WorldWideScience

Sample records for boeing aircraft col

  1. Advanced composite elevator for Boeing 727 aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Detail design activities are reported for a program to develop an advanced composites elevator for the Boeing 727 commercial transport. Design activities include discussion of the full scale ground test and flight test activities, the ancillary test programs, sustaining efforts, weight status, and the production status. Prior to flight testing of the advanced composites elevator, ground, flight flutter, and stability and control test plans were reviewed and approved by the FAA. Both the ground test and the flight test were conducted according to the approved plan, and were witnessed by the FAA. Three and one half shipsets have now been fabricated without any significant difficulty being encountered. Two elevator system shipsets were weighed, and results validated the 26% predicted weight reduction. The program is on schedule.

  2. 78 FR 61388 - TA-W-82,705, the Boeing Company Boeing Commercial Aircraft, (BCA) Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration TA-W-82,705, the Boeing Company Boeing... Services and Yoh Services Auburn, Washington; TA-W-82,705A, the Boeing Company Boeing Commercial Aircraft...., Triad Systems International, Volt Services and Yoh Services Everett, Washington; TA-W-82,705B, The...

  3. Simulation model for the Boeing 720B aircraft-flight control system in continuous flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-08-01

    A mathematical model of the Boeing 720B aircraft and autopilot has been derived. The model is representative of the 720B aircraft for continuous flight within a flight envelope defined by a Mach number of .4 at 20,000 feet altitude in a cruise config...

  4. Full-scale testing, production and cost analysis data for the advanced composite stabilizer for Boeing 737 aircraft, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniversario, R. B.; Harvey, S. T.; Mccarty, J. E.; Parson, J. T.; Peterson, D. C.; Pritchett, L. D.; Wilson, D. R.; Wogulis, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    The development, testing, production activities, and associated costs that were required to produce five-and-one-half advanced-composite stabilizer shipsets for Boeing 737 aircraft are defined and discussed.

  5. Advanced composite elevator for Boeing 727 aircraft. Volume 1: Technical summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chovil, D. V.; Harvey, S. T.; Mccarty, J. E.; Desper, O. E.; Jamison, E. S.; Syder, H.

    1981-01-01

    The design, development, analysis, and testing activities and results that were required to produce five and one-half shipsets of advanced composite elevators for Boeing 727 aircraft are summarized. During the preliminary design period, alternative concepts were developed. After selection of the best design, detail design and basic configuration improvements were evaluated. Five and one-half shipsets were manufactured. All program goals (except competitive cost demonstration) were accomplished when our design met or exceeded all requirements, criteria, and objectives.

  6. 78 FR 68985 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 777-200, -300, and -300ER Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... Boeing Company applied for a change to Type Certificate No. T00001SE Rev. 30 dated June 6, 2012 for... integration may result in security vulnerabilities from intentional or unintentional corruption of data and... material did not anticipate this type of system architecture or electronic access to aircraft systems...

  7. Full-scale testing, production and cost analysis data for the advanced composite stabilizer for Boeing 737 aircraft. Volume 1: Technical summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniversario, R. B.; Harvey, S. T.; Mccarty, J. E.; Parsons, J. T.; Peterson, D. C.; Pritchett, L. D.; Wilson, D. R.; Wogulis, E. R.

    1983-01-01

    The full scale ground test, ground vibration test, and flight tests conducted to demonstrate a composite structure stabilizer for the Boeing 737 aircraft and obtain FAA certification are described. Detail tools, assembly tools, and overall production are discussed. Cost analyses aspects covered include production costs, composite material usage factors, and cost comparisons.

  8. 78 FR 68986 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 777-200, -300, and -300ER Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background On August 21, 2012, The Boeing Company applied for a change to Type... vulnerabilities from intentional or unintentional corruption of data and systems critical to the safety and maintenance of the airplane. The existing regulations and guidance material did not anticipate this type of...

  9. 77 FR 64711 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... Service Bulletin 737-22A1224, dated May 18, 2012, requires installation of FCC software P/N 2274-COL-AC1..., 2010, because that service bulletin only specifies to install FCC OPS software P/N 2276-COL-AC1-05 or P...) Install software identified in table 2 of the Accomplishment Instructions of Boeing Alert Service Bulletin...

  10. 78 FR 49978 - Airworthiness Directives; the Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Pohl, Aerospace Engineer, Airframe Branch, ANM-120S, FAA, Seattle Aircraft Certification Office, 1601... Engineering Representative. Differences Between the Proposed AD and the Service Information Boeing Alert... structure not covered by the repair instructions in Boeing Alert Service Bulletin 737-53A1075, Revision 3...

  11. The Aircraft Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fitzgerald, Tim; Baiche, Noureddine; Brewer, Mike; Collins, Al; Knapp, Kathy; Kott, Marilyn; McGill, Duncan; Mensah, Dunstan; Neighbors, Mark; Reardon, Dee

    2005-01-01

    .... As the airline companies prepare to buy new Boeing and Airbus passenger jets, they remain under intense pressure to cut costs in order to remain profitable, forcing aircraft and engine manufacturers...

  12. Commercial Aircraft Pricing: Application of Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Given this, and the 45 Sean Broderick , “Boeing Revives Emphasis On Post-Delivery Business...web.stanford.edu/~lanierb/research/Dynamic_Aircraft_RES.pdf. Broderick , Sean. “Boeing Revives Emphasis On Post-Delivery Business.” Inside MRO, MRO

  13. Nuclear containment structure subjected to commercial and fighter aircraft crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadique, M.R.; Iqbal, M.A.; Bhargava, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Nuclear containment response has been studied against aircraft crash. • Concrete damaged plasticity and Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic models were employed. • Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 767-400 aircrafts caused global failure of containment. • Airbus A320 and Boeing 707-320 aircrafts caused local damage. • Tension damage of concrete was found more prominent compared to compression damage. -- Abstract: The response of a boiling water reactor (BWR) nuclear containment vessel has been studied against commercial and fighter aircraft crash using a nonlinear finite element code ABAQUS. The aircrafts employed were Boeing 747-400, Boeing 767-400, Airbus A-320, Boeing 707-320 and Phantom F4. The containment was modeled as a three-dimensional deformable reinforced concrete structure while the loading of aircraft was assigned using the respective reaction–time curve. The location of strike was considered near the junction of dome and cylinder, and the angle of incidence, normal to the containment surface. The material behavior of the concrete was incorporated using the damaged plasticity model while that of the reinforcement, the Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic model. The containment could not sustain the impact of Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 767-400 aircrafts and suffered rupture of concrete around the impact region leading to global failure. On the other hand, the maximum local deformation at the point of impact was found to be 0.998 m, 0.099 m, 0.092 m, 0.089 m, and 0.074 m against Boeing 747-400, Phantom F4, Boeing 767, Boeing 707-320 and Airbus A-320 aircrafts respectively. The results of the present study were compared with those of the previous analytical and numerical investigations with respect to the maximum deformation and overall behavior of the containment

  14. Nuclear containment structure subjected to commercial and fighter aircraft crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadique, M.R., E-mail: rehan.sadique@gmail.com; Iqbal, M.A., E-mail: iqbalfce@iitr.ernet.in; Bhargava, P., E-mail: bhpdpfce@iitr.ernet.in

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Nuclear containment response has been studied against aircraft crash. • Concrete damaged plasticity and Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic models were employed. • Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 767-400 aircrafts caused global failure of containment. • Airbus A320 and Boeing 707-320 aircrafts caused local damage. • Tension damage of concrete was found more prominent compared to compression damage. -- Abstract: The response of a boiling water reactor (BWR) nuclear containment vessel has been studied against commercial and fighter aircraft crash using a nonlinear finite element code ABAQUS. The aircrafts employed were Boeing 747-400, Boeing 767-400, Airbus A-320, Boeing 707-320 and Phantom F4. The containment was modeled as a three-dimensional deformable reinforced concrete structure while the loading of aircraft was assigned using the respective reaction–time curve. The location of strike was considered near the junction of dome and cylinder, and the angle of incidence, normal to the containment surface. The material behavior of the concrete was incorporated using the damaged plasticity model while that of the reinforcement, the Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic model. The containment could not sustain the impact of Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 767-400 aircrafts and suffered rupture of concrete around the impact region leading to global failure. On the other hand, the maximum local deformation at the point of impact was found to be 0.998 m, 0.099 m, 0.092 m, 0.089 m, and 0.074 m against Boeing 747-400, Phantom F4, Boeing 767, Boeing 707-320 and Airbus A-320 aircrafts respectively. The results of the present study were compared with those of the previous analytical and numerical investigations with respect to the maximum deformation and overall behavior of the containment.

  15. 78 FR 6200 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... L/ N 3518 excluding Boeing Sky Interior (BSI).'' Boeing considered the existing language too general... contain life rafts, palletized equipment, or miscellaneous equipment. Boeing based its original [[Page...

  16. Data Mining of NASA Boeing 737 Flight Data: Frequency Analysis of In-Flight Recorded Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Ansel J.

    2001-01-01

    Data recorded during flights of the NASA Trailblazer Boeing 737 have been analyzed to ascertain the presence of aircraft structural responses from various excitations such as the engine, aerodynamic effects, wind gusts, and control system operations. The NASA Trailblazer Boeing 737 was chosen as a focus of the study because of a large quantity of its flight data records. The goal of this study was to determine if any aircraft structural characteristics could be identified from flight data collected for measuring non-structural phenomena. A number of such data were examined for spatial and frequency correlation as a means of discovering hidden knowledge of the dynamic behavior of the aircraft. Data recorded from on-board dynamic sensors over a range of flight conditions showed consistently appearing frequencies. Those frequencies were attributed to aircraft structural vibrations.

  17. An aircraft noise pollution model for trajectory optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkana, A.; Cook, G.

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model describing the generation of aircraft noise is developed with the ultimate purpose of reducing noise (noise-optimizing landing trajectories) in terminal areas. While the model is for a specific aircraft (Boeing 737), the methodology would be applicable to a wide variety of aircraft. The model is used to obtain a footprint on the ground inside of which the noise level is at or above 70 dB.

  18. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research Phase II: N+4 Advanced Concept Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2012-01-01

    This final report documents the work of the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team on Task 1 of the Phase II effort. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech. Using a quantitative workshop process, the following technologies, appropriate to aircraft operational in the N+4 2040 timeframe, were identified: Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Hydrogen, fuel cell hybrids, battery electric hybrids, Low Energy Nuclear (LENR), boundary layer ingestion propulsion (BLI), unducted fans and advanced propellers, and combinations. Technology development plans were developed.

  19. Mutation analysis of COL4A3 and COL4A4 genes in a Chinese

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Autosomal dominant Alport syndrome (ADAS) accounts for 5% of all cases of Alport syndrome (AS), a primary basement membrane disorder arising from mutations in genes encoding the type IV collagen protein family.Mutationsin COL4A3 and COL4A4 genes were reported to be associated with ADAS. In this study, clinical ...

  20. Mutation analysis of COL4A3 and COL4A4 genes in a Chinese ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-10-24

    ,. People's Republic of China ... mutations in COL4A3 and COL4A4 genes which encode type IV collagen α3 and α4 chainsrespectively can .... hematuria and evidence for activation of the unfolded protein response. Focal and ...

  1. Advanced composite elevator for Boeing 727 aircraft, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chovil, D. V.; Grant, W. D.; Jamison, E. S.; Syder, H.; Desper, O. E.; Harvey, S. T.; Mccarty, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    Preliminary design activity consisted of developing and analyzing alternate design concepts and selecting the optimum elevator configuration. This included trade studies in which durability, inspectability, producibility, repairability, and customer acceptance were evaluated. Preliminary development efforts consisted of evaluating and selecting material, identifying ancillary structural development test requirements, and defining full scale ground and flight test requirements necessary to obtain Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification. After selection of the optimum elevator configuration, detail design was begun and included basic configuration design improvements resulting from manufacturing verification hardware, the ancillary test program, weight analysis, and structural analysis. Detail and assembly tools were designed and fabricated to support a full-scope production program, rather than a limited run. The producibility development programs were used to verify tooling approaches, fabrication processes, and inspection methods for the production mode. Quality parts were readily fabricated and assembled with a minimum rejection rate, using prior inspection methods.

  2. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2011-01-01

    This Final Report summarizes the work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team in Phase 1, which includes the time period of October 2008 through March 2010. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech. The team completed the development of a comprehensive future scenario for world-wide commercial aviation, selected baseline and advanced configurations for detailed study, generated technology suites for each configuration, conducted detailed performance analysis, calculated noise and emissions, assessed technology risks, and developed technology roadmaps. Five concepts were evaluated in detail: 2008 baseline, N+3 reference, N+3 high span strut braced wing, N+3 gas turbine battery electric concept, and N+3 hybrid wing body. A wide portfolio of technologies was identified to address the NASA N+3 goals. Significant improvements in air traffic management, aerodynamics, materials and structures, aircraft systems, propulsion, and acoustics are needed. Recommendations for Phase 2 concept and technology projects have been identified.

  3. 78 FR 70211 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Replacement figures of Boeing Special Attention Service Bulletin 757- 57-0071, dated September 12, 2012. The... information identified in this AD, contact Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention: Data & Services Management... Operations, M-30, West Building [[Page 70212

  4. 75 FR 52907 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... CONTACT: Nicholas Han, Aerospace Engineer, Airframe Branch, ANM-120S, FAA, Seattle Aircraft Certification... Airlines (JAL) reports that certain structures prevented the accomplishment of the inspection specified in... time for certain inspection locations. Boeing reports that recent engineering analysis has revealed...

  5. 78 FR 72564 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    .../ground relay in the P36 panel versus the location specified in Figure 15, Sheet 2, of Boeing Special... alternate relay locations. Figure 15, Sheet 2, of Boeing Special Attention Service Bulletin 757-24-0132... bundle routing described in Figure 1, Sheet 2, of Boeing Special Attention Service Bulletin 757-24-0132...

  6. Scaling trajectories in civil aircraft (1913-1997)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, K.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2000-01-01

    Using entropy statistics we analyse scaling patterns in terms of changes in the ratios among product characteristics of 143 designs in civil aircraft. Two allegedly dominant designs, the piston propeller DC3 and the turbofan Boeing 707, are shown to have triggered a scaling trajectory at the level

  7. Modern trends of aircraft fly-by-wire systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. С. Юцкевич

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Specifics of civil aviation modern transport aircraft fly-by-wire control systems are described. A comparison of the systems-level hardware and software, expressed through modes of guidance, provision of aircraft Airbus A-320, Boeing B-777, Tupolev Tu-214, Sukhoi Superjet SSJ-100 are carried out. The possibility of transition from mechanical control wiring to control through fly-by-wire system in the backup channel is shown.

  8. Support Resources Demand Parameters - Aircraft. Revision A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-15

    Maintenance Squadron A- ST Advance Medium STOL Transport APU Auxillary Power Unit ASSY Assembly ATC Air Training Command AVG Average BAC Boeing Aerospace...entire study that will result in an organized and prioritized body of decision criteria and parameters that may be used by logistics managers, supervisors...technicians, and other decision makers in the process of predicting resource demand rates for operational and new emerging aircraft weapon systems

  9. SUPPLY CHAIN FEATURES OF THE AEROSPACE INDUSTRY PARTICULAR CASE AIRBUS AND BOEING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela MOCENCO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aerospace sector is one of the most globalized industries in terms of market structure and production system. Through aircraft development programs aviation industry has introduced new solutions to develop its products. The role of the partners involved in the development programs for the new generation aircraft is becoming increasingly important. Supply chain management has become a key factor for major manufacturers in the industry. The new strategies introduced by the aircraft manufacturers have increased the complexity of the supply process, design and production from the aviation industry. This paper highlights a series of factors regarding the aircraft programs supply chain management. In the first part are described the problems encountered by the manufacturers and airlines during the development of the most recent aircraft launched A350XWB and B787 Dreamliner; the second part focuses on the organizational structure of the supply chain, suppliers role within supply chain and also there are described the effects of the new strategies adopted by Airbus and Boeing in the aircraft development; the last part focuses on the risks and challenges that aviation industry is facing.

  10. Detection of COL III in Parchment by Amino Acid Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard Poulsen Sommer, Dorte; Larsen, René

    2016-01-01

    Cultural heritage parchments made from the reticular dermis of animals have been subject to studies of deterioration and conservation by amino acid analysis. The reticular dermis contains a varying mixture of collagen I and III (COL I and III). When dealing with the results of the amino acid...... analyses, till now the COL III content has not been taken into account. Based on the available amino acid sequences we present a method for determining the amount of COL III in the reticular dermis of new and historical parchments calculated from the ratio of Ile/Val. We find COL III contents between 7...... and 32 % in new parchments and between 0.2 and 40 % in the historical parchments. This is consistent with results in the literature. The varying content of COL III has a significant influence on the uncertainty of the amino acid analysis. Although we have not found a simple correlation between the COL...

  11. Capacity assessment of concrete containment vessels subjected to aircraft impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andonov, Anton; Kostov, Marin; Iliev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An approach to assess the containment capacity to aircraft impact via fragility curves is proposed. • Momentum over Area was defined as most suitable reference parameter to describe the aircraft load. • The effect of the impact induced damages on the containment pressure capacity has been studied. • The studied containment shows no reduction of the pressure capacity for the investigated scenarios. • The effectiveness of innovative protective structure against aircraft impact has been evaluated. - Abstract: The paper describes the procedure and the results from the assessment of the vulnerability of a generic pre-stressed containment structure subjected to a large commercial aircraft impact. Impacts of Boeing 737, Boeing 767 and Boeing 747 have been considered. The containment vulnerability is expressed by fragility curves based on the results of a number of nonlinear dynamic analyses. Three reference parameters have been considered as impact intensity measure in the fragility curve definition: peak impact force (PIF), peak impact pressure (PIP) and Momentum over Area (MoA). Conclusions on the most suitable reference parameter as well on the vulnerability of such containment vessels are drawn. The influence of the aircraft impact induced damages on the containment ultimate pressure capacity is also assessed and some preliminary conclusions on this are drawn. The paper also addresses a conceptual design of a protective structure able to decrease the containment vulnerability and provide a preliminary assessment of the applicability of such concept.

  12. Capacity assessment of concrete containment vessels subjected to aircraft impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andonov, Anton, E-mail: anton.andonov@mottmac.com; Kostov, Marin; Iliev, Alexander

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • An approach to assess the containment capacity to aircraft impact via fragility curves is proposed. • Momentum over Area was defined as most suitable reference parameter to describe the aircraft load. • The effect of the impact induced damages on the containment pressure capacity has been studied. • The studied containment shows no reduction of the pressure capacity for the investigated scenarios. • The effectiveness of innovative protective structure against aircraft impact has been evaluated. - Abstract: The paper describes the procedure and the results from the assessment of the vulnerability of a generic pre-stressed containment structure subjected to a large commercial aircraft impact. Impacts of Boeing 737, Boeing 767 and Boeing 747 have been considered. The containment vulnerability is expressed by fragility curves based on the results of a number of nonlinear dynamic analyses. Three reference parameters have been considered as impact intensity measure in the fragility curve definition: peak impact force (PIF), peak impact pressure (PIP) and Momentum over Area (MoA). Conclusions on the most suitable reference parameter as well on the vulnerability of such containment vessels are drawn. The influence of the aircraft impact induced damages on the containment ultimate pressure capacity is also assessed and some preliminary conclusions on this are drawn. The paper also addresses a conceptual design of a protective structure able to decrease the containment vulnerability and provide a preliminary assessment of the applicability of such concept.

  13. Childhood presentation of COL4A1 mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, S.; Ellard, S.; Kneen, R.; Lim, M.; Osborne, N.; Rankin, J.; Stoodley, N.; van der Knaap, M.S.; Whitney, A.; Jardine, P.

    2012-01-01

    Aim To describe the clinical and radiological features of four new families with a childhood presentation of COL4A1 mutation. Method We retrospectively reviewed the clinical presentation. Investigations included radiological findings and COL4A1 mutation analysis of the four cases. Affected family

  14. Childhood presentation of COL4A1 mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, Siddharth; Ellard, Sian; Kneen, Rachel; Lim, Ming; Osborne, Nigel; Rankin, Julia; Stoodley, Neil; van der Knaap, Marjo; Whitney, Andrea; Jardine, Philip

    2012-01-01

    To describe the clinical and radiological features of four new families with a childhood presentation of COL4A1 mutation. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical presentation. Investigations included radiological findings and COL4A1 mutation analysis of the four cases. Affected family members were

  15. 77 FR 16147 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... identified in this AD, contact Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention: Data & Services Management, P.O. Box... Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE... that note (f) of Figures 10 and 24 of Boeing Alert Service Bulletin 767-56A0010, Revision 1, dated...

  16. 77 FR 41041 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... Clarify Note (d) of Figures 1 and 2 UAL noted that STEP 2, Note (d), of Boeing Special Attention Service... in this AD, contact Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention: Data & Services Management, P.O. Box 3707... Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE...

  17. 78 FR 17285 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ..., contact Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention: Data & Services Management, P.O. Box 3707, MC 2H-65... Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590... performing Figures 7 through 10 of Boeing Service Bulletin 767-27A0224, Revision 1, dated December 16, 2011...

  18. 78 FR 11972 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... corresponding figures of Boeing Special Attention Service Bulletin 737-53-1287, Revision 1, dated November 15... service information identified in this AD, contact Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention: Data & Services... Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE...

  19. 78 FR 9 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ..., Revision 1, dated March 31, 2005. (ii) At the times specified in Figure 8 of Boeing Special Attention... information identified in this AD, contact Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention: Data & Services Management... Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE...

  20. 78 FR 79289 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... service information identified in this AD, contact Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention: Data & Services... Management Facility, U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor... that Figure 4, Sheets 2 and 3 of Boeing Alert Service Bulletin 747-25A3613, dated June 22, 2012, show...

  1. 78 FR 65166 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ..., contact Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention: Data & Services Management, P.O. Box 3707, MC 2H-65... Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590. FOR FURTHER...'' inspections, done in accordance with Part 4 and Figure 8 of Boeing Alert Service Bulletin 747-53A2371...

  2. 77 FR 2669 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ...'' column of Table 1 of Figure 1 of Boeing Special Attention Service Bulletin 737-53-1234, Revision 1, dated... times specified in Figure 8 of Boeing Special Attention Service Bulletin 737-53-1234, Revision 1, dated... Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE...

  3. 78 FR 33193 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... modifications (such as the installation of felt on Model 767 airplanes per Figure 18 of Boeing Special Attention... information identified in this AD, contact Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention: Data & Services Management... Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE...

  4. 77 FR 41931 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... changes shown in Figures 2 and 7 of Boeing Special Attention Service Bulletin 737-30- 1058, Revision 3... Information Reference American stated that, in Figures 4 and 9 of Boeing Special Attention Service Bulletin... Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE...

  5. 77 FR 54798 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... that Figures 18 and 23 of Boeing Special Attention Service Bulletin 747-25-3586, dated November 12.... ADDRESSES: For service information identified in this AD, contact Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention.... Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New...

  6. 78 FR 25369 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ..., contact Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention: Data & Services Management, P.O. Box 3707, MC 2H-65... Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590... and corresponding figures of Boeing Service Bulletin 737-53-1310, dated October 20, 2011, are not...

  7. 78 FR 25372 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... this AD, contact Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention: Data & Services Management, P. O. Box 3707, MC... Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590... Part 5 of the Accomplishment Instructions and corresponding figures of Boeing Service Bulletin 737-53...

  8. 78 FR 47549 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... to certain The Boeing Company Model 737-200, -200C, -300, and -400 series airplanes. AD 2000-06-13 R1..., adds inspections and related investigative and corrective actions, revises certain inspection types...

  9. 77 FR 71723 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... directive (AD) that applies to certain The Boeing Company Model 737-200, -200C, - 300, and -400 series... related investigative and corrective actions, and revise certain inspection types. This proposed AD would...

  10. Mutational analysis of COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes among Estonian osteogenesis imperfecta patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhytnik, Lidiia; Maasalu, Katre; Reimann, Ene; Prans, Ele; Kõks, Sulev; Märtson, Aare

    2017-08-15

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare bone disorder. In 90% of cases, OI is caused by mutations in the COL1A1/2 genes, which code procollagen α1 and α2 chains. The main aim of the current research was to identify the mutational spectrum of COL1A1/2 genes in Estonian patients. The small population size of Estonia provides a unique chance to explore the collagen I mutational profile of 100% of OI families in the country. We performed mutational analysis of peripheral blood gDNA of 30 unrelated Estonian OI patients using Sanger sequencing of COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes, including all intron-exon junctions and 5'UTR and 3'UTR regions, to identify causative OI mutations. We identified COL1A1/2 mutations in 86.67% of patients (26/30). 76.92% of discovered mutations were located in the COL1A1 (n = 20) and 23.08% in the COL1A2 (n = 6) gene. Half of the COL1A1/2 mutations appeared to be novel. The percentage of quantitative COL1A1/2 mutations was 69.23%. Glycine substitution with serine was the most prevalent among missense mutations. All qualitative mutations were situated in the chain domain of pro-α1/2 chains. Our study shows that among the Estonian OI population, the range of collagen I mutations is quite high, which agrees with other described OI cohorts of Northern Europe. The Estonian OI cohort differs due to the high number of quantitative variants and simple missense variants, which are mostly Gly to Ser substitutions and do not extend the chain domain of COL1A1/2 products.

  11. Mutation analysis of the COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes in Vietnamese patients with osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Duy, Binh; Zhytnik, Lidiia; Maasalu, Katre; Kändla, Ivo; Prans, Ele; Reimann, Ene; Märtson, Aare; Kõks, Sulev

    2016-08-12

    The genetics of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) have not been studied in a Vietnamese population before. We performed mutational analysis of the COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes in 91 unrelated OI patients of Vietnamese origin. We then systematically characterized the mutation profiles of these two genes which are most commonly related to OI. Genomic DNA was extracted from EDTA-preserved blood according to standard high-salt extraction methods. Sequence analysis and pathogenic variant identification was performed with Mutation Surveyor DNA variant analysis software. Prediction of the pathogenicity of mutations was conducted using Alamut Visual software. The presence of variants was checked against Dalgleish's osteogenesis imperfecta mutation database. The sample consisted of 91 unrelated osteogenesis imperfecta patients. We identified 54 patients with COL1A1/2 pathogenic variants; 33 with COL1A1 and 21 with COL1A2. Two patients had multiple pathogenic variants. Seventeen novel COL1A1 and 10 novel COL1A2 variants were identified. The majority of identified COL1A1/2 pathogenic variants occurred in a glycine substitution (36/56, 64.3 %), usually serine (23/36, 63.9 %). We found two pathogenic variants of the COL1A1 gene c.2461G > A (p.Gly821Ser) in four unrelated patients and one, c.2005G > A (p.Ala669Thr), in two unrelated patients. Our data showed a lower number of collagen OI pathogenic variants in Vietnamese patients compared to reported rates for Asian populations. The OI mutational profile of the Vietnamese population is unique and related to the presence of a high number of recessive mutations in non-collagenous OI genes. Further analysis of OI patients negative for collagen mutations, is required.

  12. Preliminary analysis of aircraft fuel systems for use with broadened specification jet fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasion, A. J.; Thomas, I.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical study was conducted on the use of broadened specification hydrocarbon fuels in present day aircraft. A short range Boeing 727 mission and three long range Boeing 747 missions were used as basis of calculation for one-day-per-year extreme values of fuel loading, airport ambient and altitude ambient temperatures with various seasonal and climatic conditions. Four hypothetical fuels were selected; two high-vapor-pressure fuels with 35 kPa and 70 kPa RVP and two high-freezing-point fuels with -29 C and -18 C freezing points. In-flight fuel temperatures were predicted by Boeing's aircraft fuel tank thermal analyzer computer program. Boil-off rates were calculated for the high vapor pressure fuels and heating/insulation requirements for the high freezing point fuels were established. Possible minor and major heating system modifications were investigated with respect to heat output, performance and economic penalties for the high freezing point fuels.

  13. Final Technical Report. Project Boeing SGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Thomas E. [The Boeing Company, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    Boeing and its partner, PJM Interconnection, teamed to bring advanced “defense-grade” technologies for cyber security to the US regional power grid through demonstration in PJM’s energy management environment. Under this cooperative project with the Department of Energy, Boeing and PJM have developed and demonstrated a host of technologies specifically tailored to the needs of PJM and the electric sector as a whole. The team has demonstrated to the energy industry a combination of processes, techniques and technologies that have been successfully implemented in the commercial, defense, and intelligence communities to identify, mitigate and continuously monitor the cyber security of critical systems. Guided by the results of a Cyber Security Risk-Based Assessment completed in Phase I, the Boeing-PJM team has completed multiple iterations through the Phase II Development and Phase III Deployment phases. Multiple cyber security solutions have been completed across a variety of controls including: Application Security, Enhanced Malware Detection, Security Incident and Event Management (SIEM) Optimization, Continuous Vulnerability Monitoring, SCADA Monitoring/Intrusion Detection, Operational Resiliency, Cyber Range simulations and hands on cyber security personnel training. All of the developed and demonstrated solutions are suitable for replication across the electric sector and/or the energy sector as a whole. Benefits identified include; Improved malware and intrusion detection capability on critical SCADA networks including behavioral-based alerts resulting in improved zero-day threat protection; Improved Security Incident and Event Management system resulting in better threat visibility, thus increasing the likelihood of detecting a serious event; Improved malware detection and zero-day threat response capability; Improved ability to systematically evaluate and secure in house and vendor sourced software applications; Improved ability to continuously monitor

  14. Evaluation the COL9A2 gene with high myopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dingding; Huang, Maomin

    2017-11-01

    This paper investigates the association of the COL9A2 gene between high myopia and normal controls in the Han Chinese population. It shows that the frameshift mutation (D281fs) in the COL9A2 gene is not associated with high myopia in the Han Chinese population, and the two novel variants(c.143G>C and c.884G>A) may contribute to the development of high myopia.

  15. Boeing's STAR-FODB test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Martin E.; de la Chapelle, Michael; Van Ausdal, Arthur W.

    1995-05-01

    Boeing has successfully concluded a 2 1/2 year, two phase developmental contract for the STAR-Fiber Optic Data Bus (FODB) that is intended for future space-based applications. The first phase included system analysis, trade studies, behavior modeling, and architecture and protocal selection. During this phase we selected AS4074 Linear Token Passing Bus (LTPB) protocol operating at 200 Mbps, along with the passive, star-coupled fiber media. The second phase involved design, build, integration, and performance and environmental test of brassboard hardware. The resulting brassboard hardware successfully passed performance testing, providing 200 Mbps operation with a 32 X 32 star-coupled medium. This hardware is suitable for a spaceflight experiment to validate ground testing and analysis and to demonstrate performace in the intended environment. The fiber bus interface unit (FBIU) is a multichip module containing transceiver, protocol, and data formatting chips, buffer memory, and a station management controller. The FBIU has been designed for low power, high reliability, and radiation tolerance. Nine FBIUs were built and integrated with the fiber optic physical layer consisting of the fiber cable plant (FCP) and star coupler assembly (SCA). Performance and environmental testing, including radiation exposure, was performed on selected FBIUs and the physical layer. The integrated system was demonstrated with a full motion color video image transfer across the bus while simultaneously performing utility functions with a fiber bus control module (FBCM) over a telemetry and control (T&C) bus, in this case AS1773.

  16. Amphibious Aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A brief self composed research article on Amphibious Aircrafts discussing their use, origin and modern day applications along with their advantages and disadvantages...

  17. Trust Control of VTOL Aircraft Part Deux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    Thrust control of Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) aircraft has always been a debatable issue. In most cases, it comes down to the fundamental question of throttle versus collective. Some aircraft used throttle(s), with a fore and aft longitudinal motion, some had collectives, some have used Thrust Levers where the protocol is still "Up is Up and Down is Down," and some have incorporated both throttles and collectives when designers did not want to deal with the Human Factors issues. There have even been combinations of throttles that incorporated an arc that have been met with varying degrees of success. A previous review was made of nineteen designs without attempting to judge the merits of the controller. Included in this paper are twelve designs entered in competition for the 1961 Tri-Service VTOL transport. Entries were from a Bell/Lockheed tiltduct, a North American tiltwing, a Vanguard liftfan, and even a Sikorsky tiltwing. Additional designs were submitted from Boeing Wichita (direct lift), Ling-Temco-Vought with its XC-142 tiltwing, Boeing Vertol's tiltwing, Mcdonnell's compound and tiltwing, and the Douglas turboduct and turboprop designs. A private party submitted a re-design of the Breguet 941 as a VTOL transport. It is important to document these 53 year-old designs to preserve a part of this country's aviation heritage.

  18. Tuberculose du col utérin simulant un cancer du col utérin : à propos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculose du col utérin simulant un cancer du col utérin : à propos d'un cas, au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Souro Sanou de Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. A. Dembélé, V. Konségré, E. Birba, D.A. Somé, H. Zamané, A.S. Ouédraogo, S. Kiemtoré, S. Ouattara, A. Lamien-Sanou, M. Bambara, B. Bonané/Thiéba ...

  19. EuroCirCol: A key to New Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Johannes Gutleber

    2015-01-01

    Monday 1 June saw the start of EuroCirCol, the EC-funded part of the FCC study that will develop the conceptual design for an energy-frontier hadron collider.   Attendees at the EuroCirCol meeting at CERN. The EuroCirCol kick-off event at CERN on 2 to 4 June brought together 62 participants to constitute governance bodies, commit to the project plan and align the organisation, structures and processes of 16 institutions from 10 countries. The goal of the project is to conceive a post-LHC research infrastructure around a 100 km circular energy-frontier hadron collider capable of reaching 100 TeV collisions. The project officially started on 1 June and will run for four years. The total estimated budget of 11.2 MEUR includes a 2.99 MEUR contribution from the Horizon 2020 programme dedicated to the development of new world-class research infrastructures. EuroCirCol will deliver a design for a hadron collider as part of the broader Future Circular Collider (FCC) study. It will provide input to an...

  20. LT COL F.F. PIENAAR'S BOER WAR DIARY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LT COL F.F. PIENAAR'S BOER WAR DIARY. (PART II). Brig J.H. Picard, SM*. FREE STATE TO ..... bing up and down on his master's spare horse. ... Jantjie and his master turned out of the road, and ..... on a list which burghers could afford to.

  1. Complete COL1A1 allele deletions in osteogenesis imperfecta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Fleur S.; Huizer, Margriet; Kariminejad, Ariana; Marcelis, Carlo L.; Plomp, Astrid S.; Terhal, Paulien A.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Weiss, Marjan M.; van Rijn, Rick R.; Cobben, Jan M.; Pals, Gerard

    Purpose: To identify a molecular genetic cause in patients with a clinical diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type I/IV. Methods: The authors performed multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis of the COL1A1 gene in a group of 106 index patients. Results: In four families with

  2. Complete COL1A1 allele deletions in osteogenesis imperfecta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Fleur S.; Huizer, Margriet; Kariminejad, Ariana; Marcelis, Carlo L.; Plomp, Astrid S.; Terhal, Paulien A.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Weiss, Marjan M.; van Rijn, Rick R.; Cobben, Jan M.; Pals, Gerard

    2010-01-01

    To identify a molecular genetic cause in patients with a clinical diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type I/IV. The authors performed multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis of the COL1A1 gene in a group of 106 index patients. In four families with mild osteogenesis

  3. Design and evaluation of aircraft heat source systems for use with high-freezing point fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasion, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    The objectives were the design, performance and economic analyses of practical aircraft fuel heating systems that would permit the use of high freezing-point fuels on long-range aircraft. Two hypothetical hydrocarbon fuels with freezing points of -29 C and -18 C were used to represent the variation from current day jet fuels. A Boeing 747-200 with JT9D-7/7A engines was used as the baseline aircraft. A 9300 Km mission was used as the mission length from which the heat requirements to maintain the fuel above its freezing point was based.

  4. Transparência: Bacen versus BoE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Carvalho Andrade

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Transparency: Bacen versus BoE. The aim of this paper is to compare the degree of transparency of the Brazilian Central Bank (Bacen with the one verified in the Bank of England (BoE. In order to accomplish this objective, an indicator of transparency is built based on the information that each central bank provides to the public about its monetary policy, its expectation about the future of the economy, its intervention in the financial market, and if there are clear limits and restrictions to the release of information to the general public. The analysis suggests that the Bacen is less transparent and has a less individualistic Monetary Policy Committee in comparison with the BoE. Moreover, it indicates some procedures that could be adopted by the Bacen in order to make its monetary policy more transparent.

  5. U.S. Army Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) - A Historical Perspective to Identifying and Understanding Stakeholder Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    U.S. Army (USA) to train Nike anti-aircraft missile crews and others through the 1970s. Mach 2 UAV targets consisted of several prototypes such as...manufacturers with the largest share of the global UAS market include General Atomics (20.4 percent), Northrop Grumman (18.9 percent), Boeing (1.5... mix of both manned and unmanned aircraft systems. By combining advanced sensors, tactical RSTA, MUM teaming of UAS, attack and reconnaissance

  6. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    as their purchases of aircraft carrier systems, makes it more than likely that the country is preparing such an acquisition. China has territorial disputes in the South China Sea over the Spratly Islands and is also worried about the security of its sea lines of communications, by which China transports the majority......, submarines, aircraft and helicopters, is not likely to be fully operational and war-capable until 2020, given the fact that China is starting from a clean sheet of paper. The United States of America (USA), the United Kingdom (UK), Russia and India are currently building or have made decisions to build new...

  7. Resistance ability evaluation of safety-related structures for the simulated aircraft accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Sung Woon; Choi, Jang Kyu [Daewoo E and C Co., Ltd., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2003-03-15

    Aircraft accidents on nuclear safety-related structures can cause severe damage to the safety of NPP(Nuclear Power Plant)s. To assess the safety of nuclear safety-related structures, the local damage and the dynamic response of global structures should be investigated together. This study have compared several local damage assessment formulas suggested for aircraft as an impactor, and have set the assessment system of local damage for impact-proof design of NPP containment buildings. And the local damage of nuclear safety-related structures in operation in Korea for commercial aircraft as impactor have been estimated. Impact load-time functions of the aircraft crash have been decided to assessment the safety of nuclear safety-related structures against the intentional colliding of commercial aircraft. Boeing 747 and Boeing 767 is selected as target aircraft based on the operation frequencies and weights. Comparison of the fire analysis methods showed that the method considering heat convection and radiation is adequate for the temperature analysis of the aircraft fuel fire. Finally, the study covered the analysis of the major structural drawings and design drawings with which three-dimensional finite element model analysis is expected to be performed.

  8. Aircraft cybernetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  9. 77 FR 63714 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    .... ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain The Boeing... instructions and doing the work specified in those instructions. We are issuing this AD to detect and correct..., Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kelly...

  10. 78 FR 60660 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... compound (CIC) Boeing Material Specification (BMS) 3-23 to the surfaces of the repaired area. As an option... fracture and failure of the skin panels of the fuselage, and consequent rapid decompression of the airplane... availability of this material at the FAA, call 425-227-1221. Examining the AD Docket You may examine the AD...

  11. 77 FR 69747 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... cycles after the effective date of this AD.'' The new language in paragraph (i)(1) of the NPRM states... language specified in paragraphs (l) through (n) of the NPRM from paragraph (o) of the NPRM. In the... inclusive. Boeing stated that the NPRM requirements do not differentiate for Model 737-200 series airplanes...

  12. 78 FR 31389 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... ``New Inspections and Corrective Actions to Ensure Cross Beam Reinforcement,'' and suggested language... door. Boeing added that the current language in the NPRM and this service information leave open the...) of this AD. (i) For airplanes with line numbers 1 through 1231 inclusive: Install a cross beam repair...

  13. 77 FR 5195 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ...). Support for Proposed Actions United Parcel Service Co. (UPS) supports mandating the Stage 2 inspections...., Washington, DC 20590, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention: Data & Services...

  14. 78 FR 14644 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... support clamps installed within the left environmental control systems (ECS) bay, which could allow wiring... the installation of winglets per Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) ST00830SE ( http://rgl.faa.gov... Change the ``Parts Installation Prohibition'' Section Boeing requested the ``Parts Installation...

  15. 77 FR 38547 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... (including cracking, misdrilled fastener holes, elongated fastener holes, corrosion, oil-cans, and existing..., corrosion, oil-cans, and existing repairs), or for certain discrepancies, contacting Boeing for repair... Designated Engineering Representative (DER). We have revised the date of the document specified in paragraph...

  16. 77 FR 61548 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ...-indicating and crew-alerting system (EICAS) messages ALT DISAGREE and IAS DISAGREE displayed. The flightcrew... Special Attention Service Bulletin 727-34-0245, dated June 4, 2008 (for Model airplanes); [[Page 61549... -200C series airplanes); and Boeing Special Attention Service Bulletin 747-34-2925, dated June 4, 2008...

  17. 78 FR 57053 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention: Data & Services Management, P.O. Box 3707, MC 2H-65, Seattle, WA... Management Facility, U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor... frame from stringers 23 through 31 per Figure 5 or Figure 6 of the service bulletins specified in...

  18. 77 FR 54854 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    .... Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New... 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention: Data... airplanes), except as specified in paragraphs (h)(1) and (h)(2) of this AD. (1) Steps 1 through 5 of Figure...

  19. 77 FR 49708 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    .... ADDRESSES: For service information identified in this AD, contact Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention.... Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New... Figure 24 as an accepted procedure'' for the HFEC inspection, this AD requires that the inspection be...

  20. 77 FR 52212 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... request to revise this AD. The inspections specified in Figure 1 in both Boeing Special Attention Service... Commercial Airplanes, Attention: Data & Services Management, P. O. Box 3707, MC 2H-65, Seattle, Washington... Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590. FOR FURTHER...

  1. 78 FR 14469 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ...-2251. Mail: U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor... identified in this proposed AD, contact Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention: Data & Services Management, P... through 31 per Figure 5 or Figure 6 of the service bulletins specified in paragraph (g) or (h) of this AD...

  2. 78 FR 68693 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Special Attention Service Bulletin 737-53-1296, dated January 11, 2011, in Step 1, ``Move,'' of Figure 10.... ADDRESSES: For service information identified in this AD, contact Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention... Facility, U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12...

  3. 78 FR 43839 - Airworthiness Directives; the Boeing Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    .... Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New... AD, contact Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention: Data & Services Management, P. O. Box 3707, MC 2H..., performed in accordance with Part 4 and Figure 8 of this service bulletin. This service information is being...

  4. 77 FR 16188 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ..., M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590... Airplanes, Attention: Data & Services Management, P. O. Box 3707, MC 2H-65, Seattle, Washington 98124-2207... AD would require repair using a method approved in accordance with paragraph (l). Figure 1 of Boeing...

  5. 78 FR 61161 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... bolts being fabricated from bar stock with a machined head instead of from a forged blank with an upset... are issuing this AD to prevent damage to the MLG and consequent damage to airplane structure, which...'' fabrication. Boeing stated that it approved the fabrication of the bolts from bar stock with a machined head...

  6. 78 FR 73744 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... paragraph (g) of this second SNPRM. Costs of Compliance We estimate that this proposed AD affects 1,147... 2,975 3,412,325 = $1,445. We have received no definitive data that would enable us to provide a cost... to be a rotable part, we note that Boeing Document D042A525, ``Compliance Document and Repair...

  7. 78 FR 66254 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... AD. Costs of Compliance We estimate that this AD affects 84 airplanes of U.S. registry. We estimate... inspection cycle. We have received no definitive data that would enable us to provide a cost estimate for the... 2 of paragraph 1.E., ``Compliance,'' of Boeing Service Bulletin 747-53A2688, Revision 1, dated...

  8. 78 FR 70851 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... (EICAS) message that displays ``ENG THRUST (L,R)'' (for Model 787-8 airplanes) or ``ENG (1, 2, 3, or 4... The Boeing Company Model 747-8 and 747-8F series airplanes and Model 787-8 airplanes powered by GEnx...: 202-493-2251. Mail: U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground...

  9. 77 FR 60285 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... the MLG for chicken- wire cracks, corrosion, and chrome plate distress; repetitive magnetic particle..., contact Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention: Data & Services Management, P.O. Box 3707, MC 2H-65... magnetic particle inspections of the outer diameter chrome on the center axles of the MLG for cracks; and...

  10. 77 FR 47267 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... contained within those paragraphs. Request To Clarify Undefined Requirement UPS stated that the actions... modification, which is currently undefined in Boeing Service Bulletin 747 53A2559, Revision 1, dated August 4... believe it will be affected; however, UPS is concerned with the precedent of mandating undefined...

  11. 78 FR 26286 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... the first post-modification high frequency eddy current (HFEC) repetitive inspection may be extended... Boeing (the original equipment manufacturer) had time to build up an adequate stock of kits and/or frames.... We have also revised paragraph (g) in this supplemental NPRM to correspond to the manufacturer's...

  12. Structural analysis at aircraft conceptual design stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Reza

    In the past 50 years, computers have helped by augmenting human efforts with tremendous pace. The aircraft industry is not an exception. Aircraft industry is more than ever dependent on computing because of a high level of complexity and the increasing need for excellence to survive a highly competitive marketplace. Designers choose computers to perform almost every analysis task. But while doing so, existing effective, accurate and easy to use classical analytical methods are often forgotten, which can be very useful especially in the early phases of the aircraft design where concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions [39, 2004]. Structural analysis methods have been used by human beings since the very early civilization. Centuries before computers were invented; the pyramids were designed and constructed by Egyptians around 2000 B.C, the Parthenon was built by the Greeks, around 240 B.C, Dujiangyan was built by the Chinese. Persepolis, Hagia Sophia, Taj Mahal, Eiffel tower are only few more examples of historical buildings, bridges and monuments that were constructed before we had any advancement made in computer aided engineering. Aircraft industry is no exception either. In the first half of the 20th century, engineers used classical method and designed civil transport aircraft such as Ford Tri Motor (1926), Lockheed Vega (1927), Lockheed 9 Orion (1931), Douglas DC-3 (1935), Douglas DC-4/C-54 Skymaster (1938), Boeing 307 (1938) and Boeing 314 Clipper (1939) and managed to become airborne without difficulty. Evidencing, while advanced numerical methods such as the finite element analysis is one of the most effective structural analysis methods; classical structural analysis methods can also be as useful especially during the early phase of a fixed wing aircraft design where major decisions are made and concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions

  13. Finite-difference modeling of commercial aircraft using TSAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennock, S.T.; Poggio, A.J.

    1994-11-15

    Future aircraft may have systems controlled by fiber optic cables, to reduce susceptibility to electromagnetic interference. However, the digital systems associated with the fiber optic network could still experience upset due to powerful radio stations, radars, and other electromagnetic sources, with potentially serious consequences. We are modeling the electromagnetic behavior of commercial transport aircraft in support of the NASA Fly-by-Light/Power-by-Wire program, using the TSAR finite-difference time-domain code initially developed for the military. By comparing results obtained from TSAR with data taken on a Boeing 757 at the Air Force Phillips Lab., we hope to show that FDTD codes can serve as an important tool in the design and certification of U.S. commercial aircraft, helping American companies to produce safe, reliable air transportation.

  14. Comprehensive analysis of transport aircraft flight performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2008-04-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the art in comprehensive performance codes for fixed-wing aircraft. The importance of system analysis in flight performance is discussed. The paper highlights the role of aerodynamics, propulsion, flight mechanics, aeroacoustics, flight operation, numerical optimisation, stochastic methods and numerical analysis. The latter discipline is used to investigate the sensitivities of the sub-systems to uncertainties in critical state parameters or functional parameters. The paper discusses critically the data used for performance analysis, and the areas where progress is required. Comprehensive analysis codes can be used for mission fuel planning, envelope exploration, competition analysis, a wide variety of environmental studies, marketing analysis, aircraft certification and conceptual aircraft design. A comprehensive program that uses the multi-disciplinary approach for transport aircraft is presented. The model includes a geometry deck, a separate engine input deck with the main parameters, a database of engine performance from an independent simulation, and an operational deck. The comprehensive code has modules for deriving the geometry from bitmap files, an aerodynamics model for all flight conditions, a flight mechanics model for flight envelopes and mission analysis, an aircraft noise model and engine emissions. The model is validated at different levels. Validation of the aerodynamic model is done against the scale models DLR-F4 and F6. A general model analysis and flight envelope exploration are shown for the Boeing B-777-300 with GE-90 turbofan engines with intermediate passenger capacity (394 passengers in 2 classes). Validation of the flight model is done by sensitivity analysis on the wetted area (or profile drag), on the specific air range, the brake-release gross weight and the aircraft noise. A variety of results is shown, including specific air range charts, take-off weight-altitude charts, payload-range performance

  15. Dietary Lecithin Decreases Skeletal Muscle COL1A1 and COL3A1 Gene Expression in Finisher Gilts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Akit

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary lecithin on skeletal muscle gene expression of collagen precursors and enzymes involved in collagen synthesis and degradation. Finisher gilts with an average start weight of 55.9 ± 2.22 kg were fed diets containing either 0, 4, 20 or 80 g/kg soybean lecithin prior to harvest for six weeks and the rectus abdominis muscle gene expression profile was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Lecithin treatment down-regulated Type I (α1 procollagen (COL1A1 and Type III (α1 procollagen (COL3A1 mRNA expression ( p < 0.05, respectively, indicating a decrease in the precursors for collagen synthesis. The α-subunit of prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4H mRNA expression also tended to be down-regulated ( p = 0.056, indicating a decrease in collagen synthesis. Decreased matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1 mRNA expression may reflect a positive regulatory response to the reduced collagen synthesis in muscle from the pigs fed lecithin ( p = 0.035. Lecithin had no effect on tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1, matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13 and lysyl oxidase mRNA expression. In conclusion, lecithin down-regulated COL1A1 and COL3A1 as well as tended to down-regulate α-subunit P4H expression. However, determination of muscle collagen content and solubility are required to support the gene functions.

  16. Critical early roles for col27a1a and col27a1b in zebrafish notochord morphogenesis, vertebral mineralization and post-embryonic axial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Helena E; Lang, Michael R; Pace, James M; Parichy, David M

    2009-12-29

    Fibrillar collagens are well known for their links to human diseases, with which all have been associated except for the two most recently identified fibrillar collagens, type XXIV collagen and type XXVII collagen. To assess functions and potential disease phenotypes of type XXVII collagen, we examined its roles in zebrafish embryonic and post-embryonic development. We identified two type XXVII collagen genes in zebrafish, col27a1a and col27a1b. Both col27a1a and col27a1b were expressed in notochord and cartilage in the embryo and early larva. To determine sites of type XXVII collagen function, col27a1a and col27a1b were knocked down using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides. Knockdown of col27a1a singly or in conjunction with col27a1b resulted in curvature of the notochord at early stages and formation of scoliotic curves as well as dysmorphic vertebrae at later stages. These defects were accompanied by abnormal distributions of cells and protein localization in the notochord, as visualized by transmission electron microscopy, as well as delayed vertebral mineralization as detected histologically. Together, our findings indicate a key role for type XXVII collagen in notochord morphogenesis and axial skeletogenesis and suggest a possible human disease phenotype.

  17. Mutation Analysis of COL1A1 and COL1A2 in Fetuses with Osteogenesis Imperfecta Type II/III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbo; Wu, Qichang; Cao, Lin; Sun, Li; Xu, Yasong; Guo, Qiwei

    2015-01-27

    Aim: To analyze COL1A1/2 mutations in prenatal-onset OI for determine the proportion of mutations in type I collagen genes among prenatal onset OI and to provide additional data for genotype-phenotype analyses. Material and Methods: Ten cases of severe fetal short-limb dwarfism detected by antenatal ultrasonography were referred to our center. Before the termination of pregnancy, cordocentesis was performed for fetal karyotype and COL1A1/2 gene sequencing analysis. Postmortem radiographic examination was performed at all instances for definitive diagnosis. Results: COL1A1 and COL1A2 SNP and mutations were identified in all the cases. Among these, one synonymous SNP and four synonymous SNPs were recognized in COL1A1/2, respectively, seven cases have distinct heterozygous mutations and six new COL1A1/2 gene mutations were identified. Conclusion: There has been substantial progress in the identification of the molecular defects responsible for skeletal dysplasias. With the constant increase in the number of identified mutations in COL1A1 and COL1A2, genotype-phenotype correlation is becoming increasingly pertinent. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. The transmembrane collagen COL-99 guides longitudinally extending axons in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jesse; Unsoeld, Thomas; Hutter, Harald

    2018-06-01

    We have identified the transmembrane collagen, COL-99, in a genetic screen for novel genes involved in axon guidance in the nematode C. elegans. COL-99 is similar to transmembrane collagens type XIII, XXIII and XXV in vertebrates. col-99 mutants exhibit guidance defects in axons extending along the major longitudinal axon tracts, most prominently the left ventral nerve cord (VNC). COL-99 is expressed in the hypodermis during the time of axon outgrowth. We provide evidence that a furin cleavage site in COL-99 is essential for function, suggesting that COL-99 is released from the cells producing it. Vertebrate homologs of COL-99 have been shown to be expressed in mammalian nervous systems and linked to various neurological disease but have not been associated with guidance of extending neurons. col-99 acts genetically with the discoidin domain receptors ddr-1 and ddr-2, which are expressed by neurons affected in col-99 mutants. Discoidin domain receptors are activated by collagens in vertebrates. DDR-1 and DDR-2 may function as receptors for COL-99. Our results establish a novel role for a transmembrane collagen in axonal guidance and asymmetry establishment of the VNC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Col4a1 mutations cause progressive retinal neovascular defects and retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Marcel V; Mao, Mao; Pawlikowski, Bradley T; Kvezereli, Manana; Duncan, Jacque L; Libby, Richard T; John, Simon W M; Gould, Douglas B

    2016-01-27

    Mutations in collagen, type IV, alpha 1 (COL4A1), a major component of basement membranes, cause multisystem disorders in humans and mice. In the eye, these include anterior segment dysgenesis, optic nerve hypoplasia and retinal vascular tortuosity. Here we investigate the retinal pathology in mice carrying dominant-negative Col4a1 mutations. To this end, we examined retinas longitudinally in vivo using fluorescein angiography, funduscopy and optical coherence tomography. We assessed retinal function by electroretinography and studied the retinal ultrastructural pathology. Retinal examinations revealed serous chorioretinopathy, retinal hemorrhages, fibrosis or signs of pathogenic angiogenesis with chorioretinal anastomosis in up to approximately 90% of Col4a1 mutant eyes depending on age and the specific mutation. To identify the cell-type responsible for pathogenesis we generated a conditional Col4a1 mutation and determined that primary vascular defects underlie Col4a1-associated retinopathy. We also found focal activation of Müller cells and increased expression of pro-angiogenic factors in retinas from Col4a1(+/Δex41)mice. Together, our findings suggest that patients with COL4A1 and COL4A2 mutations may be at elevated risk of retinal hemorrhages and that retinal examinations may be useful for identifying patients with COL4A1 and COL4A2 mutations who are also at elevated risk of hemorrhagic strokes.

  20. VASCOMP 2. The V/STOL aircraft sizing and performance computer program. Volume 6: User's manual, revision 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, A. H.; Rosenstein, H.; Stanzione, K.; Wisniewski, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes the use of the V/STOL Aircraft Sizing and Performance Computer Program (VASCOMP II). The program is useful in performing aircraft parametric studies in a quick and cost efficient manner. Problem formulation and data development were performed by the Boeing Vertol Company and reflects the present preliminary design technology. The computer program, written in FORTRAN IV, has a broad range of input parameters, to enable investigation of a wide variety of aircraft. User oriented features of the program include minimized input requirements, diagnostic capabilities, and various options for program flexibility.

  1. The transcription factor Lc-Maf participates in Col27a1 regulation during chondrocyte maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayo, Jaime L.; Holden, Devin N. [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Brigham Young University, 591 WIDB, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Barrow, Jeffery R. [Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Bridgewater, Laura C., E-mail: laura_bridgewater@byu.edu [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Brigham Young University, 591 WIDB, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)

    2009-08-01

    The transcription factor Lc-Maf, which is a splice variant of c-Maf, is expressed in cartilage undergoing endochondral ossification and participates in the regulation of type II collagen through a cartilage-specific Col2a1 enhancer element. Type XXVII and type XI collagens are also expressed in cartilage during endochondral ossification, and so enhancer/reporter assays were used to determine whether Lc-Maf could regulate cartilage-specific enhancers from the Col27a1 and Col11a2 genes. The Col27a1 enhancer was upregulated over 4-fold by Lc-Maf, while the Col11a2 enhancer was downregulated slightly. To confirm the results of these reporter assays, rat chondrosarcoma (RCS) cells were transiently transfected with an Lc-Maf expression plasmid, and quantitative RT-PCR was performed to measure the expression of endogenous Col27a1 and Col11a2 genes. Endogenous Col27a1 was upregulated 6-fold by Lc-Maf overexpression, while endogenous Col11a2 was unchanged. Finally, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were performed in the radius and ulna of embryonic day 17 mouse forelimbs undergoing endochondral ossification. Results demonstrated that Lc-Maf and Col27a1 mRNAs are coexpressed in proliferating and prehypertrophic regions, as would be predicted if Lc-Maf regulates Col27a1 expression. Type XXVII collagen protein was also most abundant in prehypertrophic and proliferating chondrocytes. Others have shown that mice that are null for Lc-Maf and c-Maf have expanded hypertrophic regions with reduced ossification and delayed vascularization. Separate studies have indicated that Col27a1 may serve as a scaffold for ossification and vascularization. The work presented here suggests that Lc-Maf may affect the process of endochondral ossification by participating in the regulation of Col27a1 expression.

  2. Specific problems concerning aircraft impact on nuclear containment vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuzier, J.P.; Cheyrezy, M.H.; Dufour, C.J.

    1977-01-01

    Due to the high population density, in Belgium PWR power plants are designed against aircraft impacts (BOEING 707 crashing at 360 km per hour and STARFIGHTER F 104 G crashing at 540 km per hour). A double wall is used for the containment shield. The lack of relevant data and specifications for such a loading on the non-prestressed external wall led the authors to determine the suitable safety criteria, the most appropriate materials to be used and the corresponding limit state design through dynamic and plastic analysis. (Auth.)

  3. Acoustic Source Localization in Aircraft Interiors Using Microphone Array Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklanka, Bernard J.; Tuss, Joel R.; Buehrle, Ralph D.; Klos, Jacob; Williams, Earl G.; Valdivia, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    Using three microphone array configurations at two aircraft body stations on a Boeing 777-300ER flight test, the acoustic radiation characteristics of the sidewall and outboard floor system are investigated by experimental measurement. Analysis of the experimental data is performed using sound intensity calculations for closely spaced microphones, PATCH Inverse Boundary Element Nearfield Acoustic Holography, and Spherical Nearfield Acoustic Holography. Each method is compared assessing strengths and weaknesses, evaluating source identification capability for both broadband and narrowband sources, evaluating sources during transient and steady-state conditions, and quantifying field reconstruction continuity using multiple array positions.

  4. Evolution of civil aircraft industry development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram I. Afyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Civil aircraft industry market is а complex multistage system of manufacturers and consumers, which affects countries all over the world. The globalization and world economic growth caused inevitable merger of national markets into one system where the key role belongs to few corporations. In the article the author analyze peculiarities of civil aircraft industry global market shaping. Main reasons of aircraft industry centers appearance are considered through socio political and economic development of the industry. Factors that caused national specialization of manufacturing countries are examined along with peculiarities of Boeing leadership. The main stages of the industry development are described starting from the beginning of the 20th century up to the present day. The author highlights specific characters of European manufacturers development and their merger into one multinational conglomerate. Besides, modern market status is examined through benchmark study of the main competitors. Main tendencies of the industry are segmentation and new aviation industry clusters appearance. Key actors of regional aviation are described, which are Embraer and Bombardier. Reasons of their appearance and development are analyzed. Main pretenders for the aviation industry global market entrance are outlined.

  5. NASA's Zero-g aircraft operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. K.

    1988-01-01

    NASA's Zero-g aircraft, operated by the Johnson Space Center, provides the unique weightless or zero-g environment of space flight for hardware development and test and astronaut training purposes. The program, which began in 1959, uses a slightly modified Boeing KC-135A aircraft, flying a parabolic trajectory, to produce weightless periods of 20 to 25 seconds. The program has supported the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz and Shuttle programs as well as a number of unmanned space operations. Typical experiments for flight in the aircraft have included materials processing experiments, welding, fluid manipulation, cryogenics, propellant tankage, satellite deployment dynamics, planetary sciences research, crew training with weightless indoctrination, space suits, tethers, etc., and medical studies including vestibular research. The facility is available to microgravity research organizations on a cost-reimbursable basis, providing a large, hands-on test area for diagnostic and support equipment for the Principal Investigators and providing an iterative-type design approach to microgravity experiment development. The facility allows concepts to be proven and baseline experimentation to be accomplished relatively inexpensively prior to committing to the large expense of a space flight.

  6. Damage assessment of nuclear containment against aircraft crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Mohd Ashraf, E-mail: iqbal_ashraf@rediffmail.com; Sadique, Md. Rehan, E-mail: rehan.sadique@gmail.com; Bhargava, Pradeep, E-mail: bhpdpfce@iitr.ac.in; Bhandari, N.M., E-mail: nmbcefce@iitr.ac.in

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Damage assessment of nuclear containment is studied against aircraft crash. • Four impact locations have been identified at the outer containment shell. • The mid of the total height has been found to be most vulnerable location. • The crown of dome has been found to be the strongest location. • Phantom F4 caused more localized and severe damage compared to other aircrafts. - Abstract: The behavior of nuclear containment structure has been studied against aircraft crash with an emphasis on the influence of strike location. The impact locations identified on the BWR Mark III type nuclear containment structure are mid-height, junction of dome and cylinder, crown of dome and arc of dome. The containment at each of the above locations has been impacted normally by Phantom F-4, Boeing 707-320 and Airbus A320 aircrafts. The loading of the aircraft has been assigned through the corresponding reaction-time response curve. ABAQUS/Explicit finite element code has been used to carry out the three-dimensional numerical simulations. The concrete damaged plasticity model was used to simulate the behavior of concrete while the behavior of steel reinforcement was incorporated using the Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic material model. The mid-height of containment has been found to experience most severe deformation against each aircraft. Phantom F4 has been found to be most disastrous at each location. The results have been compared with those of the available studies with respect to the containment deformation.

  7. Analysis of aircraft impact to concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arros, Jorma; Doumbalski, Nikolay

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of aircraft impact to nuclear power plant structures is discussed utilizing a simplified model of a 'fictitious nuclear building' to perform analyses using LS-DYNA software, representing the loading: (i) by the Riera force history method and (ii) by modeling the crash by impacting a model of a plane similar to Boeing 747-400 to the structure (i.e., 'missile-target interaction method'). Points discussed include: (1) comparison of shock loading within the building as obtained from the Riera force history analysis versus from the missile-target interaction analysis, (2) sensitivity of the results on the assumed Riera force loading area, (3) linear versus nonlinear modeling and (4) on failure criteria

  8. Colágeno na cartilagem osteoartrótica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula P. Velosa

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A cartilagem articular é um tecido altamente especializado, composto por células, os condrócitos, e um conjunto de macromoléculas, como o colágeno e os proteoglicanos. O colágeno é uma proteína fibrilar que garante resistência ao tecido, enquanto os proteoglicanos têm a função de mola biológica, sendo responsáveis pela compressibilidade da cartilagem. A complexa interação entre estas duas proteínas garante a elasticidade. Estas características específicas da cartilagem são essenciais para amortecer as grandes forças de impacto a que as articulações diartrodiais estão submetidas, sem muito gasto de energia, visto tratar-se de um tecido avascular. Em processos artrósicos ocorre um desequilíbrio entre a produção de componentes da matriz extracelular e destruição pelas metaloproteases, levando à degradação e perda do tecido cartilaginoso. A fase inicial da osteoartrose é marcada por perda de fragmentos de proteoglicanos para o líquido sinovial, aumento dos colágenos tipo II e tipo VI, aparecimento dos colágenos I e III, não típicos da cartilagem, e diminuição do colágeno tipo IX, que é importante para manter a integridade da matriz extracelular, além do entumescimento da cartilagem. Como conseqüência, a cartilagem perde suas características específicas, levando a alterações na função articular. A evolução da doença promove diminuição significativa das proteínas, até mesmo do colágeno tipo XI, que tem localização mais interna na estrutura da fibrila heterotípica, e, portanto levando até a exposição do osso. Até o momento, o tratamento da osteoartrose está baseado principalmente no controle da dor e/ou inflamação, não diminuindo ou impedindo a degradação da cartilagem articular. Neste aspecto a perspectiva de tratamento futuro da osteoartrose estaria na utilização de inibidores das metaloproteases associadas a condroprotetores interferindo no "turnover" da cartilagem e

  9. 78 FR 22439 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ..., West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590. Hand..., Attention: Data & Services Management, P. O. Box 3707, MC 2H-65, Seattle, WA 98124-2207; phone: 206-544-5000... SRM 53-30-1, Figures 20, 21, 31, or 32; and Boeing 737-300/-400/-500 SRM 53-10-01, Repair 5, 6, or 8...

  10. BOES: Building Occupancy Estimation System using sparse ambient vibration monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shijia; Bonde, Amelie; Jing, Jie; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Pei; Noh, Hae Young

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we present a room-level building occupancy estimation system (BOES) utilizing low-resolution vibration sensors that are sparsely distributed. Many ubiquitous computing and building maintenance systems require fine-grained occupancy knowledge to enable occupant centric services and optimize space and energy utilization. The sensing infrastructure support for current occupancy estimation systems often requires multiple intrusive sensors per room, resulting in systems that are both costly to deploy and difficult to maintain. To address these shortcomings, we developed BOES. BOES utilizes sparse vibration sensors to track occupancy levels and activities. Our system has three major components. 1) It extracts features that distinguish occupant activities from noise prone ambient vibrations and detects human footsteps. 2) Using a sequence of footsteps, the system localizes and tracks individuals by observing changes in the sequences. It uses this tracking information to identify when an occupant leaves or enters a room. 3) The entering and leaving room information are combined with detected individual location information to update the room-level occupancy state of the building. Through validation experiments in two different buildings, our system was able to achieve 99.55% accuracy for event detection, less than three feet average error for localization, and 85% accuracy in occupancy counting.

  11. Common display performance requirements for military and commercial aircraft product lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoener, Steven J.; Behrens, Arthur J.; Flint, John R.; Jacobsen, Alan R.

    2001-09-01

    Obtaining high quality Active Matrix Liquid Crystal (AMLCD) glass to meet the needs of the commercial and military aerospace business is a major challenge, at best. With the demise of all domestic sources of AMLCD substrate glass, the industry is now focused on overseas sources, which are primarily producing glass for consumer electronics. Previous experience with ruggedizing commercial glass leads to the expectation that the aerospace industry can leverage off the commercial market. The problem remains, while the commercial industry is continually changing and improving its products, the commercial and military aerospace industries require stable and affordable supplies of AMLCD glass for upwards of 20 years to support production and maintenance operations. The Boeing Engineering and Supplier Management Process Councils have chartered a group of displays experts from multiple aircraft product divisions within the Boeing Company, the Displays Process Action Team (DPAT), to address this situation from an overall corporate perspective. The DPAT has formulated a set of Common Displays Performance Requirements for use across the corporate line of commercial and military aircraft products. Though focused on the AMLCD problem, the proposed common requirements are largely independent of display technology. This paper describes the strategy being pursued within the Boeing Company to address the AMLCD supply problem and details the proposed implementation process, centered on common requirements for both commercial and military aircraft displays. Highlighted in this paper are proposed common, or standard, display sizes and the other major requirements established by the DPAT, along with the rationale for these requirements.

  12. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The lack of a vertical tail on the X-36 technology demonstrator is evident as the remotely piloted aircraft flies a low-altitude research flight above Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards Air Force Base in the California desert on October 30, 1997. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three

  13. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft arrival at Dryden

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA/McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft in it's hangar at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, following its arrival on July 2, 1996. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high with a wingspan of

  14. Upper bound on the non-colorability threshold of the 2+p-COL problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, R.

    2004-10-01

    The 2p-COL problem introduced by Walsh, smoothly interpolates between P and NP by mixing together the polynornial 2-coloring problem and the NP complete 3-coloring problem. A natural upper bound on the non colorability of the 2+p-COL problem in min {r-bar 2 /(1 - p)r-bar 3 }, where r-bar 2 and r-bar 3 are the upper bounds on 2-COL and 3-COL thresholds respectively. In this paper we improve this upper-bound for each 0.73 ≤ p 1. This means that for p ≥ 0.73 the 2+p-COL problem does not behave like the 2-COL problem. We use the method developed by Kaporis et al., which combines the concept of legal rigid colorings introduced by Achlioptas and Molloy with the occupancy problem for random allocations of balls into bins. (author)

  15. Hull loss accident model for narrow body commercial aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somchanok Tiabtiamrat

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accidents with narrow body aircraft were statistically evaluated covering six families of commercial aircraft includingBoeing B737, Airbus A320, McDonnell Douglas MD80, Tupolev TU134/TU154 and Antonov AN124. A risk indicator for eachflight phase was developed based on motion characteristics, duration time, and the presence of adverse weather conditions.The estimated risk levels based on these risk indicators then developed from the risk indicator. Regression analysis indicatedvery good agreement between the estimated risk level and the accident ratio of hull loss cases per number of delivered aircraft.The effect of time on the hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft was assessed for B737, A320 and MD80. Equationsrepresenting the effect of time on hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft were proposed for B737, A320, and MD80,while average values of hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft were found for TU134, TU154, and AN 124. Accidentprobability equations were then developed for each family of aircraft that the probability of an aircraft in a hull loss accidentcould be estimated for any aircraft family, flight phase, presence of adverse weather factor, hour of day, day of week, monthof year, pilot age, and pilot flight hour experience. A simplified relationship between estimated hull loss accident probabilityand unsafe acts by human was proposed. Numerical investigation of the relationship between unsafe acts by human andfatality ratio suggested that the fatality ratio in hull loss accident was dominated primarily by the flight phase media.

  16. Study of the Engine Bird Ingestion Experience of the Boeing 737 Aircraft (October 1986- September 1988)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    19554CUD CORRIENTES , ARGENTINA S FG 1100 544CN5 CAIRNS, OLD, AUSTRALIA S FG 4850 6049CUX CHIANG MAI, THAILAND N FN 728 435COX COCHIN, INDIA N FGH 5457...ARGENTINA S FGN 154 148 VLI PORT VILA, VANUATU S FGN 251 560 VMS VARANASI, INDIA N FGN 3150 2686 VoEN VERONA, ITALY N FGN 0 3 VIE VIENTIANE, LAOS N FGN 0 52...JIMA, JAPAN NO JT8O 2 MEL MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA Nc CFM56 3 NONE NONE NONE NC 1 4. JAI JAIPUR, INDIA NO JT8O NC 1 VMS VARANASI, INDIA NO JT8D’ I MAN

  17. Engine Bird Ingestion Experience of the Boeing 747 Aircraft - Expanded Data Base (October 1986 - September 1989).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    AMENAS, ALGERIA N FGN 408 0 420 0 506 0 1334 0 IBA IBADAN, NIGERIA N FGN 1382 0 706 0 484 0 2572 0 1BZ IBIZA, SPAIN N FGN 124 1 220 0 294 1 638 2 ICT ...BRAZIL S FGN 978 0 1646 0 4088 0 671M 0 MDE MEDELLIN , COLOMBIA N FGN 312 0 312 0 314 0 938 0 M0I MAKURDI, NIGERIA N FGN 730 0 695 0 375 0 1800 0 MDK

  18. Study of the Engine Bird Ingestion Experience of the Boeing 737 Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    4- 382 OYE GUAYAOIL. ECUADOR S No 4 1609 0Th GOIANIA. BRAZIL S No -41-- 7891 MAC lUCHIJO. JIMA ISLAND. JAPAN N No -0 634 MAN M0110N--HAHAYA. COMOROS...4- 14N LIN MIIAN LINATE, ITALY N No 4- 7588 LIS LISUON, PORTUGAL N NO -4- 10558 LIT LITTLE ROCK. AK. USA N YES AK 10791 LJA LOJA . ZAIRE S No -- 10...BRAZIL S NO -4- 1186 UOi UDAIPUR. INDIA N NO -4- 1466 UEL QUELIMANE, MOZAMBIQUE S NO -4- 418 UET QUETTA. PAKISTAN N NO - 632 UIO QUITO. ECUADOR S NO -e

  19. Development of pressure containment and damage tolerance technology for composite fuselage structures in large transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. J.; Thomson, L. W.; Wilson, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    NASA sponsored composites research and development programs were set in place to develop the critical engineering technologies in large transport aircraft structures. This NASA-Boeing program focused on the critical issues of damage tolerance and pressure containment generic to the fuselage structure of large pressurized aircraft. Skin-stringer and honeycomb sandwich composite fuselage shell designs were evaluated to resolve these issues. Analyses were developed to model the structural response of the fuselage shell designs, and a development test program evaluated the selected design configurations to appropriate load conditions.

  20. EuroCirCol - Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Action

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108815; Benedikt, Michael; Zimmermann, Frank; Schulte, Daniel; Tommasini, Davide; Seryi, Andrei; Perez, Francis

    2015-01-01

    EuroCirCol is a conceptual design study for a post-LHC research infrastructure based on an energy-frontier 100 TeV circular hadron collider. ​The award of the 2013 Nobel Prize for Physics acknowledged the leading role of Europe in particle physics, which has a global community of over 10'000 scientists. To reinforce its pole position throughout the 21st century, Europe must be ready to propose an ambitious post-LHC accelerator project by 2018/19. This is one of the main recommendations of the updated European Strategy for Particle Physics, adopted by the CERN Council in May 2013. The EuroCirCol conceptual design study is a direct response to this recommendation, carried out through a collaboration of institutes and universities worldwide. A new research infrastructure of such scale depends on the feasibility of key technologies pushed beyond current state of the art. Innovative designs for accelerator magnets to achieve high-quality fields up to 16 T and for a cryogenic beam vacuum system to cope with unpre...

  1. Cisto gigante de colédoco Giant choledochal cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olival Cirilo Lucena da Fonseca-Neto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A doença cística das vias biliares é anomalia congênita que pode acometer as vias biliares intra e/ou extra-hepáticas. A extra-hepática inclui os cistos de colédoco e a intra-hepática é conhecida por Doença de Caroli. Os cistos de colédoco de tamanho gigante são muito raros. OBJETIVO: Relatar o caso de um cisto de colédoco de tamanho gigante em uma paciente feminina. RELATO DE CASO: Mulher de 19 anos foi admitida com história de icterícia e acolia fecal há sete dias. Referia dor epigástrica associada com ingestão de dieta rica em gordura. Nos antecedentes pessoais relatou dois episódios de icterícia, aos 8 e 14 anos, que progrediram espontaneamente. No exame físico apresentava icterícia (+3/+4 e uma massa palpável indolor em mesogástrio foram os únicos achados. A ultrassonografia demonstrou grande formação cística de paredes finas adjacente ao hepatocolédoco, pâncreas e rim direito que media 18,5 x 10,2 cm. A colangioressonância confirmou o grande cisto de colédoco e hepatojejunoanastomose em "Y" de Roux após excisão do cisto e colecistectomia foi realizada. A formação cística media 20 x 15,5 x 12,5 cm e com um volume médio de 1000 mL. A paciente encontra-se em acompanhamento ambulatorial sem alterações hepatobiliares após o sétimo mês da operação. CONCLUSÃO: O cisto de colédoco deve fazer parte do diagnóstico diferencial em pacientes adultos jovens com icterícia e massa palpável; no entanto, a diferenciação entre ele e neoplasia maligna deve ser pesquisada.BACKGROUND: Choledochal cyst represents a rare congenital anomaly, eventually associated with intra and extrahepatic biliary tract disorders. Extrahepatic diseases include choledochal cysts and congenital dilation of the lower intrahepatic bile duct is known as Caroli's disease. Giant choledochal cyst constitutes a very rare abnormality. AIM:To report a giant choledochal cyst in a female patient. CASE REPORT: A 19-year

  2. Status of Advanced Stitched Unitized Composite Aircraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn C.; Velicki, Alex

    2013-01-01

    NASA has created the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project to explore and document the feasibility, benefits and technical risk of advanced vehicle configurations and enabling technologies that will reduce the impact of aviation on the environment. A critical aspect of this pursuit is the development of a lighter, more robust airframe that will enable the introduction of unconventional aircraft configurations that have higher lift-to-drag ratios, reduced drag, and lower community noise levels. The primary structural concept being developed under the ERA project in the Airframe Technology element is the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept. This paper describes how researchers at NASA and The Boeing Company are working together to develop fundamental PRSEUS technologies that could someday be implemented on a transport size aircraft with high aspect ratio wings or unconventional shapes such as a hybrid wing body airplane design.

  3. 76 FR 21815 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 737 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... proposed AD, contact Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention: Data & Services Management, P.O. Box 3707, MC... and pictures be added to Section 3.B.1.n.(1) of Boeing Alert Service Bulletin 737-27A1277, Revision 1... information directly to the manager of the ACO, send it to the attention of the person identified in the...

  4. 75 FR 68688 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 757 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... the part number of a washer used in Figures 1 and 4 of Boeing Special Attention Service Bulletin 757... Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention: Data & Services Management, P.O. Box 3707, MC 2H-65, Seattle... Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE...

  5. 76 FR 2848 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 757 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... bracket on the left wing as shown in Figure 3 of Boeing Special Attention Service Bulletin 757-24-0105... lower bracket on the left wing, in accordance with Figure 3 of Boeing Special Attention Service Bulletin.... Mail: U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12...

  6. 76 FR 8615 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 767 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... distinct checks as specified in Steps 1 and 2 of Figures 2 and 5 of Boeing Special Attention Service..., contact Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention: Data & Services Management, P.O. Box 3707, MC 2H-65..., Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE...

  7. EuroCirCol kick-off event

    CERN Multimedia

    Hardre, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The EuroCirCol (http://cern.ch/eurocircol) kick-off event at CERN on June 2-4 brought together 62 participants to constitute governance bodies, commit to the project plan and align the organisation, structures and processes of 16 institutions from 10 countries. The goal of the project is to conceive a post-LHC research infrastructure around a 100 km circular energy-frontier hadron collider capable of reaching 100 TeV collisions. The project officially started on June 1 and will run for four years. The total estimated budget of 11.2 million Euros includes a 2.99 million Euro contribution from the Horizon 2020 programme on developing new world-class research infrastructures (http://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/194962_en.html).

  8. Entomopathogenic fungi in predatory beetles (Col: Carabidae and Staphylinidae) from agricultural fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, T; Langer, V; Esbjerg, P

    1995-01-01

    Prevalence of entomopathogenic fungi was studied in overwintering ground beetles (Col.: Carabidae) and rove beetles (Col.: Staphylinidae) collected from fields of lucerne, white cabbage and white cabbage undersown with white clover. In general infection levels in adult ground beetles and rove bee...

  9. STS-65 crewmembers participate in bench review at Boeing Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Attired in clean suits, STS-65 Payload Commander (PLC) Richard J. Hieb (left) and Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai examine the contents of a stowage locker during a bench review at Boeing's Flight Equipment Processing Facility (FEPF) near the Johnson Space Center (JSC). In the background, Commander Robert D. Cabana inspects additional equipment to be carried aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, for the scheduled July flight of the second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2) mission. Mukai represents Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA). Photo taken by NASA JSC contract photographer Scott A. Wickes.

  10. 78 FR 46532 - Airworthiness Directives; the Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ...-AWL-101, Engine Fuel Suction Feed Operational Test. (d) Subject Joint Aircraft System Component (JASC)/Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 2800, Aircraft Fuel System. (e) Unsafe Condition This... operational tests of the engine fuel suction feed of the fuel system, and other related testing if necessary...

  11. 77 FR 42962 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: James Sutherland, Aerospace Engineer, Airframe Branch, ANM-120S, FAA, Seattle Aircraft...-6590; email: James.Sutherland@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Discussion We issued a notice of... this AD, contact James Sutherland, Aerospace Engineer, Airframe Branch, ANM-120S, FAA, Seattle Aircraft...

  12. Complexity and Pilot Workload Metrics for the Evaluation of Adaptive Flight Controls on a Full Scale Piloted Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curt; Schaefer, Jacob; Burken, John J.; Larson, David; Johnson, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Flight research has shown the effectiveness of adaptive flight controls for improving aircraft safety and performance in the presence of uncertainties. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA)'s Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) project designed and conducted a series of flight experiments to study the impact of variations in adaptive controller design complexity on performance and handling qualities. A novel complexity metric was devised to compare the degrees of simplicity achieved in three variations of a model reference adaptive controller (MRAC) for NASA's F-18 (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) Full-Scale Advanced Systems Testbed (Gen-2A) aircraft. The complexity measures of these controllers are also compared to that of an earlier MRAC design for NASA's Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) project and flown on a highly modified F-15 aircraft (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois). Pilot comments during the IRAC research flights pointed to the importance of workload on handling qualities ratings for failure and damage scenarios. Modifications to existing pilot aggressiveness and duty cycle metrics are presented and applied to the IRAC controllers. Finally, while adaptive controllers may alleviate the effects of failures or damage on an aircraft's handling qualities, they also have the potential to introduce annoying changes to the flight dynamics or to the operation of aircraft systems. A nuisance rating scale is presented for the categorization of nuisance side-effects of adaptive controllers.

  13. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research: Phase 2. Volume 2; Hybrid Electric Design Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the hybrid electric concept design, analysis, and modeling work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, consisting of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech.Performance and sizing tasks were conducted for hybrid electric versions of a conventional tube-and-wing aircraft and a hybrid wing body. The high wing Truss Braced Wing (TBW) SUGAR Volt was updated based on results from the TBW work (documented separately) and new engine performance models. Energy cost and acoustic analyses were conducted and technology roadmaps were updated for hybrid electric and battery technology. NOx emissions were calculated for landing and takeoff (LTO) and cruise. NPSS models were developed for hybrid electric components and tested using an integrated analysis of superconducting and non-superconducting hybrid electric engines. The hybrid electric SUGAR Volt was shown to produce significant emissions and fuel burn reductions beyond those achieved by the conventionally powered SUGAR High and was able to meet the NASA goals for fuel burn. Total energy utilization was not decreased but reduced energy cost can be achieved for some scenarios. The team was not able to identify a technology development path to meet NASA's noise goals

  14. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research. Phase II - Volume I; Truss Braced Wing Design Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.; Allen, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the Truss Braced Wing (TBW) work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, consisting of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, Georgia Tech, Virginia Tech, NextGen Aeronautics, and Microcraft. A multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) environment defined the geometry that was further refined for the updated SUGAR High TBW configuration. Airfoil shapes were tested in the NASA TCT facility, and an aeroelastic model was tested in the NASA TDT facility. Flutter suppression was successfully demonstrated using control laws derived from test system ID data and analysis models. Aeroelastic impacts for the TBW design are manageable and smaller than assumed in Phase I. Flutter analysis of TBW designs need to include pre-load and large displacement non-linear effects to obtain a reasonable match to test data. With the updated performance and sizing, fuel burn and energy use is reduced by 54% compared to the SUGAR Free current technology Baseline (Goal 60%). Use of the unducted fan version of the engine reduces fuel burn and energy by 56% compared to the Baseline. Technology development roadmaps were updated, and an airport compatibility analysis established feasibility of a folding wing aircraft at existing airports.

  15. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  16. TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY AND TECHNICAL LEVEL INDICATORS APPLICATION FOR CIVIL AIRCRAFT FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim V. Efimov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties characterize the purpose of the aircraft and are described by its flight performance characteristics such as range and cruising speed, payload, runway characteristics, etc. Functional properties also characterize the aircraft efficiency that determines the objective need for their analysis by both aircraft designers and operators in conditions of permanent and systematic efficiency increase necessity. When choosing the aircraft, it is important for the operator to make sure that a selected aircraft type has a high level of functional properties, which will allow it to provide high operational efficiency without obsolescence in the long term. However, when choosing from several aircraft types the operator has to face the fact that some characteristics of considered aircraft variants are better and the others are worse that does not allow to definitely determine what aircraft type has a higher level of functional properties.The possibility of applying technical efficiency indicators and a generalized technical level indicator for analyzing the functional properties of civil aviation aircraft is explored in this article. Fuel, weight and target efficiency values as well as the previously improved technical level indicator value were calculated for the different generations and modifications of Boeing 737 and Airbus A320 families of medium-range airplanes, which was followed by the results interpretation within one airplane generation and when moving historically from one airplane generation to another. According to analysis results it is concluded that it is impossible to define the change of the aircraft functional properties level by the change in the values of separate technical efficiency indicators. Thus, it is proposed to use a generalized technical level indicator that determines the level of aircraft technical perfection for purpose and to use efficiency indicators to analyze the cost of providing this level of

  17. Database on aircraft accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Masahide; Koriyama, Tamio

    2013-11-01

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to this issue, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for the latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. In this report the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2011 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2012 database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2012 revised database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011 shows the followings. The trend of the 2012 database changes little as compared to the last year's report. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. The number of commercial aircraft accidents is 4 for large fixed-wing aircraft, 58 for small fixed-wing aircraft, 5 for large bladed aircraft and 99 for small bladed aircraft. The relevant accidents

  18. Fetal origin of brain damage in 2 infants with a COL4A1 mutation: fetal and neonatal MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, R. J.; Peeters-Scholte, C.; van Vugt, J. J. M.; van Vught, J. J. M. G.; Barkhof, F.; Rizzu, P.; van der Schoor, S. R. D.; van der Knaap, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the gene COL4A1, encoding collagen IV A1, are associated with familial porencephaly. Previously, COL4A1 mutation-associated antenatal hemorrhages have been suggested by early post-natal imaging. We describe 2 children with fetal intracerebral hemorrhages and a COL4A1 mutation. There was

  19. Database on aircraft accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Masahide; Koriyama, Tamio

    2012-09-01

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to the report, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. This year, the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2010 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2011 database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2011 revised database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 shows the followings. The trend of the 2011 database changes little as compared to the last year's one. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 4 large fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 58 small fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 5 large bladed aircraft accidents and 114 small bladed aircraft accidents occurred. The relevant accidents for evaluating

  20. Collimation and material science studies (ColMat) at GSI.

    CERN Document Server

    Stadlmann, J; Kollmus, H; Krause, M; Mustafin, E; Petzenhauser, I; Spiller, P; Strasik, I; Tahir, N; Tomut, M; Trautmann, C

    2010-01-01

    Within the frame of the EuCARD program, the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt is performing accelerator R&D in workpackage 8: ColMat. The coordinated effort is focussed on materials aspects important for building the FAIR accelerator facility at GSI and the LHC upgrade at CERN. Accelerator components and especially protection devices have to be operated in high dose environments. The radiation hazard occurs either by the primary proton and ion beams or the secondary radiation after initial beam loss. Detailed numerical simulations have been carried out to study the damage caused to solid targets by the full impact of the LHC beam as well as the SPS beam. Tungsten, copper and graphite as possible collimator materials have been studied. Experimental an theoretical studies on radiation damage on materials used for the LHC upgrade and the FAIR accelerators are performed at the present GSI experimental facilities. Technical decisions based on these results will have an impact on the F...

  1. Phenomena of Foamed Concrete under Rolling of Aircraft Wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chun-shui; Yao, Hong-yu; Xiao, Xian-bo; Kong, Xiang-jun; Shi, Ya-jie

    2014-04-01

    Engineered Material Arresting System (EMAS) is an effective technique to reduce hazards associated with aircraft overrunning runway. In order to ascertain phenomena of the foamed concrete used for EMAS under rolling of aircraft wheel, a specially designed experimental setup was built which employed Boeing 737 aircraft wheels bearing actual vertical loads to roll through the foamed concrete. A number of experiments were conducted upon this setup. It is discovered that the wheel rolls the concrete in a pure rolling manner and crushes the concrete downwards, instead of crushing it forward, as long as the concrete is not higher than the wheel axle. The concrete is compressed into powder in-situ by the wheel and then is brought to bottom of the wheel. The powder under the wheel is loose and thus is not able to sustain wheel braking. It is also found that after being rolled by the wheel the concrete exhibits either of two states, i.e. either 'crushed through' whole thickness of the concrete or 'crushed halfway', depending on combination of strength of the concrete, thickness of the concrete, vertical load the wheel carries, tire dimension and tire pressure. A new EMAS design concept is developed that if an EMAS design results in the 'crushed through' state for the main gears while the 'crushed halfway' state for the nose gear, the arresting bed would be optimal to accommodate the large difference in strength between the nose gear and the main gear of an aircraft.

  2. Rapid evaluation of buildings and infrastructure to accidental and deliberate aircraft impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennant, D.; Levine, H.; Mould, J.; Vaughan, D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent events involving the impact of large transport aircraft such as the Boeing 767 and 757 into the World Trade Center Towers and the Pentagon have revealed the vulnerability of such structures to terrorist attack. Incidents involving smaller general aviation aircraft have shown the damage that this class of plane can do beyond a protected perimeter. These incidents have elicited inquiries with regard to the effects of impacts of these aircraft types into other critical facilities including aboveground and below ground storage facilities, nuclear power plants, damns and other military and civilian installations. A significant capability to evaluate these threats has been developed during the past 10 years. Small medium and large aircraft have been impacted into buried and aboveground reinforced concrete and light steel frame storage facilities. Both explicit aircraft models and Riera functions (a simplified aircraft impact loading function) have been used to generate an extensive data base. The effects of engines impacting have been studied separately as penetrators. Illustrated in this paper is validation of computational tools for impacts into structures and the initial development of a generalized evaluation tool for rapid evaluation of threats and consequence of aircraft impact into protected facilities

  3. Rapid evaluation of buildings and infrastructure to accidental and deliberate aircraft impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennant, D., E-mail: tennant@wai.com [Weidlinger Associates, Inc., 6301 Indian School Road NE, Suite 501, Albuquerque, NM 87122 (United States); Levine, H., E-mail: levine@ca.wai.com [Weidlinger Associates, Inc., 399 W. El Camino Real, Suite 200, Mountain View, CA 94040 (United States); Mould, J.; Vaughan, D. [Weidlinger Associates, Inc., 399 W. El Camino Real, Suite 200, Mountain View, CA 94040 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Recent events involving the impact of large transport aircraft such as the Boeing 767 and 757 into the World Trade Center Towers and the Pentagon have revealed the vulnerability of such structures to terrorist attack. Incidents involving smaller general aviation aircraft have shown the damage that this class of plane can do beyond a protected perimeter. These incidents have elicited inquiries with regard to the effects of impacts of these aircraft types into other critical facilities including aboveground and below ground storage facilities, nuclear power plants, damns and other military and civilian installations. A significant capability to evaluate these threats has been developed during the past 10 years. Small medium and large aircraft have been impacted into buried and aboveground reinforced concrete and light steel frame storage facilities. Both explicit aircraft models and Riera functions (a simplified aircraft impact loading function) have been used to generate an extensive data base. The effects of engines impacting have been studied separately as penetrators. Illustrated in this paper is validation of computational tools for impacts into structures and the initial development of a generalized evaluation tool for rapid evaluation of threats and consequence of aircraft impact into protected facilities.

  4. The ColM Family, Polymorphic Toxins Breaching the Bacterial Cell Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten G. K. Ghequire

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria host an arsenal of antagonism-mediating molecules to combat for ecologic space. Bacteriocins represent a pivotal group of secreted antibacterial peptides and proteins assisting in this fight, mainly eliminating relatives. Colicin M, a model for peptidoglycan-interfering bacteriocins in Gram-negative bacteria, appears to be part of a set of polymorphic toxins equipped with such a catalytic domain (ColM targeting lipid II. Diversifying recombination has enabled parasitism of different receptors and has also given rise to hybrid bacteriocins in which ColM is associated with another toxin module. Remarkably, ColM toxins have recruited a diverse array of immunity partners, comprising cytoplasmic membrane-associated proteins with different topologies. Together, these findings suggest that different immunity mechanisms have evolved for ColM, in contrast to bacteriocins with nuclease activities.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: COL4A1-related brain small-vessel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hemorrhage Johns Hopkins Medicine Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery: Intracerebral Hemorrhage Johns Hopkins Medicine Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery: Stroke MalaCards: col4a1-related brain small-vessel disease ...

  6. Active fault-tolerant control strategy of large civil aircraft under elevator failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xingjian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft longitudinal control is the most important actuation system and its failures would lead to catastrophic accident of aircraft. This paper proposes an active fault-tolerant control (AFTC strategy for civil aircraft with different numbers of faulty elevators. In order to improve the fault-tolerant flight control system performance and effective utilization of the control surface, trimmable horizontal stabilizer (THS is considered to generate the extra pitch moment. A suitable switching mechanism with performance improvement coefficient is proposed to determine when it is worthwhile to utilize THS. Furthermore, AFTC strategy is detailed by using model following technique and the proposed THS switching mechanism. The basic fault-tolerant controller is designed to guarantee longitudinal control system stability and acceptable performance degradation under partial elevators failure. The proposed AFTC is applied to Boeing 747-200 numerical model and simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed AFTC approach.

  7. Repair of ultraviolet-light damaged ColE1 factor carrying Escherichia coli genes for guanine synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibe, A.; Shimada, K.; Tagaki, Y.

    1979-01-01

    Hybrid ColE1 plasmids called ColE1-cos lambda-guaA or ColE1-cos lambda-gal can be efficiently transduced into various E.coli K-12 cells through packaging into lambda phage particles. Using these plasmids, repair of ultraviolet-light (UV) damaged ColE1 DNAs was studied in various UV sensitive E.coli K-12 mutants. The host mutations uvrA and uvrB markedly reduced host-cell reactivation of UV-irradiated ColE1-cos lambda-guaA. Pre-existing hybrid ColE1 plasmids had no effect on the frequency of lambda phage-mediated transduction of another differentially marked hybrid ColE1 DNAs. ColE1-cos lambda-guaA and ColE1-cos lambda-gal DNAs could temporarily but not stably co-exist in E.coli K-12 recA cells. The presence of ColE1-cos lambda-gal in uvrB cells promoted the repair of super-infected UV-irradiated ColE1-cos lambda-guaA about 7-fold. The same ColE1-cos lambda-gal plasmid in a uvrB recA double mutant did not have this promoting effect. These results indicate that the effect of resident hybrid ColE1 plasmids is manifested by the host recA + gene function(s) and suggest that ColE1 plasmit itself provides no recA + -like functions. (orig.) [de

  8. Repair of ultraviolet-light damaged ColE1 factor carrying Escherichia coli genes for guanine synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kibe, A; Shimada, K; Tagaki, Y [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1979-01-01

    Hybrid ColE1 plasmids called ColE1-cos lambda-guaA or ColE1-cos lambda-gal can be efficiently transduced into various E.coli K-12 cells through packaging into lambda phage particles. Using these plasmids, repair of ultraviolet-light (UV) damaged ColE1 DNAs was studied in various UV sensitive E.coli K-12 mutants. The host mutations uvrA and uvrB markedly reduced host-cell reactivation of UV-irradiated ColE1-cos lambda-guaA. Pre-existing hybrid ColE1 plasmids had no effect on the frequency of lambda phage-mediated transduction of another differentially marked hybrid ColE1 DNAs. ColE1-cos lambda-guaA and ColE1-cos lambda-gal DNAs could temporarily but not stably co-exist in E.coli K-12 recA cells. The presence of ColE1-cos lambda-gal in uvrB cells promoted the repair of super-infected UV-irradiated ColE1-cos lambda-guaA about 7-fold. The same ColE1-cos lambda-gal plasmid in a uvrB recA double mutant did not have this promoting effect. These results indicate that the effect of resident hybrid ColE1 plasmids is manifested by the host recA/sup +/ gene function(s) and suggest that ColE1 plasmit itself provides no recA/sup +/-like functions.

  9. Persistent Notochord in a Fetus with COL2A1 Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Codsi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple anomalies including micromelia, poor mineralization of the vertebrae, and a persistent notochord were identified on second trimester ultrasound in a fetus with a COL2A1 mutation. To our knowledge, this represents the first case of a persistent notochord associated with a COL2A1 mutation in humans. In this case report, we describe ultrasound and postmortem findings and review the pathogenesis associated with a persistent notochord.

  10. ATM Technology Demonstration-1 Phase II Boeing Configurable Graphical Display (CGD) Software Design Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, George F.

    2017-01-01

    This Software Description Document (SDD) captures the design for developing the Flight Interval Management (FIM) system Configurable Graphics Display (CGD) software. Specifically this SDD describes aspects of the Boeing CGD software and the surrounding context and interfaces. It does not describe the Honeywell components of the CGD system. The SDD provides the system overview, architectural design, and detailed design with all the necessary information to implement the Boeing components of the CGD software and integrate them into the CGD subsystem within the larger FIM system. Overall system and CGD system-level requirements are derived from the CGD SRS (in turn derived from the Boeing System Requirements Design Document (SRDD)). Display and look-and-feel requirements are derived from Human Machine Interface (HMI) design documents and working group recommendations. This Boeing CGD SDD is required to support the upcoming Critical Design Review (CDR).

  11. Small transport aircraft technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  12. COL11A1 in FAP polyps and in sporadic colorectal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Heléne; Salahshor, Sima; Stenling, Roger; Björk, Jan; Lindmark, Gudrun; Iselius, Lennart; Rubio, Carlos; Lindblom, Annika

    2001-01-01

    We previously reported that the α-1 chain of type 11 collagen (COL11A1), not normally expressed in the colon, was up-regulated in stromal fibroblasts in most sporadic colorectal carcinomas. Patients with germline mutations in the APC gene show, besides colonic polyposis, symptoms of stromal fibroblast involvement, which could be related to COL11A1 expression. Most colorectal carcinomas are suggested to be a result of an activated Wnt- pathway, most often involving an inactivation of the APC gene or activation of β-catenin. We used normal and polyp tissue samples from one FAP patient and a set of 37 sporadic colorectal carcinomas to find out if the up-regulation of COL11A1 was associated with an active APC/β-catenin pathway. In this study we found a statistically significant difference in COL11A1 expression between normal tissue and adenomas from one FAP patient, and all adenomas gave evidence for an active APC/β-catenin pathway. An active Wnt pathway has been suggested to involve stromal expression of WISP-1. We found a strong correlation between WISP-1 and COL11A1 expression in sporadic carcinomas. Our results suggest that expression of COL11A1 in colorectal tumors could be associated with the APC/β-catenin pathway in FAP and sporadic colorectal cancer

  13. Aircraft Carrier Exposure Testing of Aircraft Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Eui

    2004-01-01

    .... Test and control specimens were affixed on exposure racks and installed on aircraft carriers to compare adhesive bonding primers for aluminum and to determine the static property behavior of various...

  14. Broadband Internet Based Service to Passengers and Crew On-board Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzarelli, Tony

    2003-07-01

    The Connexion by BoeingSM (CbB) global network will provide broadband information services to aircraft passengers and crews. Through this Ku-band (14 GHz (uplink) and 11/12 GHz (downlink)) satellite-based system, aircraft passengers and crew will no longer be limited to pre-packaged services, but instead will be able to access the full range of broadband services from their seats using their laptop, PDA or the on-board IFE console.The kind of services offered to passengers are based on the internet/intranet access via their own laptops and PDA (using Ethernet wired cable, or wireless 802.11b access), while those offered to the crew can range between various crew application (such as weather updates and travel information) and aircraft health monitoring.The CbB system is divided into four basic layers of infrastructure:(1) an airborne segment, i.e. the Aircraft Earth Station (AES) consisting of proprietary high gain antenna, transceivers and other on-board subsystems providing a nominal return link data rate of 1 Mbps and a forward link data rates up to 20 Mbps;(2) a space segment consisting of leased satellite transponders on existing in-orbit Geostationary satellites;(3) a ground segment consisting of one or more leased satellite land earth stations (LESs) and redundant interconnection facilities; and;(4) a network operations centre (NOC) segment.During 2003, trials with Lufthansa (DLH) and British Airways (BA) have proved very successful. This has resulted in the recent signing of an agreement with Lufthansa which calls for the Connexion by BoeingSM service to be installed on Lufthansa's fleet of approximately 80 long-haul aircraft, including Boeing 747-400 and Airbus A330 and A340 aircraft, beginning in early 2004. BA is expected to follow soon. In addition to the successful recent service demonstrations, both Japan Airlines (JAL) and Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) have announced their intent to install the revolutionary service on their long-range aircraft.

  15. Aircraft applications of fault detection and isolation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos Esteban, Andres

    In this thesis the problems of fault detection & isolation and fault tolerant systems are studied from the perspective of LTI frequency-domain, model-based techniques. Emphasis is placed on the applicability of these LTI techniques to nonlinear models, especially to aerospace systems. Two applications of Hinfinity LTI fault diagnosis are given using an open-loop (no controller) design approach: one for the longitudinal motion of a Boeing 747-100/200 aircraft, the other for a turbofan jet engine. An algorithm formalizing a robust identification approach based on model validation ideas is also given and applied to the previous jet engine. A general linear fractional transformation formulation is given in terms of the Youla and Dual Youla parameterizations for the integrated (control and diagnosis filter) approach. This formulation provides better insight into the trade-off between the control and the diagnosis objectives. It also provides the basic groundwork towards the development of nested schemes for the integrated approach. These nested structures allow iterative improvements on the control/filter Youla parameters based on successive identification of the system uncertainty (as given by the Dual Youla parameter). The thesis concludes with an application of Hinfinity LTI techniques to the integrated design for the longitudinal motion of the previous Boeing 747-100/200 model.

  16. Mutations in COL1A1 and COL1A2 and dental aberrations in children and adolescents with osteogenesis imperfecta - A retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Andersson

    Full Text Available Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI is a heterogeneous group of disorders of connective tissue, caused mainly by mutations in the collagen I genes (COL1A1 and COL1A2. Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI and other dental aberrations are common features of OI. We investigated the association between collagen I mutations and DGI, taurodontism, and retention of permanent second molars in a retrospective cohort of 152 unrelated children and adolescents with OI. The clinical examination included radiographic evaluations. Teeth from 81 individuals were available for histopathological evaluation. COL1A1/2 mutations were found in 104 individuals by nucleotide sequencing. DGI was diagnosed clinically and radiographically in 29% of the individuals (44/152 and through isolated histological findings in another 19% (29/152. In the individuals with a COL1A1 mutation, 70% (7/10 of those with a glycine substitution located C-terminal of p.Gly305 exhibited DGI in both dentitions while no individual (0/7 with a mutation N-terminal of this point exhibited DGI in either dentition (p = 0.01. In the individuals with a COL1A2 mutation, 80% (8/10 of those with a glycine substitution located C terminal of p.Gly211 exhibited DGI in both dentitions while no individual (0/5 with a mutation N-terminal of this point (p = 0.007 exhibited DGI in either dentition. DGI was restricted to the deciduous dentition in 20 individuals. Seventeen had missense mutations where glycine to serine was the most prevalent substitution (53%. Taurodontism occurred in 18% and retention of permanent second molars in 31% of the adolescents. Dental aberrations are strongly associated with qualitatively changed collagen I. The varying expressivity of DGI is related to the location of the collagen I mutation. Genotype information may be helpful in identifying individuals with OI who have an increased risk of dental aberrations.

  17. Scoliosis in osteogenesis imperfecta caused by COL1A1/COL1A2 mutations - genotype-phenotype correlations and effect of bisphosphonate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Atsuko; Ouellet, Jean; Muneta, Takeshi; Glorieux, Francis H; Rauch, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Bisphosphonates are widely used to treat children with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), a bone fragility disorder that is most often caused by mutations in COL1A1 or COL1A2. However, it is unclear whether this treatment decreases the risk of developing scoliosis. We retrospectively evaluated spine radiographs and charts of 437 patients (227 female) with OI caused by mutations in COL1A1 or COL1A2 and compared the relationship between scoliosis, genotype and bisphosphonate treatment history. At the last follow-up (mean age 11.9 [SD: 5.9] years), 242 (55%) patients had scoliosis. The prevalence of scoliosis was highest in OI type III (89%), followed by OI type IV (61%) and OI type I (36%). Moderate to severe scoliosis (Cobb angle ≥25°) was rare in individuals with COL1A1 haploinsufficiency mutations but was present in about two fifth of patients with triple helical glycine substitutions or C-propeptide mutations. During the first 2 to 4years of bisphosphonate therapy, patients with OI type III had lower Cobb angle progression rates than before bisphosphonate treatment, whereas in OI types I and IV bisphosphonate treatment was not associated with a change in Cobb angle progression rates. At skeletal maturity, the prevalence of scoliosis (Cobb angle >10°) was similar in patients who had started bisphosphonate treatment early in life (before 5.0years of age) and in patients who had started therapy later (after the age of 10.0years) or had never received bisphosphonate therapy. Bisphosphonate treatment decreased progression rate of scoliosis in OI type III but there was no evidence of a positive effect on scoliosis in OI types I and IV. The prevalence of scoliosis at maturity was not influenced by the bisphosphonate treatment history in any OI type. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mutations in COL1A1 and COL1A2 and dental aberrations in children and adolescents with osteogenesis imperfecta – A retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahllöf, Göran; Lindahl, Katarina; Kindmark, Andreas; Grigelioniene, Giedre; Åström, Eva; Malmgren, Barbro

    2017-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous group of disorders of connective tissue, caused mainly by mutations in the collagen I genes (COL1A1 and COL1A2). Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI) and other dental aberrations are common features of OI. We investigated the association between collagen I mutations and DGI, taurodontism, and retention of permanent second molars in a retrospective cohort of 152 unrelated children and adolescents with OI. The clinical examination included radiographic evaluations. Teeth from 81 individuals were available for histopathological evaluation. COL1A1/2 mutations were found in 104 individuals by nucleotide sequencing. DGI was diagnosed clinically and radiographically in 29% of the individuals (44/152) and through isolated histological findings in another 19% (29/152). In the individuals with a COL1A1 mutation, 70% (7/10) of those with a glycine substitution located C-terminal of p.Gly305 exhibited DGI in both dentitions while no individual (0/7) with a mutation N-terminal of this point exhibited DGI in either dentition (p = 0.01). In the individuals with a COL1A2 mutation, 80% (8/10) of those with a glycine substitution located C terminal of p.Gly211 exhibited DGI in both dentitions while no individual (0/5) with a mutation N-terminal of this point (p = 0.007) exhibited DGI in either dentition. DGI was restricted to the deciduous dentition in 20 individuals. Seventeen had missense mutations where glycine to serine was the most prevalent substitution (53%). Taurodontism occurred in 18% and retention of permanent second molars in 31% of the adolescents. Dental aberrations are strongly associated with qualitatively changed collagen I. The varying expressivity of DGI is related to the location of the collagen I mutation. Genotype information may be helpful in identifying individuals with OI who have an increased risk of dental aberrations. PMID:28498836

  19. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft on lakebed during high-speed taxi tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA/McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft undergoes high-speed taxi tests on Rogers Dry Lake at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on October 17, 1996. The aircraft was tested at speeds up to 85 knots. Normal takeoff speed would be 110 knots. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X

  20. ColVI myopathies: where do we stand, where do we go?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allamand Valérie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Collagen VI myopathies, caused by mutations in the genes encoding collagen type VI (ColVI, represent a clinical continuum with Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD and Bethlem myopathy (BM at each end of the spectrum, and less well-defined intermediate phenotypes in between. ColVI myopathies also share common features with other disorders associated with prominent muscle contractures, making differential diagnosis difficult. This group of disorders, under-recognized for a long time, has aroused much interest over the past decade, with important advances made in understanding its molecular pathogenesis. Indeed, numerous mutations have now been reported in the COL6A1, COL6A2 and COL6A3 genes, a large proportion of which are de novo and exert dominant-negative effects. Genotype-phenotype correlations have also started to emerge, which reflect the various pathogenic mechanisms at play in these disorders: dominant de novo exon splicing that enables the synthesis and secretion of mutant tetramers and homozygous nonsense mutations that lead to premature termination of translation and complete loss of function are associated with early-onset, severe phenotypes. In this review, we present the current state of diagnosis and research in the field of ColVI myopathies. The past decade has provided significant advances, with the identification of altered cellular functions in animal models of ColVI myopathies and in patient samples. In particular, mitochondrial dysfunction and a defect in the autophagic clearance system of skeletal muscle have recently been reported, thereby opening potential therapeutic avenues.

  1. 78 FR 52875 - Airworthiness Directives; the Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... airplane reaching its limit of validity (LOV) of the engineering data that support the established... the wing structure to support the limit load condition, and consequent loss of structural integrity of... CONTACT: Galib Abumeri, Aerospace Engineer, Airframe Branch, ANM-120L, FAA, Los Angeles Aircraft...

  2. 77 FR 24357 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... to increased lightning-induced currents and subsequent damage to composite structures, hydraulic... lightning-induced currents and subsequent damage to composite structures, hydraulic tubes, and actuator..., ANM-130S, Seattle Aircraft Certification Office (ACO), FAA, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, Washington...

  3. 78 FR 20229 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... replacement of any discrepant elevator tab control mechanism. This new AD requires replacing the left and... vibration; and reports of gaps in elevator tab control mechanisms and analysis indicating that additional... Equipment Branch, ANM-130S, FAA, Seattle Aircraft Certification Office (ACO), 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton...

  4. 77 FR 37831 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ..., Aircraft Fuel System. (e) Unsafe Condition This AD was prompted by a report of an in-service occurrence of... fuel system, and other related testing if necessary. That NPRM was prompted by a report of an in-service occurrence of total loss of boost pump pressure of the fuel feed system, followed by loss of fuel...

  5. 78 FR 14722 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... (JASC)/Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 2800, Aircraft Fuel System. (e) Unsafe Condition... repetitive operational tests of the engine fuel suction feed of the fuel system, and other related testing if... total loss of boost pump pressure of the fuel feed system, followed by loss of fuel system suction feed...

  6. 78 FR 6254 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... Association (ATA) of America Code 2800, Aircraft Fuel System. (e) Unsafe Condition This AD was prompted by... to require repetitive operational tests of the engine fuel suction feed of the fuel system, and other... 737-400 airplanes of total loss of boost pump pressure of the fuel feed system, followed by loss of...

  7. 77 FR 41934 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 2800, Aircraft Fuel System. (e) Unsafe Condition This AD was... operational tests of the engine fuel suction feed of the fuel system, and other related testing if necessary... loss of boost pump pressure of the fuel feed system, followed by loss of fuel system suction feed...

  8. 78 FR 45898 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... Association (ATA) of America Code 2800, Aircraft Fuel System. (e) Unsafe Condition This AD was prompted by... airplanes of total loss of boost pump pressure of the fuel feed system, followed by loss of fuel system... correct failure of the engine fuel suction feed of the fuel system, which, in the event of total loss of...

  9. 78 FR 28128 - Airworthiness Directives; the Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ...) of America Code 2800, Aircraft Fuel System. (e) Unsafe Condition This AD was prompted by reports of... occurrences on Model 737-400 airplanes of total loss of boost pump pressure of the fuel feed system, followed by loss of fuel system suction feed capability on one engine, and in-flight shutdown of the engine...

  10. 77 FR 40307 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... 2800, Aircraft Fuel System. (e) Unsafe Condition This AD was prompted by reports of two in-service... engine fuel suction feed of the fuel system, and other related testing if necessary. That NPRM was... pressure of the fuel feed system, followed by loss of fuel system suction feed capability on one engine...

  11. 78 FR 52836 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ...) of America Code 2800, Aircraft Fuel System. (e) Unsafe Condition This AD was prompted by reports of... airplanes of total loss of boost pump pressure of the fuel feed system, followed by loss of fuel system... operational tests of the engine fuel suction feed of the fuel system, and corrective actions if necessary. We...

  12. 78 FR 49379 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ....g., inspections), intervals, and/or CDCCLs may be used unless the actions, intervals, and/or CDCCLs... results of the proposed inspection. We have no way of determining the number of aircraft that might need... from some impact-resistant access doors. This proposed AD would require an inspection of the left- and...

  13. 77 FR 10403 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... thresholds and repetitive inspection intervals for certain principal structural elements (PSEs) to be added... information describes procedures for an additional critical fatigue inspection. FAA's Determination We are... provided guidance for this determination in Advisory Circular (AC) 25.1529-1A. (d) Subject Joint Aircraft...

  14. 76 FR 77371 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... operating program software (OPS) (Version 7) of the engine indication and crew alerting system (EICAS) in... Engineer, Propulsion Branch, ANM-140S, FAA, Seattle Aircraft Certification Office (ACO), 1601 Lind Avenue..., and loading operational program configuration (OPC) software. That NPRM also proposed to retain the...

  15. 78 FR 57542 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... Engineer, Airframe Branch, ANM-120S, FAA, Seattle Aircraft Certification Office, 1601 Lind Avenue SW... cracked retract actuator fuse pins that could fail earlier than the previously determined safe life limit of the pins. A fractured retract actuator fuse pin can cause the main landing gear (MLG) to extend...

  16. 77 FR 46340 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... repetitive inspections for cracking of the elevator actuator fittings. Since we issued that AD, the... actuator fitting or incorrectly installed bolts to the actuator fitting, which could lead to the elevator... CONTACT: Melanie Violette, Aerospace Engineer, Airframe Branch, ANM-120S, FAA, Seattle Aircraft...

  17. 77 FR 47329 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... inspection to determine if certain motor operated valve actuators for the fuel tanks are installed, and... Nichols, Aerospace Engineer, Propulsion Branch, ANM-140S, FAA, Seattle Aircraft Certification Office, 1601.... That AD requires an inspection to determine if certain motor operated valve actuators for the fuel...

  18. 78 FR 56182 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... if certain motor-operated shutoff valve actuators for the fuel tanks are installed, and related... Engineer, Propulsion Branch, ANM-140S, FAA, Seattle Aircraft Certification Office, 1601 Lind Avenue SW...-operated shutoff valve actuators for the fuel tanks are installed, and related investigative and corrective...

  19. 78 FR 23468 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... requires repetitive inspections for cracking of the elevator actuator fittings. This new AD requires, for... actuator fitting or incorrectly installed bolts to the actuator fitting, which could lead to the elevator..., ANM-120S, FAA, Seattle Aircraft Certification Office, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, WA 985057-3356...

  20. 78 FR 66859 - Airworthiness Directives; the Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... TE flap support bearings, which can result in damage to the TE rotary actuators and consequent dual flap drive system disconnect in both TE flap rotary actuators, and a possible flap aerodynamic blowback... INFORMATION CONTACT: Berhane Alazar, Aerospace Engineer, Airframe Branch, ANM-120S, FAA, Seattle Aircraft...

  1. 78 FR 37497 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... existing AD, which requires an inspection to determine if certain motor operated valve (MOV) actuators for... CONTACT: Rebel Nichols, Aerospace Engineer, Propulsion Branch, ANM-140S, FAA, Seattle Aircraft... inspection to determine if certain MOV actuators for the fuel tanks are installed, and related investigative...

  2. 77 FR 31167 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... Sutherland, Aerospace Engineer, Airframe Branch, ANM-120S, FAA, Seattle Aircraft Certification Office, 1601....sutherland@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Discussion We issued a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM... this AD. (l) Related Information For more information about this AD, contact James Sutherland...

  3. 77 FR 10411 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... the AD docket shortly after receipt. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: James Sutherland, Aerospace...., Renton, Washington 98057-3356; phone: 425-917- 6533; fax: 425-917-6590; email: James.Sutherland@faa.gov... Sutherland, Aerospace Engineer, Airframe Branch, ANM-120S, FAA, Seattle Aircraft Certification Office, 1601...

  4. 76 FR 76066 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... Sutherland, Aerospace Engineer, Airframe Branch, ANM-120S, FAA, Seattle Aircraft Certification Office, 1601...: james.sutherland@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Comments Invited We invite you to send any written... about this AD, contact James Sutherland, Aerospace Engineer, Airframe Branch, ANM-120S, FAA, Seattle...

  5. 76 FR 77937 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... Sutherland, Aerospace Engineer, Airframe Branch, ANM-120S, FAA, Seattle Aircraft Certification Office (ACO...: James.Sutherland@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Comments Invited We invite you to send any written... Information (1) For more information about this AD, contact James Sutherland, Aerospace Engineer, Airframe...

  6. 77 FR 25647 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... the AD docket shortly after receipt. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: James Sutherland, Aerospace...., Renton, Washington 98057-3356; phone: 425- 917-6533; fax: 425-917-6590; email: James.Sutherland@faa.gov... Sutherland, Aerospace Engineer, Airframe Branch, ANM-120S, FAA, Seattle Aircraft Certification Office (ACO...

  7. 77 FR 37781 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... CONTACT: James Sutherland, Aerospace Engineer, Airframe Branch, ANM-120S, FAA, Seattle Aircraft...: james.sutherland@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Discussion We issued a notice of proposed... this AD. (k) Related Information For more information about this AD, contact James Sutherland...

  8. 78 FR 43770 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... elevator rear spar stiffener assembly, which could adversely affect elevator structural stiffness, which... aircraft in air commerce by prescribing regulations for practices, methods, and procedures the... 13132. This AD will not have a substantial direct effect on the States, on the relationship between the...

  9. KC-46 Tanker Modernization: Delivery of First Fully Capable Aircraft Has Been Delayed over One Year and Additional Delays Are Possible

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    will then allow Boeing to complete remaining developmental flight tests and meet other key milestones . Program officials do not consider the WARP...a break in production while it completes developmental and operational testing. The program expects to begin delivering these aircraft in 2018 and...there have been no requirements changes and there have been fewer engineering changes than expected . Total Acquisition Cost Estimate for the KC-46

  10. Sulfuric Acid and Soot Particles in Aircraft Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueschel, Rudolf F.; Verma, S.; Ferry, G. V.; Goodman, J.; Strawa, A. W.; Gore, Warren J. Y. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Aircraft have become the fastest, fairly convenient and, in most cases of long-distance travel, most economical mode of travel. This is reflected in the increase of commercial air traffic at a rate of 6% per year since 1978. Future annual growth rates of passenger miles of 4% for domestic and 6% for international routes are projected. A still larger annual increase of 8.5% is expected for the Asia/Pacific region. To meet that growth, Boeing predicts the addition of 15,900 new aircraft to the world's fleets, valued at more than $1.1 trillion, within the next 20 years. The largest concern of environmental consequences of aircraft emissions deals with ozone (O3), because: (1) the O3 layer protects the blaspheme from short-ultraviolet radiation that can cause damage to human, animal and plant life, and possibly affect agricultural production and the marine food chain; (2) O3 is important for the production of the hydroxyl radical (OH) which, in turn, is responsible for the destruction of other greenhouse gases, e.g., methane (CH4) and for the removal of other pollutants, and (3) O3 is a greenhouse gas. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Damage evaluation of 500 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor nuclear containment for aircraft impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukreja, Mukesh [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)]. E-mail: mrkukreja@yahoo.com

    2005-08-01

    Safety assessment of Indian nuclear containments has been carried out for aircraft impact. The loading time history for Boeing and Airbus categories of aircrafts is generated based on the principle of momentum transfer of crushable aircrafts. The case studies include the analysis of BWR Mark III containment as a benchmark problem and analyses of Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor containment (inner and outer containment) for impulsive loading due to aircraft impact. Initially, the load is applied on outer containment wall model and subsequently the load is transferred to inner containment after the local perforation of the outer containment wall is noticed in the transient simulation. The analysis methodology evolved in the present work would be useful for studying the behavior of double containment walls and multi barrier structural configurations for aircraft impact with higher energies. The present analysis illustrates that with the provision of double containments for Indian nuclear power plants, adequate reserve strength is available for the case of an extremely low probability event of missile impact generated due to the commercial aircrafts operated in India.

  12. Damage evaluation of 500 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor nuclear containment for aircraft impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukreja, Mukesh

    2005-01-01

    Safety assessment of Indian nuclear containments has been carried out for aircraft impact. The loading time history for Boeing and Airbus categories of aircrafts is generated based on the principle of momentum transfer of crushable aircrafts. The case studies include the analysis of BWR Mark III containment as a benchmark problem and analyses of Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor containment (inner and outer containment) for impulsive loading due to aircraft impact. Initially, the load is applied on outer containment wall model and subsequently the load is transferred to inner containment after the local perforation of the outer containment wall is noticed in the transient simulation. The analysis methodology evolved in the present work would be useful for studying the behavior of double containment walls and multi barrier structural configurations for aircraft impact with higher energies. The present analysis illustrates that with the provision of double containments for Indian nuclear power plants, adequate reserve strength is available for the case of an extremely low probability event of missile impact generated due to the commercial aircrafts operated in India

  13. Fuel cell APU for commercial aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daggett, D.L. [Boeing Commercial Airplane, Seattle, WA (United States); Lowery, N. [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States); Wittmann, J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The Boeing Company has always sought to improve fuel efficiency in commercial aircraft. An opportunity now exists to explore technology that will allow fuel efficiency improvements to be achieved while simultaneously reducing emissions. Replacing the current aircraft gas turbine-powered Auxiliary Power Unit with a hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell is anticipated to greatly improve fuel efficiency, reduce emissions and noise as well as improve airplane performance. However, there are several technology hurdles that need to be overcome. If SOFC technology is to be matured for the betterment of the earth community, the fuel cell industry, aerospace manufacturers and other end users all need to work together to overcome these challenges. Aviation has many of the same needs in fuel cell technology as other sectors, such as reducing cost and improving reliability and fuel efficiency in order to commercialize the technology. However, there are other distinct aerospace needs that will not necessarily be addressed by the industrial sector. These include development of lightweight materials and small-volume fuel cell systems that can reform hydrocarbon fuels. Aviation also has higher levels of safety requirements. Other transportation modes share the same requirement for vibration and shock tolerant fuel cell stacks. Lastly, as fuel cells are anticipated to be operated in flight, they must be capable of operating over a wide range of atmospheric conditions. By itself, the aviation sector does not appear to offer enough of a potential market to justify the investment required by any one manufacturer to develop fuel cells for APU replacements. Therefore, means must be found to modularize components and make SOFC stacks sufficiently similar to industrial units so that manufacturing economy of scales can be brought to bear. Government R and D and industry support are required to advance the technology. Because aerospace fuel cells will be higher performing units, the benefits of

  14. Development and validation of bonded composite doubler repairs for commercial aircraft.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Rackow, Kirk A.

    2007-07-01

    A typical aircraft can experience over 2,000 fatigue cycles (cabin pressurizations) and even greater flight hours in a single year. An unavoidable by-product of aircraft use is that crack, impact, and corrosion flaws develop throughout the aircraft's skin and substructure elements. Economic barriers to the purchase of new aircraft have placed even greater demands on efficient and safe repair methods. The use of bonded composite doublers offers the airframe manufacturers and aircraft maintenance facilities a cost effective method to safely extend the lives of their aircraft. Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is now possible to bond a single Boron-Epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure. The FAA's Airworthiness Assurance Center at Sandia National Labs (AANC), Boeing, and Federal Express completed a pilot program to validate and introduce composite doubler repair technology to the U.S. commercial aircraft industry. This project focused on repair of DC-10 fuselage structure and its primary goal was to demonstrate routine use of this repair technology using niche applications that streamline the design-to-installation process. As composite doubler repairs gradually appear in the commercial aircraft arena, successful flight operation data is being accumulated. These commercial aircraft repairs are not only demonstrating the engineering and economic advantages of composite doubler technology but they are also establishing the ability of commercial maintenance depots to safely adopt this repair technique. This report presents the array of engineering activities that were completed in order to make this technology available for widespread commercial aircraft use. Focused laboratory testing was conducted to compliment the field data and to address specific issues regarding damage tolerance and flaw growth in composite doubler repairs. Fatigue and strength tests were performed on a simulated wing

  15. A COL11A2 mutation in Labrador retrievers with mild disproportionate dwarfism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Frischknecht

    Full Text Available We describe a mild form of disproportionate dwarfism in Labrador Retrievers, which is not associated with any obvious health problems such as secondary arthrosis. We designate this phenotype as skeletal dysplasia 2 (SD2. It is inherited as a monogenic autosomal recessive trait with incomplete penetrance primarily in working lines of the Labrador Retriever breed. Using 23 cases and 37 controls we mapped the causative mutation by genome-wide association and homozygosity mapping to a 4.44 Mb interval on chromosome 12. We re-sequenced the genome of one affected dog at 30x coverage and detected 92 non-synonymous variants in the critical interval. Only two of these variants, located in the lymphotoxin A (LTA and collagen alpha-2(XI chain gene (COL11A2, respectively, were perfectly associated with the trait. Previously described COL11A2 variants in humans or mice lead to skeletal dysplasias and/or deafness. The dog variant associated with disproportionate dwarfism, COL11A2:c.143G>C or p.R48P, probably has only a minor effect on collagen XI function, which might explain the comparatively mild phenotype seen in our study. The identification of this candidate causative mutation thus widens the known phenotypic spectrum of COL11A2 mutations. We speculate that non-pathogenic COL11A2 variants might even contribute to the heritable variation in height.

  16. A COL11A2 mutation in Labrador retrievers with mild disproportionate dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischknecht, Mirjam; Niehof-Oellers, Helena; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Drögemüller, Cord; Dietschi, Elisabeth; Dolf, Gaudenz; Tellhelm, Bernd; Lang, Johann; Tiira, Katriina; Lohi, Hannes; Leeb, Tosso

    2013-01-01

    We describe a mild form of disproportionate dwarfism in Labrador Retrievers, which is not associated with any obvious health problems such as secondary arthrosis. We designate this phenotype as skeletal dysplasia 2 (SD2). It is inherited as a monogenic autosomal recessive trait with incomplete penetrance primarily in working lines of the Labrador Retriever breed. Using 23 cases and 37 controls we mapped the causative mutation by genome-wide association and homozygosity mapping to a 4.44 Mb interval on chromosome 12. We re-sequenced the genome of one affected dog at 30x coverage and detected 92 non-synonymous variants in the critical interval. Only two of these variants, located in the lymphotoxin A (LTA) and collagen alpha-2(XI) chain gene (COL11A2), respectively, were perfectly associated with the trait. Previously described COL11A2 variants in humans or mice lead to skeletal dysplasias and/or deafness. The dog variant associated with disproportionate dwarfism, COL11A2:c.143G>C or p.R48P, probably has only a minor effect on collagen XI function, which might explain the comparatively mild phenotype seen in our study. The identification of this candidate causative mutation thus widens the known phenotypic spectrum of COL11A2 mutations. We speculate that non-pathogenic COL11A2 variants might even contribute to the heritable variation in height.

  17. COL Application Content Guide for HTGRs: Revision to RG 1.206, Part 1 - Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne Moe

    2012-08-01

    A combined license (COL) application is required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for all proposed nuclear plants. The information requirements for a COL application are set forth in 10 CFR 52.79, “Contents of Applications; Technical Information in Final Safety Analysis Report.” An applicant for a modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) must develop and submit for NRC review and approval a COL application which conforms to these requirements. The technical information necessary to allow NRC staff to evaluate a COL application and resolve all safety issues related to a proposed nuclear plant is detailed and comprehensive. To this, Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.206, “Combined License Applications for Nuclear Power Plants” (LWR Edition), was developed to assist light water reactor (LWR) applicants in incorporating and effectively formatting required information for COL application review (Ref. 1). However, the guidance prescribed in RG 1.206 presumes a LWR design proposal consistent with the systems and functions associated with large LWR power plants currently operating under NRC license.

  18. Case of Small Vessel Disease Associated with COL4A1 Mutations following Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao McONeil Plancher

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With this case report, we would like to heighten the awareness of clinicians about COL4A1 as a single-gene disorder causing cerebral small vessel disease and describe a previously unreported pathogenic missense substitution in COL4A1 (p.Gly990Val and a new clinical presentation. We identified a heterozygous putatively pathogenic mutation of COL4A1 in a 50-year-old female with a history of congenital cataracts and glaucoma who presented with multiple diffusion-positive infarcts and areas of contrast enhancement following mild head trauma. We believe that this presentation of multiple areas of acute brain and vascular injury in the setting of mild head trauma is a new manifestation of this genetic disorder. Imaging findings of multiple acute infarcts and regions of contrast enhancement with associated asymptomatic old deep microhemorrhages and leukomalacia in adults after head trauma should raise a high suspicion for a COL4A1 genetic disorder. Radiographic patterns of significant leukoaraiosis and deep microhemorrhages can also be seen in patients with long-standing vasculopathy associated with hypertension, which our patient lacked. Our findings demonstrate the utility of genetic screening for COL4A1 mutations in young patients who have small vessel vasculopathy on brain imaging but who do not have significant cardiovascular risk factors.

  19. Plasmid ColE1 as a Molecular Vehicle for Cloning and Amplification of DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershfield, Vickers; Boyer, Herbert W.; Yanofsky, Charles; Lovett, Michael A.; Helinski, Donald R.

    1974-01-01

    DNA fragments obtained from EcoRI endonuclease digestion of bacteriophage ϕ80pt190 (trp+) and the plasmid ColE1 were covalently joined with polynucleotide ligase. Transformation of Escherichia coli trp- strains to tryptophan independence with the recombined DNA selected for reconstituted ColE1 plasmids containing the tryptophan operon and the ϕ80 immunity region. Similarly, an EcoRI endonuclease generated fragment of plasmid pSC105 DNA containing the genetic determinant of kanamycin resistance was inserted into the ColE1 plasmid and recovered in E. coli. The plasmids containing the trp operon (ColE1-trp) and the kanamycin resistance gene were maintained under logarithmic growth conditions at a level of 25-30 copies per cell and accumulate to the extent of several hundred copies per cell in the presence of chloramphenicol. Cells carrying the ColE1-trp plasmid determined the production of highly elevated levels of trp operon-specific mRNA and tryptophan biosynthetic enzymes. Images PMID:4610576

  20. Optimizing Unmanned Aircraft System Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    ASC-U uses a deterministic algorithm to optimize over a given finite time horizon to obtain near-optimal UAS mission area assignments. ASC-U...the details of the algorithm . We set an upper bound on the total number of schedules that can be generated, so as not to create unsolvable ILPs. We...COL_MISSION_NAME)) If Trim( CStr (rMissions(iRow, COL_MISSION_REQUIRED))) <> "" Then If CLng(rMissions(iRow, COL_MISSION_REQUIRED)) > CLng

  1. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research: Phase II- Volume III-Truss Braced Wing Aeroelastic Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Allen, Timothy J.; Droney, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This Test Report summarizes the Truss Braced Wing (TBW) Aeroelastic Test (Task 3.1) work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, which includes the time period of February 2012 through June 2014. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Virginia Tech, and NextGen Aeronautics. The model was fabricated by NextGen Aeronautics and designed to meet dynamically scaled requirements from the sized full scale TBW FEM. The test of the dynamically scaled SUGAR TBW half model was broken up into open loop testing in December 2013 and closed loop testing from January 2014 to April 2014. Results showed the flutter mechanism to primarily be a coalescence of 2nd bending mode and 1st torsion mode around 10 Hz, as predicted by analysis. Results also showed significant change in flutter speed as angle of attack was varied. This nonlinear behavior can be explained by including preload and large displacement changes to the structural stiffness and mass matrices in the flutter analysis. Control laws derived from both test system ID and FEM19 state space models were successful in suppressing flutter. The control laws were robust and suppressed flutter for a variety of Mach, dynamic pressures, and angle of attacks investigated.

  2. Abortive phage-infection and UV-protection markers on ColI plasmids from epidemic strains of Salmonella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Cultures of Escherichia coli carrying ColI plasmids received in conjugation from strains of Salmonella typhimurium and S. agona were examined for abortive infection (Abi) of phage BF23 and for enhanced resistance to the lethal action of UV-irradiation (Uvr). The Abi character of stored cultures of E. coli was also compared with the reaction of the same stock culture tested 5 years before. Seven of the eight potential types differentiated by three characters were represented among 160 ColI plasmids: ColIa Abi + Uvr + (3 plasmids), ColIa Abi - Uvr + (1), ColIa Abi - Uvr-> (2), ColIb Abi + Uvr + (85), ColIb Abi + Uvr - (5), ColIb Abi - Uvr + (4), ColIb Abi-? Uvr - (60). Recognition that different plasmid types could be carried by strains of a clone proved useful in the interpretation of the epidemic spread of strains of S. typhimurium of phage type/biotype 141/9f in Scotland and in tracing the ancestry of a recently emerged rhamnose non-fermenting mutant strain of S. agona. (author)

  3. A novel COL11A1 missense mutation in siblings with non-ocular Stickler syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Tsuji, Atsumi; Morita, Kei-Ichi; Naruto, Takuya; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Kashimada, Kenichi; Enomoto, Keisuke; Morio, Tomohiro; Harada, Hiroyuki; Imoto, Issei

    2016-01-01

    Stickler syndrome (STL) is an autosomal, dominantly inherited, clinically variable and genetically heterogeneous connective tissue disorder characterized by ocular, auditory, orofacial and skeletal abnormalities. We conducted targeted resequencing using a next-generation sequencer for molecular diagnosis of a 2-year-old girl who was clinically suspected of having STL with Pierre Robin sequence. We detected a novel heterozygous missense mutation, NM_001854.3:n.4838G>A [NM_001854.3 (COL11A1_v001):c.4520G>A], in COL11A1, resulting in a Gly to Asp substitution at position 1507 [NM_001854.3(COL11A1_i001)] within one of the collagen-like domains of the triple helical region. The same mutation was detected in her 4-year-old brother with cleft palate and high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss.

  4. Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion in a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, James L.; Brown, Gerald V.; DaeKim, Hyun; Chu, Julio

    2011-01-01

    The performance of the N3-X, a 300 passenger hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft with turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP), has been analyzed to see if it can meet the 70% fuel burn reduction goal of the NASA Subsonic Fixed Wing project for N+3 generation aircraft. The TeDP system utilizes superconducting electric generators, motors and transmission lines to allow the power producing and thrust producing portions of the system to be widely separated. It also allows a small number of large turboshaft engines to drive any number of propulsors. On the N3-X these new degrees of freedom were used to (1) place two large turboshaft engines driving generators in freestream conditions to maximize thermal efficiency and (2) to embed a broad continuous array of 15 motor driven propulsors on the upper surface of the aircraft near the trailing edge. That location maximizes the amount of the boundary layer ingested and thus maximizes propulsive efficiency. The Boeing B777-200LR flying 7500 nm (13890 km) with a cruise speed of Mach 0.84 and an 118100 lb payload was selected as the reference aircraft and mission for this study. In order to distinguish between improvements due to technology and aircraft configuration changes from those due to the propulsion configuration changes, an intermediate configuration was included in this study. In this configuration a pylon mounted, ultra high bypass (UHB) geared turbofan engine with identical propulsion technology was integrated into the same hybrid wing body airframe. That aircraft achieved a 52% reduction in mission fuel burn relative to the reference aircraft. The N3-X was able to achieve a reduction of 70% and 72% (depending on the cooling system) relative to the reference aircraft. The additional 18% - 20% reduction in the mission fuel burn can therefore be attributed to the additional degrees of freedom in the propulsion system configuration afforded by the TeDP system that eliminates nacelle and pylon drag, maximizes boundary

  5. Aircraft operations management manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  6. Receptores do factor estimulante de colónias de macrófagos do robalo

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Márcio Adriano Guiomar de

    2010-01-01

    O receptor do factor estimulante de colónias de macrófagos, também conhecido como receptor do factor estimulante de colónias-1 (CSF1R), é um receptor de um factor de crescimento hematopoiético que é especificamente expresso em células do sistema fagocítico-mononuclear e desempenha um papel essencial no desenvolvimento e regulação destas células. O CSF1R já foi descrito em vários mamíferos e a sua biologia tem sido exaustivamente caracterizada nestes vertebrados mas o conheci...

  7. RNase H and replication of ColE1 DNA in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Naito, S; Uchida, H

    1986-01-01

    Amber mutations within the rnh (RNase H) gene of Escherichia coli K-12 were isolated by selecting for bacteria capable of replicating in a sup+ background replication-defective cer-6 mutant of the ColE1 replicon. The cer-6 mutation is an alteration of one base pair located 160 nucleotides upstream of the unique replication origin of this plasmid. Subsequently, we determined the DNA alterations present within these mutants. ColE1 DNA replicated in rnh(Am) recA cells, indicating that (i) RNase ...

  8. Overexpression of COL11A1 by cancer-associated fibroblasts: clinical relevance of a stromal marker in pancreatic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen García-Pravia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The collagen11A1 (COL11A1 gene is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. The expression of COL11A1 protein could be involved in desmoplastic events in pancreatic cancer, but an antibody that specifically stains the COL11A1 protein is not currently available. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 54 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC, 23 chronic pancreatitis (CP samples, and cultured peritumoral stromal cells of PDAC (passages 3-6 were studied. Normal human pancreas tissue samples were obtained through a cadaveric organ donation program. 1 Validation of COL11A1 gene overexpression by q-RT-PCR. FINDINGS: the expression of COL11A1 gene is significantly increased in PDAC samples vs. normal and CP samples. 2 Analysis of COL11A1 by immunohistochemistry using highly specific anti-proCOL11A1 antibodies. FINDINGS: anti-proCOL11A1 stains stromal cells/cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs of PDAC but it does not stain chronic benign condition (chronic pancreatitis stromal cells, epithelial cells, or normal fibroblasts. 3 Evaluation of the discrimination ability of the antibody. FINDINGS: anti-proCOL11A1 immunostaining accurately discriminates between PDAC and CP (AUC 0.936, 95% CI 0.851, 0.981. 4 Phenotypic characterization of proCOL11A1+ stromal cells co-staining with mesenchymal, epithelial and stellate cell markers on pancreatic tissue samples and cultured peritumoral pancreatic cancer stromal cells. FINDINGS: ProCOL11A1+ cells present co-staining with mesenchymal, stellate and epithelial markers (EMT phenotype in different proportions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Detection of proCOL11A1 through immunostaining with this newly-developed antibody allows for a highly accurate distinction between PDAC and CP. Unlike other available antibodies commonly used to detect CAFs, anti-proCOL11A1 is negative in stromal cells of the normal pancreas and almost absent in benign inflammation. These results strongly suggest that proCOL11A1 is a specific marker for

  9. 76 FR 63163 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 777-200, -200LR, -300, and -300ER Series...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ..., January 18, 2011) as follows: ``Figure 1 of the Accomplishment Instructions of Boeing Special Attention... Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention: Data & Services Management, P.O. Box 3707, MC 2H-65, Seattle... Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590...

  10. Predicting visibility of aircraft.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Watson

    Full Text Available Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO. In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration.

  11. SOLAR AIRCRAFT DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    RAHMATI, Sadegh; GHASED, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Generally domain Aircraft uses conventional fuel. These fuel having limited life, high cost and pollutant. Also nowadays price of petrol and other fuels are going to be higher, because of scarcity of those fuels. So there is great demand of use of non-exhaustible unlimited source of energy like solar energy. Solar aircraft is one of the ways to utilize solar energy. Solar aircraft uses solar panel to collect the solar radiation for immediate use but it also store the remaining part ...

  12. The effects of the aircraft cabin environment on passengers during simulated flights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    enables subjective assessments of the symptoms commonly experienced by passengers and crew during flights. Six investigations with subject exposure have subsequently been carried out in the aircraft cabin facility covering four environmental areas of study, i.e. humidity, air purification techniques...... but intensified complaints of headache, dizziness and claustrophobia, suggesting that air pollutants rather than low humidity cause the distress reported by airline passengers. Three investigations studying the efficacy of various air purification technologies showed that a gas phase adsorption purification unit......A 3-row, 21-seat section of a simulated Boeing 767 aircraft cabin has been built in a climate chamber, simulating the cabin environment not only in terms of materials and geometry, but also in terms of cabin air and wall temperatures and ventilation with very dry air. This realistic simulation...

  13. Development of Stitched Composite Structure for Advanced Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn; Przekop, Adam; Rouse, Marshall; Lovejoy, Andrew; Velicki, Alex; Linton, Kim; Wu, Hsi-Yung; Baraja, Jaime; Thrash, Patrick; Hoffman, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    NASA has created the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project to develop technologies which will reduce the impact of aviation on the environment. A critical aspect of this pursuit is the development of a lighter, more robust airframe that will enable the introduction of unconventional aircraft configurations. NASA and The Boeing Company are working together to develop a structural concept that is lightweight and an advancement beyond state-of-the-art composites. The Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) is an integrally stiffened panel design where elements are stitched together and designed to maintain residual load-carrying capabilities under a variety of damage scenarios. With the PRSEUS concept, through-the-thickness stitches are applied through dry fabric prior to resin infusion, and replace fasteners throughout each integral panel. Through-the-thickness reinforcement at discontinuities, such as along flange edges, has been shown to suppress delamination and turn cracks, which expands the design space and leads to lighter designs. The pultruded rod provides stiffening away from the more vulnerable skin surface and improves bending stiffness. A series of building blocks were evaluated to explore the fundamental assumptions related to the capability and advantages of PRSEUS panels. These building blocks addressed tension, compression, and pressure loading conditions. The emphasis of the development work has been to assess the loading capability, damage arrestment features, repairability, post-buckling behavior, and response of PRSEUS flat panels to out-of plane pressure loading. The results of this building-block program from coupons through an 80%-scale pressure box have demonstrated the viability of a PRSEUS center body for the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) transport aircraft. This development program shows that the PRSEUS benefits are also applicable to traditional tube-andwing aircraft, those of advanced configurations, and other

  14. Severe Hemolytic Jaundice in a Neonate with a Novel COL4A1 Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomotaki, Seiichi; Mizumoto, Hiroshi; Hamabata, Takayuki; Kumakura, Akira; Shiota, Mitsutaka; Arai, Hiroshi; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Hata, Daisuke

    2016-12-01

    We report our experience with a preterm infant with severe hemolytic jaundice who required exchange transfusion just after birth. The patient was negative for alloimmune hemolysis as a result of maternal-fetal blood type incompatibility, and tests for inherited defects in erythrocyte metabolism, membrane function, and hemoglobin synthesis were normal. We also performed a bone marrow examination, but could not identify the cause of hemolysis. The patient had several other complications, including porencephaly, epilepsy, elevated serum levels of creatine kinase, and persistent microscopic hematuria. Later, we detected a genetic mutation in COL4A1, which was recently found to be associated with hemolytic anemia. We therefore believe that all of the patient's clinical features, including hemolytic anemia, were due to the mutation in COL4A1. Genetic testing for COL4A1 mutations is recommended in neonates who exhibit hemolytic disease of unknown etiology, especially when other complications compatible with COL4A1-related disorders are present. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. DICE/ColDICE: 6D collisionless phase space hydrodynamics using a lagrangian tesselation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousbie, Thierry

    2018-01-01

    DICE is a C++ template library designed to solve collisionless fluid dynamics in 6D phase space using massively parallel supercomputers via an hybrid OpenMP/MPI parallelization. ColDICE, based on DICE, implements a cosmological and physical VLASOV-POISSON solver for cold systems such as dark matter (CDM) dynamics.

  16. Effects of a malfunctional column on conventional and FeedCol-simulated moving bed chromatography performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji-Yeon; Oh, Donghoon; Lee, Chang-Ha

    2015-07-17

    The effects of a malfunctional column on the performance of a simulated moving bed (SMB) process were studied experimentally and theoretically. The experimental results of conventional four-zone SMB (2-2-2-2 configuration) and FeedCol operation (2-2-2-2 configuration with one feed column) with one malfunctional column were compared with simulation results of the corresponding SMB processes with a normal column configuration. The malfunctional column in SMB processes significantly deteriorated raffinate purity. However, the extract purity was equivalent or slightly improved compared with the corresponding normal SMB operation because the complete separation zone of the malfunctional column moved to a lower flow rate range in zones II and III. With the malfunctional column configuration, FeedCol operation gave better experimental performance (up to 7%) than conventional SMB operation because controlling product purity with FeedCol operation was more flexible through the use of two additional operating variables, injection time and injection length. Thus, compared with conventional SMB separation, extract with equivalent or slightly better purity could be produced from FeedCol operation even with a malfunctional column, while minimizing the decrease in raffinate purity (less than 2%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Las cuentas del cuarto viaje de Cristóbal Colón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil, Juan

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The payroll of the fourth voyage of Christopher Columbus is here published for the fisrt time, signed by Admiral himself. A commentary is also furnished.

    Se publican por primera vez, con comentario, las cuentas del cuarto viaje de Cristóbal Colón, firmadas por el propio almirante.

  18. El almirante Cristóbal Colón y la ciudad de Valladolid

    OpenAIRE

    Varela Marcos , Jesús

    2006-01-01

    Pretendemos aunar todas las presencias de Colón en la ciudad de Valladolid en el año de la conmemoración de su muerte. Para ello hemos rastreado en la documentación todos los momentos en que el genovés estuvo en dicha villa.

  19. Views of Astronaut (Col.) Joe Engle and son Jon with L-5 Piper Cub

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Views of Astronaut (Col.) Joe Engle and son Jon with L-5 Piper Cub at Clover Airport. Photos include Engle turning propeller while his son sits in the cockpit (34323); both Engle and son examine propeller (34324); Engle works on engine while his son sits in cockpit (34325).

  20. Wound healing genes and susceptibility to cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil: Role of COL1A1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Lucas; Oliveira, Joyce; Guimarães, Luiz Henrique; Carvalho, Edgar M; Blackwell, Jenefer M

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a role for wound healing genes in resolution of cutaneous lesions caused by Leishmania spp. in both mice and humans, including the gene FLI1 encoding Friend leukaemia virus integration 1. Reduction of Fli1 expression in mice has been shown to result in up-regulation of collagen type I alpha 1 (Col1a1) and alpha 2 (Col1a2) genes and, conversely, in down-regulation of the matrix metalloproteinase 1 (Mmp1) gene, suggesting that Fli1 suppression is involved in activation of the profibrotic gene program. Here we examined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes as risk factors for cutaneous (CL) and mucosal leishmaniasis (ML), and leishmaniasis per se, caused by L. braziliensis in humans. SNPs were genotyped in 168 nuclear families (250 CL; 87 ML cases) and replicated in 157 families (402 CL; 39 ML cases). Family-based association tests (FBAT) showed the strongest association between SNPs rs1061237 (combined P=0.002) and rs2586488 (combined P=0.027) at COL1A1 and CL disease. This contributes to our further understanding of the role of wound healing in the resolution of CL disease, providing potential for therapies modulating COL1A1 via drugs acting on FLI1. PMID:25562121

  1. Population haplotype analysis and evolutionary relations of the COL2A1 gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbelt, I.; Williams, G.J.; Koppele, J.M.T.E.; Giessen, G.C.D.E. van; Slagboom, P.E.

    1996-01-01

    We have determined the allele frequencies mad pairwise linkage disequilibria of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) distributed over the entire COL2A1 gene (spanning 23 · 6 kb) in a population of unrelated Dutch Caucasians. Pairwise linkage disequilibrium analysis of RFLP sites between

  2. Two-step method for curing Escherichia coli of ColE1-derived plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    2008-01-01

    To cure Escherichia coli for plasmids derived from the ColE1 replicon advantage is taken of the fact that maintenance of this replicon requires a wild-type allele of polA, encoding DNA polymerase I. Curing is achieved by cotransduction of a mutant polA allele with metE::Tn10, fadAB::Tn10 or other...

  3. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems.The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  4. Automated Inspection of Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    This report summarizes the development of a robotic system designed to assist aircraft inspectors by remotely deploying non-destructive inspection (NDI) sensors and acquiring, processing, and storing inspection data. Carnegie Mellon University studie...

  5. Aircraft Depainting Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kozol, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    ... of aircraft and component stripping at various levels of maintenance. Under this program, the Navy pursued development of non-HAP chemical paint strippers as alternatives for methylene chloride based strippers...

  6. The Aircraft Industry, 2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel, Keith

    2006-01-01

    .... and global economic growth. The overall outlook for the industry is positive. Orders for commercial aircraft are up from a boom in air travel that is likely to continue well into the next decade...

  7. Essentials of aircraft armaments

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushik, Mrinal

    2017-01-01

    This book aims to provide a complete exposure about armaments from their design to launch from the combat aircraft. The book details modern ammunition and their tactical roles in warfare. The proposed book discusses aerodynamics, propulsion, structural as well as navigation, control, and guidance of aircraft armament. It also introduces the various types of ammunition developed by different countries and their changing trends. The book imparts knowledge in the field of design, and development of aircraft armaments to aerospace engineers and covers the role of the United Nations in peacekeeping and disarmament. The book will be very useful to researchers, students, and professionals working in design and manufacturing of aircraft armaments. The book will also serve air force and naval aspirants, and those interested in working on defence research and developments organizations. .

  8. Solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  9. The Aircraft Morphing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlezien, R. W.; Horner, G. C.; McGowan, A. R.; Padula, S. L.; Scott, M. A.; Silcox, R. J.; Simpson, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    In the last decade smart technologies have become enablers that cut across traditional boundaries in materials science and engineering. Here we define smart to mean embedded actuation, sensing, and control logic in a tightly coupled feedback loop. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart devices to real aircraft systems. The NASA Aircraft Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff aircraft applications. The program bridges research in seven individual disciplines and combines the effort into activities in three primary program thrusts. System studies are used to assess the highest- payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft systems. In this paper we address the overall program goals and programmatic structure, and discuss the challenges associated with bringing the technologies to fruition.

  10. Depreciation of aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Edward P

    1922-01-01

    There is a widespread, and quite erroneous, impression to the effect that aircraft are essentially fragile and deteriorate with great rapidity when in service, so that the depreciation charges to be allowed on commercial or private operation are necessarily high.

  11. Multifuel rotary aircraft engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C.; Berkowitz, M.

    1980-01-01

    The broad objectives of this paper are the following: (1) to summarize the Curtiss-Wright design, development and field testing background in the area of rotary aircraft engines; (2) to briefly summarize past activity and update development work in the area of stratified charge rotary combustion engines; and (3) to discuss the development of a high-performance direct injected unthrottled stratified charge rotary combustion aircraft engine. Efficiency improvements through turbocharging are also discussed.

  12. 2002 Industry Studies: Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    aircraft to a defense electronics, systems integration and information technology company.39 Northrop Grumman no longer seeks a position as a prime...between the military and civil market . Though also upgrading the H-1 helicopter series for the USMC, Bell has mortgaged its future on tiltrotor technology ...business in export dollars, the industry has been forced to look for new markets as worldwide aircraft sales have dropped. Because the U.S. national

  13. A novel COL4A3 mutation causes autosomal-recessive Alport syndrome in a large Turkish family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzak, Asli Subasioglu; Tokgoz, Bulent; Dundar, Munis; Tekin, Mustafa

    2013-03-01

    Alport syndrome (AS) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder that is characterized by hematuria, progressive renal failure typically resulting in end-stage renal disease, sensorineural hearing loss, and variable ocular abnormalities. Only 15% of cases with AS are autosomal recessive and are caused by mutations in the COL4A3 or COL4A4 genes, encoding type IV collagen. Clinical data in a large consanguineous family with four affected members were reviewed, and genomic DNA was extracted. For mapping, 15 microsatellite markers flanking COL4A3, COL4A4, and COL4A5 in 16 family members were typed. For mutation screening, all coding exons of COL4A3 were polymerase chain reaction- amplified and Sanger-sequenced from genomic DNA. The disease locus was mapped to chromosome 2q36.3, where COL4A3 and COL4A4 reside. Sanger sequencing revealed a novel mis-sense mutation (c.2T>C; p.M1T) in exon 1 of COL4A3. The identified nucleotide change was not found in 100 healthy ethnicity-matched controls via Sanger sequencing. We present a large consanguineous Turkish family with AS that was found to have a COL4A3 mutation as the cause of the disease. Although the relationship between the various genotypes and phenotypes in AS has not been fully elucidated, detailed clinical and molecular analyses are helpful for providing data to be used in genetic counseling. It is important to identify new mutations to clarify their clinical importance, to assess the prognosis of the disease, and to avoid renal biopsy for final diagnosis.

  14. Aircraft to aircraft intercomparison during SEMAPHORE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Dominique; Durand, Pierre

    1998-10-01

    During the Structure des Echanges Mer-Atmosphère, Propriétés des Hétérogénéités Océaniques: Recherche Expérimentale (SEMAPHORE) experiment, performed in the Azores region in 1993, two French research aircraft were simultaneously used for in situ measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer. We present the results obtained from one intercomparison flight between the two aircraft. The mean parameters generally agree well, although the temperature has to be slightly shifted in order to be in agreement for the two aircraft. A detailed comparison of the turbulence parameters revealed no bias. The agreement is good for variances and is satisfactory for fluxes and skewness. A thorough study of the errors involved in flux computation revealed that the greatest accuracy is obtained for latent heat flux. Errors in sensible heat flux are considerably greater, and the worst results are obtained for momentum flux. The latter parameter, however, is more accurate than expected from previous parameterizations.

  15. Aeroacoustic Study of a 26%-Scale Semispan Model of a Boeing 777 Wing in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, W. Clifton; Burnside, Nathan J.; Soderman, Paul T.; Jaeger, Stephen M.; Reinero, Bryan R.; James, Kevin D.; Arledge, Thomas K.

    2004-01-01

    An acoustic and aerodynamic study was made of a 26%-scale unpowered Boeing 777 aircraft semispan model in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel for the purpose of identifying and attenuating airframe noise sources. Simulated approach and landing configurations were evaluated at Mach numbers between 0.12 and 0.24. Cruise configurations were evaluated at Mach numbers between 0.24 and 0.33. The research team used two Ames phased-microphone arrays, a large fixed array and a small traversing array, mounted under the wing to locate and compare various noise sources in the wing high-lift system and landing gear. Numerous model modifications and noise alleviation devices were evaluated. Simultaneous with acoustic measurements, aerodynamic forces were recorded to document aircraft conditions and any performance changes caused by the geometric modifications. Numerous airframe noise sources were identified that might be important factors in the approach and landing noise of the full-scale aircraft. Several noise-control devices were applied to each noise source. The devices were chosen to manipulate and control, if possible, the flow around the various tips and through the various gaps of the high-lift system so as to minimize the noise generation. Fences, fairings, tip extensions, cove fillers, vortex generators, hole coverings, and boundary-layer trips were tested. In many cases, the noise-control devices eliminated noise from some sources at specific frequencies. When scaled to full-scale third-octave bands, typical noise reductions ranged from 1 to 10 dB without significant aerodynamic performance loss.

  16. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  17. TUMOR-SPECIFIC EXPRESSION AND ALTERNATIVE SPLICING OF THE COL6A3 GENE IN PANCREATIC CANCER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafat, Hwyda; Lazar, Melissa; Salem, Khalifa; Chipitsyna, Galina; Gong, Qiaoke; Pan, Te-Cheng; Zhang, Rui-Zhu; Yeo, Charles J.; Chu, Mon-Li

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a highly lethal disease in which a prominent desmoplastic reaction is a defining characteristic. Fibrillar collagens, such as collagen I and to a lesser extent, collagen III and V comprise the majority of this stromal fibrosis. Type VI collagen (COL6) forms a microfibrillar network associated with type I collagen fibrils. The expression of COL6 has been linked to inflammation and survival. Importantly, tumor-specific alternative splicing in COL6A3 has been identified in several cancers by genome exon arrays. We evaluated the expression and localization of COL6A3 in PDA and premalignant lesions and explored the presence of alternative splicing events. Methods We analyzed paired PDA-normal (n=18), IPMN (n=5), pancreatic cystadenoma (n=5), and eight PDA cell lines with RT-PCR, using unique primers that identify total COL6A3 gene and alternative splicing sites in several of its exons. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze the expression levels and localization of COL6A3 protein in the different lesions, and in two animal models of PDA. Results COL6A3 protein levels were significantly upregulated in 77% of the paired PDA-adjacent tissue examined. COL6A3 was mainly present in the desmoplastic stroma of PDA, with high deposition around the malignant ducts and in between the sites of stromal fatty infiltration. Analysis of the COL6A3 splice variants showed tumor-specific consistent inclusion of exons 3 and 6 in 17 of the 18 (94%) paired PDA-adjacent tissues. Inclusion of exon 4 was exclusively tumor-specific, with barely detectable expression in the adjacent tissues. IPMN and pancreatic cystadenomas showed no expression of any of the examined exons. Total COL6A3 mRNA and exon 6 were identified in six PDA cell lines, but only two cell lines (MIA PACA-2 and ASPC-1) expressed exons 3 and 4. In both the xenograft and transgenic models of PDA, COL6A3 immunoreactivity was present in the stroma

  18. CHROMagar COL-APSE: a selective bacterial culture medium for the isolation and differentiation of colistin-resistant Gram-negative pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Momin, Muhd Haziq F; Bean, David C; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. A selective chromogenic culture medium for the laboratory isolation and differentiation of colistin resistant Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Enterobacteriaceae spp. (CHROMagar COL-APSE) was developed, evaluated and compared to an existing selective bacterial culture......-resistant non-fermentative bacteria (Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas). CHROMagar COL-APSE was also more sensitive in supporting the growth of Enterobacteriaceae with COL resistance associated with the carriage of mcr-1. Conclusion. CHROMagar COL-APSE is a sensitive and specific medium...

  19. 75 FR 61999 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 767 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... new rework procedures, is necessary. We also have reviewed Boeing Service Bulletins 767-57A0094 (for... Service Bulletin 767-57-0068, Revision 1, dated May 9, 2002, specifies that the compliance time to rework...,236 $6,256 255 $1,595,280. (required by AD 2001-14-19). Bonding jumper assembly rework 4 322 $662 47...

  20. 76 FR 22828 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 737-700 Series Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... January 20, 2010. Those special attention service bulletins describe procedures for doing a general visual... General Visual Inspection of Seat Tracks (i) For airplanes identified in Boeing Special Attention Service... results from reports that the aft seat leg fittings span the station (STA) 521.45 stay-out zone. We are...

  1. 75 FR 22514 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-200B Series Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness... cracking of the fuselage skin lap joints at stringer 6 on the left and right sides from station (STA) 340... repetitive inspections for the modified area. This AD results from reviews done by Boeing, which show that...

  2. 76 FR 39763 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Interaction of Systems and Structures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... Conditions No. 25-354A-SC] Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Interaction of Systems and..., electronic flight control system control surface awareness, HIRF protection, limit engine torque loads for... standards. A special condition is needed to require consideration of the effects of systems on the...

  3. Open Rotor Noise Shielding by Blended-Wing-Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yueping; Czech, Michael J.; Thomas, Russell H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of open rotor noise shielding by Blended Wing Body (BWB) aircraft by using model scale test data acquired in the Boeing Low Speed Aeroacoustic Facility (LSAF) with a legacy F7/A7 rotor model and a simplified BWB platform. The objective of the analysis is the understanding of the shielding features of the BWB and the method of application of the shielding data for noise studies of BWB aircraft with open rotor propulsion. By studying the directivity patterns of individual tones, it is shown that though the tonal energy distribution and the spectral content of the wind tunnel test model, and thus its total noise, may differ from those of more advanced rotor designs, the individual tones follow directivity patterns that characterize far field radiations of modern open rotors, ensuring the validity of the use of this shielding data. Thus, open rotor tonal noise shielding should be categorized into front rotor tones, aft rotor tones and interaction tones, not only because of the different directivities of the three groups of tones, but also due to the differences in their source locations and coherence features, which make the respective shielding characteristics of the three groups of tones distinctly different from each other. To reveal the parametric trends of the BWB shielding effects, results are presented with variations in frequency, far field emission angle, rotor operational condition, engine installation geometry, and local airframe features. These results prepare the way for the development of parametric models for the shielding effects in prediction tools.

  4. Composite Structure Modeling and Analysis of Advanced Aircraft Fuselage Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Sorokach, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project and the Boeing Company are collabrating to advance the unitized damage arresting composite airframe technology with application to the Hybrid-Wing-Body (HWB) aircraft. The testing of a HWB fuselage section with Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) construction is presently being conducted at NASA Langley. Based on lessons learned from previous HWB structural design studies, improved finite-element models (FEM) of the HWB multi-bay and bulkhead assembly are developed to evaluate the performance of the PRSEUS construction. In order to assess the comparative weight reduction benefits of the PRSEUS technology, conventional cylindrical skin-stringer-frame models of a cylindrical and a double-bubble section fuselage concepts are developed. Stress analysis with design cabin-pressure load and scenario based case studies are conducted for design improvement in each case. Alternate analysis with stitched composite hat-stringers and C-frames are also presented, in addition to the foam-core sandwich frame and pultruded rod-stringer construction. The FEM structural stress, strain and weights are computed and compared for relative weight/strength benefit assessment. The structural analysis and specific weight comparison of these stitched composite advanced aircraft fuselage concepts demonstrated that the pressurized HWB fuselage section assembly can be structurally as efficient as the conventional cylindrical fuselage section with composite stringer-frame and PRSEUS construction, and significantly better than the conventional aluminum construction and the double-bubble section concept.

  5. OPTIMAL AIRCRAFT TRAJECTORIES FOR SPECIFIED RANGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H.

    1994-01-01

    cruise cost is specified, an optimum trajectory can easily be generated; however, the range obtained for a particular optimum cruise cost is not known a priori. For short range flights, the program iteratively varies the optimum cruise cost until the computed range converges to the specified range. For long-range flights, iteration is unnecessary since the specified range can be divided into a cruise segment distance and full climb and descent distances. The user must supply the program with engine fuel flow rate coefficients and an aircraft aerodynamic model. The program currently includes coefficients for the Pratt-Whitney JT8D-7 engine and an aerodynamic model for the Boeing 727. Input to the program consists of the flight range to be covered and the prevailing flight conditions including pressure, temperature, and wind profiles. Information output by the program includes: optimum cruise tables at selected weights, optimal cruise quantities as a function of cruise weight and cruise distance, climb and descent profiles, and a summary of the complete synthesized optimal trajectory. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 100K (octal) of 60 bit words. This aircraft trajectory optimization program was developed in 1979.

  6. 78 FR 70848 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 777-200, -300, and -300ER Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... Aerospace Company applied for a change to Type Certificate No. T00001SE Rev. 30 dated June 6, 2012 for... unintentional corruption of data and systems critical to the safety and maintenance of the airplane. The existing regulations and guidance material did not anticipate this type of system architecture or...

  7. 78 FR 70849 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 777-200, -300, and -300ER Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... Aerospace Company applied for a change to Type Certificate No. T00001SE Rev. 30 dated June 6, 2012 for... unintentional corruption of data and systems critical to the safety and maintenance of the airplane. The existing regulations and guidance material did not anticipate this type of system architecture or...

  8. Design, ancillary testing, analysis and fabrication data for the advanced composite stabilizer for Boeing 737 aircraft. Volume 1: Technical summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniversario, R. B.; Harvey, S. T.; Mccarty, J. E.; Parsons, J. T.; Peterson, D. C.; Pritchett, L. D.; Wilson, D. R.; Wogulis, E. R.

    1983-01-01

    The horizontal stabilizer of the 737 transport was redesigned. Five shipsets were fabricated using composite materials. Weight reduction greater than the 20% goal was achieved. Parts and assemblies were readily produced on production-type tooling. Quality assurance methods were demonstrated. Repair methods were developed and demonstrated. Strength and stiffness analytical methods were substantiated by comparison with test results. Cost data was accumulated in a semiproduction environment. FAA certification was obtained.

  9. Novel COL4A1 mutations associated with HANAC syndrome: a role for the triple helical CB3[IV] domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisier, Emmanuelle; Chen, Zhiyong; Gekeler, Florian; Benhassine, Safa; Dahan, Karine; Marro, Béatrice; Alamowitch, Sonia; Paques, Michel; Ronco, Pierre

    2010-10-01

    The COL4A1 gene encodes the α1-chain of type IV collagen, which is ubiquitously expressed in basement membranes. Mutations in COL4A1 have been reported in autosomal-dominant porencephaly and in patients with symptomatic small vessel brain disease, inconstantly associated with eye defects. We have previously reported three COL4A1 mutations associated with a systemic phenotype that we called HANAC (Hereditary Angiopathy, Nephropathy, Aneurysms, and Cramps). We carried out a clinical and genetic study of three families presenting with characteristic features of HANAC syndrome. Common systemic signs included arterial retinal tortuosity and muscle cramps, with a variable combination of small vessel brain disease, Raynaud phenomena, and kidney defects. Three novel COL4A1 missense substitutions are described, which affect highly conserved glycine residues within the collagenous domain of the protein. All six known mutations associated with the HANAC phenotype are localized within the CB3[IV] fragment of COL4A1, which encompasses major integrin-binding sites. Our results confirm that HANAC syndrome is a distinct clinical entity within the COL4A1-related disorders, which is characterized by systemic involvement and usually asymptomatic brain disease. The restricted distribution of COL4A1 mutations within the CB3[IV] region is a characteristic of the reports of patients with HANAC, which suggests that abnormal cell-type IV collagen interactions may underlie the systemic defects observed in this syndrome. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. TCV software test and validation tools and technique. [Terminal Configured Vehicle program for commercial transport aircraft operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straeter, T. A.; Williams, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes techniques for testing and validating software for the TCV (Terminal Configured Vehicle) program which is intended to solve problems associated with operating a commercial transport aircraft in the terminal area. The TCV research test bed is a Boeing 737 specially configured with digital computer systems to carry out automatic navigation, guidance, flight controls, and electronic displays research. The techniques developed for time and cost reduction include automatic documentation aids, an automatic software configuration, and an all software generation and validation system.

  11. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7)

  13. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Ashley

    2006-01-01

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7)

  14. Aircraft gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, M [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    Recently the international relationship has been playing an important role in the research, development and production of the aircraft gas turbine. The YSX, which is supposed to be the 100-seat class commercial aircraft, has been planned by Japan Aircraft Development (JADC) as an international cooperative project. Recently many western aeroengine companies have offered the collaboration of small turbofan engines which would be installed on YSX to Japanese aeroengine companies (IHI, KHI and MHI). The YSX is powered by 16,000-20,000 1bs thrust class engines. As for medium turbofan engine (V2500), the V 2500 family of 22,000 to 30,000 1bs thrust has been developed since 1983 through international collaboration by seven aeroengine companies in five nations. In this paper, the recent Japan`s activities of the research, development and production with viewing the world-wide movement, are described. 6 figs.

  15. Hazards from aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grund, J.E.; Hornyik, K.

    1975-01-01

    The siting of nuclear power plants has created innumerable environmental concerns. Among the effects of the ''man-made environment'' one of increasing importance in recent nuclear plant siting hazards analysis has been the concern about aircraft hazards to the nuclear plant. These hazards are of concern because of the possibility that an aircraft may have a malfunction and crash either near the plant or directly into it. Such a crash could be postulated to result, because of missile and/or fire effects, in radioactive releases which would endanger the public health and safety. The majority of studies related to hazards from air traffic have been concerned with the determination of the probability associated with an aircraft striking vulnerable portions of a given plant. Other studies have focused on the structural response to such a strike. This work focuses on the problem of strike probability. 13 references

  16. Bone mineral properties in growing Col1a2(+/G610C) mice, an animal model of osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masci, Marco; Wang, Min; Imbert, Laurianne; Barnes, Aileen M; Spevak, Lyudmila; Lukashova, Lyudmila; Huang, Yihe; Ma, Yan; Marini, Joan C; Jacobsen, Christina M; Warman, Matthew L; Boskey, Adele L

    2016-06-01

    The Col1a2(+/G610C) knock-in mouse, models osteogenesis imperfecta in a large old order Amish family (OOA) with type IV OI, caused by a G-to-T transversion at nucleotide 2098, which alters the gly-610 codon in the triple-helical domain of the α2(I) chain of type I collagen. Mineral and matrix properties of the long bones and vertebrae of male Col1a2(+/G610C) and their wild-type controls (Col1a2(+/+)), were characterized to gain insight into the role of α2-chain collagen mutations in mineralization. Additionally, we examined the rescuability of the composition by sclerostin inhibition initiated by crossing Col1a2(+/G610C) with an LRP(+/A214V) high bone mass allele. At age 10-days, vertebrae and tibia showed few alterations by micro-CT or Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI). At 2-months-of-age, Col1a2(+/G610C) tibias had 13% fewer secondary trabeculae than Col1a2(+/+), these were thinner (11%) and more widely spaced (20%) than those of Col1a2(+/+) mice. Vertebrae of Col1a2(+/G610C) mice at 2-months also had lower bone volume fraction (38%), trabecular number (13%), thickness (13%) and connectivity density (32%) compared to Col1(a2+/+). The cortical bone of Col1a2(+/G610C) tibias at 2-months had 3% higher tissue mineral density compared to Col1a2(+/+); Col1a2(+/G610C) vertebrae had lower cortical thickness (29%), bone area (37%) and polar moment of inertia (38%) relative to Col1a2(+/+). FTIRI analysis, which provides information on bone chemical composition at ~7μm-spatial resolution, showed tibias at 10-days did not differ between genotypes. Comparing identical bone types in Col1a2(+/G610C) to Col1a2(+/+) at 2-months-of-age, tibias showed higher mineral-to-matrix ratio in trabeculae (17%) and cortices (31%). and in vertebral cortices (28%). Collagen maturity was 42% higher at 10-days-of-age in Col1a2(+/G610C) vertebral trabeculae and in 2-month tibial cortices (12%), vertebral trabeculae (42%) and vertebral cortices (12%). Higher acid-phosphate substitution

  17. Columbian Secrets: Cristóbal Colón by Leonardo Balada and Antonio Gala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Elías Gutiérrez Meza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The play Cristóbal Colón premiered in 1989 at the Teatro del Liceu. Composed by the musician Leonardo Balada and the playwright Antonio Gala, this opera was commissioned by the Sociedad Estatal Quinto Centenario as part of the festivities organized by the Spanish government to commemorate the Discovery of America. Unlike the so-called "des-celebración del 92", Cristóbal Colón champions the figure of the discoverer and emphasizes the participation of Spain through the praised role of Martín Alonso Pinzón. However, the opera was cut at the last minute. This article asserts that such alteration may have been the result of political censorship attempting to counteract the criticism of the Discovery of America contained in the original version.

  18. CHROMagar COL-APSE: a selective bacterial culture medium for the isolation and differentiation of colistin-resistant Gram-negative pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Momin, Muhd Haziq F; Bean, David C; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2017-01-01

    medium (SuperPolymyxin). Methodology. The medium was challenged with 84 isolates, including polymyxin B (POL B)-susceptible and -resistant type strains and colistin (COL)-resistant organisms recovered from human and animal samples. Susceptibility to COL and POL B was determined by agar dilution and broth...... microtitre dilution. The lower limit for the detection of COL-resistant organisms was also calculated for both CHROMagar COL-APSE and SuperPolymyxin media. The ability to isolate and correctly differentiate COL-resistant organisms within mixed cultures was also assessed and compared using both media. Results...

  19. AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE HANGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEAMBASU Gabriel George

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the maintenance process that is done on an airplane, at a certain period of time, or after a number of flight hours or cycles and describes the checks performed behind each inspection. The first part of research describes the aircraft maintenance process that has to be done after an updated maintenance manual according with aircraft type, followed by a short introduction about maintenance hangar. The second part of the paper presents a hangar design with a foldable roof and walls, which can be folded or extended, over an airplane when a maintenance process is done, or depending on weather condition.

  20. Combat aircraft noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgarbozza, M.; Depitre, A.

    1992-04-01

    A discussion of the characteristics and the noise levels of combat aircraft and of a transport aircraft in taking off and landing are presented. Some methods of noise reduction are discussed, including the following: operational anti-noise procedures; and concepts of future engines (silent post-combustion and variable cycle). Some measurement results concerning the noise generated in flight at great speeds and low altitude will also be examined. Finally, the protection of the environment of French air bases against noise will be described and the possibilities of regulation examined.

  1. Purification of supercoiled DNA of plasmid Col E1 by RPC-5 chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, A.N.; Allison, D.P.; Novelli, G.D.

    1981-07-01

    Col E1 DNA can be purified to a high degree by RPC-5 chromatography of a partially purified cell lysate with a very shallow linear NaC1 gradient at pH 7.8. Electron micrographs demonstrated that the purest fractions were composed of 93% supercoiled (form I) DNA and 7% open circular (form II) DNA. The actual chromatography can be accomplished in 13 to 14 h and is designed for the production of several milligrams of plasmid DNA.

  2. Colômbia 2010: Guerra, Paz e Eleições

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antônio Gusmão

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    O enfraquecimento das Farc deve polarizar as

    eleições de 2010 na Colômbia entre recrudescimento

    do combate e abertura à negociação.

  3. Composite materials for aircraft structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baker, A. A; Dutton, Stuart; Kelly, Donald

    2004-01-01

    ... materials for aircraft structures / Alan Baker, Stuart Dutton, and Donald Kelly- 2nd ed. p. cm. - (Education series) Rev. ed. of: Composite materials for aircraft structures / edited by B. C. Hos...

  4. Loss of col8a1a Function during Zebrafish Embryogenesis Results in Congenital Vertebral Malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Ryan S.; Wilm, Thomas; Smith, Jeff; Bagnat, Michel; Dale, Rodney M.; Topczewski, Jacek; Johnson, Stephen L.; Solnica-Krezel, Lilianna

    2014-01-01

    Congenital vertebral malformations (CVM) occur in 1 in 1,000 live births and in many cases can cause spinal deformities, such as scoliosis, and result in disability and distress of affected individuals. Many severe forms of the disease, such as spondylocostal dystostosis, are recessive monogenic traits affecting somitogenesis, however the etiologies of the majority of CVM cases remain undetermined. Here we demonstrate that morphological defects of the notochord in zebrafish can generate congenital-type spine defects. We characterize three recessive zebrafish leviathan/col8a1a mutant alleles (m531, vu41, vu105) that disrupt collagen type VIII alpha1a (col8a1a), and cause folding of the embryonic notochord and consequently adult vertebral column malformations. Furthermore, we provide evidence that a transient loss of col8a1a function or inhibition of Lysyl oxidases with drugs during embryogenesis was sufficient to generate vertebral fusions and scoliosis in the adult spine. Using periodic imaging of individual zebrafish, we correlate focal notochord defects of the embryo with vertebral malformations (VM) in the adult. Finally, we show that bends and kinks in the notochord can lead to aberrant apposition of osteoblasts normally confined to well-segmented areas of the developing vertebral bodies. Our results afford a novel mechanism for the formation of VM, independent of defects of somitogenesis, resulting from aberrant bone deposition at regions of misshapen notochord tissue. PMID:24333517

  5. Generation of Col2a1-EGFP iPS cells for monitoring chondrogenic differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Saito

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC are a promising cell source for cartilage regenerative medicine; however, the methods for chondrocyte induction from iPSC are currently developing and not yet sufficient for clinical application. Here, we report the establishment of a fluorescent indicator system for monitoring chondrogenic differentiation from iPSC to simplify screening for effective factors that induce chondrocytes from iPSC. We generated iPSC from embryonic fibroblasts of Col2a1-EGFP transgenic mice by retroviral transduction of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. Among the 30 clones of Col2a1-EGFP iPSC we established, two clones showed high expression levels of embryonic stem cell (ESC marker genes, similar to control ESC. A teratoma formation assay showed that the two clones were pluripotent and differentiated into cell types from all three germ layers. The fluorescent signal was observed during chondrogenic differentiation of the two clones concomitant with the increase in chondrocyte marker expression. In conclusion, Col2a1-EGFP iPSC are useful for monitoring chondrogenic differentiation and will contribute to research in cartilage regenerative medicine.

  6. Pertinencia de los postgrados para economistas en el Núcleo LUZ–COL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa Prieto Sánchez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como finalidad presentar los resultados obtenidos en un estudio de mercado, cuyo objetivo fue determinar la pertinencia de los postgrados para economistas en el Núcleo LUZ-COL. En dicho estudio se analizaron las expectativas, necesidades y percepciones de los usuarios potenciales del servicio de postgrado, considerando como usuarios potenciales (demanda a los entes empleadores de la COL, docentes de economía en el Núcleo, egresados del programa de economía en el Núcleo y estudiantes del último semestre de la carrera. Estos elementos sirvieron de base para conocer la pertinencia o no del postgrado. La metodología utilizada se fundamentó en una investigación descriptiva y cualitativa, en donde se utilizó el cuestionario como instrumento, para recabar la información primaria. Los resultados muestran una alta necesidad de los programas de postgrados para economistas y delimitan una demanda potencial considerable. El análisis permitió concluir que sí son pertinentes los postgrados para economistas en el Núcleo COL, en las áreas de gerencia de empresas, formulación y evaluación de proyectos, costos o finanzas; del tipo maestría o especialización profesional. En virtud de los resultados, se recomienda, desarrollar estrategias viables que permitan a los tomadores de decisión implementar el postgrado para economistas en el Núcleo.

  7. Stimulation of Escherichia coli F-18Col- Type-1 fimbriae synthesis by leuX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Joseph V.; Burghoff, Robert L.; Pallesen, Lars

    1994-01-01

    Escherichia coli F-18, a normal human fecal isolate, is an excellent colonizer of the streptomycin-treated mouse large intestine. E. coli F-18Col-, a derivative of E. coli F-18 which no longer makes the E. coli F-18 colicin, colonizes the large intestine as well as E. coli F-18 when fed to mice...... alone but is eliminated when fed together with E. coli F-18. Recently we randomly cloned E. coli F-18 DNA into E. coli F-18Col- and let the mouse intestine select the best colonizer. In this way, we isolated a 6.5-kb E. coli F-18 DNA sequence that simultaneously stimulated synthesis of type 1 fimbriae...... and enhanced E. coli F-18Col- colonizing ability. In the present investigation we show that the gene responsible for stimulation of type 1 fimbriae synthesis appears to be leuX, which encodes a tRNA specific for the rare leucine codon UUG. Moreover, it appears that expression of leuX may be regulated by two...

  8. El rol del professor en l’aprenentatge col·laboratiu mediat per ordinador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Noguera-Fructuoso

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available En aquest article es presenten els resultats d'una investigació sobre el canvi de rol que es produeix en el professorat en l'ús de les TIC com a eina per a l'aprenentatge col·laboratiu en educació primària i secundària. L'interès es focalitza en l'ús concret d'una eina dissenyada per a l'aprenentatge col·laboratiu, el BSCL, sota el model pedagògic de qüestionament progressiu. En primer lloc, es duu a terme una revisió teòrica. En segon lloc, s'exposen les preguntes d'investigació, la justificació d'aquesta, es descriu el disseny i l'enfocament metodològic escollit, l'estudi de casos. Els resultats obtinguts revelen que hi ha una tendència cap al canvi de rol en el professorat en l'ús del BSCL com a eina per a l'aprenentatge col·laboratiu així com l'eficàcia del model de qüestionament progressiu en la construcció de coneixement de l'alumnat.

  9. On the dominant noise components of tactical aircraft: Laboratory to full scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Aubert, Allan C.; Spyropoulos, John T.; Powers, Russell W.

    2018-05-01

    This paper investigates the dominant noise components of a full-scale high performance tactical aircraft. The present study uses acoustic measurements of the exhaust jet from a single General Electric F414-400 turbofan engine installed in a Boeing F/A-18E Super Hornet aircraft operating from flight idle to maximum afterburner. The full-scale measurements are to the ANSI S12.75-2012 standard employing about 200 microphones. By comparing measured noise spectra with those from hot supersonic jets observed in the laboratory, the dominant noise components specific to the F/A-18E aircraft at different operating power levels are identified. At intermediate power, it is found that the dominant noise components of an F/A-18E aircraft are essentially the same as those of high temperature supersonic laboratory jets. However, at military and afterburner powers, there are new dominant noise components. Their characteristics are then documented and analyzed. This is followed by an investigation of their origin and noise generation mechanisms.

  10. Long Range Aircraft Trajectory Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Magister, Tone

    2009-01-01

    The subject of the paper is the improvement of the aircraft future trajectory prediction accuracy for long-range airborne separation assurance. The strategic planning of safe aircraft flights and effective conflict avoidance tactics demand timely and accurate conflict detection based upon future four–dimensional airborne traffic situation prediction which is as accurate as each aircraft flight trajectory prediction. The improved kinematics model of aircraft relative flight considering flight ...

  11. Vaporized Hydrogen Peroxide (VHP) Decontamination of a Section of a Boeing 747 Cabin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaffstall, Robert M; Garner, Robert P; Bishop, Joshua; Cameron-Landis, Lora; Eddington, Donald L; Hau, Gwen; Spera, Shawn; Mielnik, Thaddeus; Thomas, James A

    2006-01-01

    The use of STERIS Corporation's Vaporized Hydrogen Peroxide (VHP)* technology as a potential biocide for aircraft decontamination was demonstrated in a cabin section of the Aircraft Environment Research Facility...

  12. Diferença no tamanho de cascas de ovos de colônias de Panstrongylus megistus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa João A da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar as mensurações de cascas de ovos de duas colônias laboratoriais e uma silvestre de P. megistus. De cada uma das colônias, 50 cascas de ovos foram mensuradas por meio de microscópio estereoscópico e sistema de análise de imagem QWin. A análise estatística foi efetuada utilizando o teste t-Student, não pareado no programa INSTAT. A largura, o comprimento e o diâmetro da abertura opercular das cascas de ovos de uma colônia silvestre foram maiores que de duas colônias laboratoriais de P. megistus.

  13. Aircraft Capability Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumaw, Randy; Feary, Mike

    2018-01-01

    This presentation presents an overview of work performed at NASA Ames Research Center in 2017. The work concerns the analysis of current aircraft system management displays, and the initial development of an interface for providing information about aircraft system status. The new interface proposes a shift away from current aircraft system alerting interfaces that report the status of physical components, and towards displaying the implications of degradations on mission capability. The proposed interface describes these component failures in terms of operational consequences of aircraft system degradations. The research activity was an effort to examine the utility of different representations of complex systems and operating environments to support real-time decision making of off-nominal situations. A specific focus was to develop representations that provide better integrated information to allow pilots to more easily reason about the operational consequences of the off-nominal situations. The work is also seen as a pathway to autonomy, as information is integrated and understood in a form that automated responses could be developed for the off-nominal situations in the future.

  14. Aircrafts' taxi noise emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asensio, C.; Pagan Munoz, Raul; López, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted, with the objective of creating a database of inputs that can be used with noise prediction software, to evaluate noise of aircraft taxing movements and community noise exposure levels. The acoustic consultant can use these data with any of the software packages,

  15. Aircraft parameter estimation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With the evolution of high performance modern aircraft and spiraling developmental and experimental costs, the importance of flight validated databases for flight control design applications and for flight simulators has increased significantly in the recent past. Ground-based and in-flight simulators are increasingly used not ...

  16. Load event: Aircraft crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, H.

    1985-01-01

    The bibliography includes 48 quotations, up to the year 1983, on the following issues: Experiments and computational methods. Design load for the dimensioning of reinforced concrete buildings and components with respect to the dynamic load in the event of an aircraft crash. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Evolution of Regions Containing Antibiotic Resistance Genes in FII-2-FIB-1 ColV-Colla Virulence Plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Robert A; Hall, Ruth M

    2018-05-01

    Three ColV virulence plasmids carrying antibiotic resistance genes were assembled from draft genome sequences of commensal ST95, ST131, and ST2705 Escherichia coli isolates from healthy Australians. Plasmids pCERC4, pCERC5, and pCERC9 include almost identical backbones containing FII-2 and FIB-1 replicons and the conserved ColV virulence region with an additional ColIa determinant. Only pCERC5 includes a complete, uninterrupted F-like transfer region and was able to conjugate. pCERC5 and pCERC9 contain Tn1721, carrying the tet(A) tetracycline resistance determinant in the same location, with Tn2 (bla TEM ; ampicillin resistance) interrupting the Tn1721 in pCERC5. pCERC4 has a Tn1721/Tn21 hybrid transposon carrying dfrA5 (trimethoprim resistance) and sul1 (sulfamethoxazole resistance) in a class 1 integron. Four FII-2:FIB-1 ColV-ColIa plasmids in the GenBank nucleotide database have a related transposon in the same position, but an IS26 has reshaped the resistance gene region, deleting 2,069 bp of the integron 3'-CS, including sul1, and serving as a target for IS26 translocatable units containing bla TEM , sul2 and strAB (streptomycin resistance), or aphA1 (kanamycin/neomycin resistance). Another ColV-ColIa plasmid containing a related resistance gene region has lost the FII replicon and acquired a unique transfer region via recombination within the resistance region and at oriT. Eighteen further complete ColV plasmid sequences in GenBank contained FIB-1, but the FII replicons were of three types, FII-24, FII-18, and a variant of FII-36.

  18. Volume da gota dos colírios lubrificantes: estudo farmacoeconômico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Xavier da Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar o volume médio das gotas produzidas pelos colírios lubrificantes em diferentes ângulos de inclinação e determinar o custo médio do tratamento. Métodos: Determinação do volume da gota de 3 frascos originais dos colírios lubrificantes Artelac®, Hylo Comod®, Lacrima® Plus, Systane® UL, Lacrifilm®, Hyabak®, Lacribell®, Ecofilm®, Mirugell®, Plenigell®, Fresh Tears®, Optive® e Endura® à inclinação de 90º e 45º. Determinou-se o número médio de gotas em cada frasco e foi feita avaliação farmacoeconômica dos colírios. Resultados: O volume das gotas variou de 32,2 a 64,0 µL a 45o e de 29,1 a 65,1 µL a 90o. A diferença entre as gotas em cada inclinação foi de 2 a 24% e o custo anual dos colírios de acordo com a inclinação variou de R$2,73 a R$130,73. A Duração Máxima de Tratamento (DMT foi de 29,3 a 51,4 dias na inclinação de 45o, e de 28,8 a 48,4 dias a 90º, sendo que a diferença na DMT foi de 0,5 até 8 dias a mais ou a menos, de acordo com a marca. Conclusão: Nenhum dos colírios estudados apresentou gotas ideais para o olho humano, levando a um desperdício do produto e maior custo para o fabricante e para o consumidor. Percebemos que existe uma variação significativa no volume da gota de acordo com a inclinação do frasco, e que uma variação maior do que 10% traria impactos financeiros para o paciente.

  19. Noise Scaling and Community Noise Metrics for the Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Casey L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Hutcheson, Florence V.; Doty, Michael J.; Lopes, Leonard V.; Nickol, Craig L.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Pope, D. Stuart

    2014-01-01

    An aircraft system noise assessment was performed for the hybrid wing body aircraft concept, known as the N2A-EXTE. This assessment is a result of an effort by NASA to explore a realistic HWB design that has the potential to substantially reduce noise and fuel burn. Under contract to NASA, Boeing designed the aircraft using practical aircraft design princip0les with incorporation of noise technologies projected to be available in the 2020 timeframe. NASA tested 5.8% scale-mode of the design in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel to provide source noise directivity and installation effects for aircraft engine and airframe configurations. Analysis permitted direct scaling of the model-scale jet, airframe, and engine shielding effect measurements to full-scale. Use of these in combination with ANOPP predictions enabled computations of the cumulative (CUM) noise margins relative to FAA Stage 4 limits. The CUM margins were computed for a baseline N2A-EXTE configuration and for configurations with added noise reduction strategies. The strategies include reduced approach speed, over-the-rotor line and soft-vane fan technologies, vertical tail placement and orientation, and modified landing gear designs with fairings. Combining the inherent HWB engine shielding by the airframe with added noise technologies, the cumulative noise was assessed at 38.7 dB below FAA Stage 4 certification level, just 3.3 dB short of the NASA N+2 goal of 42 dB. This new result shows that the NASA N+2 goal is approachable and that significant reduction in overall aircraft noise is possible through configurations with noise reduction technologies and operational changes.

  20. The DoD C-17 Versus the Boeing 777. A Comparison of Acquisition and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    Standard Encyclopedia (New York: Unicorn Publishers, 1955), 102-103. 9. The World Book Encyclopedia (Kansas City, MO: Field Enterprises Educational...costs about $25.25 per mile to operate--including insurance, administration, and financing . The amount is similar for the MD-11 and Airbus A340-300X, 9...resources that include investments, income from operations (airplane sales), or outside financing . Although Boeing customarily receives a deposit

  1. Salapärane Boeing tõi Eestisse konteinereid / Ester Vilgats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vilgats, Ester

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Pärnu Postimees 8. nov., lk. 3, Postimees : na russkom jazõke 10. nov. lk. 10. Pärnu lennujaama juhataja Erki Teemägi ja Kaitsepolitsei Pärnu osakonna politseidirektor Kalev Kont kinnitasid, et Pärnu lennuväljal 12. jaanuaril 2003. aastal maandunud Boeing 737 vedas kaubakonteinereid, mitte terroristidest sõjavange, nagu väitis ajaleht Washington Post. Vt. samas: Neeme Raud. Inimõiguslased ootavad euroliidu sekkumist

  2. Integration of structural health monitoring solutions onto commercial aircraft via the Federal Aviation Administration structural health monitoring research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindell, Paul; Doyle, Jon; Roach, Dennis

    2017-02-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) started a research program in structural health monitoring (SHM) in 2011. The program's goal was to understand the technical gaps of implementing SHM on commercial aircraft and the potential effects on FAA regulations and guidance. The program evolved into a demonstration program consisting of a team from Sandia National Labs Airworthiness Assurance NDI Center (AANC), the Boeing Corporation, Delta Air Lines, Structural Monitoring Systems (SMS), Anodyne Electronics Manufacturing Corp (AEM) and the FAA. This paper will discuss the program from the selection of the inspection problem, the SHM system (Comparative Vacuum Monitoring-CVM) that was selected as the inspection solution and the testing completed to provide sufficient data to gain the first approved use of an SHM system for routine maintenance on commercial US aircraft.

  3. Effects of reinforcement ratio and arrangement on the structural behavior of a nuclear building under aircraft impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thai, Duc-Kien; Kim, Seung-Eock; Lee, Hyuk-Kee

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Numerical analysis of RC nuclear building model under aircraft impact was conducted. • The analysis result shows similar behavior as compared to the Riera function. • The effects of reinforcement ratio and arrangement were enumerated. • The appropriate number of layer of longitudinal rebar was recommended. - Abstract: This study presents the effectiveness of the rebar ratio and the arrangement of reinforced concrete (RC) structures on the structural behavior of nuclear buildings under aircraft impact using a finite element (FE) approach. A simplified model of a fictitious nuclear building using RC structures was fully modeled. The aircraft model of a Boeing 767-400 was used for impact simulation and was developed and verified with a conventional impact force–time history curve. The IRIS Punching test was used to validate the damage prediction capabilities of the RC wall under impact loading. With regard to the different rebar ratios and rebar arrangements of a nuclear RC building, the structural behavior of a building under aircraft impact was investigated. The structural behavior investigated included plastic deformation, displacement, energy dissipation, perforation/penetration depth and scabbing area. The results showed that the rebar ratio has a significant effect on withstanding aircraft impact and reducing local damage. With four layers of rebar, the RC wall absorbed and dissipated the impact energy more than once with only two layers of rebar for the same rebar ratio

  4. Aircraft engines. IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffles, P C

    1989-01-01

    Configurational design and thermodynamic performance gain trends are projected into the next 50 years, in view of the growing interest of aircraft manufacturers in both larger and more efficient high-bypass turbofan engines for subsonic flight and variable cycle engines for supersonic flight. Ceramic- and metal-matrix composites are envisioned as the key to achievement of turbine inlet temperatures 300 C higher than the 1400 C which is characteristic of the state-of-the-art, with the requisite high stiffness, strength, and low density. Such fiber-reinforced materials can be readily tailored to furnish greatest strength in a specific direction of loading. Large, low-density engines are critical elements of future 1000-seat aircraft.

  5. Aircraft engine pollution reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.

  6. Aircraft Design Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Successful commercialization of the AirCraft SYNThesis (ACSYNT) tool has resulted in the creation of Phoenix Integration, Inc. ACSYNT has been exclusively licensed to the company, an outcome of a seven year, $3 million effort to provide unique software technology to a focused design engineering market. Ames Research Center formulated ACSYNT and in working with the Virginia Polytechnic Institute CAD Laboratory, began to design and code a computer-aided design for ACSYNT. Using a Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, Ames formed an industry-government-university alliance to improve and foster research and development for the software. As a result of the ACSYNT Institute, the software is becoming a predominant tool for aircraft conceptual design. ACSYNT has been successfully applied to high- speed civil transport configuration, subsonic transports, and supersonic fighters.

  7. Combat Aircraft Maneuverability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    rodynamique, propulsion, rdsistance den structures, etc ... - lea m~thodes d’essaia an soufflerie, aur banca au aol, sur simulateurs. A un niveau de synthbse...Dunstan Graham, "Aircraft Dynamics and Automatic Control," Princeton University Press , Princeton, N.J., 1973. 9. Hoh, Roger H., Thomas T. Myers...discussion of the roll coupling problem" Progress in Aerospace Sciences, Vol 15, Pergamon Press , Oxford 1974 17-8 (6] R.W. KLOPPENSTEIN "Zeroes of

  8. Aircraft gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekido, T [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-03-01

    Current developmental activities of aircraft gas turbines in Japan are reviewed. V2500-A5 engine with thrust of 30,000 LBF is scheduled to be used for real aircraft in 1994, and intensive developmental activities are also proceeding in larger engines over 90,000 LBF. Recently, developmental programs of engines for 75-100 seat aircraft have been actively discussed, and Japanese engine makers are having discussions towards international collaboration. Such engines will be high bypass turbofans of 12,000-22,000 LBF. Development of SST/HST engines in a speed range from subsonic to Mach 5 is under the initiative of the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology. The Technical Research and Development Institute of Japan, Defence Agency achieved the target thrust of 3.4 tons in the small turbofan engine program, and the small turboshaft engine for small helicopters is also under development. Both National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL) and Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science (ISAS) are now conducting the research programs on turbo-ramjet engines under a component test phase. 1 fig.

  9. Over-expression of DSCAM and COL6A2 cooperatively generates congenital heart defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar R Grossman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A significant current challenge in human genetics is the identification of interacting genetic loci mediating complex polygenic disorders. One of the best characterized polygenic diseases is Down syndrome (DS, which results from an extra copy of part or all of chromosome 21. A short interval near the distal tip of chromosome 21 contributes to congenital heart defects (CHD, and a variety of indirect genetic evidence suggests that multiple candidate genes in this region may contribute to this phenotype. We devised a tiered genetic approach to identify interacting CHD candidate genes. We first used the well vetted Drosophila heart as an assay to identify interacting CHD candidate genes by expressing them alone and in all possible pairwise combinations and testing for effects on rhythmicity or heart failure following stress. This comprehensive analysis identified DSCAM and COL6A2 as the most strongly interacting pair of genes. We then over-expressed these two genes alone or in combination in the mouse heart. While over-expression of either gene alone did not affect viability and had little or no effect on heart physiology or morphology, co-expression of the two genes resulted in ≈50% mortality and severe physiological and morphological defects, including atrial septal defects and cardiac hypertrophy. Cooperative interactions between DSCAM and COL6A2 were also observed in the H9C2 cardiac cell line and transcriptional analysis of this interaction points to genes involved in adhesion and cardiac hypertrophy. Our success in defining a cooperative interaction between DSCAM and COL6A2 suggests that the multi-tiered genetic approach we have taken involving human mapping data, comprehensive combinatorial screening in Drosophila, and validation in vivo in mice and in mammalian cells lines should be applicable to identifying specific loci mediating a broad variety of other polygenic disorders.

  10. Identification and characterization of the human type II collagen gene (COL2A1).

    OpenAIRE

    Cheah, Kathryn; Stoker, N.G.; Griffin, J.R.; Grosveld, Frank; Solomon, E.

    1985-01-01

    textabstractThe gene contained in the human cosmid clone CosHcol1, previously designated an alpha 1(I) collagen-like gene, has now been identified. CosHcol1 hybridizes strongly to a single 5.9-kilobase mRNA species present only in tissue in which type II collagen is expressed. DNA sequence analysis shows that this clone is highly homologous to the chicken alpha 1(II) collagen gene. These data together suggest that CosHcol1 contains the human alpha 1(II) collagen gene COL2A1. The clone appears...

  11. Colágeno asimilable. Fuente de prevención de enfermedades osteoarticuladas

    OpenAIRE

    Parra Parra, Yolanda; Quesada Martínez, María Inmaculada; Pérez Collado, Elisa María

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: El colágeno es la proteína más abundante de nuestro cuerpo humano y uno de sus componentes esencial de articulaciones, cartílago, ligamento, tendones, huesos, piel. Su especial estructura lo hacen único, presenta una estructura fibrosa, que aporta gran resistencia y flexibilidad a los tejidos de los que forma parte. Cu...

  12. A novel COL11A1 mutation affecting splicing in a patient with Stickler syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Naruto, Takuya; Kobayashi, Haruka; Watanabe, Miki; Okamoto, Nana; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Imoto, Issei; Okamoto, Nobuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Stickler syndrome is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous collagenopathy characterized by ocular, auditory, skeletal and orofacial abnormalities, commonly occurring as an autosomal dominant trait. We conducted target resequencing to analyze candidate genes associated with known clinical phenotypes from a 4-year-old girl with Stickler syndrome. We detected a novel heterozygous intronic mutation (NM_001854.3:c.3168+5G>A) in COL11A1 that may impair splicing, which was suggested by in silico prediction and a minigene assay.

  13. A crise Armada Colômbia-Equador no contexto da Guerra contra o Terrorismo Internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATIANA WAISBERG

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A recente crise armada entre Colômbia e Equador trouxe a América do Sul ao foco da mídia internacional. As FARC representam o maior barril de pólvora da América Latina, além de um determinante ator a ser combatido na luta contra o terrorismo internacional. Nesse sentido, o presente artigo busca analisar, sob o prisma da segurança e do direito internacional o papel das FARC em âmbito global e as maneiras segundo as quais elas são combatidas.

  14. Principles for Aircraft Energy Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Frederick T N

    2013-01-01

    An increasing emphasis on energy eciency in aircraft systems has in recentyears led to greater interest in integrated design and optimisation withinthe industry. New tools are needed to understand, compare and manage energyuse of an aircraft throughout its design and operation. This thesis describes a new methodology to meet this need: aircraft exergy mapping.The choice of exergy, a 2nd law metric, to describe the energy ows is fundamental to the methodology, providing numerous advantages ove...

  15. Loss of Col3a1, the gene for Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, results in neocortical dyslamination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Jin Jeong

    Full Text Available It has recently been discovered that Collagen III, the encoded protein of the type IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS gene, is one of the major constituents of the pial basement membrane (BM and serves as the ligand for GPR56. Mutations in GPR56 cause a severe human brain malformation called bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria, in which neurons transmigrate through the BM causing severe mental retardation and frequent seizures. To further characterize the brain phenotype of Col3a1 knockout mice, we performed a detailed histological analysis. We observed a cobblestone-like cortical malformation, with BM breakdown and marginal zone heterotopias in Col3a1⁻/⁻ mouse brains. Surprisingly, the pial BM appeared intact at early stages of development but starting as early as embryonic day (E 11.5, prominent BM defects were observed and accompanied by neuronal overmigration. Although collagen III is expressed in meningeal fibroblasts (MFs, Col3a1⁻/⁻ MFs present no obvious defects. Furthermore, the expression and posttranslational modification of α-dystroglycan was undisturbed in Col3a1⁻/⁻ mice. Based on the previous finding that mutations in COL3A1 cause type IV EDS, our study indicates a possible common pathological pathway linking connective tissue diseases and brain malformations.

  16. A Gene Gun-mediated Nonviral RNA trans-splicing Strategy for Col7a1 Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Peking

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA trans-splicing represents an auspicious option for the correction of genetic mutations at RNA level. Mutations within COL7A1 causing strong reduction or absence of type VII collagen are associated with the severe skin blistering disease dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. The human COL7A1 mRNA constitutes a suitable target for this RNA therapy approach, as only a portion of the almost 9 kb transcript has to be delivered into the target cells. Here, we have proven the feasibility of 5′ trans-splicing into the Col7a1 mRNA in vitro and in vivo. We designed a 5′ RNA trans-splicing molecule, capable of replacing Col7a1 exons 1–15 and verified it in a fluorescence-based trans-splicing model system. Specific and efficient Col7a1 trans-splicing was confirmed in murine keratinocytes. To analyze trans-splicing in vivo, we used gene gun delivery of a minicircle expressing a FLAG-tagged 5′ RNA trans-splicing molecule into the skin of wild-type mice. Histological and immunofluorescence analysis of bombarded skin sections revealed vector delivery and expression within dermis and epidermis. Furthermore, we have detected trans-spliced type VII collagen protein using FLAG-tag antibodies. In conclusion, we describe a novel in vivo nonviral RNA therapy approach to restore type VII collagen expression for causative treatment of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa.

  17. COL-3, a chemically modified tetracycline, inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced microglia activation and cytokine expression in the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawan Abdulhameed Edan

    Full Text Available Microglia activation results in release of proinflammatory molecules including cytokines, which contribute to neuronal damage in the central nervous system (CNS if not controlled. Tetracycline antibiotics such as minocycline inhibit microglial activation and cytokine expression during CNS inflammation. In the present study we found that administration of chemically modified tetracycline-3 (COL-3, inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced microglial and p38 MAPK activation, as well as the increase in TNF-α, but not IL-1β expression, in the brains of BALB/c mice. COL-3 has been described to have no antibacterial activity. We observed that COL-3 had no activity against a Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli; however surprisingly, COL-3 had antibacterial activity against a Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1 mg/ml. Our data show that COL-3 has some antibacterial activity against S. aureus, inhibits LPS-induced neuroinflammation, and displays potential as a therapeutic agent for treatment of conditions involving CNS inflammation.

  18. PCR-Based Analysis of ColE1 Plasmids in Clinical Isolates and Metagenomic Samples Reveals Their Importance as Gene Capture Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Ares-Arroyo; Cristina Bernabe-Balas; Alfonso Santos-Lopez; Maria R. Baquero; Kashi N. Prasad; Dolores Cid; Carmen Martin-Espada; Alvaro San Millan; Bruno Gonzalez-Zorn

    2018-01-01

    ColE1 plasmids are important vehicles for the spread of antibiotic resistance in the Enterobacteriaceae and Pasteurellaceae families of bacteria. Their monitoring is essential, as they harbor important resistant determinants in humans, animals and the environment. In this work, we have analyzed ColE1 replicons using bioinformatic and experimental approaches. First, we carried out a computational study examining the structure of different ColE1 plasmids deposited in databases. Bioinformatic an...

  19. Auto-imunidade e colágeno V Autoimmunity and collagen V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Carla de Oliveira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As proteínas da matriz extracelular (MEC e seus componentes estão sendo amplamente estudados na literatura médica, assim como sua relação com o remodelamento tecidual presente nas doenças reumáticas. Neste artigo, mostramos a importância do estudo do colágeno do tipo V no entendimento da etiologia da esclerodermia, no que se refere ao desencadeamento da auto-imunidade nesta enfermidade. Estudos em nosso laboratório demonstram que a sensibilização com colágeno do tipo V em coelhos pode resultar em um modelo animal de esclerodermia. Diante destes fatos, sugerimos que pesquisas neste campo podem ser de grande valia no desenvolvimento de novas condutas terapêuticas.The extracellular matrix (ECM proteins and their components have been widely studied in medical literature, as well its relationship with the tecidual remodeling present in the rheumatic disease. In this paper we show the importance of understanding the role of type V collagen as an important trigger of rheumatic autoimmune diseases. Studies in our laboratory demonstrate that type V collagen sensibilization in rabbits, could result in an animal scleroderma model. In this way we suggested that researches in this field can be worthy in development of new therapeutic procedures.

  20. Studying impact damage on carbon-fiber reinforced aircraft composite panels with sonicir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Xiaoyan; Zhang Ding; He Qi; Song Yuyang; Lubowicki, Anthony; Zhao Xinyue; Newaz, Golam.; Favro, Lawrence D.; Thomas, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Composites are becoming more important materials in commercial aircraft structures such as the fuselage and wings with the new B787 Dreamliner from Boeing which has the target to utilize 50% by weight of composite materials. Carbon-fiber reinforced composites are the material of choice in aircraft structures. This is due to their light weight and high strength (high strength-to-weight ratio), high specific stiffness, tailorability of properties, design flexibility etc. Especially, by reducing the aircraft's body weight by using such lighter structures, the cost of fuel can be greatly reduced with the high jet fuel price for commercial airlines. However, these composites are prone to impact damage and the damage may occur without any observable sign on the surface, yet resulting in delaminations and disbonds that may occur well within the layers. We are studying the impact problem with carbon-fiber reinforced composite panels and developing SonicIR for this application as a fast and wide-area NDE technology. In this paper, we present our results in studying composite structures including carbon-fiber reinforced composite materials, and preliminary quantitative studies on delamination type defect depth identification in the panels.

  1. Modeling of aircraft exhaust emissions and infrared spectra for remote measurement of nitrogen oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Beier

    Full Text Available Infrared (IR molecular spectroscopy is proposed to perform remote measurements of NOx concentrations in the exhaust plume and wake of aircraft. The computer model NIRATAM is applied to simulate the physical and chemical properties of the exhaust plume and to generate low resolution IR spectra and synthetical thermal images of the aircraft in its natural surroundings. High-resolution IR spectra of the plume, including atmospheric absorption and emission, are simulated using the molecular line-by-line radiation model FASCODE2. Simulated IR spectra of a Boeing 747-400 at cruising altitude for different axial and radial positions in the jet region of the exhaust plume are presented. A number of spectral lines of NO can be identified that can be discriminated from lines of other exhaust gases and the natural atmospheric background in the region around 5.2 µm. These lines can be used to determine NO concentration profiles in the plume. The possibility of measuring nitrogen dioxide NO2 is also discussed briefly, although measurements turn out to be substantially less likely than those of NO. This feasibility study compiles fundamental data for the optical and radiometric design of an airborne Fourier transform spectrometer and the preparation of in-flight measurements for monitoring of aircraft pollutants.

  2. Modeling of aircraft exhaust emissions and infrared spectra for remote measurement of nitrogen oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Beier

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Infrared (IR molecular spectroscopy is proposed to perform remote measurements of NOx concentrations in the exhaust plume and wake of aircraft. The computer model NIRATAM is applied to simulate the physical and chemical properties of the exhaust plume and to generate low resolution IR spectra and synthetical thermal images of the aircraft in its natural surroundings. High-resolution IR spectra of the plume, including atmospheric absorption and emission, are simulated using the molecular line-by-line radiation model FASCODE2. Simulated IR spectra of a Boeing 747-400 at cruising altitude for different axial and radial positions in the jet region of the exhaust plume are presented. A number of spectral lines of NO can be identified that can be discriminated from lines of other exhaust gases and the natural atmospheric background in the region around 5.2 µm. These lines can be used to determine NO concentration profiles in the plume. The possibility of measuring nitrogen dioxide NO2 is also discussed briefly, although measurements turn out to be substantially less likely than those of NO. This feasibility study compiles fundamental data for the optical and radiometric design of an airborne Fourier transform spectrometer and the preparation of in-flight measurements for monitoring of aircraft pollutants.

  3. X-38 vehicle #131R arrives at NASA Dryden via NASA'S Super Guppy transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Super Guppy transport aircraft landed at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. on July 11, 2000, to deliver the latest version of the X-38 drop vehicle to Dryden. The X-38s are intended as prototypes for a possible 'crew lifeboat' for the International Space Station. The X-38 vehicle 131R will demonstrate a huge 7,500 square-foot parafoil that will that will enable the potential crew return vehicle to land on the length of a football field after returning from space. The crew return vehicle is intended to serve as a possible emergency transport to carry a crew to safety in the event of problems with the International Space Station. The Super Guppy evolved from the 1960s-vintage Pregnant Guppy, used for transporting outsized sections of the Apollo moon rocket. The Super Guppy was modified from 1950s-vintage Boeing C-97. NASA acquired its Super Guppy from the European Space Agency in 1997.

  4. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based on...

  5. Numerical simulation of aircraft crash on nuclear containment structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, M.A., E-mail: iqbalfce@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Rai, S.; Sadique, M.R.; Bhargava, P. [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The deformation was more localised at the center of cylindrical portion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The peak deflection at the junction of dome and cylinder was found to be 67 mm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The peak deflection at midpoint of the cylindrical portion was found to be 88.9 mm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The strain rate was found to be an important parameter to effect the deformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model without strain rate and 290 s{sup -1} strain rate predicted very high deformations. - Abstract: Numerical simulations were carried with ABAQUS/Explicit finite element code in order to predict the response of BWR Mark III type nuclear containment against Boeing 707-320 aircraft crash. The load of the aircraft was applied using and force history curve. The damaged plasticity model was used to predict the behavior of concrete while the Johnson-Cook elasto-viscoplastic material model was used to incorporate the behavior of steel reinforcement. The crash was considered to occur at two different locations i.e., the midpoint of the cylindrical portion and the junction of dome and cylinder. The midpoint of the cylindrical portion experienced more deformation. The strain rate in the material model was varied and found to have a significant effect on the response of containment. The results of the present investigation were compared with those of the studies available in literature and a close agreement with the previous results was found in terms of maximum target deformation.

  6. Chemistry in aircraft plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraabol, A.G.; Stordal, F.; Knudsen, S. [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Konopka, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    An expanding plume model with chemistry has been used to study the chemical conversion of NO{sub x} to reservoir species in aircraft plumes. The heterogeneous conversion of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} to HNO{sub 3}(s) has been investigated when the emissions take place during night-time. The plume from an B747 has been simulated. During a ten-hour calculation the most important reservoir species was HNO{sub 3} for emissions at noon. The heterogeneous reactions had little impact on the chemical loss of NO{sub x} to reservoir species for emissions at night. (author) 4 refs.

  7. Chemistry in aircraft plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraabol, A G; Stordal, F; Knudsen, S [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Konopka, P [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1998-12-31

    An expanding plume model with chemistry has been used to study the chemical conversion of NO{sub x} to reservoir species in aircraft plumes. The heterogeneous conversion of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} to HNO{sub 3}(s) has been investigated when the emissions take place during night-time. The plume from an B747 has been simulated. During a ten-hour calculation the most important reservoir species was HNO{sub 3} for emissions at noon. The heterogeneous reactions had little impact on the chemical loss of NO{sub x} to reservoir species for emissions at night. (author) 4 refs.

  8. Commercial Aircraft Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehst, David A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-26

    This report summarizes the results of theoretical research performed during 3 years of P371 Project implementation. In results of such research a new scientific conceptual technology of quasi-passive individual infrared protection of heat-generating objects – Spatial Displacement of Thermal Image (SDTI technology) was developed. Theoretical substantiation and description of working processes of civil aircraft individual IR-protection system were conducted. The mathematical models and methodology were presented, there were obtained the analytical dependencies which allow performing theoretical research of the affect of intentionally arranged dynamic field of the artificial thermal interferences with variable contrast onto main parameters of optic-electronic tracking and homing systems.

  9. Aircraft vulnerability analysis by modelling and simulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Willers, CJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available attributable to misuse of the weapon or to missile performance restrictions. This paper analyses some of the factors affecting aircraft vulnerability and demonstrates a structured analysis of the risk and aircraft vulnerability problem. The aircraft...

  10. 75 FR 9760 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    .... ADDRESSES: For service information identified in this AD, contact Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention... Management Facility, U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor.... Figure 31, Sheet 7, of the Accomplishment Instructions of Boeing Alert Service Bulletin 747- 51A2060...

  11. Design for aircraft impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    Aircraft impact against nuclear power plant structures leads to both local and overall effects on the structure. Among the local effects, backface spalling is most important. The overall effects of impact on structural stability are commonly evaluated in terms of the adequacy of the structure in flexure and shear. Empirical formulas are presented for the determination of local effects of aircraft impact on nuclear power plant facilities. The formulas lead to easy and reasonable estimates of the thickness required to prevent backface spalling. The impactive load depends upon the collapse load of the fuselage, its collapse mechanism, mass distribution and the impact velocity. A simplified method is given for evaluating the design load. The time history, obtained by the proposed method, closely resembles those obtained by more rigorous methods. Procedures for obtaining shear and flexural strengths of concrete walls or roofs, subjected to impact, are provided. The span-to-depth ratio is considered. Recommendations are made on the available ductility ratio and structural behavior. (Author)

  12. Influence of Machine-Derived Smoke Yields on Biomarker of Exposure (BOE Levels in Cigarette Smokers*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherer Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Individual uptake of tobacco smoke constituents by smoking is highly variable in cigarette smokers and cannot be predicted by smoking behaviour variables and machine-derived smoke yields. It is well established that uptake of smoke constituents is best described by a series of bio-markers of exposure (BOEs such as metabolites of nico-tine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, aromatic amines, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, acrolein, hydrogen cyanide, 2,5-dimethyl-furan and other smoke constituents.

  13. Avaliação da preferência alimentar em modelo de poliartrite induzida por colágeno

    OpenAIRE

    Eduarda Correa Freitas

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: Artrite reumatoide é uma doença inflamatória crônica associada a alterações no metabolismo proteico e energético. Objetivos: Investigar a preferência alimentar durante o desenvolvimento da inflamação crônica em ratas com artrite induzida por colágeno. Métodos: Ratas Wistar fêmeas foram alocadas em dois grupos: controle (CO, n=10) e artrite induzida por colágeno (CIA; n=11) e expostas simultaneamente a quatro diferentes dietas (padrão, hipercalórica, hiperlipidica e hiperproteica)....

  14. A novel missense mutation of COL5A2 in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Miki; Nakagawa, Ryuji; Naruto, Takuya; Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Suga, Ken-Ichi; Goji, Aya; Kagami, Shoji; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Imoto, Issei

    2016-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a group of inherited connective tissue disorders characterized by hyperextensible skin, joint hypermobility and soft tissue fragility. For molecular diagnosis, targeted exome sequencing was performed on a 9-year-old male patient who was clinically suspected to have EDS. The patient presented with progressive kyphoscoliosis, joint hypermobility and hyperextensible skin without scars. Ultimately, classical EDS was diagnosed by identifying a novel, mono-allelic mutation in COL5A2 [NM_000393.3(COL5A2_v001):c.682G>A, p.Gly228Arg].

  15. A novel missense mutation of COL5A2 in a patient with Ehlers–Danlos syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Miki; Nakagawa, Ryuji; Naruto, Takuya; Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Suga, Ken-ichi; Goji, Aya; Kagami, Shoji; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Imoto, Issei

    2016-01-01

    Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a group of inherited connective tissue disorders characterized by hyperextensible skin, joint hypermobility and soft tissue fragility. For molecular diagnosis, targeted exome sequencing was performed on a 9-year-old male patient who was clinically suspected to have EDS. The patient presented with progressive kyphoscoliosis, joint hypermobility and hyperextensible skin without scars. Ultimately, classical EDS was diagnosed by identifying a novel, mono-allelic mutation in COL5A2 [NM_000393.3(COL5A2_v001):c.682G>A, p.Gly228Arg]. PMID:27656288

  16. ERGONOMIC DESIGN OF AIRCRAFT COCKPIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÎMPIAN Ionuţ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for an ergonomic design of an aircraft cockpit with the specification and verification with respect to the new European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA requirements. The goal is to expressing the concepts on which the aircraft cockpit design are based.

  17. ERGONOMIC DESIGN OF AIRCRAFT COCKPIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÎMPIAN Ionuţ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for an ergonomic design of an aircraft cockpit with the specification and verification with respect to the new European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA requirements. The goal is to expressing the concepts on which the aircraft cockpit design is based.

  18. An integrated DEA-COLS-SFA algorithm for optimization and policy making of electricity distribution units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadeh, A.; Ghaderi, S.F.; Omrani, H.; Eivazy, H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated data envelopment analysis (DEA)-corrected ordinary least squares (COLS)-stochastic frontier analysis (SFA)-principal component analysis (PCA)-numerical taxonomy (NT) algorithm for performance assessment, optimization and policy making of electricity distribution units. Previous studies have generally used input-output DEA models for benchmarking and evaluation of electricity distribution units. However, this study proposes an integrated flexible approach to measure the rank and choose the best version of the DEA method for optimization and policy making purposes. It covers both static and dynamic aspects of information environment due to involvement of SFA which is finally compared with the best DEA model through the Spearman correlation technique. The integrated approach would yield in improved ranking and optimization of electricity distribution systems. To illustrate the usability and reliability of the proposed algorithm, 38 electricity distribution units in Iran have been considered, ranked and optimized by the proposed algorithm of this study.

  19. Advanced transport aircraft technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winblade, R L

    1980-06-01

    Various elements of the NASA aircraft energy efficiency program are described. Regarding composite structures, the development of three secondary and three medium-primary components to validate structural and fabrication technology is discussed. In laminar flow control, the design of advanced airfoils having large regions of supercritical flow with features which simplify laminarization are considered. Emphasis is placed on engine performance improvement, directed at developing advanced components to reduce fuel consumption in current production engines, and engine diagnostics aimed at identifying the sources and causes of performance deterioration in high-bypass turbofan engines. In addition, the results of propeller aerodynamic and acoustic tests have substantiated the feasibility of achieving the propeller efficiency goal of 80% and confirmed that the effect of blade sweep on reducing propeller source noise was 5-6 dB.

  20. Commercial aircraft composite technology

    CERN Document Server

    Breuer, Ulf Paul

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on lectures held at the faculty of mechanical engineering at the Technical University of Kaiserslautern. The focus is on the central theme of societies overall aircraft requirements to specific material requirements and highlights the most important advantages and challenges of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) compared to conventional materials. As it is fundamental to decide on the right material at the right place early on the main activities and milestones of the development and certification process and the systematic of defining clear requirements are discussed. The process of material qualification - verifying material requirements is explained in detail. All state-of-the-art composite manufacturing technologies are described, including changes and complemented by examples, and their improvement potential for future applications is discussed. Tangible case studies of high lift and wing structures emphasize the specific advantages and challenges of composite technology. Finally,...

  1. Asymptomatic parental mosaicism for osteogenesis imperfect associated with a new splice site mutation in COL1A2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anja Lisbeth; Dunø, Morten; Johnsen, Iben Birgit Gade

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent lethal perinatal osteogenesis imperfecta may result from asymptomatic parental mosaicism. A previously unreported mutation in COL1A2 leads to recurrent cases of fetal osteogenesis imperfecta Sillence type IIA, which emphasizes the importance of clinical and genetic evaluation of mosaicism...

  2. Linkage analysis in a family with Stickler syndrome leads to the exclusion of the COL2A1 locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mottes, M.; Zolezzi, F.; Pignatti, P.F. [Univ. of Verona (Italy)

    1994-09-01

    Hereditary arthro-ophtalmopathy (AO) or Stickler Syndrome (MIM No. 10830) is a dominantly inherited disorder characterized by vitro-retinal degeneration and other connective tissue disturbances. Mutations in the COL2A1 gene, coding for type II collagen chains, have been described in a few patients. The wide spectrum of clinical manifestations is presumably due to genetic heterogeneity, since only about 50% of the Stickler families so far studied show cosegregation of the disease with the COL2A1 locus. We have investigated a large pedigree (19 individuals of whom 9 are affected) in which severe myopia with vitro-retinal degeneration consegregated with joint laxity, recurrent inguinal hernias, and degenerative changes of the hip and the knee. The 3{prime} end COL2A1 VNTR polymorphism was utilized for linkage analysis. In order to get the maximum informativity, we have analyzed the allelic microheterogeneity of this VNTR, due to the repeat sequence variation, by means of a single strand polymorphism. Mendelian inheritance of the different single strands was observed as expected. Discordance of segregation between the disease and the COL2A1 locus was thus established inequivocally in this family.

  3. Variability and distribution of COL1A2 (type I collagen) polymorphisms in the central-eastern Mediterranean Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorrano, Gabriele; Lelli, Roberta; Martínez-Labarga, Cristina; Scano, Giuseppina; Contini, Irene; Hafez, Hani S; Rudan, Pavao; Rickards, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The most abundant of the collagen protein family, type I collagen is encoded by the COL1A2 gene. The COL1A2 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) EcoRI, RsaI and MspI in samples from several different central-eastern Mediterranean populations were analysed and found to be potentially informative anthropogenetic markers. The objective was to define the genetic variability of COL1A2 in the central-eastern Mediterranean and to shed light on its genetic distribution in human groups over a wide geographic area. PCR-RFLP analysis of EcoRI, RsaI and MspI polymorphisms of the COL1A2 gene was performed on oral swab and blood samples from 308 individuals from the central-eastern Mediterranean Basin. The genetic similarities among these groups and other populations described in the literature were investigated through correspondence analysis. Single-marker data and haplotype frequencies seemed to suggest a genetic homogeneity within the European populations, whereas a certain degree of differentiation was noted for the Egyptians and the Turks. The genetic variability in the central-eastern Mediterranean area is probably a result of the geographical barrier of the Mediterranean Sea, which separated European and African populations over time.

  4. Evaluation of a patient with classical Ehlers-Danlos syndrome due to a 9q34 duplication affecting COL5A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Yukiko; Ohashi, Ikuko; Naruto, Takuya; Ida, Kazumi; Enomoto, Yumi; Saito, Toshiyuki; Nagai, Jun-Ichi; Kurosawa, Kenji

    2018-03-09

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome classical type is a connective tissue disorder characterized by skin hyperextensibility, atrophic scarring, and joint hypermobility. The condition typically results from mutations in COL5A1 or COL5A2 leading to the functional haploinsufficiency. Here, we report of a 24-year-old male with mild intellectual disability, dysmorphic features, and a phenotype consistent with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome classical type. A copy number variant-calling algorithm from panel sequencing data identified the deletions exons 2-11 and duplications of exons 12-67 within COL5A1. Array comparative genomic hybridization confirmed a 94 kb deletion at 9q34.3 involving exons 2-11 of COL5A1, and a 3.4 Mb duplication at 9q34.3 involving exons 12-67 of COL5A1. © 2018 Japanese Teratology Society.

  5. The Power for Flight: NASA's Contributions to Aircraft Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Jeremy R.

    2017-01-01

    The New York Times announced America's entry into the 'long awaited' Jet Age when a Pan American (Pan Am) World Airways Boeing 707 airliner left New York for Paris on October 26, 1958. Powered by four turbojet engines, the 707 offered speed, more nonstop flights, and a smoother and quieter travel experience compared to newly antiquated propeller airliners. With the Champs-Elysees only 6 hours away, humankind had entered into a new and exciting age in which the shrinking of the world for good was no longer a daydream. Fifty years later, the New York Times declared the second coming of a 'cleaner, leaner' Jet Age. Decades-old concerns over fuel efficiency, noise, and emissions shaped this new age as the aviation industry had the world poised for 'a revolution in jet engines'. Refined turbofans incorporating the latest innovations would ensure that aviation would continue to enable a worldwide transportation network. At the root of many of the advances over the preceding 50 years was the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). On October 1, 1958, just a few weeks before the flight of that Pan Am 707, NASA came into existence. Tasked with establishing a national space program as part of a Cold War competition between the United States and the Soviet Union, NASA is often remembered in popular memory first for putting the first human beings on the Moon in July 1969, followed by running the successful 30-year Space Shuttle Program and by landing the Rover Curiosity on Mars in August 2012. What many people do not recognize is the crucial role the first 'A' in NASA played in the development of aircraft since the Agency's inception. Innovations shaping the aerodynamic design, efficient operation, and overall safety of aircraft made NASA a vital element of the American aviation industry even though they remained unknown to the public. This is the story of one facet of NASA's many contributions to commercial, military, and general aviation: the development of

  6. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... met within the specified time without creating a safety hazard. ...

  7. Genetic Variations of COL4A1 Gene and Intracerebral Hemorrhage Outcome: A Cohort Study in a Chinese Han Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chao; Lin, Sen; Yang, Jie; He, Sha; Li, Hao; Liu, Ming; You, Chao

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms or haplotypes of COL4A1 gene and the outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In our study, 181 patients with hypertensive ICH were enrolled and followed up at 3 and 6 months. Outcome data included any cause of death and disability. Genomic DNA was extracted by DNA extraction kit, and the 6 single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping of the COL4A1 gene was detected through MassARRAY Analyzer. Unphased 3.1.4 and SPSS 19.0 were used to analyze the association between alleles, genotypes, and haplotypes of the COL4A1 gene and the outcomes of ICH. Of the 181 patients with hypertensive ICH, 12 were lost in follow-up, which accounted for 6.6%. Our association analysis showed that the rs532625 AA genotype of the COL4A1 gene may increase risk of disability at 3 months; the rs532625 A allele and AA genotype were association factors of the risk of disability at 6 months; the rs532625 AA genotype was an association factor of the risk of death/disability at 6 months. After adjusting for gender, age, coma, and severe neurologic deficits, only the rs532625 AA genotype was independently associated with the risk of disability at 3 and 6 months and the risk of death/disability at 6 months. Our study found that the rs532625 AA genotype in the COL4A1 gene was independently associated with the risk of disability at 3 and 6 months and death/disability at 6 months in a Chinese Han population. These conclusions need to be verified in future studies with larger samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Targeted deletion of RANKL in M cell inducer cells by the Col6a1-Cre driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Kazuki; Sawa, Shinichiro; Nitta, Takeshi; Prados, Alejandro; Koliaraki, Vasiliki; Kollias, George; Nakashima, Tomoki; Takayanagi, Hiroshi

    2017-11-04

    The gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALTs), including Peyer's patches (PPs), cryptopatches (CPs) and isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs), establish a host-microbe symbiosis by the promotion of immune reactions against gut microbes. Microfold cell inducer (MCi) cells in GALTs are the recently identified mesenchymal cells that express the cytokine RANKL and initiate bacteria-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) production via induction of microfold (M) cell differentiation. In the previous study, the Twist2-Cre driver was utilized for gene deletion in mesenchymal cells including MCi cells. In order to investigate MCi cells more extensively, it will be necessary to develop experimental tools in addition to the Twist2-Cre driver mice and characterize such drivers in specificity and efficiency. Here we show that M cell differentiation and IgA production are impaired in the targeted deletion of RANKL by the Col6a1-Cre driver. We compared Col6a1-Cre with Twist2-Cre in terms of the specificity for mesenchymal cells in GALTs. Col6a1-Cre CAG-CAT-EGFP mice exhibited EGFP expression in podoplanin + CD31 - cells including MCi cells, while Twist2-Cre mice were shown to target endothelial cells and podoplanin + CD31 - cells. Tnfsf11 fl/Δ Col6a1-Cre mice exhibited the absence of M cells and severe IgA reduction together with an alteration in gut microbial composition. Moreover, we analyzed germ free mice to test whether changes in the microbiota are the cause of M cell deficiency. M cell differentiation was normal in the CPs/ILFs of germ free mice, indicating that MCi cells induce M cells independently of microbial colonization. This study demonstrates that Col6a1-Cre driver mice are as useful as Twist2-Cre driver mice for functional analyses of GALT-resident mesenchymal cells, including MCi cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Collagen Type I alpha1 (COL1A1 Gene Polymorphism and Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Kazakh Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbota Aitkulova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at the collagen type I alpha 1 gene (COL1A1 rs1800012 has been widely studied and has shown an association with bone mineral density (BMD and fractures. A minor allele TT of this SNP was found to be greatly overrepresented in individuals with fractures compared to controls, thus becoming a good predictor of  increased fracture risk. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate potential association between COL1A1 gene polymorphism and osteoporosis in Kazakh postmenopausal women.Methods: The study population included 103 postmenopausal women recruited from Pavlodar and Almaty clinics. BMD was measured using DEXA. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral venous blood of study participants with Wizard® Genomic DNA Purification Kit (Promega, USA. Detection of COL1A1 +1245G/T (Sp1 polymorphism was done by the TaqMan® SNP Genotyping Assay of real-time PCR.Results: Densitometry results revealed 36 osteoporotic, 42 osteopenic, and 25 normal postmenopausal women. Data analysis of 1245G>T polymorphism in COL1A1 gene in the group of women with osteopenia and osteoporosis revealed deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The mutant TT genotype was prevalent compared to the heterozygous genotype GT in both groups. Distributions were 83% GG, 3% GT, and 14% TT in the group with osteopenia and 80% GG, 6% GT, and 14% TT in the group with osteoporosis. The distribution of genotypes frequency in the group of normal postmenopausal women was 76% GG, 16% GT, and 8% TT.Conclusion: These results suggest that TT genotype of COL1A1 +1245G/T (Sp1 polymorphism is associated with risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis in Kazakh women. Further studies involving a larger number of women are needed to clarify the relationship of this polymorphism with risk of osteoporosis. 

  10. 75 FR 81508 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 777-200, -200LR, -300, and -300ER Series...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... require installing new panels in the main equipment center, making certain wiring changes, installing new..., Boeing found indications of wiring deterioration that could cause electrical faults in the main tank... center; making certain wiring changes; installing new GFI relays in the P301 and P302 panels; and...

  11. 75 FR 8554 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, -200B, and -200F Series Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ...-0132; Directorate Identifier 2009-NM-096-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company... approaching or have exceeded their design life goal. We issued that AD to prevent separation of fuselage skin...,000 flight cycles to 1,000 flight cycles. Differences Between the Proposed AD and Service Bulletin...

  12. 76 FR 60710 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 737-600, -700, -700C, -800, and -900 Series...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... universal fault interrupters (UFIs) using a certain supplemental type certificate. This new AD continues to... interrupter (GFI) feature, or installation and maintenance of universal fault interrupters (UFIs) using a... section of this AD to include this contact information. Request To Revise a Word Boeing requested a change...

  13. 76 FR 24354 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 777-200 and -300 Series Airplanes Equipped...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... this AD, contact Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention: Data & Services Management, P.O. Box 3707, MC.... Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New.... Required parts cost about $122,617 per product. Based on these figures, we estimate the cost of this AD to...

  14. 75 FR 5677 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 767-200, -300, and -300F Series Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... AD, contact Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention: Data & Services Management, P.O. Box 3707, MC 2H... a magnetic particle inspection (MPI) in accordance with Part 4, ``Magnetic Particle Inspection of... November 5, 2009, or MPI in accordance with Part 4, ``Magnetic Particle Inspection of the Midspar Fuse Pin...

  15. 75 FR 9137 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 737-100, -200, -200C, -300, -400, and -500...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... AD, contact Boeing Commercial Airplanes, P.O. Box 3707, Seattle, Washington 98124-2207. Examining the... repetitive detailed and magnetic particle inspections to detect discrepancies (including corrosion, pitting... detailed inspection for corrosion, pitting, and cracking of the carriage spindle, the magnetic particle...

  16. 76 FR 42607 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 767-200, -300, and -400ER Series Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... CONTACT: Stephen Styskal, Aerospace Engineer, Cabin Safety and Environmental Systems Branch, ANM-150S, FAA...) 917-6439; fax: (425) 917-6590; e- mail: stephen[email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Comments... Information (h) Actions done before the effective date of this AD in accordance with Boeing Special Attention...

  17. 75 FR 2433 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 747-8/-8F Airplanes, Systems and Data Networks Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... Conditions No. 25-401-SC] Special Conditions: Boeing Model 747-8/-8F Airplanes, Systems and Data Networks Security--Protection of Airplane Systems and Data Networks From Unauthorized External Access AGENCY... that effective electronic system security protection strategies are implemented to protect the airplane...

  18. A new simulation model for assessing aircraft emergency evacuation considering passenger physical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yu; Wang, Weijie; Huang, Hong-Zhong; Li, Yanfeng; Yang, Yuanjian

    2014-01-01

    Conducting a real aircraft evacuation trial is oftentimes unaffordable as it is extremely expensive and may cause severe injury to participants. Simulation models as an alternative have been used to overcome the aforementioned issues in recent years. This paper proposes a new simulation model for emergency evacuation of civil aircraft. Its unique features and advantages over the existing models are twofold: (1) passengers' critical physical characteristics, e.g. waist size, gender, age, and disabilities, which impact the movement and egress time of individual evacuee from a statistical viewpoint, are taken into account in the new model. (2) Improvements are made to enhance the accuracy of the simulation model from three aspects. First, the staggered mesh discretization method together with the agent-based approach is utilized to simulate movements of individual passengers in an emergency evacuation process. Second, each node discretized to represent cabin space in the new model can contain more than one passenger if they are moving in the same direction. Finally, each individual passenger is able to change his/her evacuation route in a real-time manner based upon the distance from the current position to the target exit and the queue length. The effectiveness of the proposed simulation model is demonstrated on Boeing 767-300 aircraft. - Highlights: • A new simulation model of aircraft emergency evacuation is developed. • Some critical physical characteristics of passengers', e.g. waist size, gender, age, and disabilities, are taken into account in the new model. • An agent-based approach along with a multi-level fine network representation is used. • Passengers are able to change their evacuation routes in a real-time manner based upon distance and length of queue

  19. Fire resistant aircraft seat program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewell, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  20. Western Pacific Typhoon Aircraft Fixes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...

  1. Flow Control Enabled Aircraft Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nangia, Rajendar

    2004-01-01

    ...: Many future advanced aircraft concepts being considered by the Air Force fall outside the current aerodynamic design practice and will rely heavily on the use of flow control technology to optimize flight performance...

  2. Neural networks for aircraft control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linse, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    Current research in Artificial Neural Networks indicates that networks offer some potential advantages in adaptation and fault tolerance. This research is directed at determining the possible applicability of neural networks to aircraft control. The first application will be to aircraft trim. Neural network node characteristics, network topology and operation, neural network learning and example histories using neighboring optimal control with a neural net are discussed.

  3. Aircraft Evaluation Using Stochastic Duels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and...Fighter aircraft systems and weapons designs are known to involve substantial capital investment . Due to possible budget constraints in the U.S. Navy, the...of fighter aircraft to analysts and decision-makers before they invest further resources into larger-scale, higher-resolution simulations for

  4. Commercial transport aircraft composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarty, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    The role that analysis plays in the development, production, and substantiation of aircraft structures is discussed. The types, elements, and applications of failure that are used and needed; the current application of analysis methods to commercial aircraft advanced composite structures, along with a projection of future needs; and some personal thoughts on analysis development goals and the elements of an approach to analysis development are discussed.

  5. Advanced technology composite aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilcewicz, Larry B.; Walker, Thomas H.

    1991-01-01

    Work performed during the 25th month on NAS1-18889, Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures, is summarized. The main objective of this program is to develop an integrated technology and demonstrate a confidence level that permits the cost- and weight-effective use of advanced composite materials in primary structures of future aircraft with the emphasis on pressurized fuselages. The period from 1-31 May 1991 is covered.

  6. 75 FR 38391 - Special Conditions: Boeing 757-200 With Enhanced Flight Vision System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ...;Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each #0;week. #0; #0; #0; #0;#0..., Washington, on June 11, 2010. Jeffrey Duven, Acting Manager, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft...

  7. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R C; Anderson, M R; Miake-Lye, R C; Kolb, C E [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A A; Buriko, Y I [Scientific Research Center ` Ecolen` , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  8. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  9. STS-65 crewmembers and backup participate in bench review at Boeing Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 crewmembers, wearing clean suits, look over equipment to be carried aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, for the scheduled July flight of the second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2) mission. Surrounding a table full of equipment at Boeing's Flight Equipment Processing Facility near the Johnson Space Center (JSC), are (left to right) Mission Specialist (MS) Leroy Chiao, MS Donald A. Thomas, Commander Robert D. Cabana, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, Payload Commander (PLC) Richard J. Hieb, and backup (alternate) payload specialist Jean-Jacques Favier. Mukai represents Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA) and Favier represents France's Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales. Photo taken by NASA JSC contract photographer Scott A. Wickes.

  10. ROCK inhibition stimulates SOX9/Smad3-dependent COL2A1 expression in inner meniscus cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumatsu, Takayuki; Maehara, Ami; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2016-07-01

    Proper functioning of the meniscus depends on the composition and organization of its fibrocartilaginous extracellular matrix. We previously demonstrated that the avascular inner meniscus has a more chondrocytic phenotype compared with the outer meniscus. Inhibition of the Rho family GTPase ROCK, the major regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, stimulates the chondrogenic transcription factor Sry-type HMG box (SOX) 9-dependent α1(II) collagen (COL2A1) expression in inner meniscus cells. However, the crosstalk between ROCK inhibition, SOX9, and other transcription modulators on COL2A1 upregulation remains unclear in meniscus cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of SOX9-related transcriptional complex on COL2A1 expression under the inhibition of ROCK in human meniscus cells. Human inner and outer meniscus cells were prepared from macroscopically intact lateral menisci. Cells were cultured in the presence or absence of ROCK inhibitor (ROCKi, Y27632). Gene expression, collagen synthesis, and nuclear translocation of SOX9 and Smad2/3 were analyzed. Treatment of ROCKi increased the ratio of type I/II collagen double positive cells derived from the inner meniscus. In real-time PCR analyses, expression of SOX9 and COL2A1 genes was stimulated by ROCKi treatment in inner meniscus cells. ROCKi treatment also induced nuclear translocation of SOX9 and phosphorylated Smad2/3 in immunohistological analyses. Complex formation between SOX9 and Smad3 was increased by ROCKi treatment in inner meniscus cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that association between SOX9/Smad3 transcriptional complex with the COL2A1 enhancer region was increased by ROCKi treatment. This study demonstrated that ROCK inhibition stimulated SOX9/Smad3-dependent COL2A1 expression through the immediate nuclear translocation of Smad3 in inner meniscus cells. Our results suggest that ROCK inhibition can stimulates type II collagen synthesis through the cooperative activation

  11. Reliability analysis of nuclear containment without metallic liners against jet aircraft crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, N.A.; Iqbal, M.A.; Abbas, H. E-mail: abbas_husain@hotmail.com; Paul, D.K

    2003-09-01

    The present study presents a methodology for detailed reliability analysis of nuclear containment without metallic liners against aircraft crash. For this purpose, a nonlinear limit state function has been derived using violation of tolerable crack width as failure criterion. This criterion has been considered as failure criterion because radioactive radiations may come out if size of crack becomes more than the tolerable crack width. The derived limit state uses the response of containment that has been obtained from a detailed dynamic analysis of nuclear containment under an impact of a large size Boeing jet aircraft. Using this response in conjunction with limit state function, the reliabilities and probabilities of failures are obtained at a number of vulnerable locations employing an efficient first-order reliability method (FORM). These values of reliability and probability of failure at various vulnerable locations are then used for the estimation of conditional and annual reliabilities of nuclear containment as a function of its location from the airport. To study the influence of the various random variables on containment reliability the sensitivity analysis has been performed. Some parametric studies have also been included to obtain the results of field and academic interest.

  12. Transition to Glass: Pilot Training for High-Technology Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Earl L.; Chute, Rebecca D.; Moses, John H.

    1999-01-01

    This report examines the activities of a major commercial air carrier between 1993 and late 1996 as it acquired an advanced fleet of high-technology aircraft (Boeing 757). Previously, the airline's fleet consisted of traditional (non-glass) aircraft, and this report examines the transition from a traditional fleet to a glass one. A total of 150 pilots who were entering the B-757 transition training volunteered for the study, which consisted of three query phases: (1) first day of transition training, (2) 3 to 4 months after transition training, and (3) 12 to 14 months after initial operating experience. Of these initial 150 pilots, 99 completed all three phases of the study, with each phase consisting of probes on attitudes and experiences associated with their training and eventual transition to flying the line. In addition to the three questionnaires, 20 in-depth interviews were conducted. Although the primary focus of this study was on the flight training program, additional factors such as technical support, documentation, and training aids were investigated as well. The findings generally indicate that the pilot volunteers were highly motivated and very enthusiastic about their training program. In addition, the group had low levels of apprehension toward automation and expressed a high degree of satisfaction toward their training. However, there were some concerns expressed regarding the deficiencies in some of the training aids and lack of a free-play flight management system training device.

  13. Modelling exhaust plume mixing in the near field of an aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Garnier

    Full Text Available A simplified approach has been applied to analyse the mixing and entrainment processes of the engine exhaust through their interaction with the vortex wake of an aircraft. Our investigation is focused on the near field, extending from the exit nozzle until about 30 s after the wake is generated, in the vortex phase. This study was performed by using an integral model and a numerical simulation for two large civil aircraft: a two-engine Airbus 330 and a four-engine Boeing 747. The influence of the wing-tip vortices on the dilution ratio (defined as a tracer concentration shown. The mixing process is also affected by the buoyancy effect, but only after the jet regime, when the trapping in the vortex core has occurred. In the early wake, the engine jet location (i.e. inboard or outboard engine jet has an important influence on the mixing rate. The plume streamlines inside the vortices are subject to distortion and stretching, and the role of the descent of the vortices on the maximum tracer concentration is discussed. Qualitative comparison with contrail photograph shows similar features. Finally, tracer concentration of inboard engine centreline of B-747 are compared with other theoretical analyses and measured data.

  14. An apple B-box protein, MdCOL11, is involved in UV-B- and temperature-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Songling; Saito, Takanori; Honda, Chikako; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Ito, Akiko; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2014-11-01

    Our studies showed that an apple B-box protein, MdCOL11, the homolog of AtBBX22, is involved in UV-B- and temperature-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in apple peel. Anthocyanin is responsible for the red pigmentation in apple peel and a R2R3 MYB gene, MdMYBA/1/10, a homolog of MdMYBA, controls its accumulation. Arabidopsis PAP1 is under the control of a series of upstream factors involved in light signal transduction and photomorphogenesis, such as ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5) and B-box family (BBX) proteins. In this study, we identified and characterized the homolog of Arabidopsis BBX22 in apple, designated as MdCOL11. Overexpression of MdCOL11 in Arabidopsis enhanced the accumulation of anthocyanin. In apples, MdCOL11 was differentially expressed in all tissues, with the highest expression in petals and the lowest expression in the xylem. Transcripts of MdCOL11 noticeably accumulated at the ripening stage, concomitant with increases in the expressions of anthocyanin biosynthesis-related genes. In an in vitro treatment experiment, MdCOL11 was upregulated in an ultra-violet (UV)-B- and temperature-dependent manner, together with the inductions of anthocyanin biosynthesis-related genes and anthocyanin accumulation in apple peel. Furthermore, a dual-luciferase assay indicated that (1) MdCOL11 regulated the expression of MdMYBA and (2) MdCOL11 was a target of MdHY5. Taken together, our results suggest that MdCOL11 is involved in MdHY5-mediated signal transduction and regulates anthocyanin accumulation in apple peel, which sheds new light on anthocyanin accumulation in apples.

  15. Linkage mapping of the gene for Type III collagen (COL3A1) to human chromosome 2q using a VNTR polymorphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiller, G.E.; Polumbo, P.A.; Summar, M.L. (Vanderbilt Univ. Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States))

    1994-03-15

    The gene for the [alpha]1(III) chain of type III collagen, COL3A1, has been previously mapped to human chromosome 2q24.3-q31 by in situ hybridization. Physical mapping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis has demonstrated that COL3A1 lies within 35 kb of COL5A2. The authors genotyped the CEPH families at the COL3A2 locus using a pentanucleotide repeat polymorphism within intron 25. They demonstrated significant linkage to 18 anonymous markers as well as the gene for carbamyl phosphate synthetase (CPSI), which had been previously mapped to this region. No recombination was seen between COL3A1 and COL5A2 (Z = 9.93 at [theta] = 0) or D2S24 (Z = 10.55 at [theta] = 0). The locus order is (D2S32-D2S138-D2S148)-(D2S24-COL5A2-COL3A1)-(D2S118-D2S161), with odds of 1:2300 for the next most likely order. These relationships are consistent with the physical mapping of COL3A1 to the distal portion of 2q and place it proximal to CPSI by means of multipoint analysis. These linkage relationships should prove useful in further studies of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV and carbamyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency and provide an additional framework for localizing other genes in this region. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  17. Osteoporosis and Related Genes: VDR, ESR And COL1A1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabriye Kocaturk Sel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is now considered as one of the major and growing health care problems around the world. Osteoporosis is the most prevalent metabolic bone disease among developed countries and it is defined as a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue with a consequent increase in bone fragility. Bone is a highly metabolically active tissue in which the processes of osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption are continuous throughout life. Coupling of osteoblast and osteoclast action ensures that a normal bone structure is maintained. A loss of bone homeostasis may result in a decrease in bone mass leading to osteoporosis or in a defect in the mineralization of bone. Numerous genetic, hormonal, nutritional and life-style factors contribute to the acquisition and maintenance of bone mass. Among them, genetic variations explain as much as 50-80% of the variance for bone mineral density (BMD in the population. Many genes that could be related to osteoporosis have been studied and of them all Vitamin D receptor (VDR, estrogen receptor alpha (ESRα and collagen 1 alpha 1 chain (COL1A1 genes have been the most focused on. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2011; 20(4.000: 246-269

  18. Cartografia e deficiência visual: experiências no Colégio Pedro II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Medeiros de Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O processo de construção de uma escola inclusiva perpassa um conjunto de esforços cognitivos e técnicos por parte da comunidade escolar que são necessários para a adequada educação e desenvolvimento do aluno. No que diz respeito ao ensino de Geografia para alunos deficientes visuais, fazem parte deste conjunto de medidas o domínio do sistema Braille, a confecção de materiais e mapas táteis, a gravação de textos em áudio e, entre outras, a realização de trabalhos de campo. O presente relato de experiência refere-se à um projeto de dedicação exclusiva, implementado no Colégio Pedro II de 2008 a 2010, cujo objetivo foi aprimorar o ensino de Geografia para os alunos deficientes visuais. Conclui-se que a adoção dessas medidas representa o início de um longo trabalho de toda comunidade escolar que não pode ser resumido à existência de alguns materiais táteis. Deve, por outro lado, envolver um processo de construção e adequação instrumental, acompanhado da capacitação profissional e da sensibilização da comunidade escolar.

  19. Xarxa interclase: un projecte col·laboratiu mitjançant tecnologies digitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Olmo Cazevieille

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Focalitzem aquest treball en l'aportació de les tecnologies de la informació i la comunicació (TIC a la pràctica i el desenvolupament d'una llengua estrangera i en els avantatges que ofereixen per a la creació d'activitats basades en la col·laboració i la interacció. Sense aquestes, tant els treballs en equip amb nadius com la cerca d'informació sobre temes especialitzats en la llengua estudiada serien complexos de dur a terme. En aquest article presentem el procediment seguit en un projecte didàctic, Xarxa interclasse, entre dues assignatures basades en l'aprenentatge de llengües estrangeres per a fins específics en un mateix campus universitari.?Es pretén, d'una banda, acostar l'educació superior a les exigències de la societat actual i, d'altra banda, aconseguir una docència motivadora i una participació activa dels discents on la tecnologia s'integra com a element pedagògic.

  20. Unique mutation portraits and frequent COL2A1 gene alteration in chondrosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totoki, Yasushi; Yoshida, Akihiko; Hosoda, Fumie; Nakamura, Hiromi; Hama, Natsuko; Ogura, Koichi; Yoshida, Aki; Fujiwara, Tomohiro; Arai, Yasuhito; Toguchida, Junya; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Miyano, Satoru; Kawai, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma is the second most frequent malignant bone tumor. However, the etiological background of chondrosarcomagenesis remains largely unknown, along with details on molecular alterations and potential therapeutic targets. Massively parallel paired-end sequencing of whole genomes of 10 primary chondrosarcomas revealed that the process of accumulation of somatic mutations is homogeneous irrespective of the pathological subtype or the presence of IDH1 mutations, is unique among a range of cancer types, and shares significant commonalities with that of prostate cancer. Clusters of structural alterations localized within a single chromosome were observed in four cases. Combined with targeted resequencing of additional cartilaginous tumor cohorts, we identified somatic alterations of the COL2A1 gene, which encodes an essential extracellular matrix protein in chondroskeletal development, in 19.3% of chondrosarcoma and 31.7% of enchondroma cases. Epigenetic regulators (IDH1 and YEATS2) and an activin/BMP signal component (ACVR2A) were recurrently altered. Furthermore, a novel FN1-ACVR2A fusion transcript was observed in both chondrosarcoma and osteochondromatosis cases. With the characteristic accumulative process of somatic changes as a background, molecular defects in chondrogenesis and aberrant epigenetic control are primarily causative of both benign and malignant cartilaginous tumors. PMID:25024164

  1. Monomer-dimer control of the ColE1 P(cer) promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatwin, H M; Summers, D K

    2001-11-01

    XerCD-mediated recombination at cer converts multimers of plasmid ColE1 to monomers, maximizing the number of independently segregating molecules and minimizing the frequency of plasmid loss. In addition to XerCD, recombination requires the accessory factors ArgR and PepA. The promoter P(cer), located centrally within cer, is also required for stable plasmid maintenance. P(cer) is active in plasmid multimers and directs transcription of a short RNA, Rcd, which appears to inhibit cell division. It has been proposed that Rcd is part of a checkpoint which ensures that multimer resolution is complete before the cell divides. This study has shown that ArgR does not act as a transcriptional repressor of P(cer) in plasmid monomers. P(cer) is unusual in that the -35 and -10 hexamers are separated by only 15 bp and this study has demonstrated that increasing this to a more conventional spacing results in elevated activity. An increase to 17 bp resulted in a 10- to 20-fold increase in activity, while smaller effects were seen when the spacer was increased to 16 bp or 18 bp. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that P(cer) activation involves realignment of the -35 and -10 sequences within a recombinational synaptic complex. This predicts that a 17 bp spacer promoter derivative should be down-regulated by plasmid multimerization, and this is confirmed experimentally.

  2. Osteogenesis imperfecta with ectopic mineralizations in dentin and cementum and a COL1A2 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantaputra, Piranit Nik; Sirirungruangsarn, Yuddhasert; Intachai, Worrachet; Ngamphiw, Chumpol; Tongsima, Sissades; Dejkhamron, Prapai

    2018-04-10

    We report a Thai father (patient 1) and his daughter (patient 2) affected with osteogenesis imperfecta type IV and dentinogenesis imperfecta. Both were heterozygous for the c.1451G>A (p.Gly484Glu) mutation in COL1A2. The father, a Thai boxer, had very mild osteogenesis imperfecta with no history of low-trauma bone fractures. Scanning electron micrography of the primary teeth with DI of the patient 2, and the primary teeth with DI of another OI patient with OI showed newly recognized dental manifestations of teeth with DI. Normal dentin and cementum might have small areas of ectopic mineralizations. Teeth affected with DI have well-organized ectopic mineralizations in dentin and cementum. The "French-fries-appearance" of the crystals at the cemento-dentinal junction and abnormal cementum have never been reported to be associated with dentinogenesis imperfecta, either isolated or osteogenesis imperfecta-associated. Our study shows for the first time that abnormal collagen fibers can lead to ectopic mineralization in dentin and cementum and abnormal cementum can be a part of osteogenesis imperfecta.

  3. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structure Technology Program Supplement: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, E. A., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of the study "Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft" which had the objectives (1) to identify the most promising aluminum-based materials with respect to major structural use on the HSCT and to further develop those materials and (2) to assess the materials through detailed trade and evaluation studies with respect to their structural efficiency on the HSCT. The research team consisted of ALCOA, Allied-Signal, Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, Reynolds Metals and the University of Virginia. Four classes of aluminum alloys were investigated: (1) I/M 2XXX containing Li and I/M 2XXX without Li, (2) I/M 6XXX, (3) two P/M 2XXX alloys, and (4) two different aluminum-based metal matrix composites (MMC). The I/M alloys were targeted for a Mach 2.0 aircraft and the P/M and MMC alloys were targeted for a Mach 2.4 aircraft. Design studies were conducted using several different concepts including skin/stiffener (baseline), honeycomb sandwich, integrally stiffened and hybrid adaptations (conventionally stiffened thin-sandwich skins). Alloy development included fundamental studies of coarsening behavior, the effect of stress on nucleation and growth of precipitates, and fracture toughness as a function of temperature were an integral part of this program. The details of all phases of the research are described in this final report.

  4. Evaluation of two transport aircraft and several ground test vehicle friction measurements obtained for various runway surface types and conditions. A summary of test results from joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Vogler, William A.; Baldasare, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Tests with specially instrumented NASA Boeing 737 and 727 aircraft together with several different ground friction measuring devices were conducted for a variety of runway surface types and conditions. These tests are part of joint FAA/NASA Aircraft/Ground Vehicle Runway Friction Program aimed at obtaining a better understanding of aircraft ground handling performance under adverse weather conditions and defining relationships between aircraft and ground vehicle tire friction measurements. Aircraft braking performance on dry, wet, snow and ice-covered runway conditions is discussed as well as ground vehicle friction data obtained under similar runway conditions. For a given contaminated runway surface condition, the correlation between ground vehicles and aircraft friction data is identified. The influence of major test parameters on friction measurements such as speed, test tire characteristics, type and amount of surface contaminant, and ambient temperature are discussed. The effect of surface type on wet friction levels is also evaluated from comparative data collected on grooved and ungrooved concrete and asphalt surfaces.

  5. Different NaCl-Induced Calcium Signatures in the Arabidopsis thaliana Ecotypes Col-0 and C24

    KAUST Repository

    Schmö ckel, Sandra M.; Garcia, Alexandre F.; Berger, Bettina; Tester, Mark A.; Webb, Alex A. R.; Roy, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    A common feature of stress signalling pathways are alterations in the concentration of cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]cyt), which allow the specific and rapid transmission of stress signals through a plant after exposure to a stress, such as salinity. Here, we used an aequorin based bioluminescence assay to compare the NaCl-induced changes in [Ca2+]cyt of the Arabidopsis ecotypes Col-0 and C24. We show that C24 lacks the NaCl specific component of the [Ca2+]cyt signature compared to Col-0. This phenotypic variation could be exploited as a screening methodology for the identification of yet unknown components in the early stages of the salt signalling pathway.

  6. Different NaCl-Induced Calcium Signatures in the Arabidopsis thaliana Ecotypes Col-0 and C24

    KAUST Repository

    Schmöckel, Sandra M.

    2015-02-27

    A common feature of stress signalling pathways are alterations in the concentration of cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]cyt), which allow the specific and rapid transmission of stress signals through a plant after exposure to a stress, such as salinity. Here, we used an aequorin based bioluminescence assay to compare the NaCl-induced changes in [Ca2+]cyt of the Arabidopsis ecotypes Col-0 and C24. We show that C24 lacks the NaCl specific component of the [Ca2+]cyt signature compared to Col-0. This phenotypic variation could be exploited as a screening methodology for the identification of yet unknown components in the early stages of the salt signalling pathway.

  7. Airfoil optimization for morphing aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namgoong, Howoong

    Continuous variation of the aircraft wing shape to improve aerodynamic performance over a wide range of flight conditions is one of the objectives of morphing aircraft design efforts. This is being pursued because of the development of new materials and actuation systems that might allow this shape change. The main purpose of this research is to establish appropriate problem formulations and optimization strategies to design an airfoil for morphing aircraft that include the energy required for shape change. A morphing aircraft can deform its wing shape, so the aircraft wing has different optimum shapes as the flight condition changes. The actuation energy needed for moving the airfoil surface is modeled and used as another design objective. Several multi-objective approaches are applied to a low-speed, incompressible flow problem and to a problem involving low-speed and transonic flow. The resulting solutions provide the best tradeoff between low drag, high energy and higher drag, low energy sets of airfoil shapes. From this range of solutions, design decisions can be made about how much energy is needed to achieve a desired aerodynamic performance. Additionally, an approach to model aerodynamic work, which would be more realistic and may allow using pressure on the airfoil to assist a morphing shape change, was formulated and used as part of the energy objective. These results suggest that it may be possible to design a morphing airfoil that exploits the airflow to reduce actuator energy.

  8. 77 FR 64718 - Safety Zone; Steam Ship Col. James M. Schoonmaker Relocation Project, Maumee River, Toledo, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary Safety Zone on the waters of Maumee River, Toledo, Ohio, in support of the relocation of S/S Col. James M. Schoonmaker (hereinafter referred to as `the Schoonmaker'). This temporary safety zone will encompass all waters of the Maumee River within a 100 yard radius of the Schoonmaker as it makes its transit from International Park to Skyway Marina. This temporary Safety Zone is necessary to protect persons operating around the area.

  9. Projecting Politics: The Grapes of Wrath Les Raisins de la colère à l’écran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Whitfield

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Publié en 1939 et adapté à l’écran l’année suivante, Les Raisins de la colère, roman de John Steinbeck, eut un impact immédiat et extraordinaire pour le portrait sans concession qu’il dressait d’un capitalisme américain qui semblait avoir abandonné sa progéniture la plus loyale, la plus assidue et la plus courageuse, celle qui labourait la terre en plein coeur de la république. Écrit à la toute fin de la « Décennie rouge », mais juste avant que les États-Unis entrent dans la Seconde Guerre mondiale, Les Raisins de la colère exprimaient, d’une certaine manière, la colère accumulée contre un système économique qui avait trahi le prolétariat rural. Le roman, tout comme le film de John Ford (1940, furent compris par le grand public de l’époque, et bien des années plus tard, comme une protestation clairement gauchiste, voire radicale, contre une telle injustice. Mais cet essai montre combien les idées politiques de ces œuvres jumelées sont en réalité difficiles à saisir et combien il est hasardeux de définir, quel que soit l’effort rétrospectif, la critique que Steinbeck et Ford ont proposée dans leur version des Raisins de la colère, une œuvre inoubliable, déchirante mais ambiguë sur le plan politique.

  10. Support of positive association in family-based genetic analysis between COL27A1 and Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiguo; Yu, Xiaoxia; Xu, Quanchen; Cui, Jiajia; Yi, Mingji; Zhang, Xinhua; Ge, Yinlin; Ma, Xu

    2015-08-03

    Recently, a genome-wide association study has indicated associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the Collagen Type XXVII Alpha 1 gene (COL27A1) and Tourette syndrome in several ethnic populations. To clarify the global relevance of the previously identified SNPs in the development of Tourette syndrome, the associations between polymorphisms in COL27A1 and Tourette syndrome were assessed in Chinese trios. PCR-directed sequencing was used to evaluate the genetic contributions of three SNPs in COL27A1(rs4979356, rs4979357 and rs7868992) using haplotype relative risk (HRR) and transmission disequilibrium tests (TDT) with a total of 260 Tourette syndrome trios. The family-based association was significant between Tourette syndrome and rs4979356 (TDT: χ2 = 4.804, P = 0.033; HRR = 1.75, P = 0.002; HHRR = 1.32, P = 0.027), and transmission disequilibrium was suspected for rs4979357 (TDT: χ2 = 3.969, P = 0.053; HRR = 1.84, P = 0.001; HHRR = 1.29, P = 0.044). No statistically significant allele transfer was found for rs7868992 (TDT: χ2 = 2.177, P = 0.158). Although the TDT results did not remain significant after applying the conservative Bonferroni correction (p = 0.005), the significant positive HRR analysis confirmed the possibility of showing transmission disequilibrium, which provides evidence for an involvement of COL27A1in the development of TS. However, these results need to be verified with larger datasets from different populations.

  11. Projecting Politics: The Grapes of Wrath Les Raisins de la colère : Une critique politique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Whitfield

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Publié en 1939 et adapté à l’écran l’année suivante, Les Raisins de la colère, roman de John Steinbeck, eut un impact immédiat et extraordinaire pour le portrait sans concession qu’il dressait d’un capitalisme américain qui semblait avoir abandonné sa progéniture la plus loyale, la plus assidue et la plus courageuse, celle qui labourait la terre en plein cœur de la république. Écrit à la toute fin de la « Décennie rouge », mais juste avant que les États-Unis entrent dans la Seconde Guerre mondiale, Les Raisins de la colère exprimaient, d’une certaine manière, la colère accumulée contre un système économique qui avait trahi le prolétariat rural. Le roman tout comme le film de John Ford (1940 furent compris par le grand public de l’époque, et bien des années plus tard, comme une protestation clairement gauchiste, voire radicale, contre une telle injustice. Mais cet essai montre combien les idées politiques de ces œuvres jumelées sont en réalité difficiles à saisir et combien il est hasardeux de définir, quel que soit l’effort rétrospectif, la critique que Steinbeck et Ford ont proposée dans leur version des Raisins de la colère, une œuvre inoubliable, déchirante mais ambiguë sur le plan politique.

  12. Sigma Theta Tau, DAaL/Texas Nurse Association, 2017 South Texas Nurse Imagemaker, Lt Col Jacqueline Killian

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-28

    ENDORSEMENT (59 MDW/SGVU Use Only) 43. REVIEWER SIGNATURE 32. DATE 38. DATE 44. DATE April 11 , 20 17 45. DATE RECEIVED 1 46. SENIOR AUTHOR NOTIFIED BY...EBP mentors to facilitate the growing number of EBP projects underway in our organization. 1 Lt Col Killian serves as research consultant to chief...for helping others. The first project is focused on enhancing resil ience in our military families--the " Mentors Offering Maternal Support (M-0-M

  13. Increased Frequency of ColV Plasmids and Mannose-Resistant Hemagglutinating Activity in an Escherichia coli K1 Population

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    The expression of traits linked to pathogenicity was studied in a population of Escherichia coli K1 strains. It was found that E. coli K1 strains isolated from extraintestinal infection harbor the ColV plasmid and express mannose-resistant hemagglutinating activity type VI with a high frequency. The presence of these properties may play a role in the ability of some E. coli K1 serogroups to invade.

  14. CNV analysis in Tourette syndrome implicates large genomic rearrangements in COL8A1 and NRXN1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Nag

    Full Text Available Tourette syndrome (TS is a neuropsychiatric disorder with a strong genetic component. However, the genetic architecture of TS remains uncertain. Copy number variation (CNV has been shown to contribute to the genetic make-up of several neurodevelopmental conditions, including schizophrenia and autism. Here we describe CNV calls using SNP chip genotype data from an initial sample of 210 TS cases and 285 controls ascertained in two Latin American populations. After extensive quality control, we found that cases (N = 179 have a significant excess (P = 0.006 of large CNV (>500 kb calls compared to controls (N = 234. Amongst 24 large CNVs seen only in the cases, we observed four duplications of the COL8A1 gene region. We also found two cases with ∼400 kb deletions involving NRXN1, a gene previously implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders, including TS. Follow-up using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (and including 53 more TS cases validated the CNV calls and identified additional patients with rearrangements in COL8A1 and NRXN1, but none in controls. Examination of available parents indicates that two out of three NRXN1 deletions detected in the TS cases are de-novo mutations. Our results are consistent with the proposal that rare CNVs play a role in TS aetiology and suggest a possible role for rearrangements in the COL8A1 and NRXN1 gene regions.

  15. Genetic and epigenetic factors at COL2A1 and ABCA4 influence clinical outcome in congenital toxoplasmosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarra E Jamieson

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy can be transmitted to the fetus. At birth, infected infants may have intracranial calcification, hydrocephalus, and retinochoroiditis, and new ocular lesions can occur at any age after birth. Not all children who acquire infection in utero develop these clinical signs of disease. Whilst severity of disease is influenced by trimester in which infection is acquired by the mother, other factors including genetic predisposition may contribute.In 457 mother-child pairs from Europe, and 149 child/parent trios from North America, we show that ocular and brain disease in congenital toxoplasmosis associate with polymorphisms in ABCA4 encoding ATP-binding cassette transporter, subfamily A, member 4. Polymorphisms at COL2A1 encoding type II collagen associate only with ocular disease. Both loci showed unusual inheritance patterns for the disease allele when comparing outcomes in heterozygous affected children with outcomes in affected children of heterozygous mothers. Modeling suggested either an effect of mother's genotype, or parent-of-origin effects. Experimental studies showed that both ABCA4 and COL2A1 show isoform-specific epigenetic modifications consistent with imprinting.These associations between clinical outcomes of congenital toxoplasmosis and polymorphisms at ABCA4 and COL2A1 provide novel insight into the molecular pathways that can be affected by congenital infection with this parasite.

  16. CNV analysis in Tourette syndrome implicates large genomic rearrangements in COL8A1 and NRXN1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Abhishek; Bochukova, Elena G; Kremeyer, Barbara; Campbell, Desmond D; Muller, Heike; Valencia-Duarte, Ana V; Cardona, Julio; Rivas, Isabel C; Mesa, Sandra C; Cuartas, Mauricio; Garcia, Jharley; Bedoya, Gabriel; Cornejo, William; Herrera, Luis D; Romero, Roxana; Fournier, Eduardo; Reus, Victor I; Lowe, Thomas L; Farooqi, I Sadaf; Mathews, Carol A; McGrath, Lauren M; Yu, Dongmei; Cook, Ed; Wang, Kai; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Pauls, David L; Freimer, Nelson B; Plagnol, Vincent; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder with a strong genetic component. However, the genetic architecture of TS remains uncertain. Copy number variation (CNV) has been shown to contribute to the genetic make-up of several neurodevelopmental conditions, including schizophrenia and autism. Here we describe CNV calls using SNP chip genotype data from an initial sample of 210 TS cases and 285 controls ascertained in two Latin American populations. After extensive quality control, we found that cases (N = 179) have a significant excess (P = 0.006) of large CNV (>500 kb) calls compared to controls (N = 234). Amongst 24 large CNVs seen only in the cases, we observed four duplications of the COL8A1 gene region. We also found two cases with ∼400 kb deletions involving NRXN1, a gene previously implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders, including TS. Follow-up using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (and including 53 more TS cases) validated the CNV calls and identified additional patients with rearrangements in COL8A1 and NRXN1, but none in controls. Examination of available parents indicates that two out of three NRXN1 deletions detected in the TS cases are de-novo mutations. Our results are consistent with the proposal that rare CNVs play a role in TS aetiology and suggest a possible role for rearrangements in the COL8A1 and NRXN1 gene regions.

  17. A experiência com arte na Colônia Juliano Moreira na década de 1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Henrique Queiroz de Araújo

    Full Text Available Resumo Os trabalhos de Osório César e de Nise da Silveira costumam se destacar quando se investiga a relação entre expressão artística e saberes psi no Brasil em torno da década de 1950. Porém, outras experiências ocorreram no mesmo período, como as atividades de pintura realizadas na Seção de Praxiterapia da Colônia Juliano Moreira, em Jacarepaguá, no município do Rio de Janeiro. A ausência de pesquisas sobre essa experiência suscitou uma busca por documentos que culminou na análise dos números do Boletim da Colônia Juliano Moreira e demais fontes. Os resultados apontam características peculiares da experiência artística na colônia, como o incentivo à cópia e reprodução de fotografias como método terapêutico, o que a diferencia das outras experiências mencionadas.

  18. Expressão do colágeno I em carcinomas epidermóides da cavidade oral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Gabriela Botelho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A matriz extracelular no carcinoma epidermóide da cavidade oral sofre modificações qualitativas e quantitativas durante a sua progressão. Estas alterações parecem possibilitar os processos de invasão e metástase que caracterizam as neoplasias malignas e são mais evidentes na interface tumor-hospedeiro. No nosso estudo, 23 biópsias incisionais de carcinomas epidermóides de diversas localizações da cavidade oral foram classificadas segundo o sistema de graduação histológica preconizado por Anneroth et al.¹ (1987. Foram utilizadas as colorações pela H. E. e a do tipo picrosirius, específica para colágeno. A expressão imuno-histoquímica do colágeno tipo I foi analisada em lesões com diferentes escores histológicos de malignidade. Pôde-se concluir que o colágeno apresenta diferentes padrões morfológicos, histoquímicos e imuno-histoquímicos em lesões com altos e baixos escores de malignidade.

  19. Genetic and Epigenetic Factors at COL2A1 and ABCA4 Influence Clinical Outcome in Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Sarra E.; de Roubaix, Lee-Anne; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Tan, Hooi Kuan; Mui, Ernest J.; Cordell, Heather J.; Kirisits, Michael J.; Miller, E. Nancy; Peacock, Christopher S.; Hargrave, Aubrey C.; Coyne, Jessica J.; Boyer, Kenneth; Bessieres, Marie-Hélène; Buffolano, Wilma; Ferret, Nicole; Franck, Jacqueline; Kieffer, François; Meier, Paul; Nowakowska, Dorota E.; Paul, Malgorzata; Peyron, François; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Prusa, Andrea-Romana; Thulliez, Philippe; Wallon, Martine; Petersen, Eskild; McLeod, Rima; Gilbert, Ruth E.; Blackwell, Jenefer M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Primary Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy can be transmitted to the fetus. At birth, infected infants may have intracranial calcification, hydrocephalus, and retinochoroiditis, and new ocular lesions can occur at any age after birth. Not all children who acquire infection in utero develop these clinical signs of disease. Whilst severity of disease is influenced by trimester in which infection is acquired by the mother, other factors including genetic predisposition may contribute. Methods and Findings In 457 mother-child pairs from Europe, and 149 child/parent trios from North America, we show that ocular and brain disease in congenital toxoplasmosis associate with polymorphisms in ABCA4 encoding ATP-binding cassette transporter, subfamily A, member 4. Polymorphisms at COL2A1 encoding type II collagen associate only with ocular disease. Both loci showed unusual inheritance patterns for the disease allele when comparing outcomes in heterozygous affected children with outcomes in affected children of heterozygous mothers. Modeling suggested either an effect of mother's genotype, or parent-of-origin effects. Experimental studies showed that both ABCA4 and COL2A1 show isoform-specific epigenetic modifications consistent with imprinting. Conclusions These associations between clinical outcomes of congenital toxoplasmosis and polymorphisms at ABCA4 and COL2A1 provide novel insight into the molecular pathways that can be affected by congenital infection with this parasite. PMID:18523590

  20. Extensive Analysis of GmFTL and GmCOL Expression in Northern Soybean Cultivars in Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guangyu; Xu, Kun; Zhang, Xiaomei; Zhu, Jinlong; Lu, Mingyang; Chen, Fulu; Liu, Linpo; Xi, Zhang-Ying; Bachmair, Andreas; Chen, Qingshan; Fu, Yong-Fu

    2015-01-01

    The FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene is a highly conserved florigen gene among flowering plants. Soybean genome encodes six homologs of FT, which display flowering activity in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, their contributions to flowering time in different soybean cultivars, especially in field conditions, are unclear. We employed six soybean cultivars with different maturities to extensively investigate expression patterns of GmFTLs (Glycine max FT-like) and GmCOLs (Glycine max CO-like) in the field conditions. The results show that GmFTL3 is an FT homolog with the highest transcript abundance in soybean, but other GmFTLs may also contribute to flower induction with different extents, because they have more or less similar expression patterns in developmental-, leaf-, and circadian-specific modes. And four GmCOL genes (GmCOL1/2/5/13) may confer to the expression of GmFTL genes. Artificial manipulation of GmFTL expression by transgenic strategy (overexpression and RNAi) results in a distinct change in soybean flowering time, indicating that GmFTLs not only impact on the control of flowering time, but have potential applications in the manipulation of photoperiodic adaptation in soybean. Additionally, transgenic plants show that GmFTLs play a role in formation of the first flowers and in vegetative growth.

  1. Common variants in the COL4A4 gene confer susceptibility to lattice degeneration of the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguro, Akira; Ideta, Hidenao; Ota, Masao; Ito, Norihiko; Ideta, Ryuichi; Yonemoto, Junichi; Takeuchi, Masaki; Uemoto, Riyo; Nishide, Tadayuki; Iijima, Yasuhito; Kawagoe, Tatsukata; Okada, Eiichi; Shiota, Tomoko; Hagihara, Yuta; Oka, Akira; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Mizuki, Nobuhisa

    2012-01-01

    Lattice degeneration of the retina is a vitreoretinal disorder characterized by a visible fundus lesion predisposing the patient to retinal tears and detachment. The etiology of this degeneration is still uncertain, but it is likely that both genetic and environmental factors play important roles in its development. To identify genetic susceptibility regions for lattice degeneration of the retina, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a dense panel of 23,465 microsatellite markers covering the entire human genome. This GWAS in a Japanese cohort (294 patients with lattice degeneration and 294 controls) led to the identification of one microsatellite locus, D2S0276i, in the collagen type IV alpha 4 (COL4A4) gene on chromosome 2q36.3. To validate the significance of this observation, we evaluated the D2S0276i region in the GWAS cohort and in an independent Japanese cohort (280 patients and 314 controls) using D2S0276i and 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms covering the region. The strong associations were observed in D2S0276i and rs7558081 in the COL4A4 gene (Pc = 5.8 × 10(-6), OR = 0.63 and Pc = 1.0 × 10(-5), OR = 0.69 in a total of 574 patients and 608 controls, respectively). Our findings suggest that variants in the COL4A4 gene may contribute to the development of lattice degeneration of the retina.

  2. Common variants in the COL4A4 gene confer susceptibility to lattice degeneration of the retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Meguro

    Full Text Available Lattice degeneration of the retina is a vitreoretinal disorder characterized by a visible fundus lesion predisposing the patient to retinal tears and detachment. The etiology of this degeneration is still uncertain, but it is likely that both genetic and environmental factors play important roles in its development. To identify genetic susceptibility regions for lattice degeneration of the retina, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS using a dense panel of 23,465 microsatellite markers covering the entire human genome. This GWAS in a Japanese cohort (294 patients with lattice degeneration and 294 controls led to the identification of one microsatellite locus, D2S0276i, in the collagen type IV alpha 4 (COL4A4 gene on chromosome 2q36.3. To validate the significance of this observation, we evaluated the D2S0276i region in the GWAS cohort and in an independent Japanese cohort (280 patients and 314 controls using D2S0276i and 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms covering the region. The strong associations were observed in D2S0276i and rs7558081 in the COL4A4 gene (Pc = 5.8 × 10(-6, OR = 0.63 and Pc = 1.0 × 10(-5, OR = 0.69 in a total of 574 patients and 608 controls, respectively. Our findings suggest that variants in the COL4A4 gene may contribute to the development of lattice degeneration of the retina.

  3. 75 FR 55455 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 737-700 (IGW) Series Airplanes Equipped With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... modification of PATS Aircraft, LLC, auxiliary fuel tanks. This AD results from fuel system reviews conducted by... Aircraft Systems, 21652 Nanticoke Avenue, Georgetown, Delaware 19947; telephone 302-253-6157; fax 302-855... proposed to require deactivation or modification of PATS Aircraft, LLC, auxiliary fuel tanks. Comments We...

  4. Hydrogen aircraft and airport safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidtchen, U.; Behrend, E.; Pohl, H.-W.; Rostek, N.

    1997-01-01

    First flight tests with a hydrogen demonstrator aircraft, currently under investigation in the scope of the German-Russia Cryoplane project, are scheduled for 1999. Regular service with regional aircraft may begin around 2005, followed by larger Airbus-type airliners around 2010-2015. The fuel storage aboard such airliners will be of the order of 15 t or roughly 200 m 3 LH 2 . This paper investigates a number of safety problems associated with the handling and air transport of so much hydrogen. The same is done for the infrastructure on the airport. Major risks are identified, and appropriate measures in design and operation are recommended. It is found that hydrogen aircraft are no more dangerous than conventional ones - safer in some respects. (author)

  5. Durability of aircraft composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dextern, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    Confidence in the long term durability of advanced composites is developed through a series of flight service programs. Service experience is obtained by installing secondary and primary composite components on commercial and military transport aircraft and helicopters. Included are spoilers, rudders, elevators, ailerons, fairings and wing boxes on transport aircraft and doors, fairings, tail rotors, vertical fins, and horizontal stabilizers on helicopters. Materials included in the evaluation are boron/epoxy, Kevlar/epoxy, graphite/epoxy and boron/aluminum. Inspection, maintenance, and repair results for the components in service are reported. The effects of long term exposure to laboratory, flight, and outdoor environmental conditions are reported for various composite materials. Included are effects of moisture absorption, ultraviolet radiation, and aircraft fuels and fluids.

  6. Future aircraft networks and schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yan

    2011-07-01

    Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents

  7. Alternative general-aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazic, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    The most promising alternative engine (or engines) for application to general aircraft in the post-1985 time period was defined, and the level of technology was cited to the point where confident development of a new engine can begin early in the 1980's. Low emissions, multifuel capability, and fuel economy were emphasized. Six alternative propulsion concepts were considered to be viable candidates for future general-aircraft application: the advanced spark-ignition piston, rotary combustion, two- and four-stroke diesel, Stirling, and gas turbine engines.

  8. Model of aircraft noise adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Coates, G. D.; Cawthorn, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Development of an aircraft noise adaptation model, which would account for much of the variability in the responses of subjects participating in human response to noise experiments, was studied. A description of the model development is presented. The principal concept of the model, was the determination of an aircraft adaptation level which represents an annoyance calibration for each individual. Results showed a direct correlation between noise level of the stimuli and annoyance reactions. Attitude-personality variables were found to account for varying annoyance judgements.

  9. Aircraft Crash Survival Design Guide. Volume 5. Aircraft Postcrash Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    neck Access door toprille capm enrFuel tank Figue 3. Fangblefiler eckinsalgbelati n. A-j L)n wal Aircraft skin Frangible filler neck Failure plane...This is because a number of major assumptions must be made in the extrapolation: the smoke generated is uniformly distri- buted and is independent

  10. Cosmic Radiation - An Aircraft Manufacturer's View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hume, C.

    1999-01-01

    The relevance and context of cosmic radiation to an aircraft maker Airbus Industrie are outlined. Some future developments in aircraft and air traffic are described, along with their possible consequences for exposure. (author)

  11. NASA Johnson Space Center Aircraft Operations Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalyar, John A.

    2018-01-01

    This presentation provides a high-level overview of JSC aircraft and missions. The capabilities, including previous missions and support team, for the Super Guppy Transport (SGT) aircraft are highlighted.

  12. Estimation of nuclear power plant aircraft hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, P.

    1978-01-01

    The standard procedures for estimating aircraft risk to nuclear power plants provide a conservative estimate, which is adequate for most sites, which are not close to airports or heavily traveled air corridors. For those sites which are close to facilities handling large numbers of aircraft movements (airports or corridors), a more precise estimate of aircraft impact frequency can be obtained as a function of aircraft size. In many instances the very large commercial aircraft can be shown to have an acceptably small impact frequency, while the very small general aviation aircraft will not produce sufficiently serious impact to impair the safety-related functions. This paper examines the in between aircraft: primarily twin-engine, used for business, pleasure, and air taxi operations. For this group of aircraft the total impact frequency was found to be approximately once in one million years, the threshold above which further consideration of specific safety-related consequences would be required

  13. Versatile Electric Propulsion Aircraft Testbed, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all-electric aircraft testbed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft....

  14. Sexual dimorphism and inter-individual variation in the rove beetle, Creophilus maxillosus L. (Col: Staphylinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shahbaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexual selection is expected to drive phenotypic differences between conspecific male and females, a widespread phenomenon known as sexual dimorphism. At the same time, individuals may exhibit some degree of intra-sexual variation. We examined the sexual dimorphism and inter-individual variation in different body parts of Creophilus maxillosus L. (Col: Staphylinidae, a cosmopolitan rove beetle commonly found on carrion. Male C. maxillosus had significantly wider head and pronotum, longer mandibles, and more distant eyes than females. The head width was positively correlated to mandible length, which may reflect stronger adductor muscles and higher bite force in larger individuals. The allometry of traits can be examined by plotting the logarithms of that specific trait against the logarithm of body size and determining the slope (b of the regression line. Isometry occurs when b=1, i.e. the ratio of given traits to body size remains constant across individuals. Negative allometry occurs when b1, so that larger individuals have disproportionately larger traits. A positive allometry was found in head width (b=1.32, mandible length (b=2.28, and ocular distance (b=1.49 of males. Our results show that, particularly head size, mandible length and ocular distance are probably under sexual selection in males, while traits such as eye size are isometric to body size. The potential role of these traits in male-male combat as well as female attractiveness has been frequently documented in different insect taxa. The striking similarities in patterns of sexual dimorphism among independently evolved insects indicate that common evolutionary force(s are probably at work.

  15. The BiSciCol Triplifier: bringing biodiversity data to the Semantic Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Brian J; Deck, John; Conlin, Tom; Ziemba, Lukasz; Cellinese, Nico; Guralnick, Robert

    2014-07-29

    Recent years have brought great progress in efforts to digitize the world's biodiversity data, but integrating data from many different providers, and across research domains, remains challenging. Semantic Web technologies have been widely recognized by biodiversity scientists for their potential to help solve this problem, yet these technologies have so far seen little use for biodiversity data. Such slow uptake has been due, in part, to the relative complexity of Semantic Web technologies along with a lack of domain-specific software tools to help non-experts publish their data to the Semantic Web. The BiSciCol Triplifier is new software that greatly simplifies the process of converting biodiversity data in standard, tabular formats, such as Darwin Core-Archives, into Semantic Web-ready Resource Description Framework (RDF) representations. The Triplifier uses a vocabulary based on the popular Darwin Core standard, includes both Web-based and command-line interfaces, and is fully open-source software. Unlike most other RDF conversion tools, the Triplifier does not require detailed familiarity with core Semantic Web technologies, and it is tailored to a widely popular biodiversity data format and vocabulary standard. As a result, the Triplifier can often fully automate the conversion of biodiversity data to RDF, thereby making the Semantic Web much more accessible to biodiversity scientists who might otherwise have relatively little knowledge of Semantic Web technologies. Easy availability of biodiversity data as RDF will allow researchers to combine data from disparate sources and analyze them with powerful linked data querying tools. However, before software like the Triplifier, and Semantic Web technologies in general, can reach their full potential for biodiversity science, the biodiversity informatics community must address several critical challenges, such as the widespread failure to use robust, globally unique identifiers for biodiversity data.

  16. GRAPHICAL MODELS OF THE AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Vladimirovich Daletskiy; Stanislav Stanislavovich Daletskiy

    2017-01-01

    The aircraft maintenance is realized by a rapid sequence of maintenance organizational and technical states, its re- search and analysis are carried out by statistical methods. The maintenance process concludes aircraft technical states con- nected with the objective patterns of technical qualities changes of the aircraft as a maintenance object and organizational states which determine the subjective organization and planning process of aircraft using. The objective maintenance pro- cess is ...

  17. Tissue-specific mosaicism for a lethal osteogenesis imperfecta COL1A1 mutation causes mild OI/EDS overlap syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symoens, Sofie; Steyaert, Wouter; Demuynck, Lynn; De Paepe, Anne; Diderich, Karin E M; Malfait, Fransiska; Coucke, Paul J

    2017-04-01

    Type I collagen is the predominant protein of connective tissues such as skin and bone. Mutations in the type I collagen genes (COL1A1 and COL1A2) mainly cause osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). We describe a patient with clinical signs of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), including fragile skin, easy bruising, recurrent luxations, and fractures resembling mild OI. Biochemical collagen analysis of the patients' dermal fibroblasts showed faint overmodification of the type I collagen bands, a finding specific for structural defects in type I collagen. Bidirectional Sanger sequencing detected an in-frame deletion in exon 44 of COL1A1 (c.3150_3158del), resulting in the deletion of three amino acids (p.Ala1053_Gly1055del) in the collagen triple helix. This COL1A1 mutation was hitherto identified in four probands with lethal OI, and never in EDS patients. As the peaks on the electropherogram corresponding to the mutant allele were decreased in intensity, we performed next generation sequencing of COL1A1 to study mosaicism in skin and blood. While approximately 9% of the reads originating from fibroblast gDNA harbored the COL1A1 deletion, the deletion was not detected in gDNA from blood. Most likely, the mild clinical symptoms observed in our patient can be explained by the mosaic state of the mutation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Identification of a novel COL1A1 frameshift mutation, c.700delG, in a Chinese osteogenesis imperfecta family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiran; Pei, Yu; Dou, Jingtao; Lu, Juming; Li, Jian; Lv, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a family of genetic disorders associated with bone loss and fragility. Mutations associated with OI have been found in genes encoding the type I collagen chains. People with OI type I often produce insufficient α1-chain type I collagen because of frameshift, nonsense, or splice site mutations in COL1A1 or COL1A2. This report is of a Chinese daughter and mother who had both experienced two bone fractures. Because skeletal fragility is predominantly inherited, we focused on identifying mutations in COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes. A novel mutation in COL1A1, c.700delG, was detected by genomic DNA sequencing in the mother and daughter, but not in their relatives. The identification of this mutation led to the conclusion that they were affected by mild OI type I. Open reading frame analysis indicated that this frameshift mutation would truncate α1-chain type I collagen at residue p263 (p.E234KfsX264), while the wild-type protein would contain 1,464 residues. The clinical data were consistent with the patients’ diagnosis of mild OI type I caused by haploinsufficiency of α1-chain type I collagen. Combined with previous reports, identification of the novel mutation COL1A1-c.700delG in these patients suggests that additional genetic and environmental factors may influence the severity of OI. PMID:25983617

  19. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on a... the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft. ...

  20. Impact analysis of composite aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifko, Allan B.; Kushner, Alan S.

    1993-01-01

    The impact analysis of composite aircraft structures is discussed. Topics discussed include: background remarks on aircraft crashworthiness; comments on modeling strategies for crashworthiness simulation; initial study of simulation of progressive failure of an aircraft component constructed of composite material; and research direction in composite characterization for impact analysis.

  1. Aircraft height estimation using 2-D radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hakl, H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to infer height information from an aircraft tracked with a single 2-D search radar is presented. The method assumes level flight in the target aircraft and a good estimate of the speed of the aircraft. The method yields good results...

  2. Analyses of Aircraft Responses to Atmospheric Turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Staveren, W.H.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    The response of aircraft to stochastic atmospheric turbulence plays an important role in aircraft-design (load calculations), Flight Control System (FCS) design and flight-simulation (handling qualities research and pilot training). In order to simulate these aircraft responses, an accurate

  3. Aircraft Noise Reduction Subproject Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Hamilton; Nark, Douglas M.; Van Zante, Dale E.

    2016-01-01

    The material presents highlights of propulsion and airframe noise research being completed for the Advanced Air Transport Technology Project. The basis of noise reduction plans along with representative work for the airframe, propulsion, and propulsion-airframe integration is discussed for the Aircraft Noise reduction Subproject.

  4. Radar Detectability of Light Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    a vestigial blind speed at 121 knots. Aircraft radial velocity compon- ents for the flights discussed here varied between zero and 125 knots. Typi.cal...the contributions of Mr. D.M. Selwyn who designed the digital recording equipment and organized the flight tests, and Dr. A.W.R. Gilchrist who edited

  5. CFD for hypersonic airbreathing aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay

    1989-01-01

    A general discussion is given on the use of advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in analyzing the hypersonic flow field around an airbreathing aircraft. Unique features of the hypersonic flow physics are presented and an assessment is given of the current algorithms in terms of their capability to model hypersonic flows. Several examples of advanced CFD applications are then presented.

  6. Aircraft Fuel Cell Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, fuel cells have been explored for use in aircraft. While the weight and size of fuel cells allows only the smallest of aircraft to use fuel cells for their primary engines, fuel cells have showed promise for use as auxiliary power units (APUs), which power aircraft accessories and serve as an electrical backup in case of an engine failure. Fuel cell MUS are both more efficient and emit fewer pollutants. However, sea-level fuel cells need modifications to be properly used in aircraft applications. At high altitudes, the ambient air has a much lower pressure than at sea level, which makes it much more difficult to get air into the fuel cell to react and produce electricity. Compressors can be used to pressurize the air, but this leads to added weight, volume, and power usage, all of which are undesirable things. Another problem is that fuel cells require hydrogen to create electricity, and ever since the Hindenburg burst into flames, aircraft carrying large quantities of hydrogen have not been in high demand. However, jet fuel is a hydrocarbon, so it is possible to reform it into hydrogen. Since jet fuel is already used to power conventional APUs, it is very convenient to use this to generate the hydrogen for fuel-cell-based APUs. Fuel cells also tend to get large and heavy when used for applications that require a large amount of power. Reducing the size and weight becomes especially beneficial when it comes to fuel cells for aircraft. My goal this summer is to work on several aspects of Aircraft Fuel Cell Power System project. My first goal is to perform checks on a newly built injector rig designed to test different catalysts to determine the best setup for reforming Jet-A fuel into hydrogen. These checks include testing various thermocouples, transmitters, and transducers, as well making sure that the rig was actually built to the design specifications. These checks will help to ensure that the rig will operate properly and give correct results

  7. Adapting existing training standards for unmanned aircraft: finding ways to train staff for unmanned aircraft operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burger, CR

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available - unmanned aircraft; pilot training. I. INTRODUCTION Unmanned aircraft offer flexibility not found in manned aircraft. They can be made smaller and cheaper to operate. They offer payload advantages relative to small manned aircraft. They can also perform... certificate to non-state users. To facilitate useful operations by UAs, future operations must be subject to no more than routine notification (e.g. an ATC flight plan), just like manned aircraft already are. Before such operations can be established, some...

  8. 76 FR 3054 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 777 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... components, Structural inspection intervals, and Related approved structural inspection procedures necessary... those revised life limits and/or inspection intervals, the FAA must engage in rulemaking. Because loss... determination in Advisory Circular (AC) 25.1529-1. Subject (d) Joint Aircraft System Component (JASC)/Air...

  9. 76 FR 5503 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 777-200 Series Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... software, as applicable; and making a change to the cabin services system (CSS) configuration database and... CONTACT: Joe Salameh, Aerospace Engineer, Systems and Equipment Branch, ANM-130S, FAA, Seattle Aircraft... operational program software. Installing cabin area control panel operational program software. Installing...

  10. 75 FR 70863 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... the electrical bond resistance between the motor operated valve (MOV) actuators and airplane structure... through an MOV actuator into a fuel tank, which could create a potential ignition source inside the fuel..., ANM-140S, FAA, Seattle Aircraft Certification Office, 1601 Lind Avenue, SW., Renton, Washington 98057...

  11. The impact of ColRS two-component system and TtgABC efflux pump on phenol tolerance of Pseudomonas putida becomes evident only in growing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kivisaar Maia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently found that Pseudomonas putida deficient in ColRS two-component system is sensitive to phenol and displays a serious defect on solid glucose medium where subpopulation of bacteria lyses. The latter phenotype is significantly enhanced by the presence of phenol in growth medium. Here, we focused on identification of factors affecting phenol tolerance of the colR-deficient P. putida. Results By using transposon mutagenesis approach we identified a set of phenol-tolerant derivatives of colR-deficient strain. Surprisingly, half of independent phenol tolerant clones possessed miniTn5 insertion in the ttgABC operon. However, though inactivation of TtgABC efflux pump significantly enhanced phenol tolerance, it did not affect phenol-enhanced autolysis of the colR mutant on glucose medium indicating that phenol- and glucose-caused stresses experienced by the colR-deficient P. putida are not coupled. Inactivation of TtgABC pump significantly increased the phenol tolerance of the wild-type P. putida as well. Comparison of phenol tolerance of growing versus starving bacteria revealed that both ColRS and TtgABC systems affect phenol tolerance only under growth conditions and not under starvation. Flow cytometry analysis showed that phenol strongly inhibited cell division and to some extent also caused cell membrane permeabilization to propidium iodide. Single cell analysis of populations of the ttgC- and colRttgC-deficient strains revealed that their membrane permeabilization by phenol resembles that of the wild-type and the colR mutant, respectively. However, cell division of P. putida with inactivated TtgABC pump seemed to be less sensitive to phenol than that of the parental strain. At the same time, cell division appeared to be more inhibited in the colR-mutant strain than in the wild-type P. putida. Conclusions ColRS signal system and TtgABC efflux pump are involved in the phenol tolerance of P. putida. However, as

  12. Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetic Analysis of Eight COL Superfamily Genes in Group I Related to Photoperiodic Regulation of Flowering Time in Wild and Domesticated Cotton (Gossypium) Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Ding, Jian; Liu, Chunxiao; Cai, Caiping; Zhou, Baoliang; Zhang, Tianzhen; Guo, Wangzhen

    2015-01-01

    Flowering time is an important ecological trait that determines the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Flowering time in cotton is controlled by short-day photoperiods, with strict photoperiod sensitivity. As the CO-FT (CONSTANS-FLOWER LOCUS T) module regulates photoperiodic flowering in several plants, we selected eight CONSTANS genes (COL) in group I to detect their expression patterns in long-day and short-day conditions. Further, we individually cloned and sequenced their homologs from 25 different cotton accessions and one outgroup. Finally, we studied their structures, phylogenetic relationship, and molecular evolution in both coding region and three characteristic domains. All the eight COLs in group I show diurnal expression. In the orthologous and homeologous loci, each gene structure in different cotton species is highly conserved, while length variation has occurred due to insertions/deletions in intron and/or exon regions. Six genes, COL2 to COL5, COL7 and COL8, exhibit higher nucleotide diversity in the D-subgenome than in the A-subgenome. The Ks values of 98.37% in all allotetraploid cotton species examined were higher in the A-D and At-Dt comparison than in the A-At and D-Dt comparisons, and the Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) of Ks between A vs. D and At vs. Dt also showed positive, high correlations, with a correlation coefficient of at least 0.797. The nucleotide polymorphism in wild species is significantly higher compared to G. hirsutum and G. barbadense, indicating a genetic bottleneck associated with the domesticated cotton species. Three characteristic domains in eight COLs exhibit different evolutionary rates, with the CCT domain highly conserved, while the B-box and Var domain much more variable in allotetraploid species. Taken together, COL1, COL2 and COL8 endured greater selective pressures during the domestication process. The study improves our understanding of the domestication-related genes/traits during cotton

  13. Variação do volume de gotas de colírios lubrificantes disponíveis no mercado brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitorugo Silvestre Nascimento

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a variação intra e interexaminadores do volume de gotas dispensados de frascos de colírios lubrificantes disponíveis no mercado. Métodos: Foram estudados cinco frascos de colírios lubrificantes e dezenove voluntários participaram deste estudo. A massa média de gotas de 20µl dos colírios foi obtida utilizando micropipeta e balança de precisão e como padrão para comparação com a massa das gotas obtidas pelos voluntários. Cinco gotas de cada frasco foram pesadas individualmente com o tubo de colírio perpendicular à balança, usando o primeiro e segundo dedos da mão direita, de forma que a pressão fosse aplicada somente no meio do frasco. Os experimentos foram realizados em uma sala climatizada a temperatura ambiente (21±1°C. Resultados: Todos os frascos de colírios apresentaram variação estatisticamente significante das massas das gotas obtidas pelos examinadores quando comparadas com a massa média padrão de 0,0182±0,0014g, com exceção da comparação entre os dados do colírio A com o colírio D, que não apresentou variação estatisticamente significante. Conclusão: O presente estudo demonstra a ausência de uniformidade das gotas dispensadas pelos frascos de colírios disponíveis no mercado e a sua inadequação à real necessidade, uma vez que as gotas dispensadas são maiores do que o indicado. Esse fato torna-se um problema quando se trata de período de tratamento prolongado, especialmente com colírios dispendiosos como os indicados para a terapêutica do glaucoma. Nesse sentido, a padronização das gotas de colírios se faz necessária.

  14. Hydrogen Storage for Aircraft Applications Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Kohout, Lisa (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Advances in fuel cell technology have brought about their consideration as sources of power for aircraft. This power can be utilized to run aircraft systems or even provide propulsion power. One of the key obstacles to utilizing fuel cells on aircraft is the storage of hydrogen. An overview of the potential methods of hydrogen storage was compiled. This overview identifies various methods of hydrogen storage and points out their advantages and disadvantages relative to aircraft applications. Minimizing weight and volume are the key aspects to storing hydrogen within an aircraft. An analysis was performed to show how changes in certain parameters of a given storage system affect its mass and volume.

  15. Perspectives on Highly Adaptive or Morphing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Busan, Ronald C.; Hahn, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to adapt to different flight conditions has been fundamental to aircraft design since the Wright Brothers first flight. Over a hundred years later, unconventional aircraft adaptability, often called aircraft morphing has become a topic of considerable renewed interest. In the past two decades, this interest has been largely fuelled by advancements in multi-functional or smart materials and structures. However, highly adaptive or morphing aircraft is certainly a cross-discipline challenge that stimulates a wide range of design possibilities. This paper will review some of the history of morphing aircraft including recent research programs and discuss some perspectives on this work.

  16. Small Transport Aircraft Technology /STAT/ Propulsion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldenbrand, R. W.; Baerst, C. F.; Rowse, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    The NASA Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) Propulsion Study was established to identify technology requirements and define the research and development required for new commuter aircraft. Interim results of the studies defined mission and design characteristics for 30- and 50-passenger aircraft. Sensitivities were defined that relate changes in engine specific fuel consumption (SFC), weight, and cost (including maintenance) to changes in the aircraft direct operating cost (DOC), takeoff gross weight, and empty weight. A comparison of performance and economic characteristics is presented between aircraft powered by 1980 production engines and those powered by a 1990 advanced technology baseline engine.

  17. The generation and characterization of novel Col1a1FRT-Cre-ER-T2-FRT and Col1a1FRT-STOP-FRT-Cre-ER-T2 mice for sequential mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minsi; Kirsch, David G.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Novel genetically engineered mouse models using the Cre-loxP or the Flp-FRT systems have generated useful reagents to manipulate the mouse genome in a temporally-regulated and tissue-specific manner. By incorporating a constitutive Cre driver line into a mouse model in which FRT-regulated genes in other cell types are regulated by Flp-FRT recombinase, gene expression can be manipulated simultaneously in separate tissue compartments. This application of dual recombinase technology can be used to dissect the role of stromal cells in tumor development and cancer therapy. Generating mice in which Cre-ERT2 is expressed under Flp-FRT-mediated regulation would enable step-wise manipulation of the mouse genome using dual recombinase technology. Such next-generation mouse models would enable sequential mutagenesis to better model cancer and define genes required for tumor maintenance. Here, we generated novel genetically engineered mice that activate or delete Cre-ERT2 in response to Flp recombinase. To potentially utilize the large number of Cre-loxP-regulated transgenic alleles that have already been targeted into the Rosa26 locus, such as different reporters and mutant genes, we targeted the two novel Cre-ERT2 alleles into the endogenous Col1a1 locus for ubiquitous expression. In the Col1a1FRT-Cre-ER-T2-FRT mice, Flp deletes Cre-ERT2, so that Cre-ERT2 is only expressed in cells that have never expressed Flp. In contrast, in the Col1a1FRT-STOP-FRT-Cre-ER-T2 mice, Flp removes the STOP cassette to allow Cre-ERT2 expression so that Cre-ERT2 is only expressed in cells that previously expressed Flp. These two new novel mouse strains will be complementary to each other and will enable the exploration of complex biological questions in development, normal tissue homeostasis and cancer. PMID:26183214

  18. The generation and characterization of novel Col1a1FRT-Cre-ER-T2-FRT and Col1a1FRT-STOP-FRT-Cre-ER-T2 mice for sequential mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minsi Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Novel genetically engineered mouse models using the Cre-loxP or the Flp-FRT systems have generated useful reagents to manipulate the mouse genome in a temporally-regulated and tissue-specific manner. By incorporating a constitutive Cre driver line into a mouse model in which FRT-regulated genes in other cell types are regulated by Flp-FRT recombinase, gene expression can be manipulated simultaneously in separate tissue compartments. This application of dual recombinase technology can be used to dissect the role of stromal cells in tumor development and cancer therapy. Generating mice in which Cre-ERT2 is expressed under Flp-FRT-mediated regulation would enable step-wise manipulation of the mouse genome using dual recombinase technology. Such next-generation mouse models would enable sequential mutagenesis to better model cancer and define genes required for tumor maintenance. Here, we generated novel genetically engineered mice that activate or delete Cre-ERT2 in response to Flp recombinase. To potentially utilize the large number of Cre-loxP-regulated transgenic alleles that have already been targeted into the Rosa26 locus, such as different reporters and mutant genes, we targeted the two novel Cre-ERT2 alleles into the endogenous Col1a1 locus for ubiquitous expression. In the Col1a1FRT-Cre-ER-T2-FRT mice, Flp deletes Cre-ERT2, so that Cre-ERT2 is only expressed in cells that have never expressed Flp. In contrast, in the Col1a1FRT-STOP-FRT-Cre-ER-T2 mice, Flp removes the STOP cassette to allow Cre-ERT2 expression so that Cre-ERT2 is only expressed in cells that previously expressed Flp. These two new novel mouse strains will be complementary to each other and will enable the exploration of complex biological questions in development, normal tissue homeostasis and cancer.

  19. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1999. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company, Rocketdyne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    OAK A271 Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1999. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company, Rocketdyne. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 1999 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of the Rocketdyne Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). In the past, these operations included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials under the former Atomics International Division. Other activities included the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities for testing of liquid metal fast breeder components at the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility within Area IV. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and subsequently, all radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the previously used nuclear facilities and associated site areas. Large-scale D and D activities of the sodium test facilities began in 1996. This Annual Site Environmental Report provides information showing that there are no indications of any potential impact on public health and safety due to the operations conducted at the SSFL. All measures and calculations of off-site conditions demonstrate compliance with applicable regulations, which provide for protection of human health and the environment

  20. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1999. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company, Rocketdyne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-09-01

    OAK A271 Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1999. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company, Rocketdyne. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 1999 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of the Rocketdyne Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). In the past, these operations included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials under the former Atomics International Division. Other activities included the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities for testing of liquid metal fast breeder components at the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility within Area IV. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and subsequently, all radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the previously used nuclear facilities and associated site areas. Large-scale D&D activities of the sodium test facilities began in 1996. This Annual Site Environmental Report provides information showing that there are no indications of any potential impact on public health and safety due to the operations conducted at the SSFL. All measures and calculations of off-site conditions demonstrate compliance with applicable regulations, which provide for protection of human health and the environment.

  1. An Analysis of 20 Years of Space Weathering Effects on the Boeing 376 Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, James; Anz-Meador, Phillip; Cowardin, Heather; Buckalew, Brent; Lederer, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The Boeing HS-376 spin stabilized spacecraft was a popular design that was launched continuously into geosynchronous orbit starting in 1980, with the last launch occurring in 2003. Over 50 of the HS-376 buses were produced to fulfill a variety of different communication missions for countries all over the world. The design of the bus is easily approximated as a telescoping cylinder that is covered with solar cells and an Earth-facing antenna that is despun at the top of the cylinder. The similarity in design and the number of spacecraft launched over a long period of time make the HS-376 a prime target for studying the effects of solar weathering on solar panels as a function of time. A selection of primarily non-operational HS-376 spacecraft launched over a 20-year time period were observed using the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope on Mauna Kea and multi-band, near-infrared photometry produced. Each spacecraft was observed for an entire night cycling through ZYJHK filters and time-varying colors produced to compare near-infrared color as a function of launch date. The resulting analysis shown here may help in the future to set launch date constraints on the parent object of unidentified debris objects or other unknown spacecraft.

  2. Evolution of a highly vulnerable ice-cored moraine: Col des Gentianes, Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanel, L.; Lambiel, C.; Oppikofer, T.; Mazotti, B.; Jaboyedoff, M.

    2012-04-01

    Rock mass movements are dominant in the morphodynamics of high mountain rock slopes and are at the origin of significant risks for people who attend these areas and for infrastructures that are built on (mountain huts, cable cars, etc.). These risks are becoming greater because of permafrost degradation and glacier retreat, two consequences of the global warming. These two commonly associated factors may affect slope stability by changing mechanical properties of the interstitial ice and modifying the mechanical constraints in these rock slopes. Between 1977 and 1979, significant works were carried out on the Little Ice Age moraine of the Tortin glacier at the Col des Gentianes (2894 m), in the Mont Fort area (Verbier, Switzerland), for the construction of a cable car station and a restaurant. Since the early 1980s, the glacier drastically retreated and the moraine became unstable: its inner slope has retreated for several meters. Various observations and geoelectric measurements indicate that significant volume of massive ice mass is still present within the moraine (ice-cored moraine). Its melting could therefore increase the instability of the moraine. Since 2007, the moraine is surveyed by terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in order to characterize its evolution: 8 campaigns were conducted between July 2007 and October 2011. The comparison of the high resolution 3D models so obtained allowed the detection and quantification of mass movements that have affected the moraine over this period, essentially by calculating difference maps (shortest oblique distances between two models). Between July 2007 and October 2011, 7 landslides were measured, involving volumes between 87 and 1138 m3. The most important of these occurred during the summers 2009 and 2011. TLS data also allowed identifying: (i) two main areas affected by slower but sometimes substantial movements (displacements of blocks on more than 2 m during a summer period); (ii) significant deposits of

  3. A mobilidade humana na tríplice fronteira: Peru, Brasil e Colômbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Maria de Oliveira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OS MOVIMENTOS migratórios nas fronteiras amazônicas ainda são pouco abordados, tanto pela academia quanto pelas instituições que lidam com a temática da mi-gração. Há elementos novos que configuram características peculiares à mobilidade humana na tríplice fronteira Peru-Colômbia-Brasil que merecem uma abordagem mais profunda do ponto de vista dos estudos migratórios. Atualmente, há fluxos conside-ráveis de migração internacional nessa região adentrando na fronteira brasileira, desafiando o Estado brasileiro a implementar uma política migratória que consiga lidar com fenômenos, tais como a presença de peruanos em situação irregular em território brasileiro, a mobilidade dos povos indígenas nas regiões de fronteira e ainda, mais recentemente, a entrada crescente de colombianos desplazados pela guerrilha interna que pedem refúgio ao Estado brasileiro.THE MIGRATORY mobility in the Amazonian borders is less than enough investigated, neither by the academy nor by the institutions that deal with the migration question. There are new elements that depict peculiar characteristics to the human mobility in the triple border of Peru, Colombia and Brazil, that deserve a deeper investigation from the view point of the migratory studies. At the moment, it has conside-rable flows of international migration in this region moving in the Brazilian border, challenging the Brazilian State to implement a migratory policy that is able to deal with the phenomena such as the presence of Peruvians in an irregular situation in Brazilian territory, the mobility of the indigenous peoples in the border regions and still, more recently, the increasing entrance of the Colombians desplazados through the internal guerrilla who ask for shelter to the Brazilian State.

  4. ER stress and basement membrane defects combine to cause glomerular and tubular renal disease resulting from Col4a1 mutations in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances E. Jones

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Collagen IV is a major component of basement membranes, and mutations in COL4A1, which encodes collagen IV alpha chain 1, cause a multisystemic disease encompassing cerebrovascular, eye and kidney defects. However, COL4A1 renal disease remains poorly characterized and its pathomolecular mechanisms are unknown. We show that Col4a1 mutations in mice cause hypotension and renal disease, including proteinuria and defects in Bowman's capsule and the glomerular basement membrane, indicating a role for Col4a1 in glomerular filtration. Impaired sodium reabsorption in the loop of Henle and distal nephron despite elevated aldosterone levels indicates that tubular defects contribute to the hypotension, highlighting a novel role for the basement membrane in vascular homeostasis by modulation of the tubular response to aldosterone. Col4a1 mutations also cause diabetes insipidus, whereby the tubular defects lead to polyuria associated with medullary atrophy and a subsequent reduction in the ability to upregulate aquaporin 2 and concentrate urine. Moreover, haematuria, haemorrhage and vascular basement membrane defects confirm an important vascular component. Interestingly, although structural and compositional basement membrane defects occurred in the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule, no tubular basement membrane defects were detected. By contrast, medullary atrophy was associated with chronic ER stress, providing evidence for cell-type-dependent molecular mechanisms of Col4a1 mutations. These data show that both basement membrane defects and ER stress contribute to Col4a1 renal disease, which has important implications for the development of treatment strategies for collagenopathies.

  5. Association of COL1A1 rs1800012 polymorphism with musculoskeletal degenerative diseases: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Binlong; Huang, Donghua; Ma, Kaige; Deng, Xiangyu; Shi, Deyao; Wu, Fashuai; Shao, Zengwu

    2017-09-26

    It has been reported that the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1800012 in COL1A1 gene might be linked to the susceptibility of musculoskeletal degenerative diseases, such as osteoarthritis (OA) and intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD). However, the data from different studies is contradictory. Here we aimed to comprehensively summarize and clarify the relationship between the SNP and musculoskeletal degenerative diseases. Seven eligible studies including 1339 cases and 5406 controls were screened out from PubMed, Web Of Science and Cochrane library databases. Significant association was identified in sub group analysis of IVDD in homozygote model (GG versus TT: OR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.14-0.78, P = 0.012), heterozygote model (GT versus TT: OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.11-0.72, P = 0.008) and dominant model (GG/GT versus TT: OR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.13-0.74, P = 0.008). Additionally, significant relationship was also found in sub group analysis of severe degree of IVDD in homozygote model (GG versus TT: OR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.15-0.91, P = 0.031), heterozygote model (GT versus TT: OR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.13-0.87, P = 0.024) and dominant model (GG/GT versus TT: OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.14-0.88, P = 0.025). Although no significance was observed, there is a trend that the more G allele at COL1A1 rs1800012 site, the less possibility of IVDD and severe IVDD would happen. Our results indicate that COL1A1 rs1800012 polymorphism associates with the susceptibility of IVDD. However, this polymorphism may not be associated with OA risk.

  6. Whole exome analysis identifies dominant COL4A1 mutations in patients with complex ocular phenotypes involving microphthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deml, B; Reis, L M; Maheshwari, M; Griffis, C; Bick, D; Semina, E V

    2014-11-01

    Anophthalmia/microphthalmia (A/M) is a developmental ocular malformation defined as complete absence or reduction in size of the eye. A/M is a heterogenous disorder with numerous causative genes identified; however, about half the cases lack a molecular diagnosis. We undertook whole exome sequencing in an A/M family with two affected siblings, two unaffected siblings, and unaffected parents; the ocular phenotype was isolated with only mild developmental delay/learning difficulties reported and a normal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the proband at 16 months. No pathogenic mutations were identified in 71 known A/M genes. Further analysis identified a shared heterozygous mutation in COL4A1, c.2317G>A, p.(Gly773Arg) that was not seen in the unaffected parents and siblings. Analysis of 24 unrelated A/M exomes identified a novel c.2122G>A, p.(Gly708Arg) mutation in an additional patient with unilateral microphthalmia, bilateral microcornea and Peters anomaly; the mutation was absent in the unaffected mother and the unaffected father was not available. Mutations in COL4A1 have been linked to a spectrum of human disorders; the most consistent feature is cerebrovascular disease with variable ocular anomalies, kidney and muscle defects. This study expands the spectrum of COL4A1 phenotypes and indicates screening in patients with A/M regardless of MRI findings or presumed inheritance pattern. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Empirical analysis of the effect of descent flight path angle on primary gaseous emissions of commercial aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Enis T; Usanmaz, Oznur; Rosen, Marc A

    2018-05-01

    In this study, the effects of descent flight path angle (between 1.25° and 4.25°) on aircraft gaseous emissions (carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides) are explored using actual flight data from aircraft flight data recording system and emissions indices from the International Civil Aviation Organization. All emissions parameters are corrected to flight conditions using Boeing Fuel Flow Method2, where the ambient air pressure, temperature and humidity data are obtained from long-term radiosonde data measured close to the arrival airport. The main findings highlight that the higher the flight path angle, the higher the emission indices of CO and HC, whereas the lower the emissions index of NO x and fuel consumption. Furthermore, during a descent, a heavier aircraft tends to emit less CO and HC, and more NO x . For a five-tonne aircraft mass increase, the average change in emissions indices are found to be -4.1% and -5.7% (CO), -5.4% and -8.2% (HC), and +1.1% and +1.6% (NO x ) for high and low flight path angle groups, respectively. The average emissions indices for CO, HC and NO x during descent are calculated to be 24.5, 1.7 and 5.6 g/kg of fuel, whereas the average emissions for descending from 32,000 ft (9.7 km) and 24,000 ft (7.3 km) are calculated to be 7-8 kg (CO), ∼0.5 kg (HC) and ∼3 kg (NO x ). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Detection of mutations in the COL4A5 gene by SSCP in X-linked Alport syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Jens Michael; Juncker, I; Persson, U

    2001-01-01

    , three in-frame deletions, four nonsense mutations, and six splice site mutations. Twenty-two of the mutations have not previously been reported. Furthermore, we found one non-pathogenic amino acid substitution, one rare variant in a non-coding region, and one polymorphism with a heterozygosity of 28...... of type IV-collagen. We performed mutation analysis of the COL4A5 gene by PCR-SSCP analysis of each of the 51 exons with flanking intronic sequences in 81 patients suspected of X-linked Alport syndrome including 29 clear X-linked cases, 37 cases from families with a pedigree compatible with X...

  9. Xarxes educatives 2.1. Mitjans socials, entorns col·laboratius i processos d'ensenyament i aprenentatge

    OpenAIRE

    Levis, Diego; Diéguez, Sol; Rey, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    El projecte Xarxes Educatives 2.1 es proposa indagar les possibilitats que ofereixen els mitjans socials i els entorns col·laboratius a internet en els processos d'ensenyament i aprenentatge. Per a això, en cursos presencials i en cursos de capacitació docent de modalitat semipresencial fem servir una aplicació de la web 2.0 destinada a la creació de xarxes socials. L'aplicació es va configurar d'acord amb els objectius pedagògics de cada un dels cursos inclosos en el projecte. Es va establir...

  10. Deployment of SAR and GMTI Signal Processing on a Boeing 707 Aircraft Using pMatlab and a Bladed Linux Cluster

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kepner, Jeremy; Currie, Tim; Kim, Hahn; McCabe, Andrew; Mathew, Bipin; Moore, Michael; Rabinkin, Dan; Reuther, Albert; Rhoades, Andrew; Travinin, Nadya; Tella, Lou

    2004-01-01

    The Lincoln Multifunction Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Testbed (LiMIT) is an airborne research laboratory for development, testing, and evaluation of sensors and processing algorithms...

  11. MATE. Multi Aircraft Training Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauland, G.; Bove, T.; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2002-01-01

    A medium fidelity and low cost training device for pilots, called the Multi Aircraft Training Environment (MATE), is developed to replace other low fidelity stand-alone training devices and integrate them into a flexible environment, primarily aimed attraining pilots in checklist procedures....../models to be simulated) and with possibilities for including various forms of intelligent computer assistance. This training concept and the technology are not specific toaviation, but can be used to simulate various types of control panels in different domains. The training effectiveness of pilots' procedure training...... in the MATE prototype was compared with the effects of traditional training that included the use of realaircraft. The experimental group (EXP) trained the pre-start checklist and the engine start checklist for the Saab 340 commuter aircraft in a MATE prototype. The control group (CTR) trained the same...

  12. The microburst - Hazard to aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarthy, J.; Serafin, R.

    1984-01-01

    In encounters with microbursts, low altitude aircraft first encounter a strong headwind which increases their wing lift and altitude; this phenomenon is followed in short succession by a decreasing headwind component, a downdraft, and finally a strong tailwind that catastrophically reduces wing lift and precipitates a crash dive. It is noted that the potentially lethal low altitude wind shear of a microburst may lie in apparently harmless, rain-free air beneath a cloud base. Occasionally, such tell-tale signs as localized blowing of ground dust may be sighted in time. Microbursts may, however, occur in the heavy rain of a thunderstorm, where they will be totally obscured from view. Wind shear may be detected by an array of six anemometers and vanes situated in the vicinity of an airport, and by Doppler radar equipment at the airport or aboard aircraft.

  13. Small Aircraft Data Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazanoff, Seth L.; Dinardo, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    The CARVE Small Aircraft Data Distribution System acquires the aircraft location and attitude data that is required by the various programs running on a distributed network. This system distributes the data it acquires to the data acquisition programs for inclusion in their data files. It uses UDP (User Datagram Protocol) to broadcast data over a LAN (Local Area Network) to any programs that might have a use for the data. The program is easily adaptable to acquire additional data and log that data to disk. The current version also drives displays using precision pitch and roll information to aid the pilot in maintaining a level-level attitude for radar/radiometer mapping beyond the degree available by flying visually or using a standard gyro-driven attitude indicator. The software is designed to acquire an array of data to help the mission manager make real-time decisions as to the effectiveness of the flight. This data is displayed for the mission manager and broadcast to the other experiments on the aircraft for inclusion in their data files. The program also drives real-time precision pitch and roll displays for the pilot and copilot to aid them in maintaining the desired attitude, when required, during data acquisition on mapping lines.

  14. Actuator Fault Diagnosis in a Boeing 747 Model via Adaptive Modified Two-Stage Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikret Caliskan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive modified two-stage linear Kalman filtering algorithm is utilized to identify the loss of control effectiveness and the magnitude of low degree of stuck faults in a closed-loop nonlinear B747 aircraft. Control effectiveness factors and stuck magnitudes are used to quantify faults entering control systems through actuators. Pseudorandom excitation inputs are used to help distinguish partial loss and stuck faults. The partial loss and stuck faults in the stabilizer are isolated and identified successfully.

  15. Avaliação do custo de colírios lubrificantes a base exclusivamente de carboximetilcelulose no mercado brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Estacia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o custo do uso dos colírios lubrificantes mais utilizados no mercado nacional que apresentam na formulação o mesmo princípio ativo - carboximetilcelulose, considerando o número total de gotas presente em cada frasco dos colírios. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo experimental utilizando três frascos de cada um dos colírios Lacrifilm® (colírio 1 e Fresh Tears® (colírio 2. Para análise do custo dos colírios contou-se o número de gotas de cada frasco correlacionando os preços dos mesmos. O preço considerado para cada medicação foi o mínimo ao consumidor com alíquota de 17% publicado para o mês de janeiro de 2012. A análise estatística foi efetuada em SPSS® 18. A comparação das variáveis quantitativas analisadas foi procedida através do teste não paramétrico Mann-Whitney e correlação linear de Spearman, sendo considerada uma diferença estatisticamente significante um valor de probabilidade inferior a 0,05. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se que há diferença estatisticamente significativa entre as marcas de colírios avaliados com relação ao número total de gotas. O colírio 1 apresentou o maior número de gotas. CONCLUSÃO: O colírio 1, que tem o maior número de gotas por frasco, também é o que tem o preço mais acessível. Portanto, verifica-se que é o produto mais econômico, ou seja, o paciente pagará menos por cada gota.

  16. PCR-Based Analysis of ColE1 Plasmids in Clinical Isolates and Metagenomic Samples Reveals Their Importance as Gene Capture Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ares-Arroyo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ColE1 plasmids are important vehicles for the spread of antibiotic resistance in the Enterobacteriaceae and Pasteurellaceae families of bacteria. Their monitoring is essential, as they harbor important resistant determinants in humans, animals and the environment. In this work, we have analyzed ColE1 replicons using bioinformatic and experimental approaches. First, we carried out a computational study examining the structure of different ColE1 plasmids deposited in databases. Bioinformatic analysis of these ColE1 replicons revealed a mosaic genetic structure consisting of a host-adapted conserved region responsible for the housekeeping functions of the plasmid, and a variable region encoding a wide variety of genes, including multiple antibiotic resistance determinants. From this exhaustive computational analysis we developed a new PCR-based technique, targeting a specific sequence in the conserved region, for the screening, capture and sequencing of these small plasmids, either specific for Enterobacteriaceae or specific for Pasteurellaceae. To validate this PCR-based system, we tested various collections of isolates from both bacterial families, finding that ColE1 replicons were not only highly prevalent in antibiotic-resistant isolates, but also present in susceptible bacteria. In Pasteurellaceae, ColE1 plasmids carried almost exclusively antibiotic resistance genes. In Enterobacteriaceae, these plasmids encoded a large range of traits, including not only antibiotic resistance determinants, but also a wide variety of genes, showing the huge genetic plasticity of these small replicons. Finally, we also used a metagenomic approach in order to validate this technique, performing this PCR system using total DNA extractions from fecal samples from poultry, turkeys, pigs and humans. Using Illumina sequencing of the PCR products we identified a great diversity of genes encoded by ColE1 replicons, including different antibiotic resistance

  17. A PTEN-COL17A1 fusion gene and its novel regulatory role in Collagen XVII expression and GBM malignance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Chuanbao; Liang, Tingyu; Yang, Fan; Wang, Haoyuan; Wu, Fan; Wang, Wen; Wang, Zheng; Cheng, Wen; Xu, Jiangnan; Jiang, Tao; Chen, Jing; Ding, Yaozhong

    2017-10-17

    Collagen XVII expression has recently been demonstrated to be correlated with the tumor malignance. While Collagen XVII is known to be widely distributed in neurons of the human brain, its precise role in pathogenesis of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is unknown. In this study, we identified and characterized a new PTEN-COL17A1 fusion gene in GMB using transcriptome sequencing. Although fusion gene did not result in measurable fusion protein production, its presence is accompanied with high levels of COL17A1 expression, revealed a novel regulatory mechanism of Collagen XVII expression by PTEN-COL17A1 gene fusion. Knocked down Collagen XVII expression in glioma cell lines resulted in decreased tumor invasiveness, along with significant reduction of MMP9 expression, while increased Collagen XVII expression promotes invasive activities of glioma cells and associated with GBM recurrences. Together, our results uncovered a new PTEN-COL17A1 fusion gene and its novel regulatory role in Collagen XVII expression and GBM malignance, and demonstrated that COL17A1 could serve as a useful prognostic biomarker and therapeutic targets for GBM.

  18. A novel nonsteroidal antifibrotic oligo decoy containing the TGF-beta element found in the COL1A1 gene which regulates murine schistosomiasis liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boros, D L; Singh, K P; Gerard, H C; Hudson, A P; White, S L; Cutroneo, K R

    2005-08-01

    Schistosomiasis mansoni disseminated worm eggs in mice and humans induce granulomatous inflammations and cumulative fibrosis causing morbidity and possibly mortality. In this study, intrahepatic and I.V. injections of a double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide decoy containing the TGF-beta regulatory element found in the distal promoter of the COL1A1 gene into worm-infected mice suppressed TGF-beta1, COL1A1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, and decreased COL3A1 mRNAs to a lesser extent. Sequence comparisons within the mouse genome found homologous sequences within the COL3A1, TGF-beta1, and TIMP-1 5' flanking regions. Cold competition gel mobility shift assays using these homologous sequences with 5' and 3' flanking regions found in the natural COL1A1 gene showed competition. Competitive gel mobility assays in a separate experiment showed no competition using a 5-base mutated or scrambled sequence. Explanted liver granulomas from saline-injected mice incorporated 10.45 +/- 1.7% (3)H-proline into newly synthesized collagen, whereas decoy-treated mice showed no collagen synthesis. Compared with the saline control schistosomiasis mice phosphorothioate double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide treatment decreased total liver collagen content (i.e. hydroxy-4-proline) by 34%. This novel molecular approach has the potential to be employed as a novel antifibrotic treatment modality. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Variables físicas, químicas y biológicas del suelo sobre las poblaciones de colémbolos en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Guillen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha discutido que las variables físicas, químicas y biológicas del suelo influyen sobre las poblaciones de colémbolos; sin embargo, la información acerca de la interacción de estas variables, en conjunto, con relación a la diversidad y abundancia de colémbolos, es escasa. En el presente estudio se determinó la relación entre estas variables y la diversidad y abundancia de colémbolos en los suelos de un bosque primario, un bosque secundario y un cafetal en el Parque Nacional Tapantí. El bosque primario presentó los contenidos más altos de materia orgánica y biomasa microbiana, contrario a lo sucedido con la resistencia a la penetración y el pH. Los resultados mostraron una clara asociación entre estas variables y algunas especies de colémbolos, lo cual indica que los cambios en la estructura de las comunidades de colémbolos, por efecto de los cambios en las variables físicas, químicas y biológicas del suelo, pueden ser utilizados como un bioindicador de calidad del suelo y de manejo de los ecosistemas.

  20. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.

    2002-01-01

    Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those

  1. Colémbolos asociados con cultivos de pastos en tres zonas de vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ospina S. Claudia Marcela

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Los colémbolos son artrópodos muy pequeños,

    sin alas, similares a los insectos y extremadamente

    abundantes en gran cantidad de hábitat, siendo

    uno de los grupos de hexápodos mejor representados

    en el mundo. Son muy importantes por su influencia

    sobre la estructura de algunos suelos, no pocos viven en

    el dosel de las selvas tropicales y algunos actúan como

    dispersores de esporas dentro de los troncos en descomposición.

    En Colombia existen muy pocos estudios de

    reconocimiento de colémbolos. En la literatura se registran

    12 especies en dos localidades cerca de Buenaventura,

    agrupadas en 5 familias; así mismo, han sido

    reconocidas en diferentes estudios otras 7 especies que

    actúan como plagas en Musáceas y en flores cultivadas.

    Con el fin de contribuir al conocimiento de las familias

    de Collembola asociadas con suelos de pastos cultivados

    en el departamento de Antioquia se hicieron muestreos

    en tres zonas de vida de Holdridge (bh-P, bh-MB

    y bs-T en pastos Guinea (

     

    Panicum maximum, Ángleton

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Hydroxyapatite-Collagen-Chitosan (HA/Col/Chi) Composite Coated on Ti6Al4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlena; Bikharudin, Ahmad; Wahyudi, Setyanto Tri

    2018-01-01

    HA-collagen-chitosan (HA/col/chi) composite is developed to increase bioactivity adhesiveness between the metal and the material composite and to improve corrosion resistance. The Ti6Al4V alloy was coated by soaking in HA/col/chi composite at room temperature and then allowed to stand for 5, 6, and 7 days. Diffraction pattern analysis of the coated Ti6Al4V alloy showed that the dominant phase were HA and Ti6Al4V alloy. Corrosion resistance test in media by using 0.9% NaCl showed the corrosion rate at the level of 0.3567 mpy, which was better than that of the uncoated Ti6Al4V alloy (0.4152 mpy). In vitro cytocompatibility assay on endothelial cell of calf pulmonary artery endothelium (CPAE) (ATCC-CCL 209) showed there was no toxicity in the cell culture with the percent inhibition of 33.33% after 72 hours of incubation.

  3. The expanding spectrum of COL2A1 gene variants IN 136 patients with a skeletal dysplasia phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barat-Houari, Mouna; Dumont, Bruno; Fabre, Aurélie; Them, Frédéric Tm; Alembik, Yves; Alessandri, Jean-Luc; Amiel, Jeanne; Audebert, Séverine; Baumann-Morel, Clarisse; Blanchet, Patricia; Bieth, Eric; Brechard, Marie; Busa, Tiffany; Calvas, Patrick; Capri, Yline; Cartault, François; Chassaing, Nicolas; Ciorca, Vidrica; Coubes, Christine; David, Albert; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Dupin-Deguine, Delphine; El Chehadeh, Salima; Faivre, Laurence; Giuliano, Fabienne; Goldenberg, Alice; Isidor, Bertrand; Jacquemont, Marie-Line; Julia, Sophie; Kaplan, Josseline; Lacombe, Didier; Lebrun, Marine; Marlin, Sandrine; Martin-Coignard, Dominique; Martinovic, Jelena; Masurel, Alice; Melki, Judith; Mozelle-Nivoix, Monique; Nguyen, Karine; Odent, Sylvie; Philip, Nicole; Pinson, Lucile; Plessis, Ghislaine; Quélin, Chloé; Shaeffer, Elise; Sigaudy, Sabine; Thauvin, Christel; Till, Marianne; Touraine, Renaud; Vigneron, Jacqueline; Baujat, Geneviève; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Le Merrer, Martine; Geneviève, David; Touitou, Isabelle

    2016-07-01

    Heterozygous COL2A1 variants cause a wide spectrum of skeletal dysplasia termed type II collagenopathies. We assessed the impact of this gene in our French series. A decision tree was applied to select 136 probands (71 Stickler cases, 21 Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita cases, 11 Kniest dysplasia cases, and 34 other dysplasia cases) before molecular diagnosis by Sanger sequencing. We identified 66 different variants among the 71 positive patients. Among those patients, 18 belonged to multiplex families and 53 were sporadic. Most variants (38/44, 86%) were located in the triple helical domain of the collagen chain and glycine substitutions were mainly observed in severe phenotypes, whereas arginine to cysteine changes were more often encountered in moderate phenotypes. This series of skeletal dysplasia is one of the largest reported so far, adding 44 novel variants (15%) to published data. We have confirmed that about half of our Stickler patients (46%) carried a COL2A1 variant, and that the molecular spectrum was different across the phenotypes. To further address the question of genotype-phenotype correlation, we plan to screen our patients for other candidate genes using a targeted next-generation sequencing approach.

  4. Inquérito sobre fungos anemófilos na fronteira Brasil - Colômbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simão Arão Pecher

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um inquérito, sobre fungos anemófllos, em três vilarejos situados na fronteira Brasil-Colômbia, zona muito quente e úmida, durante o mês de julho de 1978. Em apenas uma coleta feita, em diferentes pontos, foram cultivadas colônias pertencentes a dezoito gêneros diferentes de fungos anemófllos, com predominância de Mucor (64,3%, Cândida (54,8%, Rhodotorula (38,1% e Penicillium (38,1%.An inquiry of anemophilous fungi was carried out in small towns located at the Brasilian- Colombian border, a hot and humid zone, during the month of July, 1978. In just one collection, carried out at different sites, colonies were cultivated, and belonged to eighteen different species of anemophilous fungi with predominance of Mucor (64.3%, Candida (54.8%, Rhodotorula (38.1% and Penicillium (38.1%.

  5. Dual reporter transgene driven by 2.3Col1a1 promoter is active in differentiated osteoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marijanovic, Inga; Jiang, Xi; Kronenberg, Mark S.; Stover, Mary Louise; Erceg, Ivana; Lichtler, Alexander C.; Rowe, David W.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: As quantitative and spatial analyses of promoter reporter constructs are not easily performed in intact bone, we designed a reporter gene specific to bone, which could be analyzed both visually and quantitatively by using chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) and a cyan version of green fluorescent protein (GFPcyan), driven by a 2.3-kb fragment of the rat collagen promoter (Col2.3). METHODS: The construct Col2.3CATiresGFPcyan was used for generating transgenic mice. Quantitative measurement of promoter activity was performed by CAT analysis of different tissues derived from transgenic animals; localization was performed by visualized GFP in frozen bone sections. To assess transgene expression during in vitro differentiation, marrow stromal cell and neonatal calvarial osteoblast cultures were analyzed for CAT and GFP activity. RESULTS: In mice, CAT activity was detected in the calvaria, long bone, teeth, and tendon, whereas histology showed that GFP expression was limited to osteoblasts and osteocytes. In cell culture, increased activity of CAT correlated with increased differentiation, and GFP activity was restricted to mineralized nodules. CONCLUSION: The concept of a dual reporter allows a simultaneous visual and quantitative analysis of transgene activity in bone.

  6. Advanced technology for future regional transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    In connection with a request for a report coming from a U.S. Senate committee, NASA formed a Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) team in 1978. STAT was to obtain information concerning the technical improvements in commuter aircraft that would likely increase their public acceptance. Another area of study was related to questions regarding the help which could be provided by NASA's aeronautical research and development program to commuter aircraft manufacturers with respect to the solution of technical problems. Attention is given to commuter airline growth, current commuter/region aircraft and new aircraft in development, prospects for advanced technology commuter/regional transports, and potential benefits of advanced technology. A list is provided of a number of particular advances appropriate to small transport aircraft, taking into account small gas turbine engine component technology, propeller technology, three-dimensional wing-design technology, airframe aerodynamics/propulsion integration, and composite structure materials.

  7. Toxicidade córneo-conjuntival do colírio de iodo-povidona: estudo experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Namir Clementino

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a toxicidade ocular do colírio de iodo-povidona a 2,5% e a 0,5% sobre a superfície ocular, na regeneração do epitélio corneal e as alterações histopatológicas da córnea. MÉTODOS: Realizaram-se estudos experimentais consecutivos em coelhos albinos, nos quais se fez a ablação do epitélio de uma área circular central da córnea de 6,5 mm de diâmetro. Em cada experimento foram utilizados 20 animais (40 olhos, sendo que no olho direito foi instilado o colírio de iodo-povidona (caso e no olho esquerdo água destilada (controle, em intervalos de uma hora, durante três dias consecutivos. Durante o experimento, os animais foram submetidos a exames biomicroscópicos diários para avaliação da superfície córneo-conjuntival e realização de fotografias seriadas da área sem epitélio, corada com fluoresceína, para medida da área projetada da lesão com auxílio de analisador de imagem computadorizado. No final do experimento, os animais foram sacrificados para avaliação histopatológica das córneas. RESULTADOS: O colírio de iodo-povidona a 2,5% comprometeu a regeneração epitelial, causou conjuntivite em 100% dos olhos, com produção de secreção de aspecto mucoso em 80%, ceratite ponteada em 40% e edema estrômico leve em 10% dos casos. Os achados histopatológicos foram úlcera de córnea, degeneração hidrópica das células endoteliais e infiltrado inflamatório com predomínio de eosinófilos em 100% dos casos. Nos olhos em que se instilou iodo-povidona a 0,5%, assim como nos controles, observou-se completa regeneração da lesão epitelial (p<0,001 após 72 horas do início do experimento. Do ponto de vista histopatológico, epitelização normal em todos os casos e controles, em apenas um caso observou-se discreto infiltrado de leucócitos perilímbicos. CONCLUSÃO: A toxicidade ocular do colírio de iodo-povidona é dependente da concentração da solução, sendo que o colírio a 2,5% mostrou

  8. Thermal comfort assessment in civil aircraft cabins

    OpenAIRE

    Pang Liping; Qin Yue; Liu Dong; Liu Meng

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft passengers are more and demanding in terms of thermal comfort. But it is not yet easy for aircraft crew to control the environment control system (ECS) that satisfies the thermal comfort for most passengers due to a number of causes. This paper adopts a corrected predicted mean vote (PMV) model and an adaptive model to assess the thermal comfort conditions for 31 investigated flights and draws the conclusion that there does exist an uncomfortable thermal phenomenon in civil aircraft ...

  9. Force Tests of the Boeing XB-47 Full-Scale Empennage in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunton, Lynn W.

    1947-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation of the Boeing XB-47 full-scale empennage was conducted to provide, prior to flight tests, data required on the effectiveness of the elevator and rudder. The XB-47 airplane is a jet-propelled medium bomber having wing and tail surfaces swept back 35 degrees. The investigation included tests of the effectiveness of the elevator with normal straight sides, with a buldged trailing edge, and with a modified hinge-line gap and tests of the effectiveness of the rudder with a normal straight-sided tab and with a bulged tab.

  10. Osteogenesis imperfecta Type IV: a newly identified variant at position c.560 (G > T; p.Gly187Val) in the COL1A2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Akin; Karademir, Dilay; Sen, Eylem; Yazici, Selcuk; Adali, Ertan; Erdem, Erkan; Karacan, Meric

    2017-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is a clinically heterogenous disease caused by defective collagen syntesis associated with a mutation in the COL1A1 or COL1A2 genes. In this report, we present a case of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type IV, seen in a female fetus with incurved femurs at 18 weeks of gestation. Molecular analysis of the newborn revealed a novel mutation at position c.560 (c.560 G > T) of the exon 12 in the COL1A2 gene; which lead to the glycine modification with valine (p.Gly187Val) at codon 187. The pregnancy follow-up was uneventful. After delivery, the newborn underwent biphosponat therapy and no fracture was detected until 1 year old.

  11. Prolonged exposure of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) COL strain to increasing concentrations of oxacillin results in a multidrug-resistant phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Ana; Couto, Isabel; Aagaard, Lone

    2007-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that exposure of a bacterium to increasing concentrations of an antibiotic would increase resistance to that antibiotic as a consequence of activating efflux pumps. This study utilises the same approach; however, it employs the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus...... aureus (MRSA) COL strain, which is highly resistant to oxacillin (OXA). MRSA COL was adapted to 3200 mg/L of OXA. Changes in resistance to other antibiotics were evaluated and efflux pump activity during the adaptation process was determined. MRSA COL was exposed to stepwise two-fold increases of OXA....... At the end of each step, minimum inhibitory concentration determination for erythromycin (ERY) and other antibiotics was conducted. Reserpine (RES) was employed to evaluate whether resistance to ERY was dependent on efflux pump activity. Efflux pump activity was also evaluated using the ethidium bromide (EB...

  12. Carcinome à cellule vitreuse du col de l'utérus: à propos d'un cas et revue de littérature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Ihssane; Zazi, Abdelghani; Chahdi, Hafsa; Guelzim, Khalid; Kouach, Jaouad; Babahabib, Myabdellah; Elhassani, Myehdi; Rahali, Driss Moussaoui; Dehayni, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Le carcinome à cellule vitreuse du col de l'utérus est un type de histologique rare de cancer du col de l'utérus qui survient à un âge plus jeune, et s'associe au risque élevé d’échec thérapeutique et le pronostic est plus mauvais en comparaison au type cellulaire squameux. La radiothérapie est associée au risque diminué de récidive. Le but de cette étude est de récapituler à travers d'une observation et une revue de littérature les données sur l'incidence, le comportement clinique et la survie globale de patients avec le carcinome à cellule vitreuse du col de l'utérus. PMID:26664556

  13. Electrical Generation for More-Electric Aircraft Using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whyatt, Greg A.; Chick, Lawrence A.

    2012-04-01

    This report examines the potential for Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to provide electrical generation on-board commercial aircraft. Unlike a turbine-based auxiliary power unit (APU) a solid oxide fuel cell power unit (SOFCPU) would be more efficient than using the main engine generators to generate electricity and would operate continuously during flight. The focus of this study is on more-electric aircraft which minimize bleed air extraction from the engines and instead use electrical power obtained from generators driven by the main engines to satisfy all major loads. The increased electrical generation increases the potential fuel savings obtainable through more efficient electrical generation using a SOFCPU. However, the weight added to the aircraft by the SOFCPU impacts the main engine fuel consumption which reduces the potential fuel savings. To investigate these relationships the Boeing 787­8 was used as a case study. The potential performance of the SOFCPU was determined by coupling flowsheet modeling using ChemCAD software with a stack performance algorithm. For a given stack operating condition (cell voltage, anode utilization, stack pressure, target cell exit temperature), ChemCAD software was used to determine the cathode air rate to provide stack thermal balance, the heat exchanger duties, the gross power output for a given fuel rate, the parasitic power for the anode recycle blower and net power obtained from (or required by) the compressor/expander. The SOFC is based on the Gen4 Delphi planar SOFC with assumed modifications to tailor it to this application. The size of the stack needed to satisfy the specified condition was assessed using an empirically-based algorithm. The algorithm predicts stack power density based on the pressure, inlet temperature, cell voltage and anode and cathode inlet flows and compositions. The algorithm was developed by enhancing a model for a well-established material set operating at atmospheric pressure to reflect the

  14. Impact of aircraft systems within aircraft operation: A MEA trajectory optimisation study

    OpenAIRE

    Seresinhe, R.

    2014-01-01

    Air transport has been a key component of the socio-economic globalisation. The ever increasing demand for air travel and air transport is a testament to the success of the aircraft. But this growing demand presents many challenges. One of which is the environmental impact due to aviation. The scope of the environmental impact of aircraft can be discussed from many viewpoints. This research focuses on the environmental impact due to aircraft operation. Aircraft operation causes...

  15. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  16. Structural design for aircraft impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Heckhausen, H.; Chen, C.; Rieck, P.J.; Lemons, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    The Soft Shell-Hardcore approach to nuclear power plant auxiliary structure design was developed to attenuate the crash effects of impacting aircraft. This report is an initial investigation into defining the important structural features involved that would allow the Soft Shell-Hardcore design to successfully sustain the postulated aircraft impact. Also specified for purposes of this study are aircraft impact locations and the type and velocity of impacting aircraft. The purpose of this initial investigation is to determine the feasibility of the two 0.5 m thick walls of the Soft Shell with the simplest possible mathematical model

  17. Alternate Fuels for Use in Commercial Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Walther, Rainer; Corporan, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    The engine and aircraft Research and Development (R&D) communities have been investigating alternative fueling in near-term, midterm, and far-term aircraft. A drop in jet fuel replacement, consisting of a kerosene (Jet-A) and synthetic fuel blend, will be possible for use in existing and near-term aircraft. Future midterm aircraft may use a biojet and synthetic fuel blend in ultra-efficient airplane designs. Future far-term engines and aircraft in 50-plus years may be specifically designed to use a low- or zero-carbon fuel. Synthetic jet fuels from coal, natural gas, or other hydrocarbon feedstocks are very similar in performance to conventional jet fuel, yet the additional CO2 produced during the manufacturing needs to be permanently sequestered. Biojet fuels need to be developed specifically for jet aircraft without displacing food production. Envisioned as midterm aircraft fuel, if the performance and cost liabilities can be overcome, biofuel blends with synthetic jet or Jet-A fuels have near-term potential in terms of global climatic concerns. Long-term solutions address dramatic emissions reductions through use of alternate aircraft fuels such as liquid hydrogen or liquid methane. Either of these new aircraft fuels will require an enormous change in infrastructure and thus engine and airplane design. Life-cycle environmental questions need to be addressed.

  18. Fettered aircraft for using wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeppner, H.; Horvath, E.; Ulrich, S.

    1980-08-28

    The invention concerns an aircraft tethered by cables, whose balloon-shaped central body produces static and aerodynamic upthrust and which carries turbines, which are used to convert wind energy and to drive the aircraft. The purpose of the invention is to provide an aircraft, which will keep wind energy plant at the optimum height. A new type of aircraft is used to solve the problem, which, according to the invention, combines static upthrust, the production of aerodynamic upthrust, wind energy conversion, energy transport and forward drive in a technically integrated aircraft. If the use of windpower is interrupted, then if necessary the drive together with a remote control system provides controlled free flight of the aircraft. One variant of the object of the invention consists of a central, balloon-shaped body for upthrust, in which there are wind turbines driving electrical generators. According to the invention the motors required to start the wind turbines are of such dimensions that they will drive the turbines in free flight of the aircraft and thus provide forward drive of the aircraft. A power generating unit, consisting of an internal combustion engine and the starter motors switched over to generator operation is used to provide house service supplies for control and regulation of the aircraft.

  19. NDT applications in the aircraft industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, E.C.

    1994-01-01

    Non-destructive testing (NDT) in the aircraft industry is used primarily to detect process defects in the manufacturing stage and failure defects in the in-service stage. Inspection techniques such as X- or gamma ray radiography are used for examination. Eddy current and ultrasonic are applied for examination, fluorescent penetrant and magnetic particles are applied for examination of aircraft and engine. With the wide scope of application, this paper discussed one type of NDT that is much used in aircraft being the latest technique in aircraft manufacturing. 1 fig

  20. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT, BACKROUND FOR SHORT/ MEDIUM COURIER TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei POPA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Air Force requirements, the comparative analysis of short/medium transport aircraft comes to sustain procurement decision of short/medium transport aircraft. This paper presents, in short, the principles and the results of the comparative analysis for short/medium military transport aircraft.

  1. Adaptive Flight Control Design with Optimal Control Modification on an F-18 Aircraft Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burken, John J.; Nguyen, Nhan T.; Griffin, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    In the presence of large uncertainties, a control system needs to be able to adapt rapidly to regain performance. Fast adaptation is referred to as the implementation of adaptive control with a large adaptive gain to reduce the tracking error rapidly; however, a large adaptive gain can lead to high-frequency oscillations which can adversely affect the robustness of an adaptive control law. A new adaptive control modification is presented that can achieve robust adaptation with a large adaptive gain without incurring high-frequency oscillations as with the standard model-reference adaptive control. The modification is based on the minimization of the Y2 norm of the tracking error, which is formulated as an optimal control problem. The optimality condition is used to derive the modification using the gradient method. The optimal control modification results in a stable adaptation and allows a large adaptive gain to be used for better tracking while providing sufficient robustness. A damping term (v) is added in the modification to increase damping as needed. Simulations were conducted on a damaged F-18 aircraft (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) with both the standard baseline dynamic inversion controller and the adaptive optimal control modification technique. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed modification in tracking a reference model.

  2. Conceptual Design Optimization of an Augmented Stability Aircraft Incorporating Dynamic Response Performance Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welstead, Jason

    2014-01-01

    This research focused on incorporating stability and control into a multidisciplinary de- sign optimization on a Boeing 737-class advanced concept called the D8.2b. A new method of evaluating the aircraft handling performance using quantitative evaluation of the sys- tem to disturbances, including perturbations, continuous turbulence, and discrete gusts, is presented. A multidisciplinary design optimization was performed using the D8.2b transport air- craft concept. The con guration was optimized for minimum fuel burn using a design range of 3,000 nautical miles. Optimization cases were run using xed tail volume coecients, static trim constraints, and static trim and dynamic response constraints. A Cessna 182T model was used to test the various dynamic analysis components, ensuring the analysis was behaving as expected. Results of the optimizations show that including stability and con- trol in the design process drastically alters the optimal design, indicating that stability and control should be included in conceptual design to avoid system level penalties later in the design process.

  3. Structural Analysis and Optimization of a Composite Fan Blade for Future Aircraft Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coroneos, Rula M.; Gorla, Rama Subba Reddy

    2012-09-01

    This paper addresses the structural analysis and optimization of a composite sandwich ply lay-up of a NASA baseline solid metallic fan blade comparable to a future Boeing 737 MAX aircraft engine. Sandwich construction with a polymer matrix composite face sheet and honeycomb aluminum core replaces the original baseline solid metallic fan model made of Titanium. The focus of this work is to design the sandwich composite blade with the optimum number of plies for the face sheet that will withstand the combined pressure and centrifugal loads while the constraints are satisfied and the baseline aerodynamic and geometric parameters are maintained. To satisfy the requirements a sandwich construction for the blade is proposed with composite face sheets and a weak core made of honeycomb aluminum material. For aerodynamic considerations, the thickness of the core is optimized where as the overall blade thickness is held fixed in order not to alter the original airfoil geometry. Weight reduction is taken as the objective function by varying the core thickness of the blade within specified upper and lower bounds. Constraints are imposed on radial displacement limitations and ply failure strength. From the optimum design, the minimum number of plies, which will not fail, is back-calculated. The ply lay-up of the blade is adjusted from the calculated number of plies and final structural analysis is performed. Analyses were carried out by utilizing the OpenMDAO Framework, developed at NASA Glenn Research Center combining optimization with structural assessment.

  4. Titanium fasteners. [for aircraft industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Titanium fasteners are used in large quantities throughout the aircraft industry. Most of this usage is in aluminum structure; where titanium structure exists, titanium fasteners are logically used as well. Titanium fasteners offer potential weight savings to the designer at a cost of approximately $30 per pound of weight saved. Proper and least cost usage must take into consideration type of fastener per application, galvanic couples and installation characteristics of protective coatings, cosmetic appearance, paint adhesion, installation forces and methods available and fatigue performance required.

  5. Cyberinfrastructure for Aircraft Mission Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2010-01-01

    Forth last several years NASA's Airborne Science Program has been developing and using infrastructure and applications that enable researchers to interact with each other and with airborne instruments via network communications. Use of these tools has increased near realtime situational awareness during field operations, resulting it productivity improvements, improved decision making, and the collection of better data. Advances in pre-mission planning and post-mission access have also emerged. Integrating these capabilities with other tools to evolve coherent service-oriented enterprise architecture for aircraft flight and test operations is the subject of ongoing efforts.

  6. Retooling CFD for hypersonic aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwoyer, Douglas L.; Kutler, Paul; Povinelli, Louis A.

    1987-01-01

    The CFD facility requirements of hypersonic aircraft configuration design development are different from those thus far employed for reentry vehicle design, because (1) the airframe and the propulsion system must be fully integrated to achieve the desired performance; (2) the vehicle must be reusable, with minimum refurbishment requirements between flights; and (3) vehicle performance must be optimized for a wide range of Mach numbers. An evaluation is presently made of flow resolution within shock waves, transition and turbulence phenomenon tractability, chemical reaction modeling, and hypersonic boundary layer transition, with state-of-the-art CFD.

  7. Aircraft Icing Handbook. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    Maryland - . . . Kohiman Aviation, Lawrence , Kansas Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio .I --- t-r 1-- - -t I.Q,,- t ../e . Pratt and Whitney...lower; about six percent at -22 ’F (-30 *C). 1.2.3 Variations with Season The summer or warm season months create large warm air masses which can...on Aircraft Surfaces," NASA TM 87184, May 1986. 2-54 Hausman , R.J. and Turnock, S.R., "Investigation of Surface Water Behavior During Glaze Ice

  8. Innovative Materials for Aircraft Morphing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J. O.; Wise, S. A.; Bryant, R. G.; Cano, R. J.; Gates, T. S.; Hinkley, J. A.; Rogowski, R. S.; Whitley, K. S.

    1997-01-01

    Reported herein is an overview of the research being conducted within the Materials Division at NASA Langley Research Center on the development of smart material technologies for advanced airframe systems. The research is a part of the Aircraft Morphing Program which is a new six-year research program to develop smart components for self-adaptive airframe systems. The fundamental areas of materials research within the program are computational materials; advanced piezoelectric materials; advanced fiber optic sensing techniques; and fabrication of integrated composite structures. This paper presents a portion of the ongoing research in each of these areas of materials research.

  9. A New COL3A1 Mutation in Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Vascular Type With Different Phenotypes in the Same Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortini, Francesca; Marinelli, Barbara; Romi, Silvia; Seresini, Agostino; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Seia, Manuela; Montano, Nicola; Bassotti, Alessandra

    2017-04-01

    Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS) is a rare and severe connective tissue disorder caused by mutations in the collagen type III alpha I chain ( COL3A1) gene. We describe a pathogenetic heterozygous COL3A1 mutation c.3140 G>A, p. Gly1047Asp, identified using next-generation sequencing, in a 40-year-old Italian female. The genetic test performed on her relatives, which present different clinical phenotypes, confirmed that they carry the same mutation in heterozygous state. This finding confirms that mutations causing vEDS have an incomplete penetrance.

  10. Distribución espacial de fibroblastos endoneurales en cultivos tridimensionales en geles de colágeno Tipo I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Yaneth Leal Mejía

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available SaludRESUMENEn la actualidad los cultivos celulares tridimensionales son muy utilizados, ya que imitan lascondiciones in vivode las células. Uno de los cultivos más desarrollados es el de fibroblastosdérmicos dentro de geles de colágeno en forma de lenteja, los cuales se contraen de un 70%a un 80% durante las primeras 24 horas de cultivo. El objetivo inicial de este trabajo fue aislarfibroblastos endoneurales (FE del nervio ciático de ratones ICR, mantenerlos en cultivo enmonocapa y luego en cultivo tridimensional en geles cilíndricos de colágeno tipo I de 1,6 mmde diámetro y 3 mm de largo, formados en las prótesis de silicona empleadas para regeneraciónde nervios periféricos; imitando las condiciones del nervio in vivopara que pueda ser emplea-dos en regeneración. Inicialmente se retira epineuro y perineuro del nervio, dejando sólo elendoneuro que se disocia con colagenasa (500U/ml y luego se le hace una disociación me-cánica. Las células libres, se cultivan en monocapa con DMEM suplementado con 20% suerobovino fetal, logrando un 95% de pureza en cultivo primario; en los subcultivos se purifican yamplifican los FE. Estos se aislan y se mezclan con una solución de colágeno tipo I a 0,5mg/mlpara la formación de los geles, teniendo en cuenta que cada gel contenga 50.000 fibroblastos,se introduce la mezcla dentro de las prótesis de silicona y se dejan gelificar, siguiendo el mismoprocedimiento se formaron geles sin células; una vez formados los geles se liberan de las cáma-ras y se cultivan en suspensión 1, 3, 5, 7, 15 y 30 días. Al cumplirse cada uno de los tiemposde cultivo, se analizó la apariencia del colágeno y la distribución de los FE en microscopíaóptica y de fluorescencia. Los cultivos primarios de FE se obtuvieron a los 5 días, lograndoacortar el tiempo de confluencia entre 15 y 20 días con respecto a lo reportado en la literatura;un dato novedoso fue la purificación total de los FE en el primer subcultivo

  11. Uso da terra e perda de solo na Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Colônia, Bahia Land use and soil loss in the Colônia River Watershed, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius de A. Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mudanças no uso da terra muitas vezes potencializam a erosão hídrica acarretando perda de água, solo, nutriente e matéria orgânica dos sistemas agrícolas, razão por que se estimou a perda de solo na bacia hidrográfica do rio Colônia, na Bahia, nos últimos vinte e sete anos, utilizando-se o software SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool. Para tal, procedeu-se à digitalização de mapas temáticos, interpretação de fotografias aéreas de 1975; classificação supervisionada de imagens de satélites de 2002 e produção de mapas de uso da terra. O SWAT foi utilizado na obtenção de mapas temáticos digitais por sub-bacia hidrográfica do rio Colônia, quantificação das perdas de solo em cada sub-bacia e nas formas de usos obtidos por conceito teórico, simulando as inclusões de áreas de preservação permanente, bem como mata em toda a superfície das sub-bacias. Estima-se que, entre 1975 e 2002, a média de perda de solo na bacia hidrográfica do rio Colônia foi de 47 t ha-1 ano-1 e em 2002 a estimativa de perda de solo foi de 46,64 t ha-1 ano-1. Na simulação de um cenário teórico de área de preservação permanente (APP e mata, ocorreu diminuição da média da perda de solo em toda a bacia hidrográfica do rio Colônia de, respectivamente, 9,09 t ha-1 ano-1 e 20,91 t ha-1 ano-1.Land use changes most of the time increases the hydric erosion leading to loss of water, nutrients and organic matter in agricultural systems. Thus, aiming to estimate the soil loss in the watershed of Colonia River, in Bahia, in the last twenty-seven years, the software SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used. For the purpose, a digitalization thematic map (Arc View, interpretation of aerial photographs from 1975, supervised classification of 2002 satellite images and a land use map generation were developed. The SWAT software was used for obtaining a digital thematic map for every sub-basin of Colonia River Watershed, soil loss

  12. GRAPHICAL MODELS OF THE AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Vladimirovich Daletskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aircraft maintenance is realized by a rapid sequence of maintenance organizational and technical states, its re- search and analysis are carried out by statistical methods. The maintenance process concludes aircraft technical states con- nected with the objective patterns of technical qualities changes of the aircraft as a maintenance object and organizational states which determine the subjective organization and planning process of aircraft using. The objective maintenance pro- cess is realized in Maintenance and Repair System which does not include maintenance organization and planning and is a set of related elements: aircraft, Maintenance and Repair measures, executors and documentation that sets rules of their interaction for maintaining of the aircraft reliability and readiness for flight. The aircraft organizational and technical states are considered, their characteristics and heuristic estimates of connection in knots and arcs of graphs and of aircraft organi- zational states during regular maintenance and at technical state failure are given. It is shown that in real conditions of air- craft maintenance, planned aircraft technical state control and maintenance control through it, is only defined by Mainte- nance and Repair conditions at a given Maintenance and Repair type and form structures, and correspondingly by setting principles of Maintenance and Repair work types to the execution, due to maintenance, by aircraft and all its units mainte- nance and reconstruction strategies. The realization of planned Maintenance and Repair process determines the one of the constant maintenance component. The proposed graphical models allow to reveal quantitative correlations between graph knots to improve maintenance processes by statistical research methods, what reduces manning, timetable and expenses for providing safe civil aviation aircraft maintenance.

  13. New entrants and overcapacity: lessons from regional aircraft manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.; Heerkens, Johannes M.G.

    2010-01-01

    The commercial aircraft manufacturing industry has been largely dominated by the advanced economies in North America and Western Europe. During recent decades, several emerging economies have invested heavily in the commercial aircraft industry, notably in regional aircraft manufacturing. This paper

  14. 77 FR 23382 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters. This AD was prompted by the manufacturer's..., contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, Mailstop s581a, 6900...

  15. 77 FR 41889 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... airworthiness directive (AD) for Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters. This AD... identified in this AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support...

  16. 77 FR 49710 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-76A helicopters to require modifying the electric rotor brake (ERB... service information identified in this AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager...

  17. Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    xml Internet . Teal Group Corp. Aviation Week and Space Technology , 18 March 2003, 1. 62 Babak Minovi, “Turbine Industry Struggles with Weak Markets ...xml Internet . Teal Group Corp. Aviation Week and Space Technology , 18 March 2003, 1. 64 Babak Minovi, “Turbine Industry Struggles with Weak Markets ...what several executives referred to as the “perfect storm” now blowing through the aviation market . With this information many questions remain: Will

  18. Implementation of Extreme STOL Capability in Cruise Efficient Aircraft, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aerotonomy, Incorporated, the Georgia Tech Research Institute, and the Boeing Company propose here to continue work towards the development of commercially viable...

  19. Beryllium in aircraft brakes - a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenczak, S.

    1977-01-01

    Beryllium has been in use in aircraft brakes for ten years. During the original design phases of the several aircraft programs using beryllium a number of problems requiring solution confronted the designers. In actual service the solution to these problems performed much better than had been anticipated. A summary is presented. (author)

  20. Time to retire : Indicators for aircraft fleets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newcamp, Jeffrey; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, R.

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that aircraft fleets are aging alongside rising operations and support costs. Logisticians and fleet managers who better understand the milestones and timeline of an aging fleet can recognise potential savings. This paper outlines generalised milestones germane to military aircraft

  1. 14 CFR 121.538 - Aircraft security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft security. 121.538 Section 121.538..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.538 Aircraft security. Certificate holders conducting operations under this part must comply with the applicable security requirements in 49 CFR chapter...

  2. 14 CFR 135.125 - Aircraft security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft security. 135.125 Section 135.125....125 Aircraft security. Certificate holders conducting operators conducting operations under this part must comply with the applicable security requirements in 49 CFR chapter XII. [67 FR 8350, Feb. 22, 2002] ...

  3. Cycle Counting Methods of the Aircraft Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorchenko, Dmitrii G.; Novikov, Dmitrii K.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of condition-based gas turbine-powered aircraft operation is realized all over the world, which implementation requires knowledge of the end-of-life information related to components of aircraft engines in service. This research proposes an algorithm for estimating the equivalent cyclical running hours. This article provides analysis…

  4. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION AREA, KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation of aircraft on WCA lands and waters is prohibited... business of the Federal Government or used in emergency rescue in accordance with the directions of the...

  5. Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Engine Cycle Analysis for Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, James L.; Kim, Hyun Dae; Brown, Gerald V.

    2009-01-01

    possibilities. The Boeing N2 hybrid-wing-body (HWB) is used as a baseline aircraft for this study. The two pylon mounted conventional turbofans are replaced by two wing-tip mounted turboshaft engines, each driving a superconducting generator. Both generators feed a common electrical bus which distributes power to an array of superconducting motor-driven fans in a continuous nacelle centered along the trailing edge of the upper surface of the wing-body. A key finding was that traditional inlet performance methodology has to be modified when most of the air entering the inlet is boundary layer air. A very thorough and detailed propulsion/airframe integration (PAI) analysis is required at the very beginning of the design process since embedded engine inlet performance must be based on conditions at the inlet lip rather than freestream conditions. Examination of a range of fan pressure ratios yielded a minimum Thrust-specific-fuel-consumption (TSFC) at the aerodynamic design point of the vehicle (31,000 ft /Mach 0.8) between 1.3 and 1.35 FPR. We deduced that this was due to the higher pressure losses prior to the fan inlet as well as higher losses in the 2-D inlets and nozzles. This FPR is likely to be higher than the FPR that yields a minimum TSFC in a pylon mounted engine. 1

  6. De gota em gota: violência, tempo e troca em Urabá, Colômbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Monroy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparo, neste texto, a modalidade de empréstimo de dinheiro imposta pelos "gota a gota" com a minha experiência como voluntária no Banco de la Esperanza,em Urabá, considerada uma das regiões mais violentas da Colômbia durante, pelo menos, quatro décadas. Mediante este contraste, passo a analisar a relação entre o que denomino "presente permanente" e determinados aspectos da troca, a saber: "o costume de ficar devendo", "a necessidade de pedir emprestado", e o imperativo de que "tudo deve ser dado". No caso estudado, tais efeitos são aspectos primordiais da vida coletiva e da reprodução social. Busco, em particular, explorar a relação entre violência e "economia", vínculo que costuma ser relegado ao campo da ilegalidade.

  7. Uso da terra e perda de solo na Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Colônia, Bahia

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Vinícius de A.; Moreau,Mauricio S.; Moreau,Ana M. S. dos S.; Rego,Neylor A. C.

    2011-01-01

    Mudanças no uso da terra muitas vezes potencializam a erosão hídrica acarretando perda de água, solo, nutriente e matéria orgânica dos sistemas agrícolas, razão por que se estimou a perda de solo na bacia hidrográfica do rio Colônia, na Bahia, nos últimos vinte e sete anos, utilizando-se o software SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool). Para tal, procedeu-se à digitalização de mapas temáticos, interpretação de fotografias aéreas de 1975; classificação supervisionada de imagens de satélites de...

  8. Acesso endoscópico transepto-interforniceal para cistos colóides: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIALOGO JOSUÉ GUIMARÃES GRANHA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A abordagem endoscópica de cistos colóides ainda é matéria controversa. As opções de tratamento são variadas: observação com exames seriados, tratamento da hidrocefalia, aspiração por estereotaxia, microcirurgia e endoscopia. O autor relata o caso de um paciente com cisto colóide do terceiro ventrículo, localizado em posição retroforaminal, no teto diencefálico, dissecando os dois fornices projetando-se supero-posteriormente em direção ao assoalho do ventrículo lateral, por dentro do cavum do septo pelúcido. A lesão foi alcançada com neuroendoscópio rígido, através de um orifício de trépano pré-coronal situado a 2,5 cm da linha média (ponto de Kocher. Seguindo por via transventricular, a lâmina direita do septo pelúcido foi aberta, posterior à veia septal. A lesão, muito endurecida, situada entre os dois fórnices, foi parcialmente ressecada através da via endoscópica transventricular transepto-interforniceal. Realizamos também septostomia e terceiro ventriculostomia endoscópicas neste paciente. Os diferentes tipos de procedimentos cirúrgicos das patologias situadas no terceiro ventrículo são discutidos com ênfase no papel da endoscopia.

  9. Distribuciones simuladas de valores de d13c de colágeno humano: implicancias para los estudios paleodietarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrientos, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar los primeros resultados derivados de la aplicación de un programa de simulación de distribuciones de valores de δ13C de colágeno humano (DeltaCarb130.0, desarrollado por los autores. DeltaCarb130.0 es un programa simple que simula la composición isotópica (δ13C del colágeno de huesos humanos obtenida a través de una dieta de composición variable, constituida por tres ingestas diarias, durante un período de 1825 días (5 años. La composición de la dieta y los valores de δ13C de cada recurso dietario (vegetales C3 y C4, carne de herbívoros consumidores de C3 y C4, de mamíferos marinos, de peces y moluscos se obtienen, en cada etapa de la simulación, a través de un proceso aleatorio a partir de datos de abundancia relativa y rangos de valores de δ13C de cada tipo de recurso. Se analizarán estadísticamente las distribuciones de valores de δ13C obtenidas a partir de n corridas del programa para cada combinación dietaria, con la finalidad de obtener medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión asociadas a cada tipo de dieta y calcular la probabilidad de obtener valores "outliers", un rasgo frecuente en el estudio de casos arqueológicos.

  10. Prácticas escolares en el Colégio Americano: un enfoque en la cultura material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlucy do Socorro Aragão de Sousa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aborda las prácticas escolares y la cultura material de la escuela en Belém do Pará, a finales del siglo XIX. El objetivo es analizar cómo se configuraron la cultura material y las prácticas escolares en el Colégio Americano, ideado por José Veríssimo entre 1884 y 1890. Se usa como fuente la obra Noticia Geral sobre o Collegio Americano. Se utilizó la metodología histórico-hermenéutica. Al analizar la cultura material de la escuela, se tiene como horizonte la percepción de sus vínculos con el contexto histórico, cultural y social en el que se generó un nuevo modelo de educación que destacaba la civilidad, la nación y la moral. Por consiguiente, dichos artefactos no eran simples objetos, sino que revelaron las relaciones conflictivas o pacíficas de aquel contexto, e incluso las prácticas escolares de la institución. Se observa que el uso y la descripción de los objetos dispuestos en la estructura del Colégio Americano, para su creador, tenían el objetivo de establecer y mantener normas que debían formar hombres disciplinados, que se vincularan directamente con el propósito de la educación física, moral y cívica de los estudiantes.

  11. Do supersonic aircraft avoid contrails?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stenke

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of a potential future fleet of supersonic aircraft on contrail coverage and contrail radiative forcing is investigated by means of simulations with the general circulation model ECHAM4.L39(DLR including a contrail parameterization. The model simulations consider air traffic inventories of a subsonic fleet and of a combined fleet of sub- and supersonic aircraft for the years 2025 and 2050, respectively. In case of the combined fleet, part of the subsonic fleet is replaced by supersonic aircraft. The combined air traffic scenario reveals a reduction in contrail cover at subsonic cruise levels (10 to 12 km in the northern extratropics, especially over the North Atlantic and North Pacific. At supersonic flight levels (18 to 20 km, contrail formation is mainly restricted to tropical regions. Only in winter is the northern extratropical stratosphere above the 100 hPa level cold enough for the formation of contrails. Total contrail coverage is only marginally affected by the shift in flight altitude. The model simulations indicate a global annual mean contrail cover of 0.372% for the subsonic and 0.366% for the combined fleet in 2050. The simulated contrail radiative forcing is most closely correlated to the total contrail cover, although contrails in the tropical lower stratosphere are found to be optically thinner than contrails in the extratropical upper troposphere. The global annual mean contrail radiative forcing in 2050 (2025 amounts to 24.7 mW m−2 (9.4 mW m−2 for the subsonic fleet and 24.2 mW m−2 (9.3 mW m−2 for the combined fleet. A reduction of the supersonic cruise speed from Mach 2.0 to Mach 1.6 leads to a downward shift in contrail cover, but does not affect global mean total contrail cover and contrail radiative forcing. Hence the partial substitution of subsonic air traffic leads to a shift of contrail occurrence from mid to low latitudes, but the resulting change in

  12. Horizontal gene transfer of a ColV plasmid has resulted in a dominant avian clonal type of Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Johnson

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica continues to be a significant cause of foodborne gastrointestinal illness in humans. A wide variety of Salmonella serovars have been isolated from production birds and from retail poultry meat. Recently, though, S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky has emerged as one of the prominent Salmonella serovars isolated from broiler chickens. Recent work suggests that its emergence apparently coincides with its acquisition of a ColV virulence plasmid. In the present study, we examined 902 Salmonella isolates belonging to 59 different serovars for the presence of this plasmid. Of the serovars examined, the ColV plasmid was found only among isolates belonging to the serovars Kentucky (72.9%, Typhimurium (15.0% and Heidelberg (1.7%. We demonstrated that a single PFGE clonal type of S. Kentucky harbors this plasmid, and acquisition of this plasmid by S. Kentucky significantly increased its ability to colonize the chicken cecum and cause extraintestinal disease. Comparison of the completed sequences of three ColV plasmids from S. Kentucky isolated from different geographical locales, timepoints and sources revealed a nearly identical genetic structure with few single nucleotide changes or insertions/deletions. Overall, it appears that the ColV plasmid was recently acquired by a single clonal type S. Kentucky and confers to its host enhanced colonization and fitness capabilities. Thus, the potential for horizontal gene transfer of virulence and fitness factors to Salmonella from other enteric bacteria exists in poultry, representing a potential human health hazard.

  13. Lethal chondrodysplasia in a family of Holstein cattle is associated with a de novo splice site variant of COL2A1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Menzi, Fiona; McEvoy, Fintan

    2016-01-01

    was predicted to affect splicing as it altered the conserved splice donor sequence GT at the 5’-end of COL2A1 intron 36, which was changed to AT. All five available cases carried the mutant allele in heterozygous state and all five dams were homozygous wild type. The sire VH Cadiz Captivo was shown...

  14. Produção de identidades nos trabalhos apresentados em colóquios luso-brasileiros de 2002 e 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Dias Ferreira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata-se do estudo da internacionalização do campo do currículo com enfoque em trabalhos apresentados em colóquios luso-brasileiros de 2002 e 2004 sobre questões curriculares e produção de identidades. Para isso, faremos uma contextualização histórica do colóquio luso-brasileiro, depois refletiremos sobre a internacionalização do campo do currículo e a visão desta concepção presente nos editoriais dos colóquios Luso-Brasileiros e na última seção falaremos sobre a categoria identidade. Concluiu-se que  entender a relação direta de questões sobre multiculturalidade e formação da identidade do sujeito envolvido no processo de ensino-aprendizagem escolar é essencial para que a escola seja voltada para formação e interação social, de tal modo, que os alunos possam compartilhar suas crenças e valores e aprender a respeitar, reconhecer e valorizar as diferenças do outro. Palavras Chaves: internacionalização do campo do currículo; colóquios luso-brasileiros, identidade.

  15. COL1A2 gene analysis in a Czech osteogenesis imperfecta patient: a candidate novel mutation in a patient affected by osteogenesis imperfecta type 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrušková L

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lucie Hrušková,1 Ivo Mařík,2,3 Stella Mazurová,1 Pavel Martásek,1 Ivan Mazura1 1Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Ambulant Centre for Defects of Locomotor Apparatus 1.1.c., Prague, Czech Republic; 3Faculty of Medical Studies, West Bohemia University, Pilsen, Czech RepublicAbstract: Osteogenesis imperfecta is a heritable bone fragility disease with a heterogenic genetic origin. Most cases result from mutations of either the COL1A1 gene or the COL1A2 gene. We identified a novel COL1A2 gene mutation in a Czech patient, born to unaffected parents, who was diagnosed according to clinical and anthropometric findings and radiographic features as having type 3 osteogenesis imperfecta, which is a severe form of this disease. The identified Gly814Trp mutation was predicted by a number of complementary bioinformatic programs to result in functional alteration of the protein. This case report provides both evidence of a novel COL1A2 mutation resulting in type 3 osteogenesis imperfecta and a genotype:phenotype correlation in this affected individual. Keywords: osteogenesis imperfecta type 3, collagen, alpha-2 (I chain, substitution, sequencing 

  16. Somatic mosaicism for the COL7A1 mutation p.Gly2034Arg in the unaffected mother of a patient with dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa pruriginosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, P. C.; Pasmooij, A. M. G.; Meijer, R.; Scheffer, H.; Jonkman, M. F.

    Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) is a heritable blistering disorder caused by mutations in the type VII collagen gene, COL7A1. Although revertant mosaicism is well known in DEB, 'forward' somatic mosaicism, in which a pathogenic mutation arises on a wild-type (WT) background, extending beyond

  17. Somatic mosaicism for the COL7A1 mutation p.Gly2034Arg in the unaffected mother of a patient with dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa pruriginosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, P.C. van den; Pasmooij, A.M.; Meijer, R.; Scheffer, H.; Jonkman, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) is a heritable blistering disorder caused by mutations in the type VII collagen gene, COL7A1. Although revertant mosaicism is well known in DEB, 'forward' somatic mosaicism, in which a pathogenic mutation arises on a wild-type (WT) background, extending beyond

  18. Influence of tra genes of IncP and F plasmids on the mobilization of small Kanamycin resistance ColE1-Like plasmids in bacterial biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Horizontal gene transfer is a mechanism for movement of antibiotic resistance genes among bacteria. Some small kanamycin resistance (KanR) ColE1-like plasmids isolated from different serotypes of Salmonella enterica were shown to carry mobilization genes; although not self-transmissibl...

  19. 75 FR 12657 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 777-200, -200LR, -300, -300ER, and 777F Series...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ..., Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590. Hand Delivery: U.S. Department of... Boeing Company has also discovered during flight simulations that the climb gradient is less than optimal... bulletin describes procedures for installing new operational program software for the left, center, and...

  20. 75 FR 10669 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-200B, 747-300, and 747SR Series...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... base assembly to the moisture shroud as given in Figure 10 in Boeing Alert Service Bulletin 747- 25A3368, Revision 2, dated June 12, 2008, and to fill any unused pilot holes in the mounting base assembly... 25, 2007, and to fill any unused pilot holes in the mounting base assembly in accordance with the...