves defined over algebraically closed fields $k$ of characteristic $0$ and characteristic $p$, with $p$ satisfying some natural bounds. We also prove the corresponding theorem for polystable bundles.

  11. COMPARISON THEOREM OF BACKWARD DOUBLY STOCHASTIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper is devoted to deriving a comparison theorem of solutions to backward doubly stochastic differential equations driven by Brownian motion and backward It-Kunita integral. By the application of this theorem, we give an existence result of the solutions to these equations with continuous coefficients.

  12. On the cluster multiplication theorem for acyclic cluster algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Fan

    2007-01-01

    In \\cite{CK2005} and \\cite{Hubery2005}, the authors proved the cluster multiplication theorems for finite type and affine type. We generalize their results and prove the cluster multiplication theorem for arbitrary type by using the properties of 2--Calabi--Yau (Auslander--Reiten formula) and high order associativity.

  13. Some fixed point theorems for Hardy-Rogers type mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. E. Rhoades

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available The first result establishes a fixed point theorem for three maps of a complete metric space. The contractive definition is a generalization of that of Hardy and Rogers, and the commuting condition of Jungck is replaced by the concept of weakly commuting. The other results are extensions of some theorems of Kannan.

  14. A central limit theorem for a new statistic on permutations

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Sourav; Diaconis, Persi

    2016-01-01

    This paper does three things: It proves a central limit theorem for a novel permutation statistic, the number of descents plus the number of descents in the inverse. It provides a clear illustration of a new approach to proving central limit theorems more generally. It gives us an opportunity to acknowledge the work of our teacher and friend B. V. Rao.

  15. Virial theorem in quasi-coordinates and Lie algebroid formalism

    OpenAIRE

    Cariñena, José F.; Gheorghiu, Irina; Mart\\'\\inez, Eduardo; Santos, Patr\\'\\icia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the geometric approach to the virial theorem developed in \\cite{CFR12} is written in terms of quasi-velocities (see \\cite{CNCS07}). A generalization of the virial theorem for mechanical systems on Lie algebroids is also given, using the geometric tools of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics on the prolongation of the Lie algebroid.

  16. CONVOLUTION THEOREMS FOR CLIFFORD FOURIER TRANSFORM AND PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawardi Bahri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The non-commutativity of the Clifford multiplication gives different aspects from the classical Fourier analysis.We establish main properties of convolution theorems for the Clifford Fourier transform. Some properties of these generalized convolutionsare extensions of the corresponding convolution theorems of the classical Fourier transform.

  17. Fixed Point Theorems in Quaternion-Valued Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed El-Sayed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is twofold. First, we introduce the concept of quaternion metric spaces which generalizes both real and complex metric spaces. Further, we establish some fixed point theorems in quaternion setting. Secondly, we prove a fixed point theorem in normal cone metric spaces for four self-maps satisfying a general contraction condition.

  18. The Structure Theorem for Complete Intersections of Grade 4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oh-Jin Kang; Hyoung J. Ko

    2005-01-01

    Serre showed that a Gorenstein ideal of grade 2 is a complete intersection, and Buchsbaum and Eisenbud proved a structure theorem for Gorenstein ideals of grade 3. It is found that a certain complete matrix defines a perfect ideal K3(f).As an application,we present a structure theorem for complete intersections of grade 4.

  19. An ideal topology type convergent theorem on scale effect algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU JunDe; ZHOU XuanChang; Minhyung CHO

    2007-01-01

    The famous Antosik-Mikusinski convergent theorem on the Abel topological groups has very extensive applications in measure theory, summation theory and other analysis fields. In this paper, we establish the theorem on a class of effect algebras equipped with the ideal topology. This paper shows also that the ideal topology of effect algebras is a useful topology in studying the quantum logic theory.

  20. Formal Axiomatic Systems and Computer-Generated Theorems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Michael T.

    1982-01-01

    The MIU system is presented as a potential instruction unit in mathematics involving the derivation of theorems. A program written in BASIC is included that can be used to generate new theorems. The MIU system can give students a glimpse into the meaning of artificial intelligence. (MP)

  1. Restriction Theorem for Principal bundles in Arbitrary Characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurjar, Sudarshan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to prove two basic restriction theorem for principal bundles on smooth projective varieties in arbitrary characteristic generalizing the analogues theorems of Mehta-Ramanathan for vector bundles. More precisely, let G be a reductive algebraic group over an algebraically c...

  2. An existence theorem for optimal control with nonstandard cost functionals

    OpenAIRE

    Shiv Prasad; R. N. Mukherjee

    1987-01-01

    An existence theorem for optimal control is obtained for a general nonstandard cost functional of fractional type in this work. As an application of our result we can derive an existence theorem for optimal control given by M. B. Subrahamanyam for a cost functional, which is a ratio of two given integral cost functionals.

  3. Sampling theorems and compressive sensing on the sphere

    CERN Document Server

    McEwen, J D; Thiran, J -Ph; Vandergheynst, P; Van De Ville, D; Wiaux, Y

    2011-01-01

    We discuss a novel sampling theorem on the sphere developed by McEwen & Wiaux recently through an association between the sphere and the torus. To represent a band-limited signal exactly, this new sampling theorem requires less than half the number of samples of other equiangular sampling theorems on the sphere, such as the canonical Driscoll & Healy sampling theorem. A reduction in the number of samples required to represent a band-limited signal on the sphere has important implications for compressive sensing, both in terms of the dimensionality and sparsity of signals. We illustrate the impact of this property with an inpainting problem on the sphere, where we show superior reconstruction performance when adopting the new sampling theorem.

  4. A finite temperature generalization of Zamolodchikov's c-theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Zabzine, M

    1997-01-01

    We prove a C-theorem within the framework of two dimensional quantum field theories at finite temperature. There exists a function C(g) of coupling constants which is non-increasing along renormalization group trajectories and non-decreasing along temperature trajectory and stationary only at the fixed points. The connection between the C-theorem at zero temperature and the C-theorem at finite temperature is discussed. We also consider the thermodynamical aspects of the C-theorem. If we define the C-function in an arbitrary number of dimensions in anology to the two dimensional case, we can show that its behavior is not universal. The phase transitions destroy the monotonic properties of the C-function. The proof of the C-theorem is also presented within the framework of the Kallen-Lehmann spectral representation at finite temperature.

  5. The Gauss-Bonnet-Chern Theorem on Riemannian Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yin

    2011-01-01

    This expository paper contains a detailed introduction to some important works concerning the Gauss-Bonnet-Chern theorem. The study of this theorem has a long history dating back to Gauss's The- orema Egregium (Latin: Remarkable Theorem) and culminated in Chern's groundbreaking work [14] in 1944, which is a deep and won- derful application of Elie Cartan's formalism. The idea and tools in [14] have a great generalization and continue to produce important results till today. In this paper, we give four different proofs of the Gauss-Bonnet-Chern theorem on Riemannian manifolds, namely Chern's simple intrinsic proof, a topological proof, Mathai-Quillen's Thom form proof and McKean-Singer-Patodi's heat equation proof. These proofs are related with remarkable developments in differential geometry such as the Chern-Weil theory, theory of characteristic classes, Mathai-Quillen's formalism and the Atiyah-Singer index theorem. It is through these brilliant achievements the great importance and influence of Chern's ins...

  6. The virial theorem for the Polarizable Continuum Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammi, R

    2014-02-28

    The electronic virial theorem is extended to molecular systems within the framework of the Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM) to describe solvation effects. The theorem is given in the form of a relation involving the components of the energy (kinetic and potential) of a molecular solute and its electrostatic properties (potential and field) at the boundary of the cavity in the continuum medium. The virial theorem is also derived in the presence of the Pauli repulsion component of the solute-solvent interaction. Furthermore, it is shown that these forms of the PCM virial theorem may be related to the virial theorem of more simple systems as a molecule in the presence of fixed point charges, and as an atom in a spherical box with confining potential. PMID:24588153

  7. The virial theorem for the polarizable continuum model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cammi, R., E-mail: roberto.cammi@unipr.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 17/A, I-43100 Parma (Italy)

    2014-02-28

    The electronic virial theorem is extended to molecular systems within the framework of the Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM) to describe solvation effects. The theorem is given in the form of a relation involving the components of the energy (kinetic and potential) of a molecular solute and its electrostatic properties (potential and field) at the boundary of the cavity in the continuum medium. The virial theorem is also derived in the presence of the Pauli repulsion component of the solute-solvent interaction. Furthermore, it is shown that these forms of the PCM virial theorem may be related to the virial theorem of more simple systems as a molecule in the presence of fixed point charges, and as an atom in a spherical box with confining potential.

  8. Extended Ehrenfest theorem with radiative corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña, L.; Cetto, A. M.; Valdés-Hernández, A.

    2015-10-01

    A set of basic evolution equations for the mean values of dynamical variables is obtained from the Fokker-Planck equation applied to the general problem of a particle subject to a random force. The specific case of stochastic electrodynamics is then considered, in which the random force is due to the zero-point radiation field. Elsewhere it has been shown that when this system reaches a state of energy balance, it becomes controlled by an equation identical to Schrödinger’s, if the radiationless approximation is made. The Fokker-Planck equation was shown to lead to the Ehrenfest theorem under such an approximation. Here we show that when the radiative terms are not neglected, an extended form of the Ehrenfest equation is obtained, from which follow, among others, the correct formulas for the atomic lifetimes and the (nonrelativistic) Lamb shift.

  9. Accelerated expansion and the virial theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Steen H

    2012-01-01

    When dark matter structures form and equilibrate they have to release a significant amount of energy in order to obey the virial theorem. Since dark matter is believed to be unable to radiate, this implies that some of the accreted dark matter particles must be ejected with high velocities. These ejected particles may then later hit other cosmological structures and deposit their momentum within these structures. This induces a pressure between the cosmological structures which opposes the effect of gravity and may therefore mimic a cosmological constant. We estimate the magnitude of this effect and find that it may be as large as the observed accelerated expansion. Our estimate is accurate only within a few orders of magnitude. It is therefore important to make a much more careful calculation of this redshift dependent effect, before beginning to interpret the observed accelerated expansion as a time dependent generalization of a cosmological constant.

  10. Some Generalizations of Fedorchuk Duality Theorem -- II

    CERN Document Server

    Dimov, Georgi Dobromirov

    2007-01-01

    As it was shown in the first part of this paper, there exists a duality between the category DSkeLC (introduced there) and the category SkeLC of locally compact Hausdorff spaces and continuous skeletal maps. We describe here the subcategories of the category DSkeLC which are dually equivalent to the following eight categories: all of them have as objects the locally compact Hausdorff spaces and their morphisms are, respectively, the injective (respectively, surjective) continuous skeletal maps, the injective (resp., surjective) open maps, the injective (resp., surjective) skeletal perfect maps, the injective (resp., surjective) open perfect maps. The particular cases of these theorems for the full subcategories of the last four categories having as objects all compact Hausdorff spaces are formulated and proved. The DSkeLC-morphisms which are LCA-embeddings and the dense homeomorphic embeddings are characterized through their dual morphisms. For any locally compact space X, a description of the frame of all op...

  11. Virial Theorem in Nonlocal Newtonian Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Mashhoon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nonlocal gravity is the recent classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein’s theory of gravitation in which the past history of the gravitational field is taken into account. In this theory, nonlocality appears to simulate dark matter. The virial theorem for the Newtonian regime of nonlocal gravity theory is derived and its consequences for “isolated” astronomical systems in virial equilibrium at the present epoch are investigated. In particular, for a sufficiently isolated nearby galaxy in virial equilibrium, the galaxy’s baryonic diameter D 0 —namely, the diameter of the smallest sphere that completely surrounds the baryonic system at the present time—is predicted to be larger than the effective dark matter fraction f D M times a universal length that is the basic nonlocality length scale λ 0 ≈ 3 ± 2 kpc.

  12. An interlacing theorem for reversible Markov chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reversible Markov chains are an indispensable tool in the modeling of a vast class of physical, chemical, biological and statistical problems. Examples include the master equation descriptions of relaxing physical systems, stochastic optimization algorithms such as simulated annealing, chemical dynamics of protein folding and Markov chain Monte Carlo statistical estimation. Very often the large size of the state spaces requires the coarse graining or lumping of microstates into fewer mesoscopic states, and a question of utmost importance for the validity of the physical model is how the eigenvalues of the corresponding stochastic matrix change under this operation. In this paper we prove an interlacing theorem which gives explicit bounds on the eigenvalues of the lumped stochastic matrix. (fast track communication)

  13. Uniform Zariski's Theorem On Fundamental Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Kaliman, S

    1997-01-01

    The Zariski theorem says that for every hypersurface in a complex projective (resp. affine) space of dimension at least 3 and for every generic plane in the projective (resp. affine) space the natural embedding generates an isomorphism of the fundamental groups of the complements to the hypersurface in the plane and in the space. If a family of hypersurfaces depends algebraically on parameters then it is not true in general that there exists a plane such that the natural embedding generates isomorphisms of the fundamental groups of the complements to each hypersurface from this family in the plane and in the space. But we show that in the affine case such plane exists after a polynomial coordinate substitution.

  14. What price the spin–statistics theorem?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E C G Sudarshan; I M Duck

    2003-10-01

    We examine a number of recent proofs of the spin–statistics theorem. All, of course, get the target result of Bose–Einstein statistics for identical integral spin particles and Fermi–Dirac statistics for identical half-integral spin particles. It is pointed out that these proofs, distinguished by their purported simple and intuitive kinematic character, require assumptions that are outside the realm of standard quantum mechanics. We construct a counterexample to these non-dynamical kinematic ‘proofs’ to emphasize the necessity of a dynamical proof as distinct from a kinematic proof. Sudarshan’s simple non-relativistic dynamical proof is briefly described. Finally, we make clear the price paid for any kinematic ‘proof’.

  15. On a curvature-statistics theorem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calixto, M [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y Estadistica, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Paseo Alfonso XIII 56, 30203 Cartagena (Spain); Aldaya, V [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, Apartado Postal 3004, 18080 Granada (Spain)], E-mail: Manuel.Calixto@upct.es

    2008-08-15

    The spin-statistics theorem in quantum field theory relates the spin of a particle to the statistics obeyed by that particle. Here we investigate an interesting correspondence or connection between curvature ({kappa} = {+-}1) and quantum statistics (Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein, respectively). The interrelation between both concepts is established through vacuum coherent configurations of zero modes in quantum field theory on the compact O(3) and noncompact O(2; 1) (spatial) isometry subgroups of de Sitter and Anti de Sitter spaces, respectively. The high frequency limit, is retrieved as a (zero curvature) group contraction to the Newton-Hooke (harmonic oscillator) group. We also make some comments on the physical significance of the vacuum energy density and the cosmological constant problem.

  16. On topological symmetries and the Goldstone theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that one cannot achieve the symmetry breaking condition limR→∞R,Ω)> ≠ 0 when QR is the (finite volume) integral of a topological charge density and Ω has a compact support. This implies that topological symmetries are never broken spontaneously. If one attempts to use an operator Ω' whose support extends to spatial infinity as an order parameter the resulting symmetry breaking condition can be formally satisfied, but the Goldstone theorem does not apply because, in general, the topological charge is no longer conserved. This (wrong) symmetry breaking condition need not contain any dynamical information and merely reflects the effect of Ω' on the boundary conditions at spatial infinity. (author). 5 refs

  17. Comment on: "Sadi Carnot on Carnot's theorem"

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaud, J; Philippe, F; Arnaud, Jacques; Chusseau, Laurent; Philippe, Fabrice

    2003-01-01

    Carnot established in 1824 that the efficiency $\\eta_{C}$ of reversible engines operating between a hot bath at absolute temperature $T_{hot}$ and a cold bath at temperature $T_{cold}$ is equal to $1-T_{cold}/T_{hot}$. Carnot particularly considered air as a working fluid and small bath-temperature differences. Plugging into Carnot's expression modern experimental values, exact agreement with modern Thermodynamics is found. However, in a recently published paper ["Sadi Carnot on Carnot's theorem", \\textit{Am. J. Phys.} \\textbf{70}(1), 42-47, 2002], Guemez and others consider a "modified cycle" involving two isobars that they mistakenly attribute to Carnot. They calculate an efficiency considerably lower than $\\eta_{C}$ and suggest that Carnot made compensating errors. Our contention is that the Carnot theory is, to the contrary, perfectly accurate.

  18. Sticky central limit theorems on open books

    CERN Document Server

    Hotz, Thomas; Le, Huiling; Marron, J Stephen; Mattingly, Jonathan C; Miller, Ezra; Nolen, James; Owen, Megan; Patrangenaru, Vic; Skwerer, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Given a probability distribution on an open book (a metric space obtained by gluing a disjoint union of copies of a half-space along their boundary hyperplanes), we define a precise concept of when the Fr\\'echet mean (barycenter) is "sticky". This non-classical phenomenon is quantified by a law of large numbers (LLN) stating that the empirical mean eventually almost surely lies on the (codimension 1 and hence measure 0) "spine" that is the glued hyperplane, and a central limit theorem (CLT) stating that the limiting distribution is Gaussian and supported on the spine. We also state versions of the LLN and CLT for the cases where the mean is nonsticky (that is, not lying on the spine) and partly sticky (that is, on the spine but not sticky).

  19. PBR theorem and Einstein's quantum hole argument

    CERN Document Server

    Weinstein, Galina

    2013-01-01

    This note discusses the latest hot topic: Quantum states: ontic or epistemic? and the PBR theorem. Upon reading Einstein's views on quantum incompleteness in publications or in his correspondence after 1935 (the EPR paradox), one gets a very intense feeling of deja-vu. Einstein presents a quantum hole argument, which somewhat reminds of the hole argument in his 1914 "Entwurf" general theory of relativity. In their paper, PBR write the following: "an important step towards the derivation of our result is the idea that the quantum state is physical if distinct quantum states correspond to non-overlapping distributions for [the set of possible physical states that a system can be in]", and they then refer to Einstein's argument and views.

  20. No-Hair Theorem for Weak Pulsar

    CERN Document Server

    Gruzinov, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    It is proposed that there exists a class of pulsars, called weak pulsars, for which the large-scale magnetosphere, and hence the gamma-ray emission, are independent of the detailed pattern of plasma production. The weak pulsar magnetosphere and its gamma-ray emission are uniquely determined by just three parameters: spin, dipole, and the spin-dipole angle. We calculate this supposedly unique pulsar magnetosphere in the axisymmetric case. The magnetosphere is found to be very close to (although interestingly not fully identical with) the magnetosphere we have previously calculated, explaining the phenomenological success of the old calculation. We offer only a highly tentative proof of this "Pulsar No-Hair Theorem". Our analytics, while convincing in its non-triviality, is incomplete, and counts only as a plausibility argument. Our numerics, while complete, is dubious. The plasma flow in the weak pulsar magnetosphere turns out to be even more intricate than what we have previously proposed: some particles, aft...

  1. Lueders Theorem for Coherent-State POVMs

    CERN Document Server

    Weigert, S; Weigert, Stefan; Busch, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Lueders theorem states that two observables commute if measuring one of them does not disturb the measurement outcomes of the other. We study measurements which are described by continuous positive operator-valued measurements (or POVMs) associated with coherent states on a Lie group. In general, operators turn out to be invariant under the Lueders map if their P- and Q-symbols coincide. For a spin corresponding to SU(2), the identity is shown to be the only operator with this property. For a particle, a countable family of linearly independent operators is identified which are invariant under the Lueders map generated by the coherent states of the Heisenberg-Weyl group, H_3. The Lueders map is also shown to implement the anti-normal ordering of creation and annihilation operators of a particle.

  2. Virial Theorem in Nonlocal Newtonian Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashhoon, Bahram

    2016-05-01

    Nonlocal gravity is the recent classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation in which the past history of the gravitational field is taken into account. In this theory, nonlocality appears to simulate dark matter. The virial theorem for the Newtonian regime of nonlocal gravity theory is derived and its consequences for "isolated" astronomical systems in virial equilibrium at the present epoch are investigated. In particular, for a sufficiently isolated nearby galaxy in virial equilibrium, the galaxy's baryonic diameter---namely, the diameter of the smallest sphere that completely surrounds the baryonic system at the present time---is predicted to be larger than the effective dark matter fraction times a universal length that is the basic nonlocality length scale of about 3 kpc.

  3. Virial Theorem in Nonlocal Newtonian Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Mashhoon, B

    2015-01-01

    Nonlocal gravity is the recent classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation in which the past history of the gravitational field is taken into account. In this theory, nonlocality appears to simulate dark matter. The virial theorem for the Newtonian regime of nonlocal gravity theory is derived and its consequences for "isolated" astronomical systems in virial equilibrium at the present epoch are investigated. In particular, for a sufficiently isolated nearby galaxy in virial equilibrium, the galaxy's baryonic diameter---namely, the diameter of the smallest sphere that completely surrounds the baryonic system at the present time---is predicted to be larger than the effective dark matter fraction times a universal length that is the basic nonlocality length scale of about 3 kpc.

  4. The Birkhoff theorem and string clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Bronnikov, K A; Skvortsova, M V

    2016-01-01

    We consider spherically symmetric space-times in GR under the unconventional assumptions that the spherical radius $r$ is either a constant or has a null gradient in the $(t,x)$ subspace orthogonal to the symmetry spheres (i.e., $(\\partial r)^2 = 0$). It is shown that solutions to the Einstein equations with $r = \\rm const$ contain an extra (fourth) spatial or temporal Killing vector and thus satisfy the Birkhoff theorem under an additional physically motivated condition that the lateral pressure is functionally related to the energy density. This leads to solutions that directly generalize the Bertotti-Robinson, Nariai and Plebanski-Hacyan solutions. Under similar conditions, solutions with $(\\partial r)^2 = 0$ but $r\

  5. Generalizations of some Zero Sum Theorems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M N Chintamani; B K Moriya

    2012-02-01

    Given an abelian group of order , and a finite non-empty subset of integers, the Davenport constant of with weight , denoted by $D_A(G)$, is defined to be the least positive integer such that, for every sequence $(x_1,\\ldots,x_t)$ with $x_i\\in G$, there exists a non-empty subsequence $(x_{j_1},\\ldots,x_{j_l})$ and $a_i\\in A$ such that $\\sum^l_{i=1}a_ix_{j_i}=0$. Similarly, for an abelian group of order $n,E_A(G)$ is defined to be the least positive integer such that every sequence over of length contains a subsequence $(x_{j_1},\\ldots,x_{j_n})$ such that $\\sum^n_{i=1}a_ix_{j_i}=0$, for some $a_i\\in A$. When is of order , one considers to be a non-empty subset of $\\{1,\\ldots,n-1\\}$. If is the cyclic group $\\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}$, we denote $E_A(G)$ and $D_A(G)$ by $E_A(n)$ and $D_A(n)$ respectively. In this note, we extend some results of Adhikari et al(Integers 8(2008) Article A52) and determine bounds for $D_{R_n}(n)$ and $E_{R_n}(n)$, where $R_n=\\{x^2:x\\in(\\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z})^∗\\}$. We follow some lines of argument from Adhikari et al(Integers 8 (2008) Article A52) and use a recent result of Yuan and Zeng (European J. Combinatorics 31 (2010) 677–680), a theorem due to Chowla (Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Math. Sci.) 2 (1935) 242–243) and Kneser’s theorem (Math. Z.58(1953) 459–484;66(1956) 88–110;61(1955) 429–434).

  6. Notes for a quantum index theorem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longo, R. [Dipartimento di Matematica, Rome-2 Univ., Roma (Italy)

    2001-08-01

    We view DHR superselection sectors with finite statistics as Quantum Field Theory analogs of elliptic operators where KMS functionals play the role of the trace composed with the heat kernel regularization. We extend our local holomorphic dimension formula and prove an analogue of the index theorem in the Quantum Field Theory context. The analytic index is the Jones index, more precisely the minimal dimension, and, on a 4-dimensional spacetime, the DHR theorem gives the integrality of the index. We introduce the notion of holomorphic dimension; the geometric dimension is then defined as the part of the holomorphic dimension which is symmetric under charge conjugation. We apply the AHKT theory of chemical potential and we extend it to the low dimensional case, by using conformal field theory. Concerning Quantum Field Theory on a curved spacetime, the geometry of the manifold enters in the expression for the dimension. If a quantum black hole is described by a spacetime with bifurcate Killing horizon and sectors are localizable on the horizon, the variation of logarithm of the geometric dimension is proportional to the incremental free energy, due to the addition of the charge, and to the inverse temperature, hence to the inverse of the surface gravity in the Hartle-Hawking KMS state. For this analysis we consider a conformal net obtained by restricting the field to the horizon (''holography''). Compared with our previous work on Rindler spacetime, this result differs inasmuch as it concerns true black hole spacetimes, like the Schwarzschild-Kruskal manifold, and pertains to the entropy of the black hole itself, rather than of the outside system. An outlook concerns a possible relation with supersymmetry and noncommutative geometry. (orig.)

  7. Cosmological singularity theorems and splitting theorems for N-Bakry-Emery spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Woolgar, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We study Lorentzian manifolds with a weight function such that the $N$-Bakry-\\'Emery tensor is bounded below. Such spacetimes arise in the physics of scalar-tensor gravitation theories, including Brans-Dicke theory, theories with Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction, and low-energy approximations to string theory. In the "pure Bakry-\\'Emery" $N= \\infty$ case with $f$ uniformly bounded above and initial data suitably bounded, cosmological-type singularity theorems are known, as are splitting theorems which determine the geometry of timelike geodesically complete spacetimes for which the bound on the initial data is borderline violated. We extend these results in a number of ways. We are able to extend the singularity theorems to finite $N$-values $N\\in (n,\\infty)$ and $N\\in (-\\infty,1]$. In the $N\\in (n,\\infty)$ case, no bound on $f$ is required, while for $N\\in (-\\infty,1]$ and $N= \\infty$, we are able to replace the boundedness of $f$ by a weaker condition on the integral of $f$ along future-inextendible timel...

  8. Central limit theorem for reducible and irreducible open quantum walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Przemysław; Pawela, Łukasz

    2016-04-01

    In this work we aim at proving central limit theorems for open quantum walks on {{Z}}^d . We study the case when there are various classes of vertices in the network. In particular, we investigate two ways of distributing the vertex classes in the network. First, we assign the classes in a regular pattern. Secondly, we assign each vertex a random class with a transition invariant distribution. For each way of distributing vertex classes, we obtain an appropriate central limit theorem, illustrated by numerical examples. These theorems may have application in the study of complex systems in quantum biology and dissipative quantum computation.

  9. ON REGULARITY THEOREMS FOR LINEARLY INVARIANT FAMILIES OF HARMONIC FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Ganenkova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The classical theorem of growth regularity in the class S of analytic and univalent in the unit disc ∆ functions ƒ describes the growth character of different functionals of ƒ Є S and z Є ∆ as z tends to δ∆. Earlier the authors proved the theorems of growth and decrease regularity for harmonic and sense-preserving in ∆ functions which generalized the classical result for the class S. In the presented paper we establish new properties of harmonic sense-preserving functions, connected with the regularity theorems. The effects both common for analytic and harmonic case and specific for harmonic functions are displayed.

  10. A Cauchy-Davenport theorem for linear maps

    OpenAIRE

    Herdade, Simao; Kim, John; Kopparty, Swastik

    2015-01-01

    We prove a version of the Cauchy-Davenport theorem for general linear maps. For subsets $A,B$ of the finite field $\\mathbb{F}_p$, the classical Cauchy-Davenport theorem gives a lower bound for the size of the sumset $A+B$ in terms of the sizes of the sets $A$ and $B$. Our theorem considers a general linear map $L: \\mathbb{F}_p^n \\to \\mathbb{F}_p^m$, and subsets $A_1, \\ldots, A_n \\subseteq \\mathbb{F}_p$, and gives a lower bound on the size of $L(A_1 \\times A_2 \\times \\ldots \\times A_n)$ in ter...

  11. A primer on Higgs boson low-energy theorems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We give a pedagogical review of Higgs boson low-energy theorems and their applications in the study of light Higgs boson interactions with mesons and baryons. In particular, it is shown how to combine the chiral Lagrangian method with the Higgs low-energy theorems to obtain predictions for the interaction of Higgs bosons and pseudoscalar mesons. Finally, we discuss the relation between the low-energy theorems and a technique which makes use of the trace of the QCD energy-momentum tensor. 35 refs

  12. Central limit theorem for reducible and irreducible open quantum walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Przemysław; Pawela, Łukasz

    2016-07-01

    In this work we aim at proving central limit theorems for open quantum walks on {mathbb {Z}}^d. We study the case when there are various classes of vertices in the network. In particular, we investigate two ways of distributing the vertex classes in the network. First, we assign the classes in a regular pattern. Secondly, we assign each vertex a random class with a transition invariant distribution. For each way of distributing vertex classes, we obtain an appropriate central limit theorem, illustrated by numerical examples. These theorems may have application in the study of complex systems in quantum biology and dissipative quantum computation.

  13. Theorems on Positive Data: On the Uniqueness of NMF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauerberg, Hans; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Pumbley, Mark; Hansen, Lars Kai; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the conditions for which nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) is unique and introduce several theorems which can determine whether the decomposition is in fact unique or not. The theorems are illustrated by several examples showing the use of the theorems and their limitations. W...... have shown that corruption of a unique NMF matrix by additive noise leads to a noisy estimation of the noise-free unique solution. Finally, we use a stochastic view of NMF to analyze which characterization of the underlying model will result in an NMF with small estimation errors....

  14. Theorems on Positive Data: On the Uniqueness of NMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads Græsbøll Christensen

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the conditions for which nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF is unique and introduce several theorems which can determine whether the decomposition is in fact unique or not. The theorems are illustrated by several examples showing the use of the theorems and their limitations. We have shown that corruption of a unique NMF matrix by additive noise leads to a noisy estimation of the noise-free unique solution. Finally, we use a stochastic view of NMF to analyze which characterization of the underlying model will result in an NMF with small estimation errors.

  15. New Higher-Derivative R4 Theorems for Graviton Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nonminimal pure spinor formalism for the superstring is used to prove two new multiloop theorems which are related to recent higher-derivative R4 conjectures of Green, Russo, and Vanhove. The first theorem states that when 0nR4 terms in the Type II effective action do not receive perturbative contributions above n/2 loops. The second theorem states that when n≤8, perturbative contributions to ∂nR4 terms in the IIA and IIB effective actions coincide. As shown by Green, Russo, and Vanhove, these results suggest that d=4 N=8 supergravity is ultraviolet finite up to eight loops

  16. The Differential Virial Theorem with Gradient Formulas for the Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Finley, James P

    2016-01-01

    A gradient dependent formula is derived for the spinless one-particle density-matrix operator z from the differential virial theorem. A gradient dependent formula is also derived for a spinless one-particle density-matrix operator that can replace the two operators of the differential virial theorem that arise from the kinetic energy operator. Other operators are also derived that can replace the operators mentioned above in the differential virial theorem; these operators depend on the real part of spinless one-particle density-matrix.

  17. Experimental studies of the transient fluctuation theorem using liquid crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soma Datta; Arun Roy

    2009-05-01

    In a thermodynamical process, the dissipation or production of entropy can only be positive or zero, according to the second law of thermodynamics. However, the laws of thermodynamics are applicable to large systems in the thermodynamic limit. Recently a fluctuation theorem, known as the transient fluctuation theorem (TFT), which generalizes the second law of thermodynamics to small systems has been proposed. This theorem has been tested in small systems such as a colloidal particle in an optical trap. We report for the first time an analogous experimental study of TFT in a spatially extended system using liquid crystals.

  18. Approximation Theorems and Fixed Point Theorems for Various Classes of 1-set-contractive Mappings in Banach Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shan LIU

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we will prove that Ky Fan's Theorem (Math. Z. 112(1969), 234-240) is true for1-set-contractive maps defined on a bounded closed convex subset K in a Banach space with intK ≠φ.This class of 1-set-contractive maps includes condensing maps, nonexpansive maps, semicontractivemaps, LANE maps and others. As applications of our theorems, some fixed point theorems of non-self-maps are proved under various well-known boundary conditions. Our results are generalizations andimprovements of the recent results obtained by many authors.

  19. Some Representation Theorems for Recovering Contraction Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Hou

    2005-01-01

    One of the important topics in the study of contraction inference relations is to establish the representation theorems for them. Various methods have been employed for giving representation of a broad class of contraction operations.However, there was not any canonical approach to dealing with the representation results for the contraction relations in the literature. Recently, in order to obtain the representation result for recovering contraction inference relations satisfying the condition weak conjunctive inclusion (wci), a notion of an image structure associated with the canonical epistemic state has been introduced. Based on the image structure, this paper establishes three representation results for recovering contraction inference relations which satisfy the conditions CL, CR1 and DR* respectively by the standard epistemic AGM states. A unique technique and uniform proofs to represent these contraction relations are adopted, which could overcome the core objection in previous description of contraction relations. The paper shows as well that the image structure and canonical epistemic states can be used not only to get the representation result for wci-recovering contraction relation, but also to provide semantic characterizations for a wide range of recovering contraction relations.

  20. Optimal Inverse Littlewood-Offord theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Hoi

    2010-01-01

    Let eta_i be iid Bernoulli random variables, taking values -1,1 with probability 1/2. Given a multiset V of n integers v_1,..., v_n, we define the concentration probability as rho(V) := sup_{x} Pr(v_1 eta_1+...+ v_n eta_n=x). A classical result of Littlewood-Offord and Erdos from the 1940s asserts that if the v_i are non-zero, then rho(V) is O(n^{-1/2}). Since then, many researchers obtained improved bounds by assuming various extra restrictions on V. About 5 years ago, motivated by problems concerning random matrices, Tao and Vu introduced the Inverse Littlewood-Offord problem. In the inverse problem, one would like to give a characterization of the set V, given that rho(V) is relatively large. In this paper, we introduce a new method to attack the inverse problem. As an application, we strengthen a previous result of Tao and Vu, obtaining an optimal characterization for V. This immediately implies several classical theorems, such as those of Sarkozy-Szemeredi and Halasz. The method also applies in the conti...

  1. Luttinger's theorem, superfluid vortices, and holography

    CERN Document Server

    Iqbal, Nabil

    2011-01-01

    Strongly coupled field theories with gravity duals can be placed at finite density in two ways: electric field flux emanating from behind a horizon, or bulk charged fields outside of the horizon that explicitly source the density. We discuss field-theoretical observables that are sensitive to this distinction. If the charged fields are fermionic, we discuss a modified Luttinger's theorem that holds for holographic systems, in which the sum of boundary theory Fermi surfaces counts only the charge outside of the horizon. If the charged fields are bosonic, we show that the the resulting superfluid phase may be characterized by the coefficient of the transverse Magnus force on a moving superfluid vortex, which again is sensitive only to the charge outside of the horizon. For holographic systems these observables provide a field-theoretical way to distinguish how much charge is held by a dual horizon, but they may be useful in more general contexts as measures of deconfined (i.e. "fractionalized") charge degrees o...

  2. The Michaelis-Menten-Stueckelberg Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Gorban

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We study chemical reactions with complex mechanisms under two assumptions: (i intermediates are present in small amounts (this is the quasi-steady-state hypothesis or QSS and (ii they are in equilibrium relations with substrates (this is the quasiequilibrium hypothesis or QE. Under these assumptions, we prove the generalized mass action law together with the basic relations between kinetic factors, which are sufficient for the positivity of the entropy production but hold even without microreversibility, when the detailed balance is not applicable. Even though QE and QSS produce useful approximations by themselves, only the combination of these assumptions can render the possibility beyond the “rarefied gas” limit or the “molecular chaos” hypotheses. We do not use any a priori form of the kinetic law for the chemical reactions and describe their equilibria by thermodynamic relations. The transformations of the intermediate compounds can be described by the Markov kinetics because of their low density (low density of elementary events. This combination of assumptions was introduced by Michaelis and Menten in 1913. In 1952, Stueckelberg used the same assumptions for the gas kinetics and produced the remarkable semi-detailed balance relations between collision rates in the Boltzmann equation that are weaker than the detailed balance conditions but are still sufficient for the Boltzmann H-theorem to be valid. Our results are obtained within the Michaelis-Menten-Stueckelbeg conceptual framework.

  3. c-Theorem for disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We find an analog of Zamolodchikov's c-theorem for disordered two-dimensional non-interacting systems in their supersymmetric field theory representation. We show that the energy momentum tensor of such field theories must be a part of a supermultiplet, and that a new parameter b can be introduced with the help of that multiplet. b flows along the renormalization group trajectories much like the central charge for unitary two-dimensional field theories. While it has not been established if this flow is irreversible, that is, if b always flows down to lower values, it does so for all the cases worked out so far. b gives a new way to label different conformal field theories for disordered systems whose central charge is always 0. b turns out to be related to the central extension of a certain algebra, a generalization of the Virasoro algebra, which we show may be present at the critical points of these theories. b is also related to the finite size corrections of the physical free energy of disordered systems. We discuss possible applications by computing b for two-dimensional Dirac fermions with random gauge potential, in other words, for U(1 vertical bar 1) Kac-Moody algebra

  4. A stem cell niche dominance theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibata Darryl K

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multilevelness is a defining characteristic of complex systems. For example, in the intestinal tissue the epithelial lining is organized into crypts that are maintained by a niche of stem cells. The behavior of the system 'as a whole' is considered to emerge from the functioning and interactions of its parts. What we are seeking here is a conceptual framework to demonstrate how the "fate" of intestinal crypts is an emergent property that inherently arises from the complex yet robust underlying biology of stem cells. Results We establish a conceptual framework in which to formalize cross-level principles in the context of tissue organization. To this end we provide a definition for stemness, which is the propensity of a cell lineage to contribute to a tissue fate. We do not consider stemness a property of a cell but link it to the process in which a cell lineage contributes towards tissue (malfunction. We furthermore show that the only logically feasible relationship between the stemness of cell lineages and the emergent fate of their tissue, which satisfies the given criteria, is one of dominance from a particular lineage. Conclusions The dominance theorem, conceived and proven in this paper, provides support for the concepts of niche succession and monoclonal conversion in intestinal crypts as bottom-up relations, while crypt fission is postulated to be a top-down principle.

  5. Imprimitivity theorem and quaternionic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of quantum mechanics in quaternionic Hilbert space is not new in physics; indeed, it goes back to the first attempts in formulating quantum mechanics from an axiomatic point of view, and later, from a more physical viewpoint, to the survey of Finkelstein et al. But recently a new physical motivation for such investigations has been given by the work of Adler in algebraic chromostatics, since it has been pointed out that quaternionic quantum mechanics, as a model of an intrinsically non-Abelian gauge theory, fits the Adler algebraic version of chromostatics. The present paper aims at a critical understanding of quaternionic quantal structure through the examination of the elementary case of a single free particle in non-relativistic space-time. We follow the suggestion by Mackey to exploit the imprimitivity theorem, together with the notion of induced representation, in deriving the theory for the free particle system, starting from the axiomatic standpoint. We show that there exists a unique unitary skew adjoint operator which commutes with all the observables. This operator not only plays the role of the imaginary unit in the complex case, but allows a complexification of the Hilbert space by the choice of any quaternionic unit

  6. The Ewald-Oseen Extinction Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2015-01-01

    When a beam of light enters a material medium, it sets in motion the resident electrons, whether these electrons are free or bound. The electronic oscillations in turn give rise to electromagnetic radiation which, in the case of linear media, possess the frequency of the exciting beam. Because Maxwell's equations are linear, one expects the total field at any point in space to be the sum of the original (exciting) field and the radiation produced by all the oscillating electrons. However, in practice the original beam appears to be absent within the medium, as though it had been replaced by a different beam, one having a shorter wavelength and propagating in a different direction. The Ewald-Oseen theorem resolves this paradox by showing how the oscillating electrons conspire to produce a field that exactly cancels out the original beam everywhere inside the medium. The net field is indeed the sum of the incident beam and the radiated field of the oscillating electrons, but the latter field completely masks th...

  7. Subexponential estimates in Shirshov's theorem on height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suppose that F2,m is a free 2-generated associative ring with the identity xm=0. In 1993 Zelmanov put the following question: is it true that the nilpotency degree of F2,m has exponential growth? We give the definitive answer to Zelmanov's question by showing that the nilpotency class of an l-generated associative algebra with the identity xd=0 is smaller than Ψ(d,d,l), where Ψ(n,d,l)=218l(nd)3log3(nd)+13d2. This result is a consequence of the following fact based on combinatorics of words. Let l, n and d≥n be positive integers. Then all words over an alphabet of cardinality l whose length is not less than Ψ(n,d,l) are either n-divisible or contain xd; a word W is n-divisible if it can be represented in the form W=W0W1…Wn so that W1,...,Wn are placed in lexicographically decreasing order. Our proof uses Dilworth's theorem (according to V.N. Latyshev's idea). We show that the set of not n-divisible words over an alphabet of cardinality l has height h87l·n12log3n+48. Bibliography: 40 titles.

  8. Low energy theorems of hidden local symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We prove to all orders of the loop expansion the low energy theorems of hidden local symmetries in four-dimensional nonlinear sigma models based on the coset space G/H, with G and H being arbitrary compact groups. Although the models are non-renormalizable, the proof is done in an analogous manner to the renormalization proof of gauge theories and two-dimensional nonlinear sigma models by restricting ourselves to the operators with two derivatives (counting a hidden gauge boson field as one derivative), i.e., with dimension 2, which are the only operators relevant to the low energy limit. Through loop-wise mathematical induction based on the Ward-Takahashi identity for the BRS symmetry, we solve renormalization equation for the effective action up to dimension-2 terms plus terms with the relevant BRS sources. We then show that all the quantum corrections to the dimension-2 operators, including the finite parts as well as the divergent ones, can be entirely absorbed into a re-definition (renormalization) of the parameters and the fields in the dimension-2 part of the tree-level Lagrangian. (author)

  9. Comparison theorems for neutral stochastic functional differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaoming; Jiang, Jifa

    2016-05-01

    The comparison theorems under Wu and Freedman's order are proved for neutral stochastic functional differential equations with finite or infinite delay whose drift terms satisfy the quasimonotone condition and diffusion term is the same.

  10. Existence and uniqueness theorem for a Hammerstein nonlinear integral equation

    OpenAIRE

    A. Kh. Khachatryan; Kh. A. Khachatryan

    2011-01-01

    The existence of a solution, as well as some properties of the obtained solution for a Hammerstein type nonlinear integral equation have been investigated. For a certain class of functions the uniqueness theorem has also been proved.

  11. Some Fixed Point Theorems on Ordered Metric Spaces and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altun Ishak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present some fixed point results for nondecreasing and weakly increasing operators in a partially ordered metric space using implicit relations. Also we give an existence theorem for common solution of two integral equations.

  12. Birkhoff's theorem and viscosity solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Wei

    2009-01-01

    We obtain a partial generalization of Birkhoff's theorem of invariant curve to higher dimesional case in the context of viscosity solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi equations,or weak KAM theory.This is a new approach after Herman's proof.

  13. Noncommutative topology and the world's simplest index theorem

    CERN Document Server

    van Erp, Erik

    2010-01-01

    This is an expository article. It discusses an approach to hypoelliptic Fredholm index theory based on noncommutative methods (groupoids, C*-algebras, K-theory). The paper starts with an explicit index theorem for scalar second order differential operators on 3-manifolds that are Fredholm but not elliptic. This low-brow index formula is expressed in terms of winding numbers. We then proceed to show how this theorem is a special case of a much more general index theorem for subelliptic operators on contact manifolds. Finally we discuss the noncommutative topology that is employed in the proof of this theorem. We present these results as an instance in which noncommutative topology is fruitful in proving a very explicit (analytic/geometric) classical result.

  14. Classical probabilistic realization of "Random Numbers Certified by Bell's Theorem"

    OpenAIRE

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    We question the commonly accepted statement that random numbers certified by Bell's theorem carry some special sort of randomness, so to say, quantum randomness or intrinsic randomness. We show that such numbers can be easily generated by classical random generators.

  15. Galois correspondence theorem for Picard-Vessiot extensions

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo, Teresa; Hajto, Zbigniew; Sowa-Adamus, Elzbieta

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize the definition of the differential Galois group and the Galois correspondence theorem established previously for Picard-Vessiot extensions of real differential fields with real closed field of constants to any Picard-Vessiot extension.

  16. Generalized -Bernstein-Schurer Operators and Some Approximation Theorems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mursaleen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study statistical approximation properties of -Bernstein-Shurer operators and establish some direct theorems. Furthermore, we compute error estimation and show graphically the convergence for a function by operators and give its algorithm.

  17. A general form of the second main theorem for hypersurfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We prove a general form of the Second Main Theorem for algebraically nondegenerate holomorphic mappings into a smooth complex projective variety intersecting arbitrary hypersurfaces (rather than just the hypersurfaces in general position) and truncated multiplicities. (author)

  18. Forest Carbon Uptake and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobitz, John

    2013-01-01

    Using the fundamental theorem of calculus and numerical integration, we investigate carbon absorption of ecosystems with measurements from a global database. The results illustrate the dynamic nature of ecosystems and their ability to absorb atmospheric carbon.

  19. A Bertini-type theorem for free arithmetic linear series

    OpenAIRE

    Ikoma, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we prove a version of the arithmetic Bertini theorem asserting that there exists a strictly small and generically smooth section of a given arithmetically free graded arithmetic linear series.

  20. The Energy Transformation Limit Theorem for Gas Flow Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Volov, V T

    2011-01-01

    The limit energy theorem which determines the possibility of transformation the energy flow in power systems in the absence of technical work is investigated and proved for such systems as gas lasers and plasmatrons, chemical gas reactors, vortex tubes, gas-acoustic and other systems, as well as a system of close stars. In the case of the same name ideal gas in the system the maximum ratio of energy conversion effectiveness is linked to the Carnot theorem, which in its turn is connected with the Nernst theorem. However, numerical analyses show that the class of flow energy systems is non-carnot one. The ratio of energy conversion effectiveness depends on the properties of the working medium; a conventional cycle in open-circuit is essentially irreversible. The proved theorem gives a more strongly worded II law of thermodynamics for the selected class of flow energy systems. Implications for astrophysical thermodynamic systems and the theory of a strong shock wave are discussed.

  1. Metrical theorems on systems of small inhomogeneous linear forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Mumtaz; Kristensen, Simon

    In this paper we establish complete Khintchine-Groshev and Schmidt type theorems for inhomogeneous small linear forms in the so-called doubly metric case, in which the inhomogeneous parameter is not fixed....

  2. Supersymmetric extension of the Adler-Bardeen theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A supersymmetric generalization of the Adler-Bardeen theorem in SUSY gauge theories is given. We show that within the Adler-Bardeen procedure, both the conformal and axial anomalies are exhausted by one loop. (orig.)

  3. Elements of Spectral Theory without the Spectral Theorem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčiřík, David; Siegl, Petr

    Vol. 1. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2015, s. 233-282. ISBN 978-1-118-85528-7 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Hilbert Spaces * operators * theorem Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics

  4. Sperner's Lemma, the Brouwer Fixed-Point Theorem, and Cohomology

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, Nikolai V

    2009-01-01

    The proof of the Brouwer fixed-point Theorem based on Sperner's Lemma is often presented as an elementary combinatorial alternative to advanced proofs based on algebraic topology. The goal of this note is to show that: (i) the combinatorial proof of Sperner's Lemma can be considered as a cochain-level version, written in the combinatorial language, of a standard cohomological argument; (ii) the standard deduction of the Brouwer Theorem from Sperner's Lemma is similar to the usual deduction of the Brouwer theorem from the No-Retraction Theorem and is closely related to the notion of a simplicial approximation. In order to make these connections transparent, we included the above mentioned standard arguments, so the note is self-contained modulo the basic notions of (simplicial) cohomology theory.

  5. Methodological consequences of Gödel's incompleteness theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Podnieks, Karlis

    1992-01-01

    Published as: K. Podnieks. Methodological consequences of Gödel's incompleteness theorem. European Summer Meeting of the Association for Symbolic Logic, Berlin, 1989. The Journal of Symbolic Logic, Vol. 57, No. 1, March, 1992, pp.326-327

  6. Biological fitness and the fundamental theorem of natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafen, Alan

    2015-07-01

    Fisher's fundamental theorem of natural selection is proved satisfactorily for the first time, resolving confusions in the literature about the nature of reproductive value and fitness. Reproductive value is defined following Fisher, without reference to genetic variation, and fitness is the proportional rate of increase in an individual's contribution to the demographic population size. The mean value of fitness is the same in each age class, and it also equals the population's Malthusian parameter. The statement and derivation are regarded as settled here, and so the general biological significance of the fundamental theorem can be debated. The main purpose of the theorem is to find a quantitative measure of the effect of natural selection in a Mendelian system, thus founding Darwinism on Mendelism and identifying the design criterion for biological adaptation, embodied in Fisher's ingenious definition of fitness. The relevance of the newly understood theorem to five current research areas is discussed. PMID:26098334

  7. The Weinberg-Witten theorem on massless particles: an essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this essay we deal with the Weinberg-Witten theorem which imposes limitations on massless particles. First we motivate a classification of massless particles given by the Poincare group as the symmetry group of Minkowski spacetime. We then use the fundamental structure of the background in the form of Poincare covariance to derive restrictions on charged massless particles known as the Weinberg-Witten theorem. We address possible misunderstandings in the proof of this theorem motivated by several papers on this topic. In the last section the consequences of the theorem are discussed. We treat it in the context of known particles and as a constraint for emergent theories. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. On the generalized virial theorem for systems with variable mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganghoffer, Jean-François; Rahouadj, Rachid

    2016-03-01

    We presently extend the virial theorem for both discrete and continuous systems of material points with variable mass, relying on developments presented in Ganghoffer (Int J Solids Struct 47:1209-1220, 2010). The developed framework is applicable to describe physical systems at very different scales, from the evolution of a population of biological cells accounting for growth to mass ejection phenomena occurring within a collection of gravitating objects at the very large astrophysical scales. As a starting basis, the field equations in continuum mechanics are written to account for a mass source and a mass flux, leading to a formulation of the virial theorem accounting for non-constant mass within the considered system. The scalar and tensorial forms of the virial theorem are then written successively in both Lagrangian and Eulerian formats, incorporating the mass flux. As an illustration, the averaged stress tensor in accreting gravitating solid bodies is evaluated based on the generalized virial theorem.

  9. Analysing nature's experiment: Fisher's inductive theorem of natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, A W F

    2016-06-01

    The paper by Ewens and Lessard (2015) adds to the progress that has been made in exploring the discrete-generation analytical version of Fisher's Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection introduced by Ewens (1989). Fisher's continuous-time theorem differs from the version described by Ewens and Lessard by using a different concept of fitness. Ewens and Lessard use the conventional 'viability' concept whereas for Fisher the fitness of a genotype was its relative rate of increase or decrease in the population. The sole purpose of the present paper is to emphasize the alternative inductive nature of Fisher's theorem, as presented by him in 1930, by placing it in the context of his contemporary development of the analysis of variance in agricultural experiments. It is not a general discussion of the theorem itself. PMID:26581894

  10. Some New Coincidence Theorems in Product GFC-Spaces with Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianrong Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We first propose a new concept of GFC-subspace. Using this notion, we obtain a new continuous selection theorem. As a consequence, we establish some new collective fixed point theorems and coincidence theorems in product GFC-spaces. Finally, we give some applications of our theorems.

  11. Some New Coincidence Theorems in Product GFC-Spaces with Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Jianrong Zhao

    2014-01-01

    We first propose a new concept of GFC-subspace. Using this notion, we obtain a new continuous selection theorem. As a consequence, we establish some new collective fixed point theorems and coincidence theorems in product GFC-spaces. Finally, we give some applications of our theorems.

  12. Representation Theorems for Quadratic ${\\cal F}$-Consistent Nonlinear Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Ying; Ma, Jin; Peng, Shige; Yao, Song

    2007-01-01

    International audience In this paper we extend the notion of ``filtration-consistent nonlinear expectation" (or ``${\\cal F}$-consistent nonlinear expectation") to the case when it is allowed to be dominated by a $g$-expectation that may have a quadratic growth. We show that for such a nonlinear expectation many fundamental properties of a martingale can still make sense, including the Doob-Meyer type decomposition theorem and the optional sampling theorem. More importantly, we show that an...

  13. Fluctuation theorem for the mutation process in in vitro evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proposition based on the fluctuation theorem in thermodynamics is formulated to quantitatively describe molecular evolution processes in biology. Although we cannot give full proof of its generality, we demonstrate via computer simulation its applicability in an example of DNA in vitro evolution. According to this theorem, the evolution process is a series of exponentially rare fluctuations fixed by the force of natural selection. (general)

  14. Note on soft graviton theorem by KLT relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yi-Jian; Feng, Bo; Fu, Chih-Hao; Wang, Yihong

    2014-11-01

    Recently, new soft graviton theorem proposed by Cachazo and Strominger has inspired a lot of works. In this note, we use the KLT-formula to investigate the theorem. We have shown how the soft behavior of color ordered Yang-Mills amplitudes can be combined with KLT relation to give the soft behavior of gravity amplitudes. As a byproduct, we find two nontrivial identities of the KLT momentum kernel must hold.

  15. Note on Soft Graviton theorem by KLT Relation

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Yi-Jian; Fu, Chih-Hao; Wang, Yihong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, new soft graviton theorem proposed by Cachazo and Strominger has inspired a lot of works. In this note, we use the KLT-formula to investigate the theorem. We have shown how the soft behavior of color ordered Yang-Mills amplitudes can be combined with KLT relation to give the soft behavior of gravity amplitudes. As a byproduct, we find two nontrivial identities of the KLT momentum kernel must hold.

  16. Note on soft graviton theorem by KLT relation

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Yi-Jian; FENG, BO; Fu, Chih-Hao; Wang, Yihong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, new soft graviton theorem proposed by Cachazo and Strominger has inspired a lot of works. In this note, we use the KLT-formula to investigate the theorem. We have shown how the soft behavior of color ordered Yang-Mills amplitudes can be combined with KLT relation to give the soft behavior of gravity amplitudes. As a byproduct, we find two nontrivial identities of the KLT momentum kernel must hold.

  17. Note on Identities Inspired by New Soft Theorems

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Junjie; Feng, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The new soft theorems, for both gravity and gauge amplitudes, have inspired a number of works, including the discovery of new identities related to amplitudes. In this note, we present the proof and discussion for two sets of identities. The first set includes an identity involving the half-soft function which had been used in the soft theorem for one-loop rational gravity amplitudes, and another simpler identity as its byproduct. The second set includes two identities involving the KLT momen...

  18. A Combinatorial Substitute for the Degree Theorem in Auter Space

    CERN Document Server

    Bux, Kai-Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Auter space A_n is contractible. A. Hatcher and K. Vogtmann constructed a stratification of A_n into subspaces A_{n,k} such that A_{n,k} is k-connected. Their argument that A_{n,k} is (k-1)-connected, the Degree Theorem and its proof, is somewhat global in nature. Here we present a combinatorial substitute for the Degree Theorem that uses only local considerations to show that A_{n,k} is (k-1)-connected.

  19. Teaching for the objectification of the Pythagorean Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Spyrou, Panagiotis; Moutsios-Rentzos, Andreas; Triantafyllou, Dimos

    2012-01-01

    This study concerns a teaching design with the purpose to facilitate the students’ objectification of the Pythagorean Theorem. Twelve 14-year old students (N=12) participated in the study before the theorem was introduced to them at school. The design incorporated ideas from the ‘embodied mind’ framework, history and realistic mathematics, linking ‘embodied verticality’ with ‘perpendicularity’. The qualitative analyses suggested that the participants were led to the conquest of the ‘first ...

  20. Equity, continuity, and myopia: A generalization of Diamond's impossibility theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Tomoichi Shinotsuka

    1997-01-01

    We consider social preferences over infinite horizon intergenerational consumption paths. We use the Mackey topology to define continuity of social preferences. Our main objective is to generalize one of Diamond's impossibility theorems. First, we show that the trivial preference relation is the only asymmetric social preference relation satisfying equity and continuity. Second, we compare Campbell's impossibility theorem with ours. Finally we use an order-based notion of myopia and establish...

  1. Generalization of majorization theorem via Abel-Gontscharoff polynomial

    OpenAIRE

    Adil Khan, Muhammad; Latif, Naveed; Pečarić, Josip

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we use Abel-Gontscharoff formula and Green function to give some identities for the difference of majorization inequality and present the generalization of majorization theorem for the class of n-convex. We use inequalities for the Čebyšev functional to obtain bounds for the identities related to generalizations of majorization inequalities. We present mean value theorems and n-exponential convexity for the functional obtained from the generalized majorization inequalities. At t...

  2. A New Simple Approach for Entropy and Carnot Theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entropy and Carnot theorem occupy central place in the typical Thermodynamics courses at the university level. In this work, we suggest a new simple approach for introducing the concept of entropy. Using simple procedure in TV plane, we proved that for reversible processes ∫dQ/T=0 and it is sufficient to define entropy. And also, using reversible processes in TS plane, we give an alternative simple proof for Carnot theorem

  3. A continuous mapping theorem for the smallest argmax functional

    OpenAIRE

    Seijo, Emilio; Sen, Bodhisattva

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a version of the argmax continuous mapping theorem that applies to M-estimation problems in which the objective functions converge to a limiting process with multiple maximizers. The concept of the smallest maximizer of a function in the d-dimensional Skorohod space is introduced and its main properties are studied. The resulting continuous mapping theorem is applied to three problems arising in change-point regression analysis. Some of the results proved in connection t...

  4. Extending the Transport Theorem to Rough Domains of Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Seguin, Brian; Hinz, Denis F.; Fried, Eliot

    2014-01-01

    Transport theorems, such as that named after Reynolds, are an important tool in the field of continuum physics. Recently, Seguin and Fried used Harrison's theory of differential chains to establish a transport theorem valid for evolving domains that may become irregular. Evolving irregular domains occur in many different physical settings, such as phase transitions or fracture. Here, emphasizing concepts over technicalities, we present Harrison's theory of differential chains and the results ...

  5. Testing the Kochen-Specker theorem with Josephson qubits

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, L. F.; Maruyama, K.; Wang, X. -B.; You, J. Q.; Nori, Franco

    2008-01-01

    We propose an experimental approach to {\\it macro}scopically test the Kochen-Specker theorem (KST) with superconducting qubits. This theorem, which has been experimentally tested with single photons or neutrons, concerns the conflict between the contextuality of quantum mechnaics (QM) and the noncontextuality of hidden-variable theories (HVTs). We first show that two Josephson charge qubits can be controllably coupled by using a two-level data bus produced by a Josephson phase qubit. Next, by...

  6. A Five-variable generalization of Ramanujan's reciprocity theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Xinrong

    2013-01-01

    By virtue of Bailey's well-known bilateral 6\\psi_6 summation formula and Watson's transformation formula,we extend the four-variable generalization of Ramanujan's reciprocity theorem due to Andrews to a five-variable one. Some relevant new q-series identities including a new proof of Ramanujan's reciprocity theorem and of Watson's quintuple product identity only based on Jackson's transformation are presented.

  7. The theorem of existence of ruptures in the probability scale.

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Harin

    2010-01-01

    The report, that has been presented on the IX International Conference on Financial and Actuarial Mathematics, is devoted to the probability theory and economics. The theorems of existence of the ruptures near the borders of finite intervals and of the probability scale have been proved. The theorem of existence of the ruptures in the probability scale can assist, e.g., to solve paradoxes such as Allais paradox and the "four-fold-pattern" paradox.

  8. Reduction Theorems for Optimal Unambiguous State Discrimination of Density Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Raynal, P; Van Enk, S J; Raynal, Philippe; Luetkenhaus, Norbert; Enk, Steven J. van

    2003-01-01

    We present reduction theorems for the problem of optimal unambiguous state discrimination (USD) of two general density matrices. We show that this problem can be reduced to that of two density matrices that have the same rank $n$ and are described in a Hilbert space of dimensions $2n$. We also show how to use the reduction theorems to discriminate unambiguously between N mixed states (N \\ge 2).

  9. The Adler-Bardeen theorem in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new proof of the Adler-Bardeen theorem in quantum electrodynamics is presented on the basis of three kinds of Ward-Takahashi identities. Among them one is new and essential to the proof. By examining the consistency of these identities with the renormalization group we find three equations for the anomalous dimensions of the operators appearing in the Ward-Takahashi identities. Combination of these three equations immediately yields the Adler-Bardeen theorem. (author)

  10. Overview on the Pointwise Constrained Liapunov Vectorial Convexity Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Carlota; Sílvia Chá; António Ornelas

    2013-01-01

    In applications of the Calculus of Variations, Optimal Control and Differential Inclusions, very important real-life problems are nonconvex vectorial and subject to pointwise constraints. The classical Liapunov convexity theorem is a crucial tool allowing researchers to solve nonconvex vectorial problems involving single integrals. However, the possibility of extending such theorem so as to deal with pointwise constraints has remained an open problem for two decades, in the more realistic cas...

  11. An obstruction based approach to the Kochen-Specker theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, John

    1999-01-01

    In [1] it was shown that the Kochen Specker theorem can be written in terms of the non-existence of global elements of a certain varying set over the partially ordered set of boolean subalgebras of projection operators on some Hilbert space. In this paper, we show how obstructions to the construction of such global elements arise, and how this provides a new way of looking at proofs of the theorem.

  12. Central limit theorem for Fourier transform of stationary processes

    CERN Document Server

    Peligrad, Magda

    2009-01-01

    We consider asymptotic behavior of Fourier transforms of stationary ergodic sequences with finite second moments. We establish the central limit theorem (CLT) for almost all frequencies and also the annealed CLT. The theorems hold for all regular sequences. Our results shed new light on the foundation of spectral analysis and on the asymptotic distribution of periodogram, and it provides a nice blend of harmonic analysis, theory of stationary processes and theory of martingales.

  13. An implication of G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Kitada, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    A proof of G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem is given. With this new proof a transfinite extension of G\\"odel's theorem is considered. It is shown that if one assumes the set theory ZFC on the meta level as well as on the object level, a contradiction arises. The cause is shown to be the implicit identification of the meta level and the object level hidden behind the G\\"odel numbering. An implication of these considerations is stated.

  14. A Simple Exposition of Gödel's Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Lucas introduces this paper by an account of how he began to be interested to questions about Materialism and Mechanism. Then he suggests a simple version of the Incompleteness theorem of Gödel, showing how this theorem proposes a version of the Epimenides’ paradox able to avoid the circularity of this paradox by means of the possibility to express meta-mathematics in terms of arithmetical propositions and by substituting questions concerning truth by questions concerning provability.

  15. Conformal Killing vector fields and a virial theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Cariñena, José F.; Gheorghiu, Irina; Martínez, Eduardo; Santos, Patrícia

    2014-01-01

    The virial theorem is formulated both intrinsically and in local coordinates for a Lagrangian system of mechanical type on a Riemann manifold. An import case studied in this paper is that of an affine virial function associated to a vector field on the configuration manifold. The special cases of a virial function associated to a Killing, a homothetic and a conformal Killing vector field are considered and the corresponding virial theorems are established for this type of functions.

  16. A geometric approach to a generalized virial theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Cariñena, José F.; Falceto, Fernando; Manuel F. Rañada

    2012-01-01

    The virial theorem, introduced by Clausius in statistical mechanics, and later applied in both classical mechanics and quantum mechanics, is studied by making use of symplectic formalism as an approach in the case of both the Hamiltonian and Lagrangian systems. The possibility of establishing virial's like theorems from one-parameter groups of non-strictly canonical transformations is analysed; and the case of systems with a position dependent mass is also discussed. Using the modern symplect...

  17. Generalised Virial theorems in Classical and Quantum Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Sukumar, C V

    2014-01-01

    Generalisations of the virial theorm in Classical Mechanics and Quantum Mechanics are examined. It is shown that the generalised virial theorem in Quantum Mechanics leads to certain relations between matrix elements. The differences between the generalisations in Classical and Quantum Mechanics are identified. Some results arising from the radial Schr\\"odinger equation in Quantum Mechanics are discussed. It is also shown that the generalisations of the virial theorem may be extended to arbitr...

  18. Generalization of the hypervirial and Feynman-Hellman theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Nadareishvili, Teimuraz

    2013-01-01

    Using well-known methods we generalize (hyper)virial theorems to case of singular potential. Discussion is carried on for most general second order differential equation, which involves all physically interesting cases, such as Schr\\"odinger and two-body Klein-Gordon equations with singular potentials. Some physical consequences are discussed. The connection with Feynman-Hellmann like theorems are also considered and some relevant differences are underlined.

  19. Clausius/Cosserat/Maxwell/Weyl Equations: The Virial Theorem Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Pommaret, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    This paper must be published under the title " FROM THERMODYNAMICS TO GAUGE THEORY: THE VIRIAL THEOREM REVISITED " as a chapter of a forthcoming book " GAUGE THEORY AND DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY " published by Nova Editors. In 1870, R. Clausius found the virial theorem which amounts to introduce the trace of the stress tensor when studying the foundations of thermodynamics, as a way to relate the absolute temperature of an ideal gas to the mean kinetic energy of its molecules. In 1901, H. Poin...

  20. Generalized virial theorem in f(R) gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Boehmer, Christian G.; Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S N

    2007-01-01

    We generalize the virial theorem in f(R) modified gravity using the collisionless Boltzmann equation. We find supplementary geometric terms in the modified Einstein equation providing an effective contribution to the gravitational energy. The total virial mass is proportional to the effective mass associated with the new geometrical term, which may account for the well-known virial theorem mass discrepancy in clusters of galaxies. The model predicts that the geometric mass and its effects ext...

  1. Energy Budget and the Virial Theorem in Interstellar Clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Vazquez-Semadeni, Enrique

    1997-01-01

    The Virial Thoerem is a mathematical expression obtained from the equation of motion for a fluid, which describes the energy budget of particular regions within the flow. This course reviews the basic theory leading to the Virial Theorem, discusses its applicability and limitations, and then summarizes observational results concerning the physical and statistical properties of interstellar clouds which are normally understood in terms of the Virial Theorem, in particular the so-called ``Larso...

  2. Brody's theorem for Deligne-Mumford analytic stacks

    CERN Document Server

    Borghesi, Simone

    2012-01-01

    The classical Brody's theorem asserts the equivalence between two notions of hyperbolicity for compact complex spaces, one named after Kobayashi and one expressed in terms of lack of non constant holomorphic entire functions (compactness is only used to prove the harder implication). We extend this theorem to Deligne-Mumford analytic stacks, by first providing definitions of what we think of Kobayashi and Brody hyperbolicity for such objects and then proving the equivalence of these concepts under an assumption of compactness.

  3. Conformal Killing vector fields and a virial theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The virial theorem is formulated both intrinsically and in local coordinates for a Lagrangian system of a mechanical type on a Riemann manifold. An important case studied in this paper is that of an affine virial function associated with a vector field on the configuration manifold. The special cases of a virial function associated with a Killing, a homothetic, and a conformal Killing vector field are considered and the corresponding virial theorems are established for these types of functions. (paper)

  4. Some Limit Theorems for Negatively Associated Random Variables

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yu Miao; Wenfei Xu; Shanshan Chen; Andre Adler

    2014-08-01

    Let $\\{X_n,n≥ 1\\}$ be a sequence of negatively associated random variables. The aim of this paper is to establish some limit theorems of negatively associated sequence, which include the $L^p$-convergence theorem and Marcinkiewicz–Zygmund strong law of large numbers. Furthermore, we consider the strong law of sums of order statistics, which are sampled from negatively associated random variables.

  5. A study on arithmetical functions and the prime number theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imm, Yeoh Saw

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, Leibniz triangle and suitable binomial coefficients were used to get the bounds of ψ (x) . Using the generalized convolution and the differentiation on generalized convolution of arithmetical functions, we get to prove Tatuzawa-Izeki identity. Selberg's asymptotic formula is included as a special case, which is the beginning of certain elementary proofs of the Prime Number Theorem. Integration is used on some related inequalities to provide a smoother elementary proof of the Prime Number Theorem.

  6. Numerical cubature from Archimedes' hat-box theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Kuperberg, Greg

    2004-01-01

    Archimedes' hat-box theorem states that uniform measure on a sphere projects to uniform measure on an interval. This fact can be used to derive Simpson's rule. We present various constructions of, and lower bounds for, numerical cubature formulas using moment maps as a generalization of Archimedes' theorem. We realize some well-known cubature formulas on simplices as projections of spherical designs. We combine cubature formulas on simplices and tori to make new formulas on spheres. In partic...

  7. On a variational theorem in acousto-elastodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B. S.

    1982-08-01

    A variational theorem is presented which may be used as a basis for developing the equations of motion and the boundary conditions appropriate for studying the vibrational behavior of flexible bodied systems and the surrounding acoustic medium. The theorem is a generalization of two theorems which are both based on the principle of virtual work; the first governs the elastodynamics of the mechanical system and the second governs the behavior of the fluid medium. Lagrange multipliers are used in the development of the two basic theorems and they are also employed to incorporate the constraints at the solid-fluid interface within the functional for the acousto-elastodynamic theorem. When independent arbitrary variations of the system parameters are permitted, this theorem yields as characteristic equations the equations of motion for each member of the mechanical system, the acoustic wave equation, the compatibility conditions at the mechanical joints, the compatibility conditions at the interface and also the mixed boundary conditions for the complete system. As an illustrative example, the derivation of the problem statement for a flexible slider crank mechanism operating in a perfect gas is presented in which it is assumed that the flexural motion of the links is governed by the Timoshenko beam theory.

  8. The strength of Ramsey Theorem for coloring relatively large sets

    CERN Document Server

    Carlucci, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    We characterize the computational content and the proof-theoretic strength of a Ramsey-type theorem for bi-colorings of so-called {\\em exactly large} sets. An {\\it exactly large} set is a set $X\\subset\\Nat$ such that $\\card(X)=\\min(X)+1$. The theorem we analyze is as follows. For every infinite subset $M$ of $\\Nat$, for every coloring $C$ of the exactly large subsets of $M$ in two colors, there exists and infinite subset $L$ of $M$ such that $C$ is constant on all exactly large subsets of $L$. This theorem is essentially due to Pudl\\`ak and R\\"odl and independently to Farmaki. We prove that --- over Computable Mathematics --- this theorem is equivalent to closure under the $\\omega$ Turing jump (i.e., under arithmetical truth). Natural combinatorial theorems at this level of complexity are rare. Our results give a complete characterization of the theorem from the point of view of Computable Mathematics and of the Proof Theory of Arithmetic. This nicely extends the current knowledge about the strength of Ramsey...

  9. Quantum Rate Distortion, Reverse Shannon Theorems, and Source-Channel Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, Nilanjana; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu; Wilde, Mark M.

    2013-01-01

    We derive quantum counterparts of two key theorems of classical information theory, namely, the rate distortion theorem and the source-channel separation theorem. The rate-distortion theorem gives the ultimate limits on lossy data compression, and the source-channel separation theorem implies that a two-stage protocol consisting of compression and channel coding is optimal for transmitting a memoryless source over a memoryless channel. In spite of their importance in the classical domain, the...

  10. [Health care systems and impossibility theorems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penchas, Shmuel

    2004-02-01

    results are Kurt Godel's seminal paper in 1931: "Ueber formal unentscheidbare Saetze der Principia Mathematica and verwandter System I" and Arrow's Nobel Prize winning "Impossibility Theorem" (Social Choice and Individual Values, 1951). Godel showed, unequivocally, that there is an enormous gap between what is being perceived as truth and what in fact can be proven as such. Arrow showed that the translation of individual preferences into a social order is impossible--except in a dictatorship. The unsolved controversies concerning the desirable or ideal structure of health care systems are impinged upon by these findings generally, and, in the case of the impossibility theorem, also directly. There is the impossibility of aggregating preferences and, at a deeper level, the impossibility of defining certain fundamental values, coupled with the problematic use of certain words, the absence of the possibility of creating, on a logically defined base, a complex system, complete and comprehensive in its own right. This is added to the fact that according to the elaboration by Stephen Wolfram in "A New Kind of Science", it is not easy to reduce complicated systems to simple components and to predict the continuation of their development even from simple basic laws without complicated calculations. All of these factors impede the construction of satisfying health care systems and leave obvious problems which overshadow the structure and the operation of health care systems. PMID:15143703

  11. An elementary, illustrative proof of the Rado-Horn Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Casazza, Peter G

    2011-01-01

    The Rado-Horn theorem provides necessary and sufficient conditions for when a collection of vectors can be partitioned into a fixed number of linearly independent sets. Such partitions exist if and only if every subset of the vectors satisfies the so-called Rado-Horn inequality. Today there are at least six proofs of the Rado-Horn theorem, but these tend to be extremely delicate or require intimate knowledge of matroid theory. In this paper we provide an elementary proof of the Rado-Horn theorem as well as elementary proofs for several generalizations including results for the redundant case when the hypotheses of the Rado-Horn theorem fail. Another problem with the existing proofs of the Rado-Horn Theorem is that they give no information about how to actually partition the vectors. We start by considering a specific partition of the vectors, and the proof consists of showing that this is an optimal partition. We further show how certain structures we construct in the proof are at the heart of the Rado-Horn t...

  12. An Invariant of Algebraic Curves from the Pascal Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Zhongxuan

    2012-01-01

    In 1640's, Blaise Pascal discovered a remarkable property of a hexagon inscribed in a conic - Pascal Theorem, which gave birth of the projective geometry. In this paper, a new geometric invariant of algebraic curves is discovered by a different comprehension to Pascal's mystic hexagram or to the Pascal theorem. Using this invariant, the Pascal theorem can be generalized to the case of cubic (even to algebraic curves of higher degree), that is, {\\em For any given 9 intersections between a cubic $\\Gamma_3$ and any three lines $a,b,c$ with no common zero, none of them is a component of $\\Gamma_3$, then the six points consisting of the three points determined by the Pascal mapping applied to any six points (no three points of which are collinear) among those 9 intersections as well as the remaining three points of those 9 intersections must lie on a conic.} This generalization differs quite a bit and is much simpler than Chasles's theorem and Cayley-Bacharach theorems.

  13. Extension to Eulers's theorem to n-dimensional spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    1989-01-01

    Euler's theorem states that any sequence of finite rotations of a rigid body can be described as a single rotation of the body about a fixed axis in three-dimensional Euclidean space. The usual statement of the theorem in the literature cannot be extended to Euclidean spaces of other dimensions. Equivalent formulations of the theorem are given in this paper and proven in a way which does not limit them to the three-dimensional Euclidean space. Thus, the equivalent theorems hold in other dimensions. The proof of one formulation presents an algorithm which shows how to compute an angular-difference matrix that represents a single rotation which is equivalent to the sequence of rotations that have generated the final n-D orientation. This algorithm results also in a constant angular-velocity which, when applied to the initial orientation, yields eventually the final orientation regardless of what angular velocity generated the latter. Finally, the extension of the theorem is demonstrated in a four-dimensional numerical example.

  14. Extension of Euler's theorem to n-dimensional spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    1989-01-01

    Euler's theorem states that any sequence of finite rotations of a rigid body can be described as a single rotation of the body about a fixed axis in three-dimensional Euclidean space. The usual statement of the theorem in the literature cannot be extended to Euclidean spaces of other dimensions. Equivalent formulations of the theorem are given and proved in a way which does not limit them to the three-dimensional Euclidean space. Thus, the equivalent theorems hold in other dimensions. The proof of one formulation presents an algorithm which shows how to compute an angular-difference matrix that represents a single rotation which is equivalent to the sequence of rotations that have generated the final n-D orientation. This algorithm results also in a constant angular velocity which, when applied to the initial orientation, eventually yields the final orientation regardless of what angular velocity generated the latter. The extension of the theorem is demonstrated in a four-dimensional numerical example.

  15. Experimental Test of Quantum No-Hiding Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Samal, Jharana Rani; Kumar, Anil

    2010-01-01

    Linearity and unitarity are two fundamental tenets of quantum theory. Any consequence that follows from these must be respected in the quantum world. The no-cloning theorem and the no-deleting theorem are the consequences of the linearity and the unitarity. Together with the stronger no-cloning theorem they provide permanence to quantum information, thus, suggesting that in the quantum world information can neither be created nor be destroyed. In this sense quantum information is robust, but at the same time it is also fragile because any interaction with the environment may lead to loss of information. Recently, another fundamental theorem was proved, namely, the no-hiding theorem that addresses precisely the issue of information loss. It says that if any physical process leads to bleaching of quantum information from the original system, then it must reside in the rest of the universe with no information being hidden in the correlation between these two subsystems. This has applications in quantum teleporta...

  16. Topology and phase transitions II. Theorem on a necessary relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this second paper, we prove a necessity theorem about the topological origin of phase transitions. We consider physical systems described by smooth microscopic interaction potentials VN(q), among N degrees of freedom, and the associated family of configuration space submanifolds {Mv}velementofR, with Mv={q element of RN|VN(q)≤v}. On the basis of an analytic relationship between a suitably weighed sum of the Morse indexes of the manifolds {Mv}velementofR and thermodynamic entropy, the theorem states that any possible unbound growth with N of one of the following derivatives of the configurational entropy S(-)(v)=(1/N)log∫MvdNq, that is of |∂kS(-)(v)/∂vk|, for k=3,4, can be entailed only by the weighed sum of Morse indexes. Since the unbound growth with N of one of these derivatives corresponds to the occurrence of a first- or of a second-order phase transition, and since the variation of the Morse indexes of a manifold is in one-to-one correspondence with a change of its topology, the Main Theorem of the present paper states that a phase transition necessarily stems from a topological transition in configuration space. The proof of the theorem given in the present paper cannot be done without Main Theorem of (paper I)

  17. The F-Theorem and F-Maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Pufu, Silviu S

    2016-01-01

    This contribution contains a review of the role of the three-sphere free energy F in recent developments related to the F-theorem and F-maximization. The F-theorem states that for any Lorentz-invariant RG trajectory connecting a conformal field theory CFT_UV in the ultraviolet to a conformal field theory CFT_IR, the F-coefficient decreases: F_UV > F_IR. I provide many examples of CFTs where one can compute F, approximately or exactly, and discuss various checks of the F-theorem. F-maximization is the principle that in an N=2 SCFT, viewed as the deep IR limit of an RG trajectory preserving N=2 supersymmetry, the superconformal R-symmetry maximizes F within the set of all R-symmetries preserved by the RG trajectory. I review the derivation of this result and provide examples.

  18. Quantum de Finetti theorem in phase-space representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantum versions of de Finetti's theorem derived so far express the convergence of n-partite symmetric states, i.e., states that are invariant under permutations of their n parties, toward probabilistic mixtures of independent and identically distributed (IID) states of the form σxn. Unfortunately, these theorems only hold in finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces, and their direct generalization to infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces is known to fail. Here, we address this problem by considering invariance under orthogonal transformations in phase space instead of permutations in state space, which leads to a quantum de Finetti theorem particularly relevant to continuous-variable systems. Specifically, an n-mode bosonic state that is invariant with respect to this continuous symmetry in phase space is proven to converge toward a probabilistic mixture of IID Gaussian states (actually, n identical thermal states).

  19. Noether's second theorem and Ward identities for gauge symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Steven G.; Schwab, Burkhard U. W.

    2016-02-01

    Recently, a number of new Ward identities for large gauge transformations and large diffeomorphisms have been discovered. Some of the identities are reinterpretations of previously known statements, while some appear to be genuinely new. We use Noether's second theorem with the path integral as a powerful way of generating these kinds of Ward identities. We reintroduce Noether's second theorem and discuss how to work with the physical remnant of gauge symmetry in gauge fixed systems. We illustrate our mechanism in Maxwell theory, Yang-Mills theory, p-form field theory, and Einstein-Hilbert gravity. We comment on multiple connections between Noether's second theorem and known results in the recent literature. Our approach suggests a novel point of view with important physical consequences.

  20. Note on Identities Inspired by New Soft Theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Junjie

    2016-01-01

    The new soft theorems, for both gravity and gauge amplitudes, have inspired a number of works, including the discovery of new identities related to amplitudes. In this note, we present the proof and discussion for two sets of identities. The first set includes an identity involving the half-soft function which had been used in the soft theorem for one-loop rational gravity amplitudes, and another simpler identity as its byproduct. The second set includes two identities involving the KLT momentum kernel, as the consistency conditions of the KLT relation plus soft theorems for both gravity and gauge amplitudes. We use the CHY formulation to prove the first identity, and transform the second one into a convenient form for future discussion.

  1. Note on identities inspired by new soft theorems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Junjie; Feng, Bo

    2016-04-01

    The new soft theorems, for both gravity and gauge amplitudes, have inspired a number of works, including the discovery of new identities related to amplitudes. In this note, we present the proof and discussion for two sets of identities. The first set includes an identity involving the half-soft function which had been used in the soft theorem for one-loop rational gravity amplitudes, and another simpler identity as its byproduct. The second set includes two identities involving the KLT momentum kernel, as the consistency conditions of the KLT relation plus soft theorems for both gravity and gauge amplitudes. We use the CHY formulation to prove the first identity, and transform the second one into a convenient form for future discussion.

  2. Extended Birkhoff's theorem in f(T) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    f(T) theory, a generally modified teleparallel gravity, has been proposed as an alternative gravity model to account for the dark energy phenomena. Following our previous work [Xin-he Meng and Ying-bin Wang, Eur. Phys. J. (2011)], we prove that Birkhoff's theorem holds in a more general context, specifically with the off diagonal tetrad case, in this communication letter. Then, we discuss, respectively, the results of the external vacuum and internal gravitational field in the f(T) gravity framework, as well as the extended meaning of this theorem. We also investigate the validity of Birkhoff's theorem in the frame of f(T) gravity via a conformal transformation by regarding the Brans-Dicke-like scalar as effective matter, and study the equivalence between both Einstein frame and Jordan frame. (orig.)

  3. Bell on Bell's theorem: The changing face of nonlocality

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Harvey R

    2015-01-01

    Between 1964 and 1990, the notion of nonlocality in Bell's papers underwent a profound change as his nonlocality theorem gradually became detached from quantum mechanics, and referred to wider probabilistic theories involving correlations between separated beables. The proposition that standard quantum mechanics is itself nonlocal (more precisely, that it violates `local causality') became divorced from the Bell theorem per se from 1976 on, although this important point is widely overlooked in the literature. In 1990, the year of his death, Bell would express serious misgivings about the mathematical form of the local causality condition, and leave ill-defined the issue of the consistency between special relativity and violation of the Bell-type inequality. In our view, the significance of the Bell theorem, both in its deterministic and stochastic forms, can only be fully understood by taking into account the fact that a fully Lorentz-covariant version of quantum theory, free of action-at-a-distance, can be a...

  4. A novel sampling theorem on the rotation group

    CERN Document Server

    McEwen, J D; Leistedt, B; Peiris, H V; Wiaux, Y

    2015-01-01

    We develop a novel sampling theorem for functions defined on the three-dimensional rotation group SO(3) by associating the rotation group with the three-torus through a periodic extension. Our sampling theorem requires $4L^3$ samples to capture all of the information content of a signal band-limited at $L$, reducing the number of required samples by a factor of two compared to other equiangular sampling theorems. We present fast algorithms to compute the associated Fourier transform on the rotation group, the so-called Wigner transform, which scale as $O(L^4)$, compared to the naive scaling of $O(L^6)$. For the common case of a low directional band-limit $N$, complexity is reduced to $O(N L^3)$. Our fast algorithms will be of direct use in speeding up the computation of directional wavelet transforms on the sphere. We make our SO3 code implementing these algorithms publicly available.

  5. Asymptotic symmetries of QED and Weinberg's soft photon theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Campiglia, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Various equivalences between so-called soft theorems which constrain scattering amplitudes and Ward identities related to asymptotic symmetries have recently been established in gauge theories and gravity. So far these equivalences have been restricted to the case of massless matter fields, the reason being that the asymptotic symmetries are defined at null infinity. The restriction is however unnatural from the perspective of soft theorems which are insensitive to the masses of the external particles. In this work we remove the aforementioned restriction in the context of scalar QED. Inspired by the radiative phase space description of massless fields at null infinity, we introduce a manifold description of time-like infinity on which the asymptotic phase space for massive fields can be defined. The "angle dependent" large gauge transformations are shown to have a well defined action on this phase space, and the resulting Ward identities are found to be equivalent to Weinberg's soft photon theorem.

  6. A Macro for Reusing Abstract Functions and Theorems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiaan J. C. Joosten

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Even though the ACL2 logic is first order, the ACL2 system offers several mechanisms providing users with some operations akin to higher order logic ones. In this paper, we propose a macro, named instance-of-defspec, to ease the reuse of abstract functions and facts proven about them. Defspec is an ACL2 book allowing users to define constrained functions and their associated properties. It contains macros facilitating the definition of such abstract specifications and instances thereof. Currently, lemmas and theorems derived from these abstract functions are not automatically instantiated. This is exactly the purpose of our new macro. instance-of-defspec will not only instantiate functions and theorems within a specification but also many more functions and theorems built on top of the specification. As a working example, we describe various fold functions over monoids, which we gradually built from arbitrary functions.

  7. Formulation of Liouville's theorem for grand ensemble molecular simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Site, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    Liouville's theorem in a grand ensemble, that is for situations where a system is in equilibrium with a reservoir of energy and particles, is a subject that, to our knowledge, has not been explicitly treated in literature related to molecular simulation. Instead, Liouville's theorem, a central concept for the correct employment of molecular simulation techniques, is implicitly considered only within the framework of systems where the total number of particles is fixed. However, the pressing demand of applied science in treating open systems leads to the question of the existence and possible exact formulation of Liouville's theorem when the number of particles changes during the dynamical evolution of the system. The intention of this paper is to stimulate a debate about this crucial issue for molecular simulation.

  8. Hadronic interactions of the J/ψ and Adler's theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective Lagrangian models of charmonium have recently been used to estimate dissociation cross sections with light hadrons. Detailed study of the symmetry properties reveals possible shortcomings relative to chiral symmetry. We therefore propose a new Lagrangian and point out distinguishing features amongst the different approaches. Moreover, we test the models against Adler's theorem, which requires, in the appropriate limit, the decoupling of pions from the theory for the normal parity sector. Using the newly proposed Lagrangian, which exhibits SUL(Nf)xSUR(Nf) symmetry and complies with Adler's theorem, we find dissociation cross sections with pions that are reduced in an energy-dependent way, with respect to cases where the theorem is not fulfilled

  9. Noncommutative gauge field theories: A no-go theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studying the mathematical structure of the noncommutative groups in more detail, we prove a no-go theorem for the noncommutative gauge theories. According to this theorem, the closure condition of the gauge algebra implies that: 1) the local noncommutative u(n) algebra only admits the irreducible nxn matrix-representation. Hence the gauge fields, as elements of the algebra, are in nxn matrix form, while the matter fields can only be either in fundamental, adjoint or singlet states; 2) for any gauge group consisting of several simple group factors, the matter fields can transform nontrivially under at most two noncommutative group factors. In other words, the matter fields cannot carry more than two simple noncommutative gauge group charges. This no-go theorem imposes strong restrictions on the construction of the noncommutative version of the Standard Model and in resolving the standing problem of charge quantization in noncommutative QED. (author)

  10. Canonical Approaches to Applications of the Virial Theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Jay R; Rivera-Rivera, Luis A; Lucchese, Robert R; Bevan, John W

    2016-02-11

    Canonical approaches are applied for investigation of the extraordinarily accurate electronic ground state potentials of H2(+), H2, HeH(+), and LiH using the virial theorem. These approaches will be dependent on previous investigations involving the canonical nature of E(R), the Born-Oppenheimer potential, and F(R), the associated force of E(R), that have been demonstrated to be individually canonical to high accuracy in the case of the systems investigated. Now, the canonical nature of the remaining functions in the virial theorem [the electronic kinetic energy T(R), the electrostatic potential energy V(R), and the function W(R) = RF(R)] are investigated and applied to H2, HeH(+), and LiH with H2(+) chosen as reference. The results will be discussed in the context of a different perspective of molecular bonding that goes beyond previous direct applications of the virial theorem. PMID:26788937

  11. New pattern theorems for square lattice self-avoiding walks and self-avoiding polygons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general pattern theorem for weighted self-avoiding polygons (SAPs) and self-avoiding walks (SAWs) in Z2 is obtained. The pattern theorem for SAPs fits into the general framework of the pattern theorem for lattice clusters introduced by Madras (1999 Ann. Comb. 3 357-84). Note that, unlike other pattern theorems proved for SAPs, this pattern theorem does not rely on first establishing a relationship between SAPs and SAWs. These results are applied to obtain pattern theorems for self-interacting SAPs and self-interacting SAWs

  12. Classical statistical thermodynamics of a gas of charged particles in magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M.Dubrovskii

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We will demonstrate that the paradox of classical statistical thermodynamics for a gas of charged particles in a magnetic field (GMF has not yet been explained. The paradox lies in the statement that the average magnetic moment of a gas is zero, whereas the time-average magnetic moment of each particle is always negative. We consider a gas of charged particles moving in a plane perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field. The density of distribution of the ensemble describing statistical properties of the GMF is derived starting from the basics, with due regard for the specific character of dynamics of the charged particles in the magnetic field. It is emphasized that neither the imposition of a potential barrier restricting the existence region of the GMF, nor the introduction of a background neutralizing charge occupying a finite area, is a necessary condition for the stationary equilibrium state of the GMF to exist. We show that the reason for this fact is that the density of distribution of the ensemble is dependent, besides the Hamiltonian, on another positive definite integral of motion that is a linear combination of the Hamiltonian and the angular momentum of the GMF. Basic thermodynamic relations are deduced in terms of the new density of distribution, and it is demonstrated that the GMF has a magnetic moment whose magnitude and sign are determined by the external potential field. Particularly, the GMF is diamagnetic in the absence of the neutralizing background charge. Thus, the statement of the Bohr-van Leeuwen theorem, deduced using the ordinary Gibbs density of distribution depending on the Hamiltonian only, is wrong. It is noted that a great deal of works on the theory of electronic phenomena in magnetic field are based either on the same wrong density of distribution or on the formula for average occupation numbers depending on the energy of states, which follows from this density of distribution within quantum theory. These

  13. Wiener Tauberian theorems for vector-valued functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Varma

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available Different versions of Wiener's Tauberian theorem are discussed for the generalized group algebra L1(G,A (of integrable functions on a locally compact abelian group G taking values in a commutative semisimple regular Banach algebra A using A-valued Fourier transforms. A weak form of Wiener's Tauberian property is introduced and it is proved that L1(G,A is weakly Tauberian if and only if A is. The vector analogue of Wiener's L2-span of translates theorem is examined.

  14. Addition theorems for spin spherical harmonics: I. Preliminaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzas, Antonio O, E-mail: abouzas@mda.cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, CINVESTAV-IPN, Carretera Antigua a Progreso Km. 6, Apdo. Postal 73 ' Cordemex' , Merida 97310, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2011-04-22

    We develop a systematic approach to deriving addition theorems for, and some other bilocal sums of, spin spherical harmonics. In this first part we establish some necessary technical results. We discuss the factorization of orbital and spin degrees of freedom in certain products of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients, and obtain general explicit results for the matrix elements in configuration space of tensor products of arbitrary rank of the position and angular-momentum operators. These results are the basis of the addition theorems for spin spherical harmonics obtained in part II (2011 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44 165302).

  15. Addition theorems for spin spherical harmonics: II. Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzas, Antonio O, E-mail: abouzas@mda.cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, CINVESTAV-IPN, Carretera Antigua a Progreso Km. 6, Apdo. Postal 73 ' Cordemex' , Merida 97310, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2011-04-22

    Based on the results of part I (2011 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44 165301), we obtain the general form of the addition theorem for spin spherical harmonics and give explicit results in the cases involving one spin-s' and one spin-s spherical harmonics with s', s = 1/2, 1, 3/2, and |s' - s| = 0, 1. We also obtain a fully general addition theorem for one scalar and one tensor spherical harmonic of arbitrary rank. A variety of bilocal sums of ordinary and spin spherical harmonics are given in explicit form, including a general explicit expression for bilocal spherical harmonics.

  16. New representations for $\\sigma(q)$ via reciprocity theorems

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Koustav; Dixit, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Two new representations for Ramanujan's function $\\sigma(q)$ are obtained. The proof of the first one uses the three-variable reciprocity theorem due to Soon-Yi Kang and a transformation due to R.P. Agarwal while that of the second uses the four-variable reciprocity theorem due to George Andrews and a generalization of a recent transformation of Andrews, Schultz, Yee and the second author. The advantage of these representations is that they involve free complex parameters - one in the first r...

  17. Fusion Systems On Finite Groups and Alperin's Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlqvist, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Let G be a group and P a Sylow p-subgroup of G. A fusion system of G on P, denoted by FP (G), is the category with objects; subgroups of P, and morphisms induced by conjugation in G. This thesis gives a brief introduction to the theory fusion systems. Two classical theorems of Burnside and Frobenius are stated and proved. These theorems may be seen as a starting point of the theory of fusion systems, even though the axiomatic foundation is due to Puig in the early 1990's. An abstract fusion s...

  18. Abelian theorems for the stieltjes transform of functions, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D. Carmichael

    1981-01-01

    is a result in which known behavior of the function as its domain variable approaches zero (approaches ∞ is used to infer the behavior of the transform as its domain variable approaches zero (approaches ∞. We obtain such theorems in this paper concerning the Stieltjes transform. In our results all parameters are complex; the variable s of the transform is complex in the right half plane; and the initial (final value Abelian theorems are obtained as |s|→0(|s|→∞ within an arbitrary wedge in the right half plane.

  19. A simple proof of the Abel-Ruffini theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Skopenkov, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is purely expositional. The statement of the Abel-Ruffini theorem on unsolvability of equations using radicals is simple and well-known. We sketch an elementary proof of this theorem. We do not use the terms 'field extension', 'Galois group' and even 'group'. However, our presentation is a good way to learn (or recall) starting idea of the Galois theory. Our exposition follows `Mathematical Omnibus' of S. Tabachnikov and D.B. Fuchs (in English, http://www.math.psu.edu/tabachni/Book...

  20. Limit Theorems for the Sample Entropy of Hidden Markov Chains

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Guangyue

    2011-01-01

    The Shannon-McMillan-Breiman theorem asserts that the sample entropy of a stationary and ergodic stochastic process converges to the entropy rate of the same process almost surely. In this paper, we focus our attention on the convergence behavior of the sample entropy of a hidden Markov chain. Under certain positivity assumption, we prove that a central limit theorem (CLT) with some Berry-Esseen bound for the sample entropy of a hidden Markov chain, and we use this CLT to establish a law of iterated logarithm (LIL) for the sample entropy.