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Sample records for boedeker ole norden

  1. Offentlighed i Norden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Oluf

    Offentlighed i Norden forklarer og sammenligner retsreglerne for acces til dokumenter og data i Sverige, Finland, Danmark, Norge og Island. Internationale regler fra FN, Europarådet og EU, der har stigende betydning, bliver også belyst. Offentlighed i Norden viser, at offentlighedsreglerne i de fem...

  2. Verden i Norden - Norden i Verden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund, Peter

    Det nordiske kultursamarbejde har siden kulturaftalen mellem de nordiske lande i 1971 udvikling sig i flere retninger. Artiklen er udarbejdet på opfordring af Nordisk Ministerråd, som et afsæt for at beskrive, analysere og vurdere det nordiske kultursamarbejde historiske udvikling og fremtidige...... udfordringer i en globaliseret verden. Hvor bør de nordiske landes kulturpolitik og det nordiske kultursamarbejde tage fat ved indgangen til det 21. århundrede, hvis Norden skal sætte sig spor i Europa og den øvrige verden med udgangspunkt i den velfærdsbaserede kulturpolitik, der er oparbejdet efter 2...

  3. On Kähler–Norden manifolds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper is concerned with the problem of the geometry of Norden manifolds. Some properties of Riemannian curvature tensors and curvature scalars of Kähler–Norden manifolds using the theory of Tachibana operators is presented.

  4. On Kähler–Norden manifolds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kähler–Norden manifolds using the theory of Tachibana operators is presented. ... arguments is subject to the action of the affinor structure ϕ. ..... [20] Vishnevskii V V, Integrable affinor structures and their plural interpretations, J. Math. Sci.

  5. Tracheal intubation in patients with anticipated difficult airway using Boedeker intubation forceps and McGrath videolaryngoscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, C; Barnung, S; Kristensen, M S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Videolaryngoscopes with sharp angulated blades improve the view of the vocal cords but this does not necessarily result in higher success rates of intubation The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using Boedeker intubation forceps in conjunction with McGrath Series 5 Vi...... by using a styletted tube. CONCLUSION(S): Most patients with anticipated difficult intubation can be successfully intubated with Boedeker intubation forceps and MVL. However, endotracheal tube placement failed in 3/25 patients despite a good laryngeal view....

  6. Oles Have

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boris, Stefan Darlan

    2015-01-01

    Landskabsarkitekts Ole Mouritsens Have Tjørnegaard er fotograferet gennem et år af Stefan Darlan Boris. Fotografierne er ledsaget af teksten Vejrhaven.......Landskabsarkitekts Ole Mouritsens Have Tjørnegaard er fotograferet gennem et år af Stefan Darlan Boris. Fotografierne er ledsaget af teksten Vejrhaven....

  7. OLED displays and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Koden, Mitsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have emerged as the leading technology for the new display and lighting market. OLEDs are solid-state devices composed of thin films of organic molecules that create light with the application of electricity. OLEDs can provide brighter, crisper displays on electronic devices and use less power than conventional light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or liquid crystal displays (LCDs) used today. This book covers both the fundamentals and practical applications of flat and flexible OLEDs.

  8. Language, Geography and Social Development: The Case of Norden. Discussion Papers in Geolinguistics 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunden, Thomas

    The geolinguistic history of Norden (Scandinavia plus Finland) is reviewed. The shifting political boundaries, particularly of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, have contributed to a complex distribution of language populations that is all the more interesting given the common ancestry of most of the languages involved. The forces of nationalism have…

  9. Epidemiologisk forskning om uførepensjon i Norden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Håkon Bjørngaard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En relativ stor andel av befolkningen i yrkesaktiv alder i de nordiske landene mottar uførepensjon, og i Norge er det en klar tendens til økning. Parallelt med dette har interessen for forskning rundt uførepensjon som fenomen økt. Vi har i denne studien beskrevet den epidemiologiske forskningen om uførepensjon i Norden. I en systematisk litteraturgjennomgang fant vi 118 aktuelle artikler. Alle de nordiske landene er godt representert. Kohortstudier med uførepensjon som endepunkt utgjorde hovedvekten av materialet, hvor 67 var populasjonsbaserte mens 29 tok utgangspunkt i selekterte pasientpopulasjoner. I alt seks kohortstudier benyttet uførepensjon som eksponering. Vi fant videre syv kasus-kontrollstudier og ni forsøk. Det er betydelig dokumentasjon på at ulike sykdommer og helseplager er assosiert med økt risiko for uførhet, i tillegg til at sosioøkonomiske og arbeidsrelaterte forhold er av betydning. Gjennomgangen viser at den epidemiologiske forskningen for det meste har rettet blikket mot individuelle årsaker til uførepensjonering. Selv om denne forskningen er viktig, kan den neppe forklare økningen vi har sett i det siste tiåret. Den videre forskningen bør utforske nærmere hvordan individuell sårbarhet ender i utstøtelse fra arbeidslivet. Med tanke på den omfattende forskningen om årsaker på dette feltet, bør man også i større grad gjennomføre forsøk for å bedre utsatte gruppers arbeidsdeltakelse.Bjørngaard JH, Krokstad S, Johnsen R, Karlsen AO, Pape K, Støver M, Sund E, Westin S. Epidemiological research on disability benefits in the Nordic countries. Nor J Epidemiol 2009; 19 (2: 103-114 ENGLISH SUMMARYA substantial part of the workforce in the Nordic countries receives a disability benefit, and in Norway this beneficiary rate is growing. As a result, disability benefit has been the subject of new interest and research. In this study we have reviewed the epidemiological research on disability benefit in the

  10. High Brightness OLED Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, Jeffrey [OLEDWorks LLC; Kondakova, Marina [OLEDWorks LLC; Boroson, Michael [OLEDWorks LLC; Hamer, John [OLEDWorks LLC

    2016-05-25

    In this work we describe the technology developments behind our current and future generations of high brightness OLED lighting panels. We have developed white and amber OLEDs with excellent performance based on the stacking approach. Current products achieve 40-60 lm/W, while future developments focus on achieving 80 lm/W or higher.

  11. OLEDs for lighting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Elsbergen, V.; Boerner, H.; Löbl, H.-P.; Goldmann, C.; Grabowski, S. P.; Young, E.; Gaertner, G.; Greiner, H.

    2008-08-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) provide potential for power-efficient large area light sources that combine revolutionary properties. They are thin and flat and in addition they can be transparent, colour-tuneable, or flexible. We review the state of the art in white OLEDs and present performance data for three-colour hybrid white OLEDs on indexmatched substrates. With improved optical outcoupling 45 lm/W are achieved. Using a half-sphere to collect all the light that is in the substrate results in 80 lm/W. Optical modelling supports the experimental work. For decorative applications features like transparency and colour tuning are very appealing. We show results on transparent white OLEDs and two ways to come to a colour-variable OLED. These are lateral separation of different colours in a striped design and direct vertical stacking of the different emitting layers. For a striped colour tuneable OLED 36 lm/W are achieved in white with improved optical outcoupling.

  12. Light Management in Flexible OLEDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkema, S.; Pendyala, R.K.; Geurts, C.G.C.; Helgers, P.L.J.; Levell, J.W.; Wilson, J.S.; MacKerron, D.

    2014-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are a promising lighting technology. In particular OLEDs fabricated on plastic foils are believed to hold the future. These planar devices are subject to various optical losses, which requires sophisticated light management solutions. Flexible OLEDs on plastic

  13. OLEDs for lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Herbert

    2006-04-01

    Today, organic light emitting diodes are used in small to medium displays in portable electronic equipment like MP3 players and mobile phones. Their thin form factor, together with good readability due to low angular dependence of the emission makes them attractive for these applications. The rapid progress in the last years has lifted the performance of OLEDs to a level where one can seriously start to consider applications in lighting markets. Whereas it is obvious that first applications will be in less demanding niche markets, clearly the most interesting target is the general illumination market. In this report, first applications requirements will be described, followed by a brief review of state of the art monochrome OLEDs. The main part deals with the various ways in which monochrome devices can be combined into white ones, giving examples of existing solutions. The conclusion is that for the white OLED design, there no clear winner yet. Given the rapid progress in material and device development, one can expect that within a few years white OLEDs will be available which can start to penetrate the general lighting market.

  14. OLED Lighting Products: Capabilities, Challenges, Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Leon, F. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-05-31

    A report that focuses on the potential for architectural OLED lighting – describing currently available OLED products as well as promised improvements, and addressing the technology and market hurdles that have thus far prevented wider use of OLEDs.

  15. Holistic processes and practices for clean energy in strengthening bioeconomic strategies (INDO-NORDEN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurpali, Narasinha J.; Parameswaran, Binod; Raud, Merlin; Pumpanen, Jukka; Sippula, Olli; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Lusotarinen, Sari; Virkajarvi, Perttu

    2017-04-01

    We are proud to introduce the project, INDO-NORDEN, funded in response to the Science and Technology call of the INNO INDIGO Partnership Program (IPP) on Biobased Energy. The project is scheduled to begin from April 2017. The proposed project aims to address both subtopics of the call, Biofuels and From Waste to Energy with research partners from Finland (coordinating unit), India and Estonia. The EU and India share common objectives in enhancing energy security, promoting energy efficiency and energy safety, and the pursuit of sustainable development of clean and renewable energy source. The main objective of INDO-NORDEN is to investigate, evaluate and develop efficient processes and land use practices of transforming forest and agricultural biomass, agricultural residues and farm waste into clean fuels (solid, liquid or gas), by thermochemical or biochemical conversions. Forestry and agriculture are the major bioenergy sectors in Finland. Intensive forest harvesting techniques are being used in Finland to enhance the share of bioenergy in the total energy consumption in the future. However, there are no clear indications how environmentally safe are these intensive forestry practices in Finland. We address this issue through field studies addressing the climate impacts on the ecosystem carbon balance and detailed life cycle assessment. The role of agriculture in Finland is expected to grow significantly in the years to come. Here, we follow a holistic field experimental approach addressing several major issues relevant to Nordic agriculture under changing climatic conditions - soil nutrient management, recycling of nutrients, farm and agricultural waste management, biogas production potentials, greenhouse gas inventorying and entire production chain analysis. There is a considerable potential for process integration in the biofuel sector. This project plans to develop biofuel production processes adopted in Estonia and India with a major aim of enhancing biofuel

  16. Ole Bornedals Danmarksfilm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2016-01-01

    Dette kapitel sætter fokus på den politiske reception af 1864. Først viser jeg, hvordan der er en række interessante ligheder mellem Poul Henningensens Danmark (1935) og 1864; ligheder, der ikke som sådan er indholdsmæssige ud over, at både Danmark og 1864 tematiserer nogle nationale synspunkter;...... diskuterer jeg, hvorvidt Ole Bornedal selv kan siges at være kulturradikal, og i så fald på hvilken måde....

  17. Light management in flexible OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkema, Stephan; Pendyala, Raghu K.; Geurts, Christian G. C.; Helgers, Paul L. J.; Levell, Jack W.; Wilson, Joanne S.; MacKerron, Duncan

    2014-10-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are a promising lighting technology. In particular OLEDs fabricated on plastic foils are believed to hold the future. These planar devices are subject to various optical losses, which requires sophisticated light management solutions. Flexible OLEDs on plastic substrates are as prone to losses related to wave guiding as devices on glass. However, we determined that OLEDs on plastic substrates are susceptible to another loss mode due to wave guiding in the thin film barrier. With modeling of white polymer OLEDs fabricated on PEN substrates, we demonstrate that this loss mode is particularly sensitive to polarized light emission. Furthermore, we investigated how thin film barrier approaches can be combined with high index light extraction layers. Our analysis shows that OLEDs with a thin film barrier consisting of an inorganic/organic/inorganic layer sequence, a low index inorganic negatively affects the OLED efficiency. We conclude that high index inorganics are more suitable for usage in high efficiency flexible OLEDs.

  18. OLEDs for lighting: new approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Anil R.; Foust, Donald F.; Nealon, William F.; Heller, Christian M.

    2004-02-01

    OLED technology has improved to the point where it is now possible to envision developing OLEDs as a low cost solid state light source. In order to realize this, significant advances have to be made in device efficiency, lifetime at high brightness, high throughput fabrication, and the generation of illumination quality white light. In this talk, the requirements for general lighting will be reviewed and various approaches to meeting them will be outlined. Emphasis will be placed on a new monolithic series-connected OLED design architecture that promises scalability without high fabrication cost or design complexity.

  19. Maailmaparandajad / Ole Ry, Susanne Andres

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ry, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Terapeudid Ole Ry ja Susanne Andres räägivad Dr David Berceli loodud TRE (Tension & Trauma Releasing Exercises) harjutuste kasutamise kogemusest erinevate psüühiliste traumade ja pingetega klientide tervise parandamisel

  20. Top emitting white OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitag, Patricia; Luessem, Bjoern; Leo, Karl [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, George-Baehr-Strasse 1, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Top emitting organic light emitting diodes (TOLEDs) provide a number of interesting opportunities for new applications, such as the opportunity to fabricate ITO-free devices by using opaque substrates. This makes it possible to manufacture low cost OLEDs for signage and lighting applications. A general top emitting device consists of highly reflecting metal contacts as anode and semitransparent cathode, the latter one for better outcouling reasons. In between several organic materials are deposited as charge transporting, blocking, and emission layers. Here, we show a top emitting white organic light emitting diode with silver electrodes arranged in a p-i-n structure with p- and n-doped charge transport layers. The centrical emission layer consists of two phosphorescent (red and green) and one fluorescent (blue) emitter systems separated by an ambipolar interlayer to avoid mutual exciton quenching. By adding an additional dielectric capping layer on top of the device stack, we achieve a reduction of the strong microcavity effects which appear due to the high reflection of both metal electrodes. Therefore, the outcoupled light shows broad and nearly angle-independent emission spectra, which is essential for white light emitting diodes.

  1. OLED microdisplays technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Templier, François

    2014-01-01

    Microdisplays are displays requiring optical magnification and OLEDs (Organic Light-Emitting Diode) are self-emitting displays where each pixel includes a LED made of organic material, in general composed of small-molecule organic material. This title reviews in detail how OLED microdisplays are made as well as how they are used. All aspects from theory to application will be addressed: basic principles, display design, display fabrication, operation and performances, present and future applications. The book will be useful to anyone interested in this rapidly developing field, such as studen

  2. Ole Rømer-Observatoriet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Hans; Knudsen, Ole J.; Nielsen, Axel V.

    Siden 1911 har der ligget et astronomisk observatorium i Århus. Ole Rømer-Observatoriet blev efter en turbulent start drevet af kommunen, indtil Aarhus Universitet i 1956 overtog det. Der har fra tid til anden været både kontroverser og trusler om lukning, men arbejdet på observatoriet har også...... fortæller museumsinspektør Hans Buhl og planetarieleder Ole J. Knudsen, begge Steno Museet, de næste 95 år af observatoriets brogede historie....

  3. Ole Søndergaards skriftdesign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlers, Steen Erik

    2005-01-01

    Grafikeren Ole Søndergaard (f. 1937) er oprindeligt uddannet som skiltemaler. Senere blev han elev af navnkundige skriftformgiver, Kunstakademiets første designprofessor, arkitekturen Gunnar Biilmann Petersen. I 1970'erne etablerede Ole Søndergaard, efter nogle år som medarbejder på Naur Klints...... tegnestue, egen tegnestue i Helsingør. Tegnestuen har i årenes løb stået for mangfoldige grafiske arbejder, hvor Ole Søndergaard ofte selv har tegnet de anvendte logo- og skilteskrifter. Skriftfamilien FF Signa, der fra 2000 er blevet udgivet på FontShop International, er Søndergaards første komplette...... digitale skriftfamilie - med mangfoldige anvendelsemuligheder. Forud ligger adskillige års arbejde, bl.a. støttet af Statens Kunstfond. Artiklen beskriver Biilmanns skole, Ole Søndergaards "før-digitale" alfabeter til bl.a. Helsingør Kommune og Knud Rasmussen-monumentet (på Strandvejen ved Klampenborg nord...

  4. Full-color OLED on silicon microdisplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Amalkumar P.

    2002-02-01

    eMagin has developed numerous enhancements to organic light emitting diode (OLED) technology, including a unique, up- emitting structure for OLED-on-silicon microdisplay devices. Recently, eMagin has fabricated full color SVGA+ resolution OLED microdisplays on silicon, with over 1.5 million color elements. The display is based on white light emission from OLED followed by LCD-type red, green and blue color filters. The color filters are patterned directly on OLED devices following suitable thin film encapsulation and the drive circuits are built directly on single crystal silicon. The resultant color OLED technology, with hits high efficiency, high brightness, and low power consumption, is ideally suited for near to the eye applications such as wearable PCS, wireless Internet applications and mobile phone, portable DVD viewers, digital cameras and other emerging applications.

  5. OVPD-processed OLED for general lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Bösing, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Due to continuous advancements of materials for organic light emitting diodes (OLED) a new field of application currently opens up for OLED technology: General lighting. A significant reduction of OLED production cost might be achieved by employing organic vapor phase deposition (OVPD). OVPD is a novel process for depositing organic thin films from the gas phase. In contrast to the well established process of vacuum thermal evaporation (VTE), OVPD allows to achieve much higher deposition rate...

  6. New Nordic Exceptionalism: Jeuno JE Kim and Ewa Einhorn's The United Nations of Norden and other realist utopias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Danbolt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available At the 2009 Nordic Culture Forum summit in Berlin that centered on the profiling and branding of the Nordic region in a globalized world, one presenter stood out from the crowd. The lobbyist Annika Sigurdardottir delivered a speech that called for the establishment of “The United Nations of Norden”: A Nordic union that would gather the nations and restore Norden's role as the “moral superpower of the world.” Sigurdardottir's presentation generated such a heated debate that the organizers had to intervene and reveal that the speech was a performance made by the artists Jeuno JE Kim and Ewa Einhorn. This article takes Kim and Einhorn's intervention as a starting point for a critical discussion of the history and politics of Nordic image-building. The article suggests that the reason Kim and Einhorn's speech passed as a serious proposal was due to its meticulous mimicking of two discursive formations that have been central to the debates on the branding of Nordicity over the last decades: on the one hand, the discourse of “Nordic exceptionalism,” that since the 1960s has been central to the promotion of a Nordic political, socio-economic, and internationalist “third way” model, and, on the other hand, the discourse on the “New Nordic,” that emerged out of the New Nordic Food-movement in the early 2000s, and which has given art and culture a privileged role in the international re-fashioning of the Nordic brand. Through an analysis of Kim and Einhorn's United Nations of Norden (UNN-performance, the article examines the historical development and ideological underpinnings of the image of Nordic unity at play in the discourses of Nordic exceptionalism and the New Nordic. By focusing on how the UNN-project puts pressure on the role of utopian imaginaries in the construction of Nordic self-images, the article describes the emergence of a discursive framework of New Nordic Exceptionalism.

  7. Ole Rømers mange talenter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kurt Møller

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen giver en oversigt over Ole Rømers videnskabelige liv som astronom, fysiker og matematiker samt hans betydning som kongelig embedsmand.......Artiklen giver en oversigt over Ole Rømers videnskabelige liv som astronom, fysiker og matematiker samt hans betydning som kongelig embedsmand....

  8. OLEDs : Technology's next generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2001-10-01

    Major advances in organic light emitting device (OLED) technology are bringing some science fiction concepts to the brink of reality. At the moment. OLED technology is being developed for the flat panel display industry. Liquid crystal display dominates the market for wristwatches and cellular phones for example, while the cathode ray tube plays the same role for television sets and desktop computers. Both have limitations when it comes to meeting the needs of the next generation of smart products. The attributes required include high brightness, low power consumption, high definition, full colour, wide preview angle, fast response time and portability, and low cost. OLED has the potential to meet all those requirements. Universal Display Corporation (UDC) was founded, and specializes in the development and commercialization of OLED technology. A partnership was established early with Princeton University professors, and no fewer than 20 researchers are working on OLED technology projects at both Princeton University and the University of Southern California. To date, 35 patents have been issued, and 60 others are pending. A joint development agreement was reached with Sony Corporation this year for high efficiency active matrix OLEDs to be used in large area monitor applications. OLED technology is based on vacuum-deposited organic small molecule materials that emit very bright light when electrically stimulated. Three advances in the technology were briefly discussed: TOLED{sup TM} for Transparent OLED, SOLED{sup TM} for Stacked OLED, and FOLED{sup TM} for Flexible OLED. A list detailing the various potential uses for the technology was also included in this paper. 3 figs.

  9. The coal mining industry in the north of Colorado and Arizona; Steinkohlenbergbau im Norden Colorados und Arizonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dressel, S.; Tschauder, A. [Kali und Salz AG Werk Werra, Philippsthal (Germany)

    2000-10-12

    A study tour in autumn 1999, which was undertaken following the award of the Helmuth Burkhardt prize of Wirtschaftsvereinigung Bergbau e.V. to the authors, comprised visits to potash, molybdenum, lead, zinc, copper ore and coal mines in the mid-west of the USA. The Black Mesa Mine and Kayenta Mine of Peabody Western Coal Company in the Navajo Reserve in the north of Arizona, the Trapper Mine Inc. near Craig and the Twentymile Coal Company near Steamboat Springs, Colorado are described in this report. In addition to a brief description of the geology the coal winning is considered in greater detail. The Twentymile Coal Company was asked to explain the reasons for the successful operation of the colliery, which produces more than 5 mill. t anthracite per year by long wall working. (orig.) [German] Eine Exkursion im Herbst 1999, die durch die Verleihung des Helmuth-Burkhard-Preises der Wirtschaftsvereinigung Bergbau e.V. an Bergassessor Andreas Tschauder zustande kam, fuehrte zu Kali-, Molybdaen-,Blei-, Zink-, Kupfererz- sowie Steinkohlenbergwerken im Mittleren Westen der USA. In diesem Bericht wird auf die Steinkohlenbergwerke Black Mesa Mine und Kayenta Mine der Peabody Western Coal Company im Navajo Reservat im Norden Arizonas, der Trapper Mine Inc. bei Craig sowie der Twentymile Coal Company, nahe Steamboat Springs, Colorado, eingegangen. Neben einer kurzen Abhandlung ueber die Geologie wird die Gewinnung naeher betrachtet. Bei der Twentymile Coal Company wird die Frage gestellt, welches die Gruende fuer die erfolgreiche Arbeit des Bergwerks sind, die im Langfrontabbau pro Jahr mehr als 5 Mill. t Glanzkohle gewinnt. (orig.)

  10. High Performance OLED Panel and Luminaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, Jeffrey [OLEDWorks LLC, Rochester, NY (United States)

    2017-02-20

    In this project, OLEDWorks developed and demonstrated the technology required to produce OLED lighting panels with high energy efficiency and excellent light quality. OLED panels developed in this program produce high quality warm white light with CRI greater than 85 and efficacy up to 80 lumens per watt (LPW). An OLED luminaire employing 24 of the high performance panels produces practical levels of illumination for general lighting, with a flux of over 2200 lumens at 60 LPW. This is a significant advance in the state of the art for OLED solid-state lighting (SSL), which is expected to be a complementary light source to the more advanced LED SSL technology that is rapidly replacing all other traditional forms of lighting.

  11. Integrated Plastic Substrates for OLED Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaynor, Whitney

    2015-08-01

    OLED lighting has immense potential as aesthetically pleasing, energy-efficient general illumination. Unlike other light sources, such as incandescents, fluorescents, and inorganic LEDs, OLEDs naturally emit over a large-area surface. They are glare free, do not need to be shaded, and are cool to the touch, requiring no heatsink. The best efficiencies and lifetimes reported are on par with or better than current forms of illumination. However, the cost for OLED lighting remains high – so much so that these products are not market competitive and there is very low consumer demand. We believe that flexible, plastic-based devices will highlight the advantages of aesthetically-pleasing OLED lighting systems while paving the way for lowering both materials and manufacturing costs. These flexible devices require new development in substrate and support technology, which was the focus of the work reported here. The project team, led by Sinovia Technologies, has developed integrated plastic substrates to serve as supports for flexible OLED lighting. The substrates created in this project would enable large-area, flexible devices and are specified to perform three functions. They include a barrier to protect the OLED from moisture and oxygen-related degradation, a smooth, highly conductive transparent electrode to enable large-area device operation, and a light scattering layer to improve emission efficiency. Through the course of this project, integrated substrates were fabricated, characterized, evaluated for manufacturing feasibility and cost, and used in white OLED demonstrations to test their impact on flexible OLED lighting. Our integrated substrates meet or exceed the DOE specifications for barrier performance in water vapor and oxygen transport rates, as well as the transparency and conductivity of the anode film. We find that these integrated substrates can be manufactured in a completely roll-to-roll, high throughput process and have developed and demonstrated

  12. CALiPER Report 24: OLED Luminaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Leon, F. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Davis, J. L. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This report documents an initial investigation of OLED luminaires and summarizes the key features of those products. In addition to photometric testing of four commercial products in independent laboratories, PNNL examined many of the products through teardown testing (disassemblies to identify parts and functionality) in PNNL laboratories. Results of these tests as well as results of stress testing of several OLED luminaires at RTI International have been included.

  13. OLED microdisplay design and materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacyk, Ihor; Prache, Olivier; Ali, Tariq; Khayrullin, Ilyas; Ghosh, Amalkumar

    2010-04-01

    AMOLED microdisplays from eMagin Corporation are finding growing acceptance within the military display market as a result of their excellent power efficiency, wide operating temperature range, small size and weight, good system flexibility, and ease of use. The latest designs have also demonstrated improved optical performance including better uniformity, contrast, MTF, and color gamut. eMagin's largest format display is currently the SXGA design, which includes features such as a 30-bit wide RGB digital interface, automatic luminance regulation from -45 to +70°C, variable gamma control, and a dynamic range exceeding 50:000 to 1. This paper will highlight the benefits of eMagin's latest microdisplay designs and review the roadmap for next generation devices. The ongoing development of reduced size pixels and larger format displays (up to WUXGA) as well as new OLED device architecture (e.g. high-brightness yellow) will be discussed. Approaches being explored for improved performance in next generation designs such as lowpower serial interfaces, high frame rate operation, and new operational modes for reduction of motion artifacts will also be described. These developments should continue to enhance the appeal of AMOLED microdisplays for a broad spectrum of near-to-the-eye applications such as night vision, simulation and training, situational awareness, augmented reality, medical imaging, and mobile video entertainment and gaming.

  14. Optical analysis of down-conversion OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krummacher, Benjamin; Klein, Markus; von Malm, Norwin; Winnacker, Albrecht

    2008-02-01

    Phosphor down-conversion of blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is one approach to generate white light, which offers the possibility of easy color tuning, a simple device architecture and color stability over lifetime. In this article previous work on down-conversion devices in the field of organic solid state lighting is briefly reviewed. Further, bottom emitting down-conversion OLEDs are studied from an optical point of view. Therefore the physical processes occurring in the down-conversion layer are translated into a model which is implemented in a ray tracing simulation. By comparing its predictions to experimental results the model is confirmed. For the experiments a blue-emitting polymer OLED (PLED) panel optically coupled to a series of down-conversion layers is used. Based on results obtained from ray tracing simulation some of the implications of the model for the performance of down-conversion OLEDs are discussed. In particular it is analysed how the effective reflectance of the underlying blue OLED and the particle size distribution of the phosphor powder embedded in the matrix of the down-conversion layer influence extraction efficiency.

  15. Efficient organic light emitting-diodes (OLEDs)

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Yi-Lu

    2015-01-01

    Following two decades of intense research globally, the organic light-emitting diode (OLED) has steadily emerged as the ultimate display technology of choice for the coming decades. Portable active matrix OLED displays have already become prevalent, and even large-sized ultra-high definition 4K TVs are being mass-produced. More exotic applications such as wearable displays have been commercialized recently. With the burgeoning success in displays, researchers are actively bringing the technology forward into the exciting solid-state lighting market. This book presents the knowledge needed for

  16. Organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) and OLED-based chemical and biological sensors: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinar, Joseph [Ames Laboratory-USDOE and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Shinar, Ruth [Microelectronics Research Center, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2008-07-07

    The basic photophysics, transport properties, state of the art, and challenges in OLED science and technology, and the major developments in structurally integrated OLED-based luminescent chemical and biological sensors are reviewed briefly. The dramatic advances in OLED performance have resulted in devices with projected continuous operating lifetimes of {approx}2 x 10{sup 5} h ({approx}23 yr) at {approx}150 Cd m{sup -2} (the typical brightness of a computer monitor or TV). Consequently, commercial products incorporating OLEDs, e.g., cell phones, MP3 players, and, most recently, OLED TVs, are rapidly proliferating. The progress in elucidating the photophysics and transport properties, occurring in tandem with the development of OLEDs, has been no less dramatic. It has resulted in a detailed understanding of the dynamics of trapped and mobile negative and positive polarons (to which the electrons and holes, respectively, relax upon injection), and of singlet and triplet excitons. It has also yielded a detailed understanding of the spin dynamics of polarons and triplet excitons, which affects their overall dynamics significantly. Despite the aforementioned progress, there are outstanding challenges in OLED science and technology, notably in improving the efficiency of the devices and their stability at high brightness (>1000 Cd m{sup -2}). One of the most recent emerging OLED-based technologies is that of structurally integrated photoluminescence-based chemical and biological sensors. This sensor platform, pioneered by the authors, yields uniquely simple and potentially very low-cost sensor (micro)arrays. The second part of this review describes the recent developments in implementing this platform for gas phase oxygen, dissolved oxygen (DO), anthrax lethal factor, and hydrazine sensors, and for a DO, glucose, lactate, and ethanol multianalyte sensor. (topical review)

  17. Organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) and OLED-based chemical and biological sensors: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    The basic photophysics, transport properties, state of the art, and challenges in OLED science and technology, and the major developments in structurally integrated OLED-based luminescent chemical and biological sensors are reviewed briefly. The dramatic advances in OLED performance have resulted in devices with projected continuous operating lifetimes of ∼2 x 10 5 h (∼23 yr) at ∼150 Cd m -2 (the typical brightness of a computer monitor or TV). Consequently, commercial products incorporating OLEDs, e.g., cell phones, MP3 players, and, most recently, OLED TVs, are rapidly proliferating. The progress in elucidating the photophysics and transport properties, occurring in tandem with the development of OLEDs, has been no less dramatic. It has resulted in a detailed understanding of the dynamics of trapped and mobile negative and positive polarons (to which the electrons and holes, respectively, relax upon injection), and of singlet and triplet excitons. It has also yielded a detailed understanding of the spin dynamics of polarons and triplet excitons, which affects their overall dynamics significantly. Despite the aforementioned progress, there are outstanding challenges in OLED science and technology, notably in improving the efficiency of the devices and their stability at high brightness (>1000 Cd m -2 ). One of the most recent emerging OLED-based technologies is that of structurally integrated photoluminescence-based chemical and biological sensors. This sensor platform, pioneered by the authors, yields uniquely simple and potentially very low-cost sensor (micro)arrays. The second part of this review describes the recent developments in implementing this platform for gas phase oxygen, dissolved oxygen (DO), anthrax lethal factor, and hydrazine sensors, and for a DO, glucose, lactate, and ethanol multianalyte sensor. (topical review)

  18. Maal ei ole surnud / Jaan Elken

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elken, Jaan, 1954-

    2001-01-01

    Põhjamaade ja Baltikumi I maalibiennaal Rootsis Väsbys. Biennaali Rootsi-poolne kuraator ja kujundaja Ricardo Donoso, Eesti komplekti koostas Mare Pedanik. Eksponeeritud on Tiit Pääsukese, Ado Lille, Andres Toltsi, Kaido Ole, Jaan Elkeni tööd. Näituse ülevaade, eraldi peatutud Leedu ja Läti kunstnikel

  19. Povl Ole Fanger's impact ten years later

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d'Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca Romana; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Palella, Boris Igor

    2017-01-01

    This paper pays tribute to Povl Ole Fanger, the late professor at the Technical University of Denmark. His scientific studies, focused on the main parameters affecting indoor environmental quality, have inspired (and still inspire) professional design engineers and academic researchers on human t...

  20. "Kuhu kadunud oled ..." : [luuletused] / Aleksandr Belonogov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Belonogov, Aleksandr

    2004-01-01

    Sisu: "Kuhu kadunud oled ..." ; "Puude juured haaravad ..." ; "Nagu hiljuti eraldi teelt ..." ; "Kui kord enam mõista ma ..." ; Käänded ; Väravale on kirjutatud ; Rahvas ütleb. Eluloolisi andmeid autori kohta lk. 361. Luuletused paralleelselt udmurdi ja eesti keeles

  1. Single side Emitting Transparent OLED lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lifka, H.; Verschuren, C.A.; Bruls, D.M.; Tanase, C.

    2011-01-01

    Transparent OLEDs offer great potential for novel applications. Preferably, the light should be emitted from one side only. This can bedone to some extent by modifying electrode thicknesses, but at the cost of reduced transparency. Here, we demonstrate a new approach tomake single side emissive

  2. High Efficiency, Illumination Quality OLEDs for Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Shiang; James Cella; Kelly Chichak; Anil Duggal; Kevin Janora; Chris Heller; Gautam Parthasarathy; Jeffery Youmans; Joseph Shiang

    2008-03-31

    The goal of the program was to demonstrate a 45 lumen per watt white light device based upon the use of multiple emission colors through the use of solution processing. This performance level is a dramatic extension of the team's previous 15 LPW large area illumination device. The fundamental material system was based upon commercial polymer materials. The team was largely able to achieve these goals, and was able to deliver to DOE a 90 lumen illumination source that had an average performance of 34 LPW a 1000 cd/m{sup 2} with peak performances near 40LPW. The average color temperature is 3200K and the calculated CRI 85. The device operated at a brightness of approximately 1000cd/m{sup 2}. The use of multiple emission colors particularly red and blue, provided additional degrees of design flexibility in achieving white light, but also required the use of a multilayered structure to separate the different recombination zones and prevent interconversion of blue emission to red emission. The use of commercial materials had the advantage that improvements by the chemical manufacturers in charge transport efficiency, operating life and material purity could be rapidly incorporated without the expenditure of additional effort. The program was designed to take maximum advantage of the known characteristics of these material and proceeded in seven steps. (1) Identify the most promising materials, (2) assemble them into multi-layer structures to control excitation and transport within the OLED, (3) identify materials development needs that would optimize performance within multilayer structures, (4) build a prototype that demonstrates the potential entitlement of the novel multilayer OLED architecture (5) integrate all of the developments to find the single best materials set to implement the novel multilayer architecture, (6) further optimize the best materials set, (7) make a large area high illumination quality white OLED. A photo of the final deliverable is shown

  3. Designing High Efficient Solar Powered OLED Lighting Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Rasmus Overgaard; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Thorsteinsson, Sune

    2016-01-01

    for the 10 Wp version. Furthermore, we present measurements of state-of-the-art commercial available OLED with regards to the luminous flux, luminous efficacy, luminance homogeneity, temperature dependency and IV characteristic of the OLED panels. In addition, solar powered OLED product concepts are proposed.......OLEDs used in solar powered lighting applications is a market of the future. This paper reports the development of electronic Three-Port-Converters for PV OLED product integration in the low-power area respectively for 1-10 Wp and 10-50 Wp with a peak efficiency of 97% at 1.8 W of PV power...

  4. Highly efficient fully transparent inverted OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J.; Winkler, T.; Hamwi, S.; Schmale, S.; Kröger, M.; Görrn, P.; Johannes, H.-H.; Riedl, T.; Lang, E.; Becker, D.; Dobbertin, T.; Kowalsky, W.

    2007-09-01

    One of the unique selling propositions of OLEDs is their potential to realize highly transparent devices over the visible spectrum. This is because organic semiconductors provide a large Stokes-Shift and low intrinsic absorption losses. Hence, new areas of applications for displays and ambient lighting become accessible, for instance, the integration of OLEDs into the windshield or the ceiling of automobiles. The main challenge in the realization of fully transparent devices is the deposition of the top electrode. ITO is commonly used as transparent bottom anode in a conventional OLED. To obtain uniform light emission over the entire viewing angle and a low series resistance, a TCO such as ITO is desirable as top contact as well. However, sputter deposition of ITO on top of organic layers causes damage induced by high energetic particles and UV radiation. We have found an efficient process to protect the organic layers against the ITO rf magnetron deposition process of ITO for an inverted OLED (IOLED). The inverted structure allows the integration of OLEDs in more powerful n-channel transistors used in active matrix backplanes. Employing the green electrophosphorescent material Ir(ppy) 3 lead to IOLED with a current efficiency of 50 cd/A and power efficiency of 24 lm/W at 100 cd/m2. The average transmittance exceeds 80 % in the visible region. The on-set voltage for light emission is lower than 3 V. In addition, by vertical stacking we achieved a very high current efficiency of more than 70 cd/A for transparent IOLED.

  5. OLED Display For Real Time Vision System

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhyalakshmi Narayanan; Sanjana Sridhar; Neha Deshpande; Ashwini Gaikwad

    2015-01-01

    This innovative glass design will carry an OLED based display controlled via nano Ardiuno board having Bluetooth connectivity with a Smartphone to exchange information along with onboard accelerometer. We are using a tilt angle sensor for detecting if the driver is feeling drowsy. An alcohol sensor has been used to promote the safe driving habit. The glasses will be getting latest updates about the current speed of the vehicle navigation directions nearby or approaching sign broads or service...

  6. A Novel Lighting OLED Panel Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enyang Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel OLED (organic light emitting diode lighting panel, which uses a special layout design, can reduce the photolithography cycles and process costs and is more reliable. It only needs two steps of photolithography cycles, which include an ITO (InSnO compound transparent oxide pattern and insulator pattern. There is no need for the metal bus pattern of the ordinary design. The OLED device structure is a type of red–green–blue (RGB-stacked emitting layer that has a good color index and greater adjustability, which improves the performance of the device. This novel design has the same equipment and material requirement compared to the ordinary design, and it is very beneficial in terms of high volume and low-cost production. It uses a hyper driving method because the entire OLED lighting panel is divided into many sub-emitting units; if one of the sub-emitting units is burned out, it has no effect on the adjacent sub-emitting unit, so the reliability is markedly better than the ordinary design.

  7. Triarylborane-Based Materials for OLED Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulsen Turkoglu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Multidisciplinary research on organic fluorescent molecules has been attracting great interest owing to their potential applications in biomedical and material sciences. In recent years, electron deficient systems have been increasingly incorporated into fluorescent materials. Triarylboranes with the empty p orbital of their boron centres are electron deficient and can be used as strong electron acceptors in conjugated organic fluorescent materials. Moreover, their applications in optoelectronic devices, energy harvesting materials and anion sensing, due to their natural Lewis acidity and remarkable solid-state fluorescence properties, have also been investigated. Furthermore, fluorescent triarylborane-based materials have been commonly utilized as emitters and electron transporters in organic light emitting diode (OLED applications. In this review, triarylborane-based small molecules and polymers will be surveyed, covering their structure-property relationships, intramolecular charge transfer properties and solid-state fluorescence quantum yields as functional emissive materials in OLEDs. Also, the importance of the boron atom in triarylborane compounds is emphasized to address the key issues of both fluorescent emitters and their host materials for the construction of high-performance OLEDs.

  8. Manufacturing Process for OLED Integrated Substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Cheng-Hung [Vitro Flat Glass LLC, Cheswick, PA (United States). Glass Technology Center

    2017-03-31

    The main objective of this project was to develop a low-cost integrated substrate for rigid OLED solid-state lighting produced at a manufacturing scale. The integrated substrates could include combinations of soda lime glass substrate, light extraction layer, and an anode layer (i.e., Transparent Conductive Oxide, TCO). Over the 3+ year course of the project, the scope of work was revised to focus on the development of a glass substrates with an internal light extraction (IEL) layer. A manufacturing-scale float glass on-line particle embedding process capable of producing an IEL glass substrate having a thickness of less than 1.7mm and an area larger than 500mm x 400mm was demonstrated. Substrates measuring 470mm x 370mm were used in the OLED manufacturing process for fabricating OLED lighting panels in single pixel devices as large as 120.5mm x 120.5mm. The measured light extraction efficiency (calculated as external quantum efficiency, EQE) for on-line produced IEL samples (>50%) met the project’s initial goal.

  9. A novel AOI system for OLED panel inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perng, D B; Chen, Y C; Lee, M K

    2005-01-01

    Organic light emitting diode (OLED) technology uses substances that emit red, green, blue or white light. An OLED panel consists of stacks of several thin layers of different materials, as such it is not easy to inspect the common OLED defects. In this paper, an autooptical inspection (AOI) system which can detect such defects effectively and robustly was proposed and developed. The proposed system can also identify, in which layer the defect occurred. Meanwhile, a moving mechanism coupled with a lighting mechanism was proposed and implemented for grabbing clear images. The proposed AOI system would provide great help in improving the OLED production process and the quality control process

  10. Ole Worm-Liv og videnskabTidstavle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    hæftet indeholder syv artikler om Ole Worms liv, videnskab, museum, slægtsportrætter, antikvariske arbejder og om installationen Room One......hæftet indeholder syv artikler om Ole Worms liv, videnskab, museum, slægtsportrætter, antikvariske arbejder og om installationen Room One...

  11. Kaido Ole seintel ja kaante vahel / Valner Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Valner, 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Kunstnik Kaido Ole (sünd. 1963) eluloolisi andmeid, looming. Eesti Kunstiakadeemia andis välja kataloogi "Ole", toimetaja Eero Epner. Kunstinäitus "Jonas & Kaido" koos Jonas Gasiunasega Vilniuse Vartai galeriis. Näitus "Hümn" Vaal galeriis

  12. OLED Display For Real Time Vision System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhyalakshmi Narayanan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This innovative glass design will carry an OLED based display controlled via nano Ardiuno board having Bluetooth connectivity with a Smartphone to exchange information along with onboard accelerometer. We are using a tilt angle sensor for detecting if the driver is feeling drowsy. An alcohol sensor has been used to promote the safe driving habit. The glasses will be getting latest updates about the current speed of the vehicle navigation directions nearby or approaching sign broads or services like petrol pumps. Itll also display information like incoming calls or received messages. All this information will be obtained through a Smartphone connected via Bluetooth. Also the car mileage can be monitored with help of fuel sensor as the consumption of fuel is directly related to it. Abnormalities if detected will be immediately notified in the glasses. Also the angle of the tilt angle sensor can be defined and set by the user according to his needs. Also the main idea of using OLED glasses is that it is organic thereby helps in reducing the carbon footprint and is quite slim. Therefore it can be easily mounted on the specs without making it heavy. Also they higher level of flexibility and have low power drain and energy consumption

  13. OLED-polypropylene bio-CD sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengasandra, Srikanth; Cai, Yuankun; Grewell, David; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth

    2008-08-01

    With the goal of developing microfluidic platforms for sensing applications, flash-free micro patterns were embossed in polypropylene surfaces with ultrasonic heating for a biosensing lab-on-CD application. The embossed features were designed to act as reservoirs, valves, and reaction chambers to allow, in combination with a compact sensing platform, the monitoring of analyte levels using a standard PC-CD player. To generate the compact sensor, as an example, we chose the photoluminescence (PL)-based detection of lactate and glucose using an OLED-based sensing platform. Once embossed, the surface energy of the plastic substrate was chemically modified to make it hydrophilic. Reagents, placed in separate reservoirs, were directed through burst valves towards a reaction chamber via CD rotation. Lactate or glucose were monitored by measuring the effect of the related dissolved oxygen level on the PL decay time of an oxygen-sensitive dye, following analyte oxidation catalyzed by a suitable specific oxidase enzyme. The results demonstrate the potential of integrating OLEDs as excitation sources in PL-based sensors with microfluidic CD-based platforms, including for simultaneous multiple analyses.

  14. Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDS) and OLED-based structurally integrated optical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yuankun

    2010-01-01

    General introduction to OLED basics and OLED-based structurally integrated sensors was provided in chapter 1 and chapter 2. As discussed in chapter 3, OLEDs were developed or improved using novel engineering methods for better charge injection (increased by over 1 order of magnitude) and efficiency. As the excitation sources, these OLEDs have preferred characteristics for sensor applications, including narrowed emission, emission at desired wavelength, and enhanced output for reduced EL background, higher absorption and improved device lifetime. In addition to OLEDs with desired performance, sensor integration requires oxidase immobilization with the sensor film for O 2 -based biological and chemical sensing. Nanoparticles such as ZnO have large surface area and high isoelectric point (∼9.5), which favors enzyme immobilization via physical adsorption as well as Coulombic bonding. In chapter 4, it was demonstrated that ZnO could be used for this purpose, although future work is needed to further bond the ZnO to the sensor film. In chapter 5, single unit sensor was extended to multianalyte parallel sensing based on an OLED platform, which is compact and integrated with silicon photodiodes and electronics. Lactate and glucose were simultaneously monitored with a low limit of detection 0.02 mM, fast response time (∼ 1 minute) and dynamic range from 0-8.6 ppm of dissolved oxygen. As discovered in previous work, the dynamic range covers 0-100% gas phase O 2 or 0-40 ppm dissolved oxygen at room temperature. PL decay curve, which is used to extract the decay time, is usually not a simple exponential at high O 2 concentration, which indicates that O 2 is not equally accessible for different luminescent sites. This creates a challenge for data analysis, which however was successfully processed by stretched exponential as shown in chapter 6. This also provides an insight about the distribution of O 2 :dye collisional quenching rate due to microheterogeneity. Effect of Ti

  15. Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDS) and OLED-based structurally integrated optical sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yuankun [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    General introduction to OLED basics and OLED-based structurally integrated sensors was provided in chapter 1 and chapter 2. As discussed in chapter 3, OLEDs were developed or improved using novel engineering methods for better charge injection (increased by over 1 order of magnitude) and efficiency. As the excitation sources, these OLEDs have preferred characteristics for sensor applications, including narrowed emission, emission at desired wavelength, and enhanced output for reduced EL background, higher absorption and improved device lifetime. In addition to OLEDs with desired performance, sensor integration requires oxidase immobilization with the sensor film for O2-based biological and chemical sensing. Nanoparticles such as ZnO have large surface area and high isoelectric point (~9.5), which favors enzyme immobilization via physical adsorption as well as Coulombic bonding. In chapter 4, it was demonstrated that ZnO could be used for this purpose, although future work is needed to further bond the ZnO to the sensor film. In chapter 5, single unit sensor was extended to multianalyte parallel sensing based on an OLED platform, which is compact and integrated with silicon photodiodes and electronics. Lactate and glucose were simultaneously monitored with a low limit of detection 0.02 mM, fast response time (~1 minute) and dynamic range from 0-8.6 ppm of dissolved oxygen. As discovered in previous work, the dynamic range covers 0-100% gas phase O2 or 0-40 ppm dissolved oxygen at room temperature. PL decay curve, which is used to extract the decay time, is usually not a simple exponential at high O2 concentration, which indicates that O2 is not equally accessible for different luminescent sites. This creates a challenge for data analysis, which however was successfully processed by stretched exponential as shown in chapter 6. This also provides an insight about the distribution of O2:dye collisional quenching

  16. Large-area OLED lightings and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J W; Shin, D C; Park, S H

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we review the key issues related to the fabrication of large-area organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) for lighting applications. We discuss the origin of a short-circuit problem, luminance non-uniformity, hot spot, efficiency reduction (power loss), and heat generation and present the way of suppressing them. We also introduce three different application areas of large-area OLED lighting panels. They can be integrated with a solar cell for power recycling or inorganic LEDs for emotional lightings. The feasibility of using OLEDs for the application of visible-light communications is also reviewed

  17. Integration of OLE into the TACL control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowling, B.; Douglas, D.; Kewisch, J.; Kloeppel, P.; Kraft, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    OLE, the On-Line Envelope program, is a first-order optics code which was designed to provide fast lattice transfer functions from actual accelerator magnet and cavity control values. This paper addresses the results of a successful integration of OLE into the CEBAF control system, TACL. This marriage provides the user with the ability for obtaining real-time Twiss parameters and transfer functions which reflect the current operational state of the machine. The resultant OLE calculation provides the analytical core for many control and diagnostic functions used at CEBAF, including focusing corrections, orbit corrections, emittance measurements, and beamline analysis

  18. Polymer OLED White Light Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homer Antoniadis; Vi-En Choong; Stelios Choulis; Brian Cumpston; Rahul Gupta; Mathew Mathai; Michael Moyer; Franky So

    2005-12-19

    OSRAM Opto Semiconductors (OSRAM) successfully completed development, fabrication and characterization of the large area, polymer based white light OLED prototype at their OLED Research and Development (R&D) facility in San Jose, CA. The program, funded by the Department of Energy (DOE), consisted of three key objectives: (1) Develop new polymer materials and device architectures--in order to improve the performance of organic light emitters. (2) Develop processing techniques--in order to demonstrate and enable the manufacturing of large area, white light and color tunable, solid state light sources. (3) Develop new electronics and driving schemes for organic light sources, including color-tunable light sources. The key performance goals are listed. A world record efficiency of 25 lm/W was established for the solution processed white organic device from the significant improvements made during the project. However, the challenges to transfer this technology from an R&D level to a large tile format such as, the robustness of the device and the coating uniformity of large area panels, remain. In this regard, the purity and the blend nature of the materials are two factors that need to be addressed in future work. During the first year, OSRAM's Materials and Device group (M&D) worked closely with the major polymer material suppliers to develop the polymer emissive technology. M&D was successful in demonstrating a 7-8 lm/W white light source which was based on fluorescent materials. However, it became apparent that the major gains in efficiency could only be made if phosphorescent materials were utilized. Thus, in order to improve the performance of the resulting devices, the focus of the project shifted towards development of solution-processable phosphorescent light emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) and device architectures. The result is a higher efficiency than the outlined project milestone.

  19. Progress of OLED devices with high efficiency at high luminance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Carmen; Ingram, Grayson; Lu, Zhenghong

    2014-03-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have progressed significantly over the last two decades. For years, OLEDs have been promoted as the next generation technology for flat panel displays and solid-state lighting due to their potential for high energy efficiency and dynamic range of colors. Although high efficiency can readily be obtained at low brightness levels, a significant decline at high brightness is commonly observed. In this report, we will review various strategies for achieving highly efficient phosphorescent OLED devices at high luminance. Specifically, we will provide details regarding the performance and general working principles behind each strategy. We will conclude by looking at how some of these strategies can be combined to produce high efficiency white OLEDs at high brightness.

  20. Ole Rømer som enevældens administrator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olden-Jørgensen, Sebastian

    2002-01-01

    En gennemgang af Ole Rømers liv med vægt på hans rolle som embedsmand og hans deltagelse eller mangel på samme i det politiske spil.......En gennemgang af Ole Rømers liv med vægt på hans rolle som embedsmand og hans deltagelse eller mangel på samme i det politiske spil....

  1. Seniorforsker Ole Hertel udnævnt til adjungeret professor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Christian

    2009-01-01

    Sektionsleder og seniorforsker Ole Hertel, Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser (DMU) ved Aarhus Universitet, er udnævnt til adjungeret professor ved Institut for Miljø, Samfund og Rumlig Forandring på Roskilde Universitet.......Sektionsleder og seniorforsker Ole Hertel, Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser (DMU) ved Aarhus Universitet, er udnævnt til adjungeret professor ved Institut for Miljø, Samfund og Rumlig Forandring på Roskilde Universitet....

  2. An examination of OLED display application to military equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J.; Lorimer, S.

    2010-04-01

    OLED display technology has developed sufficiently to support small format commercial applications such as cell-phone main display functions. Revenues seem sufficient to finance both performance improvements and to develop new applications. The situation signifies the possibility that OLED technology is on the threshold of credibility for military applications. This paper will examine both performance and some possible applications for the military ground mobile environment, identifying the advantages and disadvantages of this promising new technology.

  3. New Optoelectronic Technology Simplified for Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre F. S. Guedes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED, using an optically transparent substrate material and organic semiconductor materials, has been widely utilized by the electronic industry when producing new technological products. The OLED are the base Poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene, PEDOT, and Polyaniline, PANI, were deposited in Indium Tin Oxide, ITO, and characterized by UV-Visible Spectroscopy (UV-Vis, Optical Parameters (OP and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. In addition, the thin film obtained by the deposition of PANI, prepared in perchloric acid solution, was identified through PANI-X1. The result obtained by UV-Vis has demonstrated that the Quartz/ITO/PEDOT/PANI-X1 layer does not have displacement of absorption for wavelengths greaters after spin-coating and electrodeposition. Thus, the spectral irradiance of the OLED informed the irradiance of 100 W/m2, and this result, compared with the standard Light Emitting Diode (LED, has indicated that the OLED has higher irradiance. After 1000 hours of electrical OLED tests, the appearance of nanoparticles visible for images by SEM, to the migration process of organic semiconductor materials, was present, then. Still, similar to the phenomenon of electromigration observed in connections and interconnections of microelectronic devices, the results have revealed a new mechanism of migration, which raises the passage of electric current in OLED.

  4. de los hoteles españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Claver Cortés

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los hoteles necesitan cada vez más información para su correcta gestión y para maximizar su desempeño o éxito empresarial. De esta forma, en este estudio se analizan una serie de variables estratégicas clave que influyen directamente sobre el desempeño hotelero. Estas variables son el tamaño, el tipo de gestión y la categoría de los hoteles. En este trabajo, empleando la teoría de los grupos estratégicos, se han agrupado los hoteles españoles de entre 3 a 5 estrellas en función de cada una de estas variables estratégicas con el objetivo de determinar si influyen significativamente sobre el desempeño hotelero y en qué sentido. Entre los resultados que se han obtenido destacan el hecho de que a mayor tamaño y categoría, mayor es el desempeño que alcanzan los hoteles. Así mismo, los hoteles que pertenecen a cadenas alcanzan niveles de desempeño mayores que los independientes. Por lo tanto, de esta investigación se deducen importantes implicaciones para la dirección hotelera.

  5. Optical characterization of OLED emitter properties by radiation pattern analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaemmich, Michael

    2011-09-08

    Researches in both, academia and industry are investigating optical loss channels in OLED layered systems by means of optical simulation tools in order to derive promising concepts for a further enhancement of the overall device performance. Besides other factors, the prospects of success of such optimization strategies rely severely on the credibility of the optical input data. The present thesis provides a guideline to measure the active optical properties of OLED emitter materials in situ by radiation pattern analyses. Reliable and widely applicable methods are introduced to determine the internal electroluminescence spectrum, the profile of the emission zone, the dipole emitter orientation, and the internal luminescence quantum efficiency of emissive materials from the optical far field emission of OLEDs in electrical operation. The proposed characterization procedures are applied to sets of OLEDs containing both, fluorescent polymeric materials as well as phosphorescent small-molecular emitters, respectively. On the one hand, quite expected results are obtained. On the other hand, several novel and truly surprising results are found. Most importantly, this thesis contains the first report of a non-isotropic, mainly parallel emitter orientation in a phosphorescent small-molecular guest-host system (Ir(MDQ)2(acac) in a-NPD). Due to the latter result, emitter orientation based optimization of phosphorescent OLEDs seems to be within reach. Since parallel dipoles emit preferably into air, the utilization of smart emissive materials with advantageous molecular orientation is capable to boost the efficiency of phosphorescent OLEDs by 50%. Materials design, the influence of the matrix material and the substrate, as well as film deposition conditions are just a few parameters that need to be studied further in order to exploit the huge potential of the dipole emitter orientation in phosphorescent OLEDs.

  6. White OLED devices and processes for lighting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Nobuhiro; Tsuji, Hiroya; Ito, Norihiro; Matsuhisa, Yuko; Houzumi, Shingo; Nishimori, Taisuke

    2010-05-01

    In these days, the basic performances of white OLEDs are dramatically improved and application of OLEDs to "Lighting" is expected to be true in the near future. We have developed various technologies for OLED lighting with the aid of the Japanese governmental project, "High-efficiency lighting based on the organic light-emitting mechanism." In this project, a white OLED with high efficiency (37 lm/W) and high quality emission characteristics (CRI of 95 with a small variation of chromaticity in different directions and chromaticity just on the black-body radiation curve) applicable to "Lighting" was realized by a two-unit structure with a fluorescent deep blue emissive unit and a phosphorescent green and red emissive unit. Half-decay lifetime of this white OLED at 1,000 cd/m2 was over 40,000 h. A heat radiative, thin encapsulation structure (less than 1 mm) realized a very stable emission at high luminance of over 3,000 cd/m2. A new deposition source with a hot-wall and a rate controllable valve was developed. Thickness uniformity within +/- 3% at high deposition rate of over 8 nm/s, high material utilization of over 70 %, and repeatable deposition rate controllability were confirmed.

  7. Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-06-30

    The objective of the 'Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products' project is to demonstrate thin film packaging solutions based on SiC hermetic coatings that, when applied to glass and plastic substrates, support OLED lighting devices by providing longer life with greater efficiency at lower cost than is currently available. Phase I Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on optical glass with lifetime of 1,000 hour life, CRI greater than 75, and 15 lm/W. Phase II Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on plastic or glass composite with 25 lm/W, 5,000 hours life, and CRI greater than 80. Phase III Objective: Demonstrate 2 x 2 ft{sup 2} thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED with 40 lm/W, 10,000 hour life, and CRI greater than 85. This report details the efforts of Phase III (Budget Period Three), a fourteen month collaborative effort that focused on optimization of high-efficiency phosphorescent OLED devices and thin-film encapsulation of said devices. The report further details the conclusions and recommendations of the project team that have foundation in all three budget periods for the program. During the conduct of the Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products program, including budget period three, the project team completed and delivered the following achievements: (1) a three-year marketing effort that characterized the near-term and longer-term OLED market, identified customer and consumer lighting needs, and suggested prototype product concepts and niche OLED applications lighting that will give rise to broader market acceptance as a source for wide area illumination and energy conservation; (2) a thin film encapsulation technology with a lifetime of nearly 15,000 hours, tested by calcium coupons, while stored at 16 C and 40% relative humidity ('RH'). This encapsulation technology

  8. High Quantum Efficiency OLED Lighting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiang, Joseph [General Electric (GE) Global Research, Fairfield, CT (United States)

    2011-09-30

    The overall goal of the program was to apply improvements in light outcoupling technology to a practical large area plastic luminaire, and thus enable the product vision of an extremely thin form factor high efficiency large area light source. The target substrate was plastic and the baseline device was operating at 35 LPW at the start of the program. The target LPW of the program was a >2x improvement in the LPW efficacy and the overall amount of light to be delivered was relatively high 900 lumens. Despite the extremely difficult challenges associated with scaling up a wet solution process on plastic substrates, the program was able to make substantial progress. A small molecule wet solution process was successfully implemented on plastic substrates with almost no loss in efficiency in transitioning from the laboratory scale glass to large area plastic substrates. By transitioning to a small molecule based process, the LPW entitlement increased from 35 LPW to 60 LPW. A further 10% improvement in outcoupling efficiency was demonstrated via the use of a highly reflecting cathode, which reduced absorptive loss in the OLED device. The calculated potential improvement in some cases is even larger, ~30%, and thus there is considerable room for optimism in improving the net light coupling efficacy, provided absorptive loss mechanisms are eliminated. Further improvements are possible if scattering schemes such as the silver nanowire based hard coat structure are fully developed. The wet coating processes were successfully scaled to large area plastic substrate and resulted in the construction of a 900 lumens luminaire device.

  9. Evaluation of OLED and edge-lit LED lighting panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Xi; Narendran, Nadarajah; Zhu, Yiting; Freyssinier, Jean Paul

    2016-09-01

    Solid-state lighting (SSL) offers a new technology platform for lighting designers and end-users to illuminate spaces with low energy demand. Two types of SSL sources include organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). OLED is an area light source, and its primary competing technology is the edge-lit LED panel. Generally, both of these technologies are considered similar in shape and appearance, but there is little understanding of how people perceive discomfort glare from large area light sources. The objective of this study was to evaluate discomfort glare for the two lighting technologies under similar operating conditions by gathering observers' reactions. The human factors study results showed no statistically significant difference in human response to discomfort glare between OLED and edge-lit LED panels when the two light sources produced the same lighting stimulus. This means both technologies appeared equally glary beyond a certain luminance.

  10. OLED Luminaire with Panel Integrated Drivers and Advanced Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Michael [Acuity Brands Lighting, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States); Spindler, Jeff [OLEDWorks, Rochester, NY (United States)

    2017-01-31

    For this DOE award, Acuity Brands Lighting developed a novel OLED luminaire system featuring panel-integrated drivers at each individual OLED panel. The luminaire has a base station that receives user commands and performs AC/DC conversion. A power line communication (PLC) protocol is used to provide both power and digital control to each panel. A 66-panel CanvisTM luminaire using state-of-art OLED panels based on this system was successfully constructed. This is a first demonstration of such a luminaire architecture. It is also the first known implementation of this number of independently addressable nodes with a PLC protocol. This luminaire system architecture has added benefits in the flexibility of using multiple panel vendors for a given product, forward compatibility with future panels, and reduced luminaire wiring complexity and assembly time.

  11. White top emitting OLED with angle independent emission characteristic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomschke, Michael; Freitag, Patricia; Schwartz, Gregor; Nitsche, Robert; Walzer, Karsten; Leo, Karl [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, Georg-Baehr-Strasse 1, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The general device structure of a top emitting organic light emitting diode (OLED) consists of several organic layers sandwiched in between two metal contacts, with the top one being semitransparent for light outcoupling reasons. Due to the high reflectivity of the electrodes, strong microcavity effects occur which lead to a preferred emission of light of a certain wavelength with main outcoupling in forward direction. This creates rather narrow emission bands, accompanied by strong spectral shifts upon viewing angle variation. By using an organic capping layer on top of the semitransparent metal contact, this unwanted effect can be reduced. This is important especially for white light emission for the use of OLEDs in future lighting applications. Our optical simulations show that the strong angular dependence of the emission color almost vanishes. To verify the simulations we study white top emitting OLEDs based on an approach which are adapted to the top emitting case.

  12. Ole Rømer som enevældens administrator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olden-Jørgensen, Sebastian

    2004-01-01

    En biografisk skitse af Ole Rømers virke med vægt på hans rolle som embedsmand og rådgiver for Christian V. Hans virke analyseres på baggrund af en ny forståelse for den tidlige enevældes politiske kultur.......En biografisk skitse af Ole Rømers virke med vægt på hans rolle som embedsmand og rådgiver for Christian V. Hans virke analyseres på baggrund af en ny forståelse for den tidlige enevældes politiske kultur....

  13. Ole Bjørn Kraft 1893-1980

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian Houlberg

    2010-01-01

    Ole Bjørn Kraft (1893-1980) var en central konservativ politiker i årene før og efter anden verdenskrig. Han markerede sig som udpræget idépolitiker og opnåede ad flere omgange at blive minister.......Ole Bjørn Kraft (1893-1980) var en central konservativ politiker i årene før og efter anden verdenskrig. Han markerede sig som udpræget idépolitiker og opnåede ad flere omgange at blive minister....

  14. Green-emitting MADF complex for OLED applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimes, Kody; Zhu, Zhi-Qiang; Holloway, Sean; Li, Jian

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we demonstrated an exceptional palladium complex that exhibits both phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence for use as an efficient emitter in OLEDs. Devices employing PdN3N achieved external quantum efficiencies in excess of 22% and remarkable device operational lifetime to 90% initial luminance estimated at over 30,000 h at a practical luminance of 100 cd/m2. Further tuning of the phosphorescent and delayed fluorescent emission should have a great impact in the development of efficient and stable emitters for deep blue or white OLEDs.

  15. Active-matrix OLED (AMOLED) microdisplay for augmented-reality applications with improved color space

    OpenAIRE

    Thomschke, Michael; Fehse, Karsten; Richter, Bernd; Wartenberg, Philipp; Pfeifer, Richard; Vogel, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Our contribution describes the optimization of OLED microdisplays to increase the color gamut and to reduce the OLED complexity. We show that these improvements can be reached by a 3-color RGB-white OLED approach that features a single layer multicolor emitting zone, respectively.

  16. High Efficancy Integrated Under-Cabinet Phosphorescent OLED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Hack

    2001-10-31

    In this two year program Universal Display Corporation (UDC) together with the University of Michigan, Teknokon, developed and delivered an energy efficient phosphorescent OLED under cabinet illumination system. Specifically the UDC team goal was in 2011 to deliver five (5) Beta level OLED under cabinet lighting fixtures each consisting of five 6-inch x 6-inch OLED lighting panels, delivering over 420 lumens, at an overall system efficacy of >60 lm/W, a CRI of >85, and a projected lifetime to 70% of initial luminance to exceed 20,000 hours. During the course of this program, the Team pursued the commercialization of these OLED based under cabinet lighting fixtures, to enable the launch of commercial OLED lighting products. The UDC team was ideally suited to develop these novel and efficient solid state lighting fixtures, having both the technical experience and commercial distribution mechanisms to leverage work performed under this contract. UDC's business strategy is to non-exclusively license its PHOLED technology to lighting manufacturers, and also supply them with our proprietary PHOLED materials. UDC is currently working with several licensees who are manufacturing OLED lighting panels using our technology. During this 2 year program, we further developed our high efficiency white Phosphorescent OLEDs from the first milestone, achieving a 80 lm/W single pixel to the final milestone, achieving an under-cabinet PHOLED lighting system that operates at 56 lm/W at 420 lumens. Each luminaire was comprised of ten 15cm x 7.5cm lighting modules mounted in outcoupling enhancement lenses and a control module. The lamps modules are connected together using either plugs or wires with plugs on each end, allowing for unlimited configurations. The lamps are driven by an OLED driver mounted in an enclosure which includes the AC plug. As a result of advancements gained under this program, the path to move OLED lighting panels from development into manufacturing has been

  17. Enhanced performance of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and OLED-based photoluminescent sensing platforms by novel microstructures and device architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Rui [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    After a general introduction to OLEDs and OLED-based PL sensors, the transient emission mechanism of guest-host OLEDs is described both experimentally and theoretically. A monolithic and easy-to-apply process is demonstrated for fabricating multicolor microcavity OLEDs (that improve the sensor platform). The outcoupling issues of OLEDs at the substrate/air interface are addressed by using a microstructured polymer film resulting from a PS and polyethylene glycol (PEG) mixture. Based on the understanding of OLEDs and their improvement, research was done in order to realize integrated all organic-based O2 and pH sensors with improved signal intensity and sensitivity. The sensor design modification and optimization are summarized

  18. [Kas sa Tammsaaret oled lugenud? Kirjanduslik eluloovestlus Helga Nõuga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Tutvustus: Kas sa Tammsaaret oled lugenud? : kirjanduslik eluloovestlus Helga Nõuga : [pühendatud Helga Nõu 80. sünnipäevale] / koostaja Rutt Hinrikus. Tartu : Eesti Kirjandusmuuseumi Teaduskirjastus, 2014 ; Helga Nõu. Valetaja : mälestused, tõeotsimised. Tallinn : Eesti Ajalehed, 2011

  19. Prevention of short circuits in solution-processed OLED devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolt Oostra, A.; Blom, P.W.M.; Michels, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Pinholes in the emitting layer of an organic light emitting diode (OLED), e.g. induced by particle contamination or processing flaws, lead to direct contact between the hole-injection layer (HIL) and the cathode. The resulting short circuits give rise to catastrophic device failure. We demonstrate

  20. Een blik in het binnenste van een witte oled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, P.A.; Coehoorn, R.

    2013-01-01

    Witte organische iicht-emitterende diodes (oleds) voor verlichting hebben organische lagen van siechts enkele nanometers dik. Om de efficiëntie en stabiliteit te kunnen verbeteren, moeten we te weten komen waar bet licht precies wordt geëmitteerd. Reconstructie van bet emissieprofiel uit de gemeten

  1. Ole Ivar Lovaas--His Life, Merits and Legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özerk, Kamil; Vea, Gunvor Dalby; Eikeseth, Svein; Özerk, Meral

    2016-01-01

    Ole Ivar Lovaas (1927-2010) is known worldwide for his research within the field of Applied Behavior Analysis, and is probably the most influential researcher within the field of treatment of children with autism. In the first part of this biographically oriented paper, we inform the readers about his family background, childhood, elementary and…

  2. Linnugripp ei ole biorelv / Kevin Probert-Ehaver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Probert-Ehaver, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Vastukaja 10. juulil Eesti Ekspressis ilmunud artiklile "Linnugripp - surm katseklaasist", milles väidetakse, et linnugripp ning teised uued nakkushaigused on biorelvad. Kriisireguleerimise konsultant selgitab, et nii Eesti kui ka Ameerika spetsialistide hinnangul ei ole linnugripp kuidagi seotud biorelvade programmiga

  3. Development of a charge transport model for white OLEDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are promising candidates for future lighting applications since they can be made ultra-thin, color-tunable and exible. Improving their e??ciency is an important challenge in the ??eld of organic electronics. The availability of a device model can make the

  4. Simulations, measurements, and optimization of OLEDs with scattering layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altazin, S.; Reynaud, C.; Mayer, U.M.; Lanz, T.; Lapagna, K.; Knaack, R.; Peninck, L.; Kirsch, C.; Pernstich, K.P.; Harkema, S.; Hermes, D.; Ruhstaller, B.

    2015-01-01

    A multi-scale optical model for organic light-emitting devices containing scattering layers is presented. This model describes the radiation of embedded oscillating dipoles and scattering from spherical particles. After successful model validation with experiments on a top-emitting white OLED, we

  5. Improved multilayer OLED architecture using evolutionary genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirino, W.G.; Teixeira, K.C.; Legnani, C.; Calil, V.L.; Messer, B.; Neto, O.P. Vilela; Pacheco, M.A.C.; Cremona, M.

    2009-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) constitute a new class of emissive devices, which present high efficiency and low voltage operation, among other advantages over current technology. Multilayer architecture (M-OLED) is generally used to optimize these devices, specially overcoming the suppression of light emission due to the exciton recombination near the metal layers. However, improvement in recombination, transport and charge injection can also be achieved by blending electron and hole transporting layers into the same one. Graded emissive region devices can provide promising results regarding quantum and power efficiency and brightness, as well. The massive number of possible model configurations, however, suggests that a search algorithm would be more suitable for this matter. In this work, multilayer OLEDs were simulated and fabricated using Genetic Algorithms (GAs) as evolutionary strategy to improve their efficiency. Genetic Algorithms are stochastic algorithms based on genetic inheritance and Darwinian strife to survival. In our simulations, it was assumed a 50 nm width graded region, divided into five equally sized layers. The relative concentrations of the materials within each layer were optimized to obtain the lower V/J 0.5 ratio, where V is the applied voltage and J the current density. The best M-OLED architecture obtained by genetic algorithm presented a V/J 0.5 ratio nearly 7% lower than the value reported in the literature. In order to check the experimental validity of the improved results obtained in the simulations, two M-OLEDs with different architectures were fabricated by thermal deposition in high vacuum environment. The results of the comparison between simulation and some experiments are presented and discussed.

  6. Dielectric impedance and optical performance of quantum dots doped OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobin, Marc; Pellodi, Cédric; Emmenegger, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the effect of the incorporation of CdSe quantum dots (QD) in the standard ITO/TPD/Alq3/Al organic light emitting diodes (OLED's). The OLED's structures have been prepared in a double glove box coupled to a vacuum chamber containing both low and high temperature evaporators. For the standard (undoped) OLED's, the hole transport layer (HTL) consisting of 50nm of TPD is deposited by spin coating (8000rpm during 60 sec) and the 40nm of Alq3 were deposited at 2A/sec (organic crucible Radak-I). 150nm of Al were finally evaporated at 5A/s. For the CdSe-doped OLED's, the procedure was the same expect that the QD's were mixed with TPD in toluene before spin coating. During the thermal processing if the film, the QD's are expected to segregate to the surface, and then will be located at the TPD/Alq3 interface. The various layers were imaged by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) at each phase of the structure deposition, and we could indeed visualize the segregated QD's above the TPD film. AFM was systematically used to monitor the homogeneity and the thickness of the various films. The impedance of the non-encapsulated films structures were measured in air in the 40-40MHz frequency range, with bias at 0V (non-emitting), 2V (low emission) and 8V (strong emission). The corresponding dielectric spectra were analyzed with the standard Havriliak-Negami (HV) formula, where the conductive term has been subtracted from the data in case of light emission. We have measured a relaxation ranging from 100kHZ for the unbiased structure to 1MHz for 8V (strong emission). Apart from this expected relaxation, we found a second relaxation mechanism around 10 MHz. The origin of this second peak will be discussed. To monitor the optical emission of the OLED's, we have built a specific bench which allows for the quantitative measurement of the emission spectra and the dynamics behavior of the OLED's (raising and falling time). We found that the incorporation of the QD's unfortunately

  7. High efficiency and stable white OLED using a single emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). School of Mechanical, Aerospace, Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2016-01-18

    The ultimate objective of this project was to demonstrate an efficient and stable white OLED using a single emitter on a planar glass substrate. The focus of the project is on the development of efficient and stable square planar phosphorescent emitters and evaluation of such class of materials in the device settings. Key challenges included improving the emission efficiency of molecular dopants and excimers, controlling emission color of emitters and their excimers, and improving optical and electrical stability of emissive dopants. At the end of this research program, the PI has made enough progress to demonstrate the potential of excimer-based white OLED as a cost-effective solution for WOLED panel in the solid state lighting applications.

  8. An Approach for Measuring the Dielectric Strength of OLED Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujith Sudheendran Swayamprabha

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface roughness of electrodes plays a key role in the dielectric breakdown of thin-film organic devices. The rate of breakdown will increase when there are stochastic sharp spikes on the surface of electrodes. Additionally, surface having spiking morphology makes the determination of dielectric strength very challenging, specifically when the layer is relatively thin. We demonstrate here a new approach to investigate the dielectric strength of organic thin films for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs. The thin films were deposited on a substrate using physical vapor deposition (PVD under high vacuum. The device architectures used were glass substrate/indium tin oxide (ITO/organic material/aluminum (Al and glass substrate/Al/organic material/Al. The dielectric strength of the OLED materials was evaluated from the measured breakdown voltage and layer thickness.

  9. La felicidad de los españoles: Factores explicativos

    OpenAIRE

    Namkee Ahn; F. Mochón

    2007-01-01

    El presente trabajo analiza los factores explicativos de la felicidad de los españoles. Los resultados son consistentes con lo establecido por la literatura disponible. Los divorciados y los viudos son notablemente más infelices que los casados, el desempleo a aparece fuertemente correlacionado con la infelicidad, la felicidad aumenta con la renta de forma decreciente, la salud tiene una notable incidencia en la felicidad y la religión se correlaciona positivamente con la felicidad. La inclus...

  10. Los españoles más viajeros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Callejo Gallego

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de una explotación específica de los datos aportados por la encuesta que en mayor medida recoge las actividades y movimientos turísticos de los españoles, Familitur (dirigida por el Instituto de Estudios Turísticos, se analiza el comportamiento de aquellos españoles que registran una mayor frecuencia de viajes a lo largo del año. La perspectiva de tal aproximación es inicialmente descriptiva: conocer hasta qué punto configuran un perfil social diferenciado o realizan otro tipo de viajes. Es decir, hasta qué punto se diferencian de los otros españoles, más allá de la diferencia que les singulariza como más viajeros. Pero también se intenta, con los límites derivados de las características de los datos obtenidos, avanzar explicaciones sobre tal diferenciación.

  11. Transfer mechanisms between emitter molecules for OLED applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbacher, Frank [Department of Materials Science VI, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Chiu, Chien-Shu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Technical University of Braunschweig (Germany); Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Krause, Ralf; Hunze, Arvid [Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Winnacker, Albrecht [Department of Materials Science VI, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Within the last few years white organic light emitting diodes based on small molecules have shown the potential to have a promising future in the field of lighting technology. Nevertheless there is still room for improvement of the overall efficiency and lifetime of white OLEDs. A deeper understanding of the energy transfer mechanisms between different matrix and emitter molecules used in the OLED stack concept can help to optimize the layout and reduce driving voltage thus increasing the power efficiency and color stability of the device. To simplify the complex interactions within a complete white OLED we start out with a basic model system only containing the molecules of interest. This enables us to predict the fundamental concepts causing the behavior of more intricate systems. Using photoluminescence, excitation spectra and time-resolved photoluminescence we investigated the exciton transfer between different dyes for a variety of emitter systems. Our results indicate a dependence of exciton transfer probability on the total concentrations and therefore the distance between the molecules involved.

  12. Life prediction for white OLED based on LSM under lognormal distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianping; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yu; Wu, Helen; Zhu, Wenqing; Wu, Wenli; Wu, Liang

    2012-09-01

    In order to acquire the reliability information of White Organic Light Emitting Display (OLED), three groups of OLED constant stress accelerated life tests (CSALTs) were carried out to obtain failure data of samples. Lognormal distribution function was applied to describe OLED life distribution, and the accelerated life equation was determined by Least square method (LSM). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was performed to verify whether the white OLED life meets lognormal distribution or not. Author-developed software was employed to predict the average life and the median life. The numerical results indicate that the white OLED life submits to lognormal distribution, and that the accelerated life equation meets inverse power law completely. The estimated life information of the white OLED provides manufacturers and customers with important guidelines.

  13. Compact and efficient method of RGB to RGBW data conversion for OLED microdisplays

    OpenAIRE

    Can, Chi

    2012-01-01

    Colour Electronic Information Displays (EIDs) typically consist of pixels that are made up of red, green and blue (RGB) subpixels. A recent technology, Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED), offers the potential to create a superior EID. OLED is already suitable for use in small displays and microdisplays for personal electronics products. OLED microdisplays, in particular, exhibit lower power consumption than equivalent direct-view panels thus enabling microdisplay-based persona...

  14. Recent advances in AM OLED technologies for application to aerospace and military systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Kalluri R.; Roush, Jerry; Chanley, Charles

    2012-06-01

    While initial AM OLED products have been introduced in the market about a decade ago, truly successful commercialization of OLEDs has started only a couple of years ago, by Samsung Mobile Display (SMD), with small high performance displays for smart phone applications. This success by Samsung has catalyzed significant interest in AM OLED technology advancement and commercialization by other display manufacturers. Currently, significant manufacturing capacity for AM OLED displays is being established by the industry to serve the growing demand for these displays. The current development in the AM OLED industry are now focused on the development and commercialization of medium size (~10") AM OLED panels for Tablet PC applications and large size (~55") panels for TV applications. This significant progress in commercialization of AM OLED technology is enabled by major advances in various enabling technologies that include TFT backplanes, OLED materials and device structures and manufacturing know-how. In this paper we will discuss these recent advances, particularly as they relate to supporting high performance applications such as aerospace and military systems, and then discuss the results of the OLED testing for aerospace applications.

  15. Studying the Attribution of LiF in OLED by the - Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-lin Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The organic light-emitting device (OLED with simple structures of indium tin oxide (ITO/tris(8-quinolinolato aluminum (Alq3/LiF/Al and ITO/Alq3/Al was fabricated to analyze the contribution of LiF in OLED. We used the - characteristics to investigate the contribution of LiF in OLED and found that the capacitance of the above-mentioned structures was 12.5 nF and 77.5 nF, respectively. It is shown that the LiF layer affects the property of OLED resulting in the change of the capacitance of the device.

  16. Efficient p-phenylene based OLEDs with mixed interfacial exciplex emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data, P.; Motyka, R.; Lapkowski, M.; Suwinski, J.; Jursenas, S.; Kreiza, G.; Miasojedovas, A.; Monkman, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Organic electronics, mainly due to the advancement of OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) technology, is a fast developing research area, and has already revolutionized the displays market. This direction presents the use of exciplex emitters and thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) in OLEDs. This is shown through electrochemical characterisation of six p-phenylene derivatives for application in optoelectronic devices and presents the possibility the compounds’ use as OLED emitters. In these OLED devices, it is established that selenophene based compounds with a “heavy-atom effect” can be used as potential emitters when exciplex phenomena are involved.

  17. Improved efficiency in OLEDs with a thin Alq3 interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian Jiarong; Yuan Yongbo; Cao Lingfang; Zhang Jie; Pang Hongqi; Zhou Yunfei; Zhou Xiang

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate an improved efficiency in OLEDs with a thin Alq 3 interlayer, which is inserted into the hole-transport layer for adjusting the hole-injection and transport, and improving the hole-electron balance. The thin Alq 3 interlayer can effectively influence the electrical performance and electroluminescence (EL) efficiency of the devices. The devices with an optimum Alq 3 interlayer exhibit a maximum EL efficiency of around 3.3 cd/A, which is improved by a factor of two over the conventional devices (1.6 cd/A) without the interlayer

  18. Improvements of phosphorescent white OLEDs performance for lighting application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghee; Chu, Hye Yong; Lee, Jeong-Ik; Song, Ki-Im; Lee, Su Jin

    2008-10-01

    We developed white OLED device with high power efficiency, in which blue and orange phosphorescent emitters were used. By introduction of multi-functional interlayer which has partial doping of orange dopant inside EBL, we report WOLEDs with peak external efficiencies up to (14.1% EQE, 31.3 Im/W) without light out-coupling technique. At 1000 cd/m2, the performance achieved was 11.9% EQE, 18.7 Im/W with CIE = (0.39, 0.44). We also found that WOLED performances are related with doping ratio of the orange dopant that was inserted inside EBL.

  19. Stacked white OLED having separate red, green and blue sub-elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Stephen; Qi, Xiangfei; Slootsky, Michael

    2015-06-23

    The present invention relates to efficient organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). More specifically, the present invention relates to white-emitting OLEDs, or WOLEDs. The devices of the present invention employ three emissive sub-elements, typically emitting red, green and blue, to sufficiently cover the visible spectrum. The sub-elements are separated by charge generating layers.

  20. Los jueces españoles como jueces de la Unión Europea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral, Juan A.; Ordóñez Solís, David; Berberoff, Dimitry

    2013-01-01

    sentido, el presente estudio trata de esclarecer si actualmente los jueces españoles se han adaptado a las exigencias creadas por el sistema legal de la Unión para la aplicación del derecho europeo. Para comprobar si los jueces españoles han asimilado su condición de jueces europeos, operando como...

  1. GATEWAY Demonstrations: OLED Lighting in the Offices of Aurora Lighting Design, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Naomi J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-31

    At the offices of Aurora Lighting Design, Inc., in Grayslake, IL, the GATEWAY program conducted its first investigation involving OLED lighting. The project experienced several challenges, but also highlighted a number of promising attributes – which indicate that with continued improvements in efficacy, longevity, size, and flexibility, OLEDs could provide a new tool for creative and effective lighting.

  2. Life prediction of OLED for constant-stress accelerated degradation tests using luminance decaying model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jianping, E-mail: jpzhanglzu@163.com [College of Energy and Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Li, Wenbin [College of Energy and Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Cheng, Guoliang; Chen, Xiao [Shanghai Tianyi Electric Co., Ltd., Shanghai 201611 (China); Wu, Helen [School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, University of Western Sydney, Sydney 2751 (Australia); Herman Shen, M.-H. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, OH 43210 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    In order to acquire the life information of organic light emitting diode (OLED), three groups of constant stress accelerated degradation tests are performed to obtain the luminance decaying data of samples under the condition that the luminance and the current are respectively selected as the indicator of performance degradation and the test stress. Weibull function is applied to describe the relationship between luminance decaying and time, least square method (LSM) is employed to calculate the shape parameter and scale parameter, and the life prediction of OLED is achieved. The numerical results indicate that the accelerated degradation test and the luminance decaying model reveal the luminance decaying law of OLED. The luminance decaying formula fits the test data very well, and the average error of fitting value compared with the test data is small. Furthermore, the accuracy of the OLED life predicted by luminance decaying model is high, which enable rapid estimation of OLED life and provide significant guidelines to help engineers make decisions in design and manufacturing strategy from the aspect of reliability life. - Highlights: • We gain luminance decaying data by accelerated degradation tests on OLED. • The luminance decaying model objectively reveals the decaying law of OLED luminance. • The least square method (LSM) is employed to calculate Weibull parameters. • The plan designed for accelerated degradation tests proves to be feasible. • The accuracy of the OLED life and the luminance decaying fitting formula is high.

  3. Flexible barrier technology for enabling rollable AMOLED displays and upscaling flexible OLED lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, F.M.; Unnikrishnan, S.; Weijer, P. van de; Assche, F. van; Shen, J.; Ellis, T.; Manders, W.; Akkerman, H.; Bouten, P.; Mol, A.M.B. van

    2013-01-01

    The availability of a high performance thin-film barrier is the most critical challenge in upscaling and commercializing flexible OLED products. We report a flexible thin-film-barrier technology that meets lifetime specifications for OLED lighting, and demonstrate it in rollable QVGA a-IGZO AMOLED

  4. Kinetic Monte Carlo study of sensitiviy of OLED efficiency and lifetime to materials parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coehoorn, R.; Eersel, van H.; Bobbert, P.A.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is determined by a complex interplay of the optoelectronic processes in the active layer stack. In order to enable simulation-assisted layer stack development, a three-dimensional kinetic Monte Carlo OLED simulation method which includes the

  5. An approach to integrated design based componet software and OLE-technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Susanne C; Emborg, Jørgen; Andersen, Tom

    1996-01-01

    The paper reports on a prototype developed as to demonstrate the (dis)abilities of the OLE-standard to integrate different design-applications to a CAD-syste.......The paper reports on a prototype developed as to demonstrate the (dis)abilities of the OLE-standard to integrate different design-applications to a CAD-syste....

  6. GATEWAY Demonstrations: OLED Lighting in the Offices of DeJoy, Knauf & Blood, LLP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Naomi J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-07-24

    At the offices of the accounting firm of DeJoy, Knauf & Blood, LLP in Rochester, NY, the GATEWAY program evaluated a new lighting system that incorporates a number of different OLED luminaires. Evaluation of the OLED products included efficacy performance, field measurements of panel color, flicker measurements, and staff feedback.

  7. Life prediction of OLED for constant-stress accelerated degradation tests using luminance decaying model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jianping; Li, Wenbin; Cheng, Guoliang; Chen, Xiao; Wu, Helen; Herman Shen, M.-H.

    2014-01-01

    In order to acquire the life information of organic light emitting diode (OLED), three groups of constant stress accelerated degradation tests are performed to obtain the luminance decaying data of samples under the condition that the luminance and the current are respectively selected as the indicator of performance degradation and the test stress. Weibull function is applied to describe the relationship between luminance decaying and time, least square method (LSM) is employed to calculate the shape parameter and scale parameter, and the life prediction of OLED is achieved. The numerical results indicate that the accelerated degradation test and the luminance decaying model reveal the luminance decaying law of OLED. The luminance decaying formula fits the test data very well, and the average error of fitting value compared with the test data is small. Furthermore, the accuracy of the OLED life predicted by luminance decaying model is high, which enable rapid estimation of OLED life and provide significant guidelines to help engineers make decisions in design and manufacturing strategy from the aspect of reliability life. - Highlights: • We gain luminance decaying data by accelerated degradation tests on OLED. • The luminance decaying model objectively reveals the decaying law of OLED luminance. • The least square method (LSM) is employed to calculate Weibull parameters. • The plan designed for accelerated degradation tests proves to be feasible. • The accuracy of the OLED life and the luminance decaying fitting formula is high

  8. Stacked white OLED having separate red, green and blue sub-elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen; Qi, Xiangfei; Slootsky, Michael

    2016-06-28

    The present invention relates to efficient organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). More specifically, the present invention relates to white-emitting OLEDs, or WOLEDs. The devices of the present invention employ three emissive sub-elements, typically emitting red, green and blue, to sufficiently cover the visible spectrum. The sub-elements are separated by charge generating layers.

  9. An imaging-based photometric and colorimetric measurement method for characterizing OLED panels for lighting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yiting; Narendran, Nadarajah; Tan, Jianchuan; Mou, Xi

    2014-09-01

    The organic light-emitting diode (OLED) has demonstrated its novelty in displays and certain lighting applications. Similar to white light-emitting diode (LED) technology, it also holds the promise of saving energy. Even though the luminous efficacy values of OLED products have been steadily growing, their longevity is still not well understood. Furthermore, currently there is no industry standard for photometric and colorimetric testing, short and long term, of OLEDs. Each OLED manufacturer tests its OLED panels under different electrical and thermal conditions using different measurement methods. In this study, an imaging-based photometric and colorimetric measurement method for OLED panels was investigated. Unlike an LED that can be considered as a point source, the OLED is a large form area source. Therefore, for an area source to satisfy lighting application needs, it is important that it maintains uniform light level and color properties across the emitting surface of the panel over a long period. This study intended to develop a measurement procedure that can be used to test long-term photometric and colorimetric properties of OLED panels. The objective was to better understand how test parameters such as drive current or luminance and temperature affect the degradation rate. In addition, this study investigated whether data interpolation could allow for determination of degradation and lifetime, L70, at application conditions based on the degradation rates measured at different operating conditions.

  10. Mixed-ligand Al complex—a new approach for more high efficient OLEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrova, Petia K.; Tomova, Reni L.; Stoycheva-Topalova, Rumiana T.; Kaloyanova, Stefka S.; Deligeorgiev, Todor G.

    2012-01-01

    The mixed-ligand Aluminum bis(8-hydroxyquinoline) acetylacetonate (Alq 2 Acac) complex was presented and its performance as electroluminescent and electron transporting layer for OLED was studied. The photophysical properties of the novel complex were investigated and compared with the properties of the parent Alq 3 . Highly efficient OLED based on the mixed-ligand Al complex was developed with two times higher luminescence and efficiency compared to the identical OLED based on the conventional Alq 3 The better performance of the devices make the novel Al complex a very promising material for OLEDs. - Highlights: ► A novel electroluminescent Alq 2 Acac complex is presented as material for OLED. ► Electroluminescent emission of Alq 2 Acac is very similar to that of commercial Alq 3 . ► Devices with Alq 2 Acac show better characteristics compared to those with Alq 3 .

  11. Making Image More Energy Efficient for OLED Smart Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deguang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Now, more and more mobile smart devices are emerging massively; energy consumption of these devices has become an important consideration due to the limitation of battery capacity. Displays are the dominant energy consuming component of battery-operated devices, giving rise to organic light-emitting diode (OLED as a new promising display technology, which consumes different power when displaying different content due to their emissive nature. Based on this property, we propose an approach to improve image energy efficiency on OLED displays by perceiving image content. The key idea of our approach is to eliminate undesired details while preserving the region of interest of the image by leveraging the color and spatial information. First, we use edge detection algorithm to extract region of interest (ROI of an image. Next, we gradually change luminance and saturation of region of noninterest (NON-ROI of the image. Then we perform detailed experiment and case study to validate our approach; experiment results show that our approach can save 22.5% energy on average while preserving high quality of the image.

  12. High-efficiency white OLEDs based on small molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatwar, Tukaram K.; Spindler, Jeffrey P.; Ricks, M. L.; Young, Ralph H.; Hamada, Yuuhiko; Saito, N.; Mameno, Kazunobu; Nishikawa, Ryuji; Takahashi, Hisakazu; Rajeswaran, G.

    2004-02-01

    Eastman Kodak Company and SANYO Electric Co., Ltd. recently demonstrated a 15" full-color, organic light-emitting diode display (OLED) using a high-efficiency white emitter combined with a color-filter array. Although useful for display applications, white emission from organic structures is also under consideration for other applications, such as solid-state lighting, where high efficiency and good color rendition are important. By incorporating adjacent blue and orange emitting layers in a multi-layer structure, highly efficient, stable white emission has been attained. With suitable host and dopant combinations, a luminance yield of 20 cd/A and efficiency of 8 lm/W have been achieved at a drive voltage of less than 8 volts and luminance level of 1000 cd/m2. The estimated external efficiency of this device is 6.3% and a high level of operational stability is observed. To our knowledge, this is the highest performance reported so far for white organic electroluminescent devices. We will review white OLED technology and discuss the fabrication and operating characteristics of these devices.

  13. Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benton, Scott [PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bhandari, Abhinav [PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-12-26

    PPG pursued the development of an integrated substrate, including the anode, external, and internal extraction layers. The objective of PPG's program was to achieve cost reductions by displacing the existing expensive borosilicate or double-side polished float glass substrates and developing alternative electrodes and scalable light extraction layer technologies through focused and short-term applied research. One of the key highlights of the project was proving the feasibility of using PPG's high transmission Solarphire® float glass as a substrate to consistently achieve organic lightemitting diode (OLED) devices with good performance and high yields. Under this program, four low-cost alternatives to the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) anode were investigated using pilot-scale magnetron sputtered vacuum deposition (MSVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technologies. The anodes were evaluated by fabricating small and large phosphorescent organic lightemitting diode (PHOLED) devices at Universal Display Corporation (UDC). The device performance and life-times comparable to commercially available ITO anodes were demonstrated. A cost-benefit analysis was performed to down-select two anodes for further low-cost process development. Additionally, PPG developed and evaluated a number of scalable and compatible internal and external extraction layer concepts such as scattering layers on the outside of the glass substrate or between the transparent anode and the glass interface. In one external extraction layer (EEL) approach, sol-gel sprayed pyrolytic coatings were deposited using lab scale equipment by hand or automated spraying of sol-gel solutions on hot glass, followed by optimizing of scattering with minimal absorption. In another EEL approach, PPG tested large-area glass texturing by scratching a glass surface with an abrasive roller and acid etching. Efficacy enhancements of 1.27x were demonstrated using white PHOLED devices for 2.0mm substrates which are

  14. Kirigami-based three-dimensional OLED concepts for architectural lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehwan; Price, Jared S.; Grede, Alex; Lee, Sora; Jackson, Thomas N.; Giebink, Noel C.

    2017-08-01

    Dramatic improvements in white organic light emitting diode (OLED) performance and lifetime over the past decade are driving commercialization of this technology for solid-state lighting applications. As white OLEDs attempt to gain a foothold in the market, however, the biggest challenge outside of lowering their manufacturing cost arguably now lies in creating an architecturally adaptable form factor that will drive public adoption and differentiate OLED lighting from established LED products. Here, we present concepts based on kirigami (the Japanese art of paper cutting and folding) that enable intricate three-dimensional (3D) OLED lighting structures from two dimensional layouts. Using an ultraflexible, encapsulated OLED device architecture on 25 60 μm thick clear polyimide film substrate with simple cut and fold patterns, we demonstrate a series of different lighting concepts ranging from a simple `pop up' structure to more complex designs such as stretchable window blind-like panel, candle flame, and multi-element globe lamp. We only find slight degradation in OLED electrical performance when these designs are shaped into 3D. Our results point to an alternate paradigm for OLED lighting that moves beyond traditional 2D panels toward 3D designs that deliver unique and creative new opportunities for lighting.

  15. Comparative study of graphene and its derivative materials as an electrode in OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anshika; Kumar, Brijesh

    2018-04-01

    In current scenario, the organic materials have given a revolutionary evolution in the electronics industry. As, the organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have almost replaced the conventional technologies due to the use of organic based materials. However, the next generations OLEDs are intensively desired nowadays for high definition display technology. There are various concern involved in the successful design of OLEDs. Electrodes are one of the electrical conductors, which play a vital role in the construction of OLEDs. The performance of OLED is majorly affected by the material used for electrodes. Due to the requirement of transparent, flexible and inexpensive anodes in bottom emissive OLEDs, ITO was replaced by graphene material. Graphene is a single layer 2-dimensional transparent carbon allotrope which showed prodigious potential to escalate the device performance. Although graphene demonstrated impressive characteristics in various applications, it showed unfavorable work function for many other devices. Thus, derivative materials of graphene such as graphene oxide, graphane and β - graphdiyne were synthesized by several researchers. By comparing graphene and its derivatives as an anode of OLEDs, it has been found that graphene oxide showed the preeminent performance among all. In this paper, all the comparisons are investigated by using a standard device constructed by piling layers of anode/ m_MTDATA/ NPB/ Alq3: QAD/ Alq3/ cathode in TCAD ATLAS device simulator.

  16. Advances in OLED/OPD-based sensors and spectrometer-on-a-chip (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinar, Joseph; Kaudal, Rajiv; Manna, Eeshita; Fungura, Fadzai; Shinar, Ruth

    2016-09-01

    We describe ongoing advances toward achieving all-organic optical sensors and a spectrometer on a chip. Two-dimensional combinatorial arrays of microcavity OLEDs (μcOLEDs) with systematically varying optical cavity lengths are fabricated on a single chip by changing the thickness of different organic and/or spacer layers sandwiched between two metal electrodes (one very thin) that form the cavity. The broad spectral range is achieved by utilizing materials that result in white OLEDs (WOLEDs) when fabricated on a standard ITO substrate. The tunable and narrower emissions from the μcOLEDs serve as excitation sources in luminescent sensors and in monitoring light absorption. For each wavelength, the light from the μcOLED is partially absorbed by a sample under study and the light emitted by an electronically excited sample, or the transmitted light is detected by a photodetector (PD). To obtain a compact monitor, an organic PD (OPD) or a perovskite-based PD is integrated with the μcOLED array. We show the potential of encompassing a broader wavelength range by using WOLED materials to fabricate the μcOLEDs. The utility of the all-organic analytical devices is demonstrated by monitoring oxygen, and bioanalytes based on oxygen detection, as well as the absorption spectra of dyes.

  17. Recent progress in OLED and flexible displays and their potential for application to aerospace and military display systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Kalluri

    2015-05-01

    Organic light emitting diode (OLED) display technology has advanced significantly in recent years and it is increasingly being adapted in consumer electronics products with premium performance, such as high resolution smart phones, Tablet PCs and TVs. Even flexible OLED displays are beginning to be commercialized in consumer electronic devices such as smart phones and smart watches. In addition to the advances in OLED emitters, successful development and adoption of OLED displays for premium performance applications relies on the advances in several enabling technologies including TFT backplanes, pixel drive electronics, pixel patterning technologies, encapsulation technologies and system level engineering. In this paper we will discuss the impact of the recent advances in LTPS and AOS TFTs, R, G, B and White OLED with color filter pixel architectures, and encapsulation, on the success of the OLEDs in consumer electronic devices. We will then discuss potential of these advances in addressing the requirements of OLED and flexible displays for the military and avionics applications.

  18. Ole Ivar Lovaas - His Life, Merits and Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil ÖZERK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ole Ivar Lovaas (1927-2010 is known worldwide for his research within the field of Applied Behavior Analysis, and is probably the most influential researcher within the field of treatment of children with autism. In the first part of this biographically oriented paper, we inform the readers about his family background, childhood, elementary and secondary school years, and his adolescent years during World War II in his first homeland, Norway, based on archival research and interviews. In the second part, we describe his life, academic studies, research and successes in his second home country, the United States. Finally, we briefly recount the impact Lovaas has had on the field of Applied Behavior Analysis and the treatment of and services for children with autism spectrum disorders in Norway and in the North America.

  19. Display process compatible accurate graphene patterning for OLED applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jin-Wook; Han, Jun-Han; Cho, Hyunsu; Moon, Jaehyun; Kwon, Byoung-Hwa; Cho, Seungmin; Yoon, Taeshik; Kim, Taek-Soo; Suemitsu, Maki; Lee, Jeong-Ik; Cho, Nam Sung

    2018-01-01

    Graphene film can be used as transparent electrodes in display and optoelectronic applications. However, achieving residue free graphene film pixel arrays with geometrical precision on large area has been a difficult challenge. By utilizing the liquid bridging concept, we realized photolithographic patterning of graphene film with dimensional correctness and absence of surface contaminant. On a glass substrate of 100  ×  100 mm2 size, we demonstrate our patterning method to fabricate an addressable two-color OLED module of which graphene film pixel size is 170  ×  300 µm2. Our results strongly suggest graphene film as a serviceable component in commercial display products. The flexible and foldable display applications are expected to be main beneficiaries of our method.

  20. Agricultural activities in the Oleśnica commune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Borkowska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse and assess the agricultural activity in the Oleśnica commune. The representative rural property owner was a secondary-educated 43-year old man. Over 70% of respondents demonstrated their willingness to expand by purchasing or renting land and also to develop infrastructure. Agricultural activities within this area were focused mainly on plant-growing, which was preferable due to sustained tide of the market. Arable land was the dominating land type and the main products were: grains, potatoes and rape. Introduced in farms innovations were focused on increasing ef-fectiveness of plant-growing and improving the quality of work in rural properties. These innovations were expected to increase income and, in longer term, make the rural production more competitive on the European market.

  1. Theoretical investigation of the degradation mechanisms in host and guest molecules used in OLED active layers

    KAUST Repository

    Winget, Paul; Hong, Minki; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    systems. We identify degradation pathways and define new strategies to guide the synthesis of stable materials for OLED applications for both phosphorescent emitters and organic host materials. The chemical reactivity of these molecules in the active

  2. Kuu plaat : Lauri Saatpalu ja Katrin Mandel "Sa oled hea". Plaadid kauplusest Lasering

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Lauri Saatpalu ja Katrin Mandel "Sa oled hea", Goldfrapp "Supernature", Ultima Thule "Ingel ja suli", Sigur Ros "Takk...", Franz Ferdinand "You Could Have It So Much Better", Ans.Andur "Tuled peale"

  3. Development of functional nano-particle layer for highly efficient OLED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Min-Hoi; Choi, Haechul; Choi, Yoonseuk

    2015-12-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are now widely commercialized in market due to many advantages such as possibility of making thin or flexible devices. Nevertheless there are still several things to obtain the high quality flexible OLEDs, one of the most important issues is the light extraction of the device. It is known that OLEDs have the typical light loss such as the waveguide loss, plasmon absorption loss and internal total reflection. In this paper, we demonstrate the one-step processed light scattering films with aluminum oxide nano-particles and polystyrene matrix composite to achieve highly efficient OLEDs. Optical characteristics and surface roughness of light scattering film was optimized by changing the mixing concentration of Al2O3 nano-particles and investigated with the atomic force microscopy and hazemeter, respectively.

  4. Jumal tänatud, et sa siin oled! / Inge Pitsner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pitsner, Inge

    2007-01-01

    Kanal 2 sketshishõude sarja "Jumal tänatud, et sa siin oled!" esimesest saatest : saatejuht Andrus Vaarik : osalejad Peeter Oja, Anu Saagim, Juhan Ulfsak, Mihkel Raud : kohtunik Eino Baskin : tootjafirma Ruut

  5. Voltage-controlled colour-tunable microcavity OLEDs with enhanced colour purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choy, Wallace C H; Niu, J H; Li, W L; Chui, P C

    2008-01-01

    The emission spectrum of single-unit voltage-controlled colour-tunable organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) has been theoretically and experimentally studied. Our results show that by introducing the microcavity structure, the colour purity of not only the destination colour but also the colour-tunable route can be enhanced, while colour purity is still an issue in typical single-unit voltage-controlled colour-tunable OLEDs. With the consideration of the periodical cycling of resonant wavelength and absorption loss of the metal electrodes, the appropriate change in the thickness of the microcavity structure has been utilized to achieve voltage-controlled red-to-green and red-to-blue colour-tunable OLEDs without adding dyes or other organic materials to the OLEDs

  6. Characteristics of indium zinc oxide films deposited using the facing targets sputtering method for OLEDs applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rim, Y.S.; Kim, H.J.; Kim, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    The amorphous indium zinc oxide (IZO) thin films were deposited on polyethersulfone (PES) and glass substrates using the facing targets sputtering (FTS) system. The electrical, optical and structural properties of the IZO thin films deposited as functions of sputtering parameters on the glass and PES substrates. An optimal IZO deposition condition is fabricated for organic light-emitting device (OLED) based on glass and PES. The amorphous IZO anode-based OLEDs show superior current density and luminance characteristics.

  7. Photovoltaic OLED Driver for Low-Power Stand-Alone Light-to-Light Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Rasmus Overgaard; Knott, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    of a three-port-converter for this purpose optimized for the specifications for driving an Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) panel intended for lighting purposes. By using a three-port-converter, featuring shared components for each conversion mode, the converter reaches 97 % efficiency at 1.8 W during...... conversion from photovoltaic panel to the battery, and 97 % in the area 1.4 W to 2 W for power delivery to the OLED....

  8. Multi-Periodic Photonic Crystal Out-Coupling Layers for Flexible OLEDs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluge, Christian; Pradana, Arfat; Adam, Jost

    2014-01-01

    Waveguide mode extraction with multi-periodic photonic crystals is studied in experiment and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. Flexible nanostructured organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are fabricated by UV nanoimprint lithography.......Waveguide mode extraction with multi-periodic photonic crystals is studied in experiment and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. Flexible nanostructured organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are fabricated by UV nanoimprint lithography....

  9. Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, Whitney; Hofmann, Simone; Christoforo, M Greyson; Sachse, Christoph; Mehra, Saahil; Salleo, Alberto; McGehee, Michael D; Gather, Malte C; Lüssem, Björn; Müller-Meskamp, Lars; Peumans, Peter; Leo, Karl

    2013-08-07

    High-efficiency white OLEDs fabricated on silver nanowire-based composite transparent electrodes show almost perfectly Lambertian emission and superior angular color stability, imparted by electrode light scattering. The OLED efficiencies are comparable to those fabricated using indium tin oxide. The transparent electrodes are fully solution-processable, thin-film compatible, and have a figure of merit suitable for large-area devices. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. GATEWAY Report Brief: OLED Lighting in the Offices of Aurora Lighting Design, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-05-31

    Summary of a GATEWAY report evaluation at the offices of Aurora Lighting Design, Inc., in Grayslake, IL, where the GATEWAY program conducted its first investigation involving OLED lighting. The project experienced several challenges, but also highlighted a number of promising attributes – which indicate that with continued improvements in efficacy, longevity, size, and flexibility, OLEDs could provide a new tool for creative and effective lighting.

  11. Novel Smart Windows Based on Transparent Phosphorescent OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian D' Andrade; Stephen Forest

    2006-09-15

    In this program, Universal Display Corporation (UDC) and Princeton University developed the use of white transparent phosphorescent organic light emitting devices (PHOLEDs{trademark}) to make low-cost ''transparent OLED (TOLED) smart windows'', that switch rapidly from being a highly efficient solid-state light source to being a transparent window. PHOLEDs are ideal for large area devices, and the UDC-Princeton team has demonstrated white PHOLEDs with efficiencies of >24 lm/W at a luminance of 1,000 cd/m{sup 2}. TOLEDs have transparencies >70% over the visible wavelengths of light, but their transparency drops to less than 5% for wavelengths shorter than 350 nm, so they can also be used as ultraviolet (UV) light filters. In addition to controlling the flow of UV radiation, TOLEDs coupled with an electromechanical or electrically activated reflecting shutter on a glass window can be employed to control the flow of heat from infrared (IR) radiation by varying the reflectance/transparency of the glass for wavelengths greater than 800nm. One particularly attractive shutter technology is reversible electrochromic mirrors (REM). Our goal was therefore to integrate two innovative concepts to meet the U.S. Department of Energy goals: high power efficiency TOLEDs, plus electrically controlled reflectors to produce a ''smart window''. Our efforts during this one year program have succeeded in producing a prototype smart window shown in the Fig. I, below. The four states of the smart window are pictured: reflective with lamp on, reflective with lamp off, transparent with lamp on, and transparent with lamp off. In the transparent states, the image is an outdoor setting viewed through the window. In the reflective states, the image is an indoor setting viewed via reflection off the window. We believe that the integration of our high efficiency white phosphorescent TOLED illumination source, with electrically activated shutters represents

  12. Photochemically induced emission tuning of conductive polumers used in OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilopoulou, M [NCSR ' Demokritos' , Institute of Microelectronics, POB 60228, 153 10 Agia Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece); Pistolis, G [Institute of Physical Chemistry, NCSR ' Demokritos' Athens 153 10 (Greece); Argitis, P [NCSR ' Demokritos' , Institute of Microelectronics, POB 60228, 153 10 Agia Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece)

    2005-01-01

    The present work focuses on the use of novel patterning technology schemes for the fabrication of OLED-based displays and in particular on the definition of two colour emitting pixels in one polymeric conducting layer. The approach adopted to this end is based on photochemically induced emition tuning. On the basis of this approach a novel photolithographic patterning technique was developed, aiming at the considerable simplification of the display fabrication process and on the performance improvement. We prepared electroluminescent devices that are emitting blue colour ({lambda}{sub max} 413 nm) with a turnon voltage about 12-15 V. In other devices we introduce a dispersed dye (1-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]-6-phenylhexatriene) and a series of photoacid generators (onium salts) in the polymeric layer and, by using an appropriate photochemical transformation through a photomask in a single layer, we were able to change the colour to desirable direction, since the parent compound and its photochemical product have distinguishable luminescence spectra (green and blue colour respectively). We were able to produce two of the three primary colours in a single layer of a conductive polymer by using a photochemical transformation based on photoacid induced emission change. A series of photoacid generators were evaluated.

  13. New concept for in-line OLED manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, U.; Landgraf, H.; Campo, M.; Keller, S.; Koening, M.

    2011-03-01

    A new concept of a vertical In-Line deposition machine for large area white OLED production has been developed. The concept targets manufacturing on large substrates (>= Gen 4, 750 x 920 mm2) using linear deposition source achieving a total material utilization of >= 50 % and tact time down to 80 seconds. The continuously improved linear evaporation sources for the organic material achieve thickness uniformity on Gen 4 substrate of better than +/- 3 % and stable deposition rates down to less than 0.1 nm m/min and up to more than 100 nm m/min. For Lithium-Fluoride but also for other high evaporation temperature materials like Magnesium or Silver a linear source with uniformity better than +/- 3 % has been developed. For Aluminum we integrated a vertical oriented point source using wire feed to achieve high (> 150 nm m/min) and stable deposition rates. The machine concept includes a new vertical vacuum handling and alignment system for Gen 4 shadow masks. A complete alignment cycle for the mask can be done in less than one minute achieving alignment accuracy in the range of several 10 μm.

  14. White OLED in Hybrid Structure for Enhancing Color Purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Eun; Kang, Min-Jae; Park, Gwang-Ryeol; Lee, Burm-Jong; Kwon, Young-Soo; Shin, Hoon-Kyu

    2016-06-01

    We synthesized the red emission material, bis(1,4-bis(5-phenyloxazol-2-yl)phenyl) iridium(picolate) [Ir-complexes] and the blue emission material, bis (2-(2-hydroxyphenyl) benzoxazolate)zinc [Zn(HPB)2]. White Organic Light Emitting Diodes were fabricated by using Zn(HPB)2 for a blue emitting layer, Ir-complexes for a red emitting layer and a tris (8-hydroxy quinoline)aluminum [Alq3] for a green emitting layer. The important experimental results obtained, white OLED was fabricated by using double emitting layers of Zn(HPB)2 and Alq3:Ir-complexes, and hole blocking layer of 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline[BCP]. We also varied the thickness of BCP. When the thickness of BCP layer was 5 nm, white emission was achieved. We obtained a maximum luminance of 5400 cd/m2 at a current density of 650 mA/cm2. The CIE coordinates was (0.339, 0.323) at voltage of 10 V.

  15. Approach to Low-Cost High-Efficiency OLED Lighting. Building Technologies Solid State Lighting (SSL) Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Qibing [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2017-10-06

    This project developed an integrated substrate which organic light emitting diode (OLED) panel developers could employ the integrated substrate to fabricate OLED devices with performance and projected cost meeting the MYPP targets of the Solid State Lighting Program of the Department of Energy. The project optimized the composition and processing conditions of the integrated substrate for OLED light extraction efficiency and overall performance. The process was further developed for scale up to a low-cost process and fabrication of prototype samples. The encapsulation of flexible OLEDs based on this integrated substrate was also investigated using commercial flexible barrier films.

  16. High efficient OLED displays prepared with the air-gapped bridges on quantum dot patterns for optical recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Hyo-Jun Kim; Min-Ho Shin; Joo-Suc Kim; Se-Eun Kim; Young-Joo Kim

    2017-01-01

    An optically efficient structure was proposed and fabricated to realize high brightness organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays based on a white OLED prepared with the air-gapped bridges on the quantum dot (QD) patterns. Compared with a conventional white OLED display, in our experiments, the optical intensity of the proposed OLED display shows the enhancement of 58.2% in the red color and 16.8% in the green color after applying the air-gapped bridge structure on QD patterns of 20?wt% co...

  17. Creation of a U.S. Phosphorescent OLED Lighting Panel Manufacturing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hack, Michael

    2013-09-30

    Universal Display Corporation (UDC) has pioneered high efficacy phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED™) technology to enable the realization of an exciting new form of high quality, energy saving solid-date lighting. In laboratory test devices, we have demonstrated greater than 100 lm/W conversion efficacy. In this program, Universal Display will demonstrate the scalability of its proprietary UniversalPHOLED technology and materials for the manufacture of white OLED lighting panels that meet commercial lighting targets. Moser Baer Technologies will design and build a U.S.- based pilot facility. The objective of this project is to establish a pilot phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED) manufacturing line in the U.S. Our goal is that at the end of the project, prototype lighting panels could be provided to U.S. luminaire manufacturers for incorporation into products to facilitate the testing of design concepts and to gauge customer acceptance, so as to facilitate the growth of the embryonic U.S. OLED lighting industry. In addition, the team will provide a cost of ownership analysis to quantify production costs including OLED performance metrics which relate to OLED cost such as yield, materials usage, cycle time, substrate area, and capital depreciation. This project was part of a new DOE initiative designed to help establish and maintain U.S. leadership in this program will support key DOE objectives by showing a path to meet Department of Energy Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Roadmap cost targets, as well as meeting its efficiency targets by demonstrating the energy saving potential of our technology through the realization of greater than 76 lm/W OLED lighting panels by 2012.

  18. Narrow Bandwidth Top-Emitting OLEDs Designed for Rhodamine 6G Excitation in Biological Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Jahnel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Organic light emitting diodes (OLED are promising candidates offering in optical sensor applications to detect different gas compositions and excitable optical marker groups in chemical and biological processes. They enable attractive solutions for monitoring the gas phase composition of e.g., dissolved molecular oxygen (O2 species in bio reactors or excitation of fluorescent markers. In this work, we investigate different OLED devices for biomedical applications to excite the fluorescent dye rhodamine 6G (R6G. The OLED devices are built in top emission geometry comprising a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR acting as optical mirror. The OLED is optimized to provide a very narrow emission characteristic to excite the R6G at 530 nm wavelength and enabling the possibility to minimize the optical crosstalk between the OLED electroluminescence and the fluorescence of R6G. The DBR includes a thin film encapsulation and enables the narrowing of the spectral emission band depending on the number of DBR pairs. The comparison between optical simulation data and experimental results exhibits good agreement and proves process stability.

  19. FDTD analysis of the light extraction efficiency of OLEDs with a random scattering layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Whee; Jang, Ji-Hyang; Oh, Min-Cheol; Shin, Jin-Wook; Cho, Doo-Hee; Moon, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Ik

    2014-01-13

    The light extraction efficiency of OLEDs with a nano-sized random scattering layer (RSL-OLEDs) was analyzed using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. In contrast to periodic diffraction patterns, the presence of an RSL suppresses the spectral shift with respect to the viewing angle. For FDTD simulation of RSL-OLEDs, a planar light source with a certain spatial and temporal coherence was incorporated, and the light extraction efficiency with respect to the fill factor of the RSL and the absorption coefficient of the material was investigated. The design results were compared to the experimental results of the RSL-OLEDs in order to confirm the usefulness of FDTD in predicting experimental results. According to our FDTD simulations, the light confined within the ITO-organic waveguide was quickly absorbed, and the absorption coefficients of ITO and RSL materials should be reduced in order to obtain significant improvement in the external quantum efficiency (EQE). When the extinction coefficient of ITO was 0.01, the EQE in the RSL-OLED was simulated to be enhanced by a factor of 1.8.

  20. Mixed-ligand Al complex-a new approach for more high efficient OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrova, Petia K., E-mail: petia@clf.bas.bg [Institute of Optical Materials and Technologies ' Acad. J. Malinowski' , Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G Bonchev st., bl. 109, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Tomova, Reni L.; Stoycheva-Topalova, Rumiana T. [Institute of Optical Materials and Technologies ' Acad. J. Malinowski' , Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G Bonchev st., bl. 109, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Kaloyanova, Stefka S.; Deligeorgiev, Todor G. [Applied Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Sofia, Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria)

    2012-02-15

    The mixed-ligand Aluminum bis(8-hydroxyquinoline) acetylacetonate (Alq{sub 2}Acac) complex was presented and its performance as electroluminescent and electron transporting layer for OLED was studied. The photophysical properties of the novel complex were investigated and compared with the properties of the parent Alq{sub 3}. Highly efficient OLED based on the mixed-ligand Al complex was developed with two times higher luminescence and efficiency compared to the identical OLED based on the conventional Alq{sub 3} The better performance of the devices make the novel Al complex a very promising material for OLEDs. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel electroluminescent Alq{sub 2}Acac complex is presented as material for OLED. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electroluminescent emission of Alq{sub 2}Acac is very similar to that of commercial Alq{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Devices with Alq{sub 2}Acac show better characteristics compared to those with Alq{sub 3}.

  1. A spectral measurement method for determining white OLED average junction temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yiting; Narendran, Nadarajah

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate an indirect method of measuring the average junction temperature of a white organic light-emitting diode (OLED) based on temperature sensitivity differences in the radiant power emitted by individual emitter materials (i.e., "blue," "green," and "red"). The measured spectral power distributions (SPDs) of the white OLED as a function of temperature showed amplitude decrease as a function of temperature in the different spectral bands, red, green, and blue. Analyzed data showed a good linear correlation between the integrated radiance for each spectral band and the OLED panel temperature, measured at a reference point on the back surface of the panel. The integrated radiance ratio of the spectral band green compared to red, (G/R), correlates linearly with panel temperature. Assuming that the panel reference point temperature is proportional to the average junction temperature of the OLED panel, the G/R ratio can be used for estimating the average junction temperature of an OLED panel.

  2. OLED Fundamentals: Materials, Devices, and Processing of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blochwitz-Nimoth, Jan; Bhandari, Abhinav; Boesch, Damien; Fincher, Curtis R.; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Gotthold, David W.; Greiner, Mark T.; Kido, Junji; Kondakov, Denis; Korotkov, Roman; Krylova, Valentina A.; Loeser, Falk; Lu, Min-Hao; Lu, Zheng-Hong; Lussem, Bjorn; Moro, Lorenza; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Rostovtsev, Vsevolod V.; Sasabe, Hisahiro; Silverman, Gary; Thompson, Mark E.; Tietze, Max; Tyan, Yuan-Sheng; Weaver, Michael; Xin , Xu; Zeng, Xianghui

    2015-05-26

    What is an organic light emitting diode (OLED)? Why should we care? What are they made of? How are they made? What are the challenges in seeing these devices enter the marketplace in various applications? These are the questions we hope to answer in this book, at a level suitable for knowledgeable non-experts, graduate students and scientists and engineers working in the field who want to understand the broader context of their work. At the most basic level, an OLED is a promising new technology composed of some organic material sandwiched between two electrodes. When current is passed through the device, light is emitted. The stack of layers can be very thin and has many variations, including flexible and/or transparent. The organic material can be polymeric or composed small molecules, and may include inorganic components. The electrodes may consist of metals, metal oxides, carbon nanomaterials, or other species, though of course for light to be emitted, one electrode must be transparent. OLEDs may be fabricated on glass, metal foils, or polymer sheets (though polymeric substrates must be modified to protect the organic material from moisture or oxygen). In any event, the organic material must be protected from moisture during storage and operation. A control circuit, the exact nature of which depends on the application, drives the OLED. Nevertheless, the control circuit should have very stable current control to generate uniform light emission. OLEDs can be designed to emit a single color of light, white light, or even tunable colors. The devices can be switched on and off very rapidly, which makes them suitable for displays or for general lighting. Given the amazing complexity of the technical and design challenges for practical OLED applications, it is not surprising that applications are still somewhat limited. Although organic electroluminescence is more than 50 years old, the modern OLED field is really only about half that age – with the first high

  3. Development of robust flexible OLED encapsulations using simulated estimations and experimental validations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang-Chun; Shih, Yan-Shin; Wu, Chih-Sheng; Tsai, Chia-Hao; Yeh, Shu-Tang; Peng, Yi-Hao; Chen, Kuang-Jung

    2012-01-01

    This work analyses the overall stress/strain characteristic of flexible encapsulations with organic light-emitting diode (OLED) devices. A robust methodology composed of a mechanical model of multi-thin film under bending loads and related stress simulations based on nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) is proposed, and validated to be more reliable compared with related experimental data. With various geometrical combinations of cover plate, stacked thin films and plastic substrate, the position of the neutral axis (NA) plate, which is regarded as a key design parameter to minimize stress impact for the concerned OLED devices, is acquired using the present methodology. The results point out that both the thickness and mechanical properties of the cover plate help in determining the NA location. In addition, several concave and convex radii are applied to examine the reliable mechanical tolerance and to provide an insight into the estimated reliability of foldable OLED encapsulations. (paper)

  4. Optimization of the host–guest system within an OLED using different models of mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adames Prada, Rosana, E-mail: rdadamesp@unal.edu.co; Ardila Vargas, Angel Miguel, E-mail: amardilav@unal.edu.co

    2014-12-15

    To optimize the host–guest system of organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), it were performed simulations by doping a small molecule organic semiconductor (acting as host) with the transition organometallic complex known as Ir(ppy){sub 2}(acac) (acting as a guest). The simulation was carried out using simOLED with different mobility models: the Pool–Frenkel Model (PFM), the Extended Gaussian Disorder Model (EGDM) and Extended Correlated Disorder Model (ECDM), with the aim to determine the magnitude of some parameters like temperature, applied electric field, film thickness and charge carrier density that improve the electrical and optical properties of OLEDs with a more simplified structure like ITO/CBP/CBP:Ir(ppy){sub 2}(acac)/TPBi/LiF/Al.

  5. Considerable improvement in the stability of solution processed small molecule OLED by annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao Guilin [Key Laboratory of Photonics Technology for Information, Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Wu Zhaoxin, E-mail: zhaoxinwu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Photonics Technology for Information, Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); He Qiang [Key Laboratory of Photonics Technology for Information, Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Department of UAV, Wuhan Ordnance Noncommissioned Officers Academy, Wuhan, 430075 (China); Jiao Bo; Xu Guojin; Hou Xun [Key Laboratory of Photonics Technology for Information, Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Chen Zhijian; Gong Qihuang [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China)

    2011-06-15

    We investigated the annealing effect on solution processed small organic molecule organic films, which were annealed with various conditions. It was found that the densities of the spin-coated (SC) films increased and the surface roughness decreased as the annealing temperature rose. We fabricated corresponding organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) by spin coating on the same annealing conditions. The solution processed OLEDs show the considerable efficiency and stability, which were prior or equivalent to the vacuum-deposited (VD) counterparts. Our research shows that annealing process plays a key role in prolonging the lifetime of solution processed small molecule OLEDs, and the mechanism for the improvement of the device performance upon annealing was also discussed.

  6. "Kus sa oled mu võluratsu..." : [luuletused] / Mõkola Vingranovski ; tlk. Harald Rajamets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vingranovski, Mõkola

    2004-01-01

    Sisu: "Kus sa oled mu võluratsu..." ; Ja rahvas on... ; "Oled rada, mu armsam..." ; "Sa oled siin! Mu armastus, mu lumm..." ; "Me ahvatluste aastad, albid aastad..." ; "Mul juba siis, kui oli kevad veel..." ; "Nüüd tõuse, kalur! Kustumas on tähed..." ; Meresügisel ; "Kauss hirsiputru, õilmelend..." ; "Õde võõpab aias õunapuid..." ; Esimene hälilaul ; "Noor tüdruk, alles laps. Ei kõnni kikivarvul..." ; "Ülal künka peal seisis päike..." ; "Jäid suve lõpul tuhmiks puud..." ; "Nüüd hakkab lumesadu, nüüd..." ; "Lumehämarus, hall nagu hall..." ; "Tüüpõllu aur on jäärakute kohal..." ; "Parv linde kriiskab salu kohal..." ; "Põld kuivi maisivarsi täis..." ; Haiavata

  7. GATEWAY Report Brief: Evaluating OLED Lighting in the Accounting Office of DeJoy, Knauf & Blood LLP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-08-21

    Summary of GATEWAY report evaluating a new lighting system, at the offices of the accounting firm of DeJoy, Knauf & Blood, LLP in Rochester, NY, that incorporates a number of different OLED luminaires. Evaluation of the OLED products included efficacy performance, field measurements of panel color, flicker measurements, and staff feedback.

  8. Mechanistic study on black and grey spot growth in OLEDs performed on laser-ablated pinholes in the cathode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, P. van de; Bouten, P.C.P.; Fledderus, H.; Janssen, R.R.; Winter, S.H.P.M. de; Akkerman, H.B.

    2017-01-01

    Local laser ablation of the cathode of OLEDs has been applied to create a population of pinholes of the same size. This enables the direct comparison at different conditions of black spots and grey spots in the emission of OLEDs as a result of water ingress into the device. We confirmed earlier

  9. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) and Optically-Detected Magnetic Resonance (ODMR) studies on organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Min [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Organic semiconductors have evolved rapidly over the last decades and currently are considered as the next-generation technology for many applications, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) in flat-panel displays (FPDs) and solid state lighting (SSL), and organic solar cells (OSCs) in clean renewable energy. This dissertation focuses mainly on OLEDs. Although the commercialization of the OLED technology in FPDs is growing and appears to be just around the corner for SSL, there are still several key issues that need to be addressed: (1) the cost of OLEDs is very high, largely due to the costly current manufacturing process; (2) the efficiency of OLEDs needs to be improved. This is vital to the success of OLEDs in the FPD and SSL industries; (3) the lifetime of OLEDs, especially blue OLEDs, is the biggest technical challenge. All these issues raise the demand for new organic materials, new device structures, and continued lower-cost fabrication methods. In an attempt to address these issues, we used solution-processing methods to fabricate highly efficient small molecule OLEDs (SMOLEDs); this approach is costeffective in comparison to the more common thermal vacuum evaporation. We also successfully made efficient indium tin oxide (ITO)-free SMOLEDs to further improve the efficiency of the OLEDs. We employed the spin-dependent optically-detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) technique to study the luminescence quenching processes in OLEDs and organic materials in order to understand the intrinsic degradation mechanisms. We also fabricated polymer LEDs (PLEDs) based on a new electron-accepting blue-emitting polymer and studied the effect of molecular weight on the efficiency of PLEDs. All these studies helped us to better understand the underlying relationship between the organic semiconductor materials and the OLEDs’ performance, and will subsequently assist in further enhancing the efficiency of OLEDs. With strongly improved device performance (in addition to

  10. Enhanced color purity of blue OLEDs based on well-design structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qianqian; Wang, Wenjun; Li, Shuhong; Wang, Qingru; Xia, Shuzhen; Zhang, Bingyuan; Wang, Minghong; Fan, Quli

    2016-09-01

    We have fabricated blue organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) with higher color purity and stability by optimizing the structure of the Glass/ITO/NPB(50 nm)/ BCzVBi (30 nm)/ TPBi (x nm)/Alq3(20 nm)/LiF/Al. The results show that the introducing of hole blocking layer(HBL) TPBi greatly can improve not only the color purity but the color stability, which owe to its higher the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) energy levels of 6.2 eV. We expect our work will be useful to optimizing the blue OLEDs structure to enhancing the color property.

  11. Voltage color tunable OLED with (Sm,Eu)-β-diketonate complex blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, R.; Cremona, M.; Teotonio, E. E. S.; Brito, H. F.; Malta, O. L.

    2004-09-01

    Light emission from organic electroluminescent diodes (OLEDs) in which mixed samarium and europium β-diketonate complexes, [Sm 0.7Eu 0.3(TTA) 3(TPPO) 2], was used as the emitting layer is described. The electroluminescence spectra exhibit narrow peaks arising from 4f-intraconfigurational transitions of the Sm 3+ and Eu 3+ ions and a broad emission band attributed to the electrophosphorescence of the TTA ligand. The intensity ratio of the peaks determined by the bias voltage applied to the OLED, together with the ligand electrophosphorescence, allows to obtain a voltage-tunable color light source.

  12. High-performance blue phosphorescent OLEDs using energy transfer from exciplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Yuki; Sasabe, Hisahiro; Pu, Yong-Jin; Kido, Junji

    2014-03-12

    An efficient energy transfer from an exciplex between a sulfone and an arylamine derivatives to a blue phosphorescent emitter enables OLED performances among the best, of over 50 lm W(-1) at 100 cd m(-2) . The formation of the exciplex realizes a barrier-free hole-electron recombination pathway, thereby leading to high OLED performances with an extremely low driving voltage of 2.9 V at 100 cd m(-2) . © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. La generación de ingresos comerciales en los aeropuertos españoles

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Rendeiro Martín-Cejas; Francisco López del Pino

    2004-01-01

    Este trabajo pretende analizar la importancia del tráfico internacional y el nivel de servicio establecido en la generación de ingresos comerciales en los aeropuertos españoles. En primer lugar, mediante un modelo ad hoc de ingresos, se valora la influencia de las diferentes clases de tráfico en la generación de ingresos de la red de aeropuertos españoles. Se estima, asimismo, la importancia de disponer de tiendas libres de impuestos en la capacidad de generar ingresos comerciales. Seguidamen...

  14. España y los españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caba, Rubén

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The author here argues in favour of the historical reality that we call Spain. To recognize the Cadiz Constitution of 1812 as the origin of present Spain, he maintains, does not imply that our country had no national identity before the 19th century. And to this effect he expounds the famous controversy between Americo Castro and Claudio Sánchez-Albornoz. Before the Arab invasion there were no “españoles”, since this word of provençal origin dates back to the 11th century, as Castro points out. However, it is also true that during the Roman as well the Gothic domination, the peninsular inhabitants were known as “hispani”, as Sánchez-Albornoz sarcastically alleges. In addition, this article includes a number of quotations from Latin, Gothic and Spanish writers of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, references which bear witness to a feeling of belonging to an old country called “Hispania” or “España”.

    El autor aporta argumentos en favor de la realidad histórica que llamamos España. Sostiene que reconocer a la Constitución de Cádiz de 1812 como origen de la España política actual no implica que nuestro país careciera de identidad nacional antes del siglo XIX. Y expone la controversia de Américo Castro y de Claudio Sánchez-Albornoz sobre la génesis histórica de España para concluir que, si bien antes de la invasión árabe no había “españoles”, vocablo provenzal del siglo XI como advierte Castro, también es cierto que durante la dominación romana y goda los peninsulares eran “hispani”, como alega con sorna Sánchez-Albornoz. Además, se recogen citas de autores latinos, godos y españoles tanto medievales como renacentistas que testimonian su sentimiento de pertenecer a un viejo país llamado Hispania o España.

  15. Efficient, deep-blue TADF-emitters for OLED display applications (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Daniel; Baumann, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Currently, the mobile display market is strongly shifting towards AMOLED technology, in order to enable curved and flexible displays. This leads to a growing demand for highly efficient OLED emitters to reduce the power consumption and increase display resolution at the same time. While highly efficient green and red OLEDs already found their place in commercial OLED-displays, the lack of efficient blue emitters is still an issue. Consequently, the active area for blue is considerably larger than for green and red pixels, to make up for the lower efficiency. We intend to close this efficiency-gap with novel emitters based on thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) technology. Compared to state-of-the-art fluorescent dopants, the efficiency of TADF-emitters is up to four times higher. At the same time, it is possible to design them in a way to maintain deep blue emission, i.e. CIE y < 0.2. These aspects are relevant to produce efficient high resolution AMOLED displays. Apart from these direct customer benefits, our TADF technology does not contain any rare elements, which allows for the fabrication of sustainable OLED technology. In this work, we highlight one of our recently developed blue TADF materials. Basic material properties as well as first device results are discussed. In a bottom-emitting device, a CIEx/CIEy coordinate of (0.16/0.17) was achieved with efficiency values close to 20% EQE.

  16. Efficiency and stability of different tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq3) derivatives in OLED applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwong, C.Y.; Djurisic, A.B.; Choy, W.C.H.; Li, D.; Xie, M.H.; Chan, W.K.; Cheah, K.W.; Lai, P.T.; Chui, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we have investigated the material stability and organic light emitting diode (OLED) performance for tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq 3 ) and for three of the Alq 3 derivatives. For each material, electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements were performed and the degradation of photoluminescence (PL) with atmosphere exposure was studied. Performance of OLEDs based on these materials was also studied. The device structure was ITO/N,N'-di(naphthalene-1-yl)-N,N'-diphenyl-benzidine (NPB) (50 nm)/Alq 3 or Alq 3 derivatives (60 nm)/LiF (0.3 nm)/Al (60 nm). It was found that the rate of PL decay of the films correlates strongly with the existence of ESR signal. However, stability of OLEDs fabricated from these materials showed no direct relationship with PL decay in the films. This indicates that the dominant degradation mechanism in OLEDs is related to the passage of electric current through the device. Detailed discussion of the performances of four light emitting materials in terms of efficiency and stability is given

  17. Modeling of charge-transport processes for predictive simulation of OLEDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cottaar, J.

    2012-01-01

    Intensive research is taking place into alternative light sources to replace incandescent and fluorescent lamps. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) show great promise, with their main potential advantages being high energy efficiency, cheap roll-to-roll production, excellent color rendering and a

  18. The electro-thermal-mechanical performance of an OLED : a multi-physics model study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A.W.J.; Barink, M.; Brand, J. van de; Mol, A.M.B. van

    2009-01-01

    In order to study the electrical-thermo-mechanical interaction in OLEDs, finite element based simulation models were developed. Two dimensional models were used to study detailed design effects, such as the location of the bus bars, while a three dimensional model was used to study the effect of

  19. OLED Encapsulation by Room Temperature Plasma-Assisted ALD Al2O3 Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuning, W.; Creatore, M.; Langereis, E.; Lifka, H.; Weijer, van de P.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs, both small molecule and polymer LEDs) require excellent gas and moisture permeation barrier layers to increase their lifetime. The quality of the barrier layer is ultimately controlled by the presence of defects in the layer. Although a barrier layer may be

  20. Piezoelectric Lead Zirconium Titanate Composite Touch Sensors for Integration with Flexible OLED Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deutz, D.B.; Tempelman, E.; Zwaag, S. van der; Groen, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    To enable the design of more intuitive product user interfaces, the prospects of matching piezoelectric touch sensors with flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED) technology are investigated. Low stiffness piezoelectric composite sensors, combining piezoelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 powder with a

  1. Low-frequency noise as a diagnostic tool for OLED reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocha, P.R.F.; Vandamme, L.K.J.; Meskers, S.C.J.; Gomes, H.L.; Leeuw, de D.M.; Weijer, van de P.

    2013-01-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLED), either based on polymers or small molecules, suffer from early failure: an unpredictable sudden increase in current with a total loss of light output. This work addresses this problem using small-signal impedance measurements and electrical noise techniques.

  2. Kunstnikuks pürgija vajab paari õigeaegset impulssi / Kaido Ole, Eva Unt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ole, Kaido

    2006-01-01

    Antonia Claudio Carvalho meistriklass "Ava oma silmad/Open Your Eyes" 23.-27. I ja näitus 27. I-9. II Eesti Kunstiakadeemia galeriis. Meistriklassist vestlesid EKA maaliosakonna juhataja Kaido Ole ja maalieriala III kursuse üliõpilane Eva Unt

  3. Molecular electrophosphorescence in (Sm, Gd)-{beta}-diketonate complex blend for OLED applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, R., E-mail: fisicaplic@hotmail.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica y Textil, Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, UNI, Av. Tupac Amaru 210, Lima 31, Peru (Peru); Cremona, M. [DIMAT - Divisao de Metrologia de Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial, INMETRO, Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, PUC-Rio, C.P. 38071, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22453-970 (Brazil); Teotonio, E.E.S. [Departamento de Quimica, CCEN, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, UFPB, C.P. 5093, Joao Pessoa, PB, CEP 5805-970 (Brazil); Brito, H.F. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, USP, C.P. 26077, Sao Paulo, SP, CEP 05599-970 (Brazil); Malta, O.L. [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, CCEN, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitaria, Recife, PE, CEP 50670-901 (Brazil)

    2013-02-15

    In this work the preparation and characterization of the triple-layer organic light-emitting diode (OLED) using a mixture of the samarium and gadolinium {beta}-diketonate complexes [Sm{sub 0.5}Gd{sub 0.5}(TTA){sub 3}(TPPO){sub 2}] as emitting layer is reported. The OLED's devices contain 1-(3-methylphenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline-6-carboxyaldehyde-1, 1'-diphenylhydrazone (MTCD) as hole-transporting layer and tris(8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum) (Alq{sub 3}) as electron transporting layer. The electroluminescence spectrum present emission narrow bands from the {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}{yields}{sup 6}H{sub J} transitions (where J=5/2, 7/2 and 9/2) characteristic of the Sm{sup 3+} ion. These sharp lines are overlapped with a broad band attributed to the electrophosphorescence from the T{sub 1}{yields}S{sub 0} transition in the ligand TTA. The intramolecular energy transfer is discussed and applied on the change of the emission color of the organic LEDs at different bias voltages. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Samarium and gadolinium complexes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OLED with complex blend (Sm,Gd). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrophosphorescence emission detection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Application in OLED changing the color emission.

  4. True-color 640 ppi OLED arrays patterned by CA i-line photolithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malinowski, P.E.; Ke, T.; Nakamura, A.; Chang, T.-Y.; Gokhale, P.; Steudel, S.; Janssen, D.; Kamochi, Y.; Koyama, I.; Iwai,Y.; Heremans, P.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, side-by-side patterning of red, green and blue OLEDs is demonstrated. To achieve 640 ppi arrays with 20 µm subpixel pitch, chemically amplified, i-line photoresist system with submicron resolution was used. These results show feasibility of obtaining full-color displays with

  5. OLED-based biosensing platform with ZnO nanoparticles for enzyme immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuankun; Shinar, Ruth; Shinar, Joseph

    2009-08-01

    Organic light-emitting diode (OLED)-based sensing platforms are attractive for photoluminescence (PL)-based monitoring of a variety of analytes. Among the promising OLED attributes for sensing applications is the thin and flexible size and design of the OLED pixel array that is used for PL excitation. To generate a compact, fielddeployable sensor, other major sensor components, such as the sensing probe and the photodetector, in addition to the thin excitation source, should be compact. To this end, the OLED-based sensing platform was tested with composite thin biosensing films, where oxidase enzymes were immobilized on ZnO nanoparticles, rather than dissolved in solution, to generate a more compact device. The analytes tested, glucose, cholesterol, and lactate, were monitored by following their oxidation reactions in the presence of oxygen and their respective oxidase enzymes. During such reactions, oxygen is consumed and its residual concentration, which is determined by the initial concentration of the above-mentioned analytes, is monitored. The sensors utilized the oxygen-sensitive dye Pt octaethylporphyrin, embedded in polystyrene. The enzymes were sandwiched between two thin ZnO layers, an approach that was found to improve the stability of the sensing probes.

  6. White top-emitting OLEDs using organic colour-conversion layers for improved colour-stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, Tobias; Hofmann, Simone; Thomschke, Michael; Luessem, Bjoern; Leo, Karl [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In contrast to white organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) using several vertical stacked emitters, the principle of down-conversion gives the chance to achieve white light with a simplified layer structure and enhanced colour stability by preventing a colour shift over lifetime due to differential aging of dyes. We investigate an approach where the conversion material is integrated into a top-emitting OLED structure in a way, that only electrons can pass this layer. This assures optical excitation and avoids unwanted electrical recombination inside the conversion layer. The emission spectra, CIE-coordinates, efficiencies, and IV-characteristics depending on the conversion layer thickness have been determined and were compared to the non-emitting host-material with similar optical properties. Lifetime measurements show that these OLEDs have almost no colour change over an investigated period up to 2200 hours. It is shown that the external quantum efficiency of the OLED does not necessarily decrease with an increased conversion layer thickness, even if the photoluminescence quantum yield of these materials is below unity. This indicates that the efficiency is improved by out-coupling of isotropic re-emitted wave-guided modes.

  7. John Smith vastab / Kaido Ole, Marko Mäetamm ; interv. Harry Liivrand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ole, Kaido

    2003-01-01

    Marko Mäetamm ja Kaido Ole, kelle kosmoseteemaline näitus "Marko and Kaido. By John Smith" on avatud Veneetsia biennaalil räägivad teemadel "koosmaalimine", "kosmoseodüsseia", "maalikunst", "kunstnikuidentiteet", "Veneetsia biennaal", "kuraatori võim", "pseudonüüm", "Eesti kunstiruum", "video" jm.

  8. Molecular electrophosphorescence in (Sm, Gd)-β-diketonate complex blend for OLED applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, R.; Cremona, M.; Teotonio, E.E.S.; Brito, H.F.; Malta, O.L.

    2013-01-01

    In this work the preparation and characterization of the triple-layer organic light-emitting diode (OLED) using a mixture of the samarium and gadolinium β-diketonate complexes [Sm 0.5 Gd 0.5 (TTA) 3 (TPPO) 2 ] as emitting layer is reported. The OLED's devices contain 1-(3-methylphenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline-6-carboxyaldehyde-1, 1'-diphenylhydrazone (MTCD) as hole-transporting layer and tris(8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum) (Alq 3 ) as electron transporting layer. The electroluminescence spectrum present emission narrow bands from the 4 G 5/2 → 6 H J transitions (where J=5/2, 7/2 and 9/2) characteristic of the Sm 3+ ion. These sharp lines are overlapped with a broad band attributed to the electrophosphorescence from the T 1 →S 0 transition in the ligand TTA. The intramolecular energy transfer is discussed and applied on the change of the emission color of the organic LEDs at different bias voltages. - Highlights: ► Samarium and gadolinium complexes. ► OLED with complex blend (Sm,Gd). ► Electrophosphorescence emission detection. ► Application in OLED changing the color emission.

  9. Application of Developed APCVD Transparent Conducting Oxides and Undercoat Technologies for Economical OLED Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, Gary S.; Bluhm, Martin; Coffey, James; Korotkov, Roman; Polsz, Craig; Salemi, Alexandre; Smith, Robert; Smith, Ryan; Stricker, Jeff; Xu, Chen; Shirazi, Jasmine; Papakonstantopulous, George; Carson, Steve; Hartmann, Sören; Jessen, Frank; Krogmann, Bianaca; Rickers, Christoph; Ruske, Manfred; Schwab, Holger; Bertram, Dietrich

    2011-01-02

    Economics is a key factor for application of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) in general lighting relative to OLED flat panel displays that can handle high cost materials such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or Indium zinc oxide (IZO) as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) on display glass. However, for OLED lighting to penetrate into general illumination, economics and sustainable materials are critical. The issues with ITO have been documented at the DOE SSL R&D and Manufacturing workshops for the last 5 years and the issue is being exaserbated by export controls from China (one of the major sources of elemental indium). Therefore, ITO is not sustainable because of the fluctuating costs and the United States (US) dependency on other nations such as China. Numerous alternatives to ITO/IZO are being evaluated such as Ag nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and other metal oxides. Of these other metal oxides, doped zinc oxide has attracted a lot of attention over the last 10 years. The volume of zinc mined is a factor of 80,000 greater than indium and the US has significant volumes of zinc mined domestically, resulting in the ability for the US to be self-sufficient for this element that can be used in optoelectonic applications. The costs of elemental zinc is over 2 orders of magnitude less than indium, reflecting the relative abundance and availablility of the elements. Arkema Inc. and an international primary glass manufacturing company, which is located in the United States, have developed doped zinc oxide technology for solar control windows. The genesis of this DOE SSL project was to determine if doped zinc oxide technology can be taken from the commodity based window market and translate the technology to OLED lighting. Thus, Arkema Inc. sought out experts, Philips Lighting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) and National Renewable Research Laboratories (NREL), in OLED devices and brought them into the project. This project had a

  10. Spectrally narrowed leaky waveguide edge emission and transient electrluminescent dynamics of OLEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhengqing, Gan

    2010-01-01

    In summary, there are two major research works presented in this dissertation. The first research project (Chapter 4) is spectrally narrowed edge emission from Organic Light Emitting Diodes. The second project (Chapter 5) is about transient electroluminescent dynamics in OLEDs. Chapter 1 is a general introduction of OLEDs. Chapter 2 is a general introduction of organic semiconductor lasers. Chapter 3 is a description of the thermal evaporation method for OLED fabrication. The detail of the first project was presented in Chapter 4. Extremely narrowed spectrum was observed from the edge of OLED devices. A threshold thickness exists, above which the spectrum is narrow, and below which the spectrum is broad. The FWHM of spectrum depends on the material of the organic thin films, the thickness of the organic layers, and length of the OLED device. A superlinear relationship between the output intensity of the edge emission and the length of the device was observed, which is probably due to the misalignment of the device edge and the optical fiber detector. The original motivation of this research is for organic semiconductor laser that hasn't been realized due to the extremely high photon absorption in OLED devices. Although we didn't succeed in fabricating an electrically pumped organic laser diode, we made a comprehensive research in edge emission of OLEDs which provides valuable results in understanding light distribution and propagation in OLED devices. Chapter 5 focuses on the second project. A strong spike was observed at the falling edge of a pulse, and a long tail followed. The spike was due to the recombination of correlated charge pair (CCP) created by trapped carriers in guest molecules of the recombination zone. When the bias was turned off, along with the decreasing of electric field in the device, the electric field induced quenching decreases and the recombination rate of the CCP increases which result in the spike. This research project provides a

  11. Spectrally narrowed leaky waveguide edge emission and transient electrluminescent dynamics of OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhengqing, Gan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In summary, there are two major research works presented in this dissertation. The first research project (Chapter 4) is spectrally narrowed edge emission from Organic Light Emitting Diodes. The second project (Chapter 5) is about transient electroluminescent dynamics in OLEDs. Chapter 1 is a general introduction of OLEDs. Chapter 2 is a general introduction of organic semiconductor lasers. Chapter 3 is a description of the thermal evaporation method for OLED fabrication. The detail of the first project was presented in Chapter 4. Extremely narrowed spectrum was observed from the edge of OLED devices. A threshold thickness exists, above which the spectrum is narrow, and below which the spectrum is broad. The FWHM of spectrum depends on the material of the organic thin films, the thickness of the organic layers, and length of the OLED device. A superlinear relationship between the output intensity of the edge emission and the length of the device was observed, which is probably due to the misalignment of the device edge and the optical fiber detector. The original motivation of this research is for organic semiconductor laser that hasn't been realized due to the extremely high photon absorption in OLED devices. Although we didn't succeed in fabricating an electrically pumped organic laser diode, we made a comprehensive research in edge emission of OLEDs which provides valuable results in understanding light distribution and propagation in OLED devices. Chapter 5 focuses on the second project. A strong spike was observed at the falling edge of a pulse, and a long tail followed. The spike was due to the recombination of correlated charge pair (CCP) created by trapped carriers in guest molecules of the recombination zone. When the bias was turned off, along with the decreasing of electric field in the device, the electric field induced quenching decreases and the recombination rate of the CCP increases which result in the spike. This research project provides

  12. Overexpression of OLE1 enhances stress tolerance and constitutively activates the MAPK HOG pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, Olviyani; Lee, Young Mi; Kim, Eunjung; Lee, Yeji; Kim, Wankee; Choi, Wonja

    2017-03-01

    OLE1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes the sole and essential Δ-9 desaturase catalyzing the conversion of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. Upon ectopic overexpression of OLE1 in S. cerevisiae, significant increases in the membrane oleic acid content were observed. OLE1-overexpressing strains displayed enhanced tolerance to various stresses, better proton efflux, lower membrane permeability, and lessened internal hydrogen peroxide content. The OLE1-mediated enhanced stress tolerance was considerably diminished upon deletion of HOG1, which encodes the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Hog1 of the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway. Furthermore, OLE1 overexpression constitutively activated Hog1, which remained in the cytoplasm. Hog1 activation was accomplished through the MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK) Ssk2, but not Ste11 and Ssk22, the other MAPKKKs of the HOG pathway. Despite its cytoplasmic location, activated Hog1 was able to activate the expression of its canonical targets, including CTT1, HSP12, and STL1, and further, the cAMP and stress response elements present in the promoter. OLE1 overexpression neither caused nor relieved endoplasmic reticulum stress. Individually or in combination, the physiological and molecular changes caused by OLE1 overexpression may contribute to enhanced tolerance to various types of stress. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 620-631. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Construction of Context-Based Module: How OLED can be used as a Context in High School Chemistry Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anugrah, I. R.; Mudzakir, A.; Sumarna, O.

    2017-09-01

    Teaching materials used in Indonesia generally just emphasize remembering skill so that the students’ science literacy is low. Innovation is needed to transform traditional teaching materials so that it can stimulate students’ science literacy, one of which is by context-based approach. This study focused on the construction of context-based module for high school using Organic Light-Emitting Diode (OLED) topics. OLED was chosen because it is an up-to-date topic and relevant to real life. This study used Model of Educational Reconstruction (MER) to reconstruct science content structure about OLED through combining scientist’s perspectives with student’s preconceptions and national curriculum. Literature review of OLED includes its definition, components, characteristics and working principle. Student’s preconceptions about OLED are obtained through interviews. The result shows that student’s preconceptions have not been fully similar with the scientist’s perspective. One of the reasons is that some of the related Chemistry concepts are too complicated. Through curriculum analysis, Chemistry about OLED that are appropriate for high school are Bohr’s atomic theory, redox and organic chemistry including polymers and aromatics. The OLED context and its Chemistry concept were developed into context-based module by adapting science literacy-based learning. This module is expected to increase students’ science literacy performance.

  14. Influence of the 3D-conformation, glycan component and microheterogeneity on the epitope structure of Ole e 1, the major olive allergen - Use of recombinant isoforms and specific monoclonal antibodies as immunological tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González, Eva M.; Villalba, Mayte; Lombardero, Manuel; Aalbers, Marja; van Ree, Ronald; Rodríguez, Rosalía

    2002-01-01

    Ole e 1 is the main allergen of olive pollen, which is a major cause of pollinosis in countries of the Mediterranean area. Nine Ole e 1-specific murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), as well as two Ole e 1-isoforms and two Ole e 1-like allergens from lilac and privet, all of them obtained in Pichia

  15. OLED-based physiologically-friendly very low-color temperature illumination for night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Jwo-Huei; Shen, Shih-Ming; Tang, Ming-Chun; Chen, Pin-Chu; Chen, Szu-Hao; Wang, Yi-Shan; Chen, Chien-Chih; Wang, Ching-Chun; Hsieh, Chun-Yu; Lin, Chin-Chiao; Chen, Chien-Tien

    2012-09-01

    Numerous medical research studies reveal intense white or blue light to drastically suppress at night the secretion of melatonin (MLT), a protective oncostatic hormone. Lighting devices with lower color-temperature (CT) possess lesser MLT suppression effect based on the same luminance, explaining why physicians have long been calling for the development of lighting sources with low CT or free from blue emission for use at night to safeguard human health. We will demonstrate in the presentation the fabrication of OLED devices with very-low CT, especially those with CT much lower than that of incandescent bulbs (2500K) or even candles (2000K). Without any light extraction method, OLEDs with an around 1800K CT are easily obtainable with an efficacy of 30 lm/W at 1,000 nits. To also ensure high color-rendering to provide visual comfort, low CT OLEDs composing long wavelength dominant 5-spectrum emission have been fabricated. While keeping the color-rendering index as high as 85 and CT as low as 2100K, the resulting efficacy can also be much greater than that of incandescent bulbs (15 lm/W), proving these low CT OLED devices to be also capable of being energy-saving and high quality. The color-temperature can be further decreased to 1700K or lower upon removing the undesired short wavelength emission but on the cost of losing some color rendering index. It is hoped that the devised energy-saving, high quality low CT OLED could properly echo the call for a physiologically-friendly illumination for night, and more attention could be drawn to the development of MLT suppression-less non-white light.

  16. Application of Developed APCVD Transparent Conducting Oxides and Undercoat Technologies for Economical OLED Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Bluhm; James Coffey; Roman Korotkov; Craig Polsz; Alexandre Salemi; Robert Smith; Ryan Smith; Jeff Stricker; Chen Xu; Jasmine Shirazi; George Papakonstantopulous; Steve Carson; Claudia Goldman; Soren Hartmann; Frank Jessen; Bianca Krogmann; Christoph Rickers; Manfred Ruske; Holger Schwab; Dietrich Bertram

    2011-01-02

    Economics is a key factor for application of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) in general lighting relative to OLED flat panel displays that can handle high cost materials such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or Indium zinc oxide (IZO) as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) on display glass. However, for OLED lighting to penetrate into general illumination, economics and sustainable materials are critical. The issues with ITO have been documented at the DOE SSL R&D and Manufacturing workshops for the last 5 years and the issue is being exacerbated by export controls from China (one of the major sources of elemental indium). Therefore, ITO is not sustainable because of the fluctuating costs and the United States (US) dependency on other nations such as China. Numerous alternatives to ITO/IZO are being evaluated such as Ag nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and other metal oxides. Of these other metal oxides, doped zinc oxide has attracted a lot of attention over the last 10 years. The volume of zinc mined is a factor of 80,000 greater than indium and the US has significant volumes of zinc mined domestically, resulting in the ability for the US to be self-sufficient for this element that can be used in optoelectronic applications. The costs of elemental zinc is over 2 orders of magnitude less than indium, reflecting the relative abundance and availability of the elements. Arkema Inc. and an international primary glass manufacturing company, which is located in the United States, have developed doped zinc oxide technology for solar control windows. The genesis of this DOE SSL project was to determine if doped zinc oxide technology can be taken from the commodity based window market and translate the technology to OLED lighting. Thus, Arkema Inc. sought out experts, Philips Lighting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) and National Renewable Research Laboratories (NREL), in OLED devices and brought them into the project. This project had a

  17. Transparent conductive oxides and alternative transparent electrodes for organic photovoltaics and OLEDs; Transparente leitfaehige Elektroden. Oxide und alternative Materialien fuer die organische Photovoltaik und OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Meskamp, Lars; Sachse, Christoph; Kim, Yong Hyun; Furno, Mauro [Technische Univ. Dresden (DE). Inst. fuer Angewandte Photophysik (IAPP); May, Christian [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Photonische Mikrosysteme (IPMS), Dresden (Germany); Leo, Karl [Technische Univ. Dresden (DE). Inst. fuer Angewandte Photophysik (IAPP); Fraunhofer Institut fuer Photonische Mikrosysteme (IPMS), Dresden (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Organic, photoactive devices, such as OLEDs or organic solar cells, currently use indium tin oxide (ITO) as transparent electrode. Whereas ITO is industry-proven for many years and shows very good electrical and optical properties, its application for low-cost and flexible devices might not be optimal. For such applications innovative technologies such as network-based metal nanowire or carbon nanotube electrodes, graphene, conductive polymers, metal thin-films and alternative transparent conductive oxides emerge. Although some of these technologies are rather experimental and far from application, some of them have the potential to replace ITO in selected applications. (orig.)

  18. Stacked white OLED having separate red, green and blue sub-elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Stephen; Qi, Xiangfei; Slootsky, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The present invention relates to efficient organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). The devices employ three emissive sub-elements, typically emitting red, green and blue, to sufficiently cover the visible spectrum. Thus, the devices may be white-emitting OLEDs, or WOLEDs. Each sub-element comprises at least one organic layer which is an emissive layer--i.e., the layer is capable of emitting light when a voltage is applied across the stacked device. The sub-elements are vertically stacked and are separated by charge generating layers. The charge-generating layers are layers that inject charge carriers into the adjacent layer(s) but do not have a direct external connection.

  19. Study of organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) with optimal emission efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jai [School of Engineering and IT, B-purple 12, Faculty of EHS, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT 0909 (Australia)

    2010-04-15

    The external emission efficiency of organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) is analysed by studying the rate of spontaneous emission of both singlet and triplet excitons and their corresponding radiative lifetimes. Rates of spontaneous emissions are calculated from the first order perturbation theory using the newly discovered time-dependent spin-orbit-exciton-photon interaction operator as the perturbation operator. It is clearly shown how the new interaction operator is responsible for attracting triplet excitons to a phosphor (heavy metal atom) and then it flips the spins to a singlet configuration. Thus, the spin forbidden transition becomes spin allowed. Calculated rates agree with the experimental results qualitatively. Results are of general interests for OLED studies. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Polystyrene Backbone Polymers Consisting of Alkyl-Substituted Triazine Side Groups for Phosphorescent OLEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Ch. D. Salert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the synthesis of new electron-transporting styrene monomers and their corresponding polystyrenes all with a 2,4,6-triphenyl-1,3,5-triazine basic structure in the side group. The monomers differ in the alkyl substitution and in the meta-/paralinkage of the triazine to the polymer backbone. The thermal and spectroscopic properties of the new electron-transporting polymers are discussed in regard to their chemical structures. Phosphorescent OLEDs were prepared using the obtained electron-transporting polymers as the emissive layer material in blend systems together with a green iridium-based emitter 13 and a small molecule as an additional cohost with wideband gap characteristics (CoH-001. The performance of the OLEDs was characterized and discussed in regard to the chemical structure of the new electron-transporting polymers.

  1. OLED Hybrid Integrated Polymer Microfluidic Biosensing for Point of Care Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Acharya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a microfluidic platform with external hybrid integration of an organic light emitting diode (OLED as an excitation source. This device can be used as a simple and cost effective biosensing element. The device is capable of rapid in-situ detection of biological elements such as sensing of interaction of antigen with fluorescent tagged antibody conjugates. These portable microfluidic systems have great potential for use an OLED in a single chip with very high accuracy and sensitivity for various point-of-care (POC diagnosis and lab on a chip (LOC applications, as the miniaturization of the biosensor is essential for handling smaller sample volumes in order to achieve high throughput. The biosensing element was successfully tested to detect anti-sheep IgG conjugates tagged to Alexafluor using a fluorescence based immunoassay method.

  2. Localized Surface Plasmon-Enhanced Electroluminescence in OLEDs by Self-Assembly Ag Nanoparticle Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Wenjun; Li, Shuhong; Wang, Qingru; Zheng, Wanquan; Shi, Qiang; Liu, Yunlong

    2015-12-01

    We fabricated Ag nanoparticle (NP) film in organic light emission diodes (OLEDs), and a 23 times increase in electroluminescence (EL) at 518 nm was probed by time-resolved EL measurement. The luminance and relative external quantum efficiency (REQE) were increased by 5.4 and 3.7 times, respectively. There comes a new energy transport way that localized surface plasmons (LSPs) would absorb energy that corresponds to the electron-hole pair before recombination, promoting the formation of electron-hole pair and exciting local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). The extended lifetime of Alq3 indicates the existence of strong interaction between LSPR and exciton, which decreases the nonradiative decay rate of OLEDs.

  3. Theoretical investigation of the degradation mechanisms in host and guest molecules used in OLED active layers

    KAUST Repository

    Winget, Paul

    2014-10-08

    A feature of OLEDs that has to date received little attention is the prediction of the stability of the molecules involved in the electrical and optical processes. Here, we present computational results intended to aid in the development of stable systems. We identify degradation pathways and define new strategies to guide the synthesis of stable materials for OLED applications for both phosphorescent emitters and organic host materials. The chemical reactivity of these molecules in the active layers of the devices is further complicated by the fact that, during operation, they can be either oxidized or reduced (as they localize a hole or an electron) in addition to forming both singlet and triplet excitons. © (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  4. High-throughput quantum chemistry and virtual screening for OLED material components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halls, Mathew D.; Giesen, David J.; Hughes, Thomas F.; Goldberg, Alexander; Cao, Yixiang

    2013-09-01

    Computational structure enumeration, analysis using an automated simulation workflow and filtering of large chemical structure libraries to identify lead systems, has become a central paradigm in drug discovery research. Transferring this paradigm to challenges in materials science is now possible due to advances in the speed of computational resources and the efficiency and stability of chemical simulation packages. State-of-the-art software tools that have been developed for drug discovery can be applied to efficiently explore the chemical design space to identify solutions for problems such as organic light-emitting diode material components. In this work, virtual screening for OLED materials based on intrinsic quantum mechanical properties is illustrated. Also, a new approach to more reliably identify candidate systems is introduced that is based on the chemical reaction energetics of defect pathways for OLED materials.

  5. Polystyrene Backbone Polymers Consisting of Alkyl-Substituted Triazine Side Groups for Phosphorescent OLEDs

    OpenAIRE

    Salert, Beatrice Ch. D.; Wedel, Armin; Grubert, Lutz; Eberle, Thomas; Anémian, Rémi; Krueger, Hartmut

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of new electron-transporting styrene monomers and their corresponding polystyrenes all with a 2,4,6-triphenyl-1,3,5-triazine basic structure in the side group. The monomers differ in the alkyl substitution and in the meta-/paralinkage of the triazine to the polymer backbone. The thermal and spectroscopic properties of the new electron-transporting polymers are discussed in regard to their chemical structures. Phosphorescent OLEDs were prepared using the obta...

  6. OLED microdisplays in near-to-eye applications: challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Uwe; Richter, Bernd; Wartenberg, Philipp; König, Peter; Hild, Olaf R.; Fehse, Karsten; Schober, Matthias; Bodenstein, Elisabeth; Beyer, Beatrice

    2017-06-01

    Wearable augmented-reality (AR) has already started to be used productively mainly in manufacturing industry and logistics. Next step will be to move wearable AR from "professionals to citizens" by enabling networked, everywhere augmented-reality (in-/outdoor localisation, scene recognition, cloud access,…) which is non-intrusive, exhibits intuitive user-interaction, anytime safe and secure use, and considers personal privacy protection (user's and others). Various hardware improvements (e.g., low-power, seamless interactivity, small form factor, ergonomics,…), as well as connectivity and network integration will become vital for consumer adoption. Smart-Glasses (i.e., near-to-eye (NTE) displays) have evolved as major devices for wearable AR, that hold potential to become adopted by consumers soon. Tiny microdisplays are a key component of smart-glasses, e.g., creating images from organic light emitting diodes (OLED), that have become popular in mobile phone displays. All microdisplay technologies on the market comprise an image-creating pixel modulation, but only the emissive ones (for example, OLED and LED) feature the image and light source in a single device, and therefore do not require an external light source. This minimizes system size and power consumption, while providing exceptional contrast and color space. These advantages make OLED microdisplays a perfect fit for near-eye applications. Low-power active-matrix circuitry CMOS backplane architecture, embedded sensors, emission spectra outside the visible and high-resolution sub-pixel micro-patterning address some of the application challenges (e.g., long battery life, sun-light readability, user interaction modes) and enable advanced features for OLED microdisplays in near-to-eye displays, e.g., upcoming connected augmented-reality smart glasses. This report is to analyze the challenges in addressing those features and discuss solutions.

  7. Synthesis of Some Green Dopants for OLEDs Based on Arylamine 2,3-disubstituted Bithiophene Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Seon Song

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of green dopants based on 2,2-diphenylvinyl end-capped bithiophene and three different arylamine moieties (9-phenylcarbazole, triphenylamine, and N,N’-di-(p-tolylbenzeneamine were successfully synthesized by the Suzuki and Wittig coupling reactions. The photophysical properties of these compounds are reported. The strongest PL emitting compound with the 9-phenylcarbazole moiety has been used for fabricating an OLED device with good overall performance.

  8. Electrical investigations of hybrid OLED microcavity structures with novel encapsulation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Stefan; Brückner, Robert; Fröb, Hartmut; Leo, Karl

    2016-04-01

    An electrical driven organic solid state laser is a very challenging goal which is so far well beyond reach. As a step towards realization, we monolithically implemented an Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) into a dielectric, high quality microcavity (MC) consisting of two Distributed Bragg Reectors (DBR). In order to account for an optimal optical operation, the OLED structure has to be adapted. Furthermore, we aim to excite the device not only electrically but optically as well. Different OLED structures with an emission layer consisting of Alq3:DCM (2 wt%) were investigated. The External Quantum Efficiencies (EQE) of this hybrid structures are in the range of 1-2 %, as expected for this material combination. Including metal layers into a MC is complicated and has a huge impact on the device performance. Using Transfer-Matrix-Algorithm (TMA) simulations, the best positions for the metal electrodes are determined. First, the electroluminescence (EL) of the adjusted OLED structure on top of a DBR is measured under nitrogen atmosphere. The modes showed quality factors of Q = 60. After the deposition of the top DBR, the EL is measured again and the quality factors increased up to Q = 600. Considering the two 25-nm-thick-silver contacts a Q-factor of 600 is very high. The realization of a suitable encapsulation method is important. Two approaches were successfully tested. The first method is based on the substitution of a DBR layer with a layer produced via Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). The second method uses a 0.15-mm-thick cover glass glued on top of the DBR with a 0.23-μm-thick single-component glue layer. Due to the working encapsulation, it is possible to investigate the sample under ambient conditions.

  9. IT Pealinnas oled sa õnnelik: meie-aasta / Priit Kongo, Aune Past

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kongo, Priit

    2016-01-01

    2015. aasta Eesti Suhtekorralduse Auhinna konkursil pälvis sisekommunikatsiooni preemia Net Group projekti eest "IT-pealinnas oled sa õnnelik: meie-aasta", mille eesmärgiks oli ettevõtte kui hea tööandja maine kujundamine. Žürii hinnangul oli tegemist loomingulise ja oskusliku lähenemisega sisekommunikatsioonile, millega ettevõte suutis loomulikul viisil kaasata oma töötajad firma tegevustesse ja kogukondadesse

  10. Synthesis of side-chain polystyrenes for all organic solution processed OLEDs

    OpenAIRE

    Lorente Sánchez, Alejandro Jose (Dr.)

    2017-01-01

    In the present work side-chain polystyrenes were synthesized and characterized, in order to be applied in multilayer OLEDs fabricated by solution process techniques. Manufacture of optoelectronic devices by solution process techniques is meant to decrease significantly fabrication cost and allow large scale production of such devices. This dissertation focusses in three series, enveloped in two material classes. The two classes differ to each other in the type of charge transport exhibited...

  11. La Sociedad de Autores Españoles (1899-1932

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Sánchez García

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante ia úitima parte dei sigio xix ios autores españoies iniciaron un movimiento asociativo en defensa de sus derechos como profesionales. El proceso culminó en la fundación de la Sociedad de Autores Españoles (precedente de la actual Sociedad General de Autores Españoles. El objetivo principal de la SAE fue conseguir para los autores la administración y gestión de los derectios derivados de sus composiciones musicales y teatrales, lo que tuvo una gran importancia en un momento en que se estaban transformando las formas de ocio en nuestro país. Estas páginas pretenden llevar a cabo un repaso de su organización, sus logros y su evolución desde 1899 hasta 1932.During the last part of xix century, Spanish authors started a movement looking after their rights as professionals in pursuit of assoclations to defend them. The process finished in the foundation of the Sociedad de Autores Españoles (precedent of the SGAE. The principal objective of the SAE was to obtain the right to manage and to negotiate their own works and compositions. This was a very important sucess because of the change of leisure in Spain. In these pages, I will try to study the organization, the achievements and the evolution of the SAE from 1899 to 1932.

  12. Simulation for light extraction efficiency of OLEDs with spheroidal microlenses in hexagonal array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyungchul; Kim, Jun Soo; Hong, Chinsoo

    2018-05-01

    A theoretical model based on ray optics is used to simulate the optical performance of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with spheroidal microlens arrays (MLAs) in a hexagonal array configuration using the Monte Carlo method. In simulations, ray tracing was performed until 20 reflections occurred from the metal cathode, with 10 consecutive reflections permitted in a single lens pattern. The parameters describing the shape and array of the lens pattern of a MLA are its radius, height, contact angle, and fill factor (FF). Many previous results on how these parameters affect light extraction efficiency (LEE) are inconsistent. In this paper, these contradictory results are discussed and explained by introducing a new parameter. To examine light extraction from an OLED through a MLA, the LEE enhancement is studied considering the effect of absorption by indium tin oxide during multiple reflections from the metal cathode. The device size where LEE enhancement is unchanged with changing lens pattern was identified for a fixed FF; under this condition, the optimal LEE enhancement, 84%, can be obtained using an OLED with a close-packed spheroidal MLA. An ideal maximum LEE enhancement of 120% was achieved with a device with an infinite-sized MLA. The angular intensity distribution of light emitted through a MLA is considered in addition to LEE enhancement for an optimized MLA.

  13. Thermally Cross-Linkable Hole Transport Materials for Solution Processed Phosphorescent OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom Seok; Kim, Ohyoung; Chin, Byung Doo; Lee, Chil Won

    2018-04-01

    Materials for unique fabrication of a solution-processed, multi-layered organic light-emitting diode (OLED) were developed. Preparation of a hole transport layer with a thermally cross-linkable chemical structure, which can be processed to form a thin film and then transformed into an insoluble film by using an amine-alcohol condensation reaction with heat treatment, was investigated. Functional groups, such as triplenylamine linked with phenylcarbazole or biphenyl, were employed in the chemical structure of the hole transport layer in order to maintain high triplet energy properties. When phenylcarbazole or biphenyl compounds continuously react with triphenylamine under acid catalysis, a chemically stable thin film material with desirable energy-level properties for a blue OLED could be obtained. The prepared hole transport materials showed excellent surface roughness and thermal stability in comparison with the commercial reference material. On the solution-processed model hole transport layer, we fabricated a device with a blue phosphorescent OLED by using sequential vacuum deposition. The maximum external quantum, 19.3%, was improved by more than 40% over devices with the commercial reference material (11.4%).

  14. Chemical failure modes of AlQ3-based OLEDs: AlQ3 hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, John E; Halls, Mathew D; Hratchian, Hrant P; Schlegel, H Bernhard

    2006-03-28

    Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum(III), AlQ3, is used in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) as an electron-transport material and emitting layer. The reaction of AlQ3 with trace H2O has been implicated as a major failure pathway for AlQ3-based OLEDs. Hybrid density functional calculations have been carried out to characterize the hydrolysis of AlQ3. The thermochemical and atomistic details for this important reaction are reported for both the neutral and oxidized AlQ3/AlQ3+ systems. In support of experimental conclusions, the neutral hydrolysis reaction pathway is found to be a thermally activated process, having a classical barrier height of 24.2 kcal mol(-1). First-principles infrared and electronic absorption spectra are compared to further characterize AlQ3 and the hydrolysis pathway product, AlQ2OH. The activation energy for the cationic AlQ3 hydrolysis pathway is found to be 8.5 kcal mol(-1) lower than for the neutral reaction, which is significant since it suggests a role for charge imbalance in promoting chemical failure modes in OLED devices.

  15. Fundamental processes governing operation and degradation in state of the art P-OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Matthew; Asada, Kohei; Cass, Michael; Coward, Chris; King, Simon; Lee, Andrew; Pintani, Martina; Ramon, Miguel; Foden, Clare

    2010-05-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental analysis of operation and degradation of model fluorescent blue bilayer polymer organic light emitting diodes (P-OLED). Optical and electrical simulations of bilayer P-OLEDs are used to highlight the key material and device parameters required for efficient recombination and outcoupling of excitons. Mobility data for a model interlayer material poly (9,9-dioctylfluorene-N-(4-(2-butyl)phenyl)-diphenylamine) (TFB) and a model fluorescent blue light emitting material poly-(9,9'- dioctylfluorene-co-bis-N, N'-(4-butylphenyl)-bis-N,N'- phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine) (95:5 mol%) (F8-PFB random copoloymer), is shown to satisfy the key charge transport characteristics required to ensure exciton formation at the optimum location for efficient extraction of the light where μh (LEP) 90%) of the quenching sites produced. This highlights the importance of understanding these reversible phenomena in improving P-OLED lifetime and commercial adoption of the technology.

  16. Investigation on a short circuit of large-area OLED lighting panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J W; Kim, T W; Park, J B

    2013-01-01

    A short circuit often arises from large-area organic light-emitting device (OLED) lighting panels due to particles (i.e. dust, organic or metal debris) or the spike-like surface of the indium–tin–oxide (ITO) anode. On the emergence of a short circuit, an instant current crowding occurs, thereby reducing substantially the resistance of the panels and causing a failure of a dimming control. In this paper, we investigate the effect of the surface morphology of ITO on the resistance and dimmability of the panels. We have demonstrated that the peak-to-valley roughness of ITO should be much less than 20 nm or the resistance of the panels should be much higher than 1 MΩ in order to avoid an unwanted short-circuit phenomenon and thus achieve the high-yield fabrication of OLED lighting panels. It is also addressed that much care is taken to ensure a dimming control of OLED lighting panels with a larger active area because the resistance of those panels varies depending more sensitively on the surface roughness of ITO. (paper)

  17. On the origin of exciton formation in dye doped Alq{sub 3} OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, J.A. [FFCLRP-USP, Departamento de Fisica, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Castro, F.A. [National Physical Laboratory, Materials Division, Teddington (United Kingdom); Nueesch, F. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Laboratory for Functional Polymers, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Zuppiroli, L. [Institut des Materiaux, EPFL, Laboratoire d' Optoelectronique des Materiaux Moleculaire, Lausanne (Switzerland); Graeff, C.F.O. [FC-UNESP, Departamento de Fisica, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Electrically Detected Magnetic Resonance (EDMR) was used to investigate the influence of dye doping on spin-dependent exciton formation in aluminum (III) 8-hydroxyquinoline (Alq{sub 3}) based Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) with different device structures. 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-{l_brace}2-[(4-diphenylamino)-phenyl]ethyl{r_brace}-4H-pyran (DCM-TPA) and 5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphthacene (Rubrene) were used as dopants. Results at room temperature show significant differences on the EDMR spectra (g-factor and linewidth) of doped and undoped devices. Signals from DCM-TPA and Rubrene dye doped OLEDs showed strong temperature dependence, with signal intensity increasing by 2 orders of magnitude below 200 K for DCM-TPA dye doped OLEDs and increasing by {proportional_to}1 order of magnitude below 225 K for the Rubrene dye doped device, while undoped devices shows almost no temperature dependence. By adding a ''spacer'' layer of undoped Alq{sub 3} at the recombination zone, changes in bias voltage were used to shift the recombination from doped to undoped region and correlate that with changes in the EDMR spectrum. Our results are indicating that charge trapping on the dopant followed by recombination is the main mechanism of light emission in the investigated devices. (orig.)

  18. Security Implications of OPC, OLE, DCOM, and RPC in Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-01-01

    OPC is a collection of software programming standards and interfaces used in the process control industry. It is intended to provide open connectivity and vendor equipment interoperability. The use of OPC technology simplifies the development of control systems that integrate components from multiple vendors and support multiple control protocols. OPC-compliant products are available from most control system vendors, and are widely used in the process control industry. OPC was originally known as OLE for Process Control; the first standards for OPC were based on underlying services in the Microsoft Windows computing environment. These underlying services (OLE [Object Linking and Embedding], DCOM [Distributed Component Object Model], and RPC [Remote Procedure Call]) have been the source of many severe security vulnerabilities. It is not feasible to automatically apply vendor patches and service packs to mitigate these vulnerabilities in a control systems environment. Control systems using the original OPC data access technology can thus inherit the vulnerabilities associated with these services. Current OPC standardization efforts are moving away from the original focus on Microsoft protocols, with a distinct trend toward web-based protocols that are independent of any particular operating system. However, the installed base of OPC equipment consists mainly of legacy implementations of the OLE for Process Control protocols.

  19. La movilidad social de los emigrantes españoles en Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alaminos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La migración española de la segunda mitad del siglo XX se ha caracterizado en un primer momento por su carácter masivo y poco cualificado, seguido por un interregno de procesos de retorno y finalmente por una migración estable, no masiva pero altamente cualificada. La atención prestada a la inmigración masiva que recibe España a finales del siglo XX relegó a un segundo plano esta emigración cualificada de españoles. En este artículo se considera la relación entre movilidad espacial (migración de españoles y su posible consecuencia sobre la movilidad social ascendente que experimentan. Para ello se utilizan los datos procedentes de la encuesta internacional EIMSS (European Internal Migrations Social Survey y los procedimientos de escalamiento de clase social basados en la ocupación de Goldthorpe. El análisis se complementa con una simulación sobre la movilidad de clase, con la finalidad de visualizar y comparar los efectos sobre la movilidad social de la emigración de españoles a Francia, Alemania, Italia y Gran Bretaña.

  20. P1-7: Modern Display Technology in Vision Science: Assessment of OLED and LCD Monitors for Visual Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Elze

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available For many decades, cathode ray tube (CRT monitors have been the dominant display technology in vision science. However, in recent years, most manufacturers stopped their CRT production lines, which enforces the application of alternative display technology in the field of vision science. Here, we analyze liquid crystal displays (LCDs and organic light-emitting diode (OLED monitors for their applicability in vision science experiments. Based on extensive measurements of their photometric output, we compare these technologies and contrast them with classical CRT monitors. Vision scientists aim to accurately present both static and dynamic stimuli on their display devices. As for the presentation of static stimuli, we demonstrate an increased accuracy for LCD and OLED devices compared to CRT monitors, because the former exhibit a higher degree of independence of neighboring pixels. As for dynamic presentations, both CRTs and OLEDs outperform LCD devices in terms of accuracy, because dynamic presentations on LCDs require a reorientation of the liquid crystal molecules, so that successive frames in time depend on each other. Together with widely unknown and uncontrolled technical artifacts, these properties of LCDs may impair visual experiments that require high temporal precision. Therefore, OLED monitors are more suitable for vision science experiments with respect to both their static and their temporal characteristics. However, for certain applications in visual neuroscience, the low duty cycle of some OLED devices may introduce frequencies to the photometric output which fall within the window of visibility of neurons in the visual cortex and therefore interfere with single unit recordings.

  1. High efficient OLED displays prepared with the air-gapped bridges on quantum dot patterns for optical recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo-Jun; Shin, Min-Ho; Kim, Joo-Suc; Kim, Se-Eun; Kim, Young-Joo

    2017-02-01

    An optically efficient structure was proposed and fabricated to realize high brightness organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays based on a white OLED prepared with the air-gapped bridges on the quantum dot (QD) patterns. Compared with a conventional white OLED display, in our experiments, the optical intensity of the proposed OLED display shows the enhancement of 58.2% in the red color and 16.8% in the green color after applying the air-gapped bridge structure on QD patterns of 20 wt% concentration. This enhancement comes from the two facts that the QD patterns downconvert unnecessary blue or blue/green light to the required green or red light and the air-gapped bridges increase the color conversion efficiency of QDs by optical recycling using total internal reflection (TIR) at the interface. In addition, the color gamut of the proposed OLED display increases from 65.5 to 75.9% (NTSC x, y ratio) due to the narrow emission spectra of QDs.

  2. Novel Low Cost Organic Vapor Jet Printing of Striped High Efficiency Phosphorescent OLEDs for White Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Hack

    2008-12-31

    In this program, Universal Display Corporation and University of Michigan proposed to integrate three innovative concepts to meet the DOE's Solid State Lighting (SSL) goals: (1) high-efficiency phosphorescent organic light emitting device (PHOLED{trademark}) technology, (2) a white lighting design that is based on a series of red, green and blue OLED stripes, and (3) the use of a novel cost-effective, high rate, mask-less deposition process called organic vapor jet printing (OVJP). Our PHOLED technology offers up to four-times higher power efficiency than other OLED approaches for general lighting. We believe that one of the most promising approaches to maximizing the efficiency of OLED lighting sources is to produce stripes of the three primary colors at such a pitch (200-500 {mu}m) that they appear as a uniform white light to an observer greater than 1 meter (m) away from the illumination source. Earlier work from a SBIR Phase 1 entitled 'White Illumination Sources Using Striped Phosphorescent OLEDs' suggests that stripe widths of less than 500 {mu}m appear uniform from a distance of 1m without the need for an external diffuser. In this program, we intend to combine continued advances in this PHOLED technology with the striped RGB lighting design to demonstrate a high-efficiency, white lighting source. Using this background technology, the team has focused on developing and demonstrating the novel cost-effective OVJP process to fabricate these high-efficiency white PHOLED light sources. Because this groundbreaking OVJP process is a direct printing approach that enables the OLED stripes to be printed without a shadow mask, OVJP offers very high material utilization and high throughput without the costs and wastage associated with a shadow mask (i.e. the waste of material that deposits on the shadow mask itself). As a direct printing technique, OVJP also has the potential to offer ultra-high deposition rates (> 1,000 Angstroms/second) for any size or

  3. Towards Optimality in Online Learning – The OLeCenT Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Beckford

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Higher Education Institutions (HEIs employ Learning Management Systems (LMSs primarily for greater efficiency, profitability, technological advancement or survival. The predominantly used LMSs, Moodle and Blackboard account for in excess of 60% usage by the top HEIs. However, the individual international regions do not necessarily bear the percentages of the overall total. Gaps are identified in optimality in course delivery within online learning when one studies LMSs and their functionalities. Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL Initiative which was established to standardize and modernize training and education management and delivery, developed and recommended usage of Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM 2004 and later versions. SCORM 2004 which provides for flexibility in sequencing and navigation for learner-centric course delivery is not supported in any version of the more prevalently used LMSs. It is believed that most people have a preferred way in processing information. We propose codifying one or more Learning Style Instruments (LSIs, diagnosing the preferred teaching approach(es and dominant/existing learning styles within a batch of learners, then providing course delivery as a best-fit per learner. As a proof of concept, OLeCenT allows the input of one or more course learning paths with real-time learning and automatic reconfiguration of the course path where a new trend or pattern is identified. OLeCenT identified disparity in teaching-learning and provided a mechanism towards improving online learner-centric course delivery. OLeCenT also identified comparative levels of similarities among learners and instructors even where they are deemed to be of different teaching-learning styles/mechanisms.

  4. Towards efficient next generation light sources: combined solution processed and evaporated layers for OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, D.; Sarfert, W.; Meier, S.; Bolink, H.; García Santamaría, S.; Wecker, J.

    2010-05-01

    Typically high efficient OLED device structures are based on a multitude of stacked thin organic layers prepared by thermal evaporation. For lighting applications these efficient device stacks have to be up-scaled to large areas which is clearly challenging in terms of high through-put processing at low-cost. One promising approach to meet cost-efficiency, high through-put and high light output is the combination of solution and evaporation processing. Moreover, the objective is to substitute as many thermally evaporated layers as possible by solution processing without sacrificing the device performance. Hence, starting from the anode side, evaporated layers of an efficient white light emitting OLED stack are stepwise replaced by solution processable polymer and small molecule layers. In doing so different solutionprocessable hole injection layers (= polymer HILs) are integrated into small molecule devices and evaluated with regard to their electro-optical performance as well as to their planarizing properties, meaning the ability to cover ITO spikes, defects and dust particles. Thereby two approaches are followed whereas in case of the "single HIL" approach only one polymer HIL is coated and in case of the "combined HIL" concept the coated polymer HIL is combined with a thin evaporated HIL. These HIL architectures are studied in unipolar as well as bipolar devices. As a result the combined HIL approach facilitates a better control over the hole current, an improved device stability as well as an improved current and power efficiency compared to a single HIL as well as pure small molecule based OLED stacks. Furthermore, emitting layers based on guest/host small molecules are fabricated from solution and integrated into a white hybrid stack (WHS). Up to three evaporated layers were successfully replaced by solution-processing showing comparable white light emission spectra like an evaporated small molecule reference stack and lifetime values of several 100 h.

  5. Structural, optical and electrical properties of europium picrate tetraethylene glycol complex as emissive material for OLED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusrini, Eny, E-mail: ekusrini@che.ui.ac.id [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, 16424 Depok (Indonesia); Saleh, Muhammad I.; Adnan, Rohana [School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Yulizar, Yoki [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Indonesia, 16424 Depok (Indonesia); Sha Shiong, Ng; Fun, H.K. [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Adhha Abdullah, M.A.; Mamat, Mazidah [Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu Darul Iman (Malaysia); Za' aba, N.K.; Abd. Majid, W.H. [Solid State Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2012-01-15

    A new europium complex [Eu(Pic){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)(EO4)](Pic).0.75H{sub 2}O was synthesized and used as the emission material for the single layer device structure of ITO/EO4-Eu-Pic/Al, using a spin-coating technique. Study on the optical properties of the [Eu(Pic){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)(EO4)](Pic).0.75H{sub 2}O complex where EO4=tetraethylene glycol and Pic=picrate anion, had to be undertaken before being applicable to the study of an organic light emitting diode (OLED). The electrical property of an OLED using current-voltage (I-V) measurement was also studied. In complex, the Eu(III) ion was coordinated with the EO4 ligand as a pentadentate mode, one water molecule, and with two Pic anions as bidentate and monodentate modes, forming a nine-coordination number. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the crystalline complex in the solid state and its thin film showed a hypersensitive peak at 613.5-614.9 nm that assigned to the {sup 5}D{sub 0}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition. A narrow band emission from the thin film EO4-Eu-Pic was obtained. The typical semiconductor I-V curve of device ITO/EO4-Eu-Pic/Al showed the threshold and turn on voltages at 1.08 and 4.6 V, respectively. The energy transfer process from the ligand to the Eu(III) ion was discussed by investigating the excitation and PL characteristics. Effect of the picrate anion on the device performance was also studied. - Highlights: > The [Eu(Pic){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)(EO4)](Pic).0.75(H{sub 2}O) is crystallized in triclinic with space group P-1. > The complex is applied as a emissive center in single layer device structure of ITO/EO4-Eu-Pic/Al. > The complex displays a red luminescence in both the crystalline complex and its thin film state. > The low turn on voltage of the device (4.6 V), indicating that this material is suitable for OLED. > The roughness and morphology of the thin film affects luminance and electrical properties of OLED.

  6. Room-temperature coupling between electrical current and nuclear spins in OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malissa, H.; Kavand, M.; Waters, D. P.; van Schooten, K. J.; Burn, P. L.; Vardeny, Z. V.; Saam, B.; Lupton, J. M.; Boehme, C.

    2014-09-01

    The effects of external magnetic fields on the electrical conductivity of organic semiconductors have been attributed to hyperfine coupling of the spins of the charge carriers and hydrogen nuclei. We studied this coupling directly by implementation of pulsed electrically detected nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The data revealed a fingerprint of the isotope (protium or deuterium) involved in the coherent spin precession observed in spin-echo envelope modulation. Furthermore, resonant control of the electric current by nuclear spin orientation was achieved with radiofrequency pulses in a double-resonance scheme, implying current control on energy scales one-millionth the magnitude of the thermal energy.

  7. Contribution of TADF and exciplex emission for efficient "warm-white" OLEDs

    OpenAIRE

    Grybauskaite-Kaminskiene, Gintare; Ivaniuk, Khrystyna; Bagdziunas, Gintautas; Turyk, Pavlo; Stakhira, Pavlo; Baryshnikov, Gleb V.; Volyniuk, Dmytro; Cherpak, Vladyslav; Minaev, Boris F.; Hotra, Zenon; Ågren, Hans; Grazulevicius, Juozas Vidas

    2018-01-01

    The bicarbazole derivative 4,4'-(9H, 9'H-[3,3'-bicarbazole]-9,9'-diyl) bis(3-(trifluoromethyl) benzonitrile), denoted as pCNBCzoCF(3), was synthesized and tested for white OLED applications. pCNBCzoCF3 demonstrated an extremely small value of the singlet-triplet energy gap that caused intensive thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF). In addition, this compound is able to form exciplex-type excited states at the interface with star-shaped 4,40,400-tris[phenyl(m-tolyl) amino] triphenyl...

  8. Las preferencias de los consumidores españoles hacia las cocinas étnicas

    OpenAIRE

    Camarena Gómez, Dena María; Sanjuán López, Ana Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Las cocinas étnicas forman parte de las nuevas tendencias en el consumo de la población española. Su introducción, aunque reciente, ha logrado hacerse un espacio en los canales de distribución minorista y consolidarse en el gusto de los consumidores. Con el fin de analizar las preferencias manifestadas por los consumidores españoles hacia distintas cocinas étnicas y situaciones de consumo, se ha realizado un experimento de elección y estimado un modelo logit mixto. A partir de est...

  9. ¿Ha mejorado la calidad de los comedores escolares españoles?

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Pérez, Naiara

    2016-01-01

    El aumento de la prevalencia de la obesidad infantil debido a la crisis financiera y en consecuencia, a la transición nutricional, ha aumentado la preocupación por los alimentos consumidos en los comedores escolares españoles. The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity due to the financial crisis and consequently the nutrition transition, has increased concern for Spanish food consumed in school canteens. L'augment de la prevalença de l'obesitat infantil a causa de la crisi financer...

  10. EL ESTUDIO DE LA SEXUALIDAD EN JÓVENES ESPAÑOLES

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lameiras Fernandez

    1998-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el de llevar a cabo una revisión de los estudios encaminados a evaluar la actividad sexual de los jóvenes españoles, haciendo especial referencia a la población universitaria. Este objetivo se articula a partir de la exposición de las principales variables que han centrado el interés de las investigaciones: 1) conocimientos, tanto en relación a la sexualidad en general como a la infección HIV/aids; 2) actitudes, tanto hacia la sexualidad como hacia la infección ...

  11. RCWA and FDTD modeling of light emission from internally structured OLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Michiel Koen; Marsman, Herman; Penninck, Lieven; Peeters, Patrick; de Groot, Harry; ter Meulen, Jan Matthijs; Neyts, Kristiaan

    2014-05-05

    We report on the fabrication and simulation of a green OLED with an Internal Light Extraction (ILE) layer. The optical behavior of these devices is simulated using both Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) and Finite Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) methods. Results obtained using these two different techniques show excellent agreement and predict the experimental results with good precision. By verifying the validity of both simulation methods on the internal light extraction structure we pave the way to optimization of ILE layers using either of these methods.

  12. Vpliv toplotnih mostov na porabo energije za ogrevanje na primeru osnovne šole

    OpenAIRE

    Megušar, Primož

    2015-01-01

    Na primeru Osnovne šole Dobrova sem preveril, kakšen vpliv imajo dejanski toplotni mostovi na porabo energije za ogrevanje. Iz načrtov stavbe sem evidentiral vse toplotne mostove, kateri vplivajo na porabo energije. Tem toplotnim mostovom sem nato v standardu SIST EN ISO 14683 poiskal ustrezne približke. Nato sem s programom TOST izvedel tri simulacije. V prvem primeru toplotnih mostov nisem upošteval. V drugem primeru sem toplotne mostove upošteval na poenostavljen način, v zadnjem primeru p...

  13. Balance the Carrier Mobility To Achieve High Performance Exciplex OLED Using a Triazine-Based Acceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Wen-Yi; Chiang, Pin-Yi; Lin, Shih-Wei; Tang, Wei-Chieh; Chen, Yi-Ting; Liu, Shih-Hung; Chou, Pi-Tai; Hung, Yi-Tzu; Wong, Ken-Tsung

    2016-02-01

    A star-shaped 1,3,5-triazine/cyano hybrid molecule CN-T2T was designed and synthesized as a new electron acceptor for efficient exciplex-based OLED emitter by mixing with a suitable electron donor (Tris-PCz). The CN-T2T/Tris-PCz exciplex emission shows a high ΦPL of 0.53 and a small ΔET-S = -0.59 kcal/mol, affording intrinsically efficient fluorescence and highly efficient exciton up-conversion. The large energy level offsets between Tris-PCz and CN-T2T and the balanced hole and electron mobility of Tris-PCz and CN-T2T, respectively, ensuring sufficient carrier density accumulated in the interface for efficient generation of exciplex excitons. Employing a facile device structure composed as ITO/4% ReO3:Tris-PCz (60 nm)/Tris-PCz (15 nm)/Tris-PCz:CN-T2T(1:1) (25 nm)/CN-T2T (50 nm)/Liq (0.5 nm)/Al (100 nm), in which the electron-hole capture is efficient without additional carrier injection barrier from donor (or acceptor) molecule and carriers mobilities are balanced in the emitting layer, leads to a highly efficient green exciplex OLED with external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 11.9%. The obtained EQE is 18% higher than that of a comparison device using an exciplex exhibiting a comparable ΦPL (0.50), in which TCTA shows similar energy levels but higher hole mobility as compared with Tris-PCz. Our results clearly indicate the significance of mobility balance in governing the efficiency of exciplex-based OLED. Exploiting the Tris-PCz:CN-T2T exciplex as the host, we further demonstrated highly efficient yellow and red fluorescent OLEDs by doping 1 wt % Rubrene and DCJTB as emitter, achieving high EQE of 6.9 and 9.7%, respectively.

  14. Efficient electroluminescence from a perylenediimide fluorophore obtained from a simple solution processed OLED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cespedes-Guirao, F J; Fernandez-Lazaro, F; Sastre-Santos, A; Garcia-Santamaria, S; Bolink, H J

    2009-01-01

    Simple solution processed organic light emitting diodes are used to screen the performance of two types of highly efficient, narrow band red emitting fluorescent perylenediimides (PDIs). PDIs substituted at the diimide positions seem to form aggregates in the thin film architecture as evidenced by the shifted electroluminescent spectrum. When substituted on the bay position and when used both as the emitting and the electron transporting specie, bright electroluminescence with a narrow width around 610 nm reaching 500 cd m -2 at moderate voltages was observed, demonstrating the usefulness of these fluorophores for OLED applications.

  15. Prevalencia de trastornos psicológicos en deportistas españoles de alto rendimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Marí Cortés, Josep; Pérez Recio, Guillermo

    1997-01-01

    El artículo compara la prevalencia de psicopatologías en una muestra de 1376 deportistas españoles de alto rendimiento con la incidencia de las mismas alteraciones psicológicas en la población general. Para explicar la prevalencia hallada en la muestra de deportistas, se sugieren y analizan tres hipótesis (la autoselección, el efecto psicológico beneficioso la práctica de actividad física y la generalización, a los conflictos personales, de las pautas de enfrentamiento que han resultado previ...

  16. Enhancement of white light OLED efficiency by combining both internal and external light extraction structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, I.-Ling; Ku, Chun-Neng; Chen, Yi-Ping; Lin, Ding-Zheng

    2012-09-01

    We proposed an internal nanostructure with a high reflective index planarization layer to solve the optical loss due to the reflective index mismatch between ITO and glass substrate. In our experiments, we found the electrical property of OLED device was significantly influenced by the internal nanostructures without planarization layer. Moreover, the internal extraction structure (IES) is not necessarily beneficial for light extraction. Therefore, we proposed a new substrate combine both internal and external extraction structure (EES) to extract trapping light. We successfully developed a high refractive index (N 1.7) planarization material with flat surface (RMS roughness < 2 nm), and improved about 70% device efficiency compared to traditional glass substrate.

  17. Full-Color LCD Microdisplay System Based on OLED Backlight Unit and Field-Sequential Color Driving Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Woo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a single-panel LCD microdisplay system using a field-sequential color (FSC driving method and an organic light-emitting diode (OLED as a backlight unit (BLU. The 0.76′′ OLED BLU with red, green, and blue (RGB colors was fabricated by a conventional UV photolithography patterning process and by vacuum deposition of small molecule organic layers. The field-sequential driving frequency was set to 255 Hz to allow each of the RGB colors to be generated without color mixing at the given display frame rate. A prototype FSC LCD microdisplay system consisting of a 0.7′′ LCD microdisplay panel and the 0.76′′ OLED BLU successfully exhibited color display and moving picture images using the FSC driving method.

  18. Deep-blue efficient OLED based on NPB with little efficiency roll-off under high current density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian

    2017-03-01

    NPB usually is used as a hole-transport layer in OLED. In fact, it is a standard pure blue-emission material. However, its light-emitting efficiency in OLED is low due to emissive nature of organic material. Herein, a deep-blue OLDE based on NPB was fabricated. The light-emitting efficiency of the device demonstrates a moderate value, and efficiency roll-off is little under high current density. The device demonstrates that the electroplex's emission decreases with increasing electric field intensity.

  19. Efficiency enhancement of flexible OLEDs by using nano-corrugated substrates and conformal Ag transparent anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Luo, Yu; Feng, Xueming; Pei, Yuechen; Lu, Bingheng; Cheng, Shenggui

    2018-05-01

    In flexible OLEDs (FOLEDs), the traditional ITO anode has disadvantages such as refractive-index mismatches among substrate and other functional layers, leads to light loss of nearly 80%, meanwhile, its brittle nature and lack in raw materials hinder its further applications. We investigated an efficient FOLED using a semi-transparent silver (Ag) anode, whereas the device was built on a nano-corrugated flexible polycarbonate (PC) substrate prepared by thermal nanoimprint lithography. The corrugations were well preserved on each layer of the device, both the micro-cavity effect and surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes of light loss were effectively suppressed. As a result, the current efficiency of the FOLED using a conformal corrugated Ag anode enhanced by 100% compared with a planar Ag anode device, and enhanced by 13% with conventional ITO device. In addition, owing to the quasi-periodical arrangements of the corrugations, the device achieved broad spectra and Lambertian angular emission. The Ag anode significantly improved the bending properties of the OLED as compared to the conventional ITO device, leading to a longer lifetime in practical use. The proposed manufacturing strategy will be useful for fabricating nano corrugations on plastic substrate of FOLED in a cost-effective and convenient manner.

  20. Efficient blue and green phosphorescent OLEDs with host material containing electronically isolated carbazolyl fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigalevicius, Saulius; Tavgeniene, Daiva; Krucaite, Gintare; Blazevicius, Dovydas; Griniene, Raimonda; Lai, Yi-Ning; Chiu, Hao-Hsuan; Chang, Chih-Hao

    2018-05-01

    Dry process-able host materials are well suited to realize high performance phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) with precise deposition of organic layers. We demonstrate in this study high efficiency green and blue phosphorescent OLED devices by employing 3-[bis(9-ethylcarbazol-3-yl)methyl]-9-hexylcarbazole based host material. By doping a typical green emitter of fac tris(2-phenylpyridine)iridium (Ir (ppy)3) in the compound the resultant dry-processed green device exhibited superior performance with low turn on voltage of 3.0 V and with peak efficiencies of 11.4%, 39.9 cd/A and 41.8 lm/W. When blue emitter of bis [2-(4,6-difluorophenyl)pyridinato-C2,N](picolinato)iridium (III) was used, the resultant blue device showed turn on voltage of 2.9 V and peak efficiencies of 9.4%, 21.4 cd/A and 21.7 lm/W. The high efficiencies may be attributed to the host possessing high triplet energy level, effective host-to-guest energy transfer and effective carrier injection balance.

  1. Los españoles ante la Justicia penal: actitudes y expectativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN RUIDÍAZ GARCÍA

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene por objeto estudiar las opiniones de los españoles en torno a un cierto número de cuestiones de política criminal en el período de transición y consolidación democrática, con especial consideración a la valoración que hacen los ciudadanos de la administración de justicia, la percepción de la evolución de la criminalidad y las medidas que consideran más eficaces para paliar esta situación. Igualmente vamos a intentar penetrar en la conciencia penal de los españoles, a fin de evaluar el grado de permisividad o severidad ante determinados comportamientos delictivos. por último, trataremos de sintetizar estas aportaciones dentro del marco general de la crisis de legitimidad de las instituciones públicas.-- en todos los casos, y siempre que lo permitan los datos, trataremos de presentar una realidad diacrónica y sincrónica del estado de la cuestión.

  2. Lanthanide tetrakis-β-diketonate dimers for solution-processed OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, J.P. [CEMDRX, Physics Department, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Serviço de Medicina Nuclear, SESARAM E.P.E., Av. Luís de Camões 57, P-9004-514 Funchal, Madeira (Portugal); Martín-Ramos, P. [Higher Technical School of Telecommunications Engineering, Universidad de Valladolid, Campus Miguel Delibes, Paseo Belén 15, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Coya, C.; Álvarez, A.L. [Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnología (ESCET), Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 28933 Madrid (Spain); Pereira, L.C. [Solid State Group, UCQR, IST/CTN, Instituto Superior Técnico, UTL, Estrada Nacional 10, km 139.7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Díaz, R. [Electrochemical Processes Unit, IMDEA Energy Institute, Avda. Ramón de la Sagra 3, 28935 Móstoles Madrid (Spain); Martín-Gil, J. [Advanced Materials Laboratory, ETSIIAA, Universidad de Valladolid, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34004 Palencia (Spain); Ramos Silva, M., E-mail: manuela@pollux.fis.uc.pt [CEMDRX, Physics Department, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2014-10-15

    Two Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} homodinuclear complexes with 1,3-diphenyl-1,3- propanedione have been synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray crystallography, vibrational analysis, calorimetric, magnetic and optical studies. The two isostructural complexes consist of two tetrakis units bridged by two potassium ions, thus affording a neutral charge. The photoluminescence measurements reveal that efficient energy transfer from the β-diketonate ligand to the central Ln{sup 3+} ion by antenna effect is achieved for Eu{sup 3+}, leading to intense red emission with an intrinsic quantum yield of 48%. The Eu{sup 3+}-based material has been assessed as the active layer in a solution-processed OLED with glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PVK:Eu-dimer/TiO{sub 2}/Al structure and its electroluminescent properties have been inspected, showing a threshold voltage of 6 V. - Highlights: • Europium and terbium homodinuclear complexes were synthesized and characterized. • Efficient energy transfer from ligands to Eu{sup 3+} is achieved by antenna effect. • Intense red emission with an intrinsic quantum yield of 48% is attained. • Eu{sup 3+} complex has been integrated in a solution-processed OLED as the emissive layer.

  3. PFE: ZnO hybrid nanocomposites for OLED applications: Fabrication and photophysical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belhaj, M. [Université de Monastir, Faculté des sciences de Monastir, Département de physique, Laboratoire des Interfaces et des Matériaux Avancés, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Dridi, C., E-mail: cherif.Dridi@issatso.rnu.tn [Université de Monastir, Faculté des sciences de Monastir, Département de physique, Laboratoire des Interfaces et des Matériaux Avancés, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Université de Sousse, Institut Supérieur des Sciences Appliquées et de Technologie de Sousse, Cité Ettafala, 4003 Ibn Khaldoun Sousse (Tunisia); Elhouichet, H. [Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, Laboratoire de physico-Chimie des Matériaux Minéreaux et leurs applications, B.P. 95 Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2015-01-15

    In this work, ZnO nanoparticles (n-ZnO) and poly (9, 9-dioctyl-fluorenyl-2, 7-yleneethynylene) (PFE): n-ZnO based thin films were spin-coated onto glass substrates. Structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO, PFE and the PFE: n-ZnO hybrid films with different n-ZnO mass ratios were investigated. n-ZnO films obtained by sol–gel technique are polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure. They are also homogenous with an average grain size of about 35 nm. For polymer nanocomposite, the optical properties are closely related to the ZnO content in the mixture. Among the tested active layers, the best performance is observed for that containing 2 wt% of ZnO nanoparticles. - Highlights: • We have analyzed the optical properties of PFE: ZnO nanocomposites . • We have optimized the best PFE: ZnO nanocomposite for the OLED application. • We have demonstrated the feasibility of white OLED devices.

  4. Effective electroluminescent materials for OLED applications based on lanthanide 1.3-diketonates bearing pyrazole moiety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taydakov, Ilya V. [D. Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Miusskaya pl. 9, 125047 Moscow (Russian Federation); P. N. Lebedev Institute of Physics of RAS, Leninskiy pr-t, 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Akkuzina, Alina A.; Avetisov, Roman I.; Khomyakov, Andrew V.; Saifutyarov, Rasim R. [D. Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Miusskaya pl. 9, 125047 Moscow (Russian Federation); Avetissov, Igor Ch., E-mail: igor_avetisov@mail.ru [D. Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Miusskaya pl. 9, 125047 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    A series of new pyrazole substituted 1.3-diketones bearing fluorinated alkyl groups were prepared and systematically explored as a ligands for the preparation of luminescent complexes with Eu(III) ion. First triplet levels energy values (T1) of above mentioned ligands were determined by low temperature (77K) phosphorescent spectra measurements of Gd(III) complexes. It was found that 4,4,5,5,6,6,6-heptafluoro-1-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)hexane-1,3-dione is a superior ligand for synthesis of highly luminescent Eu (III) complexes with 1.10-phenanthroline or similar Lewis bases as auxiliary ligands. The complexes are sufficiently thermal stable, transparent, volatile in high vacuum and soluble in common solvents which make possible to produce OLEDs by dry and wet technology. OLED structures fabricated on the base of the above Eu(III) complexes demonstrated the higher energy efficacy comparing to the standard Eu(TTA){sub 3}(Phen) phosphor.

  5. 3,3′-Bicarbazole-Based Host Molecules for Solution-Processed Phosphorescent OLEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungwoon Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs are attractive due to their low-cost, large area displays, and lighting features. Small molecules as well as polymers can be used as host materials within the solution-processed emitting layer. Herein, we report two 3,3′-bicarbazole-based host small molecules, which possess a structural isomer relationship. 9,9′-Di-4-n-butylphenyl-9H,9′H-3,3′-bicarbazole (BCz-nBuPh and 9,9′-di-4-t-butylphenyl-9H,9′H-3,3′-bicarbazole (BCz-tBuPh exhibited similar optical properties within solutions but different photoluminescence within films. A solution-processed green phosphorescent OLED with the BCz-tBuPh host exhibited a high maximum current efficiency and power efficiency of 43.1 cd/A and 40.0 lm/W, respectively, compared to the device with the BCz-nBuPh host.

  6. Efficiency enhancement of flexible OLEDs by using nano-corrugated substrates and conformal Ag transparent anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In flexible OLEDs (FOLEDs, the traditional ITO anode has disadvantages such as refractive-index mismatches among substrate and other functional layers, leads to light loss of nearly 80%, meanwhile, its brittle nature and lack in raw materials hinder its further applications. We investigated an efficient FOLED using a semi-transparent silver (Ag anode, whereas the device was built on a nano-corrugated flexible polycarbonate (PC substrate prepared by thermal nanoimprint lithography. The corrugations were well preserved on each layer of the device, both the micro-cavity effect and surface plasmon polariton (SPP modes of light loss were effectively suppressed. As a result, the current efficiency of the FOLED using a conformal corrugated Ag anode enhanced by 100% compared with a planar Ag anode device, and enhanced by 13% with conventional ITO device. In addition, owing to the quasi-periodical arrangements of the corrugations, the device achieved broad spectra and Lambertian angular emission. The Ag anode significantly improved the bending properties of the OLED as compared to the conventional ITO device, leading to a longer lifetime in practical use. The proposed manufacturing strategy will be useful for fabricating nano corrugations on plastic substrate of FOLED in a cost-effective and convenient manner.

  7. Low temperature transient response and electroluminescence characteristics of OLEDs based on Alq3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chao; Guan, Min; Zhang, Yang; Li, Yiyang; Liu, Shuangjie; Zeng, Yiping

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on Alq3 are fabricated. In order to make clear the transport mechanism of carriers in organic light-emitting devices at low temperature, detailed electroluminescence transient response and the current-voltage-luminescence (I-V-L) characteristics under different temperatures in those OLEDs are investigated. It founds that the acceleration of brightness increases with increasing temperature is maximum when the temperature is 200 K and it is mainly affected by the electron transport layer (Alq3). The MoO3 injection layer and the electroluminescent layer have great influence on the delay time when the temperature is 200 K. Once the temperature is greater than 250 K, the delay time is mainly affected by the MoO3 injection layer. On the contrary, the fall time is mainly affected by the electroluminescent material. The Vf is the average growth rate of fall time when the temperature increases 1 K which represents the accumulation rate of carriers. The difference between Vf caused by the MoO3 injection layer is 0.52 us/K and caused by the electroluminescent material Ir(ppy)3 is 0.73 us/K.

  8. Polymers Containing Diphenylvinyl-Substituted Indole Rings as Charge-Transporting Materials for OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigalevicius, S.; Zostautiene, R.; Sipaviciute, D.; Stulpinaite, B.; Volyniuk, D.; Grazulevicius, J. V.; Liu, L.; Xie, Z.; Zhang, B.

    2016-02-01

    Monomers and polymers containing electronically isolated diphenylvinyl-substituted indole rings were synthesized and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectroscopies as well as by gel permeation chromatography. The polymers represent amorphous materials with glass transition temperatures of 91-109°C and thermal decomposition starting above 307°C. Electron photoemission spectra of thin films of the synthesized polymers revealed ionization potentials of 5.54-5.58 eV. The synthesized polymers were tested as hole-transporting materials in simple electroluminescent organic light-emitting diode (OLED) devices with tris(quinolin-8-olato)aluminium (Alq3) as an emitter as well as an electron-transporting layer. A green OLED device containing a hole-transporting layer of poly[1-(2,3-epithiopropyl)-2-methyl-3-(2,2-diphenylvinyl)índole] exhibited the best overall performance with a driving voltage of 4.0 V, maximum photometric efficiency of 2.8 cd/A and maximum brightness of about 4200 cd/m2.

  9. Color optimization of single emissive white OLEDs via energy transfer between RGB fluorescent dopants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nam Ho; Kim, You-Hyun; Yoon, Ju-An; Lee, Sang Youn [Department of Green Energy and Semiconductor Engineering, Hoseo University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Dae Hyun [Department of Information Technology, Hansei University, Gunpo (Korea, Republic of); Wood, Richard [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Moon, C.-B. [Department of Green Energy and Semiconductor Engineering, Hoseo University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Young, E-mail: wykim@hoseo.edu [Department of Green Energy and Semiconductor Engineering, Hoseo University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2013-11-15

    The electroluminescent characteristics of white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) were investigated including single emitting layer (SEL) with an ADN host and dopants; BCzVBi, C545T, and DCJTB for blue, green and red emission, respectively. The structure of the high efficiency WOLED device was; ITO/NPB(700 Å)/ADN: BCzVBi-7%:C545T-0.05%:DCJTB-0.1%(300 Å)/Bphen(300 Å)/Liq(20 Å)/Al(1200 Å) for mixing three primary colors. Luminous efficiency was 9.08 cd/A at 3.5 V and Commission Intenationale de L’eclairage (CIE{sub x,y}) coordinates of white emission was measured as (0.320, 0.338) at 8 V while simulated CIE{sub x,y} coordinates were (0.336, 0.324) via estimation from each dopant's PL spectrum. -- Highlights: • This paper observes single-emissive-layered white OLED using fluorescent dopants. • Electrical and optical properties are analyzed. • Color stability of white OLED is confirmed for new planar light source.

  10. Innovative High-Performance Deposition Technology for Low-Cost Manufacturing of OLED Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, David; Hamer, John

    2017-06-30

    In this project, OLEDWorks developed and demonstrated the innovative high-performance deposition technology required to deliver dramatic reductions in the cost of manufacturing OLED lighting in production equipment. The current high manufacturing cost of OLED lighting is the most urgent barrier to its market acceptance. The new deposition technology delivers solutions to the two largest parts of the manufacturing cost problem – the expense per area of good product for organic materials and for the capital cost and depreciation of the equipment. Organic materials cost is the largest expense item in the bill of materials and is predicted to remain so through 2020. The high-performance deposition technology developed in this project, also known as the next generation source (NGS), increases material usage efficiency from 25% found in current Gen2 deposition technology to 60%. This improvement alone results in a reduction of approximately $25/m2 of good product in organic materials costs, independent of production volumes. Additionally, this innovative deposition technology reduces the total depreciation cost from the estimated value of approximately $780/m2 of good product for state-of-the-art G2 lines (at capacity, 5-year straight line depreciation) to $170/m2 of good product from the OLEDWorks production line.

  11. Study on optoelectronic properties of Spiro-CN for developing an efficient OLED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashok Kumar

    2018-05-01

    There are a class of organic molecules and polymers which exhibit semiconductor behavior because of nearly free conjugate π-electrons. Hopping of these electrons in molecules forms different excited singlet and triplet states named as excitons. Some of these organic molecules can be set to emit photons by triplet-singlet excitonic transition via a process called Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence (TADF) which is exploited for designing the Organic Light Emitting diode (OLED.) Spiro-CN (spirobifluorene skeletons) Spiro is one of these reported noble metal-free TADF molecules which offers unique optical and electronic properties arising from the efficient transition and reverse intersystem crossing between the lowest singlet (S) and triplet (T) excited states. Its ability to harvest triplet excitons for fluorescence through facilitated reverse intersystem crossing (T→S) could directly impact their properties and performances, which is attractive for a wide variety of low-cost optoelectronic device. In the present study, the Spiro-CN compounds have been taken up for the investigation of various optoelectronic properties including the thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) by using the Koopmans Method and Density Functional Theory. The present study discusses the utility of the Spiro-CN organic semiconductor as a suitable TADF material essential for developing an efficient Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED).

  12. Remote Steric Effect as a Facile Strategy for Improving the Efficiency of Exciplex-Based OLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Wen-Yi; Wang, Ting-Chih; Chiang, Pin-Yi; Peng, Bo-Ji; Wong, Ken-Tsung

    2017-03-01

    This work reports a new strategy of introducing remote steric effect onto the electron donor for giving the better performance of the exciplex-based organic light-emitting device (OLED). The bulky triphenylsilyl group (SiPh 3 ) was introduced onto the fluorene bridge of 4,4'-(9H-fluorene-9,9-diyl)bis(N,N-di-p-tolylaniline) (DTAF) to create remote steric interactions for increasing the possibility of effective contacts between electron-donating chromophores and acceptor molecules, rendering the resulting exciplex to have a higher photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY). The green exciplex device based on DSDTAF:3N-T2T (1:1) as an emitting layer exhibits a low turn-on voltage of 2.0 V, high maximum efficiencies (13.2%, 42.9 cd A -1 , 45.5 lm W -1 ), which are higher than the device employed DTAF (without SiPh 3 groups) (11.6%, 35.3 cd A -1 , 41.3 lm W -1 ) as donor under the same device structure. This strategy was further examined for blue exciplex, where the EQE was enhanced from 9.5% to 12.5% as the electron acceptor PO-T2T mixed with a tert-butyl group substituted carbazole-based donor (CPTBF) as the emitting exciplex in device. This strategy is simple and useful for developing high performance exciplex OLEDs.

  13. White OLED using {beta}-diketones rare earth binuclear complex as emitting layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirino, W.G. [LOEM, Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, PUC-Rio, P.O.Box 38071, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22453-970 (Brazil); Legnani, C. [LOEM, Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, PUC-Rio, P.O.Box 38071, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22453-970 (Brazil); Cremona, M. [LOEM, Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, PUC-Rio, P.O.Box 38071, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22453-970 (Brazil)]. E-mail: cremona@fis.puc-rio.br; Lima, P.P. [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, UFPE-CCEN, Recife, PE, 50670-901 (Brazil); Junior, S.A. [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, UFPE-CCEN, Recife, PE, 50670-901 (Brazil); Malta, O.L. [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, UFPE-CCEN, Recife, PE, 50670-901 (Brazil)

    2006-01-03

    In this work, the fabrication and the characterization of a white triple-layer OLED using a {beta}-diketones binuclear complex [Eu(btfa){sub 3}phenterpyTb(acac){sub 3}] as the emitting layer is reported. The devices were assembled using a heterojunction between three organic molecular materials: the N,N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)benzidine (NPB) as hole-transporting layer, the {beta}-diketones binuclear complex and the tris(8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum) (Alq{sub 3}) as the electron transporting layer. All the organic layers were sequentially deposited under high vacuum environment by thermal evaporation onto ITO substrates and without breaking vacuum. Continuous electroluminescence emission was obtained varying the applied bias voltage from 10 to 22 V showing a wide emission band from 400 to 700 nm with about 100 cd/m{sup 2} of luminance. The white emission results from a combined action between the binuclear complex, acting as hole blocking and emitting layer, blue from NPB and the typical Alq{sub 3} green emission. The intensity ratio of the peaks is determined by the layer thickness and by the bias voltage applied to the OLED, allowing us to obtain a color tunable light source.

  14. Color optimization of single emissive white OLEDs via energy transfer between RGB fluorescent dopants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nam Ho; Kim, You-Hyun; Yoon, Ju-An; Lee, Sang Youn; Ryu, Dae Hyun; Wood, Richard; Moon, C.-B.; Kim, Woo Young

    2013-01-01

    The electroluminescent characteristics of white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) were investigated including single emitting layer (SEL) with an ADN host and dopants; BCzVBi, C545T, and DCJTB for blue, green and red emission, respectively. The structure of the high efficiency WOLED device was; ITO/NPB(700 Å)/ADN: BCzVBi-7%:C545T-0.05%:DCJTB-0.1%(300 Å)/Bphen(300 Å)/Liq(20 Å)/Al(1200 Å) for mixing three primary colors. Luminous efficiency was 9.08 cd/A at 3.5 V and Commission Intenationale de L’eclairage (CIE x,y ) coordinates of white emission was measured as (0.320, 0.338) at 8 V while simulated CIE x,y coordinates were (0.336, 0.324) via estimation from each dopant's PL spectrum. -- Highlights: • This paper observes single-emissive-layered white OLED using fluorescent dopants. • Electrical and optical properties are analyzed. • Color stability of white OLED is confirmed for new planar light source

  15. White OLED using β-diketones rare earth binuclear complex as emitting layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirino, W.G.; Legnani, C.; Cremona, M.; Lima, P.P.; Junior, S.A.; Malta, O.L.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the fabrication and the characterization of a white triple-layer OLED using a β-diketones binuclear complex [Eu(btfa) 3 phenterpyTb(acac) 3 ] as the emitting layer is reported. The devices were assembled using a heterojunction between three organic molecular materials: the N,N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)benzidine (NPB) as hole-transporting layer, the β-diketones binuclear complex and the tris(8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum) (Alq 3 ) as the electron transporting layer. All the organic layers were sequentially deposited under high vacuum environment by thermal evaporation onto ITO substrates and without breaking vacuum. Continuous electroluminescence emission was obtained varying the applied bias voltage from 10 to 22 V showing a wide emission band from 400 to 700 nm with about 100 cd/m 2 of luminance. The white emission results from a combined action between the binuclear complex, acting as hole blocking and emitting layer, blue from NPB and the typical Alq 3 green emission. The intensity ratio of the peaks is determined by the layer thickness and by the bias voltage applied to the OLED, allowing us to obtain a color tunable light source

  16. PFE: ZnO hybrid nanocomposites for OLED applications: Fabrication and photophysical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belhaj, M.; Dridi, C.; Elhouichet, H.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, ZnO nanoparticles (n-ZnO) and poly (9, 9-dioctyl-fluorenyl-2, 7-yleneethynylene) (PFE): n-ZnO based thin films were spin-coated onto glass substrates. Structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO, PFE and the PFE: n-ZnO hybrid films with different n-ZnO mass ratios were investigated. n-ZnO films obtained by sol–gel technique are polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure. They are also homogenous with an average grain size of about 35 nm. For polymer nanocomposite, the optical properties are closely related to the ZnO content in the mixture. Among the tested active layers, the best performance is observed for that containing 2 wt% of ZnO nanoparticles. - Highlights: • We have analyzed the optical properties of PFE: ZnO nanocomposites . • We have optimized the best PFE: ZnO nanocomposite for the OLED application. • We have demonstrated the feasibility of white OLED devices

  17. The enhanced electron injection by fluorinated tris-(8-hydroxy-quinolinato) aluminum derivatives in high efficient Si-anode OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, N. [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, MOE Key Laboratory of Macromolecule Synthesis and Functionalization, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Shi, M.M., E-mail: minminshi@zju.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, MOE Key Laboratory of Macromolecule Synthesis and Functionalization, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Li, Y.Z. [School of Physics, State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Shi, Y.W. [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, MOE Key Laboratory of Macromolecule Synthesis and Functionalization, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Ran, G.Z.; Qin, G.G. [School of Physics, State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, M.; Chen, H.Z. [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, MOE Key Laboratory of Macromolecule Synthesis and Functionalization, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Fabrication of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and lasers on silicon substrates is a feasible route to integrate microelectronic chips with optical devices for telecommunications. However, the efficiency of Si-anode based OLEDs is restricted by the imbalance of hole-electron injection because a p-type Si anode owns better hole injection ability than ITO. We have used fluorinated tris-(8-hydroxy-quinolinato) aluminum (FAlq{sub 3}) derivatives to prepare Si-anode based OLEDs. We observed that, when tris-(5-fuloro-8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum (5FAlq{sub 3}) is used as the electron-transporting material instead of Alq{sub 3}, the cathode electron injection is enhanced due to its lower lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) compared to the Alq{sub 3}. The device can keep the relative carrier balance even when a Si anode capable of stronger hole injection was used. Further optimization of the device structure by introducing 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP) as a hole blocking layer showed significant increase in the device power efficiency from 0.029 to 0.462 lm/W. This indicates that use of fluorinated Alq{sub 3} derivatives is an effective way to improve the performance of Si-anode based OLEDs.

  18. Device reflectivity as a simple rule for predicting the suitability of scattering foils for improved OLED light extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levell, J.W.; Harkema, S.; Pendyala, R.K.; Rensing, P.A.; Senes, A.; Bollen, D.; MacKerron, D.; Wilson, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    A general challenge in Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) is to extract the light efficiently from waveguided modes within the device structure. This can be accomplished by applying an additional scattering layer to the substrate which results in outcoupling increases between 0% to <100% in

  19. Senses and Hands to the Same Degree as Thought – Ole Rømer’s Mechanical Astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybjerg, Karin

    2012-01-01

    The astronomer Ole Rømer emphasized the mechanical nature of the practice of astronomy and this paper attempts to unravel what Rømer meant by the close association between mechanics and astronomy. The point of departure is Rømer's work with Tycho Brahe's observations and his stay at the Royal...

  20. Heldeke, oled nii kaunis, et sadama hakkab : [luuletused] / Richard Brautigan ; tlk. Ingvar Luhaäär

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brautigan, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Sisu: Heldeke, oled nii kaunis, et sadama hakkab ; Veel keegi pole teinud seda nii säraliselt ; Kaunis luuletus ; Küüslauguga liha hõõruv Marcia ; Äri ; Mahedad hellused millesse ta mähib mu haavad ; Tunnen end vastikult ; "Kaasa lennates..."

  1. Flexible Al-doped ZnO films grown on PET substrates using linear facing target sputtering for flexible OLEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jin-A; Shin, Hyun-Su; Choi, Kwang-Hyuk; Kim, Han-Ki

    2010-01-01

    We report the characteristics of flexible Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films prepared by a plasma damage-free linear facing target sputtering (LFTS) system on PET substrates for use as a flexible transparent conducting electrode in flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The electrical, optical and structural properties of LFTS-grown flexible AZO electrodes were investigated as a function of dc power. We obtained a flexible AZO film with a sheet resistance of 39 Ω/□ and an average transmittance of 84.86% in the visible range although it was sputtered at room temperature without activation of the Al dopant. Due to the effective confinement of the high-density plasma between the facing AZO targets, the AZO film was deposited on the PET substrate without plasma damage and substrate heating caused by bombardment of energy particles. Moreover, the flexible OLED fabricated on the AZO/PET substrate showed performance similar to the OLED fabricated on a ITO/PET substrate in spite of a lower work function. This indicates that LFTS is a promising plasma damage-free and low-temperature sputtering technique for deposition of flexible and indium-free AZO electrodes for use in cost-efficient flexible OLEDs.

  2. Effect of Substituents on the Electronic Structure and Degradation Process in Carbazole Derivatives for Blue OLED Host Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Minki; Ravva, Mahesh Kumar; Winget, Paul; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    (OLEDs). The C-N bond dissociation energies, calculated at the density functional theory level, are found to depend strongly on the charge states of the parental molecules. In particular, the anionic C-N bond dissociations resulting in a carbazole anion

  3. An Indium-Free Anode for Large-Area Flexible OLEDs: Defect-Free Transparent Conductive Zinc Tin Oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales-Masis, M.; Dauzou, F.; Jeangros, Q.; Dabirian, A.; Lifka, H.; Gierth, R.; Ruske, M.; Moet, D.; Hessler-Wyser, A.; Ballif, C.

    2016-01-01

    Flexible large-area organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) require highly conductive and transparent anodes for efficient and uniform light emission. Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) is the standard anode in industry. However, due to the scarcity of indium, alternative anodes that eliminate its use are

  4. Study of the electroluminescence of highly stereoregular poly(N-pentenyl-carbazole) for blue and white OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, R.; Botta, A.; Pragliola, S.; Rubino, A.; Venditto, V.; Velardo, A.; Aprano, S.; Maglione, M. G.; Prontera, C. T.; De Girolamo Del Mauro, A.; Fasolino, T.; Minarini, C.

    2017-06-01

    The electroluminescence (EL) of isotactic and syndiotactic poly(N-pentenyl-carbazole) (PPK), achieved by coordination polymerization, is studied in order to investigate the interrelation between the polymer tacticity and their physical-chemical properties. The use of these polymers in organic light-emitting diode (OLED) fabrication is also explored. Thermal and x-ray diffraction analyses of PPKs show that the isotactic stereoisomer is semicrystalline, whereas the syndiotactic one is amorphous. Optical analysis of both stereoisomers, carried out on film samples, reveals the presence of two different excimers: ‘sandwich-like’ and ‘partially overlapping’. Nevertheless, the emission intensity ratio between ‘sandwich-like’ and ‘partially overlapping’ excimers is higher in the isotactic than in the syndiotactic stereoisomer. Using the synthesized polymers as OLED emitting layers, the influence of the polymer tacticity on the EL properties of the device is highlighted. In detail, while blue OLEDs are obtained by using the syndiotactic stereoisomer, OLEDs with a multilayer structure fabricated with the isotactic stereoisomer emit white light. The contribution of three different emissions (fluorescence, phosphorescence and electromer emissions) with comparable intensities to the detected white light is discussed.

  5. Solution processeable organic-inorganic hybrids based on pyrene functionalized mixed cubic silsesquioxanes as emitters in OLEDs

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2012-01-01

    Traditional materials for application in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are primarily based on small molecules and polymers, with much fewer examples of intermediate molecular weight materials. Our interest lies in this intermediate molecular weight range, specifically in hybrids based on 3-dimensional silsesquioxane (SSQ) cores that represents a new class of versatile materials for application in solution processable OLEDs. We report here various SSQ based hybrids that are easily prepared in one high-yield step from the Heck coupling of commercially available 1-bromopyrene, and 1-bromo-4-heptylbenzene with octavinyl-T8-SSQ, and a mixture of octavinyl-T8-, decavinyl-T10- and dodecavinyl-T12-SSQ. The resulting materials offer numerous advantages for OLEDs including amorphous properties, high-glass-transition temperatures (T g), low polydispersity, solubility in common solvents, and high purity via column chromatography. Solution processed OLEDs prepared from the SSQ hybrids provide sky-blue emission with external quantum efficiencies and current efficiencies of 3.64% and 9.56 cd A -1 respectively. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. Degradation of phosphorescent blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLED); Degradation der phosphoreszenten blauen organischen Leuchtdioden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Chien-Shu

    2011-07-01

    Phosphorescent organic materials harvest singlet and triplet excitons through inter-system crossing and improve the efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). This improvement increases the potential of OLEDs, particularly white phosphorescent OLEDs (PHOLEDs), for lighting application. Although much progress has been made in the development of white PHOLEDs, the lifetime of phosphorescent emitters, especially the blue emitter, still needs to be improved. This thesis discusses the developments of blue PHOLEDs and investigations of degradation mechanisms. For development of blue PHOLEDs, two phosphorescent blue emitters were investigated: commercially available FIrpic and B1 provided by BASF. By varying the matrix and blocker materials, diode efficiency and lifetime have been investigated and improved. Blue PHOLEDs with emitter B1 show better efficiency and lifetime than devices with FIrpic. From lifetime measurement with constant DC current density, intrinsic degradation including luminance loss and voltage increase on both FIrpic and B1 PHOLEDs was observed. Photoluminescence measurement shows degradation in the emitting layers. To investigate the degradation of emitter layers, single-carrier devices with emitter systems or pure matrix materials were fabricated. Degradation on these devices was investigated by applying constant DC current, UV-irradiation and combination of both. We found that due to excited states (excitons), FIrpic molecules become unstable and polarons would enhance the degradation of FIrpic during DC operation and UV-excitation. To investigate the impact the exciton formation and exciton decay have on the degradation of FIrpic molecules, red phosphorescent emitter Ir(MDQ){sub 2}(acac) was doped in blue emitter layer TCTA:20% FIrpic. The doping concentration of Ir(MDQ){sub 2}(acac) was much lower than FIrpic to ensure that most of the exciton formation occurred on FIrpic molecules. Lower triplet energy of Ir(MDQ){sub 2}(acac) molecules

  7. Non-Doped Sky-Blue OLEDs Based on Simple Structured AIE Emitters with High Efficiencies at Low Driven Voltages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Amjad; Zhang, Dongdong; Peng, Ruixiang; Yang, Rongjuan; Hong, Ling; Song, Wei; Wei, Qiang; Duan, Lian; Ge, Ziyi

    2017-09-05

    Blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are necessary for flat-panel display technologies and lighting applications. To make more energy-saving, low-cost and long-lasting OLEDs, efficient materials as well as simple structured devices are in high demand. However, a very limited number of blue OLEDs achieving high stability and color purity have been reported. Herein, three new sky-blue emitters, 1,4,5-triphenyl-2-(4-(1,2,2-triphenylvinyl)phenyl)-1H-imidazole (TPEI), 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4,5-diphenyl-2-(4-(1,2,2-triphenylvinyl)phenyl)-1H-imidazole (TPEMeOPhI) and 1-phenyl-2,4,5-tris(4-(1,2,2-triphenylvinyl)phenyl)-1H-imidazole (3TPEI), with a combination of imidazole and tetraphenylethene groups, have been developed. High photoluminescence quantum yields are obtained for these materials. All derivatives have demonstrated aggregation-induced emission (AIE) behavior, excellent thermal stability with high decomposition and glass transition temperatures. Non-doped sky-blue OLEDs with simple structure have been fabricated employing these materials as emitters and realized high efficiencies of 2.41 % (4.92 cd A -1 , 2.70 lm W -1 ), 2.16 (4.33 cd A -1 , 2.59 lm W -1 ) and 3.13 % (6.97 cd A -1 , 4.74 lm W -1 ) for TPEI, TPEMeOPhI and 3TPEI, with small efficiency roll-off. These are among excellent results for molecules constructed from the combination of imidazole and TPE reported so far. The high performance of a 3TPEI-based device shows the promising potential of the combination of imidazole and AIEgen for synthesizing efficient electroluminescent materials for OLED devices. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Substrate Trapping in Crystals of the Thiolase OleA Identifies Three Channels That Enable Long Chain Olefin Biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Jensen, Matthew R.; Mohamed, Fatuma A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M.

    2016-11-04

    Phylogenetically diverse microbes that produce long chain, olefinic hydrocarbons have received much attention as possible sources of renewable energy biocatalysts. One enzyme that is critical for this process is OleA, a thiolase superfamily enzyme that condenses two fatty acyl-CoA substrates to produce a β-ketoacid product and initiates the biosynthesis of long chain olefins in bacteria. Thiolases typically utilize a ping-pong mechanism centered on an active site cysteine residue. Reaction with the first substrate produces a covalent cysteine-thioester tethered acyl group that is transferred to the second substrate through formation of a carbon-carbon bond. Although the basics of thiolase chemistry are precedented, the mechanism by which OleA accommodates two substrates with extended carbon chains and a coenzyme moiety—unusual for a thiolase—are unknown. Gaining insights into this process could enable manipulation of the system for large scale olefin production with hydrocarbon chains lengths equivalent to those of fossil fuels. In this study, mutagenesis of the active site cysteine in Xanthomonas campestris OleA (Cys143) enabled trapping of two catalytically relevant species in crystals. In the resulting structures, long chain alkyl groups (C12 and C14) and phosphopantetheinate define three substrate channels in a T-shaped configuration, explaining how OleA coordinates its two substrates and product. The C143A OleA co-crystal structure possesses a single bound acyl-CoA representing the Michaelis complex with the first substrate, whereas the C143S co-crystal structure contains both acyl-CoA and fatty acid, defining how a second substrate binds to the acyl-enzyme intermediate. An active site glutamate (Gluβ117) is positioned to deprotonate bound acyl-CoA and initiate carbon-carbon bond formation.

  9. Substrate Trapping in Crystals of the Thiolase OleA Identifies Three Channels That Enable Long Chain Olefin Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goblirsch, Brandon R; Jensen, Matthew R; Mohamed, Fatuma A; Wackett, Lawrence P; Wilmot, Carrie M

    2016-12-23

    Phylogenetically diverse microbes that produce long chain, olefinic hydrocarbons have received much attention as possible sources of renewable energy biocatalysts. One enzyme that is critical for this process is OleA, a thiolase superfamily enzyme that condenses two fatty acyl-CoA substrates to produce a β-ketoacid product and initiates the biosynthesis of long chain olefins in bacteria. Thiolases typically utilize a ping-pong mechanism centered on an active site cysteine residue. Reaction with the first substrate produces a covalent cysteine-thioester tethered acyl group that is transferred to the second substrate through formation of a carbon-carbon bond. Although the basics of thiolase chemistry are precedented, the mechanism by which OleA accommodates two substrates with extended carbon chains and a coenzyme moiety-unusual for a thiolase-are unknown. Gaining insights into this process could enable manipulation of the system for large scale olefin production with hydrocarbon chains lengths equivalent to those of fossil fuels. In this study, mutagenesis of the active site cysteine in Xanthomonas campestris OleA (Cys 143 ) enabled trapping of two catalytically relevant species in crystals. In the resulting structures, long chain alkyl groups (C 12 and C 14 ) and phosphopantetheinate define three substrate channels in a T-shaped configuration, explaining how OleA coordinates its two substrates and product. The C143A OleA co-crystal structure possesses a single bound acyl-CoA representing the Michaelis complex with the first substrate, whereas the C143S co-crystal structure contains both acyl-CoA and fatty acid, defining how a second substrate binds to the acyl-enzyme intermediate. An active site glutamate (Gluβ 117 ) is positioned to deprotonate bound acyl-CoA and initiate carbon-carbon bond formation. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Substrate Trapping in Crystals of the Thiolase OleA Identifies Three Channels That Enable Long Chain Olefin Biosynthesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Jensen, Matthew R.; Mohamed, Fatuma A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M.

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetically diverse microbes that produce long chain, olefinic hydrocarbons have received much attention as possible sources of renewable energy biocatalysts. One enzyme that is critical for this process is OleA, a thiolase superfamily enzyme that condenses two fatty acyl-CoA substrates to produce a β-ketoacid product and initiates the biosynthesis of long chain olefins in bacteria. Thiolases typically utilize a ping-pong mechanism centered on an active site cysteine residue. Reaction with the first substrate produces a covalent cysteine-thioester tethered acyl group that is transferred to the second substrate through formation of a carbon-carbon bond. Although the basics of thiolase chemistry are precedented, the mechanism by which OleA accommodates two substrates with extended carbon chains and a coenzyme moiety—unusual for a thiolase—are unknown. Gaining insights into this process could enable manipulation of the system for large scale olefin production with hydrocarbon chains lengths equivalent to those of fossil fuels. In this study, mutagenesis of the active site cysteine in Xanthomonas campestris OleA (Cys143) enabled trapping of two catalytically relevant species in crystals. In the resulting structures, long chain alkyl groups (C12 and C14) and phosphopantetheinate define three substrate channels in a T-shaped configuration, explaining how OleA coordinates its two substrates and product. The C143A OleA co-crystal structure possesses a single bound acyl-CoA representing the Michaelis complex with the first substrate, whereas the C143S co-crystal structure contains both acyl-CoA and fatty acid, defining how a second substrate binds to the acyl-enzyme intermediate. An active site glutamate (Gluβ117) is positioned to deprotonate bound acyl-CoA and initiate carbon-carbon bond formation. PMID:27815501

  11. Improved stability of OLEDs with mild oxygen plasma treated PEDOT:PSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yunfei; Yuan Yongbo; Cao Lingfang; Zhang Jie; Pang Hongqi; Lian Jiarong; Zhou Xiang

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate improved stability of OLEDs with mild oxygen plasma-treated poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly (styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as anode buffer layer. The devices with treated PEDOT:PSS layer exhibited dramatically enhanced lifetime by a factor of 9 compared to the control devices. We investigated the substantial changes in surface morphology of PEDOT:PSS layer after the mild oxygen plasma treatment by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. We found that the appropriate treatment can form uniformly distributed nano scaled hillocks/islands on the surface of PEDOT:PSS layer, which possibly result in improved contact to hole transport layer and thus enhanced lifetime of the devices

  12. Spirobifluorene Core-Based Novel Hole Transporting Materials for Red Phosphorescence OLEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanaskanda Braveenth

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new hole transporting materials, named HTM 1A and HTM 1B, were designed and synthesized in significant yields using the well-known Buchwald Hartwig and Suzuki cross- coupling reactions. Both materials showed higher decomposition temperatures (over 450 °C at 5% weight reduction and HTM 1B exhibited a higher glass transition temperature of 180 °C. Red phosphorescence-based OLED devices were fabricated to analyze the device performances compared to Spiro-NPB and NPB as reference hole transporting materials. Devices consist of hole transporting material as HTM 1B showed better maximum current and power efficiencies of 16.16 cd/A and 11.17 lm/W, at the same time it revealed an improved external quantum efficiency of 13.64%. This efficiency is considerably higher than that of Spiro-NPB and NPB-based reference devices.

  13. Easily controlled dye doped phosphorescent OLEDs with evaporation rate in single furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoudi, Malek; Janghouri, Mohammad; Mohajerani, Ezeddin, E-mail: e-mohajerani@sbu.ac.ir

    2015-04-15

    Electrical and optical characteristic, surface morphology and energy transfer of Ir(ppy){sub 3}:PtTPP were studied as a function of thermal evaporation rate. We have investigated the effect of various evaporation rates for mixture of dyes using single furnace method. When the deposition rate increased from 0.5 to 5 Ǻ/s, the luminescence efficiency, current density and energy transfer of OLED increased. AFM measurements showed that the surface roughness of the Ir(ppy){sub 3}:PtTPP films decreased with increasing deposition rates. These blends show excellent red emitting guest–host system with easier deposition rate control. - Highlights: • Thermal evaporation rate is used to control the doping by using single furnace. • The advantages of using single furnace are discussed. • It is shown that the evaporation rate also affects the surface roughness.

  14. Enhanced device performances of a new inverted top-emitting OLEDs with relatively thick Ag electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So-Ra; Suh, Min Chul

    2018-02-19

    To improve the device performances of top-emitting organic light emitting diodes (TEOLEDs), we developed a new inverted TEOLEDs structure with silver (Ag) metal as a semi-transparent top electrode. Especially, we found that the use of relatively thick Ag electrode without using any carrier injection layer is beneficial to realize highly efficient device performances. Also, we could insert very thick overlying hole transport layer (HTL) on the emitting layer (EML) which could be very helpful to suppress the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) coupling if it is applied to the common bottom-emission OLEDs (BEOLEDs). As a result, we could realize noteworthy high current efficiency of approximately ~188.1 cd/A in our new inverted TEOLEDs with 25 nm thick Ag electrode.

  15. High ambient contrast ratio OLED and QLED without a circular polarizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Guanjun; Zhu, Ruidong; Luo, Zhenyue; Wu, Shin-Tson; Tsai, Yi-Shou; Lee, Kuo-Chang; Lee, Yuh-Zheng

    2016-01-01

    A high ambient contrast ratio display device using a transparent organic light emitting diode (OLED) or transparent quantum-dot light-emitting diode (QLED) with embedded multilayered structure and absorber is proposed and its performance is simulated. With the help of multilayered structure, the device structure allows almost all ambient light to get through the display device and be absorbed by the absorber. Because the reflected ambient light is greatly reduced, the ambient contrast ratio of the display system is improved significantly. Meanwhile, the multilayered structure helps to lower the effective refractive index, which in turn improves the out-coupling efficiency of the display system. Potential applications for sunlight readable flexible and rollable displays are emphasized. (paper)

  16. Tetraaryl pyrenes: photophysical properties, computational studies, crystal structures, and application in OLEDs

    KAUST Repository

    El-Assaad, Tarek H.

    2015-10-15

    Pyrene was derivatized in positions 1, 3, 6, and 8 to yield a series of nine tetraarylpyrenes for which absorption, emission, emission lifetimes and solvatochromism in solution were determined. The fluorescence quantum yields in thin films and crystalline state, electrochemistry, and quantum-chemical calculations were completed for the series along with the X-ray crystal structure analysis of compounds 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, and 9. Compounds 2, 3, 4 as well as 7 were identified as the most suitable candidates for OLED application. Notably, in an unoptimized single-layer device geometry, these compounds exhibited blue electroluminescence coupled with impressively low turn-on voltages and high maximum luminances such as 2.8 V and 13 542 cd m-2 at 8.2 V for compound 2, respectively. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  17. Tetraaryl pyrenes: photophysical properties, computational studies, crystal structures, and application in OLEDs

    KAUST Repository

    El-Assaad, Tarek H.; Auer, Manuel; Castañ eda, Raul; Hallal, Kassem M.; Jradi, Fadi M.; Mosca, Lorenzo; Khnayzer, Rony S.; Patra, Digambara; Timofeeva, Tatiana V.; Bredas, Jean-Luc; List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.; Wex, Brigitte; Kaafarani, Bilal R.

    2015-01-01

    Pyrene was derivatized in positions 1, 3, 6, and 8 to yield a series of nine tetraarylpyrenes for which absorption, emission, emission lifetimes and solvatochromism in solution were determined. The fluorescence quantum yields in thin films and crystalline state, electrochemistry, and quantum-chemical calculations were completed for the series along with the X-ray crystal structure analysis of compounds 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, and 9. Compounds 2, 3, 4 as well as 7 were identified as the most suitable candidates for OLED application. Notably, in an unoptimized single-layer device geometry, these compounds exhibited blue electroluminescence coupled with impressively low turn-on voltages and high maximum luminances such as 2.8 V and 13 542 cd m-2 at 8.2 V for compound 2, respectively. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  18. Highly efficient red OLEDs using DCJTB as the dopant and delayed fluorescent exciplex as the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Zhang, Tianyou; Chu, Bei; Li, Wenlian; Su, Zisheng; Wu, Hairuo; Yan, Xingwu; Jin, Fangming; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Chengyuan

    2015-05-29

    In this manuscript, we demonstrated a highly efficient DCJTB emission with delayed fluorescent exciplex TCTA:3P-T2T as the host. For the 1.0% DCJTB doped concentration, a maximum luminance, current efficiency, power efficiency and EQE of 22,767 cd m(-2), 22.7 cd A(-1), 21.5 lm W(-1) and 10.15% were achieved, respectively. The device performance is the best compared to either red OLEDs with traditional fluorescent emitter or traditional red phosphor of Ir(piq)3 doped into CBP host. The extraction of so high efficiency can be explained as the efficient triplet excitons up-conversion of TCTA:3P-T2T and the energy transfer from exciplex host singlet state to DCJTB singlet state.

  19. Temperature dependence of electron mobility, electroluminescence and photoluminescence of Alq{sub 3} in OLED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu Haichuan; White, Dan; Sharpton, Buck [Office of Electronic Miniaturization, University of Alaska at Fairbanks, AK 99701 (United States); Klotzkin, David [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); De Silva, Ajith; Wagner, Hans Peter [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States)], E-mail: fnhm@uaf.edu

    2008-12-07

    The correlation of electroluminescence (EL), photoluminescence (PL) and electron mobility were investigated over temperature from 60 to 300 K in small-molecule organic light emitting diode (OLED) structures. The devices consisted of ITO/PEDOT(50 nm)/TPD(50 nm)/Alq{sub 3}(60 nm)/LiF(1 nm)/Al(90 nm), and were fabricated with high-vacuum sublimation/evaporation in a cross-linked configuration. Electron mobility was measured using an ac analysis of the device optical modulation characteristics, while PL and EL were measured by measuring optical power out at fixed pump power of 1 mW, and analysis of dc brightness-voltage (L-V) characteristics, respectively. PL intensity and mobility had a clear maximum at around 220 K, while EL efficiency was constant below 220 K and decrease monotonically above. The reason for the temperature dependent EL, PL and electron mobility behaviour will be discussed.

  20. Preparation of Cyano-Substituted Tetraphenylethylene Derivatives and Their Applications in Solution-Processable OLEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Creation of organic luminescent materials with high solid-state efficiency is of vital importance for their applications in optoelectronic fields. Here, a series of AIE luminogens (AIE gens, (Z-2,3-bis(4-(9,9-bis(6-(9H-carbazol-9-ylhexyl-9H-fluoren-2-ylphenyl-3-phenylacrylonitrile (SFC, and 2,3-bis(4-(9,9-bis(6-(9H-carbazol-9-ylhexyl-9H-fluoren-2-ylphenylfumaronitrile (DFC, utilizing 2,3,3-triphenylacrylonitrile and 2,3-diphenylfumaronitrile as respective centers, are designed and synthesized by Suzuki coupling reactions with high yields. The cis- and trans-isomers of DFC are also successfully obtained. All of them are thermally stable and show good solubility in common organic solvents. They all emit weakly in solution, but become strong emitters when fabricated into solid films. It is found introduction of one additional cyano group in DFC induced a big red-shift in solid-state emission, owing to its high electron-withdrawing ability. The cis- and trans-DFC show similar photophysical and Cyclic voltammogram (CV behaviors. Non-doped solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs using the three compounds as light-emitting layers are fabricated. SFC gives the best device performance with a maximum luminance of 5201 cd m−2, a maximum current efficiency of 3.67 cd A−1 and a maximum external quantum efficiencies (EQE of 1.37%. Red-shifted EL spectra are observed for cis- and trans-DFC-based device, and the OLED using trans-DFC as active layer exhibits better performance, which might derive from their different conformation in film state.

  1. Exciton-dopant and exciton-charge interactions in electronically doped OLEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Christopher; Lee, Sergey; Ferraris, John; Zakhidov, A. Anvar

    2004-01-01

    The electronic dopants, like tetrafluorocyanoquinodimethane (F 4 -TCNQ) molecules, used for p-doping of hole transport layers in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are found to quench the electroluminescence (EL) if they diffuse into the emissive layer. We observed EL quenching in OLED with F 4 -TCNQ doped N,N'-diphenyl-N'N'-bis(1-naphthyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine hole transport layer at large dopant concentrations, >5%. To separate the effects of exciton-dopant quenching, from exciton-polaron quenching we have intentionally doped the emissive layer of (8-tris-hydroxyquinoline) with three acceptors (A) of different electron affinities: F 4 -TCNQ, TCNQ, and C 60 , and found that C 60 is the strongest EL-quencher, while F 4 -TCNQ is the weakest, contrary to intuitive expectations. The new effects of charge transfer and usually considered energy transfer from exciton to neutral (A) and charged acceptors (A - ) are compared as channels for non-radiative Ex-A decay. At high current loads the EL quenching is observed, which is due to decay of Ex on free charge carriers, hole polarons P + . We consider contributions to Ex-P + interaction by short-range charge transfer and describe the structure of microscopic charge transfer (CT)-processes responsible for it. The formation of metastable states of 'charged excitons' (predicted and studied by Agranovich et al. Chem. Phys. 272 (2001) 159) by electron transfer from a P to an Ex is pointed out, and ways to suppress non-radiative Ex-P decay are suggested

  2. Recombination region improvement for reduced efficiency roll-off in phosphorescent OLEDs with dual emissive layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhu; Zhou, Shunliang [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China); Hu, Song [Chengdu Institute of Optics and Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610209 (China); Yu, Junsheng, E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2014-10-15

    High-performance phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs) by using dual-emissive-layer (DEL) structure to reduce efficiency roll-off were fabricated. The DEL was comprised of a hole-transport-type host of N, N′-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N, N′-bis(phenyl)-benzidine (NPB) and a bipolar host of 4,4′-bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP), which were both doped with an orange phosphorescent dopant of bis[2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-benzothiazolato-N,C2′]iridium (acetylacetonate) [(t-bt){sub 2}Ir(acac)]. After the optimization of doping concentration of the first emissive layer (FEL), the device with DEL exhibited 11% lower roll-off power efficiency than single emissive layer devices (SED) when the luminance increased from 1000 cd/m{sup 2} to 10,000 cd/m{sup 2}. The hole–electron recombination zone in DEL was illuminated by inserting an ultrathin fluorescent probe of 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-tert-butyl-6 (1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidin-4-yl-vinyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) in different emissive regions. The performance improvement was attributed to the optimization of energy barrier and the expansion of exciton formation zone within the DEL. - Highlights: • PhOLEDs by using a dual-emissive-layer structure to reduce efficiency roll-off were fabricated. • The DED exhibited 11% lower efficiency roll-off, 57% lower turn-on voltage, and 174% higher brightness than SED. • A DCJTB fluorescent probe was inserted at different positions of DED to investigate the expansion of exciton formation zone.

  3. Low temperature transient response and electroluminescence characteristics of OLEDs based on Alq{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Chao [Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Material Sciences, Beijing Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Semiconductor Materials and Devices, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); College of Materials Science and Optoelectronic Devices, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Guan, Min, E-mail: guanmin@semi.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Material Sciences, Beijing Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Semiconductor Materials and Devices, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Yang [Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Material Sciences, Beijing Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Semiconductor Materials and Devices, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); College of Materials Science and Optoelectronic Devices, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Yiyang; Liu, Shuangjie [Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Material Sciences, Beijing Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Semiconductor Materials and Devices, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Zeng, Yiping [Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Material Sciences, Beijing Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Semiconductor Materials and Devices, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); College of Materials Science and Optoelectronic Devices, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • The dependency relation between transmission rate and electron transport layer is revealed. • The critical temperature points for the influence of luminescent materials and injection barriers on delay time are found. • The influence of light-emitting material and injection layer on carrier accumulation is quantified. - Abstract: In this work, the organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on Alq{sub 3} are fabricated. In order to make clear the transport mechanism of carriers in organic light-emitting devices at low temperature, detailed electroluminescence transient response and the current-voltage–luminescence (I–V–L) characteristics under different temperatures in those OLEDs are investigated. It founds that the acceleration of brightness increases with increasing temperature is maximum when the temperature is 200 K and it is mainly affected by the electron transport layer (Alq{sub 3}). The MoO{sub 3} injection layer and the electroluminescent layer have great influence on the delay time when the temperature is 200 K. Once the temperature is greater than 250 K, the delay time is mainly affected by the MoO{sub 3} injection layer. On the contrary, the fall time is mainly affected by the electroluminescent material. The V{sub f} is the average growth rate of fall time when the temperature increases 1 K which represents the accumulation rate of carriers. The difference between V{sub f} caused by the MoO{sub 3} injection layer is 0.52 us/K and caused by the electroluminescent material Ir(ppy){sub 3} is 0.73 us/K.

  4. Highly luminescent pure-red-emitting fluorinated β-diketonate europium(III) complex for full solution-processed OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Joao P. [CEMDRX, Physics Department, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, Coimbra P-3004-516 (Portugal); Serviço de Medicina Nuclear, SESARAM E.P.E., Avenida Luís de Camões 57, Funchal 9004-514, Madeira (Portugal); Martín-Ramos, Pablo [CEMDRX, Physics Department, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, Coimbra P-3004-516 (Portugal); Higher Technical School of Telecommunications Engineering, Universidad de Valladolid, Campus Miguel Delibes, Paseo Belén 15, Valladolid 47011 (Spain); Coya, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.coya@urjc.es [Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnología (ESCET), Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid 28933 (Spain); Silva, Manuela Ramos [CEMDRX, Physics Department, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, Coimbra P-3004-516 (Portugal); Eusebio, M. Ermelinda S. [Chemistry Department, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra P-3004-535 (Portugal); Andrés, Alicia de [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Álvarez, Ángel L. [Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnología (ESCET), Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid 28933 (Spain); Martín-Gil, Jesús [Advanced Materials Laboratory, ETSIIAA, Universidad de Valladolid, Avenida de Madrid 44, Palencia 34004 (Spain)

    2015-03-15

    Current manufacturing technologies for OLEDs involve the use of expensive high vacuum techniques and call for thermal stability requirements which are not fulfilled by many materials. These problems disappear when the OLED films are deposited directly from solution. In this study, we have designed, synthesized and characterized a novel octacoordinated complex, Tris(1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4,4-trifluoro-1, 3-butanedionate)mono(bathophenanthroline) europium(III), to be used as a “complex-only” emissive layer in wet-processed OLEDs. Upon excitation in the UV region, very efficient energy transfer from the ligands to Eu{sup 3+} takes place, giving rise to intense red emission with very high monochromaticity (R=19), both in powder and as a thin film. The decay times of 754 µs (powder) and 620 µs (thin film) are comparable to those of the most efficient Eu{sup 3+} β-diketonate complexes reported to date. The same energy transfer leading to saturated red and narrow emission is also observed in the OLED device (glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/[Eu(cbtfa){sub 3}(bath)]/Ca/Al) when biased at >5.2 V. Its high quantum efficiency (∼60%), good thermal stability up to 200 °C and adequate thin film forming properties make this material a promising chromophore for cost-effective OLEDs. - Highlights: • A highly fluorinated europium(III) octacoordinated complex, [Eu(cbtfa)3(bath)], has been synthesized and its structure elucidated by single crystal X-ray diffraction. • The chosen coordination environment is well-suited for sensitizing the luminescence of the Eu{sup 3+} ion, achieving very efficient energy transfer from the organic ligands (excited in the UV region) to the rare earth ion, leading to highly efficient (Q∼60% in crystalline powder and Q∼50% in thin film) and saturated red photoluminescence. • The material has also been integrated into a single active layer, full solution-processed OLED, with ITO/PEDOT:PSS/[Eu(cbtfa)3(bath)]/ Ca/Al structure.

  5. Low roll-off and high efficiency orange OLEDs using green and red dopants in an exciplex forming co-host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghun; Kim, Kwon-Hyeon; Yoo, Seung-Jun; Park, Young-Seo; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2013-09-01

    We present high efficiency orange emitting OLEDs with low driving voltage and low roll-off of efficiency using an exciplex forming co-host by (1) co-doping of green and red emitting phosphorescence dyes in the host and (2) red and green phosphorescent dyes doped in the host as separate red and green emitting layers. The orange OLEDs achieved a low turn-on voltage of 2.4 V and high external quantum efficiencies (EQE) of 25.0% and 22.8%, respectively. Moreover, the OLEDs showed low roll-off of efficiency with an EQE of over 21% and 19.6% at 10,000 cd/m2, respectively. The devices displayed good orange color with very little color shift with increasing luminance. The transient electroluminescence of the OLEDs indicated that both energy transfer and direct charge trapping took place in the devices.

  6. Electrical properties of SAM-modified ITO surface using aromatic small molecules with double bond carboxylic acid groups for OLED applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Can, Mustafa; Havare, Ali Kemal; Aydın, Hasan; Yagmurcukardes, Nesli; Demic, Serafettin; Icli, Sıddık; Okur, Salih

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We report that the performance of OLED consist of aromatic small molecules with double bond carboxylic acid groups on ITO surface. • The OLED devices were tested in terms of electrical and optical characteristics. • The I–V results show that OLEDs with SAM-modified ITO surface have lower turn on voltages than OLED configurations without SAMs. - Abstract: 5-[(3-Methylphenyl)(phenyl)amino]isophthalic acid (5-MePIFA) and 5-(diphenyl)amino]isophthalic acid (5-DPIFA) organic molecules were synthesized to form self-assembled monolayer on indium tin oxide (ITO) anode to enhance hole transport from ITO to organic hole transport layers such as TPD. The modified surface was characterized by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The change in the surface potential was measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). Our Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) measurements showed that the surface potentials increased more than 100 mV with reference to bare indium tin-oxide. The results show that the threshold voltage on OLEDs with modified ITO is lowered significantly compared to OLEDs with unmodified ITO. The hole mobility of TPD has been estimated using space–charge-limited current measurements (SCLC)

  7. Electrical properties of SAM-modified ITO surface using aromatic small molecules with double bond carboxylic acid groups for OLED applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Can, Mustafa [Izmir Katip Celebi University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Engineering Sciences, Çiğli, Izmir (Turkey); Havare, Ali Kemal [Toros University, Faculty of Engineering, Electric and Electronic Department, Mersin (Turkey); Aydın, Hasan; Yagmurcukardes, Nesli [Izmir Institute of Technology, Material Science and Engineering, Izmir (Turkey); Demic, Serafettin [Izmir Katip Celebi University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Çiğli, Izmir (Turkey); Icli, Sıddık [Ege University, Solar Energy Institute, Izmir (Turkey); Okur, Salih, E-mail: salih.okur@ikc.edu.tr [Izmir Katip Celebi University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Çiğli, Izmir (Turkey)

    2014-09-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We report that the performance of OLED consist of aromatic small molecules with double bond carboxylic acid groups on ITO surface. • The OLED devices were tested in terms of electrical and optical characteristics. • The I–V results show that OLEDs with SAM-modified ITO surface have lower turn on voltages than OLED configurations without SAMs. - Abstract: 5-[(3-Methylphenyl)(phenyl)amino]isophthalic acid (5-MePIFA) and 5-(diphenyl)amino]isophthalic acid (5-DPIFA) organic molecules were synthesized to form self-assembled monolayer on indium tin oxide (ITO) anode to enhance hole transport from ITO to organic hole transport layers such as TPD. The modified surface was characterized by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The change in the surface potential was measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). Our Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) measurements showed that the surface potentials increased more than 100 mV with reference to bare indium tin-oxide. The results show that the threshold voltage on OLEDs with modified ITO is lowered significantly compared to OLEDs with unmodified ITO. The hole mobility of TPD has been estimated using space–charge-limited current measurements (SCLC)

  8. Pyrene-Based Blue AIEgen: Enhanced Hole Mobility and Good EL Performance in Solution-Processed OLEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic luminogens with strong solid-state emission have attracted much attention for their widely practical applications. However, the traditional organic luminogens with planar conformations often suffer from the notorious aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ effect in solid state for the π–π stacking. Here, a highly efficient blue emitter TPE-4Py with an aggregation-induced emission (AIE effect is achieved by combining twisted tetraphenylethene (TPE core and planar pyrene peripheries. When the emitter was spin-coated in non-doped OLEDs with or without a hole-transporting layer, comparable EL performance was achieved, showing the bifunctional property as both an emitter and a hole-transporting layer. Furthermore, its EL efficiency was promoted in doped OLED, even at a high doping concentration (50%, because of its novel AIE effect, with a current efficiency up to 4.9 cd/A at 484 nm.

  9. Final Report DOE SSL Grant (No. DE-EE0006673) Advanced Light Extraction Structure for OLED Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Gregory [Pixelligent Technologies LLC, Baltimore, MD (United States); Monickam, Selina [Pixelligent Technologies LLC, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2017-08-29

    The innovation proposed in this grant is to demonstrate a novel internal light extraction (ILE) design that can maximize the energy efficiency of Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) lighting devices without negatively impacting the device voltage, efficacy or angular color dependences. Even though, OLEDs have unique features compared to its inorganic counterparts, LEDs, in terms of technology development and market readiness levels, it still lags LEDs by several years. The main challenges as identified in the National Research Council’s 2013 Assessment on Solid State Lighting, are the cost of the materials and the low light extraction efficacy [1]. Improving the light extraction will improve both the $/Klm and lm/W, two important metrics DOE uses to measure the cost effectiveness of a light source.

  10. The Electroluminescence Mechanism of Solution-Processed TADF Emitter 4CzIPN Doped OLEDs Investigated by Transient Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available High efficiency, solution-processed, organic light emitting devices (OLEDs, using a thermally-activated delayed fluorescent (TADF emitter, 1,2,3,5-tetrakis(carbazol-9-yl-4,6-dicyanobenzene (4CzIPN, are fabricated, and the transient electroluminescence (EL decay of the device with a structure of [ITO/PEDOT: PSS/4CzIPN 5 wt % doped 4,40-N,N0-dicarbazolylbiphenyl(CBP/bis-4,6-(3,5-di-4-pyridylphenyl-2-methylpyrimidine (B4PyMPM/lithium fluoride (LiF/Al], is systematically studied. The results shed light on the dominant operating mechanism in TADF-based OLEDs. Electroluminescence in the host–guest system is mainly produced from the 4CzIPN emitter, rather than the exciplex host materials.

  11. Nondoped deep blue OLEDs based on Bis-(4-benzenesulfonyl-phenyl)-9-phenyl-9H-carbazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Bin; Yin, Zhihui; Ban, Xinxin; Ma, Zhongming; Jiang, Wei; Tian, Wenwen; Yang, Min; Ye, Shanghui; Lin, Baoping; Sun, Yueming

    2016-01-01

    Two bipolar materials based on 9-phenylcarbazole and diphenyl sulfone for nondoped deep blue OLEDs, namely bis-(4-benzenesulfonyl-phenyl)-9-phenyl-9H-carbazoles, have been designed and synthesized by Suzuki coupling reactions. Their thermal, photophysical, and electrochemical properties have been systematically investigated. The nondoped devices using 3,6–bis–(4-benzenesulfonyl-phenyl)-9-phenyl-9H-carbazoles and 2,7-bis-(4-benzenesulfonyl-phenyl)-9-phenyl-9H-carbazoles as the emitters show deep blue emission color with peaks at 424 and 444 nm, and the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.177, 0.117) and (0.160, 0.117), respectively. Furthermore, these materials based devices have high color-purity with small width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 65 and 73 nm, respectively. The results provide a novel approach for the design of deep blue emitter for nondoped OLEDs.

  12. Multispectral surface plasmon resonance approach for ultra-thin silver layer characterization: Application to top-emitting OLED cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverne, S.; Caron, B.; Gétin, S.; Lartigue, O.; Lopez, C.; Meunier-Della-Gatta, S.; Gorge, V.; Reymermier, M.; Racine, B.; Maindron, T.; Quesnel, E.

    2018-01-01

    While dielectric/metal/dielectric (DMD) multilayer thin films have raised considerable interest as transparent and conductive electrodes in various optoelectronic devices, the knowledge of optical characteristics of thin metallic layers integrated in such structures is still rather approximate. The multispectral surface plasmon resonance characterization approach described in this work precisely aims at providing a rigorous methodology able to accurately determine the optical constants of ultra-thin metallic films. As a practical example, the refractive index and extinction dispersion curves of 8 to 25 nm-thick silver layers have been investigated. As a result, their extreme dependence on the layer thickness is highlighted, in particular in a thickness range close to the critical threshold value (˜10 nm) where the silver film becomes continuous and its electrical conductance/optical transmittance ratio particularly interesting. To check the validity of the revisited Ag layers constant dispersion curves deduced from this study, they were introduced into a commercial optical model software to simulate the behavior of various optoelectronic building blocks from the simplest ones (DMD electrodes) to much more complex structures [full organic light emitting device (OLED) stacks]. As a result, a much better prediction of the emission spectrum profile as well as the angular emission pattern of top-emitting OLEDs is obtained. On this basis, it is also shown how a redesign of the top encapsulation thin film of OLEDs is necessary to better take benefit from the advanced DMD electrode. These results should particularly interest the micro-OLED display field where bright and directive single color pixel emission is required.

  13. El discurso en la mirada: los Españoles y la visión del Tawantinsuyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Barriga Tello

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El estudio ofrece las diversas lecturas de los monumentos del Imperio Inca realizadas por los primeros españoles. Sus apreciaciones varían de acuerdo a su experiencia previa, sus conocimientos y aquello con que les era posible compararlos. La primera impresión quedará como eje para las opiniones que posteriormente ofrecerán en sus escritos.

  14. Substrate Trapping in Crystals of the Thiolase OleA Identifies Three Channels That Enable Long Chain Olefin Biosynthesis*

    OpenAIRE

    Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Jensen, Matthew R.; Mohamed, Fatuma A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M.

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetically diverse microbes that produce long chain, olefinic hydrocarbons have received much attention as possible sources of renewable energy biocatalysts. One enzyme that is critical for this process is OleA, a thiolase superfamily enzyme that condenses two fatty acyl-CoA substrates to produce a β-ketoacid product and initiates the biosynthesis of long chain olefins in bacteria. Thiolases typically utilize a ping-pong mechanism centered on an active site cysteine residue. Reaction wi...

  15. Doping chloro boron subnaphthalocyanines and chloro boron subphthalocyanine in simple OLED architectures yields warm white incandescent-like emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plint, Trevor G.; Lessard, Benoît H.; Bender, Timothy P.

    2018-01-01

    We have incorporated chloro boron subphthalocyanine (Cl-BsubPc) and chloro boron subnapthalocyanines (Cl-ClnBsubNcs) into organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) that enabled an overall warm white emission with CIE coordinates close to that of a 60 W incandescent lightbulb. More specifically, we have shown that Cl-BsubPc and Cl-ClnBsubNcs can be used as dopant emitters in a simple host-dopant architecture, and we have compared the use of NPB and Alq3 as potential hosts for these materials. When doped into Alq3, Cl-BsubPc shows a strong orange emission, and Cl-ClnBsubNcs shows a moderately strong red emission. We have further demonstrated that Cl-BsubPc and Cl-ClnBsubNcs can be co-doped into the same layer giving combined orange and red emission peaks. A "cascade" energy transfer mechanism of sequential absorption and re-emission is proposed. Device performance characteristics such as luminance, current efficiency, photoluminescence efficiency, and external quantum efficiency are tabulated. Additionally, in view of ongoing research into white emitting OLEDs for indoor lighting purposes, the Colour Rendering Index (CRI), R9 values, and CIE co-ordinates for these devices are also discussed. We conclude from this study that the BsubNc chromophore has potential application as a red dopant in OLEDs including for indoor lighting. Additionally, given the scope for axial and peripheral derivatization of the BsubNc motif, we believe that this chromophore has many unexplored molecular design handles that will affect its ultimate performance and application in OLEDs and other opto-electronic devices.

  16. LA INFLUENCIA DE LAS FORMAS INARTICULADAS, INTERJECCIONES Y ONOMATOPEYAS INGLESAS EN LOS TEBEOS ESPAÑOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel de la Cruz Cabanillas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Los intentos de clasificación de interjecciones, onomatopeyas y formas inarticuladas no han resultado satisfactorios, pues no existe una taxonomía aceptada de forma generalizada. Basándonos en estudios anteriores, el presente trabajo pretende revisar estos fenómenos en tebeos tan netamente españoles como Mortadelo y Filemón, Zipi y Zape, Super López, Bruguelandia y TBO. Para ello se compila un corpus de unidades léxicas que reflejan tanto sonidos inarticulados, como interjecciones y onomatopeyas con el objetivo de estudiar si dichas unidades utilizadas en los tebeos corresponden a la representación de ese sonido articulado, esa interjección o esa onomatopeya en su forma inglesa o en su forma española. Así, se podrán obtener conclusiones sobre la posible influencia de la lengua inglesa en los tebeos españoles a través de la clasificación de las unidades recopiladas en el corpus, aún no tratándose de traducciones sino de producciones nacionales, y posiblemente se podrá determinar hasta qué punto dichas formas podrían entenderse por parte de un hablante hispano sin la ayuda gráfica que supone la viñeta.The attempts at classifying interjections, onomatopoeias and inarticulated forms have not turned out satisfactory, as there is no taxonomy that is widely accepted. Taking as basis previous studies, the present piece of work intends to revise these phenomena in so genuine Spanish comics as Mortadelo y Filemón, Zipi y Zape, Super López, Bruguelandia and TBO. To do so, a corpus of lexical units including inarticulated sounds, interjections and onomatopoeias is compiled in order to examine whether the units used in the comics correspond to the representation of that articulated sound, that interjection or that onomatopoeia in their English form or in their Spanish form. This will allow us to draw conclusions on the possible influence of the English language in the Spanish comics through the classification of the units compiled in

  17. Dependence of surface morphology on molecular structure and its influence on the properties of OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, S.H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hongik University, 72-1, Sangsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, G.Y. [Department of Electric Information and Control Engineering, Hongik University, 72-1, Sangsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, J.H.; Park, J.H. [Center for Organic Materials and Information Devices (COMID), Hongik University, 72-1, Sangsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Information Display, Hongik University, 72-1, Sangsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Youn, S.W. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hongik University, 72-1, Sangsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.K. [Center for Organic Materials and Information Devices (COMID), Hongik University, 72-1, Sangsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Information Display, Hongik University, 72-1, Sangsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, D.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hongik University, 72-1, Sangsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: shindm@wow.hongik.ac.kr

    2008-09-15

    Most organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have a multilayer structure composed of organic layers such as a hole injection layer (HIL), a hole transport layer (HTL), an emission layer (EML), an electron transport layer (ETL) and an electron injection layer (EIL) sandwiched between two electrodes. The organic layers are thin solid films with a thickness from a few nano meters to a few tenths nano meter, respectively. Surface morphology of an organic thin solid film in OLEDs depends on the molecular structure of the organic material and has an affect on device performance. To analyze the effect of surface morphology of an organic thin solid film on fluorescence and electroluminescence (EL) properties, thin solid films of 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(julolidin-4-yl-vinyl)-4H-pyran (DCM2) and new red fluorophores, (2E,2'E)-3,3'-[4,4''-bis(dimethylamino)-1,1':4',1''-terphenyl-2',5'-diyl] bis[2= -(2-thienyl)acrylonitrile] (ABCV-Th) and (2Z,2'Z)-3,3'-[4,4''-bis(dimethylamino)-1,1':4',1''-terphenyl-2',5'-diyl] bis(2-phenylacrylonitrile) (ABCV-P) were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The samples for EL and AFM measurement were fabricated by the high-vacuum thermal deposition (8x10{sup -7} Torr) of organic materials onto the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate, in which the layer structures of samples for AFM measurement and those for EL measurement were ITO/NPB (40 nm)/red emitters (80 nm) and ITO/NPB (40 nm)/red emitters (80 nm)/BCP (30 nm)/Liq (2 nm)/Al (100 nm), respectively. The analysis based on AFM measurements well supported that the photoluminescence properties and the device performance were very much dependent upon surface morphology of an organic thin layer.

  18. Structurally Integrated Photoluminescence-Based Lactate Sensor Using Organic Light Emitting Devices (OLEDs) as the Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chengliang Qian

    2006-01-01

    Multianalyte bio(chemical) sensors are extensively researched for monitoring analytes in complex systems, such as blood serum. As a step towards developing such multianalyte sensors, we studied a novel, structurally integrated, organic light emitting device (OLED)-based sensing platform for detection of lactate. Lactate biosensors have attracted numerous research efforts, due to their wide applications in clinical diagnosis, athletic training and food industry. The OLED-based sensor is based on monitoring the oxidation reaction of lactate, which is catalyzed by the lactate oxidase (LOX) enzyme. The sensing component is based on an oxygen-sensitive dye, Platinum octaethyl porphyrin (PtOEP), whose photoluminescence (PL) lifetime τ decreases as the oxygen level increases. The PtOEP dye was embedded in a thin film polystyrene (PS) matrix; the LOX was dissolved in solution or immobilized in a sol-gel matrix. τ was measured as a function of the lactate concentration; as the lactate concentration increases, τ increases due to increased oxygen consumption. The sensors performance is discussed in terms of the detection sensitivity, dynamic range, and response time. A response time of ∼32 sec was achieved when the LOX was dissolved in solution and kept in a closed cell. Steps towards development of a multianalyte sensor array using an array of individually addressable OLED pixels were also presented

  19. Organic solution-processible electroluminescent molecular glasses for non-doped standard red OLEDs with electrically stable chromaticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, Xiaoman; Zuo, Weiwei; Liu, Yingliang, E-mail: liuylxn@sohu.com; Zhang, Zhenru; Zeng, Cen; Xu, Shengang; Cao, Shaokui, E-mail: caoshaokui@zzu.edu.cn

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The D–A–D electroluminescent molecular glasses are synthesized. • Non-doped red electroluminescent film is fabricated by spin-coating. • Red OLED shows stable wavelength, luminous efficiency and chromaticity. • CIE1931 coordinate is in accord with standard red light in PAL system. - Abstract: Organic light-emitting molecular glasses (OEMGs) are synthesized through the introduction of nonplanar donor and branched aliphatic chain into electroluminescent emitters. The target OEMGs are characterized by {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, IR, UV–vis and fluorescent spectra as well as elemental analysis, TG and DSC. The results indicated that the optical, electrochemical and electroluminescent properties of OEMGs are adjusted successfully by the replacement of electron-donating group. The non-doped OLED device with a standard red electroluminescent emission is achieved by spin-coating the THF solution of OEMG with a triphenylamine moiety. This non-doped red OLED device takes on an electrically stable electroluminescent performance, including the stable maximum electroluminescent wavelength of 640 nm, the stable luminous efficiency of 2.4 cd/A and the stable CIE1931 coordinate of (x, y) = (0.64, 0.35), which is basically in accord with the CIE1931 coordinate (x, y) = (0.64, 0.33) of standard red light in PAL system.

  20. Low cost UV-Ozone reactor mounted for treatment of electrode anodes used in P-OLEDs devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Roberto Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract Low cost UV-Ozone reactor using a high pressure mercury vapor lamp of 80 watts without outer bulb showed good results for treatment of ITO films used as anode electrode in the assembly of P-OLED (polymer-organic light emitting diode devices. This study revealed 20 minutes as effective treatment time and it was verified also that the effect of UV-Ozone treatment loses its efficiency as the elapsed time increases. It was analyzed with measurements of contact angle using a droplet of PEDOT:PSS polymer. P-OLEDs devices were mounted with architecture: ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PVK/Alq3/Al. The PVK polymer was diluted in organic solvent of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene with concentrations of: 5, 10, 20 and 30 mg/mL. Results revealed better performance of P-OLED devices for concentration of 5 mg/mL resulting in lower threshold voltage, elevation of electrical current and similar diode curve.

  1. Structurally Integrated Photoluminescence-Based Lactate Sensor Using Organic Light Emitting Devices (OLEDs) as the Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Chengliang [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Multianalyte bio(chemical) sensors are extensively researched for monitoring analytes in complex systems, such as blood serum. As a step towards developing such multianalyte sensors, we studied a novel, structurally integrated, organic light emitting device (OLED)-based sensing platform for detection of lactate. Lactate biosensors have attracted numerous research efforts, due to their wide applications in clinical diagnosis, athletic training and food industry. The OLED-based sensor is based on monitoring the oxidation reaction of lactate, which is catalyzed by the lactate oxidase (LOX) enzyme. The sensing component is based on an oxygen-sensitive dye, Platinum octaethyl porphyrin (PtOEP), whose photoluminescence (PL) lifetime τ decreases as the oxygen level increases. The PtOEP dye was embedded in a thin film polystyrene (PS) matrix; the LOX was dissolved in solution or immobilized in a sol-gel matrix. τ was measured as a function of the lactate concentration; as the lactate concentration increases, τ increases due to increased oxygen consumption. The sensors performance is discussed in terms of the detection sensitivity, dynamic range, and response time. A response time of ~32 sec was achieved when the LOX was dissolved in solution and kept in a closed cell. Steps towards development of a multianalyte sensor array using an array of individually addressable OLED pixels were also presented.

  2. Highly efficient orange and warm white phosphorescent OLEDs based on a host material with a carbazole-fluorenyl hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaoyang; Huang, Yun; Tao, Silu; Yang, Xiaoxia; Wu, Chuan; Wei, Huaixin; Chan, Mei-Yee; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2014-06-01

    A new carbazole-fluorenyl hybrid compound, 3,3'(2,7-di(naphthaline-2-yl)-9H-fluorene-9,9-diyl)bis(9-phenyl-9H-carbazole) (NFBC) was synthesized and characterized. The compound exhibits blue-violet emission both in solution and in film, with peaks centered at 404 and 420 nm. In addition to the application as a blue emitter, NFBC is demonstrated to be a good host for phosphorescent dopants. By doping Ir(2-phq)3 in NFBC, a highly efficient orange organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with a maximum efficiency of 32 cd A(-1) (26.5 Lm W(-1)) was obtained. Unlike most phosphorescent OLEDs, the device prepared in our study shows little efficiency roll-off at high brightness and maintains current efficiencies of 31.9 and 26.8 cd A(-1) at a luminance of 1000 and 10,000 cd m(-2), respectively. By using NFBC simultaneously as a blue fluorescence emitter and as a host for a phosphorescent dopant, a warm white OLED with a maximum efficiency of 22.9 Lm W(-1) (21.9 cd A(-1)) was also obtained. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Study on luminescence characteristics of blue OLED with phosphor-doped host-guest structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Liu, Fei; Zheng, Xin; Chen, Ai; Xie, Jia-feng; Zhang, Wen-xia

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we design and fabricate phosphor-doped host-guest structure organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), where the blue-ray iridium complex electrophosphorescent material FIrpic acts as object material. Properties of the device can be accommodated by changing the host materials, dopant concentration and thickness of the light-emitting layer. The study shows that the host material N,N'-dicarbazolyl-3,5-benzene (mCP) has a higher triplet excited state energy level, which can effectively prevent FIrpic triplet excited state energy backtracking to host material, thus the luminous efficiency is improved. When mCP is selected as the host material, the thickness of the light-emitting layer is 30 nm and the dopant concentration is 8 wt%, the excitons can be effectively confined in the light-emitting region. As a result, the maximum current efficiency and the maximum brightness of the blue device can reach 15.5 cd/A and 7 196.3 cd/m2, respectively.

  4. Solution processed ternary blend nano-composite charge regulation layer to enhance inverted OLED performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaçar, Rifat; Mucur, Selin Pıravadılı; Yıldız, Fikret; Dabak, Salih; Tekin, Emine

    2018-04-01

    Inverted bottom-emission organic light emitting diodes (IBOLEDs) have attracted increasing attention due to their exceptional air stability and applications in active-matrix displays. For gaining high IBOLED device efficiencies, it is crucial to develop an effective strategy to make the bottom electrode easy for charge injection and transport. Charge selectivity, blocking the carrier flow towards the unfavourable side, plays an important role in determining charge carrier balance and accordingly radiative recombination efficiency. It is therefore highly desirable to functionalize an interfacial layer which will perform many different tasks simultaneously. Here, we contribute to the hole-blocking ability of the zinc oxide/polyethyleneimine (ZnO:PEI) nano-composite (NC) interlayer with the intention of increasing the OLED device efficiency. With this purpose in mind, a small amount of 1,3,5-tris(N-phenylbenzimidazol-2-yl)benzene (TPBi) was added as a hole-blocking molecule into the binary blend of ZnO and PEI solution. The device with a ternary ZnO:PEI:TPBi NC interlayer achieved a maximum current efficiency of 38.20 cd A-1 and a power efficiency of 34.29 lm W-1 with a luminance of 123 200 cd m-2, which are high performance parameters for inverted device architecture. The direct comparisons of device performances incorporating ZnO only, ZnO/PEI bilayers, and ZnO:PEI binary NC counterparts were also performed, which shed light on the origin of device performance enhancement.

  5. Influencia familiar sobre las actitudes ante el consumo de drogas en adolescentes españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de la Villa Moral Jiménez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available En la cultura mediterránea la familia sigue siendo la agencia socializadora por excelencia, a pesar de diversos cambios referenciales y en la intensidad de los afectos, así como en los estilos disciplinares característicos de nuevas tipologías de familias postmodernas. La influencia y modelado familiar sobre las actitudes ante el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en adolescentes está bien establecida en indicadores tales como experiencias paternas con las drogas, apego y supervisión parental, clima afectivo, dinámica sociofamiliar, etc. Nuestro objeto de estudio se centra en el análisis psicosocial de tales indicadores, así como en ofrecer un análisis diferencial de la valoración de la relación paterno-filial en relación con las actitudes ante el consumo de drogas en un colectivo de adolescentes españoles. Se ha confirmado una mayor permisividad actitudinal y menor concienciación ante los efectos dañinos de las drogas en los hijos de padres consumidores de sustancias psicoactivas tanto legales como ilegales. Se confirma la importancia psicosocial del Apoyo más valorado por los adolescentes que no consumen drogas, así como la percepción diferencial del empleo del Castigo-Coerción y de la Reprobación en adolescentes consumidores que presentan niveles de mayor permisividad actitudinal.

  6. Highly efficient blue OLEDs based on diphenylaminofluorenylstyrenes end-capped with heterocyclic aromatics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Suhyun [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kum Hee; Kim, Young Kwan [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seung Soo, E-mail: ssyoon@skku.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    In this paper, we have designed four diphenylaminofluorenylstyrene derivatives end-capped with heterocyclic aromatic groups, such as 9-phenylcabazole, 4-dibenzofuran, 2-benzoxazole, 2-quinoxaline, respectively. These materials showed blue to red fluorescence with maximum emission wavelengths of 476–611 nm, respectively, which were dependent on the structural and electronic nature of end-capping groups. To explore the electroluminescent properties of these materials, multilayer OLEDs were fabricated in the following sequence: ITO/DNTPD (40 nm)/NPB (20 nm)/2% doped in MADN (20 nm)/Alq{sub 3} (40 nm)/Liq. (1 nm)/Al. Among those, a device exhibited a highly efficient blue emission with the maximum luminance of 14,480 cd/m{sup 2} at 9 V, the luminous efficiency of 5.38 cd/A at 20 mA/cm{sup 2}, power efficiency of 2.77 lm/W at 20 mA/cm{sup 2}, and CIE{sub x,y} coordinates of (0.147, 0.152) at 8 V, respectively.

  7. Enhancement of efficiency and stability of phosphorescent OLEDs based on heterostructured light-emitting layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Byung Doo, E-mail: bdchin@dankook.ac.kr [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering and Center for Photofunctional Energy Materials, Dankook University, Jukjeon-dong, Suji-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 448-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-23

    The light-emitting efficiency and stability of a phosphorescent organic light-emitting device (OLED), whose emission characteristics are strongly dominated not only by the energy transfer but also by the charge carrier trapping influenced by heterostructured emissive layers, are studied. The variation of the material combination of the heterostructured emitter, both for mixed and double layer configuration, affects the charge injection behaviour, luminous efficiency and stability. Both double and mixed emitter configurations yield low-voltage and high-efficiency behaviour (51 lm W{sup -1} at 1000 cd m{sup -2}; 30 lm W{sup -1} at 10 000 cd m{sup -2}). Such an improvement in power efficiency at elevated brightness is sufficiently universal, while the enhancement of device half-lifetime is rather sensitive to the circumstantial layout of heterostructural emitters. With an optimal mixture of hole-transport type and electron-transport type, a half-lifetime of more than 2500 h at 4000 cd m{sup -2} is obtained, which is 8 times the half-lifetime of control devices with a single emitter structure. The origin and criterion for enhancement of efficiency and lifetime are discussed in terms of the carrier transport behaviour with a specific device architecture.

  8. BODIPY associates in organic matrices: Spectral properties, photostability and evaluation as OLED emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkushev, D.A.; Usoltsev, S.D. [Ivanovo State University of Chemistry and Technology, Sheremetevskiy Avenue 7, 153000 Ivanovo (Russian Federation); Marfin, Yu.S., E-mail: marfin@isuct.ru [Ivanovo State University of Chemistry and Technology, Sheremetevskiy Avenue 7, 153000 Ivanovo (Russian Federation); Pushkarev, A.P., E-mail: pushkarev@iomc.ras.ru [G.A. Razuvaev Institute of Organometallic Chemistry RAS, Tropinina 49, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Volyniuk, D.; Grazulevicius, J.V. [Department of Polymer Chemistry and Technology, Kaunas University of Technology, Radvilenu pl. 19, LT-50254 Kaunas (Lithuania); Rumyantsev, E.V. [Ivanovo State University of Chemistry and Technology, Sheremetevskiy Avenue 7, 153000 Ivanovo (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-01

    In the present study four BODIPY (boron dipyrromethene: 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene) dyes with π-extended substituents in C-8 position were investigated in solvents and polymer mediums. High aggregation degree was observed for the dyes in the solid state. Association and twisted intramolecular charge transfer processes were found to affect the spectral properties of the compounds causing bathochromic shifts in absorption and fluorescence spectra. The extension of substituent π-conjugation gains molecular association evoked presumably by π-π interaction between the substituents of the adjacent molecules. Photostability of the complexes in different forms was analyzed and the distorted form stabilized by polymer matrix was found to be the most stable. The substituent nature did not affect strongly the photostability of dyes. Displacement of monomer-associate equilibrium in hybrid materials with polymethylmethacrylate and poly(9-vinylcarbazole) was exploited for tuning spectral characteristics of the materials. Two dyes readily forming aggregates at the lowest concentrations were applied for the fabrication of organic light-emitting diodes. The fabricated devices exhibited electroluminescence in the appropriate spectral ranges with moderate efficiency. - Highlights: • Four BODIPY dyes with π-extended substituents in 8-position were investigated in solvents and polymers. • Substituent influence on photophysical properties and photostability of the compounds are discussed. • Aggregation induced spectral changes were observed. • Displacement of monomer-aggregate equilibrium was exploited for tuning electroluminescent characteristics of OLED devices.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of germane/stannane-capped polysiloles for the fabrication of luminescent OLED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung-Hee; Woo, Hee-Gweon; Kim, Whan Gi; Cho, Myong-Shik

    2009-12-01

    Dehydropolymerization (with various inorganic hydrides) and subsequent germane/stannane-capping (with Me2GeHCI and Ph2SnHCI) of 1,1-dihydrotetraphenylsilole (1) give electroluminescent germane/stannane-capped polysiloles (2) in high yield. The polymerization yield and molecular weight with Selectride increase in the order L-Selectride < N-Selectride < K-Selectride. The molecular weights increase in the order Red-Al < K-Selectride < Super Hydride. The germane/stannane-capped polysiloles 2 emit at 521 nm and are electroluminescent at 522 nm. The fluorescence quantum yield of 2 in toluene is (1.66 +/- 0.26) x 10(-2). The emission color is green and the maximum brightness of the device is 2,800 cd/m2 with a luminous efficiency of 0.68 lm/W. The type of end group exhibited no appreciable effect on the luminescent properties of polysilole backbone. Thus, the germane/stannane-capped polysiloles are found to be a good material for OLED fabrication.

  10. Predictores de la adicción en atletas veteranos españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ruiz-Juan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio se centró, por un lado, en obtener los niveles de adicción al entrenamiento, motivación, ansiedad, satisfacción intrínseca, percepción y creencias sobre las causas del éxito en su deporte de una muestra de 401 atletas veteranos españoles de ambos sexos especialistas en las diversas pruebas de pista. Por otro, se pretendió analizar la predicción de las diferentes dimensiones de la adicción de estos atletas por el resto de constructos psicológicos considerados. Se obtuvieron valiosos datos descriptivos en todos los constructos psicológicos analizados y el análisis regresivo mostró que la subescala positiva de la adicción se podría predecir por puntuar alto en los constructos más deseables y positivos analizados, en concordancia con la hipótesis, mientras que las subescalas negativas lo fueron por puntuar alto en los menos deseables y positivos. Se concluye que la adicción en estos atletas está más cerca de un sano compromiso con su práctica deportiva que de las dimensiones negativas de la adicción.

  11. Modifying the organic/electrode interface in Organic Solar Cells (OSCs) and improving the efficiency of solution-processed phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Teng [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Organic semiconductors devices, such as, organic solar cells (OSCs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have drawn increasing interest in recent decades. As organic materials are flexible, light weight, and potentially low-cost, organic semiconductor devices are considered to be an alternative to their inorganic counterparts. This dissertation will focus mainly on OSCs and OLEDs. As a clean and renewable energy source, the development of OSCs is very promising. Cells with 9.2% power conversion efficiency (PCE) were reported this year, compared to < 8% two years ago. OSCs belong to the so-called third generation solar cells and are still under development. While OLEDs are a more mature and better studied field, with commercial products already launched in the market, there are still several key issues: (1) the cost of OSCs/OLEDs is still high, largely due to the costly manufacturing processes; (2) the efficiency of OSCs/OLEDs needs to be improved; (3) the lifetime of OSCs/OLEDs is not sufficient compared to their inorganic counterparts; (4) the physics models of the behavior of the devices are not satisfactory. All these limitations invoke the demand for new organic materials, improved device architectures, low-cost fabrication methods, and better understanding of device physics. For OSCs, we attempted to improve the PCE by modifying the interlayer between active layer/metal. We found that ethylene glycol (EG) treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT: PSS) improves hole collection at the metal/polymer interface, furthermore it also affects the growth of the poly(3- hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blends, making the phase segregation more favorable for charge collection. We then studied organic/inorganic tandem cells. We also investigated the effect of a thin LiF layer on the hole-collection of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/C70-based small molecular OSCs. A

  12. Sunnyboy of the North; Sunnyboy im hohen Norden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-07-01

    Parking tickets, handball, North Sea, Baltic Sea: This is what most Germans know about Flensburg. Hardly anyone will associate solar energy in conjunction with this small town on the Danish border. This is an error, as the insolation values of the German coastal regions are quite near those of Freiburg, Germany's number one solar city in the Black Forest. Kai Lippert, director and founder of the EWS company, was aware of this quite early and constructed his PV business in the extreme North. (orig.)

  13. Irish and Scandinavian objection to Sellafield; Norden protesterer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaland, Leif

    2001-07-01

    The article deals with the objection of Ireland and the Scandinavian countries to the radioactive emissions from the Sellafield reprocessing plant. This contamination follows the sea currents northward and radioactive material from this plant has been found in seaweed and crustaceans along the coast of Norway. The concentration in lobster from the Irish Sea is much higher than in Norwegian crustaceans and above the action limit set by the EU for the radioactive isotope Technetium 99 in the event of a new atomic accident. British authorities have refused to stop the pollution and even plan to start production of MOX fuel at Sellafield. They say new purification techniques will be developed within three or five years. For Norway, the opposition against Sellafield is a priority.

  14.  Zwischen Mission und Markt - Ansgars Kirchen im Norden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobat, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    of the secular and especially the spiritual power elite of the continent. A differentiated view of the early continental mission results from this discussion, yielding new perspectives on the structure and character of the early medieval exchange of goods between the continent and Scandinavia, as well...

  15. GeoPower – Geothermische Potentiale im Norden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsch, Reinhard; Hese, Fabian; Offermann, Petra

    Das INTERREG IVa Projekt GeoPower hatte zum Ziel, Planungsgrundlagen für die Nutzung hydrothermaler Energie für das nördliche Schleswig-Holstein und das südliche Jütland (Dänemark) zu schaffen. Projektpartner waren die Geologischen Dienste von Dänemark und Grönland (GEUS) und Schleswig Holstein (......-Instituts für Geowissenschaftliche Gemeinschaftsaufgaben (LIAG, Hannover) eingeflossen und werden auf der Homepage von GEUS verfügbar sein. Die Projektergebnisse sind auch in einer Projektbroschüre zusammengefasst, die vom LLUR bzw. von den Autoren kostenfrei bezogen werden kann....

  16. Environmental impact assessment in the Nordic Countries; Miljoekonsekvensbeskrivningar i Norden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, K. [Studsvik RadWaste AB (Sweden); Palsson, S.E. [Geislavarnir rikisins (Iceland); Poroddsson, P. [Skipulagsstofnun (Iceland)

    2000-12-01

    A meeting on Environmental Impact Assessment has been held in Iceland, September 2-6, 2000. It was held within the framework of the project NKS/SOS-3 (Radioactive waste), subproject NKS/SOS-3.1 (Environmental Impact Assessment). The meeting included presentations, discussions and a study trip to the Egilsstadir and Myvatn districts. (au)

  17. Arsager til kraeft i Norden og muligheder for forebyggelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, J F; Dreyer, L; Olsen, J H

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to address future possibilities for avoiding cancer. We elucidate the most important known causes of cancer in the Nordic countries during the second half of this century and provide estimates of the numbers of cancer cases that might be avoided by the year 2000 if those...... with the associated population attributable risk percent, PAR%, i.e. the proportion of a given cancer that can be avoided upon elimination of the causative factor. The main causes of cancer include smoking, alcohol consumption, exposure to occupational carcinogens, radiation, obesity and infection with human...... the year 2000. Smoking habits account for a little more than half of these avoidable cases. Exposure to solar radiation, HPV and Helicobacter pylori, diagnostic and therapeutic radiation and consumption of alcohol play important roles in the causation of cancer, as each of these factors is linked with 1...

  18. [Evaluation of the quality of Anales Españoles de Pediatría versus Medicina Clínica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonillo Perales, A

    2002-08-01

    To compare the scientific methodology and quality of articles published in Anales Españoles de Pediatría and Medicina Clínica. A stratified and randomized selection of 40 original articles published in 2001 in Anales Españoles de Pediatría and Medicina Clínica was made. Methodological errors in the critical analysis of original articles (21 items), epidemiological design, sample size, statistical complexity and levels of scientific evidence in both journals were compared using the chi-squared and/or Student's t-test. No differences were found between Anales Españoles de Pediatría and Medicina Clínica in the critical evaluation of original articles (p > 0.2). In original articles published in Anales Españoles de Pediatría, the designs were of lower scientific evidence (a lower proportion of clinical trials, cohort and case-control studies) (17.5 vs 42.5 %, p 0.05), sample sizes were smaller (p 0.003) and there was less statistical complexity in the results section (p 0.03). To improve the scientific quality of Anales Españoles de Pediatría, improved study designs, larger sample sizes and greater statistical complexity are required in its articles.

  19. Sistema de ayuda visual para apoyar aprendizaje de fonemas españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique San Juan Urrutia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo  tiene como propósito  mostrar un sistema computacional con la capacidad de apoyar el aprendizaje de la  pronunciación de un conjunto determinado de fonemas españoles, dirigido a personas sordas o con dificultades auditivas, que tienen como consecuencia trastornos del habla. La posibilidad de “ver lo que se dice”, puede resultar  muy útil como método para la implantación y rehabilitación del Habla. Visualizar de forma inmediata, mediante una gráfica, los perfiles acústicos de los principales parámetros de la señal de voz y asociarlos con imágenes que representan lo dicho, ha resultado una alternativa adicional muy estimulante en el campo de la Foniatría. Dicho sistema basa su  funcionamiento en la extracción y comparación de parámetros fundamentales de las señales de voz, entre los cuales se puede mencionar los LPC (Linear Predictive Coding, Formantes y  coeficientes Ceptrales en la escala de frecuencias de Mel (Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, MFCCs.  Se espera que el sistema constituya una  herramienta  de apoyo a la rehabilitación de trastornos del habla, reemplazando el canal de realimentación auditivo por un canal de realimentación visual. Es decir, mediante gráficas de los perfiles acústicos y principales parámetros característicos de la señal de voz, con imágenes e indicadores de  avance, se estructura en conjunto una importante herramienta alternativa adicional para la rehabilitación en trastornos del habla.

  20. La educación intercultural en los centros escolares españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henar RODRÍGUEZ NAVARRO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Son muchas las iniciativas que sobre educación intercultural se están llevando a cabo en las escuelas de nuestro país. El panorama es variado y adaptado a las decisiones y a las necesidades que cada autonomía ha considerando relevantes. Consideramos interesante visibilizar las prácticas escolares que sobre interculturalidad se han realizado en los centros educativos españoles en las últimas décadas. Empezamos este escrito a través de un repaso de las políticas educativas que han dado cobertura a tales actuaciones para describir posteriormente las características concretas de la práctica escolar. Las líneas de análisis que vertebran estas acciones las hemos sintetizado en: I. Los planes de acogida, II. La atención a la diversidad lingüística y cultural, III. Las estructuras escolares cooperativas, IV. La participación de la comunidad educativa, V. La mediación intercultural y la resolución de conflictos, VI. La Formación de Profesorado, VII. Los observatorios de las diferentes comunidades. Podemos entender todas estas actuaciones desde dos enfoques diferenciados; uno más relacionado con la educación inclusiva y otro que actúa desde la educación compensatoria. Relacionamos al final las acciones de la interculturalidad educativa con los principios básicos de las comunidades de aprendizaje, considerándolas un soporte desde el que dar cobertura a las acciones educativas previamente descritas.

  1. Microwave assisted transformation of N,N-diphenylamine as precursors of organic light emitting diodes (OLED)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefri,; Wahyuningrum, Deana, E-mail: deana@chem.itb.ac.id [Organic Chemistry Research Division, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    In this research, study on the transformation of N,N-diphenylamine (DPA) using iodine (I2) utilizing solid state Microwave Assisted Organic Synthesis (MAOS) method has been carried out. The reaction was performed by variations of three parameters namely the mole of reagents, the amount and type of solid support (alumina/Al2O3), and the reaction conditions. Experimental results showed that neutral-alumina was a better solid support than basic-alumina. The optimum temperature for the reaction was approximately at 125-133 °C with reaction time of 15 minutes and microwave reactor power at 500-600 W. The separation of the yellowish green product solution with preparative Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) method using n-hexane:ethyl acetate = 4:1 (v/v) as eluent yielded two fractions (I and II) and both fractions can undergo fluorescence under 365 nm UV light. Based on the LC chromatogram with methanol:water = 95:5 (v/v) as eluent and its corresponding mass spectra (ESI+), fraction I contained three compounds, which were tetracarbazole A, triphenylamine, and impurities in the form of plasticizer such as bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Fraction II also contained three compounds, which were tetracarbazole C, tetraphenylhydrazine, and plasticizer such as bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Both FT-IR (KBr disks) and NMR (500 MHz, CDCl{sub 3}) spectra of fraction I and II confirmed the aromatic amine groups in those compounds. The observed fluorescence colors of fraction I and II were violet and violet-blue, respectively. Based on their structures and fluorescence characters, the compounds in fraction I and II have the potential to be used as Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) compound precursors.

  2. Molecular-wire behavior of OLED materials: exciton dynamics in multichromophoric Alq3-oligofluorene-Pt(II)porphyrin triads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Victor A; Pérez-Bolívar, César; Agarwal, Neeraj; Shinar, Joseph; Anzenbacher, Pavel

    2006-09-27

    Donor-bridge-acceptor triads consisting of the Alq3 complex, oligofluorene bridge, and PtII tetraphenylporphyrin (PtTPP) were synthesized. The triads were designed to study the energy level/distance-dependence in energy transfer both in a solution and in solid state. The materials show effective singlet transfer from the Alq3-fluorene fluorophore to the porphyrin, while the triplet energy transfer, owing to the shorter delocalization of triplet excitons, appears to take place via a triplet energy cascade. Using femtosecond transient spectroscopy, the rate of the singlet-singlet energy transfer was determined. The exponential dependence of the donor-acceptor distance and the respective energy transfer rates of 7.1 x 1010 to 1.0 x 109 s-1 with the attenuation factor â of 0.21 +/- 0.02 A-1 suggest that the energy transfer proceeds via a mixed incohererent wire/superexchange mechanism. In the OLEDs fabricated using the Alq3-oligofluorene-PtTPP triads with better triplet level alignment, the order of a magnitude increase in efficacy appears to be due to facile triplet energy transfer. The devices, where the triplet-triplet energy transfer is of paramount importance, showed high color purity emission (CIE X,Y: 0.706, 0.277), which is almost identical to the emission from thin films. Most importantly, we believe that the design principles demonstrated above are general and may be used to prepare OLED materials with enhanced quantum efficacy at lowered operational potentials, being crucial for improved lifespan of OLEDs.

  3. Los jóvenes españoles, habitantes de los medios : una propuesta de ayuno digital

    OpenAIRE

    Doval Avendaño, Montserrat; Domínguez Quintas, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Los jóvenes españoles –al igual que sus coetáneos de otros países desarrollados- son habitantes de los medios, más que utilizarlos, viven en ellos. En esta ponencia nos proponemos mostrar, en la línea de experimentos realizados con anterioridad en otros países, cómo un grupo de estudiantes de titulaciones de Comunicación de la Universidad de Vigo responden a un ayuno digital de 24 horas. Los alumnos deben renunciar al uso de cualquier aparato que utilice pantalla (teléfono móvi...

  4. Composición e invarianza factorial del cuestionario IMAGEN en adolescentes mexicanos y españoles

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, J.R.; Solano, N.; Benavides, E.V.; Ornelas, M.

    2017-01-01

    El presente estudio analiza las propiedades psicométricas propuestos por Solano-Pinto y Cano-Vindel (2010) para el cuestionario IMAGEN. La muestra total fue de 533 participantes 257 mexicanos y 276 españoles, con una edad media de 13.15 años (DE=1.10). La estructura factorial del cuestionario se analizó a través de análisis factoriales exploratorios y confirmatorios. Los análisis, muestran que una estructura de cinco factores es viable y adecuada. La estructura de cinco factores (perceptivo, ...

  5. Conceptos y propiedades de probabilidad en libros de texto españoles de educación primaria

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Torres, Emilse; Ortiz, Juan Jesús; Gea, M. Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    En este artículo se analiza la presentación de conceptos y propiedades asociados a cuatro significados de la probabilidad en dos series de libros de texto españoles de educación primaria. Utilizamos una metodología cualitativa, basada en identificar y describir cómo se introduce cada concepto y propiedad en los libros de texto seleccionados. Los resultados muestran la introducción de conceptos básicos ligados a los cuatro significados, así como de propiedades fundamentales de cada uno de e...

  6. Fiabilidad y validez del cuestionario de actividad física PAQ-A en adolescentes españoles

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Gómez, David; Martínez-de-Haro, Vicente; Pozo, Tamara; Welk, Gregory J.; Villagra, Ariel; Calle, Marisa E.; Marcos, Ascensión; Veiga, Oscar L.

    2009-01-01

    Fundamentos: Los cuestionarios son una herramienta útil para valorar la actividad física (AF) en grandes poblaciones. El objetivo de esta investigación fue valorar la fiabilidad y validez del cuestionario de AF PAQ-A en adolescentes españoles utilizando como criterio de referencia la medición de la AF por acelerómetro. Métodos: En una muestra de 82 adolescentes entre 12 y 17 años se evaluó la fiabilidad test-retest de la versión española del cuestionario PAQ-A en una semana. La fiabilidad se ...

  7. Influência de diferentes solventes utilizados na deposição de filme de poli(9-vinilcarbazol em dispositivos OLEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Roberto Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work studies the influence of the film deposition process on light emission performance and on threshold voltage of OLEDs, with architecture glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PVK/Alq3/Al. The commercial PVK was dissolved in different solvents such as: chloroform, tetrahydrofuran, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene and trimethylpentane. OLEDs were characterized by current-voltage and revealed a significant influence of the solvents, although all devices emitted green electroluminescence. A difference in threshold voltage up to 10 V was observed among OLEDs prepared from different solvents. The 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene showed best performance, presenting lowest treshold voltage (≈ 6 V, followed by tetrahydrofuran (≈ 8 V, trimethylpentane (≈ 14 V and chloroform (≈ 16 V.

  8. A Planar, Chip-Based, Dual-Beam Refractometer Using an Integrated Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) Light Source and Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Erin L.; Veneman, P. Alex; Simmonds, Adam; Zacher, Brian; Huebner, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We present a simple chip-based refractometer with a central organic light emitting diode (OLED) light source and two opposed organic photovoltaic (OPV) detectors on an internal reflection element (IRE) substrate, creating a true dual-beam sensor platform. For first-generation platforms, we demonstrate the use of a single heterojunction OLED based on electroluminescence emission from an Alq3/TPD heterojunction (tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum/N,N′-Bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′-diphenylbenzidine) and light detection with planar heterojunction pentacene/C60 OPVs. The sensor utilizes the considerable fraction of emitted light from conventional thin film OLEDs that is coupled into guided modes in the IRE instead of into the forward (display) direction. A ray-optics description is used to describe light throughput and efficiency-limiting factors for light coupling from the OLED into the substrate modes, light traversing through the IRE substrate, and light coupling into the OPV detectors. The arrangement of the OLED at the center of the chip provides for two sensing regions, a “sample” and “reference” channel, with detection of light by independent OPV detectors. This configuration allows for normalization of the sensor response against fluctuations in OLED light output, stability, and local fluctuations (temperature) which might influence sensor response. The dual beam configuration permits significantly enhanced sensitivity to refractive index changes relative to single-beam protocols, and is easily integrated into a field-portable instrumentation package. Changes in refractive index (ΔR.I.) between 10−2 and 10−3 R.I. units could be detected for single channel operation, with sensitivity increased to ΔR.I. ≈ 10−4 units when the dual beam configuration is employed. PMID:20218580

  9. Metas y satisfacción vital en adolescentes españoles y peruanos según sexo y nivel socioeconómico

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Francisco Díaz Morales; Patricia Martínez U.

    2013-01-01

    El presente estudio analiza el tipo de metas personales y la satisfacción vital en adolescentes españoles y peruanos según sexo y nivel socioeconómico. Se trabajó con 389 adolescentes españoles y con 285 peruanos, de ambos sexos y de diferentes niveles socioeconómicos. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron el Análisis de Metas Personales de Palys y Little (1983) y la Escala D-T (Delight-Terrible) de Andrews y Withey (1976) para la muestra española, y el Método de Inducción Motivacional de Nuttin...

  10. Motivación de logro y lenguaje escrito en adolescentes españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-José González-Valenzuela

    Full Text Available La mayoría de los estudios sobre lectura y escritura analizan su relación con factores cognitivos-lingüísticos, siendo menos frecuentes los relacionados con la motivación. Este estudio analiza la relación de la motivación de logro con la composición escrita y la comprensión lectora en adolescentes españoles. La muestra esta formada por 203 sujetos de 1º (ME=12.4, DT=1.28, 2º (ME=13.6, DT=1.02 y 3º (ME=14.2, DT=1.34 de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria, de clase sociocultural media, con niveles intelectuales normales y sin déficits físicos, psíquicos o sensoriales. Se evalúa la motivación de logro en función de la frecuencia de pensamientos relacionados con la realización de las tareas académicas. La composición escrita fue evaluada en términos de progresión temática, conocimiento semántico, morfosintáctico y metacognición. La comprensión lectora se evaluó en términos de selección y organización de ideas, conocimiento semántico, morfosintáctico y metacognición. El diseño es transversal y se realiza análisis de regresión lineal. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la motivación de logro explica un 17% de la composición escrita y entre un 16 y 27% de la comprensión lectora, según el curso. Se destaca la relación de la motivación de logro con el lenguaje escrito y su posible repercusión en los problemas de composición escrita y comprensión lectora en la adolescencia.

  11. Validación del cuestionario de conciencia emocional en adolescentesespañoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Samper-García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La regulación de la emoción es un proceso complejo que implica la iniciación, inhibición o modulación del propio estado o comportamiento en una situación dada (Cole, Michel & Teti, 1994. La regulación emocional tiene una función altamente significativa en la vida humana ya que reacciones emocionales inapropiadas, extremas o incontroladas pueden impedir un ajuste funcional a la sociedad (Koole, 2009. Sin embargo para una adecuada regulación emocional es necesaria una buena comprensión emocional y, a su vez, para una comprensión eficaz se requiere una apro piada percepción emocional. En este estudio se analizan las propiedades psicométricas de la ver sión española del Cuestionario de Conciencia Emocional revisado ( Emotional Awareness Ques tionnaire , EAQ30 desarrollado por Rieffe, Oos terveld, Miers, Terwogt y Ly (2008. La versión española del EAQ30 fue administrada a 1.316 adolescentes españoles de 14 a 16 años. Los da tos confirman la estructura original de la escala de seis factores: Distinción de las emociones, Inter cambio verbal de las emociones, No ocultamiento de las emociones, Conciencia corporal, Análisis de las emociones y Atención a las emociones de los otros. Los coeficientes de consistencia interna de las subescalas del EAQ30 fueron satisfactorios y equivalentes a los obtenidos en la escala origi nal. Por otra parte, el estudio también confirmó la invariancia de la estructura factorial del instru mento cuando se considera el sexo, en la adoles cencia media. Estos resultados permitirían soste ner que la adaptación al español aquí presentada puede ser utilizada para evaluar el constructo conciencia emocional en adolescentes de lengua española de un modo válido y confiable en ambos sexos.

  12. Alumnos españoles en el internado jesuita de Beaumont (Old Windsor, Inglaterra, 1880-1886

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Caparrini, Bernardo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a continuation of three previous studies, in which taken together we analyzed the presence of Spanish students at Beaumont College (Old Windsor, Berkshire, England from the foundation of this Jesuit boarding school in October 1861 until August 1880. The period now under consideration spans from September 1880 to August 1886. The Spanish students, or those of Spanish descent, who passed through the college classrooms over a period of six academic years, are presented chronologically, their geographical origin is given and all of them are identified.El presente artículo es continuación de otros tres estudios, en los que en conjunto analizábamos la presencia de alumnos españoles en Beaumont College (Old Windsor, Berkshire, Inglaterra desde la fundación de este internado jesuita en octubre de 1861 hasta el mes de agosto de 1880. El periodo que ahora estudiamos comprende desde septiembre de 1880 hasta agosto de 1886. Hacemos una relación cronológica de los estudiantes españoles o de ascendencia española que pasan por las aulas del colegio a lo largo de estos seis cursos académicos, aportamos su procedencia geográfica e identificamos a todos ellos.

  13. Novel Hole Transporting Materials Based on 4-(9H-Carbazol-9-yltriphenylamine Derivatives for OLEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quynh Pham Bao Nguyen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs have been increasingly studied due to their emerging applicability. However, some of the properties of existing OLEDs could be improved, such as their overall efficiency and durability; these aspects have been addressed in the current study. A series of novel hole-transporting materials (HTMs 3a–c based on 4-(9H-carbazol-9-yltriphenylamine conjugated with different carbazole or triphenylamine derivatives have been readily synthesized by Suzuki coupling reactions. The resulting compounds showed good thermal stabilities with high glass transition temperatures between 148 and 165 °C. The introduction of HTMs 3b and 3c into the standard devices ITO/HATCN/NPB/HTMs 3 (indium tin oxide/dipyrazino(2,3-f:2ꞌ,3ꞌ-hquinoxaline 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexacarbonitrile/N,Nꞌ-bis(naphthalen-1-yl-N,Nꞌ-bis(phenyl-benzidine/HTMs/CBP (4,4ꞌ-Bis(N-carbazolyl-1,1ꞌ-biphenyl: 5% Ir(ppy3/Bphen/LiF/Al (tris[2-phenylpyridinato-C2,N]iridium(III/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline/LiF/Al resulted in significantly enhanced current, power, and external quantum efficiencies (EQE as compared to the reference device without any layers of HTMs 3.

  14. Red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs) based on a heteroleptic cyclometalated Iridium (III) complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepeltier, Marc [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles, UMR 8180 CNRS, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelines, 45 avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Dumur, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.dumur@univ-amu.fr [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, ICR, UMR 7273, F-13397 Marseille (France); Wantz, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.wantz@ims-bordeaux.fr [University of Bordeaux, IMS, UMR 5218, F-33400 Talence (France); CNRS, IMS, UMR 5218, F-33400 Talence (France); Vila, Neus; Mbomekallé, Israel [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles, UMR 8180 CNRS, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelines, 45 avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Bertin, Denis; Gigmes, Didier [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, ICR, UMR 7273, F-13397 Marseille (France); Mayer, Cédric R., E-mail: cmayer@lisv.uvsq.fr [Laboratoire d’Ingénierie des Systèmes de Versailles LISV – EA 4048, Université de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, 10/12 avenue de l’Europe, 78140 Vélizy (France)

    2013-11-15

    Highly efficient red-emitting Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (PhOLEDs) based on a neutral vacuum-sublimatable heteroleptic iridium (III) complex have been designed and studied. Heteroleptic complex Ir(piq){sub 2}(acac) was prepared in one step with acetylacetone (acac) as the ancillary ligand. Electronic and spectroscopic properties of Ir(piq){sub 2}(acac) were investigated by UV–visible absorption, fluorescence spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Electrophosphorescent devices comprising Ir(piq){sub 2}(acac) as dopant of TCTA exhibited outstanding electroluminescence performance with a current efficiency of 10.0 cd A{sup −1}, a maximum power efficiency of 7.2 lm W{sup −1} and a maximal brightness of 3540 cd m{sup −2} was reached at 8.0 V. CIE coordinates close to the standard red of the national television system committee were obtained (0.67, 0.33). -- Highlights: • A saturated red OLED has been prepared. • High power efficiency and brightness were obtained. • Thickness of the device was determined as a parameter determining the overall performance. • CIE coordinates close to the standard red of the national television system committee were obtained.

  15. Revisión de las características y usos De la planta Moringa oleífera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Villarreal Gómez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta el estado de conocimiento de la planta Moringa oleífera y su posible impacto en la solución de problemas de seguridad alimentaria. De la variedad de beneficios que aporta esta especie a la humanidad en materia de usos médicos, químicos y agrícolas, se puede destacar forraje animal, biogás, productos de limpieza doméstica, productos cosméticos y medicinales, purificación del agua, entre otros (Fuglie, 1999. Debido a que sus beneficios potenciales son muchos y tiene bajísimos niveles de sustancias antinutricionales, la Moringa oleífera es un alimento nutritivo y benéfico que ofrece características muy atractivas para establecer su cultivo (Olson & Fahey, 2011; si los estudios demuestran la riqueza nutricional de la planta y su biodisponibilidad de una manera suficiente, se tendría un poderoso recurso natural para combatir la desnutrición infantil y familiar, especialmente en poblaciones vulnerables.

  16. Formation of blade and slot die coated small molecule multilayers for OLED applications studied theoretically and by XPS depth profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Katharina; Raupp, Sebastian; Hummel, Helga; Bruns, Michael; Scharfer, Philip; Schabel, Wilhelm

    2016-06-01

    Slot die coaters especially designed for low material consumption and doctor blades were used to process small molecule solutions for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Optimum process parameters were developed for the large-scale coating techniques to generate stable single and multiple layers only a few nanometers thick. Achieving a multilayer architecture for solution-processed OLEDs is the most challenging step. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy sputter depth profiling was performed to determine defined interfaces between coated organic layers. Commercially available small molecules NPB (N,N'-Di(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine) and BAlq (Bis(8-hdroxy-2methylquinoline)-(4-phenylphenoxy)aluminum), originally developed for vacuum deposition, were used as hole, respectively electron transport material. Defined double-layers were processed with both scalable coating methods using the orthogonal solvent approach. The use of non-orthogonal solvents resulted in complete intermixing of the material. The results are explained by calculations of solubilities and simulating drying and diffusion kinetics of the small molecule solutions.

  17. Formation of blade and slot die coated small molecule multilayers for OLED applications studied theoretically and by XPS depth profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Peters

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Slot die coaters especially designed for low material consumption and doctor blades were used to process small molecule solutions for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs. Optimum process parameters were developed for the large-scale coating techniques to generate stable single and multiple layers only a few nanometers thick. Achieving a multilayer architecture for solution-processed OLEDs is the most challenging step. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy sputter depth profiling was performed to determine defined interfaces between coated organic layers. Commercially available small molecules NPB (N,N’-Di(1-naphthyl-N,N’-diphenyl-(1,1’-biphenyl-4,4’-diamine and BAlq (Bis(8-hdroxy-2methylquinoline-(4-phenylphenoxyaluminum, originally developed for vacuum deposition, were used as hole, respectively electron transport material. Defined double-layers were processed with both scalable coating methods using the orthogonal solvent approach. The use of non-orthogonal solvents resulted in complete intermixing of the material. The results are explained by calculations of solubilities and simulating drying and diffusion kinetics of the small molecule solutions.

  18. Theoretical rationalization of the singlet-triplet gap in OLEDs materials: impact of charge-transfer character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, M; Muccioli, L; Son, W-J; Olivier, Y; Sancho-García, J C

    2015-01-13

    New materials for OLED applications with low singlet-triplet energy splitting have been recently synthesized in order to allow for the conversion of triplet into singlet excitons (emitting light) via a Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence (TADF) process, which involves excited-states with a non-negligible amount of Charge-Transfer (CT). The accurate modeling of these states with Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT), the most used method so far because of the favorable trade-off between accuracy and computational cost, is however particularly challenging. We carefully address this issue here by considering materials with small (high) singlet-triplet gap acting as emitter (host) in OLEDs and by comparing the accuracy of TD-DFT and the corresponding Tamm-Dancoff Approximation (TDA), which is found to greatly reduce error bars with respect to experiments thanks to better estimates for the lowest singlet-triplet transition. Finally, we quantitatively correlate the singlet-triplet splitting values with the extent of CT, using for it a simple metric extracted from calculations with double-hybrid functionals, that might be applied in further molecular engineering studies.

  19. Turbocharged molecular discovery of OLED emitters: from high-throughput quantum simulation to highly efficient TADF devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Bombarelli, Rafael; Aguilera-Iparraguirre, Jorge; Hirzel, Timothy D.; Ha, Dong-Gwang; Einzinger, Markus; Wu, Tony; Baldo, Marc A.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán.

    2016-09-01

    Discovering new OLED emitters requires many experiments to synthesize candidates and test performance in devices. Large scale computer simulation can greatly speed this search process but the problem remains challenging enough that brute force application of massive computing power is not enough to successfully identify novel structures. We report a successful High Throughput Virtual Screening study that leveraged a range of methods to optimize the search process. The generation of candidate structures was constrained to contain combinatorial explosion. Simulations were tuned to the specific problem and calibrated with experimental results. Experimentalists and theorists actively collaborated such that experimental feedback was regularly utilized to update and shape the computational search. Supervised machine learning methods prioritized candidate structures prior to quantum chemistry simulation to prevent wasting compute on likely poor performers. With this combination of techniques, each multiplying the strength of the search, this effort managed to navigate an area of molecular space and identify hundreds of promising OLED candidate structures. An experimentally validated selection of this set shows emitters with external quantum efficiencies as high as 22%.

  20. Synthesis Al complex and investigating effect of doped ZnO nanoparticles in the electrical and optical efficiency of OLEDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahedi, Zahra; Jafari, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    In this study, an organometallic complex based on aluminum ions is synthesized. And it is utilized as fluorescent material in the organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The synthesized complex was characterized using XRD, UV-Vis, FT-IR as well as PL spectroscopy analyses. The energy levels of Al complex were determined by cyclic voltammetry measurements. Then, the effects of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate), PEDOT:PSS, on the electrical and optical performance of the organic light-emitting diodes have been investigated. For this purpose, two samples containing ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PVK/Alq3/PBD/Al with two different concentration and two samples containing ITO/PEDOT:PSS:ZnO/PVK/Alq3/PBD/Al with two different concentration were prepared. Then, hole transport, electron transport and emissive layers were deposited by the spin coating method and the cathode layer (Al) was deposited by the thermal evaporation method. The OLED simulation was also done by constructing the model and choosing appropriate parameters. Then, the experimental data were collected and the results interpreted both qualitatively and quantitatively. The results of the simulations were compared with experimental data of the J-V spectra. Comparing experimental data and simulation results showed that the electrical and optical efficiency of the samples with ZnO NPs is appreciably higher than the samples without ZnO NPs.

  1. Addressing the efficiency roll-off in a fluorescent OLED by facile electron transport layer doping and carrier confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soman, Anjaly; M, Manuraj; Unni, K. N. Narayanan

    2018-05-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) often face the issue of decreasing power efficiency with increasing brightness. Loss of charge carrier balance is one of the factors contributing to the efficiency roll-off. We demonstrate that by using a combination of doped electron transport layer (ETL) and a specially chosen electron blocking layer (EBL) having high hole mobility, this efficiency roll-off can be effectively suppressed. A tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq3) based OLED has been fabricated with 2,3,6,7-Tetrahydro-1,1,7,7,-tetramethyl-1H, 5H,11H-10-(2-benzothiazolyl) quinolizino-[9,9a, 1n gh]coumarin (C545T) as the emissive dopant. Bulk doping of the ETL with lithium fluoride (LiF) was optimized to increase the luminous intensity as well as the current efficiency. An EBL with high hole mobility introduced between the EML and the hole transport layer (HTL) improved the performance drastically, and the device brightness at 9 V got improved by a factor of 2.5 compared to that of the control device. While increasing the brightness from 100 cd/m2 to 1000 cd/m2, the power efficiency drop was 47% for the control device whereas only a drop of 15% was observed for the modified device. The possible mechanisms for the enhanced performance are discussed.

  2. Light emission in forward and reverse bias operation in OLED with amorphous silicon carbon nitride thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, R.; Cremona, M.; Achete, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    Amorphous silicon carbon nitride (a-SiC:N) thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering were used in the structure of an organic light emitting diode (OLED), obtaining an OLED operating in forward and reverse bias mode. The device consist of the heterojunction structure ITO/a-SiC:N/Hole Transport Layer (HTL)/ Electron Transport Layer (ETL)/a-SiC:N/Al. As hole transporting layer was used a thin film of 1-(3-methylphenyl)-1,2,3,4 tetrahydroquinoline - 6 - carboxyaldehyde - 1,1'- diphenylhydrazone (MTCD), while the tris(8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum) (Alq3) is used as electron transport and emitting layer. A significant increase in the voltage operation compared to the conventional ITO/MTCD/Alq3/Al structure was observed, so the onset of electroluminescence occurs at about 22 V in the forward and reverse bias mode of operation. The electroluminescence spectra is similar in both cases, only slightly shifted 0.14 eV to lower energies in relation to the conventional device.

  3. Formation of blade and slot die coated small molecule multilayers for OLED applications studied theoretically and by XPS depth profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Katharina; Raupp, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.raupp@kit.edu; Scharfer, Philip; Schabel, Wilhelm [Institute of Thermal Process Engineering, Thin Film Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Hummel, Helga [Philips Technologie GmbH Innovative Technologies, Aachen (Germany); Bruns, Michael [Institute for Applied Materials and Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Slot die coaters especially designed for low material consumption and doctor blades were used to process small molecule solutions for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Optimum process parameters were developed for the large-scale coating techniques to generate stable single and multiple layers only a few nanometers thick. Achieving a multilayer architecture for solution-processed OLEDs is the most challenging step. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy sputter depth profiling was performed to determine defined interfaces between coated organic layers. Commercially available small molecules NPB (N,N’-Di(1-naphthyl)-N,N’-diphenyl-(1,1’-biphenyl)-4,4’-diamine) and BAlq (Bis(8-hdroxy-2methylquinoline)-(4-phenylphenoxy)aluminum), originally developed for vacuum deposition, were used as hole, respectively electron transport material. Defined double-layers were processed with both scalable coating methods using the orthogonal solvent approach. The use of non-orthogonal solvents resulted in complete intermixing of the material. The results are explained by calculations of solubilities and simulating drying and diffusion kinetics of the small molecule solutions.

  4. Effect of Substituents on the Electronic Structure and Degradation Process in Carbazole Derivatives for Blue OLED Host Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Minki

    2016-07-25

    We investigate the dissociation mechanism of the C-N bond between carbazole and dibenzothiophene in carbazole-dibenzothiophene (Cz-DBT) positional isomers, selected as representative systems for blue host materials in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The C-N bond dissociation energies, calculated at the density functional theory level, are found to depend strongly on the charge states of the parental molecules. In particular, the anionic C-N bond dissociations resulting in a carbazole anion can have low dissociation energies (∼1.6 eV) with respect to blue emission energy. These low values are attributed to the large electron affinity of the carbazole radical, a feature that importantly can be modulated via substitution. Substitution also impacts the energies of the first excited electronic states of the Cz-DBT molecules since these states have an intramolecular charge-transfer nature due to the spatially localized character of the frontier molecular orbitals within the carbazole moiety (for the HOMO) and the dibenzothiophene moiety (for the LUMO). The implications of these results must be considered when designing blue OLED hosts since these materials must combine chemical stability and high triplet energy. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  5. High-Performance Doping-Free Hybrid White OLEDs Based on Blue Aggregation-Induced Emission Luminogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baiquan; Nie, Han; Lin, Gengwei; Hu, Shiben; Gao, Dongyu; Zou, Jianhua; Xu, Miao; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Zujin; Ning, Honglong; Peng, Junbiao; Cao, Yong; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2017-10-04

    Doping-free white organic light-emitting diodes (DF-WOLEDs) have aroused research interest because of their simple properties. However, to achieve doping-free hybrid WOLEDs (DFH-WOLEDs), avoiding aggregation-caused quenching is challenging. Herein, blue luminogens with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics, for the first time, have been demonstrated to develop DFH-WOLEDs. Unlike previous DFH-WOLEDs, both thin (10 nm) AIE luminogen (AIEgen) can be used for devices, enhancing the flexibility. Two-color devices show (i) pure-white emission, (ii) high CRI (85), and (iii) high efficiency. Particularly, 19.0 lm W 1- is the highest for pure-white DF-WOLEDs, while 35.0 lm W 1- is the best for two-color hybrid WOLEDs with CRI ≥ 80. A three-color DFH-WOLED shows broad color-correlated temperature span (2301-11628 K), (i) the first sunlight-like OLED (2500-8000 K) operating at low voltages, (ii) the broadest span among sunlight-like OLED, and (iii) possesses comparable efficiency with the best doping counterpart. Another three-color DFH-WOLED exhibits CRI > 90 at ≥3000 cd m -2 , (i) the first DF-WOLED with CRI ≥ 90 at high luminances, and (ii) the CRI (92.8) is not only the highest among AIE-based WOLEDs but also the highest among DF-WOLEDs. Such findings may unlock an alternative concept to develop DFH-WOLEDs.

  6. Light emission in forward and reverse bias operation in OLED with amorphous silicon carbon nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, R [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica y Textil, Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, Av. Tupac Amaru SN, Lima (Peru); Cremona, M [Departamento de Fisica, PontifIcia Universidade Catolica de Rio de Janeiro, PUC-Rio, Cx. Postal 38071, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22453-970 (Brazil); Achete, C A, E-mail: rreyes@uni.edu.pe [Departamento de Engenheria Metalurgica e de Materiais, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cx. Postal 68505, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 21945-970 (Brazil)

    2011-01-01

    Amorphous silicon carbon nitride (a-SiC:N) thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering were used in the structure of an organic light emitting diode (OLED), obtaining an OLED operating in forward and reverse bias mode. The device consist of the heterojunction structure ITO/a-SiC:N/Hole Transport Layer (HTL)/ Electron Transport Layer (ETL)/a-SiC:N/Al. As hole transporting layer was used a thin film of 1-(3-methylphenyl)-1,2,3,4 tetrahydroquinoline - 6 - carboxyaldehyde - 1,1'- diphenylhydrazone (MTCD), while the tris(8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum) (Alq{sub 3}) is used as electron transport and emitting layer. A significant increase in the voltage operation compared to the conventional ITO/MTCD/Alq{sub 3}/Al structure was observed, so the onset of electroluminescence occurs at about 22 V in the forward and reverse bias mode of operation. The electroluminescence spectra is similar in both cases, only slightly shifted 0.14 eV to lower energies in relation to the conventional device.

  7. Light emission in forward and reverse bias operation in OLED with amorphous silicon carbon nitride thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, R; Cremona, M; Achete, C A

    2011-01-01

    Amorphous silicon carbon nitride (a-SiC:N) thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering were used in the structure of an organic light emitting diode (OLED), obtaining an OLED operating in forward and reverse bias mode. The device consist of the heterojunction structure ITO/a-SiC:N/Hole Transport Layer (HTL)/ Electron Transport Layer (ETL)/a-SiC:N/Al. As hole transporting layer was used a thin film of 1-(3-methylphenyl)-1,2,3,4 tetrahydroquinoline - 6 - carboxyaldehyde - 1,1'- diphenylhydrazone (MTCD), while the tris(8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum) (Alq 3 ) is used as electron transport and emitting layer. A significant increase in the voltage operation compared to the conventional ITO/MTCD/Alq 3 /Al structure was observed, so the onset of electroluminescence occurs at about 22 V in the forward and reverse bias mode of operation. The electroluminescence spectra is similar in both cases, only slightly shifted 0.14 eV to lower energies in relation to the conventional device.

  8. El inicio de la Guerra Civil y sus repercusiones en los diplomáticos españoles acreditados ante el Quirinal y el Vaticano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Casanova Gómez

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el inicio de la guerra civil española el 18 de julio de 1936 hasta el nombramiento de Francisco Largo Caballero como presidente del Consejo de Ministros trascurrieron dos meses de incertidumbre y de indecisiones por lo que se refiere a la actitud de los diplomáticos españoles.

  9. Características de la actividad cívica de los adolescentes y jóvenes españoles: e-ciudadanía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio FUENTES ESPARRELL

    2011-01-01

    telefonía móvil como principales tecnologías de uso en los momentos actuales. De esa manera, nos podremos hacer una idea de las principales características de la actividad cívica de los adolescentes y jóvenes españoles para una adecuada e¿ciudadanía.

  10. Actitudes y conductas sexuales de riesgo para la infección por VIH/SIDA en jóvenes españoles

    OpenAIRE

    Ballester Arnal, Rafael; Gil, María Dolores; Giménez, Cristina; Ruiz, Estefanía

    2009-01-01

    En este estudio se analizan las actitudes y conductas sexuales de riesgo de los jóvenes españoles respecto a la infección por VIH. Se administró el Cuestionario de Prevención del SIDA a 196 jóvenes. Los resultados muestran lagunas importantes en l

  11. Intense deep blue exciplex electroluminescence from NPB/TPBi:PPh3O-based OLEDs and their intrinsic degradation mechanisms (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinar, Joseph; Hippola, Chamika; Danilovic, Dusan; Bhattacharjee, Ujjal; Petrich, Jacob W.; Shinar, Ruth

    2016-09-01

    We describe intense and efficient deep blue (430 - 440 nm) exciplex emission from NPB/TPBi:PPh3O OLEDs where the luminous efficiency approaches 4 Cd/A and the maximal brightness exceeds 22,000 Cd/m2. Time resolved PL measurements confirm the exciplex emission from NPB:TPBi, as studied earlier by Monkman and coworkers [Adv. Mater. 25, 1455 (2013)]. However, the inclusion of PPh3O improves the OLED performance significantly. The effect of PPh3O on the EL and PL will be discussed. The NPB/TPBi:PPh3O-based OLEDs were also studied by optically and electrically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR and EDMR, respectively). In particular, the amplitude of the negative (EL- and current-quenching) spin 1/2 resonance, previously attributed to enhanced formation of strongly EL-quenching positive bipolarons, increases as the OLEDs degrade in a dry nitrogen atmosphere. This degradation mechanism is discussed in relation to degradation induced by hot polarons that are energized by exciton annihilation.

  12. Pure white OLED based on an organic small molecule: 2,6-Di(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)pyridine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian

    2015-10-01

    2,6-Di(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)pyridine (DBIP) was synthesized. The single-crystal structure of DBIP was resolved. DBIP-based OLED was fabricated. The electroluminescence for the device corresponds to a pure white emission. In addition, thermal stability, UV-vis, photoluminescence and electrochemical behaviors of DBIP were investigated as well.

  13. The portrait miniature of Cardinal Zbigniew Oleśnicki on a letter of indulgence issued in 1449 for the Church of All Saints in Cracow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Walczak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A particularly interesting example of illuminated document is the indulgence granted to all who would visit the parish church of All Saints in Cracow on the major feasts of the liturgical year, issued by the Cracow Bishop, Cardinal Zbigniew Oleśnicki (1423–1450 in 1449. A piece of parchment is decorated with the miniature composed of two juxtaposed fields, of which the upper one shows Christ with St Peter on His right, surrounded by the community of saints; the bottom field depicts the Pope seated between St Jerome and Cardinal Oleśnicki. This hierarch had been raised to the purple no fewer than three times. For the first time, Pope Eugene IV granted him this dignity with the accompanying title of St Prisca, but Oleśnicki did not accept it. Then Antipope Felix V, elected by the Council of Basle, elevated Oleśnicki to the cardinalate (with the title of St Anastasia, but the Cracow prelate likely did not accept the cardinal’s hat again and did not use the title, abiding by the orders of King Ladislaus the Jagiellon who was reluctant towards the Council. It was only in 1447 that Oleśnicki had relinquished the camp of the Council’s supporters, regarded by Rome as schismatics, and endorsed the rightful pope, Nicholas V. Oleśnicki received the cardinal’s hat sent from Rome in Cracow Cathedral, on 1 October 1449. The portrait composition on the Cracow miniature is complex and combining a few iconographic solutions popular in the late Middle Ages. Of particular significance seem to be the representation of the pope enthroned, the Traditio legis and Traditio clavium, as well as the juxtaposition of ecclesiastical hierarchy with the heavenly one. The Cracow miniature fitted perfectly in the then current problems of Church discussed anew in the mid-fifteenth century. Commissioned shortly after Oleśnicki had pledged obedience to Nicholas V and had received his cardinal’s hat, it is a public declaration by the former conciliarist of his new

  14. Retos para alcanzar la excelencia en comunicación corporativa en los clubs deportivos profesionales españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo SANAHUJA PERIS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación trata de presentar los principales retos que deben afrontar los clubes deportivos profesionales españoles para alcanzar la excelencia –entendida como el reconocimiento positivo por parte de los distintos públicos y grupos de interés. La metodología empleada es una combinación de técnicas cuantitativas y cualitativas ante un universo de estudio formado por las 56 entidades deportivas que forman la Liga de Fútbol Profesional (LFP y la Asociación de Clubes de Baloncesto (ACB. Como resultado se señalan cinco palancas de cambio orientadas hacia ese horizonte de actuación excelente.

  15. Utilização do protocolo de comunicação OLE for Process Control em processos industriais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Carlos Franco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work it is proposed the use of a mathematical software and OPC (OLE for Process Control protocol for development of control systems in industrial processes. The mathematical software was converted into a supervisory system capable of monitoring the process, and also implementing intelligent control algorithms. A study was then conducted on the reliability of OPC communication between the mathematical software, the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC and the experimental system under study (industrial cooling system. This study showed that the OPC communication is suitable for this application because the mathematical software used in communication between the PLC and the cooling system showed good reliability on the communication signal quality, besides achieving real-time communication. As conclusion, this communication strategy showed to be a powerful tool for monitoring, developing and implementing advanced controllers.

  16. Aarhus Conference on Probability, Statistics and Their Applications : Celebrating the Scientific Achievements of Ole E. Barndorff-Nielsen

    CERN Document Server

    Stelzer, Robert; Thorbjørnsen, Steen; Veraart, Almut

    2016-01-01

    Collecting together twenty-three self-contained articles, this volume presents the current research of a number of renowned scientists in both probability theory and statistics as well as their various applications in economics, finance, the physics of wind-blown sand, queueing systems, risk assessment, turbulence and other areas. The contributions are dedicated to and inspired by the research of Ole E. Barndorff-Nielsen who, since the early 1960s, has been and continues to be a very active and influential researcher working on a wide range of important problems. The topics covered include, but are not limited to, econometrics, exponential families, Lévy processes and infinitely divisible distributions, limit theory, mathematical finance, random matrices, risk assessment, statistical inference for stochastic processes, stochastic analysis and optimal control, time series, and turbulence. The book will be of interest to researchers and graduate students in probability, statistics and their applications. .

  17. Sobre consumo privado e incertidumbre. Un análisis con datos regionales españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Aníbal Núñez Carrasco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo indaga sobre el efecto de la incertidumbre en las decisiones de consumo de las familias. A partir de datos regionales españoles y teniendo como referencia teórica los modelos de ahorro preventivo, pretendemos contrastar si la incertidumbre macroeconómica afecta a las decisiones de consumo de los hogares. Para analizar esa relación utilizamos la volatilidad condicional predicha a partir de modelos ARMA-GARCH estimados sobre datos regionales. Los resultados indican que esta medida de incertidumbre ejerce un efecto destacado sobre el consumo familiar, sobre todo cuando aquélla es introducida en forma de retardo distribuido. Como paso adicional, se intentan encontrar patrones regionales de comportamiento que ayuden a explicar ese resultado.

  18. Investigation of yellow emission from a co-polymer utilizable as an emitting material for white OLED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, I.; Tsuzuki, S.; Uzawa, H.; Hinatsu, M.; Nishide, Y.; Osuga, H.; Sakamoto, H.

    A novel co-polymer, P-PBTx, is a promising emitting material for white OLED. Appearance of unexpected yellow emission in EL is a key point, but its origin has not been clarified yet. Photo-luminescence properties of the copolymer were investigated in comparison with those of its monomer as well as two component molecules. An PL yellow band was also observed even in a film of a chromophore molecule at low temperature, depending on the position of an inhomogeneous film. Then, modified molecule center such as a dimer or an excimer of neighboring chromophores is a possible origin of the PL yellow emission. PACS: 33.50.Dq; 33.70.-w; 78.60.Fi;

  19. Actitud emprendedora de los jóvenes españoles en un contexto de crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Ortiz García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El emprendimiento ha despertado un gran interés en los últimos años. Éste responde a la necesidad de dinamizar el empleo, especialmente en economías como la española, con altos niveles de desempleo en un período de crisis que va desde 2007 hasta la actualidad. Por esta razón, resulta de especial relevancia analizar la actitud de los jóvenes españoles ante el emprendimiento empresarial, objetivo de este artículo. El estudio utiliza una metodología cuantitativa para analizar los microdatos de la encuesta de ámbito nacional del Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas: “Actitudes de la juventud española ante el emprendimiento”, realizada mediante entrevista personal en domicilio a una muestra de 1.437 jóvenes, del universo poblacional compuesto por personas de ambos sexos entre 15 y 29 años en España. La Teoría del Capital Social – colectivo e individual- sirve como marco para un análisis cuyos resultados evidencian que los jóvenes españoles poseen unos “capitales” débiles, lo que marca una actitud reacia al emprendimiento. La conclusión es que la socialización de los jóvenes en un mercado de trabajo marcado por la inestabilidad en el empleo, debilita los capitales sociales que inducen al emprendimiento y la asunción de riesgos y, por el contrario, promueve una actitud conservadora en el trabajo.

  20. Immunoproteomic tools are used to identify masked allergens: Ole e 12, an allergenic isoflavone reductase from olive (Olea europaea) pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Lourdes; Crespo, Jesús F; Rodríguez, Julia; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Villalba, Mayte

    2015-12-01

    Proteins performing important biochemical activities in the olive tree (Olea europaea) pollen have been identified as allergens. One novel 37-kDa protein seems to be associated to the IgE-binding profile of a group of patients suffering allergy to peach and olive pollen. Three previously described olive pollen allergens exhibit very similar molecular mass. Our objective was to identify this allergen by using immunoproteomic approaches. After 2D-electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, peptide sequences from several IgE-binding spots, allowed identifying this new allergen, as well as cloning and DNA sequencing of the corresponding gene. The allergen, named Ole e 12, is a polymorphic isoflavone reductase-like protein of 308 amino acids showing 80% and 74% identity with birch and pear allergens, Bet v 6 and Pyr c 5, respectively. A prevalence of 33% in the selected population is in contrast to 4%-10% in groups of subjects suffering from pollinosis. Recombinant allergen was produced in Escherichia coli, and deeply characterised. Immunoblotting and ELISA detection as well as inhibition experiments were performed with polyclonal antisera and allergic patients' sera. The recombinant allergen retains the IgE reactivity of its natural counterpart. Close structural and immunological relationships between members of this protein family were supported by their IgG recognition in vegetable species. In summary, Ole e 12 is a minor olive pollen allergen, which gains relevance in patients allergic to peach with olive pollinosis. Proteomic approaches used to analyse this allergen provide useful tools to identify hidden allergens, relevant for several allergic populations and thus complete allergenic panels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of the Olea pollen and its major allergen Ole e 1 concentrations in the bioearosol of two biogeographical areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Grau, S.; Aira, M. J.; Elvira-Rendueles, B.; Fernández-González, M.; Fernández-González, D.; García-Sánchez, A.; Martínez-García, M. J.; Moreno, J. M.; Negral, L.; Vara, A.; Rodríguez-Rajo, F. J.

    2016-11-01

    The Olea pollen is currently an important allergy source. In some regions of Southern Spain, olive pollen is the main cause of allergic sensitization exceeding 40% of the sensitized individuals. Due to the scarce presence of olive trees in Northern Spain, limited to some cultivated fields in the South of the Galicia region where they also grow wild, only 8% of the sensitized individuals showed positive results for Olea pollen. The aim of the paper was to assess the behaviour pattern of the Olea pollen and its aeroallergens in the atmosphere, as this information could help us to improve the understanding and prevention of clinical symptoms. Airborne Olea pollen and Ole e 1 allergens were quantified in Cartagena (South-eastern Spain) and Ourense (North-western Spain). A volumetric pollen trap and a Burkard Cyclone sampler were used for pollen and allergen quantification. The Olea flowering took place in April or May in both biometeorological sampling areas. The higher concentrations were registered in the Southern area of Spain, for both pollen and Ole e 1, with values 8 times higher for pollen concentrations and 40 times higher for allergens. An alternate bearing pattern could be observed, characterized by years with high pollen values and low allergen concentrations and vice versa. Moreover, during some flowering seasons the allergen concentrations did not correspond to the atmospheric pollen values. Variations in weather conditions or Long Distance Transport (LDT) processes could explain the discordance. The back trajectory analysis shows that the most important contributions of pollen and allergens in the atmosphere are coincident with air masses passing through potential source areas. The exposure to olive pollen may not be synonym of antigen exposure.

  2. LA INFLUENCIA DE LAS FORMAS INARTICULADAS, INTERJECCIONES Y ONOMATOPEYAS INGLESAS EN LOS TEBEOS ESPAÑOLES LA INFLUENCIA DE LAS FORMAS INARTICULADAS, INTERJECCIONES Y ONOMATOPEYAS INGLESAS EN LOS TEBEOS ESPAÑOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel de la Cruz Cabanillas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Los intentos de clasificación de interjecciones, onomatopeyas y formas inarticuladas no han resultado satisfactorios, pues no existe una taxonomía aceptada de forma generalizada. Basándonos en estudios anteriores, el presente trabajo pretende revisar estos fenómenos en tebeos tan netamente españoles como Mortadelo y Filemón, Zipi y Zape, Super López, Bruguelandia y TBO. Para ello se compila un corpus de unidades léxicas que reflejan tanto sonidos inarticulados, como interjecciones y onomatopeyas con el objetivo de estudiar si dichas unidades utilizadas en los tebeos corresponden a la representación de ese sonido articulado, esa interjección o esa onomatopeya en su forma inglesa o en su forma española. Así, se podrán obtener conclusiones sobre la posible influencia de la lengua inglesa en los tebeos españoles a través de la clasificación de las unidades recopiladas en el corpus, aún no tratándose de traducciones sino de producciones nacionales, y posiblemente se podrá determinar hasta qué punto dichas formas podrían entenderse por parte de un hablante hispano sin la ayuda gráfica que supone la viñeta.The attempts at classifying interjections, onomatopoeias and inarticulated forms have not turned out satisfactory, as there is no taxonomy that is widely accepted. Taking as basis previous studies, the present piece of work intends to revise these phenomena in so genuine Spanish comics as Mortadelo y Filemón, Zipi y Zape, Super López, Bruguelandia and TBO. To do so, a corpus of lexical units including inarticulated sounds, interjections and onomatopoeias is compiled in order to examine whether the units used in the comics correspond to the representation of that articulated sound, that interjection or that onomatopoeia in their English form or in their Spanish form. This will allow us to draw conclusions on the possible influence of the English language in the Spanish comics through the classification of the units compiled in

  3. OleA Glu117 is key to condensation of two fatty-acyl coenzyme A substrates in long-chain olefin biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Matthew R.; Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Christenson, James K.; Esler, Morgan A.; Mohamed, Fatuma A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M. (UMM)

    2017-10-12

    In the interest of decreasing dependence on fossil fuels, microbial hydrocarbon biosynthesis pathways are being studied for renewable, tailored production of specialty chemicals and biofuels. One candidate is long-chain olefin biosynthesis, a widespread bacterial pathway that produces waxy hydrocarbons. Found in three- and four-gene clusters, oleABCD encodes the enzymes necessary to produce cis-olefins that differ by alkyl chain length, degree of unsaturation, and alkyl chain branching. The first enzyme in the pathway, OleA, catalyzes the Claisen condensation of two fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) molecules to form a β-keto acid. In this report, the mechanistic role of Xanthomonas campestris OleA Glu117 is investigated through mutant enzymes. Crystal structures were determined for each mutant as well as their complex with the inhibitor cerulenin. Complemented by substrate modeling, these structures suggest that Glu117 aids in substrate positioning for productive carbon–carbon bond formation. Analysis of acyl-CoA substrate hydrolysis shows diminished activity in all mutants. When the active site lacks an acidic residue in the 117 position, OleA cannot form condensed product, demonstrating that Glu117 has a critical role upstream of the essential condensation reaction. Profiling of pH dependence shows that the apparent pKa for Glu117 is affected by mutagenesis. Taken together, we propose that Glu117 is the general base needed to prime condensation via deprotonation of the second, non-covalently bound substrate during turnover. This is the first example of a member of the thiolase superfamily of condensing enzymes to contain an active site base originating from the second monomer of the dimer.

  4. Estrategias de aprendizaje en Educación Secundaria: un estudio comparativo sobre su uso entre alumnos españoles e inmigrantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lanza Escobedo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo se centra en conocer el uso que hacen los alumnos de las estrategias de aprendizaje, viendo si existen diferencias en función de su origen nacional. Para ello, se aplicó el Cuestionario de Estrategias de Aprendizaje (CEA a un total de 70 estudiantes –37 españoles y 33 inmigrantes– de 1º y 4º ESO, procedentes de cuatro centros, de diferente titularidad, ubicados en la provincia de Lugo (Galicia. Para el análisis estadístico se empleó el programa SPSS 15.0. Nuestros resultados indican que los alumnos, españoles e inmigrantes, muestran un nivel adecuado en el uso que hacen de las estrategias de aprendizaje sin que se hayan registrado diferencias significativas entre ambos grupos. Sin embargo, sí se encontraron diferencias significativas en función del género. Concretamente en la subescala de control emocional, en la que los chicos españoles obtuvieron una puntuación más alta que los inmigrantes. Además, si tenemos en cuenta el curso, vemos cómo los alumnos de 1º ESO españoles alcanzan puntuaciones más elevadas en la escala de sensibilización y en la subescala de control emocional frente a los chicos inmigrantes de su mismo curso. Por otro lado, aunque los estudiantes inmigrantes de 4º ESO –varones– obtienen puntuaciones más bajas en las subescalas de organización y transferencia frente a sus compañeros de 1º ESO, manifiestan un mayor control emocional

  5. Efectos de la reforma contable en el patrimonio neto consolidado a 1 de enero de 2008 de los grupos españoles que no aplican normativa NIIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Legaz Ortiz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza el efecto de los cambios en las políticas y criterios contables sobre el patrimonio neto consolidado a 1 de enero de 2008 de los grupos españoles, no cotizados, que no aplicaron las NIIF como consecuencia de la adaptación de la normativa contable, instrumentada a través del nuevo PGC y la nota explicativa del ICAC sobre las normas de formulación de cuentas anuales consolidadas. Asimismo, se evalúan los efectos de la transición a la nueva normativa teniendo en cuenta el tamaño de los grupos. Con este objetivo, se examinaron las cuentas anuales consolidadas de los 100 mayores grupos españoles formuladas de acuerdo con la normativa española, buscando diferencias significativas entre los patrimonios netos bajo ambas normativas. Los resultados obtenidos ofrecen evidencia sobre la ausencia de impacto significativo en el patrimonio neto consolidado de estos grupos españoles en la transición a las nuevas normas contables del ejercicio 2007 al 2008 y, con ello, de que la información resulta útil para los usuarios en cuanto a su comparabilidad. Por consiguiente, el hecho de que el Gobierno permitiera para los grupos (y empresas españoles que no aplican NIIF no presentar información comparativa, puede considerarse finalmente una decisión acertada, pues ha facilitado la transición a las nuevas normas sin coste de comparabilidad y sin problemas de presentación y conversión de las cifras anteriores.

  6. FIABILIDAD Y VALIDEZ DEL CUESTIONARIO DE ACTIVIDAD FÍSICA PAQ-A EN ADOLESCENTES ESPAÑOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Martínez-Gómez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: Los cuestionarios son una herramienta útil para valorar la actividad física (AF en grandes poblaciones. El objetivo de esta investigación fue valorar la fiabilidad y validez del cuestionario de AF PAQ-A en adolescentes españoles utilizando como criterio de referencia la medición de la AF por acelerómetro. Métodos: En una muestra de 82 adolescentes entre 12 y 17 años se evaluó la fiabilidad test-retest de la versión española del cuestionario PAQ-A en una semana. La fiabilidad se calculó mediante el Coeficiente de Correlación Intraclase (CCI, y la consistencia interna mediante el coeficiente ¿¿de Cronbach. En otra muestra de 232 adolescentes de 13 a 17 años se administró el PAQ-A, a la vez que se midió su AF durante 7 días mediante el acelerómetro ActiGraph GT1M. La asociación entre los resultados del PAQ-A y de la AF total y AF de moderada a vigorosa (AFMV obtenidos por el acelerómetro se analizó mediante la correlación de Spearman (rho. Resultados: La fiabilidad test-retest del PAQ-A mostró un CCI = 0,71 para la puntuación final del cuestionario. La consistencia interna mostró un coeficiente a= 0,65 para el primer cuestionario, a= 0,67 para el retest en la muestra de 82 adolescentes, y un coeficiente a= 0,74 en la muestra de 232 adolescentes. El PAQ-A mostró correlaciones moderadas con la AF total (rho = 0,39 y la AFMV (rho = 0,34 medidas mediante el acelerómetro. El PAQ-A obtuvo correlaciones moderadas y significativas para los chicos y no para las chicas al comparse con las medidas del acelerómetro. Conclusiones: El cuestionario de AF PAQ-A presenta una adecuada fiabilidad y una razonable validez para valorar la AF en adolescentes españoles.

  7. Quality changes of Moringa oleífera, variety Mbololo of Kenya, seed oil during frying.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsaknis, John

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The frying performance of Moringa oleífera variety Mbololo of Kenya seed oil (produced by cold pressure, extraction with n-hexane and a mixture of chloroform-methanol was studied especially as regards repeated frying operations. The oils were used for intermittent frying of potato slices and cod filets at a temperature of 175 ± 5°C for 5 consecutive days. Under such conditions thermal and oxidative decomposition of the oils takes place. The chemical changes occurring in the oils were evaluated. Free fatty acid content, peroxide value, specific extinction at 232 nm, polar compounds, colour and viscosity of the oils all increased, whereas the iodine values, smoke points, polyunsaturated fatty acid content, induction period and tocopherol concentration decreased. The effect of the oils on the organoleptic quality of these fried foods was also determined. The analytical and sensory data showed that the lowest deterioration occurred in cold pressure produced oil and the highest in n-hexane extracted oil.

    Se ha estudiado el comportamiento frente a la fritura, especialmente en el caso de frituras repetidas de aceite de semilla Moringa oleífera variedad Mbololo de Kenya (producido por presión en frío, extracción con n-hexano y una mezcla de cloroformo-metanol. Los aceites se usaron para la fritura intermitente de rodajas de patatas y filetes de bacalao a temperatura de 175 ± 5°C durante 5 días consecutivos. Bajo estas condiciones tuvo lugar la descomposición térmica y oxidativa de los aceites. Se evaluaron los cambios químicos ocurridos en los aceites. El contenido en ácidos grasos libres, índice de peróxido, extinción específica a 232 nm, compuestos polares, color y viscosidad de los aceites aumentaron, en tanto que el índice de iodo, punto de humo, contenido en ácidos grasos poliinsaturados, período de inducción y concentración en tocoferol disminuyeron. También se determinó el efecto de los aceites sobre

  8. Interetnicidad y espacios de convivencia. Indígenas, españoles y africanos en la Mérida novohispana, 1542-1620

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Victoria Ojeda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo los autores, apoyados principalmente en material de archivo proveniente del Sagrario de la ciudad de Mérida, y en otras fuentes históricas y bibliográficas, proponen desdibujar antiguas ideas acerca de la ocupación del centro de Mérida en el siglo xvi y primeros años del siguiente, basado únicamente por españoles y sus descendientes. Asimismo, plantean que la ocupación del pueblo maya de Santa Lucía como barrio para los africanos y sus castas, no corresponde a su lectura en los textos históricos del Sagrario. Por último, bosquejan una relación de convivencia entre las etnias existentes en el centro de la ciudad –españoles, mayas y africanos–, mucho más dinámica que lo que se ha sugerido hasta ahora, puesto que en el lapso estudiado se propone que parte de esos grupos vivían en el mismo solar que muchos de los vecinos españoles.

  9. Consanguinidad en españoles y castas de ciudad y campaña de Córdoba a fines del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Küffer, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de datos del censo de 1795 para la provincia de Córdoba, se realizaron estimaciones de consanguinidad mediante isonimia para la Ciudad y la Campaña, tanto en “españoles” como en “castas”. Fueron calculados, en cada caso, el componente aleatorio (Fr, el no aleatorio (Fn, y total (Ft. Se encontraron, en ambos grupos etno-sociales, valores mayores de los citados indicadores en la Campaña que en la Ciudad de Córdoba. En Ciudad, el comportamiento de los dos grupos resultó idéntico, mientras que en Campaña estuvo más diferenciado, con mayor consanguinidad entre los españoles. Se concluyó que la Ciudad, pese al comportamiento más selectivo tradicionalmente atribuido a los españoles, presentaba características similares para ambos grupos: una población abierta y sin preferencias por elección de cónyuge isónimo. En Campaña, las estimaciones fueron de mayor magnitud para los españoles, especialmente el Fn, aunque el escaso valor de éste no sugiere una tendencia muy marcada al casamiento entre parientes. En suma, se encontró mayor diferencia dentro de cada grupo etno-social entre las dos regiones consideradas que entre ellos para la misma región.

  10. Investigations of solution-processed charge generation unit with low concentration of small molecule doped in p-type/HAT-CN{sub 6} for tandem OLED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talik, N.A., E-mail: azrina_talik@hotmail.com [Low Dimensional Material Research Centre (LDMRC), Physics Dept., Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yeoh, K.H. [Low Dimensional Material Research Centre (LDMRC), Physics Dept., Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Centre for Photonics and Advanced Materials Research (CPR), Lee Kong Chian Faculty of Engineering and Science, University Tunku Abdul Rahman, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ng, C.Y.B. [Low Dimensional Material Research Centre (LDMRC), Physics Dept., Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Tan, C.Y. [Centre of Advanced Manufacturing & Material Processing (AMMP), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yap, B.K., E-mail: kbyap@uniten.edu.my [Centre of Microelectronic and Nano Engineering (CeMNE), College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-15

    We investigated the charge generation and injection mechanism in solution processed charge generation unit (CGU) used in our high performance tandem organic light emitting diode (OLED) via capacitance–voltage (C–V) and current density–voltage (J–V) measurements. By doping 2 wt% of small molecule 1,1-bis-(4-bis(4-tolyl)-aminophenyl) cyclohexene (TAPC) into Poly (N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) as p-type layer of the CGU, we obtained more than two folds improvement in the tandem device efficiency compared to single device. The performance improvement of the TAPC doped CGU could be attributed to low built-in potential, large vacuum level shift as well as high charge density for efficient charge generation. - Highlights: • Charge-generation and injection mechanism in CGU for tandem OLED is investigated. • Small molecule, TAPC doped in p-type/HAT-CN{sub 6} has been used for tandem OLED. • The improvement attributes to the lower V{sub bi} and larger ΔV{sub L} in doped layer. • Narrower W and high carrier density also contribute to efficiency improvement.

  11. I. Hole-transporting dendrimers and their use in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) and II. Novel layered catalysts containing bipyridinium and zero-valent metal species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koene, Shannon Carol

    A series of polyaromatic ether/ester dendrimers containing a hole transporting naphthylphenylbenzyl amine at the periphery and a variety of fluorescent dyes at the core has been studied in an effort to observe energy transfer in these species. The dyes incorporated in these dendrimers include 1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone (quinizarin), Coumarin 343, and a benzopentathiophene. These dendrimers have been incorporated into both single layer and heterostructure organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). In the case of first generation dendrimer OLEDs, excimer/exciplex formation was predominant. In third generation dendrimers, complete energy transfer from the periphery to the dye at the core was observed both in photoluminescence spectra and electroluminescence in OLEDs. Dendrimers containing different dye cores can be combined to achieve color mixing/tuning. In addition, layered catalysts were prepared via both covalent and electrostatic means to achieve the catalytic production of hydrogen peroxide from hydrogen and oxygen. Covalent catalysts were prepared by first growing layers of zirconium and a bipyridinium containing bisphosphonate onto silica particles. Palladium and/or platinum was ion-exchanged into the structure and reduced to the zero valent metal by hydrogen gas. A second set of catalysts was prepared by electrostatically depositing polycations/polyanions onto carboxylate or amine functionalized polystyrene microspheres. Anionic colloidal particles were adsorbed to the polycationic surface. An octacationic viologen oligomer was used in an attempt to increase the affinity of adsorption of the Pd particles to the surface of the microspheres. Catalytic studies of both types of catalysts are herein reported.

  12. Investigations of solution-processed charge generation unit with low concentration of small molecule doped in p-type/HAT-CN6 for tandem OLED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talik, N.A.; Yeoh, K.H.; Ng, C.Y.B.; Tan, C.Y.; Yap, B.K.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the charge generation and injection mechanism in solution processed charge generation unit (CGU) used in our high performance tandem organic light emitting diode (OLED) via capacitance–voltage (C–V) and current density–voltage (J–V) measurements. By doping 2 wt% of small molecule 1,1-bis-(4-bis(4-tolyl)-aminophenyl) cyclohexene (TAPC) into Poly (N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) as p-type layer of the CGU, we obtained more than two folds improvement in the tandem device efficiency compared to single device. The performance improvement of the TAPC doped CGU could be attributed to low built-in potential, large vacuum level shift as well as high charge density for efficient charge generation. - Highlights: • Charge-generation and injection mechanism in CGU for tandem OLED is investigated. • Small molecule, TAPC doped in p-type/HAT-CN 6 has been used for tandem OLED. • The improvement attributes to the lower V bi and larger ΔV L in doped layer. • Narrower W and high carrier density also contribute to efficiency improvement.

  13. La política de expulsión de españoles indeseables en México. (1915-1934

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yankelevich, Pablo

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the laws and policies that, following the revolution, led to the deportation from Mexico of Spanish nationals. The first section explains the constitutional provisions that granted authority to the president to deport any foreigners whose presence was considered «inconvenient». The article also provides a quantitative sample of the Spaniards who were deported. Finally, an analysis of the deportation practices is presented through a study of the accusations made against them and the procedures that Mexican authorities implemented as a result.

    En este artículo se estudian las normas legales y las prácticas políticas que condujeron a la expulsión de españoles de territorio mexicano en los años de la posrevolución. En primer lugar, se explican los mecanismos constitucionales que autorizan al Presidente a deportar a cualquier extranjero cuya presencia sea juzgada como inconveniente; en segunda instancia, se muestra el universo de los españoles expulsados desde una dimensión cuantitativa; y por último, se presentan las prácticas de expulsión a través del estudio de las denuncias contra españoles y de las conductas de las autoridades derivadas de esas denuncias.

  14. De Novo Design of Boron-Based Host Materials for Highly Efficient Blue and White Phosphorescent OLEDs with Low Efficiency Roll-Off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Miao-Miao; Huang, Chen-Chao; Yuan, Yi; Cui, Lin-Song; Li, Yong-Xi; Wang, Bo; Jiang, Zuo-Quan; Fung, Man-Keung; Liao, Liang-Sheng

    2016-08-10

    Borane is an excellent electron-accepting species, and its derivatives have been widely used in a variety of fields. However, the use of borane derivatives as host materials in OLEDs has rarely reported because the device performance is generally not satisfactory. In this work, two novel spiro-bipolar hosts with incorporated borane were designed and synthesized. The strategies used in preparing these materials were to increase the spatial separation of the highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMOs) in the molecules, tune the connecting positions of functional groups, and incorporate specific functional groups with desirable thermal stability. Based on these designs, phosphorescent OLEDs with borane derivatives as hosts and with outstanding device performances were obtained. In particular, devices based on SAF-3-DMB/FIrpic exhibited an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of >25%. More encouragingly, the device was found to have quite a low efficiency roll-off, giving an efficiency of >20% even at a high brightness of 10000 cd/m(2). Furthermore, the EQE of the three-color-based (R + G + B) white OLED employing SAF-3-DMB as a host was also as high as 22.9% with CIE coordinates of (x, y) = (0.40, 0.48). At a brightness of 5000 cd/m(2), there was only a 3% decrease in EQE from its maximum value, implying a very low efficiency roll-off.

  15. Los maestros españoles de los «niños de Morelia» nuevas aportaciones

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    Ignacio Cruz, José

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available On the performance of the Spanish teachers that accompanied the so called «Children of Morelia» expedition, the specialists that have dealt with the topic so far have made a severe negative judgment. In this work we bring to light, for the first time and through unpublished documentation, the repeated initiatives that these teachers took to try to complete their guardian mission, which could not be carried out completely due to the position of the Mexican authorities.

    Sobre la actuación de los maestros españoles que acompañaron a la expedición de los «niños de Morelia», se ha formado un severo juicio negativo por parte de los especialistas que han tratado el tema. En este trabajo se dan a conocer, por primera vez y a partir de documentación inédita, las repetidas iniciativas que plantearon dichos maestros para intentar cumplir su misión tutelar, las cuales chocaron con los planteamientos de las autoridades mexicanas.

  16. Problemas sociales del trabajo deportivo: El caso de los atletas españoles de élite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUEL GARCÍA FERRANDO

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan las actitudes, el trasfondo social y las necesidades de los atletas españoles. Aunque existe una preponderancia de la clase media baja, el atletismo aglutina a todos los estratos sociales. Los 25 atletas más punteros, la élite, son predominantemente estudiantes universitarios y empleados. La mayoría de los entrevistados (78.9% respondieron que el atletismo interfiere en el trabajo o en el estudio. Se consideran dos tipos de atleta: (1 aquéllos que conciben su deporte como una actividad recreativa, y (2 aquellos que reciben un apoyo económico para facilitar su concentración en el perfeccionamiento de las tareas asociadas al atletismo. Para los componentes del segundo grupo, el entrenamiento y la preparación son prioritarios, en contraposición a la consideración que tales tareas merecen en el primer grupo. La mayoría de los entrevistados estiman estar trabajando en un ambiente favorable al ejercicio del atletismo. Cuando se les solicitó que compararan el modelo anglosajón de los deportes "amteur" al "modelo socialista", en el cual el gobierno facilita la dedicación exclusiva del atleta al perfeccionamiento de su rendimiento en el deporte, el 52% manifestó preferir el segundo, mientras que el 32.8% de los entrevistados se inclinó por el primero.

  17. Independencia familiar y situación laboral de los jóvenes españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Consuelo Colom Andrés

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En las últimas décadas se viene observando que en España los jóvenes retrasan cada vez más la edad de emancipación, por lo que cabría preguntarse si este fenómeno se debe exclusivamente a factores culturales o está relacionado con la situación del mercado laboral. Estudios anteriores en otros países y en España han puesto en evidencia que la formación de hogar y la actividad laboral son dos decisiones que los jóvenes toman conjuntamente. El objetivo de este trabajo es averiguar si estas dos decisiones siguen estando interrelacionadas para los jóvenes españoles El análisis se ha realizado para el conjunto de todos los jóvenes y, por separado, para jóvenes residentes en ámbitos urbano y no urbano.

  18. Spectroscopic mapping and selective electronic tuning of molecular orbitals in phosphorescent organometallic complexes – a new strategy for OLED materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal R. Ewen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of molecular electronic devices such as organic light-emitting diodes requires fundamental knowledge about the structural and electronic properties of the employed molecules as well as their interactions with neighboring molecules or interfaces. We show that highly resolved scanning tunneling microscopy (STM and spectroscopy (STS are powerful tools to correlate the electronic properties of phosphorescent complexes (i.e., triplet emitters with their molecular structure as well as the local environment around a single molecule. We used spectroscopic mapping to visualize several occupied and unoccupied molecular frontier orbitals of Pt(II complexes adsorbed on Au(111. The analysis showed that the molecules exhibit a peculiar localized strong hybridization that leads to partial depopulation of a dz² orbital, while the ligand orbitals are almost unchanged. We further found that substitution of functional groups at well-defined positions can alter specific molecular orbitals without influencing the others. The results open a path toward the tailored design of electronic and optical properties of triplet emitters by smart ligand substitution, which may improve the performance of future OLED devices.

  19. Photoluminescence of Alq3 - and Tb-activated aluminium-tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) complex for blue chip-excited OLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawalkar, P W; Dhoble, S J; Thejo Kalyani, N; Atram, R G; Kokode, N S

    2013-01-01

    The tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminium complex is the most important and widely studied as electron transporting and green light emitting material. Alq(3) and Tb(x) Al((1-x)) q(3) have been synthesized (where x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9) and blended films of Alq(3) and Tb(x) Al((1-x)) q(3) with PMMA and PS at different percentage weight (wt%) concentrations (e.g., 0.1, 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 wt%) have been prepared. The synthesized materials and their blended thin films have been characterized by a photoluminescence (PL) technique; the synthesis and PL characterization are reported in this paper. The synthesized metal complex shows bright emission of green light with blue light excitation (440 nm) and the prepared Tb(x) Al((1-x)) q(3) phosphor may be applicable in blue chip-excited OLEDs for the newly developed wallpaper lighting technology. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Investigation of electrical and optical properties of MEH-PPV: ZnO nanocomposite films for OLED applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azhar, N. E. A., E-mail: najwaezira@yahoo.com; Shafura, A. K., E-mail: shafura@ymail.com; Affendi, I. H. H., E-mail: irmahidayanti.halim@gmail.com; Shariffudin, S. S., E-mail: sobihana@gmail.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Saurdi, I., E-mail: saurdy788@gmail.com [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, UiTM Sarawak, Kampus Kota Meranek, Sarawak (Malaysia); Alrokayan, Salman A. H., E-mail: dr.salman@alrokayan.com; Khan, Haseeb A., E-mail: khan-haseeb@yahoo.com [Research Chair of Targeting and Treatment of Cancer Using Nanoparticles Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University (KSU), 245 Riyadh 11454 (Saudi Arabia); Rusop, M., E-mail: rusop@salam.uitm.edu.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre, Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    Recent investigations of the promising materials for optoelectronic have been demonstrated by introducing n-type inorganic material into conjugated polymer. The optical and electrical of nanocomposite films based on poly[2-methoxy-5-(2’-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured of various deposition layers (1 to 3 layers) have been investigated. The MEH-PPV: ZnO nanocomposite films were deposited using spin-coating technique. The surface morphology nanocomposite films were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope. From surface profiler measurement, we found that the thickness of nanocomposite films increased as deposition time increased. The optical properties were measured using photoluminescence spectroscope. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra showed that two deposition layers is the highest intensity at visible region (green emission) due to high energy transfer from particles to the polymer. The current density for two layers sample is due to aggregation of conjugated polymer chain hence form excited interchain exciton for optical excitation. This study will provide better performance and suitable for optoelectronic device especially OLEDs application.

  1. Simultaneous Enhancement of Efficiency and Stability of Phosphorescent OLEDs Based on Efficient Förster Energy Transfer from Interface Exciplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongdong; Cai, Minghan; Zhang, Yunge; Bin, Zhengyang; Zhang, Deqiang; Duan, Lian

    2016-02-17

    Exciplex forming cohosts have been widely adopted in phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs), achieving high efficiency with low roll-off and low driving voltage. However, the influence of the exciplex-forming hosts on the lifetimes of the devices, which is one of the essential characteristics, remains unclear. Here, we compare the influence of the bulk exciplex and interface exciplex on the performances of the devices, demonstrating highly efficient orange PHOLEDs with long lifetime at low dopant concentration by efficient Förster energy transfer from the interface exciplex. A bipolar host, (3'-(4,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-(1,1'-biphenyl)-3-yl)-9-carbazole (CzTrz), was adopted to combine with a donor molecule, tris(4-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)amine (TCTA), to form exciplex. Devices with energy transfer from the interface exciplex achieve lifetime almost 2 orders of magnitude higher than the ones based on bulk exciplex as the host by avoiding the formation of the donor excited states. Moreover, a highest EQE of 27% was obtained at the dopant concentration as low as 3 wt % for a device with interface exciplex, which is favorable for reducing the cost of fabrication. We believe that our work may shed light on future development of ideal OLEDs with high efficiency, long-lifetime, low roll-off and low cost simultaneously.

  2. Los gestos españoles en la clase de E/LE. Propuesta didáctica BIEL

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    Biel Ferriol Cañero

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available En Gestos españoles el estudiante de español aprende de forma comunicativa a interpretar y usar los principales gestos que hacemos los hispanohablantes como parte de nuestra comunicación habitual, comparándolos con los gestos que hacen en sus propios países. Los contenidos que se trabajan son básicamente de tipo cultural, aunque también se trabajan aspectos gramaticales (tiempos pasados, léxicos (lenguaje coloquial y funcionales (contar anécdotas, todo acompañado del componente lúdico al que se prestan las actividades programadas. El objetivo principal de la unidad didáctica es que el alumno aprenda el lenguaje gestual español como forma de comunicación no verbal y que esto le ayude a describir y expresar sus sentimientos en la lengua que aprende. Va dirigida a alumnos de un nivel A2-B1 (MCER.

  3. Effect of hole injection layer/hole transport layer polymer and device structure on the properties of white OLED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ho Young; Park, Eun Jung; Kim, Jin-Hoo; Park, Lee Soon

    2008-10-01

    Copolymers containing carbazole and aromatic amine unit were synthesized by using Pd-catalyzed polycondensation reaction. The polymers were characterized in terms of their molecular weight and thermal stability and their UV and PL properties in solution and film state. The band gap energy of the polymers was also determined by the UV absorption and HOMO energy level data. The polymers had high HOMO energy level of 5.19-5.25 eV and work function close to that of ITO. The polymers were thus tested as hole injection/transport layer in the white organic light emitting diodes (OLED) by using 4,4'-bis(2,2-diphenyl-ethen-1-yl)diphenyl (DPVBi) as blue emitting material and 5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphthacene (Rubrene) as orange emitting dopant. The synthesized polymer, poly bis[6-bromo-N-(2-ethylhexyl)-carbazole-3-yl] was found to be useful as hole injection layer/hole transport layer (HIL/HTL) multifunctional material with high luminance efficiency and stable white color coordinate in the wide range of applied voltage.

  4. Improvement of color purity in white OLED based on Zn(HPB){sub 2} as blue emitting layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Eun [Department of Electrical Engineering and NTRC, Dong-A University, Busan, 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won-Sam [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Functional Materials, Inje University, Gimhae, 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byoung-Sang [Department of Electrical Engineering and NTRC, Dong-A University, Busan, 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Burm-Jong [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Functional Materials, Inje University, Gimhae, 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Young-Soo [Department of Electrical Engineering and NTRC, Dong-A University, Busan, 604-714 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: yskwon@dau.ac.kr

    2008-04-01

    We synthesized zinc (II) [2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole] (Zn(HPB){sub 2}) as blue emitting materials and evaluated in the organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). The layer of Zn(HPB){sub 2} doped with 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl) -4H-pyran (DCJTB) (Zn(HPB){sub 2}:DCJTB) as emitters has been demonstrated. The structure of the device is indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/N,N'-bis-(1-naphthl)-diphenyl-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPB, 40 nm)/Zn(HPB){sub 2}/Zn(HPB){sub 2}:DCJTB/Alq{sub 3} (20 nm)/LiF/Al. The thickness of Zn(HPB){sub 2} layer was 0, 10, 20, 30 nm at the same time the thickness of Zn(HPB){sub 2}:DCJTB layer were 40, 30, 20, 10 nm. When thickness of Zn(HPB){sub 2} layer was 30 nm and the thickness of Zn(HPB){sub 2}:DCJTB layer was 10 nm, white emission is achieved. The Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of the white emission are (0.304, 0.332) at an applied voltage of 10.5 V.

  5. Highly efficient tandem OLED based on C{sub 60}/rubrene: MoO{sub 3} as charge generation layer and LiF/Al as electron injection layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices, Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300384 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Photoelectric Materials and Devices, Tianjin 300384 (China); College of Science, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Wu, Xiaoming, E-mail: wxm@tjut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices, Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300384 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Photoelectric Materials and Devices, Tianjin 300384 (China); Xiao, Zhihui; Gao, Jian; Zhang, Juan; Rui, Hongsong; Lin, Xin; Zhang, Nan; Hua, Yulin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices, Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300384 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Photoelectric Materials and Devices, Tianjin 300384 (China); Yin, Shougen, E-mail: sgyin@tjut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices, Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300384 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Photoelectric Materials and Devices, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • Highly efficient blue fluorescent tandem OLEDs are fabricated. • The optimal tandem OLED consists of C{sub 60}/rubrene: MoO{sub 3} as a CGL and LiF/Al as an EIL. • Current efficiency and power efficiency of optimal tandem OLED is markedly enhanced. • The turn-on and driving voltages of optimal tandem OLED is obviously reduced. - Abstract: Tandem organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have received much attention in solid-state lighting due to their high current efficiency, long lifetime and excellent stability. The highly efficient blue fluorescent tandem OLEDs based on the charge generation layer (CGL) of C{sub 60}/rubrene: MoO{sub 3} and the electron injection layer (EIL) of LiF/Al were fabricated. The ultra-thin Al layer in EIL was introduced to further increase electron injection from CGL to the emission unit. We found that the maximal current efficiency and power efficiency of optimal tandem device can reach to 43.1 cd/A and 15.1 lm/W, respectively, which are approximately 2.8 and 1.9 times compared with those of single-emissive-unit device. Moreover, compared with the traditional tandem device, the driving voltage of the optimal device is reduced by 6 V, and the turn-on voltage is reduced by 2.4 V. We analyzed the mechanism and characterization of these tandem devices. The effective charge separation and transport of C{sub 60}/rubrene: MoO{sub 3}, and excellent electron injection ability of ultra-thin Al layer are the main factors for the remarkable enhancement in both current efficiency and power efficiency of tandem OLEDs.

  6. El nacimiento del miedo, 1692. Indios y españoles en la Ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalbo Aizpuru, Pilar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During the year 1692 there was a shortage of cereals and the became too expensive. On Sunday; June the eighth; the corn was finished and the functionaries responsible of the distribution beat the Indian women that protested. Very soon a lot of people congregated and started a riot. The viceroyal palace and the «cabildo» houses were burned and many shops plundered. The repression was very hard; specially against the Indian people; but the Indians weren’t the only ones involved. Blacks and mestee population were the «plebe»; the populace of the city; offended by the injustices of the government and the humiliations of the proud rich Spaniards. The Spanish population started feeling fear of their neighbors; not only Indians but poor people.

    En 1692 hubo escasez y carestía de cereales en la ciudad de México. Un domingo del mes de junio se acabó el maíz en la alhóndiga y los encargados de repartirlo golpearon a las indias que protestaban. Muy pronto llegó mucha gente y se inició un alboroto que duró varias horas y durante el cual se incendiaron el palacio de los virreyes y las casas del cabildo; muchas tiendas fueron saqueadas. La represión fue muy dura y se dirigió contra los indios; pero no fueron sólo indios los que participaron en el motín, sino la «plebe» de la ciudad, mezcla de todos los grupos resentidos por las injusticias del gobierno y las humillaciones de los ricos españoles. La población española comenzó a sentir miedo de sus vecinos, que ya no se identificaban con los indios.

  7. Como recuerda la televisión. El pasado evocado en los informativos españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francescutti, Luis Pablo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mass media relationships with collective memory are the subject of ongoing debate; either they are blamed for immersing the audience into a fleeting amnesic present; or they are hailed as crucial mediators of remembering and forgetting in contemporary society. This article contributes to the discussion with a research about one of the ways television has to remember: anniversaries. The content analysis of Spanish news programs confirmed the regular broadcasting of anniversaries. These news narrate a version of history highly dependent upon the news program format, reshaping the borders of the subjects, countries and facts worthy of remembrance while legitimizing television as witness to history and as history narrator. Far from promoting social amnesia, this commemorative journalism allows television to get involved in the management of collective memory.Las relaciones de los medios de comunicación con la memoria colectiva son objeto de controversia: ora se les acusa de instalar a la audiencia en un presente fugaz y desmemoriado; ora se reconoce su papel de procesadores del recuerdo y el olvido. Para contribuir al debate se presenta un estudio sobre una de las maneras de recordar de la televisión: las conmemoraciones. El análisis de contenido de los informativos televisivos españoles muestra que estas noticias se han vuelto un contenido permanente de estos programas. Las efemérides construyen una versión de la historia altamente condicionada por el formato del noticiario, que reconfigura el perímetro de los asuntos dignos de evocación al tiempo que legitima al dispositivo televisivo como testigo y narrador de los hechos históricos. Se concluye que, lejos de fomentar la amnesia social, el periodismo conmemorativo le sirve al medio audiovisual para intervenir en la gestión de la memoria colectiva.

  8. Study of structural and optical properties of ZnAlQ5 (zinc aluminum quinolate) organic phosphor for OLED applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpure, I. M.; Painuly, Deepshikha; Rabanal, Maria Eugenia

    2016-05-01

    The various composition of ZnAlQ5 such as Zn1.5A10.5Q5, Zn1Al1Q5, Zn0.5Al1.5Q5 organic phosphors were prepared via simple cost effective co-precipitation method. The FTIR, SEM, photoluminescence analysis of the prepared phosphors were reported. ZnQ2 and AlQ3 were also prepared by similar method and their properties were compared with different composition of ZnAlQ5. The structural elucidation in the form of stretching frequencies of chemical bonds of the prepared phosphor was carried out using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The stretching frequency analysis confirms the formation of prepared phosphor materials. The SEM analysis shows the surface morphological behavior of prepared phosphor materials. Greenish photoluminescence were observed at 505 to 510 nm for the different composition of ZnAlQ5,in which Zn1.5Al0.5Q5 shows maximum luminescence intensity at 505 nm. PL emission of ZnQ2 was observed at 515 nm, while for AlQ3 at 520 nm. The blue shift of 10 nm was observed in Zn1.5A10.5Q5 due to modification of energy level due to presence of Zn2+ and Al3+. The enhancement in PL intensity was observed in Zn1.5A10.5Q5 compared to the other composition due to transfer of energy between Zn2+ and quinolate complex. Optical properties of the prepared materials were evaluated for possible applications in organic light emitting devices (OLED).

  9. Las estrategias de los partidos políticos españoles hacia las organizaciones sociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verge, Tània

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the strategies used by the three state-level Spanish political parties (Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party, Popular Party and United Left in relation to civil society and their evolution during the period 1977-2004. It will be shown that competition and co-optation were replaced by different collaboration mechanisms along the 1990s. On the one hand, collaboration might be functional to electoral mobilization and, on the other hand, it facilitates the obtaining of the necessary inputs to elaborate party manifestos. Furthermore, it reinforces parties’ credibility before the electorate regarding their commitment to certain social demands. Against the cartel party thesis, access to public financing is compatible with a new rapprochement to society.

    En este artículo se analizan las estrategias utilizadas por los tres partidos políticos españoles de ámbito estatal (PSOE, PP e IU en relación con la sociedad civil organizada y su evolución en el período 1977-2004. Se demostrará que las estrategias de competición y cooptación cedieron paso a partir de los años noventa a distintas fórmulas de colaboración con las organizaciones sociales. Por un lado, esta última estrategia puede ser funcional a la movilización electoral y, por otro, facilita la obtención de los inputs necesarios para elaborar los programas electorales. Asimismo, permite a los partidos hacer creíble ante el electorado su compromiso con ciertas demandas sociales y recuperar cierta legitimidad pública. En contra de las tesis del cartel party, el acceso a la financiación pública resulta compatible con un nuevo acercamiento a la sociedad.

  10. D. I. Yavornitsky᾽s book heritage in collections of the scientific library of Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchka, L. M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with analysis of books written by a famous Ukrainian scientist, historian, ethnographer, folklore researcher and cultural activist D. I. Yavornitsky, which are stored in the Scientific library of Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University. The initial book collection of the library was created in 1918. It consisted of books from Katerinoslav secondary schools. D. I. Yavornitsky made a valuable contribution to the history of the university and its library. Basic criteria for bibligaphic analysis of D. I. Yavornitsky’s books are the following: content, chronological limits, subject matter, publishing houses, seals and inscriptions, number of copies printed. A part of books came to University library from Katerinoslav’s schools. The collection of D. I. Yavornitsky’s books grew in difficult post-war years (1947 and in the 60–80-s of the 20 th century. Each book by D. I. Yavornitsky has scientific and historical value, has peculiar decoration and structure. The books contain maps, indices and appendices. His books contain materials on church and judicial system, everyday life and traditians which were common in Zaporizhzhya regions. The scientist’s books contain pictures of Ukrainian and Russians painters I. E. Repin and O. G. Slastion which are of great scientific value as well. The publishing of the books is connected with names of famous landowners G. P. Alexeev, M. M. Komstadius and V. V. Tarnovsky. The article gives information about lifetime editions of D. I. Yavornitsky and their interesting modern reissues in Ukraine. Researching and analyzing of D. I. Yavornitsky’s literary heritage will help to show the features of puplishing in the Russian Empire and highlight individual contribution to Katerinoslav history and culture.

  11. Hábitos de uso en Internet y en las redes sociales de los adolescentes españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García Jiménez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Profundizar en los cambios que se están perfilando en los hábitos online de los adolescentes, en particular debido a la fuerte irrupción de las redes sociales en su vida cotidiana, así como en las implicaciones socioculturales de estos procesos, es el objeto de este trabajo. La metodología de investigación se centró en un cuestionario autoadministrado aplicado a escala nacional. Sobre una muestra representativa nacional de 2.077 adolescentes (de 12 a 17 años, se ha buscado actualizar la información relativa a las prácticas online entre los menores y adolescentes españoles, con atención específica a la extensión del fenómeno de las redes sociales e identificando su influencia sobre las prácticas de los adolescentes en la Red. De igual modo, se comparan los usos entre los usuarios habituales de las redes sociales y los que no las tienen entre sus prácticas cotidianas, con la idea de detectar la influencia del uso de las redes sociales en los usos generales en Internet y controlando esa relación en función de cuatro variables: sexo, edad, titularidad del centro al que asisten los adolescentes y clase social. Entre las principales conclusiones destacamos el uso más intensivo en tiempo y en actividades de los usuarios que utilizan muy frecuentemente las redes sociales, con especial incidencia en aquellas actividades que les permiten mantener el contacto y compartir contenidos con sus pares.

  12. Surface tailoring of newly developed amorphous Znsbnd Sisbnd O thin films as electron injection/transport layer by plasma treatment: Application to inverted OLEDs and hybrid solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongsheng; Kim, Junghwan; Yamamoto, Koji; Xing, Xing; Hosono, Hideo

    2018-03-01

    We report a unique amorphous oxide semiconductor Znsbnd Sisbnd O (a-ZSO) which has a small work function of 3.4 eV for as-deposited films. The surface modification of a-ZSO thin films by plasma treatments is examined to apply it to the electron injection/transport layer of organic devices. It turns out that the energy alignment and exciton dissociation efficiency at a-ZSO/organic semiconductor interface significantly changes by choosing different gas (oxygen or argon) for plasma treatments (after a-ZSO was exposed to atmospheric environment for 5 days). In situ ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) measurement reveals that the work function of a-ZSO is increased to 4.0 eV after an O2-plasma treatment, while the work function of 3.5 eV is recovered after an Ar-plasma treatment which indicates this treatment is effective for surface cleaning. To study the effects of surface treatments to device performance, OLEDs and hybrid polymer solar cells with O2-plasma or Ar-plasma treated a-ZSO are compared. Effects of these surface treatments on performance of inverted OLEDs and hybrid polymer solar cells are examined. Ar-plasma treated a-ZSO works well as the electron injection layer in inverted OLEDs (Alq3/a-ZSO) because the injection barrier is small (∼ 0.1 eV). On the other hands, O2-plasma treated a-ZSO is more suitable for application to hybrid solar cells which is benefiting from higher exciton dissociation efficiency at polymer (P3HT)/ZSO interface.

  13. Analysis of the current-voltage characteristics of polymer-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs deposited by spin coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vera

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Polymer-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs with the structure ITO / PEDOT:PSS / MDMO-PPV / Metal were prepared by spincoating. It is known that electroluminescence of these devices is strongly dependent on the material used as cathode and on the depositionparameters of the polymer electroluminescent layer MDMO-PPV. Objective. In this work the effect of i the frequency of the spin coater(1000-8000 rpm, ii the concentration of the MDMO-PPV: Toluene solution, and iii the material used as cathode (Aluminium or Silveron the electrical response of the devices, was evaluated through current-voltage (I-V measurements. Materials and methods. PEDOT:PPSand MDMO-PPV organic layers were deposited by spin coating on ITO substrates, and the OLED structure was completed with cathodesof aluminium and silver. The electric response of the devices was evaluated based on the I-V characteristics. Results. Diodes prepared withthinner organic films allow higher currents at lower voltages; this can be achieved either by increasing the frequency of the spin coater orby using concentrations of MDMO-PPV: Toluene lower than 2% weight. A fit of the experimental data showed that the diodes have twocontributions to the current. The first one is attributed to parasitic currents between anode and cathode, and the other one is a parallel currentthrough the organic layer, in which the carrier injection mechanism is mediated by thermionic emission. Conclusions. The results of thefitting and the energy level alignment through the whole structure show that PPV-based OLEDs are unipolar devices, with current mainlyattributed to hole transport.

  14. One step process of decomposition and polymerization to fabricate SiO{sub 2} hollow spheres/polyimide composite for foldable OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Kyu [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) and Center for Human Interface Nano Technology (HINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Won; Moon, Soo Hyun [School of Advanced Materials Science & Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong-Wook [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) and Center for Human Interface Nano Technology (HINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Oh, Tae Sik [School of Mechanical and ICT Convergence Engineering, Sunmoon University, Asan 336-708 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Ji Beom, E-mail: jbyoo@skku.edu [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) and Center for Human Interface Nano Technology (HINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); School of Advanced Materials Science & Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Graphical abstract: The SiO{sub 2} hollow spheres and polyimide hybrid synthesized using one step process, simultaneous occurrence of decomposition and polymerization (SODP) is useful with a ultra-low dielectric constant and high thermal stability for flexible OLED. - Highlights: • We fabricated hybrid films of SHS/PI by using a one step process with SODP. • The film has ultralow dielectric constant (50 vol% at k = 1.67). • There is no collapse of SiO{sub 2} hollow spheres in the PI matrix after bending test for 50,000 cycles. - Abstract: The fabrication of interlayer dielectrics (ILDs) in flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) requires flexible materials with a low dielectric constant as well as materials with excellent electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties for optimal device performance. Hybrid films of SiO{sub 2} hollow spheres (SHS)/polyimide (PI) were prepared using a one-step process, with simultaneous occurrence of decomposition (polystyrene, PS) and polymerization (PI) (SODP). No collapse of SiO{sub 2} hollow spheres in PI was observed from 10 vol% to 60 vol% SHS in hybrid films. The dielectric constant of hybrid films was reduced from 3.45 to 1.67 and was saturated at above 50 vol% of SHS due to the maximum fill factor of SHS in the PI matrix. The thermal stability was excellent up to 500 °C due to the inherent thermal property of PI. After a bending test for 50,000 cycles at a bending radius of 1 mm, the SHS/PI hybrid films retained their dielectric constant and current density. These results indicate the hybrid film to be the most promising candidate for flexible ILDs with a low dielectric constant and high thermal stability for foldable OLEDs.

  15. Metas y satisfacción vital en adolescentes españoles y peruanos según sexo y nivel socioeconómico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Díaz Morales

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio analiza el tipo de metas personales y la satisfacción vital en adolescentes españoles y peruanos según sexo y nivel socioeconómico. Se trabajó con 389 adolescentes españoles y con 285 peruanos, de ambos sexos y de diferentes niveles socioeconómicos. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron el Análisis de Metas Personales de Palys y Little (1983 y la Escala D-T (Delight-Terrible de Andrews y Withey (1976 para la muestra española, y el Método de Inducción Motivacional de Nuttin (1985 junto con la Escala de Satisfacción con la vida de Pavot y Diener (1993 para la muestra peruana, que aunque no son equivalentes, permiten una comparación general. Los resultados muestran importantes semejanzas en las metas descritas  por los adolescentes de ambos estudios, así como en la influencia de la variable sexo. Las principales diferencias entre los adolescentes españoles y peruanos se encuentran en la variable nivel socioeconómico.   This study analyzes the kind of personal goals and life satisfaction levels amongst Spanish and Peruvian adolescents according to their sex and socioeconomic level. 389 Spanish and 285 Peruvian adolescents of both sexes from different socioeconomic level participated in this study. For the Spanish sample Palys and Little's (1983 Personal Goals Analysis and Andrews and Withey's (1976 D-T Scale (Delight-Terrible were used; for the Peruvian sample the measurement instruments were Nuttin's (1985 Motivational lnduction Method along with Pavot and Diener's (1993 Life Satisfaction Scale. Results show significant similarities in the goals described by samples, as well as sex differences and socioeconomic differences.

  16. One step process of decomposition and polymerization to fabricate SiO_2 hollow spheres/polyimide composite for foldable OLEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Dong Won; Moon, Soo Hyun; Shin, Dong-Wook; Oh, Tae Sik; Yoo, Ji Beom

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The SiO_2 hollow spheres and polyimide hybrid synthesized using one step process, simultaneous occurrence of decomposition and polymerization (SODP) is useful with a ultra-low dielectric constant and high thermal stability for flexible OLED. - Highlights: • We fabricated hybrid films of SHS/PI by using a one step process with SODP. • The film has ultralow dielectric constant (50 vol% at k = 1.67). • There is no collapse of SiO_2 hollow spheres in the PI matrix after bending test for 50,000 cycles. - Abstract: The fabrication of interlayer dielectrics (ILDs) in flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) requires flexible materials with a low dielectric constant as well as materials with excellent electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties for optimal device performance. Hybrid films of SiO_2 hollow spheres (SHS)/polyimide (PI) were prepared using a one-step process, with simultaneous occurrence of decomposition (polystyrene, PS) and polymerization (PI) (SODP). No collapse of SiO_2 hollow spheres in PI was observed from 10 vol% to 60 vol% SHS in hybrid films. The dielectric constant of hybrid films was reduced from 3.45 to 1.67 and was saturated at above 50 vol% of SHS due to the maximum fill factor of SHS in the PI matrix. The thermal stability was excellent up to 500 °C due to the inherent thermal property of PI. After a bending test for 50,000 cycles at a bending radius of 1 mm, the SHS/PI hybrid films retained their dielectric constant and current density. These results indicate the hybrid film to be the most promising candidate for flexible ILDs with a low dielectric constant and high thermal stability for foldable OLEDs.

  17. Movilidad transnacional de jóvenes españoles y latinoamericanos: una comparación en contextos de crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Cortés Maisonave, Almudena; Moncó Rebollo, Beatriz; Betrisey Nadali, Débora

    2015-01-01

    La publicación “Movilidad Transnacional de Jóvenes españoles y latinoamericanos: una comparación en contextos de crisis”, es el resultado del proyecto de investigación realizado por el Equipo de Investigación de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid integrado por Almudena Cortés, Beatriz Moncó y Débora Betrisey, tras obtener financiación en la primera convocatoria competitiva de las Ayudas a la Investigación del Centro Reina Sofía sobre Adolescencia y Juventud en el año 2014. Este trabajo se c...

  18. Bailini, Sonia (2016. La interlengua de lenguas afines. El español de los italianos, el italiano de los españoles. Milano: LED.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriana di Gesù

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available El volumen del que se ofrece una reseña analiza el fenómeno de la interlengua de lenguas afines: el español de los aprendientes italianos y el italiano de los aprendientes españoles. El objetivo principal del volumen es el análisis cuantitativo y cualitativo de la interlengua de estas dos tipologías de aprendientes, a través del estudio de dos corpus paralelos y longitudinales.

  19. Razones para emigrar de los jóvenes españoles: consumo de los medios de comunicación y variables psicosociales

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez Frias, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    El estudio de las migraciones y la movilidad humana es un tema complejo, motivado por un amplio número de razones, que requiere un análisis multidisciplinar para comprender el proceso migratorio y sus consecuencias tanto en la vida del migrante como en la de sus familias. El principal objetivo del presente estudio es 1) conocer la importancia que los jóvenes españoles no emigrantes y emigrantes dan a un amplio número de razones para emigrar junto con 2) la relación que mantienen dichos motivo...

  20. Presencia de los inmigrantes españoles en la economía de la región de Santiago de Cuba (1902- 1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sc. Manuel Pevida-Pupo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Los inmigrantes españoles tuvieron una activa participación en la economía de la región de Santiago de Cuba aunque no pudieron competir con los monopolios norteamericanos en sectores claves como la industria azucarera, la minería, las finanzas y los ferrocarriles; por lo que concentraron sus inversiones en el comercio, las manufacturas y la producción de bebidas, alimentos, confituras y otros artículos.

  1. Contenidos de estructura atómica en libros de textos españoles de química general (1928-1975)

    OpenAIRE

    González Canle, Felicísimo

    2012-01-01

    En nuestro trabajo, tratamos de hacer una aproximación al modo en que se fueron introduciendo las ideas de la Mecánica Cuántica en los libros de texto españoles tanto de primer curso del nivel universitario como preuniversitarios, en un periodo de tiempo en donde vamos a encontrar superpuestas, en mayor o menor grado dependiendo de los autores, ideas de la nueva teoría con otras ideas clásicas y precuánticas sobre la constitución del átomo. Estudiaremos como se afianzan las diferentes teor...

  2. Representación social de "los argentinos", "los españoles", "los latinoamericanos" y "los europeos" en estudiantes universitarios argentinos

    OpenAIRE

    Néstor Daniel Roselli

    2000-01-01

    El objetivo de la investigación es descriptivo: producir una caracterización de cómo los estudiantes universitarios argentinos definen subjetivamente a los referidos grupos nacionales ("los "los argentinos", "los españoles" y supranacionales, "los latinoamericanos" y "los europeos"). Sin embargo, no esun mero estudio de estereotipos nacionales. La originalidad consiste en el encuadre metodológico, propio de análisis de las representaciones sociales. Se basa en un análisis estadístico d...

  3. La ordenación normativa de la asistencia sanitaria en la corte de los Habsburgos españoles (1515-1700)

    OpenAIRE

    Rey Bueno, Mar

    1998-01-01

    El presente trabajo ofrece una visión de la estructura de la sanidad real durante los reinados de los monarcas españoles de los siglos XVI y XVII. Tras una primera aproximación al significado de Casa Real y Etiqueta palaciega, imprescindible para comprender las características de los oficios y criados al servicio del monarca, pasamos a describir los diversos sanitarios que atendían al rey español: los médicos reales, jerarquizados en diversas categorías (médicos de cámara, médicos de familia,...

  4. Synthesis and Study of Chemical and Photo-physical Properties of Quinolinate Aluminum and Zinc Complexes in Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Madhu; Prakash, Sattey; Singh, C.; Anand, R. S.

    2011-10-01

    Two well known electroluminescent (EL) compounds, aluminum and zinc metallo-8-hydroxyquinolates have been synthesized. Their chemical and physical properties like NMR, FTIR, Cyclic Voltammetry, absorption and EL are studied. Organic LEDs are fabricated using both the material as emissive layers. Electroluminescence spectra of the complexes are measured. 2Alq3 and Znq2 give peak emission in yellow-green region at wavelengths 527nm and 540nm respectively. Znq2 is slightly red shifted compared to Alq3 because metal to ligand charge transfer is more in Znq2. A study of ON voltage, luminance efficiency and stability of OLEDs using both materials is made.

  5. Las pautas matrimoniales de los inmigrantes españoles en la ciudad de Carmen de Patagones, prov. de Buenos Aires (1889-1958), Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Caratini, Alicia Liliana; Videla, Blanca; Carnese, Francisco R.

    2001-01-01

    A fines del siglo XVIII la Corona Española concibió la posibilidad de establecerse en forma permanente en la Patagonia. Aproximadamente 2.000 individuos partieron desde el puerto de La Coruña, de los que sólo un 10% llegó a la costa patagónica, fundando la ciudad de Carmen de Patagones. Nuestro objetivo es analizar: 1) los vínculos endo-exogámicos y la edad de acceso al matrimonio de los inmigrantes españoles de Carmen de Patagones; 2) comparar los resultados respecto a los obtenidos en Río G...

  6. Conducta prosocial y motivación académica en estudiantes españoles de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria

    OpenAIRE

    INGLÉS, CÁNDIDO J; MARTÍNEZ-GONZÁLEZ, AGUSTÍN E; VALLE, ANTONIO; GRACÍA-FERNÁNDEZ, JOSÉ M; RUIZ-ESTEBAN, CECILIA

    2011-01-01

    Este estudio analizó la relación entre conducta prosocial y metas académicas en una muestra de 2.022 estudiantes españoles. La conducta prosocial fue medida con la escala de conducta prosocial del Teenage Inventory of Social Skills (TISS) y las metas académicas mediante el Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire (AGTQ). Los resultados revelaron que los estudiantes con alta conducta prosocial presentaron puntuaciones significativamente más altas en metas de aprendizaje y logro. La conducta p...

  7. Características de la actividad cívica de los adolescentes y jóvenes españoles: e-ciudadanía

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Antonio FUENTES ESPARRELL

    2011-01-01

    En este estudio trataremos de ilustrar y aportar datos sobre el acceso, uso, equipamiento, hábitos y motivaciones de los adolescentes y jóvenes españoles hacia las TIC (ordenadores, redes sociales, Internet, telefonía móvil¿). Nos centraremos principalmente en las redes sociales y telefonía móvil como principales tecnologías de uso en los momentos actuales. De esa manera, nos podremos hacer una idea de las principales características de la actividad cívica de los adolescentes y jóvenes esp...

  8. Tendencias en el consumo de alcohol en los adolescentes escolarizados españoles a lo largo de la primera década del siglo xxi

    OpenAIRE

    Inmaculada Sánchez-Queija; Carmen Moreno; Francisco Rivera; Pilar Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: Conocer la tendencia en el consumo de cerveza, vino y licores destilados de los adolescentes españoles en 2002, 2006 y 2010, así como la tendencia de haber experimentado episodios de embriaguez durante este mismo periodo de tiempo. Método: La muestra está conformada por 23.169 adolescentes de 15 a 18 años de edad: 7103 en 2002, 10.443 en 2006 y 5623 en 2010. En las tres ediciones del estudio, los datos son representativos de los escolares de esas edades en España. Se ...

  9. Caracterización de aceites de las semillas de Moringa oleífera a partir de la extracción por diferentes métodos

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Gómez Mitjans; Vicenta Pita Bravo; Beatriz Zumalacárregui de Cárdenas

    2016-01-01

    La Moringa oleífera es una planta que se utiliza como materia prima en diferentes industrias, como la alimentaria, farmacéutica y cosmética. Una de las partes aprovechables del árbol es la semilla debido a su contenido entre un 30 y 45 % de aceite. Sus propiedades terapéuticas potencian su uso en el tratamiento de más de 300 enfermedades. En esta investigación se caracterizó el aceite extraído de las semillas de Moringa oleífera de las variedades de origen cubano Supergenious, Plain y Nicarag...

  10. Anglicismos en el léxico de las actividades deportivas de los gimnasios españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Rodríguez Medina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl objetivo de este trabajo es la recopilación y análisis de los anglicismos más frecuentes en el léxico de las actividades deportivas ofrecidas por los gimnasios españoles, pues se trata de un campo inexplorado en la investigación sobre el anglicismo en la lengua española, que, desde hace años, cuenta con estudios centrados en otros ámbitos del deporte como el fútbol (Fernández1971; Alonso 1996; Rodríguez González 2012. Con tal fin, hemos analizado una muestra de 268 anglicismos detectados en los folletos y webs de 15 gimnasios. Este análisis no solo es cuantitativo, sino que también se describe las distintas funciones pragmáticas de uso, lo que permitirá establecer una serie de conclusiones significativas sobre el grado de madurez del anglicismo en español como fenómeno sociolingüístico y cultural.Palabras clave: anglicismos, léxico, pragmática, deporte AbstractThe aim of this paper is to compile and analyse the most frequent anglicisms in the lexicon used in sports activities offered by Spanish gyms. This domain remains unexplored in the research of the phenomenon of anglicisms in the Spanish language, since the published literature has focused so far on the lexicon of other sports such as football (Fernández 1971; Alonso1996; Rodríguez González 2012. We have studied a sample of 268 anglicisms taken from the brochures and websites of 15 gyms. Our analysis is not only quantitative but also describes different pragmatic functions of the anglicisms found in the data. This allows us to draw significant conclusions about the evolution of anglicisms as a sociolinguistic and cultural phenomenon in Spanish.Keywords: anglicisms, lexicon, pragmatics, sports

  11. La percepción de los periodistas españoles acerca de sus roles profesionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available La investigación empírica internacional sobre la percepción que los periodistas tienen de sus roles y funciones profesionales presenta un notable auge en los últimos años, aunque no en el caso español. Esta investigación, que forma parte del estudio comparativo transnacional «Worlds of Journalism Study», analiza los datos de una encuesta realizada en España (representativa y estratificada por tipo de medio y por Comunidad Autónoma a 390 periodistas de 117 medios de comunicación, quienes fueron consultados sobre su trabajo para detectar las funciones profesionales con las que más se identificaban. El estudio señala seis roles: el de perro guardián, el altavoz de la ciudadanía, el instructor de la audiencia, el favorecedor del statu quo, el que entretiene a la opinión pública y el difusor de información objetiva. En línea con la evolución política, económica y social de los últimos años en España, los profesionales se identifican más con el papel de altavoz de la ciudadanía. Esta función desplaza en importancia al rol protagonista de los estudios similares más recientes sobre periodistas españoles: el de difusor de la información objetiva. Se hallan también dos grandes grupos de periodistas: los estimuladores y los narcotizadores de la opinión pública. Además, se observa que algunos factores organizacionales (en concreto, la propiedad del medio y otros individuales (el género, la edad y los años de experiencia laboral influyen significativamente en las percepciones de los roles profesionales.

  12. Realizing Highly Efficient Solution-Processed Homojunction-Like Sky-Blue OLEDs by Using Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescent Emitters Featuring an Aggregation-Induced Emission Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kailong; Wang, Zian; Zhan, Lisi; Zhong, Cheng; Gong, Shaolong; Xie, Guohua; Yang, Chuluo

    2018-04-05

    Two new blue emitters, i.e., bis-[2-(9,9-dimethyl-9,10-dihydroacridine)-phenyl]-sulfone ( o-ACSO2) and bis-[3-(9,9-dimethyl-9,10-dihydroacridine)-phenyl]-sulfone ( m-ACSO2), with reserved fine thermally activated delayed fluorescent (TADF) nature and simply tuned thermal and optoelectronic properties, were synthesized by isomer engineering. The meta-linking compound, i.e., m-ACSO2, obtains the highest photoluminescence quantum yield with a small singlet-triplet energy gap, a moderate delayed fluorescent lifetime, excellent solubility, and neat film homogeneity. Due to its unique aggregation-induced emission (AIE) character, neat film-based heterojunction-like organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are achievable. By inserting an excitonic inert exciton-blocking layer, the PN heterojunction-like emission accompanied by intefacial exciplex was shifted to a homojunction-like channel mainly from the AIE emitter itself, providing a new tactic to generate efficient blue color from neat films. The solution-processed nondoped sky-blue OLED employing m-ACSO2 as emitter with homojunction-like emission achieved a maximum external quantum efficiency of 17.2%. The design strategies presented herein provide practical methods to construct efficient blue TADF dyes and realize high-performance blue TADF devices.

  13. Estrategias de afrontamiento, optimismo y satisfacción con la vida en futbolistas españoles y polacos: un estudio preliminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Cant\\u00F3n Chirivella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se muestran las relaciones existentes entre las estrategias de afrontamiento, el optimismo disposicional y el bienestar de una muestra de 61 futbolistas de dos nacionalidades, polaca y española, de forma que también pueden observarse diferencias culturales. Los futbolistas españoles obtienen puntuaciones significativamente más altas en la utilización de estrategias de afrontamiento centradas en la emoción (F = 12.919; p = .001 que los polacos, obteniendo un tamaño del efecto relevante (>.130 y una elevada potencia (.942. Además, los futbolistas polacos son significativamente más optimistas que los españoles (F = 5.96; p = .025. Los resultados son discutidos en base a los modelos teóricos del optimismo (Scheier y Carver, 1985 y las estrategias de afrontamiento (Lazarus y Folkman, 1984, resaltando el papel de las diferencias culturales.

  14. Investigation on Al(III) and Zn(II) complexes containing a calix[4]arene bearing two 8-oxyquinoline pendant arms used as emitting materials for OLEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagatin, Izilda A.; Legnani, Cristiano; Cremona, Marco

    2009-01-01

    A comparison between [Al·1] 3+ and [Zn·1] 2+ complexes (1 = 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,27-bis[(quinoline-8-oxy)propyloxy]-26, 28-dihydroxy-calix[4]arene) has been made using electrochemical techniques and the experimental results obtained in the fabrication of organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). The electrochemically determined values of the ionization potential I p and electron affinity E a parameters for the [Al·1] 3+ (I p = 5.82eV, E a = 2.80eV) and [Zn·1] 2+ (I p = 5.67eV, E a = 2.32eV) evidenced that the [Al·1] 3+ complex is a better electron transporting layer with respect to the Zn complex one. The fabricated OLEDs based on these supramolecular complexes show a superior quality with the [Al·1] 3+ systems expected from the energy level diagrams

  15. Ole for Spanish gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, D.

    1993-01-01

    Spain is a new gas market in Europe. Relative to other EC countries, gas use is still low at 6 million tonnes of oil equivalent (mtoe) or around 6 percent of total primary energy demand (TPED) in 1992 against an EC average of almost 20 percent. The historic reasons for this are Spain's lack of major domestic gas fields and the ready existence of alternative energy sources in the form of coal and hydroelectric power. But gas use is now growing fast, having more than quadrupled since 1980 and with usage predicted to double again in volume terms, rising to 12 percent of TPED by 2000. Only the low population density, which adds to distribution costs, is likely to stop Spain reaching the EC average. (author)

  16. Los españoles en los caminos del extremo norte del Perú en 1532

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available LES ESPAGNOLS SUR LES CHEMINS DE L'EXTRÊME NORD DU PÉROU EN 1532. À partir des relations des chroniqueurs qui ont accompagné Pizarro de Tumbes à Cajamarca, de la liste des tambos de 1543, des informations sur les caciques de 1548 et de la prospection des sites le long des chemins muletiers de l’extrême nord du Pérou, les routes incas de la côte et de la sierra par lesquelles sont passés les espagnols en 1532 ont été identifiées. On a repéré les centres administratifs et cérémoniels depuis lesquels les incas controlaient les caciques locaux des versants nord-ouest et sud-est des monts Amotape, des vallées du Chira et du Piura, sur la côte, et des hautes terres de Caxas et Huancabamba, ainsi que les tambos situés le long de ces routes. On a pu retrouver les maisons fortifiées et les villages des caciques de Pabur et Serrán dans la vallée du Piura. Finalement on a tenté de délimiter les terres et les canaux d’irrigation qui permettaient la produccion des differents cacicazgos. A partir de las relaciones de los cronistas que acompañaron a Pizarro de Tumbes a Cajamarca, de la lista de los tambos de 1543, de las informaciones sobre los caciques de 1548 y de la prospección de los sitios a lo largo de los caminos de herradura del extremo norte del Perú, se identificaron las rutas incaicas de la costa y de la sierra por las cuales pasaron los españoles en 1532. Se ubicaron los centros administrativos y ceremoniales desde los cuales los incas controlaban los caciques locales de las vertientes noroeste y sureste de los cerros de Amotape, de los valles de los ríos Chira y Piura, en la costa, y los de las serranías de Caxas y Huancabamba, así como los tambos ubicados a lo largo de estas rutas. Se logró encontrar las casas cercadas y los pueblos de los caciques de Pabur y Serrán en el valle del río Piura. Finalmente se intentó deslindar las tierras y los canales de irrigación que permitían la producción de los

  17. Estrategias comunicativas de escritores españoles en Twitter/ Communication strategies of Spanish writers on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Gomes-Franco e Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El modelo comunicativo característico de la web 2.0 ha proporcionado nuevos escaparates institucionales, corporativos y personales basados en la interactividad derivada de las herramientas digitales de carácter social. En un entorno cambiante, es menester revisar las estrategias y tácticas aplicadas a la autopromoción con el propósito de adaptarlas conforme a las posibilidades que ofrecen los canales interactivos. El presente estudio tiene por objeto el análisis de las principales estrategias de comunicación y marketing personal empleadas por los escritores españoles en Twitter. La metodología utilizada comprende un análisis sistemático cuantitativo de los perfiles de una muestra de reconocidos autores con el fin de identificar las principales tácticas empleadas por ellos en la mencionada red social. Los resultados evidencian el interés del colectivo analizado por garantizar su presencia en la web social, incorporando a su rutina la práctica del microblogging. En esta dinámica, se percatan igualmente la construcción de una imagen y una marca personal más cercanas y transparentes que las que suelen ofrecer los canales tradicionales, incidiendo a menudo en los intereses personales de los escritores. Se observa asimismo una autopromoción que camina hacia la horizontalidad pese a que presente aún vestigios de la verticalidad propia de la comunicación tradicionalmente impuesta y unidireccional. The Web 2.0 communication model has provided new institutional, corporate, and personal showcases based on the interactivity that derived from the social character of the digital tools. In a changing environment, it becomes necessary to review the strategies and tactics applied to self-promotion in order to adapt them according to the possibilities offered by interactive channels. This study aims to analyze the main strategies of communication and personal marketing used by Spanish writers on Twitter. The methodology includes a quantitative

  18. Análisis de la fuerza isométrica en trampolinistas españoles de distintas categorías competitivas

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Landero Rodríguez, Luis Arturo; López Bedoya, Jesús; Vernetta Santana, Mercedes; Marina Evrad, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: Debido a la ausencia de trabajos que describan y analicen el perfil de fuerza isométrica en Trampolín y su relación con el rendimiento deportivo, se plantea un estudio transversal, comparativo y correlacional en esta línea con trampolinistas españoles. Método: Muestra compuesta por 60 trampolinistas de élite nacional, agrupados por categoría competitiva en 4 grupos: 1) Sub-15 masculino (n = 23; 11,95 ± 1,79 años), 2) Sub-15 femenino (n = 9; 11,44 ± 1,23 años), 3) Absoluto mascul...

  19. Análisis de la fuerza isométrica en trampolinistas españoles de distintas categorías competitivas

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Arturo Gómez-Landero Rodríguez; Jesús López Bedoya; Mercedes Vernetta Santana; Michel Marina Evrad

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: Debido a la ausencia de trabajos que describan y analicen el perfil de fuerza isométrica en Trampolín y su relación con el rendimiento deportivo, se plantea un estudio transversal, comparativo y correlacional en esta línea con trampolinistas españoles. Método: Muestra compuesta por 60 trampolinistas de élite nacional, agrupados por categoría competitiva en 4 grupos: 1) Sub-15 masculino (n = 23; 11,95 ± 1,79 años), 2) Sub-15 femenino (n = 9; 11,44 ± 1,23 años), 3) Absoluto mascul...

  20. Pautas para el análisis de la cohesión y la coherencia en textos españoles

    OpenAIRE

    Esparza-Torres,M.Á. (Miguel Ángel)

    2006-01-01

    El objeto de estas páginas es proponer unas pautas para el análisis en textos españoles de la cohesión y la coherencia, aplicables a la práctica docente, y facilitar una información convenientemente actualizada y lo más integradora posible, que ayude a organizar la abundante bibliografía disponible. Como punto de partida, se abordan las consecuencias que tiene concebir el texto como unidad de análisis lingüístico. En segundo lugar, se sitúa del modo más esquemático posible el lugar que ocupan...

  1. La cortesía verbal atenuadora en el aula de ELE/N: las estrategias de atenuación en alemanes y españoles

    OpenAIRE

    Zúñiga Garrido, Laura

    2017-01-01

    RESUMEN: El presente trabajo fin de máster se encuadra en el área temática de Lingüística aplicada a la enseñanza y al aprendizaje de español como lengua extranjera. Dentro de esta área, se aborda la pragmática intercultural y, en concreto, el estudio de la cortesía verbal y de su implicación en el aula de español de los negocios. En él, se hace un acercamiento al análisis y al cotejo de las estrategias para la atenuación de las peticiones empleadas por españoles y por alemanes en el conte...

  2. Calidad y características de los sitios web de los hospitales españoles de gran tamaño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvo-Calvo, Manuel Ángel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to assess the quality and describe characteristics of websites of large Spanish hospitals, i.e. minimum 500 beds. Cross-sectional descriptive study is made, to evaluate the global quality, accessibility, usability, interactivity, updating, quality model and information given in 53 different websites belonging to Spanish hospitals with more than 500 beds. Only 22 (41.5% of the websites analyzed fall into the upper half of the scale used. As such, the mean quality of these websites is shown to be low. On one hand, both accessibility and usability of the evaluated websites were notable, with specific sections for health professionals and hospital suppliers. On the other, the websites were characterized by a limited incorporation of tools for interacting with users, a poor presentation of information about health, diseases, waiting lists and care activities, as well as a deficient updating of their content and almost no adherence to quality references. In short, the websites of large Spanish hospitals are simple informational spaces that don’t facilitate the interaction, participation and collaboration of hospital users. In conclusion, websites of large Spanish hospitals, in addition to being informative spaces, should facilitate more interaction, participation and collaboration with hospital users.El objetivo es evaluar la calidad y describir las características de los sitios web de los hospitales españoles con más de 500 camas. Estudio descriptivo, observacional, de corte transversal, que evalúa la calidad de 53 sitios web de hospitales españoles con más de 500 camas. Se analizan la accesibilidad, usabilidad, interactividad, actualización de la información, referentes de calidad y contenidos presentados en los sitios web. Sólo 22 (41,5% de las webs estudiadas superaron la mitad de los puntos posibles. Por tanto, como media, la calidad de las webs de los grandes hospitales españoles analizados es baja. Las webs

  3. 用于LCD背投的有机发光二极管(OLED)达到了18.4lm/W的效率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡梅

    2004-01-01

    美国Universal Display以及日本Toyota公司的研究人员们报道,他们研制了一种红-绿-蓝色(RGB)的有机发光二极管(OLED),它发射出效率为18.4lm/W、36cd/A的白光以及在亮度为1000cd/m2时,具有16%的内在量子效率.相比传统的小分子OLED的荧光发光,这种新器件依赖于更有效率的磷发光,实现了RGB三种全色发光。

  4. Comparison study of transparent RF-sputtered ITO/AZO and ITO/ZnO bilayers for near UV-OLED applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, Mahdiyar Nouri; Manavizadeh, Negin; Abadi, Ehsan Mohammadi Nasr; Nadimi, Ebrahim; Boroumand, Farhad Akbari

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid inorganic/organic light-emitting diodes have attracted much attention in the field of luminescent electronics due to the desired incorporation of high optoelectronic features of inorganic materials with the processability and variety of organic polymers. To generate and emit a near ultraviolet (N-UV) ray, wide band gap semiconductors can be applied in the organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this paper, zinc oxide (ZnO) and aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films are deposited by radio frequency (RF) sputtering above the ITO electrode and poly [2-methoxy-5-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene-vinylene] (MEH-PPV) conjugated polymer is utilized as a complementary p-type semiconductor in OLED structure. The impact of ZnO and AZO thickness on the structural, electrical, optical and morphological properties of ITO/AZO and ITO/ZnO bilayers are scrutinized and compared. Results show that with the enlargement of both ZnO and AZO film thickness, the physical properties are gradually improved resulting in the better quality of transparent conducting thin film. The average electrical resistivity of 8.4 × 10-4 and 1.1 × 10-3 Ω-cm, average sheet resistance of 32.9 and 42.3 Ω/sq, average transmittance of 88.3 and 87.3% and average FOM of 1.0 × 104 and 7.4 × 103 (Ω-cm)-1 are obtained for ITO/AZO and ITO/ZnO bilayers, respectively. Moreover, comparing the results indicates that the strain and the stress within the ITO/AZO bilayer are decreased nearly 19% with respect to ITO/ZnO bilayer which yield higher quality of crystal. Consequently, the physical properties of ITO/AZO bilayer is found to be superior regarding ITO/ZnO bilayer. For fabricated UV-OLEDs, the turn-on voltages, the characteristic energy (Et) and the total concentration of traps (Nt) for the devices with the structures of ITO/ZnO/MEH-PPV/Al and ITO/AZO/MEH-PPV/Al are obtained 12 and 14 V, 0.108 and 0.191 eV, 9.33 × 1016 and 5.22 × 1016 cm-3, respectively. Furthermore, according to the electroluminescence

  5. 1,2,4-Triazines in the Synthesis of Bipyridine Bisphenolate ONNO Ligands and Their Highly Luminescent Tetradentate Pt(II) Complexes for Solution-Processable OLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pander, Piotr; Bulmer, Rachel; Martinscroft, Ross; Thompson, Stuart; Lewis, Frank W; Penfold, Thomas J; Dias, Fernando B; Kozhevnikov, Valery N

    2018-04-02

    This article describes a convenient method for the synthesis of ONNO-type tetradentate 6,6'-bis(2-phenoxy)-2,2'-bipyridine (bipyridine bisphenolate, BpyBph) ligands and their platinum(II) complexes. The methodology includes the synthesis of 1,2,4-triazine precursors followed by their transformation to functionalized pyridines by the Boger reaction. Two complementary routes employing 3,3'- and 5,5'-bis-triazines allow a modification of the central pyridine rings in different positions, which was exemplified by the introduction of cyclopentene rings. The new ligands were used to prepare highly luminescent ONNO-type Pt(II) complexes. The position of the cyclopentene rings significantly influences the solubility and photophysical properties of these complexes. Derivatives with closely positioned cyclopentene rings are soluble in organic solvents and proved to be the best candidate for solution-processable organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs), showing efficient single-dopant candlelight electroluminescence.

  6. La gastronomía como factor identitario. Recuerdos y silencios de los inmigrantes españoles en la ciudad de São Paulo. (1946-1965)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Corner, Dolores Martín

    2006-01-01

    La crisis causada por la Guerra Civil Española (1936-39) y II Guerra Mundial (1939-45), llevó a muchos españoles a emigrar. La ciudad de São Paulo, en Brasil iniciaba su industria automovilística y para tanto necesitaba de mano de obra especializada, de técnicos en diversas áreas. Uniéndose el atractivo de la ciudad y la necesidad de los españoles, se estableció un intenso tráfico de inmigrantes en el periodo que va desde 1946 hasta 1965. De las muchas manifestaciones culturales de un pueblo ...

  7. Ejemplos de represión contra comunistas españoles y franceses en 1939 en el centro-oeste de Francia (departamento de la Haute-Vienne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Leger

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available La Haute-Vienne acogió en febrero de 1939 a más de 2.700 civiles españoles refugiados en Francia. Se trata de un departamento esencialmente rural, excepto la capital, conocida por su tradición obrera muy fuerte. Esta tierra fue bastante hospitalaria para los españoles, a pesar de los ataques de la prensa de derecha, entreteniendo el mito del “rojo” español. Entonces, los refugiados fueron objeto de una estricta vigilancia por parte del Estado francés (gobierno Daladier. Se impidió todo tipo de contacto entre los comunistas españoles y franceses, en un contexto de repatriaciones, a veces forzadas, hacia la España franquista. En este artículo, me propongo presentar algunos casos de represión contra los españoles y contra los comunistas, a partir de informes policiales o prefectorales de la Haute-Vienne.Palabras Claves: memoria histórica; exilio; republicanos; Francia; Guerra Civil española___________________________ABSTRACT:In February 1939, Haute-Vienne department accommodated more than 2700 spanish civilians’ refugees.  This department is mainly rural except the capital where there is a strong working class tradition. This land was in general welcoming for refugees, in spite of the attacks of conservative press, which maintained the myth of the “red spanish”. Thus, Spanish refugees were under a strong surveillance by the French state (the Daladier’s government. Any contact between Spanish communists and French was avoided, in a context of repatriation, sometimes forced, back to pro-Franco Spain. This article will present some cases of repression against Spanish and communists that appear in reports from the police and the prefecture of the Haute-Vienne.Keywords: France, Spanish Civil War, exile, historical memory

  8. Características de 107 registros sanitarios españoles y valoración de su utilización (parte a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñaki Imaz Iglesia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La información sobre los registros sanitarios existentes en nuestro país es poco accesible y escasa y algunos son poco conocidos, pudiendo estar infrautilizados en relación con sus múltiples usos potenciales. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar las características de los Registros Sanitarios españoles y su utilización, especialmente en Evaluación de Tecnologías Sanitarias. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal de los Registros Sanitarios españoles entre 1997 y 2002. La identificación de los registros se realizó a través de búsqueda bibliográfica y mediante encuesta a Sociedades Científicas y Administración sanitaria central y autonómica. Se ha realizado una búsqueda bibliográfica específica de las publicaciones que utilizan datos de los registros sanitarios incluidos y se han evaluado aplicando los criterios de calidad de la evidencia científica. Resultados: Se han identificado 107 registros sanitarios, preferentemente de cobertura local o regional (71% y dependientes en su mayoría de la Administración autonómica (64,5%. Las áreas con mayor número de registros identificados corresponden a la mortalidad (16,8% y al cáncer (15,9%. Se han recuperado 298 publicaciones que analizan datos producidos por los registros identificados, de las que la mayoría se dedican al estudio de la frecuencia y distribución de los eventos registrados (58,1% y con menor frecuencia a la realización de estudios de evaluación de tecnologías sanitarias (24,4%. Conclusiones: La evaluación crítica de las publicaciones ha permitido identificar algunos elementos relacionados con el diseño y la metodología de análisis que incrementarían la calidad de los estudios de evaluación de tecnologías sanitarias.Los registros sanitarios en España han tenido un desarrollo desigual y reciente. Se han detectado áreas relevantes sin registros y elementos de mejora relacionados con la utilización de los registros sanitarios para

  9. Características de 107 registros sanitarios españoles y valoración de su utilización (parte b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñaki Imaz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La información sobre los registros sanitarios existentes en nuestro país es poco accesible y escasa y algunos son poco conocidos, pudiendo estar infrautilizados en relación con sus múltiples usos potenciales. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar las características de los Registros Sanitarios españoles y su utilización, especialmente en Evaluación de Tecnologías Sanitarias. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal de los Registros Sanitarios españoles entre 1997 y 2002. La identificación de los registros se realizó a través de búsqueda bibliográfica y mediante encuesta a Sociedades Científicas y Administración sanitaria central y autonómica. Se ha realizado una búsqueda bibliográfica específica de las publicaciones que utilizan datos de los registros sanitarios incluidos y se han evaluado aplicando los criterios de calidad de la evidencia científica. Resultados: Se han identificado 107 registros sanitarios, preferentemente de cobertura local o regional (71% y dependientes en su mayoría de la Administración autonómica (64,5%. Las áreas con mayor número de registros identificados corresponden a la mortalidad (16,8% y al cáncer (15,9%. Se han recuperado 298 publicaciones que analizan datos producidos por los registros identificados, de las que la mayoría se dedican al estudio de la frecuencia y distribución de los eventos registrados (58,1% y con menor frecuencia a la realización de estudios de evaluación de tecnologías sanitarias (24,4%. Conclusiones: La evaluación crítica de las publicaciones ha permitido identificar algunos elementos relacionados con el diseño y la metodología de análisis que incrementarían la calidad de los estudios de evaluación de tecnologías sanitarias.Los registros sanitarios en España han tenido un desarrollo desigual y reciente. Se han detectado áreas relevantes sin registros y elementos de mejora relacionados con la utilización de los registros sanitarios para

  10. La literatura como fuente de la historia : los republicanos españoles en los campos de concentración

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodríguez Richart

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Al terminar en 1939 la Guerra Civil española, centenares de miles de republicanos se refugiaron en Francia, muchos de ellos lucharon después contra las tropas de ocupación nazis y contra el régimen de Vichy, muchos de ellos fueron detenidos y deportados a campos de concentración alemanes (caso de Max Aub, internado en Le Vernet primero y en Djelfa en Argelia después. Como hicieron otros republicanos españoles en esas circunstancias, Semprún reconstruyó su permanencia en Buchenwaid en varios de sus libros pero especialmente en Aquel domingo con el propósito de transmitir un testimonio histórico de la lucha contra el nazismo y de los horrores increíbles de esos campos a las nuevas generaciones. Max Aub, por su parte, también ha descrito en varias de sus obras sus atroces experiencias tanto en Le Vernet como en Djelfa, pero de forma especial en Diario de Djelfa, campo equiparable a los peores de exterminio nazi. Esas dos obras de Semprún y de Aub son una contribución de indudable valor histórico para reconstruir las inimaginables experiencias de los republicanos españoles en los campos de concentración de Alemania y Francia.At the end of the Spainsh Civil War in 1939, hundreds of thousands of republicans fled to France, many of them later fought against the nazi occupation forces and the Vichy regime, many of them were arrested and deported to German concentration camps (as was the case of Jorge Semprún, who was taken to Buchenwaid or French internment camps (such as Max Aub, who was internad first at Le Vernet and later at Djelfa, Algeria. Like other republicans who lived through the same circumstances, Semprún revived the time he had to spent in Buchenwaid in several of his books, but especially in Aquel domingo with the aim of bearing testimony to the new generations of the struggle against nazism and the incredible horrors committed in those camps. Max Aub has described in several of his works the terrible experiencias he

  11. TIPOLOGÍA Y GRADO DE PREJUICIO DE UN GRUPO DE ESPAÑOLES HACIA EL COLECTIVO COLOMBIANO. UNA LECTURA CON PERSPECTIVA DE GÉNERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Herrera Rubalcaba

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación identifi ca la tipología y el grado de prejuicio que un grupo de españoles, residente en la provincia de Almería (España, presenta hacia el colectivo de inmigrantes colombianos. Para recabar la información se contactó a 16 mujeres y 14 hombres que respondían a la escala de Pettigrew y Meertens (1995, adaptada por Rueda; Navas y Gómez (1995 y Rueda y Navas (1996. En una lectura con perspectiva de género de las respuestas se observa que, en este contexto de migración y multiculturalidad, más de la mitad de mujeres y hombres del total de participantes se presenta en la misma proporción como personas “igualitarias”. El resto, seis españolas y cuatro españoles, presentan prejuicio sutil hacia el colectivo colombiano. En esta investigación ni mujeres ni hombres se pueden identifi car como “fanáticos”. Los resultados se discuten en relación con los encontrados en otras investigaciones. AbstractThis research paper aims to identify typology and prejudice based on information using a group of Spanish people who live in Almería (Spain, in relation to a group of Colombian immigrants. In order to support this information, sixteen women and fourteen men who responded to Pettigrew & Meertens Scale (1995, and adapted by Rueda et al. (1995 and Rueda & Navas (1996, were used as a sample. The answers, based on gender perspective, showed that more than half of the total men and women are presented in the same proportion as “egalitarian”. The rest of the people, six Spanish males and four Spanish females, presented subtle prejudice towards Colombians. So, in this research project neither women, nor men can be identifi ed as “fanatic”. The results also are controversial in relation with the ones found in other studies.

  12. Effect of the substituents on the photophysical, electrochemical and electroluminescence properties of OLED dopant Iridium bis(2-phenylbenzothiozolato- N,C2')(acetylacetonate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, P.; Tomova, R.; Petrova, P.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of two substituents: clorine and 1,3-diphenylpropane-1,3-dionate, placed on different position in the molecule of Iridium (III) bis(2-phenylbenzothiozolato-N,C2')- (acetylacetonate) (bt)2Ir(acac), on its electrochemical behaviour, photophysical and electroluminescence properties were investigated. Three complexes (bt)2Ir(acac), Iridium (III) bis[2-(4-chlorophenyl)benzothiazolato-N,C2']-acetylacetonate (Clbt)2Ir(acac), in which the Cl atom was introduced on the 4-position in the benzothiazole ring, and the new Iridium (Ill) bis[2 -phenylbenzothiazolato -N,C2'] -(1,3 -diphenylpropane-1,3 -dionate) (bt)2Ir(dbm), where ancillary acetylacetonate ligand was replaced by 1,3-diphenylpropane-1,3-dionate, were synthesized and characterised by 1H-NMR and elemental analysis. The HOMO/LUMO energy levels of the complexes were determined by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and their properties were established by UV-Visible and fluorescence spectroscopy. The application of (Clbt)2Ir(acac), (bt)2Ir(bsm) and (bt)2Ir(acac) as dopants in hole transporting layer (HTL) of Organic light- emitting diodes(OLEDs). It was found that with respect to the reference (bt)2Ir(acac): both LUMO and HOMO of the substituted complexes were shifted to more positive values accordingly with 0.23 and 0.19 eV for (Clbt)2Ir(acac) and 0.14 and 0.12 eV for (bt)2Ir(dbm). OLEDs doped with 1 w% of the complexes irradiated the warm white light with Commission internationale de l'eclairage (CIE) coordinates: 0.24;0.38 for (Clbt)2Ir(acac), 0.30;0.44 for (bt)2Ir(acac) and 0.28;0.46 for (bt)2Ir(dbm). Devices doped with 10 w% of all complexes irradiated in the yellow orange region of the spectrum.

  13. Preparedness against power crises in the Nordic countries; Aapner for Norden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abelsen, Atle

    2004-07-01

    In the so-called Akureyri declaration the Nordic energy ministers presented their requests and claims to the system operators about supply security and exchange capacity between the countries. Some special issues are grid strengthening, common principles for how to deal with export and import, and a common transmission system operator. The ministers want to make international lines a priority. A common, Nordic grid company is probably not of current interest. Of the transmission system operators, only Statnett (Norway) is ready to consider a supranational perspective. Although the Nordic energy market is the most well-functioning energy market in the world, the ministers are not entirely satisfied and want further improvement. The first step will be to work out organizational models for how the grid operation and system responsibility can be managed by the countries jointly and thus improve the preparedness. The major power customers fear that a power crisis in one country may cause a cascade outage to spread in the neighbouring countries without the authorities being prepared. Experts disagree about the likelihood of a power crisis the next years. However, consumption is increasing much faster than production. After the liberalization of the energy market in 1991, the investments in the physical power system have decreased dramatically.

  14. Entreprenørskab og vækst blandt akademikere i Norden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønsted, Mette; Edqvist, Charles; Gabrielsson, Jonas

    in a particular way – a way that we may expect will become more common in our knowledge society. Comparing the three Nordic countries has been challenging. In spite of the differences of size between the three Nordic countries the number of entrepreneurs is remarkably similar, with a slight overweight...... of entrepreneurs in Norway. In the report we focus on entrepreneurs and growth entrepreneurs with a tertiary education. In Denmark we define tertiary education as a university master degree, based on five years of university study. In Norway we define tertiary education as a master degree or equivalent, based...... or more in the chapter comparing data from the three national studies. The statistic data in the report is based on figures on academic entrepreneurs starting their company in 2004 and following the development in the number of entrepreneurs until 2008. Growth entrepreneurs are defined as entrepreneurs...

  15. Kan elevene mindre enn før? Naturfagkompetanse i Norden i perioden 1995 – 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit Kjærnsli

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents and discusses changes in science competency in the period from 1995 to 2003 in the Nordic countries based on analyses of data from PISA and TIMSS. One central feature of the PISA and TIMSS surveys is to study changes in students’ competency over time in absolute terms. Some items are kept secure from cycle to cycle, and based on these items it is possible to create trend data, i.e. to place students who have taken tests at different times on the same cognitive scale. This is done by the use of modern psychometrical methods. The results show a decline in Norway and Sweden, while a positive development is found in Finland.

  16. Energy research and development projects in the Nordic countries. Directory 1986. Energiforskningsprojekter i Norden. Katalog 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This is the fourth directory of research, development and demonstration projects in the Nordic countries within the field of energy. The 1986 directory includes projects running in 1986. 2172 projects are described and all of them are financed through special public funds (i.e. external funding). The energy research organisation in each Nordic country is briefly reviewed in the appendixes, and a list of relevant newsletters are given. The directory is published at the request if the Nordic Council of Ministers and a special Energy Reseach Committee set up by the Nordic energy ministers in order to coordinate and promote Nordic information sharing in the energy field. (author)

  17. Energy research and development projects in the Nordic countries. Directory 1985. Energiforskningsprojekter i Norden. Katalog 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This is the third directory of research, development and demonstration projects in the Nordic countries within the field of energy. The 1985 directory includes projects running in 1985. 1757 projects are described and all of them are financed through special public funds (i.e. external funding). The directory is published at the request of the Nordic Council of Ministers and a special Energy Research Committee set up by the Nordic energy ministers in order to coordinate and promote Nordic information sharing in the energy field. (author)

  18. Ulykker og ulykkesdødsfald i Danmark - en sammenligning med Norden og EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T B; Röck, N D; Poulstrup, A

    1994-01-01

    -years remained constant. The subcategory, fatal road accidents, manifested a marked reduction in incidence, despite the increase in traffic density during the period, and there was a reduction in the loss of life-years. Thus, in the category, accidental deaths, the increase in the incidence of accidental...... increase in the incidence of accidental poisoning with medical drugs and alcohol during the period was found to be a factor contributing to the poorer Danish statistics during the period. In the subcategory, death after a fall, there was an increase in incidence among the elderly, but the loss of life...

  19. Improved electron injection in spin coated Alq3 incorporated ZnO thin film in the device for solution processed OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasi, Gnyaneshwar; Ramarajan, R.; Thangaraju, Kuppusamy

    2018-04-01

    We deposit tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) incorporated zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films by spin coating method under the normal ambient. It showed the higher transmittance (90% at 550 nm) when compared to that (80% at 550 nm) of spin coated pure ZnO film. SEM studies show that the Alq3 incorporation in ZnO film also enhances the formation of small sized particles arranged in the network of wrinkles on the surface. XRD reveals the improved crystalline properties upon Alq3 inclusion. We fabricate the electron-only devices (EODs) with the structure of ITO/spin coated ZnO:Alq3 as ETL/Alq3 interlayer/LiF/Al. The device showed the higher electron current density of 2.75 mA/cm2 at 12V when compared to that (0.82 mA/cm2 at 12V) of the device using pure ZnO ETL. The device results show that it will be useful to fabricate the low-cost solution processed OLEDs for future lighting and display applications.

  20. Evidencia empírica de los economistas españoles tras 5 años de aplicación de la reforma contable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Marín Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcurridos 5 años desde la aplicación efectiva de la reforma contable en España, con el presente trabajo se ha buscado mostrar la opinión de los «Economistas Expertos en Contabilidad e Información Financiera» (ECIFCGE sobre diversas cuestiones relacionadas con la misma. Para ello se ha utilizado una base empírica obtenida de sendas encuestas realizadas en 2008, 2009 y, la última, a finales del año 2012. De forma general se concluye que los economistas españoles, de este ámbito de la profesión, tienen un amplio conocimiento de la normativa que emana de la reforma contable; que este ha aumentado y/o se ha consolidado con el paso del tiempo; que las complicaciones han disminuido con el transcurso del mismo, que ven ahora con menos distancia la adaptación y el uso de las NIC/NIIF, y que su dominio ha aumentado con el grado de conocimiento y formación. De forma específica siguen ocupando mayor dedicación las áreas de patrimonio neto, valoración de activos y pasivos financieros, derivados, grupos 8 y 9, partes vinculadas y resultados extraordinarios, pero con valores medios en disminución por cada año transcurrido.

  1. Conducta sexual segura y hábitos de salud en jóvenes españoles de 14 a 24 años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Faílde Garrido

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Los jóvenes son un colectivo de especial importancia para la prevención de enfermedades de transmisión sexual y para la promoción de la salud en general, por ello resulta de interés estudiar las causas y determinantes de sus conductas de salud. El objetivo de esta investigación consistió en estudiar el grado de relación existente entre la conducta de uso del preservativo y otros hábitos de salud, en jóvenes españoles de 14 a 24 años. La muestra estuvo formada por 2171 jóvenes de las comunidades autónomas de Galicia, Andalucía y Madrid. Los resultados indican la existencia de diferencias estadísticamente significativas en función del género. En general las chicas presentan hábitos más saludables, a excepción de la práctica deportiva y el uso sistemático del preservativo masculino. Asimismo, las variables práctica deportiva e higiene buco-dental se muestran como predictores confiables de la conducta de usar el preservativo.

  2. MEDIDA DEL RENDIMIENTO DE LAS JUNTAS DE OBRAS DE LOS PUERTOS ESPAÑOLES DURANTE LA NOVENA LEGISLATURA DE LA DICTADURA FRANQUISTA (1962-1965

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidoro Guzmán Raja

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Los enclaves portuarios son importantes centros de desarrollo económico, cuya actuación eficiente es una premisa fundamental de su modelo de negocio para ofrecer adecuadamente los servicios que prestan. En este sentido, el presente trabajo está dedicado al estudio del rendimiento de los puertos españoles durante el periodo 1962-1965, los cuales se encontraban gestionados por las entonces denominadas Juntas de Obras del Puerto (en adelante JOP, que hoy en día conocemos con el apelativo de Autoridades Portuarias (en adelante AP. Sobre un censo de 29 JOP para el periodo objeto de estudio, se aplicó la técnica no paramétrica del Análisis Envolvente de Datos (Data Envelopment Analysis, DEA (Charner et al., 1978; Banker et al., 1984 para determinar las puntuaciones de rendimiento basadas en el trazado de fronteras eficientes por periodos anuales, a partir de la implementación de un modelo de eficiencia en el que se recogen los principales variables en que se basa el servicio portuario. El trabajo se complementa con el cálculo del Índice de Productividad Total de los Factores de Malmquist (Färe et al., 1994, con el fin de conocer la evolución del cambio productivo, junto por el cambio tecnológico y en eficiencia de los puertos evaluados.

  3. Exploration of spectroscopic properties of solvated tris(thenoyltrifluoroacetonate)(2,2′-bipyridine)europium(III)red hybrid organic complex for solution processed OLEDs and displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitnis, Dipti [Department of Physics, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur 440033 (India); Thejokalyani, N., E-mail: thejokalyani@rediffmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Laxminarayan Institute of Technology, Nagpur 440033 (India); Dhoble, S.J. [Department of Physics, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur 440033 (India)

    2017-05-15

    In order to explore the spectroscopic properties of a novel europium activated hybrid organic tris(thenoyltrifluoroacetonate)(2,2′-bipyridine)europium(III), Eu(TTA){sub 3}bipy phosphor in various solvents at different pH and molar concentrations, UV–vis optical absorption and photoluminescence spectra were carried out. With a variation in the solvent from basic (chloroform, toluene, tetrahydrofuran) to acidic (acetic acid, formic acid) media, staggering differences in optical absorptions and optical densities were noticed with hypsochromic shift in the absorption peaks. The optical density was found to be maximum for the complex with pH= 7.0 and the intensity as well as optical density gradually decreased when pH is lowered to 6.0 or raised to 8.0 (at an interval of 0.5), proving that the complex is pH sensitive. It's optical energy gap and stokes shift values in various organic solvents were also calculated on the basis of Lippert-Mataga plot. The exploration of spectroscopic properties of solvated Eu(TTA){sub 3}bipy complex demonstrates its prospective for solution processed OLEDs and display devices. - Graphical abstract: Pictorial depiction of photoluminescence in solvated Eu(TTA){sub 3}bipy complex under UV light.

  4. El mercado de trabajo de los diplomados españoles en biblioteconomía y documentación

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    Antonio Moreiro, José

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the job market for those who gratuated in Library and Information Science in the academic year 1991-92. The survey has been based on data collected by means of a questionnaire sent to the forementioned graduates in 1993. It provides information concerning current levels of employment, employment status, job description, contractual commitments and a description of the various employers. The final part of the article consists of the opinions of those polled concerning their particular employment and the profession in general.

    Se analiza el mercado de trabajo de los diplomados españoles en Biblioteconomía y Documentación de la promoción 1991-1992. El estudio se basa en los datos recogidos a través de un cuestionario enviado a los diplomados a finales de 1993. Se ofrece información sobre los índices de empleo, las categorías profesionales de los puestos que ocupan, las funciones desarrolladas en ellos, la relación contractual que mantienen con la institución contratante, así como el tipo de centros en los que trabajan. La última parte del artículo recoge las opiniones que los propios encuestados tienen de la profesión y de su realidad laboral.

  5. Los estudios en los seminarios españoles del siglo XIX. El ejemplo de la diócesis compostelana

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    Vázquez Vilanova, José Antonio

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Taking the seminar of Santiago as the pattern, firstly I have tried to establish the main guidelines followed for the training of the Spanish seminarists during the 19th century. In order to do so, besides indicating the evolution brought about and the changes formed by the apparition of the seminar on the previous system, other questions have also been tackled, such as the way studies are structured, taught subjects, ideological orientations, or the methodology used. At the same time, the application and improvement level shown by the students has been taken into account both by the exams'results and by the academic years involved and the grades obtained.

    Tomando el Seminario de Santiago como modelo, he tratado primeramente de establecer cuáles fueron las principales pautas seguidas para la formación de los seminaristas españoles durante el siglo XIX. Para ello, además de indicar la evolución que respecto al sistema anterior supuso la aparición del seminario, se han abordado cuestiones referidas a la estructura de los estudios, asignaturas impartidas, orientaciones ideológicas o metodología empleada. Por su parte, el nivel de aplicación y aprovechamiento mostrado por los alumnos ha sido abordado tanto por los resultados de los exámenes como por los años cursados y calificaciones obtenidas.

  6. La competencia digital de los políticos españoles en Twitter. El caso de las elecciones europeas de 2014

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    Roberto Gelado Marcos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Twitter se ha convertido en un controvertido objeto de debate en varios aspectos de la vida pública. Sin embargo, antes de plantearnos la educación mediática que eclosiones como la de Twitter requiere de una ciudadanía que ve la oportunidad de sumergirse de nuevo en profundidad en la esfera pública, cabe preguntarse si actores de suma importancia en ella como los políticos entienden bien estas nuevas posibilidades de comunicación con sus gobernados. Este artículo pretende contribuir a el debate entre quienes defienden el potencial de la red de microblogging y quienes constatan, en cambio, que los actores que la utilizan no están exprimiendo tal potencial. Para ello, hemos analizado el uso que de Twitter se hizo por parte de los líderes políticos españoles más significativos durante las Elecciones Europeas de 2014, combinando a tal fin metodologías cuantitativas y cualitativas que permitan un análisis más profundo de sus discursos y su comprensión de la herramienta.

  7. Shedding light on the photophysical properties of newly designed platinum(II) complexes by adding substituents on functionalized ligands as highly efficient OLED emitters from a theoretical viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jieqiong [Institute of Environmental and Analytical Sciences, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); Wang, Li, E-mail: chemwangl@henu.edu.cn [Institute of Environmental and Analytical Sciences, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); Wang, Xin [Institute of Environmental and Analytical Sciences, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); He, Chaozheng, E-mail: hecz2013@nynu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Normal University, Nanyang 473061 (China); Zhang, Jinglai, E-mail: zhangjinglai@henu.edu.cn [Institute of Environmental and Analytical Sciences, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China)

    2015-08-01

    The phosphorescent properties of three synthesized and three new designed platinum(II) complexes are focused on in this work. To reveal their structure–property relationships, a density functional theory/time-dependent density functional theory (DFT/TDDFT) investigation is performed on the geometric and electronic structures, absorption and emission spectra. The electroluminescent (EL) properties are evaluated by the ionization potential (IP), electron affinity (EA), and reorganization energy (λ). Furthermore, the radiative rate constant (k{sub r}) is qualitatively elucidated by various factors including the strength of the SOC interaction between the higher-lying singlet excited states (S{sub n}) and the T{sub 1} state, the oscillator strength (f) of the S{sub n} states that can couple with the T{sub 1} state, and the energy separation between the coupled states. A combined analysis of various elements that could affect the phosphorescent efficiency is beneficial to exploring efficient triplet phosphors in OLEDs. Consequently, complexes Pt-1 and 1 would be more suitable blue-emitting phosphorescent materials with balance of EL properties and acceptable quantum yields. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The absorption and phosphorescence spectra of Pt(II) complexes are investigated. • Their Φ{sub em}, IP, EA, and reorganization energy are compared. • Three new Pt(II) complexes are designed.

  8. Estudio Psicométrico del Índice de Carga Mental NASA-TLX con una Muestra de Trabajadores Españoles

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    Eva Díaz Ramiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las propiedades psicométricas del instrumento de evaluación de la carga mental de trabajo NASA-TLX en distintos grupos profesionales españoles. La muestra estuvo formada por 398 trabajadores que pertenecían a siete sectores profesionales diferentes. Todos los trabajadores evaluaron la carga mental percibida en sus puestos de trabajo, debida a cada una de las seis dimensiones de carga que distingue el NASA-TLX: esfuerzo, demanda mental, demanda física, demanda temporal, rendimiento y frustración. Los resultados mostraron una consistencia interna aceptable y una estructura factorial constituida por dos factores. Uno de los factores estaba formado únicamente por la dimensión "frustración", mientras que el otro factor englobaba a las cinco dimensiones restantes. Por último, se encontraron diferencias importantes en los perfiles de carga mental entre los grupos profesionales considerados, en todas las dimensiones de carga, excepto en rendimiento.

  9. En busca de mejor fortuna: Movilidad ocupacional y espacial de los inmigrantes españoles pobres en el Buenos Aires tardo-colonial

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    Mariana A Pérez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante el período tardo-colonial, numerosos españoles inmigraron a Buenos Aires alentados por la prosperidad económica de la región rioplatense. La mayoría se mantuvo entre los sectores medios y bajos de la sociedad, formando parte de las clases populares rioplatenses: eran soldados, marineros, artesanos, ocupaban un puesto menor en la burocracia, y sobre todo, fueron pequeños comerciantes. Sus vidas en el Río de la Plata estuvieron signadas por una fuerte movilidad espacial y ocupacional, especialmente en los primeros años posteriores a su llegada. En este trabajo se estudia este último aspecto de sus experiencias migratorias, para lo cual se analizan padrones de población y fuentes judiciales.During the late colonial period, numerous Spaniards immigrated to Buenos Aires, encouraged by the economic prosperity of the River Plate region. The vast majority belonged to the popular classes: they were soldiers, sailors, artisans, filled the low ranks of the bureaucracy and, most of them, were small merchants. Their lives in the River Plate were characterized by a strong spatial and occupational mobility, specially during the first years after their arrival. This paper analyzes this aspect of their migratory experiences through the study of population records and criminal procedures.

  10. Perfeccionismo y factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de trastornos alimentarios en adolescentes españoles de ambos géneros

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    Lidia Pamies

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar las dimensiones del perfeccionismo que estaban relacionadas con conductas alimentarias de riesgo en adolescentes españoles de ambos géneros, así como analizar si existían diferencias significativas en estas dimensiones entre los adolescentes con mayor y menor riesgo de desarrollar un trastorno de la conducta alimentaria. Método: se administró la adaptación española de The Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (CAPS y el EAT- 40 a una muestra representativa de 2142 adolescentes de la provincia de Alicante(1130 chicas y 1012 chicos, con una media de edad de 13.96 años (DT = 1.34. Resultados: el perfeccionismo auto-orientado y el prescrito socialmente estaban relacionados de forma positiva con la puntuación total en el EAT-40 y los diferentes factores que lo componen, en ambos géneros. Los adolescentes con mayor riesgo de desarrollar un trastorno alimentario presentaban un mayor perfeccionismo auto-orientado y prescrito socialmente que los adolescentes con menor riesgo de desarrollar el problema. Conclusión: Estos resultados sugieren la necesidad de identificar estas tendencias perfeccionistas en los adolescentes antes de que se conviertan en conductas patológicas, como un medio para prevenir el desarrollo de un trastorno alimentario.

  11. Efficient triplet application in exciplex delayed-fluorescence OLEDs using a reverse intersystem crossing mechanism based on a ΔES-T of around zero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianyou; Chu, Bei; Li, Wenlian; Su, Zisheng; Peng, Qi Ming; Zhao, Bo; Luo, Yongshi; Jin, Fangming; Yan, Xingwu; Gao, Yuan; Wu, Hairuo; Zhang, Feng; Fan, Di; Wang, Junbo

    2014-08-13

    We demonstrate highly efficient exciplex delayed-fluorescence organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) in which 4,4',4″-tris[3-methylphenyl(phenyl)aminotriphenylamine (m-MTDATA) and 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) were selected as donor and acceptor components, respectively. Our m-MTDATA:Bphen exciplex electroluminescence (EL) mechanism is based on reverse intersystem crossing (RISC) from the triplet to singlet excited states. As a result, an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 7.79% at 10 mA/cm(2) was observed, which increases by 3.2 and 1.5 times over that reported in Nat. Photonics 2012, 6, 253 and Appl. Phys. Lett. 2012, 101, 023306, respectively. The high EQE would be attributed to a very easy RISC process because the energy difference between the singlet and triplet excited states is almost around zero. The verdict was proven by photoluminescence (PL) rate analysis at different temperatures and time-resolved spectral analysis. Besides, the study of the transient PL process indicates that the presence of an unbalanced charge in exciplex EL devices is responsible for the low EQE and high-efficiency roll-off. When the exciplex devices were placed in a 100 mT magnetic field, the permanently positive magnetoelectroluminescence and magnetoconductivity were observed. The magnetic properties confirm that the efficient exciplex EL only originates from delayed fluorescence via RISC processes but is not related to the triplet-triplet annihilation process.

  12. Relación entre la imagen corporal y los trastornos del comportamiento alimentario en una serie de jóvenes españoles y argentinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marrodán, María D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la conformidad con la imagen corporal y prevalencia de trastornos del comportamiento alimentario (TCA en una muestra de 517 jóvenes españoles y 490 argentinos. Se calculó el índice de masa corporal (IMC y se relacionó la imagen real con la estimada mediante un método gráfico de siluetas. Para conocer la conducta alimentaria se utilizó un el test psicométrico de respuesta múltiple. Respecto a la autopercepción no existen diferencias significativas en función del país de origen pero si hay diferencias de género. También se tuvieron en cuenta las preferencias por el sexo contrario, así como la imagen considerada más saludable. La insatisfacción con la propia imagen aparece como probable factor de predisposición al desarrollo de TCA, que presenta una frecuencia mas elevada en la serie femenina española.

  13. «Extranjeros perniciosos». Infractores y delincuentes españoles en la ciudad de México (1910-1936

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    Gil Lázaro, Alicia

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available This article studies a sector of the Spanish immigrants who lived in Mexico City during the Mexican revolution and the first two post-revolutionary decades. It focuses on every-day life through the analysis of their illegal and violent behavior within their homes, workplace and recreational spaces, as well as on the common crimes (against property, etc. they committed. Mexican authorities labeled them as «pernicious» foreigners.

    Este artículo trata de acercarse a las vidas de un grupo de inmigrantes españoles en la Ciudad de México durante la revolución mexicana y las primeras décadas posrevolucionarias. La mirada se centra en sus comportamientos delictivos que incluyen actitudes violentas en ámbitos domésticos, de trabajo y de ocio y recreación y también delitos contra la propiedad y otros. Las autoridades mexicanas los calificaron en la época como «extranjeros perniciosos».

  14. Correlation between airborne Olea europaea pollen concentrations and levels of the major allergen Ole e 1 in Córdoba, Spain, 2012-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, M. P.; Alcázar, P.; Galán, C.

    2016-12-01

    Olea europaea L. pollen is the second-largest cause of pollinosis in the southern Iberian Peninsula. Airborne-pollen monitoring networks provide essential data on pollen dynamics over a given study area. Recent research, however, has shown that airborne pollen levels alone do not always provide a clear indicator of actual exposure to aeroallergens. This study sought to evaluate correlations between airborne concentrations of olive pollen and Ole e 1 allergen levels in Córdoba (southern Spain), in order to determine whether atmospheric pollen concentrations alone are sufficient to chart changes in hay fever symptoms. The influence of major weather-related variables on local airborne pollen and allergen levels was also examined. Monitoring was carried out from 2012 to 2014. Pollen sampling was performed using a Hirst-type sampler, following the protocol recommended by the Spanish Aerobiology Network. A multi-vial cyclone sampler was used to collect aeroallergens, and allergenic particles were quantified by ELISA assay. Significant positive correlations were found between daily airborne allergen levels and atmospheric pollen concentrations, although there were occasions when allergen was detected before and after the pollen season and in the absence of airborne pollen. The correlation between the two was irregular, and pollen potency displayed year-on-year variations and did not necessarily match pollen-season-intensity.

  15. Por daños y perjuicios: reclamaciones de españoles en el Perú, siglos XIX-XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Riaza, Ascensión

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the second half of the 19th century Spanish residents in Peru managed to get wealthy and integrated in the economic power circles. They were traders and owners seeking profit through speculation in guano fertilizer, saltpeter and finance. They were affected by internal instability and the war with Chile, so that their expectations were not met and they made claims individually and collectively before Peruvian and Chilean authorities. As a last resort they used mediation by the Spanish government through its diplomatic representation in Lima. The article recovers especially significant cases of this claiming process.

    A lo largo de la segunda mitad del siglo XIX españoles residentes en el Perú lograron hacer fortuna y se integraron en los circuitos de poder económico. Comerciantes y propietarios, buscando beneficios, entraron en actividades especulativas en relación con el guano, el salitre y las finanzas. Afectados por la inestabilidad interna y por la guerra con Chile, no vieron cumplidas sus expectativas y reclamaron individual y colectivamente ante instancias peruanas y chilenas. Como último recurso acudieron a la mediación del gobierno español a través de la representación diplomática en Lima. El artículo rescata casos especialmente significativos.

  16. Exploration of spectroscopic properties of solvated tris(thenoyltrifluoroacetonate)(2,2′-bipyridine)europium(III)red hybrid organic complex for solution processed OLEDs and displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitnis, Dipti; Thejokalyani, N.; Dhoble, S.J.

    2017-01-01

    In order to explore the spectroscopic properties of a novel europium activated hybrid organic tris(thenoyltrifluoroacetonate)(2,2′-bipyridine)europium(III), Eu(TTA) 3 bipy phosphor in various solvents at different pH and molar concentrations, UV–vis optical absorption and photoluminescence spectra were carried out. With a variation in the solvent from basic (chloroform, toluene, tetrahydrofuran) to acidic (acetic acid, formic acid) media, staggering differences in optical absorptions and optical densities were noticed with hypsochromic shift in the absorption peaks. The optical density was found to be maximum for the complex with pH= 7.0 and the intensity as well as optical density gradually decreased when pH is lowered to 6.0 or raised to 8.0 (at an interval of 0.5), proving that the complex is pH sensitive. It's optical energy gap and stokes shift values in various organic solvents were also calculated on the basis of Lippert-Mataga plot. The exploration of spectroscopic properties of solvated Eu(TTA) 3 bipy complex demonstrates its prospective for solution processed OLEDs and display devices. - Graphical abstract: Pictorial depiction of photoluminescence in solvated Eu(TTA) 3 bipy complex under UV light.

  17. Turismo de eventos: los cruceros españoles en la inauguración del canal de suez de 1869

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Cerchiello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El 17 de noviembre de 1869 tuvo lugar el solemne acto de inauguración del Canal de Suez. Largamente celebrado por los medios de información, el histórico acontecimiento atrajo visitantes de toda Europa, generando asimismo la promoción de varios viajes organizados. Tras una breve introducción sobre los principales hechos que condujeron a la apertura de la nueva ruta marítima, este artículo se ocupa de dos singulares proyectos de cruceros turísticos españoles, en una época en la que los viajes de recreo al extranjero, y el turismo en general, sólo proliferaban entre las élites foráneas. Su estudio ayuda a esclarecer, por otra parte, algunos rasgos diferenciales de las primeras experiencias crucerísticas en España, que habían empezado a llevarse a cabo desde mediados del siglo XIX.

  18. Conducta prosocial y estrategias de aprendizaje en una muestra de estudiantes españoles de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria

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    Cándido J. Inglés

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio analizó la relación entre conducta prosocial y las estrategias de aprendizaje en una muestra de 2022 estudiantes españoles (51.1% varones de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO. La conducta prosocial fue medida con la escala de Conducta Prosocial del Teenage Inventory of Social Skills (TISS y las estrategias de aprendizaje fueron medidas con el Learning and Study Strategies Inventory-High School (LASSI-HS. Los análisis de regresión logística revelaron que la conducta prosocial es un predictor positivo y estadísticamente significativo de puntuaciones altas en las siguientes estrategias y habilidades de estudio: actitud hacia el éxito académico, motivación, procesamiento de la información, selección de ideas principales, ayudas al estudio, autoevaluación y estrategias de evaluación. Además, la conducta prosocial fue un predictor negativo y estadísticamente significativo de puntuaciones altas en ansiedad. Estos resultados fueron encontrados en varones, mujeres y en estudiantes de todos los cursos de ESO. Sin embargo, la conducta prosocial sólo fue un predictor positivo y estadísticamente significativo de altas puntuaciones en control del tiempo (en las muestras de 2o y 4o de ESO y en concentración (en las muestras de chicos y 4o de ESO.

  19. El desengaño del naturalismo: análisis de la evolución de algunos novelistas españoles del siglo XIX

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    Barrero Pérez, Óscar

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the Spanish writers' production during the Restoration exemplifies the constant attempt to assimilate the techniques of Naturalism, without necessarily conforming to its ideological premises. Among other aspects, this essay investigates the possibility of exploiting the idea of «Romantic hypotext» as a productive concept in the history of XIXth century literature —so as to open the way to the overcoming of the traditional dualism between Realism and Naturalism—, and draws the attention to the formal, stylistic and linguistic aspects of the text so far subordinated to the concern for content.La evolución de los escritores españoles de la Restauración ejemplifica el constante esfuerzo por asimilar la técnica del naturalismo, sin que esta absorción implicara conformidad con sus presupuestos ideológicos. Entre otros aspectos, se analizan en este artículo las posibilidades de hacer del hipotexto romántico un concepto productivo en la historia de la literatura decimonónica, hasta el punto tal vez de abrir la puerta a la superación de la dialéctica entre realismo y naturalismo, y se apuesta por la atención a los aspectos formales, estilísticos y lingüísticos hasta hoy soterrados por un criterio que prima el contenido del texto.

  20. De coyotes y gallinas: Hispanidad, identidad nacional y comunidad política durante la expulsión de españoles

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    Pani, Erika

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores one of the most contentious moments in the struggle to redefine political community during the early independence period in Mexico: the 1827 expulsion of Spaniards, through the analysis of parliamentary debates and pamphleteer literature. It tries to uncover the borders that, according to the contenders, were to define the new national community, and the place within it of the «gachupines», now considered by some to be strangers.

    Este artículo explora uno de los momentos más candentes de las pugnas por redefinir la comunidad política durante los primeros años del México independiente: la expulsión de españoles de 1827, a partir del análisis de los discursos parlamentario y panfletario en la ciudad de México. Se trata de descubrir las fronteras que, según los contendientes, debían contener a la nueva comunidad nacional, y el lugar que, dentro de ésta, debían tener los «gachupines», ahora considerados, por algunos, como extraños.

  1. América en los manuales escolares españoles de historia (1900-1940: trayectória de una investigación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Oliveira Correia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available El texto que presentamos, es el relato de la búsqueda y análisis que hemos realizado en losmanuales de Historia españoles de la Enseñanza Secundaria con el objetivo de comprender losvínculos didáctico-pedagógicos del contenido sobre América presentes en la enseñanza de laHistoria. A través de la técnica de Análisis de Contenido hemos explorado los manualeseditados en las cuatro primeras décadas del siglo XX, para conocer en que partes delcontenido se localiza la temática América y desde cuales expresiones claves se centra lanarrativa; como los términos utilizados para hablar sobre América van evolucionando a lolargo del contenido del libro texto y a lo largo de los años en las publicaciones; yprincipalmente cual es el sentido de América para currículo de Historia Español.

  2. OBTENÇÃO DO BIODIESEL ATRAVÉS DA TRANSESTERIFICAÇÃO DO ÓLEO DE Moringa Oleífera Lam

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    Daniele Silva Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A Moringa Oleífera Lam é uma oleaginosa que tem um grande potencial para a produção de bicombustível no semi-árido nordestino, uma vez que se adapta a várias condições climáticas. A semente produz entre 35 % a 40 % de óleo. O objetivo desse trabalho foi obter o biodiesel através do processo de transesterificação e caracterizar as propriedades físico-químicas do óleo e biodiesel de acordo com as normas estabelecidas pela ANP. O biodiesel foi produzido pela rota metílica com o catalisador KOH. Os resultados mostraram que a semente de moringa produz óleo em boa quantidade com características físico-químicas adequadas para ser usado como matéria prima na transesterificação para obtenção de biodiesel. O teor de óleo médio encontrado para as sementes de moringa foi de 40 %, fornecendo rendimento de 83,68% em biodiesel e conversão dos ácidos graxos em ésteres metílicos de 99,9 %.

  3. Acercando los archivos a los ciudadanos. Una experiencia desde el Portal de Archivos Españoles (PARES del Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte

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    Sánchez Mairena, Alfonso

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish Archives Portal is the third generation in the computerization of the State Archives. It is intended to provide citizens and researchers with integrated on-line access to the archival databases of the eight state general archives distributed across Spain, while facsimiles or digital versions of the documents are added to the archival description catalogue. At the same time, PARES is producing a line of tools for electronic management of the public services offered in the network of the State Archives to researchers and members of the public visiting the archive in person. And thirdly, PARES is an archival platform intended to promote the whole range of possible dissemination strategies. The platform today is fundamentally a repository for the creation, management and dissemination of historical records. However, also it is involved in a process of transformation to accommodate the concepts of “open files” and web 2.0 principles. To do this, different courses of action are being pursued such as converting PARES into an OAI-PMH repository, which allows interoperability with other archival information systems, both Spanish and international, and the development of new tools and standards for the incorporating multilingual access Points.El Portal de Archivos Españoles supone la tercera generación en la informatización de los Archivos Estatales. Está destinado a facilitar a los investigadores y a los ciudadanos el acceso integrado en red a las bases de datos archivísticas de los ocho grandes archivos de titularidad estatal distribuidos por la geografía española, al mismo tiempo que se van incorporando los facsímiles u objetos digitales de los documentos. Al mismo tiempo, PARES elabora una línea de herramientas para la gestión electrónica de los servicios públicos ofrecidos en la red de centros a los investigadores y ciudadanos que acceden presencialmente. Y en tercer lugar, PARES es una plataforma destinada a favorecer

  4. Roles y medios de comunicación españoles, un estudio comparativo de tres décadas

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    B Gutiérrez San Miguel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Este artículo presenta los resultados parciales de una investigación interdisciplinar consecuencia de un proyecto de innovación subvencionado por la universidad de Salamanca. Objetivos. Los objetivos son la identificación de los roles representados en diversos documentos televisivos españoles de los años 60, 80 y 2000, y el detectar el cambio social de cada época. Metodología. Se utiliza una metodología mixta con la elaboración de una encuesta aplicada a estudiantes y profesores de diversos Máster para detectar la representación de los paradigmas sociales en la televisión en los períodos analizados, los valores y los estereotipos que los sustentan. Para analizar el cambio en las preguntas de la encuesta en las diferentes etapas, se realizaron anovas de medidas repetidas y la prueba post-hoc bonferroni para las variables cuantitativa, y las pruebas no paramétricas de Q Cochran y McNemar para las variables categóricas de respuesta dicotómica. Conclusión. Se establece un cambio de paradigma en la representación de los roles en el país, con una evolución desigual de los mismos. Los malos tratos se visibilizan en los documentos audiovisuales y estos parecen fundamentarse en la pérdida de la identidad tradicional.

  5. El lugar de la sátira en la poética: los tratados españoles del siglo XIX

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    González Alcázar, Felipe

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyse the satirical genre and its connections with Poetics in the Spanish Poetry and Rhetoric precept treatises of the nineteenth century. Throughout that century, literary theory was subject to major changes, such as the success of Hegel’s postulates on literary genres. Satire faces these changes and its own evolution: it was first identified with the Roman satura and afterwards through its various forms, it became a mixed or transitional genre. Its fragile nature seems to confront directly the normative perpetuity of treatises that, in spite of their rupture with romanticism, may be considered inheritors of the classicist principles.Se propone en este artículo investigar el género satírico y sus relaciones con la Poética a través de los tratados poético-retóricos de preceptiva españoles del siglo XIX. A lo largo de toda esa centuria la teoría literaria estuvo sujeta a grandes transformaciones, entre ellas, el triunfo de los principios hegelianos acerca de los géneros literarios. La sátira se enfrenta a esas mismas transformaciones y a su propia evolución: primero, identificada con la satura romana, y luego, a través de sus numerosas formas, convertida en un género mixto o de transición. Su lábil naturaleza parece enfrentarse directamente con la perennidad normativa de los tratados que, a pesar de la ruptura romántica, pueden considerarse herederos de los principios clasicistas.

  6. Planos de arquitectos españoles publicados en Roma (s. XIX: el Teatro de Marcelo y el Santuario de Hércules Vencedor

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    García Sánchez, Jorge

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the eighteenth century, numerous architects, including Spaniards, travelled to Rome to study the ancient monuments, at a time when a view of the Greco-Roman past prevailed in European art as an aesthetic solution and theoretical answer to outdated Baroque art. These works constitute an important graphic document of the condition of the classic monuments at that time, and they reflect the archaeological interest of the Enlightenment. As a perfectly developed science, architecture approached the analysis of Antiquity with a precision that did not exist in antiquarian mentality, as demonstrated in the two examples we offer here: the elaboration of the archaeological plans of the Theatre of Marcellus and the Sanctuary of Hercules Victor.En el siglo XVIII el estudio de los monumentos de la Antigu.edad condujo a numerosos arquitectos a Roma, incluidos los españoles, en una época en la que predominaba en las artes europeas una contemplación del pasado grecorromano como solución estética y respuesta teórica al caduco arte barroco. Estos trabajos constituyen una importante documentación gráfica del estado de los monumentos clásicos en aquel entonces, y reflejan las inquietudes arqueológicas del Siglo de la Ilustración. Al tratarse de una ciencia ya perfectamente desarrollada, la arquitectura abordó el análisis de la Antigu.edad con una precisión inexistente en la mentalidad anticuaria, como demuestran los dos ejemplos que ofrecemos: la elaboración de los planos del Teatro de Marcelo y del Santuario de Hércules Victor.

  7. El discurso de y sobre los desempleados españoles mayores de 45 años en los blogs

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    Diana Amber

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Los desempleados mayores de 45 años son un colectivo social que está sufriendo la crisis económica española actual con especial intensidad. Esto es silenciado por los medios de comunicación. Esta invisibilidad social reduce sus oportunidades de reincorporarse al mercado laboral y daña su autoimagen. Los blogs, como sitios webs personales sobre un contenido específico, pueden ser una alternativa de presencia en la sociedad de la información. La finalidad de este trabajo es comprender la situación de estas personas a través de los textos generados en los blogs dedicados a empleo y formación. Para ello se usa el análisis lingüístico y crítico del discurso. Se analizan 12 blog españoles de especial relevancia. En estos blog aparece información relevante para comprender y visibilizar a este colectivo y su problemática. Los resultados muestran las temáticas principales que componen el discurso, así como sus principales orientaciones y contenidos (vivencias personales, reflexión, orientación vocacional y profesional. Concluimos que su situación de invisibilidad, así como de falta real de empleo está afectando a sus vidas, familias, economías e identidades. Reivindican la necesidad de tener empleo para ser y sentirse ciudadanos. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1503266

  8. Study of structural and optical properties of ZnAlQ{sub 5} (zinc aluminum quinolate) organic phosphor for OLED applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpure, I. M., E-mail: indrajitnagpure@gmail.com; Painuly, Deepshikha [Physics, Department of Sciences and Humanities, National Institute of Technology,Uttarakhand-246174 (India); Rabanal, Maria Eugenia [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Chemical Engineering,University Carlos III of Madrid, Avd. Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-05-06

    The various composition of ZnAlQ{sub 5} such as Zn{sub 1.5}A{sub 10.5}Q{sub 5}, Zn{sub 1}Al{sub 1}Q{sub 5}, Zn{sub 0.5}Al{sub 1.5}Q{sub 5} organic phosphors were prepared via simple cost effective co-precipitation method. The FTIR, SEM, photoluminescence analysis of the prepared phosphors were reported. ZnQ{sub 2} and AlQ{sub 3} were also prepared by similar method and their properties were compared with different composition of ZnAlQ{sub 5}. The structural elucidation in the form of stretching frequencies of chemical bonds of the prepared phosphor was carried out using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The stretching frequency analysis confirms the formation of prepared phosphor materials. The SEM analysis shows the surface morphological behavior of prepared phosphor materials. Greenish photoluminescence were observed at 505 to 510 nm for the different composition of ZnAlQ{sub 5},in which Zn{sub 1.5}Al{sub 0.5}Q{sub 5} shows maximum luminescence intensity at 505 nm. PL emission of ZnQ{sub 2} was observed at 515 nm, while for AlQ{sub 3} at 520 nm. The blue shift of 10 nm was observed in Zn{sub 1.5}A{sub 10.5}Q{sub 5} due to modification of energy level due to presence of Zn{sup 2+} and Al{sup 3+}. The enhancement in PL intensity was observed in Zn{sub 1.5}A{sub 10.5}Q{sub 5} compared to the other composition due to transfer of energy between Zn{sup 2+} and quinolate complex. Optical properties of the prepared materials were evaluated for possible applications in organic light emitting devices (OLED).

  9. COMPRENDIENDO EL ALARGAMIENTO DE LA JUVENTUD: EXPLICACIONES A PARTIR DE LAS EXPERIENCIAS DE JÓVENES BRASILEÑOS Y ESPAÑOLES

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    Raquel Nascimento Coelho

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo busca comprender cómo explican los jóvenes el fenómeno del alargamiento de la juventud a partir de sus experiencias y de su evaluación del contexto social e histórico en el que se insertan. Realizamos una investigación cualitativa de diseño transversal con jóvenes de 25 a 29 años brasileños y españoles. Se llevaron a cabo 25 entrevistas individuales en profundidad  con hombres y mujeres, totalizando 50 entrevistados en ambos países. Las entrevistas fueron grabadas y transcritas, organizadas y categorizadas con el software Atlas-ti® y analizadas a través de análisis de contenido semántico.A partir del discurso de los entrevistados se evidencia dos modelos de explicación que toman como referencia aspectos extrínsecos e intrínsecos. Los primeros se refieren a la crisis económica y las dificultades de inserción laboral de los jóvenes, al aumento de la expectativa de vida, al permiso social e incentivo de la familia para seguir la vida de joven y a la influencia de los medios de comunicación en ese mismo sentido. Las explicaciones intrínsecas serían caracterizadas por los cambios de valores – vinculados a la prioridad dada a  aspectos financieros y de la vida profesional – y la valoración cada vez mayor de una ética hedonista que se observa en la juventud.

  10. La opinión de los consumidores españoles sobre los alimentos transgénicos y su seguridad

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    Múñoz, Emilio

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study on the public perception of food safety issues and transgenic foods among Spanish citizens. The results show two distinct types of behavior with respect to the acquisition of a product based on a new technology (like biotechnology: the behavior as consumers of a product, and the behavior as citizen and user of this technology. One of the reasons for this schism is the difference between the relatively high level of (general information and the low level of (specific knowledge with respect to this technology. People in Spain perceive transgenic foods as similar to existing industrial foodstuffs. This leads a majority of them to reject purchasing those products. These attitudes are in line with the responses given in relation to the introduction of regulation (labeling of transgenic foodstuffs.

    El presente artículo resume los resultados de una encuesta a ciudadanos españoles sobre su percepción de la seguridad alimentaria, especialmente en el área de los productos transgénicos. Los resultados indican que las personas se comportan de dos maneras distintas en el momento de comprar un producto: por un lado, como consumidores de un determinado producto y, por el otro, como usuarios (o ciudadanos-usuarios de tecnología. En ello influye que existe un alto nivel de información general sobre la biotecnología, pero todavía hay poco conocimiento sobre los aspectos específicos de los productos. La tecnología de los alimentos transgénicos se percibe en claves parecidas a los alimentos industriales existentes, lo que influye en las actitudes de compra (mayoritariamente de rechazo. Estas actitudes guardan relación con las respuestas aducidas para justificar el establecimiento de regulaciones (etiquetado sobre la comercialización de los alimentos modificados genéticamente.

  11. Simón Rodríguez Laso, un clérigo ilustrado en el colegio de San Clemente de los españoles

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    Nieto Sánchez, Carlos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Simón Rodríguez Laso (Montejo, Salamanca, 1751, Bologna, 1821 Doctor of Law for the University of Bologna, Dignity of the Maestrecuela of the Cathedral of Ciudad Rodrigo, Knight of the Order of Carlos III and Rector of the College of San Clemente (Bolonga, Italy from 1788 until his death, in 1821. This article seeks to highlight the Italian stage of a Spanish Enlightenment men, who fought for the survival of a characteristic institution of the Ancien Regime, San Clemente of the Spaniards College, which resisted the offensive of liberalism. The article also underlines Laso´s personality, learned and regalist, he saw off his reformist thinking because of the new ideas that emerged from French Revolution and devoted his life to the Hispanic College of Bologna.Simón Rodríguez Laso (Montejo, Salamanca, 1751, Bolonia, 1821 Doctor en Cánones por la Universidad de Bolonia, dignidad de de maestrescuela de la S. I. catedral de Ciudad Rodrigo, caballero de la Orden de Carlos III y rector del Colegio de San Clemente de Bolonia desde 1788 hasta su muerte en 1821. En este artículo se pretende dar a conocer la etapa italiana de un ilustrado español, que luchó por la supervivencia de una institución característica del Antiguo Régimen, el Colegio de San Clemente de los españoles de Bolonia, que resistió a la ofensiva del liberalismo. En el artículo se quieren también destacar algunos rasgos de la personalidad de Laso, ilustrado y regalista, que vio mitigado su pensamiento reformista por las nuevas ideas que surgieron de la Revolución Francesa y que consagró su vida al Colegio hispánico de Bolonia.

  12. Un estudio comparativo de los procesos de adaptación en jóvenes españoles emigrados al Reino Unido y a Chile durante el período 2010-2014

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    Rubén Rodríguez-Puertas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El art culo analiza como los j venes espa oles (entre los 25 y los 35 a os con titulaci n universitaria, emigrados al Reino Unido y a Chile entre 2010 y 2014, construyen sus procesos adaptativos en ambas sociedades. Estos procesos son complejos y dependen de diversos factores, tales como el nivel de cono - cimiento de la lengua del pa s de llegada, la habituaci n al clima de ese pa s, la posici n social adquirida tras la migraci n, la interacci n con la poblaci n aut ctona, las im genes construidas sobre la sociedad de partida, y su grado de integraci n en los nuevos espacios sociales a los que acceden, etc.. Dependien - do de todos estos factores pueden configurarse m ltiples trayectorias posibles de adaptaci n de los migrantes, para cuya sistematizaci n e investigaci n se propone un modelo explicativo tridimensional que distingue entre la adaptaci n nost lgica, la conversa y la cosmopolita. Dicho modelo es utilizado para analizar c mo los migrantes cuali cados construyen, deconstruyen y reconstruyen sus estrategias adaptativas en dos contextos socioecon micos y culturales tan distin - tos como son los del Reino Unido y Chile. En primer lugar, en el caso del Reino Unido, los procesos adaptativos muestran un car cter m s vers til, observ ndose trayectorias de adaptaci n de los j venes inmigrantes espa oles clasificables, respectivamente, como nost lgicas, conversas y cosmopolitas. Sin embargo, los j venes espa oles asentados en Chile se manifiestan muy afectados por el alto grado de privatizaci n de los problemas y los servicios p blicos existente en ese pa s, cuyos costes se considera han de asumirse individualmente. Ello hace que estos j venes migrantes, ante esta situaci n tan dif cil de entender y aceptar para ellos, desarrollen principalmente procesos de adaptaci n caracterizados por la nostalgia de su sociedad de origen y la idealizaci n del retorno.

  13. The annotative review of researches for applicants of the Doctor and the Candidate of the history specialities which were defended in the Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University in 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Boyko, O. V.

    2017-01-01

    A subject and maintenance of dissertations for the degree of Doctor and the Candidate of historical sciences which were defended in the specialized scientific advice D 08.051.14 in the Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University in 2015 is considered. For a year 2 dissertations for the degree of Doctor (specialty 07.00.01 "Нistory of Ukraine") and 4 dissertations for the degree of the Candidate (specialty 07.00.01 "Нistory of Ukraine" – 1 work, 07.00.06 "Нistoriography, a source study and...

  14. The annotative review of researches for applicants of the Doctor and the Candidate of the history specialities which were defended in the Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University in 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Boiko, O. V.

    2016-01-01

    A subject and maintenance of dissertations for the degree of Doctor and the Candidate of historical sciences which were defended in the specialized scientific advice D 08.051.14 in the Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University in 2014 is considered. For a year 4 dissertations for the degree of Doctor (specialty 07.00.01 – «Нistory of Ukraine») and 3 dissertations for the degree of the Candidate (specialty 07.00.01 – «Нistory of Ukraine» – 1 work, 07.00.06 – «Нistoriography, a source stu...

  15. La comunicación del cambio climático: análisis del discurso de los telediarios españoles sobre las cumbres de Cancún y Durban

    OpenAIRE

    Águila Coghlan, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Como parte de los requisitos para optar al grado de Doctor en Comunicación, Cambio Social y Desarrollo, se ha realizado una tesis doctoral cuyo título es “La comunicación del Cambio Climático: Análisis del Discurso de los Telediarios Españoles sobre las Cumbres de Cancún y Durban”. Este estudio se ha desarrollado en cinco partes consistentes en cinco capítulos y cinco anexos La Primera Parte se refiere al Marco Teórico, que en el Capítulo 1 comprende cuatro puntos principales: 1.Comunicación ...

  16. Éxito de la vulgaridad en la información futbolística de los medios de comunicación españoles: sensacionalismo, parcialidad y sexismo

    OpenAIRE

    Yepes Esteban, Álvaro

    2017-01-01

    Esta investigación analiza el rigor, la calidad y la ética de las informaciones futbolísticas en los medios de comunicación españoles. Para ello, se pone en tela de juicio el comportamiento informativo de los principales proveedores de información deportiva del país mediante el estudio del sensacionalismo, el partidismo y el sexismo existentes en sus contenidos, así como mediante la evaluación de la autenticidad de los mismos. También se estudia la preponderancia del deporte del fútbol en los...

  17. EL TRATAMIENTO INFORMATIVO DE LA INMIGRACIÓN EN LOS MEDIOS ESPAÑOLES UN ESTUDIO COMPARATIVO DE LA PRENSA Y TELEVISIÓN

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    Carlos Muñiz Muriel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La inmigración es un hecho social presente en todos los países de la Unión Europea, entre ellos España, donde en los últimos años su aumento poblacional extranjero ha ido unido a un incremento de las actitudes perjudiciales hacia la inmigración. El tratamiento informativo (framing que los medios de comunicación hacen de esta realidad puede tener una alta influencia en las opiniones y actitudes mantenidas por la opinión pública hacia la inmigración. Ello hace necesario el estudio del tipo de cobertura que en los últimos años han dado la prensa y televisión españolas, como medios informativos de mayor audiencia, a los inmigrantes y la inmigración a través de sus noticias. Para ello, se realizó un análisis de contenido de las noticias aparecidas en las principales cadenas de televisión y periódicos españoles durante el año 2004, que permitiera comprobar las hipótesis de investigación planteadas en el estudio. En este sentido, se observó que la mayoría de las noticias que daban cobertura informativa a la inmigración solían tener un carácter negativo y ser emplazadas dentro de la sección de nacional o sociedad. Además, los datos permitieron observar un tratamiento polarizado entre las noticias positivas, que presentaban la contribución económica de los inmigrantes, y las negativas, que vinculaban en mayor medida la inmigración con aspectos negativos como la violencia, siendo además éste el encuadre noticioso dominante. En último lugar, se observó una falta de contextualización temática en las noticias analizadas, con una especial predominancia de la televisión.

  18. La fotografía como documento informativo en las webs de los ministerios españoles. Acceso, visibilidad, funcionalidad y políticas de uso

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    Salvador-Benítez, Antonia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Public information constitutes a documentary corpus of exceptional interest. Its value has made it necessary to regulate both its use as well as its reutilization by means of specific laws, with the purpose of placing this information at the disposal of companies, institutions, researchers and citizens in general. An important part of this information consists of the photographic documents produced and distributed by public bodies, about which very few studies have been carried out. The purpose of this investigation is to learn more about the use of photographs as documents that are found on the websites of Spanish Ministries, by analyzing specific aspects such as the access to them, their visibility, functionality, documentation and rights. This investigation finds that users have at their disposal close to 30,000 photographs available on the web and concludes by recommending the creation of a common image bank to gather the dispersed photographs and normalize both functionality and terminology, as well as establishing common criteria for documenting the originals.La información pública constituye un corpus documental de excepcional interés. Sus valores han obligado a regular tanto el uso como la reutilización mediante leyes específicas, con el fin de ponerla a disposición de empresas, instituciones, investigadores y ciudadanos en general. Una parte de dicha información la constituyen los documentos fotográficos generados y difundidos a través de organismos públicos, sobre los que apenas se han realizado estudios. Se pretende con esta investigación conocer el uso de la fotografía como documento en las páginas webs de los ministerios españoles, analizando aspectos concretos como el acceso, la visibilidad, la funcionalidad, la documentación y los derechos. De la investigación resulta que los usuarios tienen a su disposición cerca de 30.000 fotografías en la web, y se concluye la necesidad de crear un banco de imágenes com

  19. Viajeros españoles por Europa en los años cuarenta del siglo XIX: tres formas de entender el relato de viaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peñate Rivero, Julio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the history of the Spanish travel literature, the 1840s have a particular place: after the Napoleonic Wars and the first Carlist War came a period of relative calm which encouraged visitors to Spain but also the Spanish to travel outside the Iberian Peninsula. France, Belgium, Netherlands and Germany are among the most attractive options. The variety of available texts gives the possibility to distinguish between at least three variants or perspectives: the travel story as discovery, as verification and as travel guide. This article intends to introduce these diverse perspectives from representative authors whose itineraries are partly similar: Modesto Lafuente, Ramón Mesonero Romanos y Ángel Fernández de los Ríos. There will be a special emphasis on the first author because he contributed in a special way to the history of the travel literature. Once the work of the others has been presented, there will be a brief conclusion to compare the variants presented.En la historia de la literatura de viajes española, la década de los años cuarenta del siglo XIX ocupa un lugar particular: después de las guerras napoleónicas y de la primera guerra carlista, se produce una relativa calma que no sólo favorece los viajes de los extranjeros hacia España, sino también los de los españoles hacia el exterior de la península ibérica. Entre las posibilidades más atractivas se encuentran Francia, Bélgica, los Países Bajos y Alemania. La diversidad de los textos disponibles permite distinguir al menos tres variantes o perspectivas: el relato como descubrimiento, como verificación y como manual de viaje. Este artículo se propone reflexionar sobre estas diversas perspectivas a partir de autores representativos, cuyos itinerarios son en parte semejantes: Modesto Lafuente, Ramón Mesonero Romanos y Ángel Fernández de los Ríos. Insistiremos en el primer autor por su especial contribución a la historia de la literatura viática y, una vez

  20. Revisión de los trabajos publicados sobre promoción de la salud en jóvenes españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Hernán García

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio ha sido revisar las intervenciones de promoción de la salud dirigidas a jóvenes españoles, publicadas entre los años 1995 y 2000 en español, y describirlas de acuerdo al ámbito en el que se han desarrollado, los temas a los que se han dirigido, la metodología y el diseño de evaluación utilizados y los resultados obtenidos. Se identificaron 214 intervenciones. Las drogas ilegales fueron el tema en el que se centraron el mayor número de intervenciones (29,8%, seguido por el alcohol (15,9%, las conductas sexuales de riesgo (14,6% y el ocio (12,6%. Las actividades realizadas con mayor frecuencia fueron: técnicas educativas participativas (30,7%, técnicas educativas expositivas (11,5% y elaboración de materiales educativos (11%. En el 80,8% de casos había constancia de que se había realizado una evaluación. De ellas, las más frecuente fueron las evaluaciones de proceso (73,7%, y las menos frecuente las evaluaciones de resultados a medio-largo plazo (2,2%. Las metodologías de evaluación más utilizadas fueron los cuestionarios (28,2%. La combinación de técnicas cualitativas y cuantitativas fue utilizada en el 13,2% de los casos. Las 4 intervenciones en las que se midió el impacto a medio-largo plazo tenían como objetivo la prevención o reducción del consumo de tabaco y/o alcohol y/o cánnabis, y todas ellas consiguieron reducir el consumo de tabaco. En conclusión, parece necesario mejorar el diseño evaluativo de las intervenciones de promoción de la salud dirigidas a jóvenes en nuestro país y aumentar la difusión de las mismas mediante su publicación.

  1. Integración vertical y contratación externa en los servicios generales de los hospitales españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puig-Junoy J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Este estudio analiza los factores que influyen en las decisiones de integración vertical/contratación externa de cuatro servicios generales (limpieza, lavandería, alimentación y seguridad y mantenimiento en los hospitales españoles (3.160 transacciones que corresponden a 790 hospitales. Métodos: Se presenta la estimación empírica de un modelo logístico de maximización de la utilidad de los hospitales, en el que intervienen no sólo factores relacionados con los costes de transacción, sino también otros relacionados con la intervención pública y la dimensión política. Resultados: El 55,7% de los hospitales contrata al menos uno de los servicios generales analizados. El servicio de limpieza es el que presenta un mayor grado de contratación externa (45,1%, seguido del servicio de seguridad y mantenimiento (32,5%. En cambio, el servicio de lavandería es el que presenta un mayor grado de integración vertical (94,3% junto con el de alimentación (80,1%. La dimensión del hospital (economías de escala, medida a través del número de camas, es una de las variables que influyen de forma importante la decisión de integración vertical o contratación externa de los servicios de limpieza, alimentación y mantenimiento y seguridad. Conclusiones: Las economías de escala contribuyen a una mayor integración vertical, mientras que la especialización y el carácter lucrativo favorecen la decisión de contratación externa. El servicio de lavandería tiene un comportamiento diferenciado de los demás, mostrando efectos que indican la posible presencia de activos específicos.

  2. La mecánica ilustrada en los ingenieros militares españoles. El proyecto de los almacenes de pólvora (1715-1798

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluis i Ginovart, J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The catenary arches were part of the great structural success of the modernist architecture, and especially in the Gaudí’s work. The study of the Spanish military engineers’ projects shows that they were the first that introduced in the Spanish territory in the first third of the eighteenth century. Knowledge and the attempt to apply this type of structure, especially in the construction of Powder-Magazines, will demonstrate the knowledge of the scientific theory of these structures made by Hooke. The study of pre-scientific Mechanics was claimed by Juan de Herrera in the Academy of Mathematics (1583, as it is scientific Mechanics at the Academy of Barcelona (1720. For this reason and due to the use of catenary arch and vault, this will show that they provided the bases of modern mechanic.Los arcos catenarios formaron parte del gran éxito estructural de la arquitectura modernista y, especialmente, de la obra de Gaudí. El estudio de los proyectos de los ingenieros militares españoles, demuestra que fueron ellos los primeros que los introdujeron en el territorio español en el primer tercio del siglo XVIII. El conocimiento y el intento de aplicación de este tipo de estructuras, especialmente en la construcción de polvorines, demostraría el conocimiento de la teoría científica de estas estructuras formulada por Hooke. El estudio de la Mecánica pre-científica fue reclamado por Juan de Herrera en la Academia de Matemáticas (1583, al igual que lo será la Mecánica científica en la Academia de Barcelona (1720. Por ello y ante la utilización del arco y bóveda catenaria, se demostraría también que aportaron las bases de la Mecánica moderna.

  3. Los recursos tecnológicos en la estadística bidimensional en los textos españoles de bachillerato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M. Gea

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Los currículos actuales recomiendan el uso de los recursos tecnológicos en la enseñanza de la estadística, por la ventaja que suponen en el cálculo y representación gráfica, el trabajo con datos reales y el aprendizaje de conceptos a través de la simulación. En esta investigación se analizan los recursos tecnológicos que los libros de texto sugieren para la enseñanza y aprendizaje de la estadística bidimensional en bachillerato (organización y representación de datos bidimensionales, correlación y regresión. La importancia de este aspecto se debe a que extiende la dependencia funcional a situaciones aleatorias y proporciona al alumno oportunidades de modelizar numerosas aplicaciones. Por otro lado, la investigación didáctica muestra dificultades de comprensión y concepciones erróneas en esta área. Mediante un análisis de contenido se han estudiado dieciséis libros de texto españoles, ocho libros de cada una de las dos especialidades de bachillerato que incluyen “Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales” y “Ciencia y Tecnología”. En dichos libros se estudia el uso que se hace de recursos tecnológicos en los problemas y procedimientos propuestos, los tipos de recursos que se referencian para trabajar con internet y el contenido de un CD que acompaña a la mayoría de estos textos. Los resultados muestran una escasa presencia de recursos tecnológicos en los textos analizados, a la vez que una gran variabilidad de los recursos descritos. La referencia a recursos en internet se suele restringir a unidades didácticas y no a conjuntos de datos que puedan usarse en proyectos o a simuladores que faciliten la comprensión conceptual. El CD que acompaña a los textos a veces reproduce el mismo texto o se reduce a colecciones de ejercicios tradicionales; son minoría los problemas y procedimientos que usan recursos tecnológicos. Se concluye con algunas recomendaciones para la mejora de estos textos, teniendo en cuenta dichos

  4. La situación profesional de los periodistas españoles: las repercusiones de la crisis en los medios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X Soengas Pérez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Esta investigación analiza la situación profesional, laboral y económica de los periodistas en España en los últimos cinco años, un periodo en que la crisis y la convergencia mediática coinciden con el proceso de digitalización. Metodología. Para conocer las características del escenario actual realizamos un análisis cualitativo y cuantitativo con encuestas a cuatro redactores de cada uno de los principales medios de comunicación públicos y privados, y se les ha preguntado por todos los cambios impuestos por sus empresas desde 2008. Además, realizamos una serie de entrevistas de contraste a expertos para tener una valoración complementaria y externa de la situación de la prensa. Resultados. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que las condiciones de la mayoría de los periodistas españoles han empeorado desde el comienzo de la crisis, y los problemas se han acentuado en 2012. Los recortes realizados en este periodo son los más drásticos de los últimos veinte años y afectan a todos los elementos del proceso informativo. Discusión y Conclusiones. En la reestructuración de las redacciones han predominado los objetivos económicos por encima de los criterios periodísticos y del interés informativo, tal como reconocen el 54% de los trabajadores de los medios públicos y el 65% de los privados. El 87% de las empresas analizadas ha reducido su plantilla o recortado los recursos materiales, el 62% de los periodistas han perdido poder adquisitivo desde 2008 y el 33% de los redactores fijos teme por su puesto de trabajo, una cifra que aumenta hasta el 54% en los mayores de 50 años y llega al 68% en el caso de los contratados.

  5. Cambios recientes en la ocupación del suelo de los parques nacionales españoles y su entorno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hewitt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ante la necesidad de monitorizar los cambios en los usos del suelo (referido a menudo por sus siglas en inglés LUCC ocurridos en los parques nacionales (PPNN españoles, como medida para prever tendencias de cambio no deseadas que comprometan la protección del entorno, se presenta un análisis detallado de los LUCC en los parques que conforman la red de parques nacionales, según la metodología descrita en Pontious et al. (2004. Para realizarlo, la conocida base de datos cartográfica Corine Land Cover (CLC resulta imprescindible al tratarse de la única base de datos de usos del suelo con cobertura en toda España, y con versión multi-temporal contando con la misma clasificación temática en sus tres fechas (1990, 2000 y 2006. Como resultado del análisis de cambio, se investigaron las dinámicas en todos los parques y se determinó una serie de indicadores de dinamismo de cambios de los usos del suelo en la que se captaron las tendencias de cambio que suponen un peligro para los valores naturales, los servicios de los ecosistemas o los hábitats de los parques. Se entiende que los parques en sí mismos, definidos por un límite, dentro del cual se aplican restricciones severas a las actividades que pueden tener lugar, no puede conservarse si en sus inmediaciones se permite la degradación del medio. Por ello, se ha estudio no sólo cada uno de los parques que componen la red sino también sus zonas colindantes. El análisis permitió determinar las dinámicas de cambio que afectan a los parques y a sus zonas limítrofes sobre dos periodos distintos (1990-2000 y 2000-2006, poniendo de manifiesto los riesgos existente a la vez que su evolución temporal.

  6. Retratos de Españoles ilustres con un epítome de sus vidas. Orígenes y gestación de una empresa ilustrada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molina, Álvaro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Published from the early 1790s in order to celebrate the memory of the great heroes of the nation, the Españoles ilustres series is one of the most ambitious projects of the Age of Enlightenment in the field of engraving. This article provides unpublished documentation and new information regarding the conception of the project, the international references that served as models and the complete dating of the sales for the various installments of the series.Publicada a partir de la década de los años noventa con el fin de celebrar la memoria de los grandes héroes de la nación, la colección de Retratos de Españoles ilustres es una de las empresas al servicio del grabado más ambiciosas del siglo de las Luces. Este artículo aporta documentación inédita y nuevas noticias respecto a su concepción, los referentes internacionales que le sirvieron como modelo y la datación de la venta de todos los cuadernos de la serie.

  7. Cross-Linked Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene (PVDF-co-HFP Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Flexible Li-Ion Battery Integrated with Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhwan Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Here, we fabricate poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene (PVDF-co-HFP by electrospinning for a gel polymer electrolyte (GPE for use in flexible Li-ion batteries (LIBs. As a solvent, we use N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP, which helps produce the cross-linked morphology of PVDF-co-HFP separator, owing to its low volatility. The cross-linked PVDF-co-HFP separator shows an uptake rate higher than that of a commercialized polypropylene (PP separator. Moreover, the PVDF-co-HFP separator shows an ionic conductivity of 2.3 × 10−3 S/cm at room temperature, comparable with previously reported values. An LIB full-cell assembled with the PVDF-co-HFP-based GPE shows capacities higher than its counterpart with the commercialized PP separator, confirming that the cross-linked PVDF-co-HFP separator provides highly efficient ionic conducting pathways. In addition, we integrate a flexible LIB cell using the PVDF-co-HFP GPE with a flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED, demonstrating a fully flexible unit of LIB and OLED.

  8. Análisis de clúster de la actividad física y las conductas sedentarias de los adolescentes españoles, correlación con la salud biopsicosocial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Ramos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación forma parte de la edición 2006 del estudio Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC. Los datos que se presentan constituyen una muestra de 21811 adolescentes españoles de 11 a 18 años. Realizando análisis de clúster, Modelo Lineal General, pruebas de significación y tamaños de efecto, se obtiene información relevante acerca de los hábitos de actividad física y sedentarismo de los adolescentes españoles, evidenciando la situación de riesgo de los adolescentes mayores, especialmente en el caso de las chicas. Estos resultados tienen la fortaleza de relacionarse con una puntuación global de salud, obteniéndose indicadores claros de las ventajas que supone para los adolescentes un estilo de vida activo. Además, estos datos aportan información de interés en relación con la hipótesis de desplazamiento, muy discutid a en la literatura científica. En definitiva, este trabajo aporta claves interesantes para el debate teórico y para la intervención práctica en el campo de la actividad física durante la adolescencia.

  9. Libros españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helcías Martán Góngora

    1968-10-01

    Full Text Available El viaje a través de los libros depara sorpresas semejantes a las que la geografía regala al romero, que cruza por valles y montañas. Así puedo zarpar de la mano de El principito de Antoine de Saint-Exupery, demorarme por una Temporada en el infierno con J. A. Rimbaud, detener el paso ante El muro inicial de Jean Paul Sartre. Mas ahora debo asistir a la cita previa con El príncipe de este mundo, el ensayo medular de José María Souvirón, cuyo subtítulo: La literatura moderna y el demonio sitúa al lector ante un tema que si bien mueve a risa a los escépticos, involucra en sus páginas lo más representativo de la narrativa y la poesía contemporáneas.

  10. Grupos españoles de cálculos ab initio de moléculas de interés astrofísico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, M.

    grupos españoles han llevado, y siguen llevando a cabo, sobre sistemas débilmente enlazados, como complejos de Van der Waals o complejos por enlace de hidrógeno, que sin duda juegan un papel importante tanto en medios atmosféricos como interestelares.

  11. Españoles fuera de España. Historia y memoria de la última ola migratoria española (1945-1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Fernández Vicente

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Les années 1980 furent marquées par la transformation d’une Espagne pays d’émigration en une Espagne accueillant des milliers d’immigrés. Submergée et souvent dépassée par cette réalité, nouvelle et conflictuelle, la société espagnole semble avoir oublié que l’Espagne avait été, jusque récemment, une « terre d’émigrants ». Ce travail a ainsi comme but de récupérer une partie de cette histoire-mémoire concernant la dernière vague migratoire espagnole. Prenant comme point de départ l’extrême richesse et complexité des sources orales, nous tenterons de reconstituer les raisons ayant poussé une partie des Espagnols à l’émigration. Face à l’impossibilité d’embrasser la totalité du flux migratoire, nous avons opté par une comparaison des deux destinations principales du flux : l’Argentine pour la période où l’émigration se dirigeait massivement vers des destinations d’Outre-mer (1945-1955, et la France pour la période dite « continentale » (1956-1980.Los años 80 asistieron a la transformación de una España que «emigraba» en una España que acogía a miles de inmigrantes. Sumida, y a menudo desbordada por esta nueva y conflictiva realidad social, la sociedad española parece haber olvidado que, hasta hace muy poco, España fue, esencialmente, «tierra de emigrantes». Por ello, este trabajo se propone contribuir a recuperar una parte de la historia-memoria de la última ola migratoria española. Partiendo de la riqueza y complejidad de las fuentes orales, se tratará de reconstituir las razones que empujaron a una parte de estos españoles a emigrar. Pero ante la imposibilidad de abarcar la totalidad del flujo migratorio, se optará por una comparación entre sus dos destinos principales : Argentina, para la etapa «ultramarina» (1945-1955 y Francia para la fase «continental» (1956-1980.The’80s have seen Spain transformed from an “Emigration country” to an

  12. Influencia de la carrera investigadora en la productividad e impacto de los investigadores españoles. El papel de la ventaja acumulativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Romero, Antonio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Careers in research can have a significant effect on the chances of scientists’ success. This effect, also known as cumulative advantage, contributes to skewing the unequal distribution of both production and impact among scientists. This paper focuses on determining whether the cumulative advantage is present within a sample of 174 Spanish scientists doing research in four major areas (i.e.: physics, chemistry, biology and biochemistry. In order to determine the impact of their careers in research, we specify a multi-equational model. Among other variables, we include those related with their doctoral training, the postdoctoral period and the quality of the departments where scientists are hired after they finish their post doctoral work. Moreover, the model includes a group of hypotheses gathered from a survey of the literature on this topic. The model is based on the Path Analysis technique. We also have developed a method to determine the quality of academic departments using a single scale suitable for any country and discipline. The main result confirms the existence of cumulative advantage being the predoctoral productivity the main determinant of productivity during the ten years after obtaining the doctor degree. Finally, a bias in productivity and impact in favour of men is observed.

    La carrera investigadora puede tener un efecto relevante sobre las opciones de éxito profesional de los investigadores. Dicho efecto, conocido como ventaja acumulativa, contribuiría a agudizar la desigual distribución de la productividad y el impacto entre los investigadores. Este trabajo se centra en determinar la presencia de ventaja acumulativa en una muestra de 174 investigadores españoles de cuatro áreas de conocimiento (Física, Química, Biología y Bioquímica. Para contrastar el efecto de la carrera investigadora se especifica un modelo multiecuacional que incluye variables sobre la formación pre y posdoctoral así como con los

  13. Comunicación Institucional en España. Estudio del uso que los diputados españoles hacen de las TIC en sus relaciones con la ciudadanía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Almansa Martínez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de una reciente investigación sobre el uso que se hace de las redes sociales por parte de las instituciones para relacionarse con la ciudadanía. Los políticos españoles no hacen un buen uso de Internet, no están sabiendo aprovechar las oportunidades que se les brinda para tener un contacto más fluido y permanente con las personas a las que representan. En muchas ocasiones parece que no tienen muy claro el motivo por el que están en redes sociales y que simplemente están por moda. Utilizan las nuevas tecnologías en función de sus intereses electorales, ajustan y reorientan sus estrategias a la red en función únicamente de sus intereses electorales.

  14. Análisis de contenido de los cibermedios generalistas españoles. Características y adscripción temática de las noticias principales de portada

    OpenAIRE

    Odriozola-Chéné, J. (Javier)

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo es describir la agenda temática de una serie de cibermedios españoles generalistas. Así, por medio de un análisis de contenido cuantitativo, se estudia qué temas son los más relevantes dentro de las principales noticias de portada de los medios analizados, en función de determinados aspectos: la autoría, el ámbito geográfico, las fuentes informativas o el desarrollo de las informaciones en la portada. Además, este trabajo permite establecer las características bás...

  15. Presencia del streaming, mixture e inclusion en los centros educativos españoles de primaria y secundaria. Resultados de la encuesta nacional del proyecto I+D, MIXSTRIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asunción Cifuentes García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación i +D+ i , Formas de agrupación del alumnado y su relación con el éxito escolar: "Mixture", "Streaming" e Inclusion (2009-2011 ha aportado un análisis cuantitativo y cualitativo sobre la presencia de estas modalidades de agrupación de alumnado en los centros españoles de educación primaria y secundaria. Los resultados cuantitativos reflejan que las prácticas que se dan con mayor incidencia son las de streaming. Los estudios de caso demuestran que los centros que implementan el modelo de inclusión con el uso de recursos de la comunidad para el trabajo con grupos heterogéneos consiguen una clara mejora de aprendizajes y rendimiento académico.

  16. Patterns of sedentary behavior and compliance with public health recommendations in Spanish adolescents: the AFINOS study Patrones de sedentarismo y cumplimiento de las recomendaciones de salud pública en adolescentes españoles: estudio AFINOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Martínez Gómez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were: (i describe patterns of sedentary behavior in Spanish adolescents; and (ii determine the proportion of adolescents that do not meet the public health recommendations for sedentary behavior. This study comprised 1,724 Spanish adolescents (882 girls, aged 13 to 16 years. Patterns of sedentary behavior (TV viewing, use of computer games, console games and surfing the Internet were assessed using the HELENA sedentary behavior questionnaire. The total proportion of adolescents watching TV, using computer and console games, and surfing the internet for more than two hours daily was 24%, 9%, 7%, and 17%, respectively, on weekdays, and 50%, 22%, 16%, and 35%, respectively, on weekends. Over 63% of the adolescents from the study did not meet the recommendation for sedentary behavior (Los objetivos del estudio son: (i describir los patrones de comportamiento sedentario en adolescentes españoles y (ii establecer cuántos de ellos no cumplen las recomendaciones de salud pública sobre comportamiento sedentario. Participaron 1.724 adolescentes españoles (882 chicas entre 13 y 16 años. Los patrones de comportamiento sedentario (ver la televisión, juegos de ordenador, videojuegos y navegar en Internet fueron evaluados a través del cuestionario HELENA. La proporción total de adolescentes que ven la TV, usan juegos de ordenador o de consola y navegan en Internet durante > 2h los días de diario fue del 24%, 9%, 7% y 17%, respectivamente. Durante los fines de semana, la proporción fue del 50%, 22%, 16% y 35%. Más del 63% del total de la muestra no cumplen las recomendaciones de tiempo sedentario total < 2 horas durante los días de diario y el 87% no lo hace en días del fin de semana. Dado que las conductas sedentarias podrían ser relevantes en la salud de los adolescentes, las intervenciones de salud pública son necesarias en España.

  17. Grado de cumplimiento de la legislación e impartición de enseñanzas anti-tabaco en los centros escolares españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández-Mezquita Miguel Angel

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: No se dispone de estudios que analicen el cumplimiento de la legislación antitabaco en los centros escolares españoles, por lo que nos propusimos conocer el grado de cumplimiento de la legislación oficial anti-tabaco en dichos centros y la influencia que ello tiene sobre el porcentaje de alumnos fumadores. Método: Se realizó una encuesta entre 3.050 directores de centros educativos españoles, a los que se les preguntó sobre diversos aspectos del cumplimiento de la legislación oficial anti-tabaco en los centros y sobre las principales características del consumo de tabaco en los mismos. Resultados: El 80,9% de los directores afirman que en sus centros se exige el cumplimiento de la legislación y el 64,9% disponen de carteles que advierten de la prohibición de fumar. Afirman impartir enseñanzas anti-tabaco el 82,2% de los centros en los que se exige la legislación y en el 64,8% de los centros en los que esta legislación no se exige. Creen que el porcentaje de profesores que fuman ante los alumnos es del 5,9% en los centros en que se exige la legislación y del 12,9% en los que no se cumple. En los centros donde se imparten enseñanzas anti-tabaco creen que han probado el tabaco el 29% de los alumnos, frente al 31% que creen lo han hecho en los centros donde no se imparten estas enseñanzas (p<0,001. Conclusiones: El cumplimiento de la legislación es insuficiente. Los directores de los centros educativos, como encargados de velar por el cumplimiento de la legislación oficial anti-tabaco en sus centros, deben exigir el cumplimiento de esta legislación, ya que esta medida es eficaz para mejorar el funcionamiento global de los centros y para reducir los porcentajes de alumnos y profesores fumadores.

  18. A new division of the Nordic countries into potential price regions; Ny inndeling av Norden i elspotomraader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    It has been proposed that the division of the Nordic countries into electric spot regions (potential price regions) should be changed. This implies, among other things, that Sweden is divided into three price regions. The price regions will be used for dealing with large bottlenecks, while small bottlenecks will be handled by means of countertrade. Will the change increase the risk of market power? Probably not. The present arrangement offers about equally good possibilities to exercise market power and causes price signals in general to become erroneous and that trade becomes limited. The absence of price limits in Sweden will probably not increase competition by much since the same producers are numerous on both sides of the limits. Price regions in Sweden may sharpen competition between producers in each region and producers in adjacent regions outside of Sweden.

  19. The Nordic Countries interests in principles for international greenhouse gas agreements; Nordens interesser i principper for internationale drivhusgasaftaler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Meyer, H.; Stephensen, P.; Soerensen, L.

    1995-01-01

    The focus of this report is the interests of the Nordic countries in international agreements on greenhouse gases. The subject is approached mainly from an economic point of view. Introductory, the climate convention are described, with special attention to obligations to emission reductions. Important discussion points are timing of the reductions as well as the question of meeting the reductions by cooperation with other countries through joint-implementation projects. The different attitudes of the Nordic countries to these issues are discussed. In the following, the technical and economic possibilities for meeting the reduction objectives of each country are described. For this purpose, governmental plans and studies (on bottom-up as well as top-down studies) are brought into focus. A discussion of the differences and similarities of the methodology of the studies are carried out. Finally, the report focuses on costs of reducing emissions in the Nordic countries. A comparison between the different Nordic countries, as well as between the Nordic countries and the other OECD countries is done. The analysis points out, that the Nordic countries are characterized by relatively high costs in general. Another conclusion is, that the costs of reduction after the year 2000/2005 are much lower than costs of reductions in the short run. An exception to this is Denmark. This points out, that some Nordic countries prefer emission reductions through joint-implementation projects in other countries, rather than reductions through restrictive agreements in the sort run. (au) (29 tabs., 28 ills., 45 refs.)

  20. The annotative review of researches for applicants of the Doctor and the Candidate of the history specialities which were defended in the Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University in 2013

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    Boyko, O. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A subject and maintenance of dissertations for the degree of Doctor and the Candidate of historical sciences which were defended in the specialized scientific advice D 08.051.14 in the Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University in 2013 is considered. Only for a year 6 dissertations for the degree of Doctor (specialty 07.00.01 – «Нistory of Ukraine» – 5 works; 07.00.02 – «World history» – 1 work and 16 dissertations for the degree of the Candidate (specialty 07.00.01 – «Нistory of Ukraine» – 10 works, 07.00.02 – «world history» – 4 works, 07.00.06 – «Нistoriography, a source study and special historical disciplines» – 2 works were defended. All dissertations were ratified by the Department of education and science of Ukraine. It is given the following information on every research work: theme, specialty, place (department of work implementation, date of defense of dissertation, scientific consultant (for doctoral thesis or leader (for candidate’s thesis, his scientific degree and rank, place of work, data about official opponents. Considerable attention is spared to the compressed review of the personal achievements of authors especially to scientific novelty of their researches.

  1. The annotative review of researches for applicants of the Doctor and the Candidate of the history specialities which were defended in the Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyko, O. V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A subject and maintenance of dissertations for the degree of Doctor and the Candidate of historical sciences which were defended in the specialized scientific advice D 08.051.14 in the Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University in 2015 is considered. For a year 2 dissertations for the degree of Doctor (specialty 07.00.01 "Нistory of Ukraine" and 4 dissertations for the degree of the Candidate (specialty 07.00.01 "Нistory of Ukraine" – 1 work, 07.00.06 "Нistoriography, a source study and special historical disciplines" – 3 works were defended. All dissertations were ratified by the Department of education and science of Ukraine. It is given the following information on every research work: theme, specialty, place (department of work implementation, date of defense of dissertation, scientific consultant (for doctoral thesis or leader (for candidate's thesis, his scientific degree and rank, place of work, data about official opponents. Considerable attention is spared to the compressed review of the personal achievements of authors especially to scientific novelty of their researches.

  2. The annotative review of researches for applicants of the Doctor and the Candidate of the history specialities which were defended in the Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University in 2014

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    Boiko, O. V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A subject and maintenance of dissertations for the degree of Doctor and the Candidate of historical sciences which were defended in the specialized scientific advice D 08.051.14 in the Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University in 2014 is considered. For a year 4 dissertations for the degree of Doctor (specialty 07.00.01 – «Нistory of Ukraine» and 3 dissertations for the degree of the Candidate (specialty 07.00.01 – «Нistory of Ukraine» – 1 work, 07.00.06 – «Нistoriography, a source study and special historical disciplines» – 2 works were defended. 6 dissertations (besides thesis defended by A. V. Bortnikova were ratified by the Department of education and science of Ukraine. It is given the following information on every research work: theme, specialty, place (department of work implementation, date of defense of dissertation, scientific consultant (for doctoral thesis or leader (for candidate’s thesis, his scientific degree and rank, place of work, data about official opponents. Considerable attention is spared to the compressed review of the personal achievements of authors especially to scientific novelty of their researches.

  3. Relaciones entre factores sociodemográficos, motivación hacia el retiro temprano y satisfacción en la vida postlaboral: análisis exploratorio en una muestra prejubilados españoles

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    Juan José Fernández

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La prejubilación es una experiencia heterogénea en lo referente tanto a la forma en que se produce la salida laboral como a sus posteriores consecuencias personales y psicosociales. Con el objetivo de conocer la relación entre variables sociodemográficas, motivos de la salida organizacional temprana, y ajuste a la vida postlaboral se administró una adaptación del Retirement Satisfaction Inventory (Floyd et al., 1992 a una muestra de 638 prejubilados españoles con una media de edad de 61.28 años. Los datos obtenidos fueron analizados mediante ANOVA. Con respecto a la motivación hacia el retiro, las mujeres tienen más intereses en aceptar la oferta de retiro temprano que los hombres, mientras que estos señalan haber experimentado más problemas de salud y presiones organizacionales. Los prejubilados con un mayor nivel formativo presentan un mayor interés en el retiro temprano, y los prejubilados con mayor nivel profesional mantienen una mayor satisfacción con el retiro. Conocer las relaciones entre características sociodemográficas, motivación hacia el retiro temprano y satisfacción en la vida post-laboral es un primer paso necesario para desarrollar análisis más complejos sobre las experiencias de prejubilación.

  4. Usos y tendencias adictivas de una muestra de estudiantes universitarios españoles a la red social Tuenti: la actitud positiva hacia la presencia de la madre en la red como factor protector

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    Mercedes Durán

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar, desde el paradigma de usos y gratificaciones, el uso que los estudiantes universitarios españoles (N = 221 hacen de la red social Tuenti, y en qué medida estos usos se asocian con sus niveles de adicción a dicha red social. Además se analizó el papel que los progenitores tienen como facilitadores o inhibidores de dichas tendencias adictivas y el impacto del género. Los resultados muestran cuatro categorías de usos de la red Tuenti: entretenimiento, comunicación a través del muro, comunicación a nivel privado e información social. Además, la actitud positiva hacia la presencia de la madre en la red Tuenti se muestra como un factor de protección de las tendencias adictivas a la red. Por último, se han encontrado diferencias estadísticamente significativas en función del género, tanto en los usos que realizan chicos y chicas, como en sus patrones de adicción a la red Tuenti, de tal manera que los chicos informan de niveles de adicción superiores a los informados por las chicas en el uso de esta red social.

  5. Anne Scott Sørensen, Ole Martin Høystad, Erling Bjurström and Halvard Vike Nye kulturstudier - En innføring, Oslo: Spartacus Forlag AS/Scandinavian Academic Press, 2008

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    Gösta Arvastson

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Nye kulturstudier [New Cultural Studies] is the first introduction to cultural studies in Scandinavia and an impressive presentation of the subject. The book aims to explain how cultural studies emerged as an interdisciplinary field in humanities and social sciences. Other introductions to cultural research in eth-nology and anthropology have been produced - but this one is different, since it is more comprehensive and am-bitious. Nye kulturstudier is the result of in-terdisciplinary collaboration between four colleagues from Norway, Sweden and Denmark. Senior lecturer Anne Scott Sørensen and Professor Ole Martin Høystad are affiliated to the Institute for Literature, Media and Cultural Studies at the University of Southern Denmark in Odense. Professor Erling Bjurström belongs to Tema Q at Linköping Uni-versity, and Professor Halvard Vike works at the Institute for Social Anthro-pology at Oslo University. The authors comment that they are oriented towards different subjects and educational pro-grammes at their respective universities. The book begins with a background to the theories and scientific traditions. This is followed by Cultural Analysis and Methodology, a chapter on Identity, Globalisation and Multiculturalism, one on Taste, Lifestyle and Consumption and, finally, by Nature, Body and Ex-perience Landscapes.

  6. Steering the Properties of MoOx Hole Transporting Layers in OPVs and OLEDs: Interface Morphology vs. Electronic Structure

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    Wouter Marchal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification, fine‐tuning, and process optimization of appropriate hole transporting layers (HTLs for organic solar cells is indispensable for the production of efficient and sustainable functional devices. In this study, the optimization of a solution‐processed molybdenum oxide (MoOx layer fabricated from a combustion precursor is carried out via the introduction of zirconium and tin additives. The evaluation of the output characteristics of both organic photovoltaic (OPV and organic light emitting diode (OLED devices demonstrates the beneficial influence upon the addition of the Zr and Sn ions compared to the generic MoOx precursor. A dopant effect in which the heteroatoms and the molybdenum oxide form a chemical identity with fundamentally different structural properties could not be observed, as the additives do not affect the molybdenum oxide composition or electronic band structure. An improved surface roughness due to a reduced crystallinity was found to be a key parameter leading to the superior performance of the devices employing modified HTLs.

  7. La comunicación de los diputados españoles a través de Internet (The communication of the members of the Congress of Deputies of Spain over Internet

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    Manuel Sánchez Matito

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Aunque Internet se presenta como un espacio que puede disminuir la distancia entre la ciudadanía y el poder político, los políticos todavía no han desarrollado de forma adecuada las posibilidades que ofrece el ciberespacio. Para comprobar esta situación hemos investigado la forma en que los diputados españoles de la décima legislatura se comunican a través de Internet, mostrando las peculiaridades que presenta la comunicación en cada una de las herramientas virtuales estudiadas y concluyendo que el grado de interacción a través de este medio es todavía bastante bajo.Abstract: Although Internet appears like a space that can shorten the range between the citizenship and the political power, politicians have still not developed the possibilities that the cyberspace offers. In order to verify this situation we have investigated the form in which Spanish parliamentarians of the X legislature communicate through Internet, showing the peculiarities that the communication displays in each one of the studied virtual tools and concluding that the interaction degree that unfolds through this means is still enough low.

  8. Escala de Miedo a la Evaluación Negativa y Escala de Evitación y Malestar Social: fiabilidad y validez en una muestra de adolescentes españoles

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    Ihab Zubeidat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es examinar las propiedades psicométricas de la Escala de Miedo a la Evaluación Negativa (FNES y la Escala de Evitación y Malestar Social (SADS en una muestra de 1.012 jóvenes españoles escolarizados. El análisis factorial de primer orden señala la existencia de un factor dominante (alfa = 0,85 para la FNES (y otros cinco de menor relevancia, mientras que el método de rotación normalización Oblimin con Kaiser indica que la SADS tiene dos factores (evitación social y malestar social con valores alfa de 0,77 y 0,73, respectivamente. La FNES discriminó entre adolescentes con y sin psicopatologías frente a otros con ansiedad social específica y generalizada, mientras que la SADS lo hizo entre cada uno de los cuatro grupos frente al resto. Ambas escalas muestran una validez de constructo adecuada con distintas variables evaluadas por instrumentos específicos de ansiedad y fobia social y por otros de screening.

  9. La enseñanza del análisis matemático en en los libros de texto españoles de enseñanza secundaria del siglo XX

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    María Teresa GONZÁLEZ AsTUDiLLO

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo se expone un estudio sobre la evolución de los conceptos de Análisis Matemático en los libros de texto españoles, desde que fue implantada su enseñanza en el plan de 1934 hasta nuestros días. Para ello se ha dividido este lapso de tiempo en cuatro periodos, que se corresponden a grandes rasgos con los diferentes planes de estudio. Dentro de cada periodo, se han estudiado los programas oficiales correspondientes, se han comparado diversos libros de texto y se han estudiado las sucesivas ediciones de los libros, lo que ha proporcionado los datos esenciales para establecer cuál ha sido la evolución de estos conceptos y ha permitido determinar el perfil que caracteriza a cada uno de los libros considerados. ABSTRACT: Along this article is studied the evolution of some concepts of Mathematical Analysis in Spanish texbooks from the beginning of the teaching of this branch of the mathematics until now. This time has been divided in four periods that are related with different educational programs. In each period it has been studied the different programs, it has been compared diverse texbooks and it has been analysed the successive editions of the books. So we have the essential information to concrete the evolution of this concepts in the learning and to determine a profile to characterize each of the books.

  10. Deep-fat frying of meat products in palm olein Fritura por imersão de produtos cárneos em oleína de palma

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    Cibele Cristina Osawa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the discontinuous frying of breaded meat products in palm olein in a 28 L-electric fryer maintained at 182 ºC for 8 hours a day. Three 400-500 g batches of meat products were fried for 4.5 minutes daily. For comparison purpose, thermoxidation tests were performed using inert material with added moisture and without the addition of f ood (heating only. The total polar compound content did not reach the 25% limit, and nor did the formation of polymerized products exceed 5%, which indicates the good frying performance of palm olein for frying. Other analytical parameters and rapid tests were also evaluated. The sensory attributes, such as odor, colour, and foam formation determined when the frying oils should be discarded. The addition of water to the inert material contributed to the final value of 1.00 ± 0.01% (in palmitic acid, while the oil subjected only to heating reached respectively 0.26 ± 0.02%, and the oils used to fry breaded meat and breaded chicken reached 0.38 ± 0.00% and 2.35 ± 0.01%, respectively. This suggests a protective effect of the water during frying since the oil subjected only to heating was more prone to degradation.Este artigo estudou a fritura descontínua de alimentos cárneos empanados em oleína de palma em uma fritadeira elétrica de 28 L, mantida a 182 ºC durante 8 horas por dia. Diariamente, três bateladas de 400-500 g de alimentos cárneos foram fritos durante 4,5 minutos. Para comparação, foram conduzidos testes de termoxidação com a adição de material inerte com umidade adicionada e sem a adição de alimentos (apenas aquecimento. O teor de compostos polares totais não atingiu o limite de 25% e a formação de compostos polimerizados também não ultrapassou 5%, refletindo a boa performance da oleína de palma para frituras. Outros parâmetros analíticos, assim como testes rápidos, foram avaliados. Os atributos sensoriais, tais como odor, cor e formação de fuma

  11. Satisfacción laboral de los profesionales de enfermería españoles que trabajan en hospitales ingleses Work satisfaction among Spanish nurses working in English hospitals

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    María Ruzafa-Martínez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evaluar la satisfacción laboral de los profesionales de enfermería españoles que trabajan en hospitales ingleses y la influencia de diversas variables sociolaborales. Métodos: Estudio transversal. Se incluyó a todo el personal de enfermería español que en abril de 2003 tenía contrato laboral en algún hospital inglés (n = 360. Se aplicó el cuestionario autoadministrado y validado de Font Roja. Resultados: La tasa de respuesta fue del 78,6%. Las enfermeras que trabajan en hospitales ingleses tienen un nivel medio de satisfacción global. Las dimensiones asociadas a una satisfacción laboral más alta fueron las relaciones con los compañeros y las relaciones con los jefes; las dimensiones con una satisfacción laboral más baja fueron la satisfacción por el trabajo y la competencia profesional. Se ha observado una asociación positiva y estadísticamente significativa entre el nivel de satisfacción laboral y las variables nivel de inglés, grado profesional y tiempo trabajado en Inglaterra; la jornada laboral, «otros» y trabajar en unidades de cuidados intensivos y urgencias también se asocian positivamente con la satisfacción laboral. Conclusiones: Los responsables de los hospitales ingleses que contratan profesionales de enfermería españoles deberían incidir en mejorar su satisfacción por el trabajo y su competencia profesional. Para ello, se podrían incluir sistemas de incentivación y promoción profesional, tomar medidas previas a la contratación para mejorar el nivel de inglés, prestar especial atención a las necesidades del personal, sobre todo durante el primer año de trabajo, y facilitar la elección del servicio y la jornada laboral.Objectives: To evaluate work satisfaction among Spanish nurses employed by English hospitals, as well as the influence of several social and work-related variables associated with satisfaction. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study. All Spanish nurses (n = 360 with

  12. Evolución del impacto de la cardiopatía isquémica en la reincorporación laboral de trabajadores españoles

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    Ángel García García

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La cardiopatía isquémica es una de las principales causas de morbimortalidad en los países desarrollados dificultando la vuelta al trabajo de estos pacientes. Pretendemos estudiar la evolución de la incapacidad Temporal y Permanente en trabajadores españoles que causan baja por cardiopatía isquémica, así como analizar las variables que influyen en la reincorporación laboral. Material y métodos: Estudio observacional retrospectivo de cohortes con pacientes menores 65 años que sufrieron un infarto agudo de miocardio (IAM entre Enero de 2000 y mayo de 2011. Se recogieron datos clínicos, demográficos, socioeconómicos y laborales para analizar su relación con la reincorporación laboral. Resultados: Se seleccionaron un total de 5067 pacientes, el 94% varones, y con una edad media de 54,3 años. Un total de 3.679 pacientes (72,6% se reincorporaron a su actividad laboral tras el infarto, mientras que 1261 (24,9% obtuvieron la incapacidad laboral permanente. La mayores tasas de incapacidad laboral se observan en los pacientes > 50 años, en los que han sufrido un mayor daño cardiaco (FEVI 50% y el procedimiento de revascularización empleado (percutáneo/cirugía así como las variables socioeconómicas referentes al tipo de trabajo (autónomo/cuenta ajena, ocupación profesional (carga física/carga intelectual y la edad del trabajador

  13. La diplomacia mexicana: ¿Agente al servicio del exilio español? Las relaciones entre diplomáticos mexicanos y los organismos de ayuda a los republicanos españoles (1939-1942

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    Aurelio Velázquez Hernández

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available En el Texto pretendemos realizar un acercamiento a la actuación de los diplomáticos mexicanos en Francia a favor de los refugiados españoles de la Guerra Civil. Asimismo, realizamos un repaso por la muy relevante participación de destacados nombres de la diplomacia mexicana que  también lo son ya del exilio español. Nombres como lo de Narcisso Bassols, Luis I. Rodríguez o Gilberto Bosques. Planteándonos hasta que punto llegó esta colaboración, cuáles fueron las causas que la motivaron y cómo evolucionará dicha relación entre diplomáticos mexicanos y las autoridades españolas encargadas de los organismos de ayudaPalabras clave: Exilio Republicano, Francia, Diplomacia Mexicana, ayuda humanitaria, embarques_______________________________ABSTRACT:This article is an attempt of approach to Mexican ambassadorial actuations in favor of Spanish Civil War refugees in France.In addition, the document is also a revision of the most relevant personalities of Mexican diplomacy, which are equally important between the Spanish exiles. There are people like Narciso Bassols, Luis I. Rodríguez or Gilberto Bosques. We would try to know how intensive diplomatic alliance was, what their causes were and how Spanish-Mexican relationship between authorities in charge of humanitarian cares transform along the time.Keywords: Spanish Republican exile, France. Mexican diplomacy, humanitarian help, shipments

  14. Grandeza y miseria de los liberales españoles ante la educación secundaria (1834-1857 Greatness and poverty of the Spanish liberals in the presence of seconday education (1834-1857

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    Manuel DE PUELLES BENÍTEZ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Paradójicamente, los gobiernos liberales españoles de mitad del siglo xix no se ocuparon debidamente de la instrucción pública, y en especial de la segunda enseñanza. Esta es la conclusión a la que se llega en este artículo, después de analizar diversos escritos de los principales intérpretes de la política educativa liberal de ese tiempo, así como de los documentos legislativos más significativos. Desde Gil y Zarate a Posada Herrera, y a través de las Sesiones de Cortes y Colecciones Legislativas, se comprueba cómo se produce un falseamiento en la estructuración de la segunda enseñanza tal como fue concebida por los primeros gobiernos liberales y establecida por el Duque de Rivas en 1836, sacrificando de esta manera la propia enseñanza primaria.Paradoxycally, the liberal Spanish gobernments of the middle of the xix century didn't pay the proper attention to public education, and especially to the secondary one. This being the conclusion one comes to in this article after analysing several writings of the main performers of the liberal educational policy of that time, as well as in the most significant legislative documents. From Gil y Zarate to Posada Herrera, and through the Sessions of Parlament and Legislative Collections, it can be proved how a falseness is produced in the structure of the secondary education, just as it was conceived by the first liberal government and established by the Duke of Rivas in 1836, in this way, sacrifing the very elementary education.

  15. Análisis del desempeño de destinos litorales españoles a través de la evolución de la demanda y la oferta de alojamiento

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    Pablo de Carlos Villamarín

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La primera década del siglo XXI ha supuesto un reto para los destinos turísticos tradicionales, como es el caso de las islas y las zonas litorales españolas. Durante los últimos años, estos destinos se han visto envueltos en una intensa competencia con nuevos destinos que presentan atractivos similares, en el contexto de un mercado turístico global caracterizado por la enorme influencia de las nuevas tecnologías de la información y la comunicación y la existencia de unos turistas cada vez más heterogéneos y exigentes. En el presente trabajo se pretende analizar, mediante técnicas estadísticas multivariantes, cuál ha sido la evolución durante el periodo 2000-2010 del desempeño de los principales destinos turísticos litorales españoles, a partir de la información proporcionada por la Encuesta de Ocupación Hotelera relativa a la oferta y la demanda de alojamiento en los establecimientos hoteleros situados en dichas zonas. Los resultados obtenidos muestran un comportamiento opuesto de las variables de demanda y oferta durante la década considerada. Además, ha sido posible la identificación de tres clústeres de destinos diferenciados en función de su nivel de desempeño.

  16. Entre la vieja y la nueva izquierda armada : de la Unión de Combatientes Españoles al Movimiento por la IIIª República (1959-1967

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    Fernando Hernández Sánchez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Tras el abandono de la lucha armada contra la dictadura a comienzos de los años 50, solo algunos sectores minoritarios de la izquierda en el exilio apostaron por el mantenimiento de una oposición intransigente y radicalmente opuesta al abandono del ideal republicano y a cualquier pacto con los sectores conservadores desgajados del régimen. La influencia de las luchas anticoloniales y de la revolución cubana, unida al deseo de hacer algo efectivo por la caída de Franco, llevaron a un grupo de luchadores veteranos a fundar organizaciones efímeras, como la Unión de Combatientes Españoles, en 1959, o el Movimiento por la III República y por la Reconstitución del Ejército Republicano, en 1963, últimos intentos de sumar la experiencia guerrillera de posguerra, ya bajo la influencia de la nueva izquierda revolucionaria.After the renounce to the armed struggle against Franco's dictatorship at the beginning of the fifties, only some minority groups of the exiled left showed a radical opposition to the abandonment of the republican ideal and to any pact with those conservative forces which did not support the Franco regime any more. The influence of the anticolonial struggles and the Cuban revolution, together with the desire to contribute effectively to the fall of Franco, led some veteran anti-Francoist fighters to found ephemeral organizations, like the Union of Spanish Combatants in 1959, or the Movement for the III Republic and the Reconstruction of the Republican Army in 1963, which were the last attempts to revive the guerrilla experience of the postwar period, now under the influence of the new revolutionary left.

  17. ¿Qué diferencia a los docentes fineses de los españoles? Un paso hacia la realidad: desde la formación hasta la práctica docente

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    Judit Ruiz Lázaro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La elaboración de investigaciones y evaluaciones actuales enfocadas en la práctica docente en las aulas tiene como principal objetivo avanzar y mejorar los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje. Por este motivo y dada la importancia de dar respuesta a las necesidades de los alumnos en el siglo XXI, se presenta este estudio comparado sobre la formación teórica y la práctica docente en España y en Finlandia en el que se recogen las estrategias que los docentes fineses y españoles utilizan en el aula con sus alumnos. Para la consecución de dicho objetivo se elaboró un cuestionario formado por 5 dimensiones: estrategias metodológicas, estrategias de planificación, estrategias educativas, estrategias tecnológicas y estrategias de evaluación, respectivamente; compuesto por un total de 39 ítems, contestados por 60 profesores de Educación Primaria (20 de Madrid, 20 de Ciudad Real y 20 de Finlandia. Tras los análisis estadísticos realizados se puede verificar que existen diferencias significativas en la formación inicial de los profesores en España y Finlandia y como consecuencia en la enseñanza práctica que llevan a cabo en las aulas con sus alumnos, siendo los profesores fineses los que obtienen mayores puntuaciones en el uso de estrategias de carácter práctico en la clase.

  18. La perspectiva moral de las relaciones de victimización entre iguales: un análisis exploratorio de las atribuciones de adolescentes españoles y portugueses

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    Mª Jesús Caurcel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio, se exploran las atribuciones de emociones morales de los adolescentes, ante una historia de maltrato entre iguales en el contexto escolar. Con ese objetivo, les preguntamos a cerca de los sentimientos de culpa, vergüenza, orgullo e indiferencia de agresores, víctimas y espectadores y les pedimos que justificaran la atribución de los mismos. Procuramos además saber si en términos de su experiencia personal se identifican o se desvinculan de cualquiera de ellos. Participaron un total de 1.237 preadolescentes y adolescentes españoles y portugueses de edades comprendidas entre los 11 y los 16 años. Para el estudio diseñamos el cuestionario SCAN-Bullying 2005 con soporte gráfico (conjunto de viñetas que representan una historia típica de maltrato entre iguales en el contexto escolar. Los resultados muestran un patrón emocional diferente en función del rol: orgullo e indiferencia fueron las emociones más atribuidas a los agresores, inversamente la vergüenza fue la emoción más atribuida a la víctima, mientras que la indiferencia, vergüenza y culpa se atribuyeron en porcentajes muy semejantes a los espectadores. La investigación se inscribe en el cuadro teórico de estudios anteriores que analizan el fenómeno del agresor feliz y de la desvinculación moral, y a la luz de este encuadramiento teórico, procuraremos discutir los resultados.

  19. El control de la comprensión de textos científicos en inglés como lengua extranjera, en estudiantes universitarios españoles no bilingües : evaluación, transferencia y una intervención didáctica basada en un modelo cognitivo de procesamiento de la información

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez López, Ángela

    2013-01-01

    'Esta tesis presenta un estudio sobre el uso de estrategias metacognitivas y su impacto en la comprensión lectora en inglés como LE de estudiantes universitarios españoles. Se analiza dónde se encuentran las deficiencias, en su caso, y cómo pueden ser superadas mediante intervenciones didácticas apropiadas. Los estudios empíricos realizados se agrupan en tres grandes bloques. El primer bloque está dedicado a la caracterización de los estudiantes universitarios en lo que respecta a su comp...

  20. Spectral characterizations and photophysical properties of one-step synthesized blue fluorescent 4′-aryl substituted 2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine for OLEDs application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmanan, Raja [Department of Physics, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, Rajasthan 333031 (India); Shivaprakash, Narayanapura Chennegowda [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Nair, Sindhu Sukumaran, E-mail: sindhunair@pilani.bits-pilani.ac.in [Department of Physics, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, Rajasthan 333031 (India)

    2015-12-15

    We have synthesized a series of 4′-aryl substituted 2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine (terpy) derivatives, namely 4′-(4-methylphenyl)-2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine (C-1), 4′-(2-furyl)-2,2′:6′2′′-terpyridine (C-2), and 4′-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine (C-3). The synthesized terpy compounds were characterized by elemental analyses, FTIR, NMR ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C), and ESI-Mass spectrometry. Photophysical, electrochemical and thermal properties of terpy compounds were systematically studied. Maximum excitation band was observed between 240 and 330 nm using UV–visible spectra, and maximum emission peaks from PL spectra were observed at 385, 405 and 440 nm for C-1, C-2 and C-3 respectively. Fluorescence lifetime (τ) of the fluorophores was found to be 0.35 and 1.55 ns at the excitation wavelength of 406 nm for C-1 and C-2 respectively, and τ value for C-3 was found to be 0.29 ns at the excitation wavelength of 468 nm. We noticed that the calculated values of HOMO energy levels were increased from 5.96 (C-1) to 6.08 (C-3) eV, which confirms that C-3 derivative is more electrons donating in nature. The calculated electrochemical band gaps were 2.95, 2.82 and 3.02 eV for C-1, C-2 and C-3 respectively. These blue fluorescent emitter derivatives can be used as an electron transport and electroluminescent material to design the blue fluorescent organic light emitting diode (OLED) applications. - Highlights: • Facile one-step synthesized blue fluorescent emitter, 2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine derivatives. • The exceptionally broad emission band (365–525 nm) was achieved in the blue region. • Fast fluorescence life time and good thermal stability.