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Sample records for bodyweight loss body

  1. Effect of tesofensine on bodyweight loss, body composition, and quality of life in obese patients: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Madsbad, Sten; Breum, Leif; Jensen, Thomas J; Kroustrup, Jens Peter; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weight-loss drugs produce an additional mean weight loss of only 3-5 kg above that of diet and placebo over 6 months, and more effective pharmacotherapy of obesity is needed. We assessed the efficacy and safety of tesofensine-an inhibitor of the presynaptic uptake of noradrenaline, do......, dopamine, and serotonin-in patients with obesity. METHODS: We undertook a phase II, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in five Danish obesity management centres. After a 2 week run-in phase, 203 obese patients (body-mass index 30-......BACKGROUND: Weight-loss drugs produce an additional mean weight loss of only 3-5 kg above that of diet and placebo over 6 months, and more effective pharmacotherapy of obesity is needed. We assessed the efficacy and safety of tesofensine-an inhibitor of the presynaptic uptake of noradrenaline...

  2. Nutraceuticals for body-weight management: The role of green tea catechins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Pilou L H R; Hursel, Rick; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2016-08-01

    Green tea catechins mixed with caffeine have been proposed as adjuvants for maintaining or enhancing energy expenditure and for increasing fat oxidation, in the context of prevention and treatment of obesity. These catechins-caffeine mixtures seem to counteract the decrease in metabolic rate that occurs during weight loss. Their effects are of particular importance during weight maintenance after weight loss. Other metabolic targets may be fat absorption and the gut microbiota composition, but these effects still need further investigation in combination with weight loss. Limitations for the effects of green tea catechins are moderating factors such as genetic predisposition related to COMT-activity, habitual caffeine intake, and ingestion combined with dietary protein. In conclusion, a mixture of green tea catechins and caffeine has a beneficial effect on body-weight management, especially by sustained energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and preservation of fat free body-mass, after energy restriction induced body-weight loss, when taking the limitations into account. PMID:26836279

  3. Methodological approaches to assess body-weight regulation and aetiology of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Marti, A.; Miguel, C.; Jebb, S. A.; Lafontan, M; Laville, M; PALOU, A.; REMESAR, X.; Trayhurn, P; J. A. Martinez

    2000-01-01

    Obesity, which is becoming one of the major health hazards in developed and developing societies, results from a long-term positive energy balance. Body-weight regulation and stability depend on an axis with three interrelated components: food intake, energy expenditure and adipogenesis, although there are still many unknown features concerning fuel homeostasis and energy balance. Biochemical processes are interconnected, and a separate consideration of each component is often useful for meth...

  4. Body-weight and chromosome aberrations induced by X-rays in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Body-weight has been shown to influence the final expression of genetic damage by X-rays in Drosophila melanogaster. If larvae of Drosophila were raised up to the third instar in media containing different amounts of the same nutrient and in different conditions of crowding a positive correlation was observed between body-weight and frequency of chromosome aberrations induced by a given dose of X-rays in the somatic cells of their nerve ganglia. This effect, present in both sexes, is most plausibly attributed to a different capacity of big and small larvae for repairing radiation damage. (orig.)

  5. Body-weight perceptions and selected weight-management goals and practices of high school students--United States, 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    Among adults, overweight is associated with elevated serum cholesterol levels, elevated blood pressure, and noninsulin-dependent diabetes and is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. Youth who are overweight and remain overweight as adults may increase their risk for certain chronic diseases in adulthood. However, overemphasis on thinness during adolescence may contribute to potentially harmful weight-management practices and eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. This report presents self-reported body-weight perceptions and selected weight-management goals and practices among high school students in the United States. PMID:1921967

  6. Physical activity: an important adaptative mechanism for body-weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finelli, Carmine; Gioia, Saverio; La Sala, Nicolina

    2012-01-01

    We review the current concepts about energy expenditure and evaluate the physical activity (PhA) in the context of this knowledge and the available literature. Regular PhA is correlated with low body weight and low body fat mass. The negative fat balance is probably secondary to this negative energy balance. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) and physical activity, that is crucial for weight control, may be important in the physiology of weight change. An intriguing doubt that remains unresolved is whether changes in nutrient intake or body composition secondarily affect the spontaneous physical activity. PMID:24533208

  7. Physical Activity: An Important Adaptative Mechanism for Body-Weight Control

    OpenAIRE

    Finelli, Carmine; Gioia, Saverio; La Sala, Nicolina

    2012-01-01

    We review the current concepts about energy expenditure and evaluate the physical activity (PhA) in the context of this knowledge and the available literature. Regular PhA is correlated with low body weight and low body fat mass. The negative fat balance is probably secondary to this negative energy balance. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) and physical activity, that is crucial for weight control, may be important in the physiology of weight change. An intriguing doubt that remains ...

  8. Effect of pig bodyweight on ileal amino acid endogenous losses after ingestion of a protein-free diet enriched in pea inner fibre isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Leterme, Pascal; Thewis, André

    2004-01-01

    International audience The present study was conducted to evaluate whether bodyweight and the micronisation of dietary fibre affect the endogenous nitrogen and amino acid losses (ENL and EAAL) in pigs. The effect of the micronising process was tested by providing pigs with 90 g DM*kg-1 BW0.75 of a N-free diet supplemented with isolated pea inner fibres, presented in native or micronised form and with a water-holding capacity of 12 and 4 g water*g-1 DM, respectively. ENL and EAAL were measu...

  9. Combination of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor empagliflozin with orlistat or sibutramine further improves the body-weight reduction and glucose homeostasis of obese rats fed a cafeteria diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Steven P; Cheetham, Sharon C; Headland, Katie R; Dickinson, Keith; Grempler, Rolf; Mayoux, Eric; Mark, Michael; Klein, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The present study assessed the potential of the sodium glucose-linked transporter (SGLT)-2 inhibitor empagliflozin to decrease body weight when administered alone or in combination with the clinically effective weight-loss agents orlistat and sibutramine in obese rats fed a cafeteria diet. Female Wistar rats were exposed to a cafeteria diet to induce obesity. Empagliflozin was dosed once daily (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg) for 28 days. Combination studies were subsequently performed using a submaximal empagliflozin dose (10 mg/kg) with either sibutramine or orlistat. Body weight, food, and water intake were recorded daily. The effect of drug treatment on glucose tolerance, relevant plasma parameters, and carcass composition was determined. Empagliflozin dose-dependently reduced body weight, plasma leptin, and body fat though increased urinary glucose excretion. The combination of empagliflozin and orlistat significantly reduced body weight compared to animals treated with either drug alone, and significantly improved glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, and leptin compared to vehicle-treated controls. The effect of sibutramine to improve glycemic control in an oral glucose-tolerance test was also significantly increased, with empagliflozin and combination treatment leading to a reduction in carcass fat greater than that observed with either drug alone. These data demonstrate that empagliflozin reduces body weight in cafeteria-fed obese rats. In combination studies, empagliflozin further improved the body-weight or body-fat loss of animals in comparison to orlistat or sibutramine alone. Such studies may indicate improved strategies for the treatment of obese patients with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. PMID:25061325

  10. Combination of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor empagliflozin with orlistat or sibutramine further improves the body-weight reduction and glucose homeostasis of obese rats fed a cafeteria diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickers SP

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Steven P Vickers,1 Sharon C Cheetham,1 Katie R Headland,1 Keith Dickinson,1 Rolf Grempler,2 Eric Mayoux,2 Michael Mark,2 Thomas Klein2 1RenaSci, BioCity Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; 2Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma, Biberach an der Riss, Germany Abstract: The present study assessed the potential of the sodium glucose-linked transporter (SGLT-2 inhibitor empagliflozin to decrease body weight when administered alone or in combination with the clinically effective weight-loss agents orlistat and sibutramine in obese rats fed a cafeteria diet. Female Wistar rats were exposed to a cafeteria diet to induce obesity. Empagliflozin was dosed once daily (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg for 28 days. Combination studies were subsequently performed using a submaximal empagliflozin dose (10 mg/kg with either sibutramine or orlistat. Body weight, food, and water intake were recorded daily. The effect of drug treatment on glucose tolerance, relevant plasma parameters, and carcass composition was determined. Empagliflozin dose-dependently reduced body weight, plasma leptin, and body fat though increased urinary glucose excretion. The combination of empagliflozin and orlistat significantly reduced body weight compared to animals treated with either drug alone, and significantly improved glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, and leptin compared to vehicle-treated controls. The effect of sibutramine to improve glycemic control in an oral glucose-tolerance test was also significantly increased, with empagliflozin and combination treatment leading to a reduction in carcass fat greater than that observed with either drug alone. These data demonstrate that empagliflozin reduces body weight in cafeteria-fed obese rats. In combination studies, empagliflozin further improved the body-weight or body-fat loss of animals in comparison to orlistat or sibutramine alone. Such studies may indicate improved strategies for the treatment of obese patients with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. Keywords

  11. Access to TV contingent on physical activity: effects on reducing TV-viewing and body-weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, L A; Brackshaw, E

    1999-06-01

    One child was recruited for a study assessing the effectiveness of a device aimed at reducing excessive television viewing and increasing exercising. The device was comprised of a control box which attaches to the electrical cord of a television set, and two sensors which attached to the wheel and corresponding wheel rim of a stationary bicycle. The child in this study was watching an excessive amount of TV (averaging over 4 hours per day), and she had a weight problem. An ABAB design was used in the study. After collecting baseline data, the child was required to ride a bicycle for 60 minutes to watch 60 minutes of TV, and this program successfully reduced TV viewing. Reductions in TV viewing and weight loss were found at a follow-up. PMID:10489090

  12. Body Contouring After Major Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Plastic Surgery Statistics ASPS TV News Program History of Plastic Surgery For Medical Professionals ... Major Weight Loss Body Contouring After Major Weight Loss For Men and Women Body contouring following major weight loss improves the ...

  13. Long-term influences of body-weight changes, independent of the attained weight, on risk of impaired glucose tolerance and Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Black, E; Holst, C; Astrup, A; Toubro, Søren; Echwald, S; Pedersen, O; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2005-01-01

    = 248) and one of randomly selected control (n = 320) men, weighed at average ages of 20, 33, 44 and 51 years, respectively. RESULTS: For any given BMI, the risk of IGT was higher the greater the weight gain since age 20 (odds ratio of 1.10 per unit kg/m2 of BMI gain, confidence interval 1.03-1.17, P...... by more recent weight gain in the later periods, probably because of the development of Type 2 diabetes leading to weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: Independent of attained level of body weight in middle-aged men, weight gain is associated with increased risk of IGT, and is greater in those not overweight in...

  14. Study protocol for BeWEL: The impact of a BodyWEight and physicaL activity intervention on adults at risk of developing colorectal adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludbrook Anne

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second highest cause of cancer death in the UK. Most cases occur in people over 50 years and CRC often co-exists with other lifestyle related disorders including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD. These diseases share risk factors related to the metabolic syndrome including large body size, abnormal lipids and markers of insulin resistance indicating common aetiological pathways. Methods/Design This 3 year study will be a two-arm, multicentre, randomised controlled trial comparing the BeWEL lifestyle (diet, physical activity and behaviour change programme against usual care. The pre-trial development will take 6 months and participants will be recruited over a 12 month period and undertake the intervention and follow up for 12 months (total 24 months recruitment and intervention implementation with a further 6 months for data collection, analysis and interpretation. Four hundred and fifty two participants who have had a colorectal adenoma detected and removed (through the national colorectal screening programme will provide 80% power to detect a weight loss of 7% over 12 months. Primary outcomes are changes in body weight and waist circumference. Secondary outcomes will include cardiovascular risk factors, psycho-social measures and intervention costs. Discussion The results from this study will enhance the evidence base for lifestyle change in patients at higher risk of chronic disease including obesity related cancers. International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials No: ISRCTN53033856

  15. Study protocol for BeWEL: The impact of a BodyWEight and physicaL activity intervention on adults at risk of developing colorectal adenomas

    OpenAIRE

    Ludbrook Anne; Kirk Alison; Thompson Joyce; Rodger Jackie; Daly Fergus; Belch Jill JF; Treweek Shaun; Paterson Caron; Caswell Stephen; Craigie Angela M; Stead Martine; Wardle Jane; Steele Robert JC; Anderson Annie S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second highest cause of cancer death in the UK. Most cases occur in people over 50 years and CRC often co-exists with other lifestyle related disorders including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). These diseases share risk factors related to the metabolic syndrome including large body size, abnormal lipids and markers of insulin resistance indicating common a...

  16. Combination of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor empagliflozin with orlistat or sibutramine further improves the body-weight reduction and glucose homeostasis of obese rats fed a cafeteria diet

    OpenAIRE

    Vickers SP; Cheetham SC; Headl; Dell, KR; Dickinson K; Grempler R; Mayoux E; Mark M; Klein T.

    2014-01-01

    Steven P Vickers,1 Sharon C Cheetham,1 Katie R Headland,1 Keith Dickinson,1 Rolf Grempler,2 Eric Mayoux,2 Michael Mark,2 Thomas Klein2 1RenaSci, BioCity Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; 2Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma, Biberach an der Riss, Germany Abstract: The present study assessed the potential of the sodium glucose-linked transporter (SGLT)-2 inhibitor empagliflozin to decrease body weight when administered alone or in combination with the clinically effective weight-loss agents orlistat and si...

  17. Dog behavior co-varies with height, bodyweight and skull shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Paul D; Georgevsky, Dana; Carrasco, Johanna; Valenzuela, Michael; Duffy, Deborah L; Serpell, James A

    2013-01-01

    Dogs offer unique opportunities to study correlations between morphology and behavior because skull shapes and body shape are so diverse among breeds. Several studies have shown relationships between canine cephalic index (CI: the ratio of skull width to skull length) and neural architecture. Data on the CI of adult, show-quality dogs (six males and six females) were sourced in Australia along with existing data on the breeds' height, bodyweight and related to data on 36 behavioral traits of companion dogs (n = 8,301) of various common breeds (n = 49) collected internationally using the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ). Stepwise backward elimination regressions revealed that, across the breeds, 33 behavioral traits all but one of which are undesirable in companion animals correlated with either height alone (n = 14), bodyweight alone (n = 5), CI alone (n = 3), bodyweight-and-skull shape combined (n = 2), height-and-skull shape combined (n = 3) or height-and-bodyweight combined (n = 6). For example, breed average height showed strongly significant inverse relationships (paggression, begging for food, urine marking and attachment/attention-seeking, while bodyweight showed strongly significant inverse relationships (p<0.001) with excitability and being reported as hyperactive. Apart from trainability, all regression coefficients with height were negative indicating that, across the breeds, behavior becomes more problematic as height decreases. Allogrooming increased strongly (p<0.001) with CI and inversely with height. CI alone showed a strong significant positive relationship with self-grooming (p<0.001) but a negative relationship with chasing (p = 0.020). The current study demonstrates how aspects of CI (and therefore brain shape), bodyweight and height co-vary with behavior. The biological basis for, and significance of, these associations remain to be determined. PMID:24358107

  18. Complications following body contouring surgery after massive weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasanbegovic, Emir; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is a way to achieve lasting weight loss in the obese. Body contouring surgery seeks to alleviate some of the discomfort caused by the excessive loose skin following massive weight loss. Higher complication rates are described in this type of surgery when done post-bariatric. The...... purpose of this article is to compare complication rates of body contouring surgery when performed on patients with weight loss due to bariatric surgery compared to patients who lost weight due to dietary changes and/or exercise....

  19. [Etiological and exacerbation factors for COPD. Body weight loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akihito

    2016-05-01

    Hunger or malnutrition is not only a historical issue but also a current problem worldwide. Biological responses to hunger are evolutionary prepared in our body, including energy generation by degradation of body proteins. Extreme weight loss (malnutrition) can cause air space enlargement in human and rodents. However, the changes in rodents could be reversible, since refeeding could repair the pathology. On the other hand, weight loss is a common feature in patients with more severe COPD. Complex factors, such as increased energy consumption, decreased food uptake by low grade inflammation, socio-economic factors and so on, are involved in weight loss. Weight loss in patients with COPD also increases the risk of exacerbation, hospitalization, and death. PMID:27254941

  20. Dog behavior co-varies with height, bodyweight and skull shape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D McGreevy

    Full Text Available Dogs offer unique opportunities to study correlations between morphology and behavior because skull shapes and body shape are so diverse among breeds. Several studies have shown relationships between canine cephalic index (CI: the ratio of skull width to skull length and neural architecture. Data on the CI of adult, show-quality dogs (six males and six females were sourced in Australia along with existing data on the breeds' height, bodyweight and related to data on 36 behavioral traits of companion dogs (n = 8,301 of various common breeds (n = 49 collected internationally using the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ. Stepwise backward elimination regressions revealed that, across the breeds, 33 behavioral traits all but one of which are undesirable in companion animals correlated with either height alone (n = 14, bodyweight alone (n = 5, CI alone (n = 3, bodyweight-and-skull shape combined (n = 2, height-and-skull shape combined (n = 3 or height-and-bodyweight combined (n = 6. For example, breed average height showed strongly significant inverse relationships (p<0.001 with mounting persons or objects, touch sensitivity, urination when left alone, dog-directed fear, separation-related problems, non-social fear, defecation when left alone, owner-directed aggression, begging for food, urine marking and attachment/attention-seeking, while bodyweight showed strongly significant inverse relationships (p<0.001 with excitability and being reported as hyperactive. Apart from trainability, all regression coefficients with height were negative indicating that, across the breeds, behavior becomes more problematic as height decreases. Allogrooming increased strongly (p<0.001 with CI and inversely with height. CI alone showed a strong significant positive relationship with self-grooming (p<0.001 but a negative relationship with chasing (p = 0.020. The current study demonstrates how aspects of CI (and therefore brain shape

  1. The Compact Body Plan of Tardigrades Evolved by the Loss of a Large Body Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frank W; Boothby, Thomas C; Giovannini, Ilaria; Rebecchi, Lorena; Jockusch, Elizabeth L; Goldstein, Bob

    2016-01-25

    The superphylum Panarthropoda (Arthropoda, Onychophora, and Tardigrada) exhibits a remarkable diversity of segment morphologies, enabling these animals to occupy diverse ecological niches. The molecular identities of these segments are specified by Hox genes and other axis patterning genes during development [1, 2]. Comparisons of molecular segment identities between arthropod and onychophoran species have yielded important insights into the origins and diversification of their body plans [3-9]. However, the relationship of the segments of tardigrades to those of arthropods and onychophorans has remained enigmatic [10, 11], limiting our understanding of early panarthropod body plan diversification. Here, we reveal molecular identities for all of the segments of a tardigrade. Based on our analysis, we conclude that tardigrades have lost a large intermediate region of the body axis-a region corresponding to the entire thorax and most of the abdomen of insects-and that they have lost the Hox genes that originally specified this region. Our data suggest that nearly the entire tardigrade body axis is homologous to just the head region of arthropods. Based on our results, we reconstruct a last common ancestor of Panarthropoda that had a relatively elongate body plan like most arthropods and onychophorans, rather than a compact, tardigrade-like body plan. These results demonstrate that the body plan of an animal phylum can originate by the loss of a large part of the body. PMID:26776737

  2. Shaking weight loss away - Can vibration exercise reduce body fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARRYL COCHRANE

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An exercise modality that requires little time and physical exertion whilst providing the benefits of increased force, power, balance, flexibility, and weight loss would appeal to most people that may be at risk from an imbalanced lifestyle. One such exercise modality that has received a lot of attention has been vibration exercise (VbX, which evokes muscular work and elevates metabolic rate could be a potential method for weight reduction. Popular press has purported that VbX is quick, convenient, and 10 minutes of VbX is equivalent to one hour of traditional exercise, where it has been marketed as the new weight-loss and body toning workout. However, research studies have shown that muscle activation is elicited but the energy demand in response to VbX is quite low. Exhaustive VbX has been reported to produce a metabolic demand of 23 ml/kg/min compared to 44 ml/kg/min from an exhaustive cycle test. Different vibration frequencies have been tested with varying amplitudes and loads, but only small increases in metabolic rate have been reported. Based on these findings it has been indirectly calculated that a VbX session of 26Hz for 3 continuous minutes would only incur a loss of ~ 10.7g fat/hr. Following a 24-week programme of VbX, no observed differences were found in body composition and following 12 months of VbX the time to reach peak O2 was significantly higher in conventional exercise compared to VbX. However, one study has reported that percentage body fat decreased by 3.2% after eight months after VbX in comparison to resistance and control groups that performed no aerobic conditioning. The evidence to date, suggests that VbX can increase whole and local oxygen uptake; however, with additional load, high vibration frequency and/or amplitude it cannot match the demands of conventional aerobic exercise. Therefore, caution is required when VbX programmes are solely used for the purpose of reducing body fat without considering dietary and

  3. Bioimpedance identifies body fluid loss after exercise in the heat: a pilot study with body cooling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Gatterer

    Full Text Available Assessment of post-exercise changes in hydration with bioimpedance (BI is complicated by physiological adaptations that affect resistance (R and reactance (Xc values. This study investigated exercise-induced changes in R and Xc, independently and in bioelectrical impedance vector analysis, when factors such as increased skin temperature and blood flow and surface electrolyte accumulation are eliminated with a cold shower.Healthy males (n = 14, 24.1±1.7 yr; height (H: 182.4±5.6 cm, body mass: 72.3±6.3 kg exercised for 1 hr at a self-rated intensity (15 BORG in an environmental chamber (33°C and 50% relative humidity, then had a cold shower (15 min. Before the run BI, body mass, hematocrit and Posm were measured. After the shower body mass was measured; BI measurements were performed continuously every 20 minutes until R reached a stable level, then hematocrit and Posm were measured again.Compared to pre-trial measurements body mass decreased after the run and Posm, Hct, R/H and Xc/H increased (p<0.05 with a corresponding lengthening of the impedance vector along the major axis of the tolerance ellipse (p<0.001. Changes in Posm were negatively related to changes in body mass (r = -0.564, p = 0.036 and changes in Xc/H (r = -0.577, p = 0.041.Present findings showed that after a bout of exercise-induced dehydration followed by cold shower the impedance vector lengthened that indicates fluid loss. Additionally, BI values might be useful to evaluate fluid shifts between compartments as lower intracellular fluid loss (changed Xc/R indicated greater Posm increase.

  4. Protein-Pacing Caloric-Restriction Enhances Body Composition Similarly in Obese Men and Women during Weight Loss and Sustains Efficacy during Long-Term Weight Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciero, Paul J; Edmonds, Rohan; He, Feng; Ward, Emery; Gumpricht, Eric; Mohr, Alex; Ormsbee, Michael J; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Short-Term protein-pacing (P; ~6 meals/day, >30% protein/day) and caloric restriction (CR, ~25% energy deficit) improves total (TBF), abdominal (ABF) and visceral (VAT) fat loss, energy expenditure, and biomarkers compared to heart healthy (HH) recommendations (3 meals/day, 15% protein/day) in obese adults. Less is known whether obese men and women respond similarly to P-CR during weight loss (WL) and whether a modified P-CR (mP-CR) is more efficacious than a HH diet during long-term (52 week) weight maintenance (WM). The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of: (1) P-CR on TBF, ABF, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and biomarkers between obese men and women during WL (weeks 0-12); and (2) mP-CR compared to a HH diet during WM (weeks 13-64). During WL, men (n = 21) and women (n = 19) were assessed for TBF, ABF, VAT, RMR, and biomarkers at weeks 0 (pre) and 12 (post). Men and women had similar reductions (p 50%) and increase in % lean body mass (9%). RMR (kcals/kg bodyweight) was unchanged and respiratory quotient decreased 9%. Twenty-four subjects (mP-CR, n = 10; HH, n = 14) completed WM. mP-CR regained significantly less body weight (6%), TBF (12%), and ABF (17%) compared to HH (p < 0.05). Our results demonstrate P-CR enhances weight loss, body composition and biomarkers, and maintains these changes for 52-weeks compared to a traditional HH diet. PMID:27483317

  5. The BODY-Q: A Patient-Reported Outcome Instrument for Weight Loss and Body Contouring Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Stefan J.; Alderman, Amy; Soldin, Mark; Thoma, Achilles; Robson, Sam; Kaur, Manraj; Papas, Athanasios; Van Laeken, Nancy; Taylor, Valerie H.; Pusic, Andrea L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Body contouring performed for cosmetic purposes, or after weight loss, has the potential to improve body image and health-related quality of life (HRQL). The BODY-Q is a new patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument designed to measure patient perceptions of weight loss and/or body contouring. In this article, we describe the psychometric properties of the BODY-Q scales after an international field-test. Methods: Weight loss and body contouring patients from Canada, United States, and United Kingdom were recruited between November 2013 and February 2015. Data were collected using an iPad directly into a web-based application or a questionnaire booklet. Rasch measurement theory analysis was used for item reduction and to examine reliability, validity, and ability to detect change. Results: The sample included 403 weight loss and 331 body contouring patients. Most BODY-Q items had ordered thresholds (134/138) and good item fit. Scale reliability was acceptable, ie, Person separation index >0.70 for 16 scales, Cronbach α ≥0.90 for 18 of 18 scales, and Test–retest ≥0.87 for 17 of 18 scales. Appearance and HRQL scores were lower in participants with more obesity-related symptoms, higher body mass index, and more excess skin and in those pre- versus postoperative body contouring. The 134 weight loss patients who completed the BODY-Q twice, either 6 weeks (weight loss/nonsurgical body contouring program) or 6 months (bariatric program) later, improved significantly on 7 appearance and 4 HRQL scales. Conclusion: The BODY-Q is a clinically meaningful and scientifically sound patient-reported outcome instrument that can be used to measure outcomes in patients who undergo weight loss and/or body contouring. PMID:27200241

  6. To the Slimmer Go the Spoils: Heterogeneous Responses to Bodyweight Incentives in Olympic Weightlifting Tournaments

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew W Nutting

    2008-01-01

    When competitive weightlifters tie — a fairly frequent occurrence at the international level — the higher final rank is awarded to the lifter with the lower official bodyweight. Since winning a tiebreaker is more beneficial at higher ordinal ranks, tournament theory suggests a negative relationship between ability and bodyweight. Analysis from 58 Olympic tournaments shows evidence of a significantly negative relationship between ability and bodyweight except in heavier weight-classes. Cross-c...

  7. Changing Body Image and Well-Being: Following the Experience of Massive Weight Loss and Body Contouring Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Jo Gilmartin; Long, Andrew F.; Mark Soldin

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the perception of changing body image and well-being for patients who had undergone plastic surgery following massive weight loss. The exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken with 20 patients from one teaching hospital in the south of England. Semi-structured interviews were carried out and a thematic analysis of the data undertaken. The results provide important insights regarding body contouring influencing body image change and the adjustment process involved. T...

  8. The Overall Drag Losses For A Combination of Bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Sabah Al-Janabi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to obtain better understanding of the flow over a combination of bluff bodies in close enough proximity to strongly interact with each other. This interaction is often beneficial in that the drag of the overall system is reduced. Proto-types for this problem come from tractor- trailer and missiles, and from various add-on devices designed to reduce their drag. Thus, an experimental investigation was carried out by placing  conical frontal bodies having a base dia...

  9. Embodied experiences associated with obesity and the management of bodyweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Louise; Holm, Lotte

    2012-01-01

    In many affluent Western societies the less educated are at higher risk of developing obesity. Within a conceptual framework of sociology of embodiment, this study analyzed the embodied experiences associated with obesity and the management of body weight among women and men with different social...... backgrounds. Qualitative in depth interviews were conducted with 20 Danish middle-aged men and women who were categorized as clinically obese in a national dietary survey. The study found a devastating impact of obesity in the lives of highly educated women related to motherhood, career and wifehood which...... interrelated with persistent efforts to lose weight and repeated involvement in a great variety of weight-loss activities. In contrast, body weight among the less educated interviewees was a concern only in specific situations of everyday life, and it was a health-related concern especially for those men who...

  10. Shaking weight loss away - Can vibration exercise reduce body fat?

    OpenAIRE

    DARRYL COCHRANE

    2011-01-01

    An exercise modality that requires little time and physical exertion whilst providing the benefits of increased force, power, balance, flexibility, and weight loss would appeal to most people that may be at risk from an imbalanced lifestyle. One such exercise modality that has received a lot of attention has been vibration exercise (VbX), which evokes muscular work and elevates metabolic rate could be a potential method for weight reduction. Popular press has purported that VbX is quick, conv...

  11. Body-loss for Popular Thin Smart Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution, an investigation of the radio performance of recent popular phones has been done. The antenna performance has been evaluated with the newly agreed phantom head-hand measurements of the mobile antenna efficiency. It has been observed that the newer generation thin smart phones...... have worse performance than the classical phones and more surprisingly there is a loss in performance between generation of the same brand of smart phone. The effect of the performance variation between phones has been illustrated by calculating the coverage area for the voice service for Denmark with...

  12. The Overall Drag Losses For A Combination of Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Al-Janabi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to obtain better understanding of the flow over a combination of bluff bodies in close enough proximity to strongly interact with each other. This interaction is often beneficial in that the drag of the overall system is reduced. Proto-types for this problem come from tractor- trailer and missiles, and from various add-on devices designed to reduce their drag. Thus, an experimental investigation was carried out by placing  conical frontal bodies having a base diameter of 0.65 cylinder diameter with different vertex angles (30°, 50°, 70°, and 90°. It was found that, the bluffer cone with 90° vertex angle gives the best minimum drag, which is 31% lower than the drag of the isolated cylinder. Also an interesting phenomenon was observed in that, the minimum drags for all combinations are obtained at the same gap ratio (i.e.at g/d2= 0.365.

  13. Subject-Specific Effect of Metallic Body Accessories on Path Loss of Dynamic on-Body Propagation Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, H A; Abdulmalek, M; Soh, P J; Rani, K A; Hisham, N; Vandenbosch, G A E

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the investigation of path loss variation for subject-specific on-body radio propagation channels, considering the effect of metallic spectacles and loop like metallic accessories. Adding metallic items may affect the operability of Body Centric Wireless Communications (BCWC). Measurements were carried out in an RF-shielded room lined with microwave absorbing sheets for strategically placed bodyworn antennas covering the upper front torso and the lower limbs. The path loss of the on-body radio channel was characterized explicitly taking into account the body size of the subjects. For metallic loop-like accessories, the results indicate that for underweight subjects, there was a slightly higher influence, up to 2%, compared to normal and overweight subjects. Our findings indicate that a noticeable effect exists on on-body channels for dynamic movements where the metallic watch acts as a local scatterer that affects the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) signal path between transmitter and receiver for underweight subjects in comparison to normal and overweight subjects. The path loss decreases when the receiving terminal was positioned very close to the metallic item. If a loop-like metallic accessory is not appropriately considered when designing the radio channel on a subject, the reliability of the body-centric wireless system may degrade. PMID:27436496

  14. Subject-Specific Effect of Metallic Body Accessories on Path Loss of Dynamic on-Body Propagation Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, H. A.; Abdulmalek, M.; Soh, P. J.; Rani, K. A.; Hisham, N.; Vandenbosch, G. A. E.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the investigation of path loss variation for subject-specific on-body radio propagation channels, considering the effect of metallic spectacles and loop like metallic accessories. Adding metallic items may affect the operability of Body Centric Wireless Communications (BCWC). Measurements were carried out in an RF-shielded room lined with microwave absorbing sheets for strategically placed bodyworn antennas covering the upper front torso and the lower limbs. The path loss of the on-body radio channel was characterized explicitly taking into account the body size of the subjects. For metallic loop-like accessories, the results indicate that for underweight subjects, there was a slightly higher influence, up to 2%, compared to normal and overweight subjects. Our findings indicate that a noticeable effect exists on on-body channels for dynamic movements where the metallic watch acts as a local scatterer that affects the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) signal path between transmitter and receiver for underweight subjects in comparison to normal and overweight subjects. The path loss decreases when the receiving terminal was positioned very close to the metallic item. If a loop-like metallic accessory is not appropriately considered when designing the radio channel on a subject, the reliability of the body-centric wireless system may degrade.

  15. Changing Body Image and Well-Being: Following the Experience of Massive Weight Loss and Body Contouring Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Gilmartin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the perception of changing body image and well-being for patients who had undergone plastic surgery following massive weight loss. The exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken with 20 patients from one teaching hospital in the south of England. Semi-structured interviews were carried out and a thematic analysis of the data undertaken. The results provide important insights regarding body contouring influencing body image change and the adjustment process involved. The ability to pursue self-esteem and the accruing social benefits is emphasized in the interrelated sub themes including social acceptance, undoing depression and sexual vitality. Body contouring surgery following massive weight loss appears to facilitate improvement in body image and well-being. Adjustment to the changing body image is both empowering and challenging. Supportive educational programmes need to be developed to assist this transition to a more positive body image and appreciation; these could usefully include access to and involvement with patient support groups.

  16. Gender Differences in Body Fat Utilization During Weight Gain, Loss, or Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter outlines the known gender differences in fat gain, loss, and maintenance, and perhaps more importantly, highlights how little is known about the subject. The effects of gender differences on body fat distribution, fat use as an energy source, and exercise-related fat loss are discussed...

  17. Sauna-induced body mass loss in physically inactive young women and men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podstawski Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between basic somatic features (body mass and height and body mass loss in physically inactive young women and men exposed to thermal stress in a dry sauna.

  18. Advances in weight loss surgery and body contouring after weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles K Herman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Charles K Herman1,2, Ari S Hoschander3, Nicolas Teleo1, Berish Strauch21Pocono Medical Center/Pocono Health System, East Stroudsburg, PA, 2Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY; 3Northshore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset, NY, USAAbstract: Surgical treatment for morbid obesity has been increasing over the last few years. Historically, bariatric surgery had been plagued by complications, both technical and metabolic. The criteria to decide if a patient should have bariatric surgery required that the patient’s morbid obesity was contributing to an otherwise imminent demise. Now, with improved techniques, laparoscopic surgery and better understanding of the metabolic consequences of bariatric surgeries, it is presumed that the benefits outweigh the risks of bariatric surgery in increasing numbers of patients. Additionally, the post-bariatric procedures for body contouring have many documented complications. Most of these can be related to the nutritional status of obese patients and the relative immunodeficiency that obese patients possess. After a thorough literature search it appears that bariatric surgery and post-bariatric body contouring are, indeed, safer than previously thought.Keywords: body contouring, gastric bypass, bariatric surgery

  19. Watching reality weight loss TV. The effects on body satisfaction, mood, and snack food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourn, Rebecca; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated the influence of a weight loss reality TV show on body satisfaction, mood and food consumption. Young Australian women (N = 99) first completed baseline measures of state body satisfaction and mood. They were then randomly allocated to either a weight loss or a home renovation programme and were provided with snack foods during viewing. Post-measures included state body satisfaction, state mood and trait dietary restraint and snack food consumption. BMI moderated the relationship between condition and body satisfaction and mood. Larger women experienced less body satisfaction and less positive mood in response to the weight loss programme. Dietary restraint moderated the relationship between condition and food consumption. A greater percentage of women with lower dietary restraint ate in the control condition; whilst a greater percentage of women with higher dietary restraint ate food whilst watching the weight loss programme. These findings highlight the potential negative impact of weight-focused reality TV on mood, body satisfaction and snack food consumption among some women. PMID:25936290

  20. Impact of Indoor Environment on Path Loss in Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Hausman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the influence of an example indoor environment on narrowband radio channel path loss for body area networks operating around 2.4 GHz is investigated using computer simulations and on-site measurements. In contrast to other similar studies, the simulation model included both a numerical human body phantom and its environment—room walls, floor and ceiling. As an example, radio signal attenuation between two different configurations of transceivers with dipole antennas placed in a direct vicinity of a human body (on-body scenario is analyzed by computer simulations for several types of reflecting environments. In the analyzed case the propagation environments comprised a human body and office room walls. As a reference environment for comparison, free space with only a conducting ground plane, modelling a steel mesh reinforced concrete floor, was chosen. The transmitting and receiving antennas were placed in two on-body configurations chest–back and chest–arm. Path loss vs. frequency simulation results obtained using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD method and a multi-tissue anthropomorphic phantom were compared to results of measurements taken with a vector network analyzer with a human subject located in an average-size empty cuboidal office room. A comparison of path loss values in different environments variants gives some qualitative and quantitative insight into the adequacy of simplified indoor environment model for the indoor body area network channel representation.

  1. Bulimia nervosa symptomatology and body image disturbance associated with distance running and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleaves, D H; Williamson, D A; Fuller, R D

    1992-09-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that problems characteristic of eating disorders may often be associated with distance running, 20 women who had lost weight through distance running were compared with a control group who did not exercise and had not lost weight and a comparison group of bulimia nervosa patients. Dependent variables were measures of depression, bulimia nervosa symptomatology, and body image disturbance. No differences were found between the runner group and the normal controls. Bulimics differed from runners and controls on most measures. Thus, the results did not support the proposition that weight loss through running leads to problems related to eating and body image. The failure to find disturbances in body image in runners suggests that body image disturbances are not a direct result of weight loss, as suggested by some theorists. PMID:1422651

  2. Body Composition Changes after Weight-Loss Interventions among Obese Females: A Comparison of Three Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Nayera E. Hassan; El-Masry, Sahar A; Rokia El-Banna; Salwa M. Elshebini; Muhamed Al-Tohamy; Salwa El-Batrawy; Nihad H. Ahmed; Dalia Adel; Enas Abdel Rasheed; Mohamed Selim; Mohamed S. El Hussieny; Aya Khalil; Manal Mouhamed Ali

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate body composition changes after use of three different types of obesity management protocols: dietary measures and physical activity; acupuncture or laser acupuncture with healthy diet; aiming at achieving stable weight loss among obese Egyptian females. METHODS:  A randomized longitudinal prospective study included 76 obese adult females; aged 26 up to 55 years. Anthropometric, body composition, ultrasonographic and biochemical assessments were done. RESULTS: The thre...

  3. Body protein losses estimated by nitrogen balance and potassium-40 counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Body protein losses estimated from N balance were compared with those estimated by 40K counting. Six nonlactating dairy cows were fed an adequate N diet for 7 wk, a low N diet for 9 wk, and a replete N diet for 3 wk. The low N diet contained high cell wall grass hay plus ground corn, starch, and molasses. Soybean meal was added to the low N diet to increase N in the adequate N and replete N diets. Intake was measured daily. Digestibilities, N balance, and body composition (estimated by 40K counting) were determined during each dietary regimen. During low N treatment, hay dry matter intake declined 2 kg/d, and supplement increased about .5 kg/d. Dry matter digestibility was not altered by N treatment. Protein and acid detergent fiber digestibilities decreased from 40 and 36% during adequate N to 20 and 2%, respectively, during low N. Fecal and urinary N also declined when cows were fed the low N diet. By the end of repletion, total intake, fiber, and protein digestibilities as well as N partition were similar to or exceeded those during adequate N intake. Body protein (N) loss was estimated by N balance to be about 3 kg compared with 8 kg by 40K counting. Body fat losses (32 kg) were large because of low energy digestibility and intake. Seven kilograms of body fat were regained during repletion, but there was no change in body protein

  4. Body ion loss as a bioindicator of water quality impaired by coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protection of surface waters receiving discharges from coal mines is currently based on performance standards set by the EPA after passage of the Clean Water Act. These standards were technology-driven and reflect the Best Achievable Control Technology (BAT) available at the time of promulgation. Changes proposed as part of the upcoming reauthorization of the US Clean Water Act suggest that such technology-based standards may be reevaluated in light of more recent information on the toxicological effect of mine discharges on aquatic biota. The authors present here a physiological-based method for evaluating the site-specific toxicity of mine-derived discharges into receiving waters. They tested the usefulness of the body ion loss rate bioassay by exposing fathead minnows, brook charr and stoneflies to coal mine-impacted waters (elevated acidity and trace metals) in the field and to artificial mine water (AMW) in the laboratory. Body ion loss rate was significantly correlated with levels of mine pollution in the field. Body ion loss measured in AMW revealed strong interactions between metals and acid. Because the test animals exhibited differing levels of sensitivity to mine discharge, the selection of an appropriate organism for the body ion loss bioassay may vary depending on the (1) physical characteristics, (2) chemical characteristics and (3) pre-existing level of mine impact of the receiving waters

  5. Changes in body composition and fat distribution in response to weight loss and weight regain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooy, van der K.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of weight loss and subsequent weight regain on body composition, fat distribution and resting energy expenditure in moderately obese men and moderately obese premenopausal women. Participants were subjected to a controlled 4.2 MJ/day energy deficit diet for 13 weeks

  6. Ultra-wideband Propagation Loss Around a Human Body in Various Surrounding Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, H.; Kobayashi, T.

    Ultra-wideband (UWB) technologies have been anticipated for use in wireless body area networks (WBAN) because of their low power consumption and anti-multipath capabilities. This chapter presents the UWB (3.1-10.6 GHz) propagation loss in WBAN scenarios between on-body antennas in three different surrounding environments. The measurements were performed in a 3-m radio anechoic chamber, a classroom, and a small room. The propagation paths were roughly divided into line-of-sight (LOS) and non-LOS (NLOS) ones. Small rooms, particularly NLOS, yielded higher reception power than larger rooms. This was attributed to the ample multipath from the nearby floor, walls, and ceiling. The UWB maximum propagation losses in three surrounding environments were smaller than ones of CW (6.85 GHz). This is because nulls caused by interference were cancelled out by the ultra-wide bandwidth. The propagation losses of low-band (3.4-4.8 GHz) and high-band (7.25-10.25 GHz) UWB were also evaluated. In WBAN scenarios, the low-band yielded lower propagation loss than the high-band and approximately the same loss as the full-band UWB (3.1-10.6 GHz).

  7. INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACUTE FLUID LOSS AND BODY FAT PERCENTAGE BY USING BIA METHOD TO DETERMİNE BODY COMPOSİTİON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA is so popular technique to analysis body fat mass (BFM, free fat mass (FFM, lean body mass (LBM and total body fluid (TBF in both healthy and patient subjects. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the acute weight(fluid loss on body fat mass and percentage by using BIA method. In this study 43 soccer players (age: 21.90; length: 179.62and weight: 73.90 who playing in college league in Afyonkarahisar province has been participated. Body weight, total body fluid, body fat percentage and fat mass of soccer players were measured by using BIA(Tanita method before and after the matches. Paired t test has been used to compare pretest and posttest values. Pearson's correlation analysis has been used to determine relationship between tests values. Statistically differences has been determined between pre-post body weight and body fat TBF (p<0,01. Also, highly negative correlation has been determined between pre-post body fluide loss percentage differences and pre-post body fat mass percentage differences (r=-,766; p<0,001. Theoretically, body fat loss is expected following weight loss after computation, anything but rising rate of body fat was observed. So it is speculated that bio-electric facing more resistance in the body due to fluid loss. Therefore more body fat calculated. Dehydration should be taken into account for the measurements made by the BIA method, because of changes in body fat percentages. It is suggested that fluid intake of the subjects should be under control before the measurementin the studies.

  8. Sub-Poissonian atom number fluctuations by three-body loss in mesoscopic ensembles

    CERN Document Server

    Whitlock, S; Spreeuw, R J C

    2009-01-01

    We show that three-body loss of trapped atoms leads to sub-Poissonian atom number fluctuations. We prepare hundreds of dense ultracold ensembles in an array of magnetic microtraps which undergo rapid three-body decay. The shot-to-shot fluctuations of the number of atoms per trap are sub-Poissonian, for ensembles comprising 50--300 atoms. The measured relative variance or Fano factor $F=0.53\\pm 0.22$ agrees very well with the prediction by an analytic theory ($F=3/5$) and numerical calculations. These results will facilitate studies of quantum information science with mesoscopic ensembles.

  9. Sub-Poissonian atom-number fluctuations by three-body loss in mesoscopic ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, S; Ockeloen, C F; Spreeuw, R J C

    2010-03-26

    We show that three-body loss of trapped atoms leads to sub-Poissonian atom-number fluctuations. We prepare hundreds of dense ultracold ensembles in an array of magnetic microtraps which undergo rapid three-body decay. The shot-to-shot fluctuations of the number of atoms per trap are sub-Poissonian, for ensembles comprising 50-300 atoms. The measured relative variance or Fano factor F=0.53+/-0.22 agrees very well with the prediction by an analytic theory (F=3/5) and numerical calculations. These results will facilitate studies of quantum information science with mesoscopic ensembles. PMID:20366518

  10. Quantum Zeno suppression of three-body losses in Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the possibility of suppressing three-body losses in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates via the quantum Zeno effect, which means the delay of quantum evolution by frequent measurements. It turns out that this requires very fast measurements with the rate being determined by the spatial structure of the three-body form factor, i.e., the point interaction approximation δ3(r-r') is not adequate. Since the molecular binding energy Eb provides a natural limit for the measurement rate, this suppression mechanism can only work if the form factor possesses certain special properties.

  11. A dynamical model for describing behavioural interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Barrientos, J-Emeterio; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M

    2011-01-12

    We present a dynamical model incorporating both physiological and psychological factors that predicts changes in body mass and composition during the course of a behavioral intervention for weight loss. The model consists of a three-compartment energy balance integrated with a mechanistic psychological model inspired by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The latter describes how important variables in a behavioural intervention can influence healthy eating habits and increased physical activity over time. The novelty of the approach lies in representing the behavioural intervention as a dynamical system, and the integration of the psychological and energy balance models. Two simulation scenarios are presented that illustrate how the model can improve the understanding of how changes in intervention components and participant differences affect outcomes. Consequently, the model can be used to inform behavioural scientists in the design of optimised interventions for weight loss and body composition change. PMID:21673826

  12. Food Deprivation, Body Weight Loss and Anxiety-Related Behavior in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Silke Dietze; Lees, Katarina R.; Heidrun Fink; Jan Brosda; Jörg-Peter Voigt

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Food deprivation protocols are frequently used in behavioral studies. However, there is limited evidence as to when food deprivation compromises animal welfare. Regarding the refinement of experiments involving animals, this study investigated the effects of food deprivation on body weight loss and behavior in male and female rats. Sex difference in behavior and motivational state after food deprivation is the main finding of the study. The data highlights the need for tailored...

  13. Post-Bariatric Surgery Satisfaction and Body-Contouring Consideration after Massive Weight Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh M Aldaqal; Ahmad M Makhdoum; Ali M Turki; Awan, Basim A; Osama A Samargandi; Hytham Jamjom

    2013-01-01

    Background: Following a bariatric surgery and massive weight-loss, the outcome is usually sullied by consequences on the body′s contour and redundant skin. Aims: We aimed to record the frequency of contour irregularities and quantify patients′ satisfaction with appearance and anticipations from body contouring surgery. Materials and Methods: The ethical committee at King Abdulaziz University Hospital approved the study, and patients were consented. A cross-sectional study targeting the post-b...

  14. Pre-Exercise Hyperhydration-Induced Bodyweight Gain Does Not Alter Prolonged Treadmill Running Time-Trial Performance in Warm Ambient Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D. B. Goulet

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effect of pre-exercise hyperhydration (PEH and pre-exercise euhydration (PEE upon treadmill running time-trial (TT performance in the heat. Six highly trained runners or triathletes underwent two 18 km TT runs (~28 °C, 25%–30% RH on a motorized treadmill, in a randomized, crossover fashion, while being euhydrated or after hyperhydration with 26 mL/kg bodyweight (BW of a 130 mmol/L sodium solution. Subjects then ran four successive 4.5 km blocks alternating between 2.5 km at 1% and 2 km at 6% gradient, while drinking a total of 7 mL/kg BW of a 6% sports drink solution (Gatorade, USA. PEH increased BW by 1.00 ± 0.34 kg (P < 0.01 and, compared with PEE, reduced BW loss from 3.1% ± 0.3% (EUH to 1.4% ± 0.4% (HYP (P < 0.01 during exercise. Running TT time did not differ between groups (PEH: 85.6 ± 11.6 min; PEE: 85.3 ± 9.6 min, P = 0.82. Heart rate (5 ± 1 beats/min and rectal (0.3 ± 0.1 °C and body (0.2 ± 0.1 °C temperatures of PEE were higher than those of PEH (P < 0.05. There was no significant difference in abdominal discomfort and perceived exertion or heat stress between groups. Our results suggest that pre-exercise sodium-induced hyperhydration of a magnitude of 1 L does not alter 80–90 min running TT performance under warm conditions in highly-trained runners drinking ~500 mL sports drink during exercise.

  15. The effects of weight loss treatments on upper and lower body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, P G

    1997-08-01

    The intra-abdominal visceral deposition of adipose tissue, which characterises upper body obesity, is a major contributor to the development of hypertension, glucose intolerance and hyperlipidaemia. Conversely, individuals with lower body obesity may have comparable amounts of adipose tissue but remain relatively free from the metabolic consequences of obesity. This raises an obvious question-are there particular weight reducing treatments which specifically target intra-abdominal fat? In theory, surgical removal of upper body fat should be effective. In reality, neither liposuction nor apronectomy ('tummy tuck') have any beneficial metabolic effects, they simply remove subcutaneous adipose tissue which is often rapidly replaced. Vertical banded gastroplasty and gastric bypass operations may be dramatically effective in improving blood pressure, insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. However, these benefits result from a parallel reduction in visceral and total body fat. Studies of body fat distribution in postmenopausal women confirm that the marked decrease in adiposity, following a programme of very low calorie diet and exercise, reflects a comparable reduction in visceral and thigh fat. The reduction in waist circumference after a low fat/exercise programme suggests a similar situation in men. Exercise has an important role in treatment but, once again, the fat loss is generalised. Nevertheless, the improved metabolic parameters seen in exercising obese subjects, independent of weight loss, suggest other beneficial actions. Growth hormone (GH) has a marked lipolytic action. GH replacement treatment for GH deficient adults with pronounced abdominal fat deposition, has been shown to reduce intra-abdominal fat by 47% compared to 27% decrease in abdominal subcutaneous fat. Similar beneficial actions on abdominal fat have been reported following treatment with testosterone in obese men. The potential hazards of such treatments make them unsuitable therapy for

  16. Methane output of tortoises: its contribution to energy loss related to herbivore body mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragna Franz

    Full Text Available An increase in body mass (M is traditionally considered advantageous for herbivores in terms of digestive efficiency. However, recently increasing methane losses with increasing M were described in mammals. To test this pattern in non-mammal herbivores, we conducted feeding trails with 24 tortoises of various species (M range 0.52-180 kg fed a diet of grass hay ad libitum and salad. Mean daily dry matter and gross energy intake measured over 30 consecutive days scaled to M(0.75 (95%CI 0.64-0.87 and M(0.77 (95%CI 0.66-0.88, respectively. Methane production was measured over two consecutive days in respiration chambers and scaled to M(1.03 (95%CI 0.84-1.22. When expressed as energy loss per gross energy intake, methane losses scaled to 0.70 (95%CI 0.47-1.05 M(0.29 (95%CI 0.14-0.45. This scaling overlaps in its confidence intervals to that calculated for nonruminant mammals 0.79 (95%CI 0.63-0.99 M(0.15 (95%CI 0.09-0.20, but is lower than that for ruminants. The similarity between nonruminant mammals and tortoises suggest a common evolution of the gut fauna in ectotherms and endotherms, and that the increase in energetic losses due to methane production with increasing body mass is a general allometric principle in herbivores. These findings add evidence to the view that large body size itself does not necessarily convey a digestive advantage.

  17. Sweat loss during heat stress contributes to subsequent reductions in lower-body negative pressure tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rebekah A. I.; Ganio, Matthew S.; Pearson, James; Crandall, Craig G.

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of sweating to heat stress-induced reductions in haemorrhagic tolerance is not known. This study tested the hypothesis that fluid loss due to sweating contributes to reductions in simulated haemorrhagic tolerance in conditions of heat stress. Eight subjects (35 ± 8 years old; 77 ± 5 kg) underwent a normothermic time control and two heat stress trials (randomized). The two heat stress trials were as follows: (i) with slow intravenous infusion of lactated Ringer solution sufficient to offset sweat loss (IV trial); or (ii) without intravenous infusion (dehydration; DEH trial). Haemorrhage was simulated via progressive lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) to presyncope after core body (intestinal) temperature was raised by ~1.5°C using a water-perfused suit or a normothermic time control period. The LBNP tolerance was quantified via a cumulative stress index. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity (transcranial Doppler) and mean blood pressure (Finometer®) were measured continuously. Relative changes in plasma volume were calculated from haematocrit and haemoglobin. Increases in core body temperature and sweat loss (~1.6% body mass deficit) were similar (P > 0.05) between heat stress trials. Slow intravenous infusion (1.2 ± 0.3 litres) prevented heat-induced reductions in plasma volume (IV trial, −0.6 ± 6.1%; and DEH trial, −6.6 ± 5.1%; P = 0.01). Intravenous infusion improved LBNP tolerance (632 ± 64 mmHg min) by ~20% when compared with the DEH trial (407 ± 117 mmHg min; P = 0.01), yet tolerance remained 44% lower in the IV trial relative to the time control normothermic trial (1138 ± 183 mmHg min; P < 0.01). These data indicate that although sweat-induced dehydration impairs simulated haemorrhagic tolerance, this impairment is secondary to the negative impact of heat stress itself. PMID:22872657

  18. Weight loss and body composition changes following three sequential cycles of ketogenic enteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Cappello

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ketogenic enteral nutrition (KEN is a modification of the protein sparing modified fast in which a protein solution is introduced with a continuous infusion through a nasogastric tube over 10-days cycles. The aim of the study was to perform a retrospective analysis of the safety, compliance, weight loss and body composition changes after 3 sequential 10-days cycles of KEN therapy. Materials and Methods: From a large number of patients who underwent KEN therapy in our department over a 5-year period, we selected 188 patients who participated in 3 KEN cycles with 10-13 days of break between them. Before and after the treatment cycles, body composition was analyzed by bioelectric impedance; a final assessment was made 10 days after the end of last cycle. During each rest period all the patients were on a low-carbohydrate, normal caloric diet. Results: Most patients (97% successfully tolerated the nasogastric treatment and lost an average of 14.4 kg of body weight, 10.6 kg of fat mass and 3.4 kg of body cell mass. Adverse effects were recorded as mild gastric hypersecretion (2% and constipation (5%. Patients continued to lose fat during the 10-day follow up period after the end of each KEN Cycle. This effect may be explained by abnormality of water distribution during the rapid weight loss inducing the observed change in fat mass. Conclusion: Ten-days KEN treatment cycles can induce rapid weight loss and reduction of fat mass in obese patients. Furthermore, preservation of lean mass can be achieved by infusing 1.9 g of protein/kg of BCM.

  19. Changes in body composition during weight loss in obese subjects in the NUGENOB study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdich, C.; Barbe, P.; Petersen, Martin;

    2011-01-01

    AIM: We studied the accuracy of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to assess changes in body composition during moderate weight loss in obese subjects. METHODS: Estimates of changes in fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) by BIA were compared with those by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA......) as the reference method during a 10-week standardized weight-loss intervention. In obese women (age: 20-50years, mean BMI: 33.8kg/m(2)) participating in a European multicentre trial (nutrient-gene interactions in human obesity [NUGENOB]), body composition was assessed by BIA (Bodystat QuadScan 4000...... were wide (mean±7-8.5kg). For body-composition changes, although biases were generally non-significant, the limits of agreement were also wide (mean±3.7-4.6kg). An FFM prediction equation for BIA data was developed in subjects scanned with Lunar instruments and cross-validated in an independent sample...

  20. Effects of protein intake and gender on body composition changes: a randomized clinical weight loss trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Ellen M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Limited data on sex differences in body composition changes in response to higher protein diets (PRO compared to higher carbohydrate diets (CARB suggest that a PRO diet helps preserve lean mass (LM in women more so than in men. Objective To compare male and female body composition responses to weight loss diets differing in macronutrient content. Design Twelve month randomized clinical trial with 4mo of weight loss and 8mo weight maintenance. Subjects Overweight (N = 130; 58 male (M, 72 female (F; BMI = 32.5 ± 0.5 kg/m2 middle-aged subjects were randomized to energy-restricted (deficit ~500 kcal/d diets providing protein at 1.6 g.kg-1.d-1 (PRO or 0.8 g.kg-1.d-1 (CARB. LM and fat mass (FM were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Body composition outcomes were tested in a repeated measures ANOVA controlling for sex, diet, time and their two- and three-way interactions at 0, 4, 8 and 12mo. Results When expressed as percent change from baseline, males and females lost similar amounts of weight at 12mo (M:-11.2 ± 7.1 %, F:-9.9 ± 6.0 %, as did diet groups (PRO:-10.7 ± 6.8 %, CARB:-10.1 ± 6.2 %, with no interaction of gender and diet. A similar pattern emerged for fat mass and lean mass, however percent body fat was significantly influenced by both gender (M:-18.0 ± 12.8 %, F:-7.3 ± 8.1 %, p  Conclusion PRO was more effective in reducing percent body fat vs. CARB over 12mo weight loss and maintenance. Men lost percent total body fat and trunk fat more effectively than women. No interactive effects of protein intake and gender are evident.

  1. Whole-body vibration training as complement to programs aimed at weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cristi-Montero

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Whole-body vibration training (WBVT has been shown to be an extremely useful tool for increasing muscle mass, bone tissue, muscle power, flexibility, and strength, among others. However, to date, there are few studies on the effects of WBVT on energy metabolism and whether this tool could be able to enhance weight loss in addition to a nutritional plan and/or exercise. Objective: The aim of this review is to analyse the most recent studies on vibration training in order to determine whether this method constitutes a reliable complement to programs aimed at weight loss. Methods: An updated literature search was conducted using PubMed, SciELO and SPORTDiscus. In addition, a detailed search was also performed from references given in selected studies. Results: WBVT appears to be associated with three pathways involved in weight loss: inhibition of adipogenesis and reduction of fat mass, increased energy expenditure, and increase in muscle mass. After analysing the literature, none of the results for the proposed pathways are consistent, and indeed are often contradictory. Conclusion: Further in-depth research is required on this subject. However, WBVT would appear to be a safe method, and may possibly yield benefits, mainly as regards muscle mass, which in turn might promote weight loss when combined with a nutritional plan and a traditional exercise program.

  2. Continuous stellar mass-loss in N-body models of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Jungwiert, B; Palous, J; Jungwiert, Bruno; Combes, Francoise; Palous, Jan

    2001-01-01

    We present an N-body computer code - aimed at studies of galactic dynamics - with a CPU-efficient algorithm for a continuous (i.e. time-dependent) stellar mass-loss. First, we summarize available data on stellar mass-loss and derive the long-term (20 Gyr) dependence of mass-loss rate of a coeval stellar population. We then implement it, through a simple parametric form, into a particle-mesh code with stellar and gaseous particles. We perform several tests of the algorithm reliability and show an illustrative application: a 2D simulation of a disk galaxy, starting as purely stellar but evolving as two-component due to gradual mass-loss from initial stars and due to star formation. In a subsequent paper we will use the code to study what changes are induced in galactic disks by the continuous gas recycling compared to the instantaneous recycling approximation, especially the changes in star formation rate and radial inflow of matter.

  3. A Link Loss Model for the On-body Propagation Channel for Binaural Hearing Aids

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, Rohit

    2013-01-01

    Binaural hearing aids communicate with each other through a wireless link for synchronization. A propagation model is needed to estimate the ear-to-ear link loss for such binaural hearing aids. The link loss is a critical parameter in a link budget to decide the sensitivity of the transceiver. In this paper, we have presented a model for the deterministic component of the ear-to-ear link loss. The model takes into account the dominant paths having most of the power of the creeping wave from the transceiver in one ear to the transceiver in other ear and the effect of the protruding part of the outer ear called pinna. Simulations are done to validate the model using in-the-ear (ITE) placement of antennas at 2.45 GHz on two heterogeneous phantoms of different age-group and body size. The model agrees with the simulations. The ear-to-ear link loss between the antennas for the binaural hearing aids in the homogeneous SAM phantom is compared with a heterogeneous phantom. It is found that the absence of the pinna an...

  4. HMG-coenzyme A reductase inhibition, type 2 diabetes, and bodyweight: evidence from genetic analysis and randomised trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdlow, Daniel I; Preiss, David; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Holmes, Michael V; Engmann, Jorgen E L; Shah, Tina; Sofat, Reecha; Stender, Stefan; Johnson, Paul C D; Scott, Robert A; Leusink, Maarten; Verweij, Niek; Sharp, Stephen J; Guo, Yiran; Giambartolomei, Claudia; Chung, Christina; Peasey, Anne; Amuzu, Antoinette; Li, KaWah; Palmen, Jutta; Howard, Philip; Cooper, Jackie A; Drenos, Fotios; Li, Yun R; Lowe, Gordon; Gallacher, John; Stewart, Marlene C W; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Buxbaum, Sarah G; van der A, Daphne L; Forouhi, Nita G; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Schnabel, Renate B; Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Kubinova, Ruzena; Baceviciene, Migle; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Pajak, Andrzej; Topor-Madry, Romanvan; Stepaniak, Urszula; Malyutina, Sofia; Baldassarre, Damiano; Sennblad, Bengt; Tremoli, Elena; de Faire, Ulf; Veglia, Fabrizio; Ford, Ian; Jukema, J Wouter; Westendorp, Rudi G J; de Borst, Gert Jan; de Jong, Pim A; Algra, Ale; Spiering, Wilko; der Zee, Anke H Maitland-van; Klungel, Olaf H; de Boer, Anthonius; Doevendans, Pieter A; Eaton, Charles B; Robinson, Jennifer G; Duggan, David; Kjekshus, John; Downs, John R; Gotto, Antonio M; Keech, Anthony C; Marchioli, Roberto; Tognoni, Gianni; Sever, Peter S; Poulter, Neil R; Waters, David D; Pedersen, Terje R; Amarenco, Pierre; Nakamura, Haruo; McMurray, John J V; Lewsey, James D; Chasman, Daniel I; Ridker, Paul M; Maggioni, Aldo P; Tavazzi, Luigi; Ray, Kausik K; Seshasai, Sreenivasa Rao Kondapally; Manson, JoAnn E; Price, Jackie F; Whincup, Peter H; Morris, Richard W; Lawlor, Debbie A; Smith, George Davey; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Schreiner, Pamela J; Fornage, Myriam; Siscovick, David S; Cushman, Mary; Kumari, Meena; Wareham, Nick J; Verschuren, W M Monique; Redline, Susan; Patel, Sanjay R; Whittaker, John C; Hamsten, Anders; Delaney, Joseph A; Dale, Caroline; Gaunt, Tom R; Wong, Andrew; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca; Kathiresan, Sekar; Castillo, Berta A; van der Harst, Pim; Brunner, Eric J; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Marmot, Michael G; Krauss, Ronald M; Tsai, Michael; Coresh, Josef; Hoogeveen, Ronald C; Psaty, Bruce M; Lange, Leslie A; Hakonarson, Hakon; Dudbridge, Frank; Humphries, Steve E; Talmud, Philippa J; Kivimäki, Mika; Timpson, Nicholas J; Langenberg, Claudia; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Voevoda, Mikhail; Bobak, Martin; Pikhart, Hynek; Wilson, James G; Reiner, Alex P; Keating, Brendan J; Hingorani, Aroon D; Sattar, Naveed

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Statins increase the risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus. We aimed to assess whether this increase in risk is a consequence of inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), the intended drug target. Methods We used single nucleotide polymorphisms in the HMGCR gene, rs17238484 (for the main analysis) and rs12916 (for a subsidiary analysis) as proxies for HMGCR inhibition by statins. We examined associations of these variants with plasma lipid, glucose, and insulin concentrations; bodyweight; waist circumference; and prevalent and incident type 2 diabetes. Study-specific effect estimates per copy of each LDL-lowering allele were pooled by meta-analysis. These findings were compared with a meta-analysis of new-onset type 2 diabetes and bodyweight change data from randomised trials of statin drugs. The effects of statins in each randomised trial were assessed using meta-analysis. Findings Data were available for up to 223 463 individuals from 43 genetic studies. Each additional rs17238484-G allele was associated with a mean 0·06 mmol/L (95% CI 0·05–0·07) lower LDL cholesterol and higher body weight (0·30 kg, 0·18–0·43), waist circumference (0·32 cm, 0·16–0·47), plasma insulin concentration (1·62%, 0·53–2·72), and plasma glucose concentration (0·23%, 0·02–0·44). The rs12916 SNP had similar effects on LDL cholesterol, bodyweight, and waist circumference. The rs17238484-G allele seemed to be associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio [OR] per allele 1·02, 95% CI 1·00–1·05); the rs12916-T allele association was consistent (1·06, 1·03–1·09). In 129 170 individuals in randomised trials, statins lowered LDL cholesterol by 0·92 mmol/L (95% CI 0·18–1·67) at 1-year of follow-up, increased bodyweight by 0·24 kg (95% CI 0·10–0·38 in all trials; 0·33 kg, 95% CI 0·24–0·42 in placebo or standard care controlled trials and −0·15 kg, 95% CI −0·39 to 0·08 in intensive

  5. Body electrical loss analysis (BELA) in the assessment of visceral fat: a demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    Blomqvist Kim H; Lundbom Jesper; Lundbom Nina; Sepponen Raimo E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Body electrical loss analysis (BELA) is a new non-invasive way to assess visceral fat depot size through the use of electromagnetism. BELA has worked well in phantom measurements, but the technology is not yet fully validated. Methods Ten volunteers (5 men and 5 women, age: 22-60 y, BMI: 21-30 kg/m2, waist circumference: 73-108 cm) were measured with the BELA instrument and with cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the navel level, navel +5 cm and navel -5 c...

  6. Body Composition Changes after Weight-Loss Interventions among Obese Females: A Comparison of Three Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayera E. Hassan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate body composition changes after use of three different types of obesity management protocols: dietary measures and physical activity; acupuncture or laser acupuncture with healthy diet; aiming at achieving stable weight loss among obese Egyptian females. METHODS:  A randomized longitudinal prospective study included 76 obese adult females; aged 26 up to 55 years. Anthropometric, body composition, ultrasonographic and biochemical assessments were done. RESULTS: The three types of obesity management protocols showed significant improvement in body composition (decrease in fat% and increases in FFM and TBW and visceral fat by US. However, nutritional intervention showed highly significant improvement in the skin fold thickness at triceps and biceps sites and peripheral adiposity index.  Acupuncture intervention showed highly significant improvement in fasting blood glucose (decreased and lipid profile (decreased triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL, and increased HDL. Laser intervention showed highly significant improvement in all the skin fold thickness and some parameters of lipid profile (decreased total cholesterol and LDL. CONCLUSIONS: The three obesity management protocols have significant effect on body composition, but acupuncture has the best effect in improving the lipid profile and fasting blood sugar. In addition, Laser intervention was recommended to improve skin fold thickness and subcutaneous fat.

  7. The role of pyridoxine as a countermeasure for in-flight loss of lean body mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Joyce A.

    1992-01-01

    Ground based and in flight research has shown that humans, under conditions of microgravity, sustain a loss of lean body tissue (protein) and changes in several biological processes including, reductions in red blood cell mass, and neurotransmitters. The maintenance of muscle mass, the major component of lean body mass, is required to meet the needs of space station EVAs. Central to the biosynthesis of amino acids, the building blocks of protein, is pyridoxine (vitamin B-6). Muscle mass integrity requires the availability of vitamin B-6 for protein metabolism and neurotransmitter synthesis. Furthermore, the formation of red blood cells require pyridoxine as a cofactor in the biosynthesis of hemoglobin, a protein that carries oxygen to tissues. In its active form, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), vitamin B-6 serves as a link between amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism through intermediates of glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. In addition to its role in energy metabolism, PLP is involved in the biosynthesis of hemoglobin and neurotransmitter which are necessary for neurological functions. Alterations in pyridoxine metabolism may affect countermeasures designed to overcome some of these biochemical changes. The focus of this research is to determine the effects of microgravity on the metabolic utilization of vitamin B-6, integrating nutrition as an integral component of the countermeasure (exercise) to maintain lean body mass and muscle strength. The objectives are: 1) to determine whether microgravity effects the metabolic utilization of pyridoxine and 2) to quantitate changes in B-6 vitamer distribution in tissue and excreta relative to loss of lean body tissue. The rationale for this study encompasses the unique challenge to control biochemical mechanisms effected during space travel and the significance of pyridoxine to maintain and counter muscle integrity for EVA activities. This experiment will begin to elucidate the importance of biochemical

  8. Body composition during weight loss in obese patients estimated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and by total body potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Andersen, T;

    1996-01-01

    for FFM were strong (r = 0.92 and 0.93). Bland and Altman plots showed limits of agreement of +/-9 kg before and after weight loss; DXA underestimated FFM in women and overestimated FFM in men. DXA accounted for 80% of the lost body weight. The composition of the lost body mass did not differ from...... that estimated by TBK (7.6% FFM and 92.4% FM by TBK; 11% FFM and 89% FM by DXA). CONCLUSION: DXA estimates accurately the body composition and the composition of weight loss in groups of obese subjects. However, the scan table may be too small for patients weighing more than 95 kg....

  9. Variable Scheduling to Mitigate Channel Losses in Energy-Efficient Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavy Libman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider a typical body area network (BAN setting in which sensor nodes send data to a common hub regularly on a TDMA basis, as defined by the emerging IEEE 802.15.6 BAN standard. To reduce transmission losses caused by the highly dynamic nature of the wireless channel around the human body, we explore variable TDMA scheduling techniques that allow the order of transmissions within each TDMA round to be decided on the fly, rather than being fixed in advance. Using a simple Markov model of the wireless links, we devise a number of scheduling algorithms that can be performed by the hub, which aim to maximize the expected number of successful transmissions in a TDMA round, and thereby significantly reduce transmission losses as compared with a static TDMA schedule. Importantly, these algorithms do not require a priori knowledge of the statistical properties of the wireless channels, and the reliability improvement is achieved entirely via shuffling the order of transmissions among devices, and does not involve any additional energy consumption (e.g., retransmissions. We evaluate these algorithms directly on an experimental set of traces obtained from devices strapped to human subjects performing regular daily activities, and confirm that the benefits of the proposed variable scheduling algorithms extend to this practical setup as well.

  10. INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACUTE FLUID LOSS AND BODY FAT PERCENTAGE BY USING BIA METHOD TO DETERMİNE BODY COMPOSİTİON

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet; VAN, Ali; Yücel

    2015-01-01

    Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) is so popular technique to analysis body fat mass (BFM), free fat mass (FFM), lean body mass (LBM) and total body fluid (TBF) in both healthy and patient subjects. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the acute weight(fluid) loss on body fat mass and percentage by using BIA method. In this study 43 soccer players (age: 21.90; length: 179.62and weight: 73.90) who playing in college league in Afyonkarahisar province has been participated....

  11. A feasibility study of altered spatial distribution of losses induced by eddy currents in body composition analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sepponen Raimo E; Blomqvist Kim H

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Tomographic imaging has revealed that the body mass index does not give a reliable state of overall fitness. However, high measurement costs make the tomographic imaging unsuitable for large scale studies or repeated individual use. This paper reports an experimental investigation of a new electromagnetic method and its feasibility for assessing body composition. The method is called body electrical loss analysis (BELA). Methods The BELA method uses a high-Q parallel reson...

  12. Aerobic Exercise and Whole-Body Vibration in Offsetting Bone Loss in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yang Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis and its associated fractures are common complications of aging and most strategies to prevent and/or treat bone loss focused on antiresorptive medications. However, aerobic exercise (AEX and/or whole-body vibration (WBV might have beneficial effect on bone mass and provide an alternative approach to increase or maintain bone mineral density (BMD and reduce the risk of fractures. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the potential benefits of AEX and WBV on BMD in older population and discuss the possible mechanisms of action. Several online databases were utilized and based on the available literature the consensus is that both AEX and WBV may increase spine and femoral BMD in older adults. Therefore, AEX and WBV could serve as nonpharmacological and complementary approaches to increasing/maintaining BMD. However, it is uncertain if noted effects could be permanent and further studies are needed to investigate sustainability of either type of the exercise.

  13. Loss of Ia-bearing splenic adherent cells after whole body ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daily uv irradiation of mice results in a marked decrease in the antigen-presenting capability of SAC from these mice after 1 wk of uv exposure. To directly examine this cell population, we developed a technique for purifying SAC that involves passing mouse splenocytes through two cycles of glass adherence with an intervening incubation on rabbit anti-mouse Ig-coated dishes. SAC from externally uv irradiated mice prepared by this method, when pulsed with antigen, activate primed T cells to proliferate much less efficiently than SAC from normal mice. Both the proportion and absolute number of Ia-bearing cells in this purified SAC population from uv irradiated mice are considerably smaller than that seen in similarly prepared populations from normal mice. Previous adjuvant immunization was shown to override functional defects elicited by external uv irradiation. This demonstration of a uv irradiation induced selective loss of Ia bearing splenic adherent cells and the functional consequences of this loss provide further evidence for the importance of Ia-bearing accessory cells in antigen presentation of T dependent antigens, and provides insight into the origin of the immunologic defects induced by whole body uv irradiation

  14. Sauna-Induced Body Mass Loss in Young Sedentary Women and Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Podstawski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI and body mass loss (BML induced by thermal stress in a dry sauna. The study was conducted on a group of 674 sedentary students, 326 women and 348 men aged 19-20. The correlations between BMI scores and BML were determined. The subjects were placed in supine position in a dry sauna for two sessions of 10 minutes each with a 5-minute break. The influence of BMI on the amount of BML in the sauna was determined by nonlinear stepwise regression. The smallest BML was noted in underweight subjects; students with normal weight lost more weight, whereas the greatest BML was reported in overweight and obese subjects. Persons with a high BMI are at higher risk of dehydration, and they should pay particular attention to replenishing fluids during a visit to the sauna. The proposed equations for calculating BML based on a person's BMI can be useful in estimating the amount of fluids that should be replenished by both men and women during a visit to a dry sauna.

  15. ACUTE EFFECTS OF SELF-SELECTED REGIMEN OF RAPID BODY MASS LOSS IN COMBAT SPORTS ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaan Ereline

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to assess the acute effects of the self-selected regimen of rapid body mass loss (RBML on muscle performance and metabolic response to exercise in combat sports athletes. Seventeen male athletes (20.8 ± 1.0 years; mean ± SD reduced their body mass by 5.1 ± 1.1% within 3 days. The RBML was achieved by a gradual reduction of energy and fluid intake and mild sauna procedures. A battery of tests was performed before (Test 1 and immediately after (Test 2 RBML. The test battery included the measurement of the peak torque of knee extensors for three different speeds, assessment of total work (Wtot performed during a 3-min intermittent intensity knee extension exercise and measurements of blood metabolites (ammonia, lactate, glucose and urea. Absolute peak torque was lower in Test 2 compared with Test 1 at angular velocities of 1.57 rad·s-1 (218.6 ± 40.9 vs. 234.4 ± 42.2 N·m; p = 0.013 and 3.14 rad·s-1 (100.3 ± 27.8 vs. 111.7 ± 26.2 N·m; p = 0.008. The peak torque in relation to body mass remained unchanged for any speed. Absolute Wtot was lower in Test 2 compared with Test 1 (6359 ± 2326 vs. 7452 ± 3080 J; p = 0.003 as well as Wtot in relation to body mass (89.1 ± 29.9 vs. 98.6 ± 36.4 J·kg-1; p = 0.034, respectively. As a result of RBML, plasma urea concentration increased from 4.9 to 5.9 mmol·l-1 (p = 0.003. The concentration of ammonia in a post-test sample in Test 2 tended to be higher in comparison with Test 1 (80.9 ± 29.1 vs. 67.6 ± 26.5 mmol·l-1; p = 0.082. The plasma lactate and glucose responses to exercise were similar in Test 1 and Test 2. We conclude that the self-selected regimen of RBML impairs muscle performance in 3-min intermittent intensity exercise and induces an increase in blood urea concentration in experienced male combat sports athletes

  16. Health technology assessment of non-invasive interventions for weight loss and body shape in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojomi, Marzieh; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Velayati, Ashraf; Naghibzadeh-Tahami, Ahmad; Dadgostar, Haleh; Ghorabi, Gholamhossein; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad; Yaghoubi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Background: The burden of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases is increasing in Iran, and prevention and treatment strategies are needed to address this problem. The aim of this study was to determine the outcome, cost, safety and cost-consequence of non-invasive weight loss interventions in Iran. Methods: We performed a systematic review to compare non-invasive interventions (cryolipolysis and radiofrequency/ ultrasonic cavitation) with semi-invasive (lipolysis) and invasive (liposuction). A sensitive electronic searching was done to find available interventional studies. Reduction of abdomen circumference (cm), reduction in fat layer thickness (%) and weight reduction (kg) were outcomes of efficacy. Meta-analysis with random models was used for pooling efficacy estimates among studies with the same follow-up duration. Average cost per intervention was estimated based on the capital, maintenance, staff, consumable and purchase costs. Results: Of 3,111 studies identified in our reviews, 13 studies assessed lipolysis, 10 cryolipolysis and 8 considered radiofrequency. Nine studies with the same follow-up duration in three different outcome group were included in meta-analysis. Radiofrequency showed an overall pooled estimate of 2.7 cm (95% CI; 2.3-3.1) of mean reduction in circumference of abdomen after intervention. Pooled estimate of reduction in fat layer thickness was 78% (95% CI; 73%-83%) after Lipolysis and a pooled estimate of weight loss was 3.01 kg (95% CI; 2.3-3.6) after lipousuction. The cost analysis revealed no significant differences between the costs of these interventions. Conclusion: The present study showed that non-invasive interventions appear to have better clinical efficacy, specifically in the body shape measurement, and less cost compared to invasive intervention (liposuction) PMID:27390717

  17. In-to-Out Body Antenna-Independent Path Loss Model for Multilayered Tissues and Heterogeneous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Kurup

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate multilayered lossy and heterogeneous media for wireless body area networks (WBAN to develop a simple, fast and efficient analytical in-to-out body path loss (PL model at 2.45 GHz and, thus, avoid time-consuming simulations. The PL model is an antenna-independent model and is validated with simulations in layered medium, as well as in a 3D human model using electromagnetic solvers.

  18. In-to-out body antenna-independent path loss model for multilayered tissues and heterogeneous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Divya; Vermeeren, Günter; Tanghe, Emmeric; Joseph, Wout; Martens, Luc

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate multilayered lossy and heterogeneous media for wireless body area networks (WBAN) to develop a simple, fast and efficient analytical in-to-out body path loss (PL) model at 2.45 GHz and, thus, avoid time-consuming simulations. The PL model is an antenna-independent model and is validated with simulations in layered medium, as well as in a 3D human model using electromagnetic solvers. PMID:25551483

  19. Body mass loss correlates with cognitive performance in primates under acute caloric restriction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villain, N; Picq, J-L; Aujard, F; Pifferi, F

    2016-05-15

    Brain functions are known to consume high levels of energy, thus, the integrity of cognitive performance can be drastically impacted by acute caloric restriction. In this study, we tested the impact of a 40% caloric restriction on the cognitive abilities of the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). Twenty-three male mouse lemurs were divided into two groups: 13 control animals (CTL) that were fed with 105kJ/day and 10calorie restricted (CR) animals that received 40% less food (63kJ/day) than the CTL animals. The animals were fed according to their group for 19days. Before treatment, we assessed baseline associative learning capacities, resting metabolic rates and locomotor performance of both animal groups. After treatment, we tested the same functions as well as long-term memory. Our results showed that CR animals had lower learning performance following caloric restriction. The effects of caloric restriction on memory recall varied and depended on the metabolism of the individual animal. Body mass loss was linked to memory test performance in the CR group, and lower performance was observed in individuals losing the most weight. While CR was observed to negatively impact learning, locomotor capacities were preserved in CR animals, and there were higher resting metabolic rates in the CR group. Our data reinforce the strong link between energy allocation and brain function, and suggest that in the context of food shortage, learning capacities could be a limiting parameter in the adaptation to a changing environment. PMID:26952885

  20. Influence of Weight Loss, Body Composition, and Lifestyle Behaviors on Plasma Adipokines: A Randomized Weight Loss Trial in Older Men and Women with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary D. Miller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate effects of weight loss on adipokines and health measures in obese older adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Methods. Participants were randomly assigned to either weight loss (WL (men: 12, women: 14 or weight stable (WS group (men: 12, women: 13. WL intervention included meal replacements and structured exercise training. Measurements of leptin, adiponectin, soluble leptin receptor, lifestyle behaviors, and body composition were collected at baseline and 6 months. Univariate analysis of covariance was performed on 6 month variables, and Spearman and partial correlations were made between variables. Results. Weight loss was 13.0% and 6.7% in WL for men and women, respectively. Women in WL had lower whole body and trunk fat than WS. The leptin : adiponectin ratio was lower for women in WL than WS at 6 months, with no group differences in adipokines for men. Leptin and free leptin index correlated with body fat in both genders at baseline. Interestingly, only women showed reductions in leptin (P<0.100 and correlations between the percentage change leptin and trunk fat and the percentage changes in free leptin index with total fat and trunk fat. Partial correlations between 6 month adipokines after adjustments for covariates and group/time period show potential multivariate influences. Conclusions. In the presence of an effective weight loss intervention in older obese adults, there are significant relationships between weight and fat loss and leptin in women, but not men, suggesting gender-specific features of adipokine metabolism in this age group.

  1. Effect of antibiotics on gut microbiota, glucose metabolism and bodyweight regulation - a review of the literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kristian Hallundbaek; Allin, Kristine Højgaard; Knop, Filip Krag

    2016-01-01

    Gut bacteria are involved in a number of host metabolic processes and have been implicated in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans. Use of antibiotics changes the composition of the gut microbiota and there is accumulating evidence from observational studies for an association...... between exposure to antibiotics and development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Here we review human studies examining effects of antibiotics on bodyweight regulation and glucose metabolism and discuss whether the observed findings may relate to alterations in the composition and function of the gut...... microbiota....

  2. Influence of ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms on body weight and body composition changes after a controlled weight-loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szendrei, Barbara; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Amigo, Teresa; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Benito, Pedro J; Gomez-Candela, Carmen; Calderón, Francisco J; Cupeiro, Rocío

    2016-03-01

    The β-2 and β-3 adrenergic receptors (ADRB2 and ADRB3) are thought to play a role in energy expenditure and lipolysis. However, the effects of the ADRB2 glutamine (Gln) 27 glutamic acid (glutamate) (Glu) and ADRB3 tryptophan (Trp) 64 arginine (Arg) polymorphisms on weight loss remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these polymorphisms on changes in weight and body composition during a controlled weight-loss program. One hundred seventy-three healthy overweight and obese participants (91 women, 82 men) aged 18-50 years participated in a 22-week-long intervention based on a hypocaloric diet and exercise. They were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: strength, endurance, strength and endurance combined, and physical activity recommendations only. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body composition variables were assessed before and after the intervention. Genetic analysis was carried out according to standard protocols. No effect of the ADRB2 gene was shown on final weight, BMI, or body composition, although in the supervised male group, Glu27 carriers tended to have greater weight (p = 0.019, 2.5 kg) and BMI (p = 0.019, 0.88 kg/m(2)) reductions than did noncarriers. There seems to be an individual effect of the ADRB3 polymorphism on fat mass (p = 0.004) and fat percentage (p = 0.036), in addition to an interaction with exercise for fat mass (p = 0.038). After the intervention, carriers of the Arg64 allele had a greater fat mass and fat percentage than did noncarriers (p = 0.004, 2.8 kg). In conclusion, the ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms may influence weight loss and body composition, although the current evidence is weak; however, further studies are necessary to clarify their roles. PMID:26888112

  3. Body electrical loss analysis (BELA in the assessment of visceral fat: a demonstration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomqvist Kim H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body electrical loss analysis (BELA is a new non-invasive way to assess visceral fat depot size through the use of electromagnetism. BELA has worked well in phantom measurements, but the technology is not yet fully validated. Methods Ten volunteers (5 men and 5 women, age: 22-60 y, BMI: 21-30 kg/m2, waist circumference: 73-108 cm were measured with the BELA instrument and with cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI at the navel level, navel +5 cm and navel -5 cm. The BELA signal was compared with visceral and subcutaneous fat areas calculated from the MR images. Results The BELA signal did not correlate with subcutaneous fat area at any level, but correlated significantly with visceral fat area at the navel level and navel +5 cm. The correlation was best at level of navel +5 cm (R2 = 0.74, P 2, LOOCV = 40.1 cm2, where SEE is the standard error of the estimate and LOOCV is the root mean squared error of leave-one-out style cross-validation. The average estimate of repeatability of the BELA signal observed through the study was ±9.6 %. One of the volunteers had an exceptionally large amount of visceral fat, which was underestimated by BELA. Conclusions The correlation of the BELA signal with the visceral but not with the subcutaneous fat area as measured by MRI is promising. The lack of correlation with the subcutaneous fat suggests that subcutaneous fat has a minor influence to the BELA signal. Further research will show if it is possible to develop a reliable low-cost method for the assessment of visceral fat either using BELA only or combining it, for example, with bioelectrical impedance measurement. The combination of these measurements may help assessing visceral fat in a large scale of body composition. Before large-scale clinical testing and ROC analysis, the initial BELA instrumentation requires improvements. The accuracy of the present equipment is not sufficient for such new technology.

  4. A feasibility study of altered spatial distribution of losses induced by eddy currents in body composition analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepponen Raimo E

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tomographic imaging has revealed that the body mass index does not give a reliable state of overall fitness. However, high measurement costs make the tomographic imaging unsuitable for large scale studies or repeated individual use. This paper reports an experimental investigation of a new electromagnetic method and its feasibility for assessing body composition. The method is called body electrical loss analysis (BELA. Methods The BELA method uses a high-Q parallel resonant circuit to produce a time-varying magnetic field. The Q of the resonator changes when the sample is placed in its coil. This is caused by induced eddy currents in the sample. The new idea in the BELA method is the altered spatial distribution of the electrical losses generated by these currents. The distribution of losses is varied using different excitation frequencies. The feasibility of the method was tested using simplified phantoms. Two of these phantoms were rough estimations of human torso. One had fat in the middle of its volume and saline solution in the outer shell volume. The other had reversed conductivity distributions. The phantoms were placed in the resonator and the change in the losses was measured. Five different excitation frequencies from 100 kHz to 200 kHz were used. Results The rate of loss as a function of frequency was observed to be approximately three times larger for a phantom with fat in the middle of its volume than for one with fat in its outer shell volume. Conclusions At higher frequencies the major signal contribution can be shifted toward outer shell volume. This enables probing the conductivity distribution of the subject by weighting outer structural components. The authors expect that the loss changing rate over frequency can be a potential index for body composition analysis.

  5. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies' Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo

    2016-02-01

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies' functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident's origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people's life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water's recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole. PMID:26805869

  6. Loss of Body Weight and Fat and Improved Lipid Profiles in Obese Rats Fed Apple Pomace or Apple Juice Concentrate

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Kyung-Dong; Han, Chan-Kyu; Lee, Bog-Hieu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of apple pomace (AP) and apple juice concentrate (AC) supplementation on body weight and fat loss as well as lipid metabolism in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Diet-induced obese rats were assigned to three groups (n=8 for each group): high fat diet (HFD) control, HFD containing 10% (w/w) AP, and HFD containing 10% (w/w) AC. There was also a normal diet group (n=8). After 5 weeks, body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, serum and he...

  7. A Link Loss Model for the On-body Propagation Channel for Binaural Hearing Aids

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Rohit; Johansson, Anders J.

    2013-01-01

    Binaural hearing aids communicate with each other through a wireless link for synchronization. A propagation model is needed to estimate the ear-to-ear link loss for such binaural hearing aids. The link loss is a critical parameter in a link budget to decide the sensitivity of the transceiver. In this paper, we have presented a model for the deterministic component of the ear-to-ear link loss. The model takes into account the dominant paths having most of the power of the creeping wave from t...

  8. Full body photography in the massive weight loss population: an inquiry to optimize patient-centered care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasicek, Philip; Kaswan, Sumesh; Messing, Susan; Gusenoff, Jeffrey A

    2013-11-01

    Medical photography of body contouring patients often requires complete nudity, placing patients in a vulnerable situation. We investigated patient perspectives on full body photography in an effort to better protect the patients and enhance comfort with the photography process. Sixty-five massive weight loss patients were identified who underwent body contouring surgery with full body photography. Photographs were taken at the time of initial consult, time of marking, and postoperatively. A retrospective chart review was performed to assess body mass indices and comorbidities, and a telephone survey inquired about several aspects of the photographic process. Fifty-six (86%) patients participated. Patients were more comfortable at the time of markings (P = 0.0004) and at the postoperative session (P = 0.0009). Patients' perception of positive body image increased after body contouring surgery (P < 0.0001). Patients who reported being comfortable at their initial session had a higher body mass index (P = 0.0027). Professionalism of the staff was rated as the most important aspect of the photographic process. Patients preferring a chaperone of the same sex tended to be less comfortable with the process (P = 0.015). Most patients preferred the surgeon as the photographer (P = 0.03). Patient comfort with full body photography improves quickly as they move through the surgical process. Maintaining professionalism is the most important factor in achieving patient trust and comfort. Limiting the number of observers in the room, providing explicit details of the photography process, and having at least 1 person of the same sex in the room can optimize patient safety and comfort. PMID:23542830

  9. Weighing women down: messages on weight loss and body shaping in editorial content in popular women's health and fitness magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Laura E; Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to idealized body images has been shown to lower women's body satisfaction. Yet some studies found the opposite, possibly because real-life media (as opposed to image-only stimuli) often embed such imagery in messages that suggest thinness is attainable. Drawing on social cognitive theory, the current content analysis investigated editorial body-shaping and weight-loss messages in popular women's health and fitness magazines. About five thousand magazine pages published in top-selling U.S. women's health and fitness magazines in 2010 were examined. The findings suggest that body shaping and weight loss are a major topic in these magazines, contributing to roughly one-fifth of all editorial content. Assessing standards of motivation and conduct, as well as behaviors promoted by the messages, the findings reflect overemphasis on appearance over health and on exercise-related behaviors over caloric reduction behaviors and the combination of both behaviors. These accentuations are at odds with public health recommendations. PMID:23844558

  10. Secular dynamics in hierarchical three-body systems with mass loss and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Michaely, Erez

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that secular evolution of triple systems can play a major role in the evolution and interaction of their inner binaries. Very few studies explored the stellar evolution of triple systems, and in particular the mass loss phase of the evolving stellar components. Here we study the dynamical secular evolution of hierarchical triple systems undergoing mass loss. We use the secular evolution equations and include the effects of mass-loss and mass-transfer, as well as general relativistic effects. We present various evolutionary channels taking place in such evolving triples, and discuss both the effects of mass-loss and mass-transfer in the inner binary system, as well as the effects of mass-loss/transfer from an outer third companion. We discuss several distinct types/regimes of triple secular evolution, where the specific behavior of a triple system can sensitively depend on its hierarchy and the relative importance of classical and general relativistic effects. We show that the orbital...

  11. Ghrelin improves body weight loss and skeletal muscle catabolism associated with angiotensin II-induced cachexia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Masako; Yamaki, Akira; Furuya, Mayumi; Inomata, Norio; Minamitake, Yoshiharu; Ohsuye, Kazuhiro; Kangawa, Kenji

    2012-10-10

    Ghrelin is a gastric peptide that regulates energy homeostasis. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is known to induce body weight loss and skeletal muscle catabolism through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In this study, we investigated the effects of ghrelin on body weight and muscle catabolism in mice treated with Ang II. The continuous subcutaneous administration of Ang II to mice for 6 days resulted in cardiac hypertrophy and significant decreases in body weight gain, food intake, food efficiency, lean mass, and fat mass. In the gastrocnemius muscles of Ang II-treated mice, the levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were decreased, and the levels of mRNA expression of catabolic factors were increased. Although the repeated subcutaneous injections of ghrelin (1.0mg/kg, twice daily for 5 days) did not affect cardiac hypertrophy, they resulted in significant body weight gains and improved food efficiencies and tended to increase both lean and fat mass in Ang II-treated mice. Ghrelin also ameliorated the decreased IGF-1 levels and the increased mRNA expression levels of catabolic factors in the skeletal muscle. IGF-1 mRNA levels in the skeletal muscle significantly decreased 24h after Ang II infusion, and this was reversed by two subcutaneous injections of ghrelin. In C2C12-derived myocytes, the dexamethasone-induced mRNA expression of atrogin-1 was decreased by IGF-1 but not by ghrelin. In conclusion, we demonstrated that ghrelin improved body weight loss and skeletal muscle catabolism in mice treated with Ang II, possibly through the early restoration of IGF-1 mRNA in the skeletal muscle and the amelioration of nutritional status. PMID:22750276

  12. Rapid body mass loss affects erythropoiesis and hemolysis but does not impair aerobic performance in combat athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reljic, D; Feist, J; Jost, J; Kieser, M; Friedmann-Bette, B

    2016-05-01

    Rapid body mass loss (RBML) before competition was found to decrease hemoglobin mass (Hbmass ) in elite boxers. This study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of this observation. Fourteen well-trained combat athletes who reduced body mass before competitions (weight loss group, WLG) and 14 combat athletes who did not practice RBML (control group, CON) were tested during an ordinary training period (t-1), 1-2 days before an official competition (after 5-7 days RBML in WLG, t-2), and after a post-competition period (t-3). In WLG, body mass (-5.5%, range: 2.9-6.8 kg) and Hbmass (-4.1%) were significantly (P < 0.001) reduced after RBML and were still decreased by 1.6% (P < 0.05) and 2.6% (P < 0.001) at t-3 compared with t-1. After RBML, erythropoietin, reticulocytes, haptoglobin, triiodothyronine (FT3 ), and free androgen index (FAI) were decreased compared with t-1 and t-3. An increase occurred in ferritin and bilirubin. Peak treadmill-running performance and VO2peak did not change significantly, but performance at 4-mmol lactate threshold was higher after RBML (P < 0.05). In CON, no significant changes were found in any parameter. Apparently, the significant decrease in Hbmass after RBML in combat athletes was caused by impaired erythropoiesis and increased hemolysis without significant impact on aerobic performance capacity. PMID:25916419

  13. Weight loss on stimulant medication: how does it affect body composition and bone metabolism? – A prospective longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulton Alison

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Children treated with stimulant medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD often lose weight. It is important to understand the implications of this during growth. This prospective study was designed to quantify the changes in body composition and markers of bone metabolism on starting treatment. Methods 34 children (29 boys aged 4.7 to 9.1 years newly diagnosed with ADHD were treated with dexamphetamine or methylphenidate, titrating the dose to optimise the therapeutic response. Medication was continued for as long as clinically indicated. Body composition and bone density (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured at baseline, 6 months and 3 years; changes were analysed in Z-scores based on data from 241 healthy, local children. Markers of bone turnover were measured at baseline, 3 months and 3 years. Results Fat loss of 1.4±0.96kg (total fat 5.7±3.6 to 4.3±3.1kg, p Conclusions Stimulant medication was associated with early fat loss and reduced bone turnover. Lean tissue including bone increased more slowly over 3 years of continuous treatment than would be expected for growth in height. There was long-term improvement in the proportion of central fat for height. This study shows that relatively minor reductions in weight on stimulant medication can be associated with long-term changes in body composition. Further study is required to determine the effects of these changes on adult health.

  14. Three-body loss of trapped ultracold $^{87}$Rb atoms due to a Feshbach resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Yurovsky, V A

    2002-01-01

    The loss of ultracold trapped atoms in the vicinity of a Feshbach resonance is treated as a two-stage reaction, using the Breit-Wigner theory. The first stage is the formation of a resonant diatomic molecule, and the second one is its deactivation by inelastic collisions with other atoms. This model is applied to the analysis of recent experiments on $^{87}$Rb, leading to an estimated value of $6\\times 10^{-11}$ cm$^{3}/$s for the deactivation rate coefficient.

  15. Bulimia nervosa symptomatology and body image disturbance associated with distance running and weight loss.

    OpenAIRE

    Gleaves, D H; Williamson, D. A.; Fuller, R D

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that problems characteristic of eating disorders may often be associated with distance running, 20 women who had lost weight through distance running were compared with a control group who did not exercise and had not lost weight and a comparison group of bulimia nervosa patients. Dependent variables were measures of depression, bulimia nervosa symptomatology, and body image disturbance. No differences were found between the runner group and the normal controls. ...

  16. Associations between the clinical signs of chronic endometritis with ovarian cysts and body condition loss in German Holstein Friesian cows

    OpenAIRE

    Tsousis, Georgios; Sharifi, Reza; Hoedemaker, Martina

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this retrospective field study was to associate the type and smell of discharge, the size of the uterus, the ovarian and treatment status, and the time to diagnosis of animals with chronic clinical endometritis (CCE) with the incidence of ovarian cysts and with a marked loss in body condition in German Holstein Friesian cows. Two hundred and sixty-four cows diagnosed with CCE from day 14 to day 42 postpartum participated in this study. In addition, 100 days milk production an...

  17. FTO Genotype and 2-Year Change in Body Composition and Fat Distribution in Response to Weight-Loss Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Qi, Qibin; Zhang, Cuilin; Hu, Frank B.; Sacks, Frank M.; Qi, Lu

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) genotype may interact with dietary intakes in relation to adiposity. We tested the effect of FTO variant on weight loss in response to 2-year diet interventions. FTO rs1558902 was genotyped in 742 obese adults who were randomly assigned to one of four diets differing in the proportions of fat, protein, and carbohydrate. Body composition and fat distribution were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and comput...

  18. Media Images: Do They Influence College Students' Body Image?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gina Jarman

    2009-01-01

    Body image perception and body mass index (BMI) among college students exposed and not exposed to photographs of models were compared. Classes were assigned to receive a presentation with or without photographs of models incorporated. Students (n = 184) completed a survey about body/weight satisfaction, height, weight, and the Contour Drawing…

  19. Body fatness, relative weight and frame size in young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baecke, J.A.H.; Burema, J.; Deurenberg, P.

    1982-01-01

    1. Body-weight, body height, knee width, wrist width and skinfold measurements were made on males (n 139) and females (n 167) in three age-groups (20–22, 25–27 and 30–32 years). Percentage of body fal was calculated from skinfold thicknesses using regression equations according to Durnin & Womersley

  20. Effects of Clenbuterol,Genotype,and Feeding Method on Bodyweight Gain of Meat Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Four-factor and three-level orthogonal experimental design(L9(34))was used in the experiment.The effects of three genotypes:Germany SAB three-bred-cross rabbits(S2),New Zealand purebred(N),and crossbred rabbits(ON);three levels of Clenbuterol treatment: 1 ng.g-1,2 ng.g-1and 3 ng.g-1,and three feeding methods:5-day,7-day and 10-day withdrawal period after two weeks of feeding Clenbuterol(CL)on bodyweight gain were evaluated.CL apparently improved average daily gain(ADG)of rabbits.70-day ADG of 5-day and 10-day withdrawal were higher than that of 7-day withdrawal,70-day ADG of S2 genotype was significantly higher than that of the control and N genotype was significant.Genotype,additive dose and feeding method had significant effects on overall-stage ADG.ON genotype,2 ng.g-1 dose and 5-day withdrawal feeding method was the best.Responses of different genotype to Clenbuterol appeared different at experimental prophase or whole experimental period.

  1. Technology of formation of vertical stability bodies of children aged 7 10 years of hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storozhik A.I.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose the development of technology forming the vertical stability of the body of primary school children with impaired hearing. We study the main directions, methods and techniques used in the process of physical education primary school children with impaired hearing. There was a significant backlog of children in this nosology in the development of the equilibrium function. Highlighted the principles of technology forming the vertical stability of hearing children. The technology includes: the goals, objectives, direction and implementation stages, means and methods, criteria for evaluation and the expected effect of the pedagogical impact. The technology will fulfill its function in the event that the child was significantly improved lung function equilibrium amplitude common center of gravity of the body in the main stand on a fixed support with their eyes open; amplitude common center of gravity in the sample Romberg, while retaining posture in the test Bondarevsky. It is noted that the criterion of efficiency of the technology are: improved posture, increase the level of physical fitness, the appearance of confidence in his walk and accuracy in the movements and gestures.

  2. Evaporative Heat Loss form the Human Body in Different Thermal Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Ramanathan

    1967-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the relation of the evaporative heat loss to theraal stress in naturally acclimatized subjects under Indian conditions. The environmental conditions under which the subjects were made to perform light exercise ranged from 18.9Degree C E.T to 30Degree C E.T. The evaporative heat was found to be significantly correlated to the 1% level with the air and effective temperatures, with correlation constants of 0.79 & 0.80 respectively. The average rate of change of the evaporative heatloss with air temperature was 15.4 K cal/Hr/Degree C and with the effective temperature 9.1 K cal/Hr/Degree C.

  3. Validity of air-displacement plethysmography in the assessment of body composition changes in a 16-month weight loss program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hull Holly R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the accuracy of air displacement plethysmography (ADP and dual energy x-ray absorptionmetry (DXA in tracking changes in body composition after a 16 month weight loss intervention in overweight and obese females. Methods 93 healthy female subjects (38.9 ± 5.7 yr, 159.8 ± 5.6 cm, 76.7 ± 9.9 kg, 30.0 ± 3.4 kg/m2 completed a 16 month weight loss intervention. Eligible subjects attended 15 treatment sessions occurring over the course of 4 months with educational content including topics relating to physical activity and exercise, diet and eating behavior, and behavior modification. In the remaining 12 months, subjects underwent a lifestyle program designed to increase physical activity and improve eating habits. Before and after the intervention, subjects had their percent body fat (%fat, fat mass (FM, and fat-free mass (FFM assessed by DXA and ADP. Results Significant differences (p ≤ 0.001 were found between DXA and ADP at baseline %fat (46.0 % fat vs. 42.0 % fat, FM (35.3 kg vs. 32.5 kg and FFM (40.8 kg vs. 44.2 kg as well as at post intervention for %fat (42.1% fat vs. 38.3 % fat, FM (30.9 kg vs. 28.4 kg and FFM (41.7 kg vs. 44.7 kg. At each time point, ADP %fat and total FM was significantly lower (p ≤ 0.001 than DXA while FFM was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.001. However, both techniques tracked %fat changes similarly considering that there were no differences between the two means. Furthermore, a Bland-Altman analysis was performed and no significant bias was observed, thus demonstrating the ability of ADP to measure body fat across a wide range of fatness. Conclusion At baseline and post weight loss, a significant difference was found between ADP and DXA. However, the results indicate both methods are highly related and track changes in %fat similarly after a weight loss program in overweight and obese females. Additionally, the mean changes in %fat were similar between the two techniques, suggesting

  4. Variations in Return Loss of Patch Antennas in the Close Proximity of Human Body and Rectangular and Cylindrical Phantoms at 1.8 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance evaluation of an antenna in the presence of human body is attracting considerable interest due to the increasing use of Body Area Networks (BAN). This study investigates the variations in matching of linearly polarised and circularly polarised patch antennas due to the presence of human body and glass fibre Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin (SAM). The return loss at 1.8 GHz is measured at varying distances to study the matching behaviour. It was found that flat section phantom gave optimal return loss closer to its surface than an actual human. Also the optimal return loss for a circularly polarised antenna is at a distance that is double than that for a linearly polarised antenna. The findings of this research are particularly useful when considering the separation distance between wearable antenna and human body in both intra and inter body wireless connectivity. (author)

  5. Can intradermal administration of angiotensin II influence human heat loss responses during whole body heat stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; Meade, Robert D; Paull, Gabrielle; McGinn, Ryan; Foudil-bey, Imane; Akbari, Pegah; Kenny, Glen P

    2015-05-01

    It is unclear if angiotensin II, which can increase the production of reactive oxygen species (oxidative stress), modulates heat loss responses of cutaneous blood flow and sweating. We tested the hypothesis that angiotensin II-induced increases in oxidative stress impair cutaneous perfusion and sweating during rest and exercise in the heat. Eleven young (24 ± 4 yr) healthy adults performed two 30-min cycling bouts at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (400 W) in the heat (35°C). The first and second exercises were followed by a 20- and 40-min recovery. Four microdialysis fibers were placed in the forearm skin for continuous administration of either: 1) lactated Ringer (control), 2) 10 μM angiotensin II, 3) 10 mM ascorbate (an antioxidant), or 4) a combination of 10 μM angiotensin II + 10 mM ascorbate. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; laser-Doppler perfusion units/mean arterial pressure) and sweating (ventilated capsule) were evaluated at each skin site. Compared with control, angiotensin II reduced both CVC and sweating at baseline resting and during each recovery in the heat (all P 0.05). When ascorbate was coinfused with angiotensin II, the effect of angiotensin II on sweating was abolished (all P > 0.05); however, its effect on CVC at baseline resting and during each recovery remained intact (all P < 0.05). We show angiotensin II impairs cutaneous perfusion independent of oxidative stress, while it impairs sweating through increasing oxidative stress during exposure to an ambient heat stress before and following exercise. PMID:25767030

  6. Identity transformation and a changed lifestyle following dramatic weight loss and body-contouring surgery: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, Jo; Long, Andrew; Soldin, Mark

    2015-10-01

    This article reports on two major quality-of-life perception changes for patients who had undergone plastic surgery following dramatic weight loss. The exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken with 20 patients from one teaching hospital. In-depth interviews were conducted, and a thematic analysis of the data was undertaken. The results provide unique glimpses of surgical consumption empowering and facilitating 'identity transformation', embracing improved physical function and enhanced self-esteem, confidence and quality of life, and a 'changed lifestyle'. For a minority, identity transformation was sometimes interrupted by 'identity lag', posing the need for additional health-care support throughout the adjustment process. The study provides additional insight into existing quantitative studies, adding to the body of knowledge in this area. PMID:24296742

  7. Loss of cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor expression promotes the accumulation of lysobisphosphatidic acid in multilamellar bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaves, B J; Row, P E; Bright, N A; Luzio, J P; Davidson, H W

    2000-11-01

    A number of recent studies have highlighted the importance of lipid domains within endocytic organelles in the sorting and movement of integral membrane proteins. In particular, considerable attention has become focussed upon the role of the unusual phospholipid lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA). This lipid appears to be directly involved in the trafficking of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids, and accumulates in a number of lysosomal storage disorders. Antibody-mediated disruption of LBPA function also leads to mis-sorting of cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptors. We now report that the converse is also true, and that spontaneous loss of cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptors from a rat fibroblast cell line led to the formation of aberrant late endocytic structures enriched in LBPA. Accumulation of LBPA was directly dependent upon the loss of the receptors, and could be reversed by expression of bovine cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptors in the mutant cell line. Ultrastructural analysis indicated that the abnormal organelles were electron-dense, had a multi-lamellar structure, accumulated endocytosed probes, and were distinct from dense-core lysosomes present within the same cells. The late endocytic structures present at steady state within any particular cell likely reflect the balance of membrane traffic through the endocytic pathway of that cell, and the rate of maturation of individual endocytic organelles. Moreover, there is considerable evidence which suggests that cargo receptors also play a direct mechanistic role in membrane trafficking events. Therefore, loss of such a protein may disturb the overall equilibrium of the pathway, and hence cause the accumulation of aberrant organelles. We propose that this mechanism underlies the phenotype of the mutant cell line, and that the formation of inclusion bodies in many lysosomal storage diseases is also due to an imbalance in membrane trafficking within the endocytic pathway

  8. Pioglitazone treatment increases survival and prevents body weight loss in tumor-bearing animals: possible anti-cachectic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beluzi, Mércia; Peres, Sidney B; Henriques, Felipe S; Sertié, Rogério A L; Franco, Felipe O; Santos, Kaltinaitis B; Knobl, Pâmela; Andreotti, Sandra; Shida, Cláudio S; Neves, Rodrigo X; Farmer, Stephen R; Seelaender, Marília; Lima, Fábio B; Batista, Miguel L

    2015-01-01

    Cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by profound involuntary weight loss, fat depletion, skeletal muscle wasting, and asthenia; all symptoms are not entirely attributable to inadequate nutritional intake. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle loss during cancer cachexia development has been described systematically. The former was proposed to precede and be more rapid than the latter, which presents a means for the early detection of cachexia in cancer patients. Recently, pioglitazone (PGZ) was proposed to exhibit anti-cancer properties, including a reduction in insulin resistance and adipose tissue loss; nevertheless, few studies have evaluated its effect on survival. For greater insight into a potential anti-cachectic effect due to PGZ, 8-week-old male Wistar rats were subcutaneously inoculated with 1 mL (2×107) of Walker 256 tumor cells. The animals were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: TC (tumor + saline-control) and TP5 (tumor + PGZ/5 mg). Body weight, food ingestion and tumor growth were measured at baseline and after removal of tumor on days 7, 14 and 26. Samples from different visceral adipose tissue (AT) depots were collected on days 7 and 14 and stored at -80o C (5 to 7 animals per day/group). The PGZ treatment showed an increase in the survival average of 27.3% (P< 0.01) when compared to TC. It was also associated with enhanced body mass preservation (40.7 and 56.3%, p< 0.01) on day 14 and 26 compared with the TC group. The treatment also reduced the final tumor mass (53.4%, p<0.05) and anorexia compared with the TC group during late-stage cachexia. The retroperitoneal AT (RPAT) mass was preserved on day 7 compared with the TC group during the same experimental period. Such effect also demonstrates inverse relationship with tumor growth, on day 14. Gene expression of PPAR-γ, adiponectin, LPL and C/EBP-α from cachectic rats was upregulated after PGZ. Glucose uptake from adipocyte cells (RPAT) was entirely re-established due to

  9. Pioglitazone treatment increases survival and prevents body weight loss in tumor-bearing animals: possible anti-cachectic effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mércia Beluzi

    Full Text Available Cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by profound involuntary weight loss, fat depletion, skeletal muscle wasting, and asthenia; all symptoms are not entirely attributable to inadequate nutritional intake. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle loss during cancer cachexia development has been described systematically. The former was proposed to precede and be more rapid than the latter, which presents a means for the early detection of cachexia in cancer patients. Recently, pioglitazone (PGZ was proposed to exhibit anti-cancer properties, including a reduction in insulin resistance and adipose tissue loss; nevertheless, few studies have evaluated its effect on survival. For greater insight into a potential anti-cachectic effect due to PGZ, 8-week-old male Wistar rats were subcutaneously inoculated with 1 mL (2×107 of Walker 256 tumor cells. The animals were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: TC (tumor + saline-control and TP5 (tumor + PGZ/5 mg. Body weight, food ingestion and tumor growth were measured at baseline and after removal of tumor on days 7, 14 and 26. Samples from different visceral adipose tissue (AT depots were collected on days 7 and 14 and stored at -80o C (5 to 7 animals per day/group. The PGZ treatment showed an increase in the survival average of 27.3% (P< 0.01 when compared to TC. It was also associated with enhanced body mass preservation (40.7 and 56.3%, p< 0.01 on day 14 and 26 compared with the TC group. The treatment also reduced the final tumor mass (53.4%, p<0.05 and anorexia compared with the TC group during late-stage cachexia. The retroperitoneal AT (RPAT mass was preserved on day 7 compared with the TC group during the same experimental period. Such effect also demonstrates inverse relationship with tumor growth, on day 14. Gene expression of PPAR-γ, adiponectin, LPL and C/EBP-α from cachectic rats was upregulated after PGZ. Glucose uptake from adipocyte cells (RPAT was entirely re

  10. Low body mass index is an important risk factor for low bone mass and increased bone loss in early postmenopausal women. Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort (EPIC) study group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Cizza, G; Bjarnason, N H;

    1999-01-01

    Thinness (low percentage of body fat, low body mass index [BMI], or low body weight) was evaluated as a risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD) or increased bone loss in a randomized trial of alendronate for prevention of osteoporosis in recently postmenopausal women with normal bone mass (n...... = 1609). The 2-year data from the placebo group were used (n = 417). Percentage of body fat, BMI, and body weight were correlated with baseline BMD (r = -0. 13 to -0.43, p < 0.01) and 2-year bone loss (r = -0.14 to -0.19, p < 0.01). Women in the lowest tertiles of percentage of body fat or BMI had up to...... 12% lower BMD at baseline and a more than 2-fold higher 2-year bone loss as compared with women in the highest tertiles (p body fat or BMI had higher baseline levels of urine N-telopeptide cross-links (r = -0.24 to -0.31, p < 0.0001) and serum osteocalcin...

  11. Antidepressive-drug-induced bodyweight gain is associated with polymorphisms in genes coding for COMT and TPH1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Anna; Bukh, Jens; Bock, Camilla; Koefoed, Pernille; Rasmussen, Henrik Berg; Werge, Thomas; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Mellerup, Erling

    2009-01-01

    examine the association of antidepressive-drug-induced bodyweight gain with polymorphisms in genes within the serotonin or catecholamine systems. Participants (N = 165) were selected from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register from June 2005 through May 2007 as patients with a diagnosis of a...... single depressive episode and who were under antidepressive treatment. Weight gainers were identified based on rating with the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser Side Effect Rating Scale. Polymorphisms in catechol-O-methyltransferase, tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH1), serotonin receptor 2C (HTR2C) and...

  12. Reproducibility, and age, body-weight and gender dependency of candidate skeletal muscle MRI outcome measures in healthy volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can potentially meet the pressing need for objective, sensitive, reproducible outcome measures in neuromuscular disease trials. We tested, in healthy volunteers, the consistency, reliability and sensitivity to normal inter-subject variation of MRI methods targeted to lower limb muscle pathology to inform the design of practical but comprehensive MRI outcome measure protocols for use in imminent patient studies. Forty-seven healthy volunteers, age 21-81 years, were subject at 3T to three-point Dixon fat-fraction measurement, T1-relaxometry, T2-relaxometry and magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) imaging at mid-thigh and mid-calf level bilaterally. Fifteen subjects underwent repeat imaging at 2 weeks. Mean between-muscle fat fraction and T2 differences were small, but significant (p 2 correlated positively, and MTR negatively with subject age in both the thigh and calf, with similar significant correlations with weight at thigh level only (p < 0.001 to p < 0.05). Scan-rescan and inter-observer intra-class correlation coefficients ranged between 0.62-0.84 and 0.79-0.99 respectively. Quantitative lower-limb muscle MRI using readily implementable methods was sensitive enough to demonstrate inter-muscle differences (small in health), and correlations with subject age and weight. In combination with high reliability, this strongly supports the suitability of these methods to provide longitudinal outcome measures in neuromuscular disease treatment trials. (orig.)

  13. Reproducibility, and age, body-weight and gender dependency of candidate skeletal muscle MRI outcome measures in healthy volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, Jasper M.; Reilly, Mary M.; Hanna, Michael G. [UCL Institute of Neurology, Medical Research Council Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases, Department of Molecular Neuroscience, London (United Kingdom); Sinclair, Christopher D.J.; Yousry, Tarek A.; Thornton, John S. [UCL Institute of Neurology, Medical Research Council Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases, Department of Molecular Neuroscience, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Neurology, Neuroradiological Academic Unit, Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, London (United Kingdom); Fischmann, Arne [University of Basel Hospital, Department of Radiology, Division of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Basel (Switzerland)

    2014-07-15

    Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can potentially meet the pressing need for objective, sensitive, reproducible outcome measures in neuromuscular disease trials. We tested, in healthy volunteers, the consistency, reliability and sensitivity to normal inter-subject variation of MRI methods targeted to lower limb muscle pathology to inform the design of practical but comprehensive MRI outcome measure protocols for use in imminent patient studies. Forty-seven healthy volunteers, age 21-81 years, were subject at 3T to three-point Dixon fat-fraction measurement, T{sub 1}-relaxometry, T{sub 2}-relaxometry and magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) imaging at mid-thigh and mid-calf level bilaterally. Fifteen subjects underwent repeat imaging at 2 weeks. Mean between-muscle fat fraction and T{sub 2} differences were small, but significant (p < 0.001). Fat fraction and T{sub 2} correlated positively, and MTR negatively with subject age in both the thigh and calf, with similar significant correlations with weight at thigh level only (p < 0.001 to p < 0.05). Scan-rescan and inter-observer intra-class correlation coefficients ranged between 0.62-0.84 and 0.79-0.99 respectively. Quantitative lower-limb muscle MRI using readily implementable methods was sensitive enough to demonstrate inter-muscle differences (small in health), and correlations with subject age and weight. In combination with high reliability, this strongly supports the suitability of these methods to provide longitudinal outcome measures in neuromuscular disease treatment trials. (orig.)

  14. Book review: media and the rhetoric of body perfection: cosmetic surgery, weight loss and beauty in popular culture by Deborah Harris-Moore

    OpenAIRE

    Monson, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    Against the background of the so-called ‘obesity epidemic’, Media and the Rhetoric of Body Perfection critically examines the discourses of physical perfection that pervade Western societies, aiming to shed new light on the rhetorical forces behind body anxieties and extreme methods of weight loss and beautification. Drawing on interview material with cosmetic surgery patients and offering fresh analyses of various texts from popular culture, this book examines the ways in which the media cap...

  15. Effect of chronic centrifugation on body composition in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, G. C.; Bull, L. S.; Oyama, J.

    1972-01-01

    Two groups of adult female rats were chronically centrifuged for 60 days (2.76 G, 4.15 G, controls at 1.00 G). Live weights of centrifugal rats decreased about 20 g (6%) per Delta 1 G above control. This weight loss comprised reductions in both body fat and fat-free body weight (FFBW) as determined by body-composition studies on eight rats per group killed at the end of centrifugation. Of nine components constituting the FFBW, only skeletal muscle, liver, and heart changed significantly in weight. Chemical composition showed reductions (compared with controls) in the fat fraction of most components and increases in the water fraction of liver and gut. Identical measurements were made on the remaining eight rats per group killed 43 days after return to 1 G. Neither centrifuged group had reached the control body-weight level at this time. No statistically significant effect of previous G level was found in any of the body-composition parameters. The possible involvment of physiological regulation was considered.

  16. Cognitive ability and self-control in relation to dietary habits, physical activity and bodyweight in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Kampen Margit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies showed that cognitive ability is related to health and mortality. The cause of this relationship remains largely unknown. One plausible explanation is that cognitive ability is related to behaviours that affect health. This study investigates whether cognitive ability is related to healthy dietary habits, physical activity and appropriate bodyweight in adolescents and examines whether self-control mediates the relationship between cognitive ability and health behaviour. Methods In total 201 high-school students aged between 15 and 20 participated in the study. They completed three cognitive tests, measuring cognitive ability, reaction time and memory span, and completed a questionnaire on self-control, dietary habits, physical activity and bodyweight. Results Results show that adolescents scoring high on the cognitive ability test have healthier dietary habits and engage more often in physical activity. Adolescents with high self-control have a healthier eating pattern, are more often physically active and have lower BMI's. Both reaction time and memory span were not related to dietary habits and physical activity. Self-control was not related to cognitive ability and could not, therefore, mediate the relationship between cognitive ability and health in this study. Conclusion In conclusion, the link between cognitive ability and health behaviour could explain - in part - the relationship between cognitive ability and health. Self-control cannot explain this link.

  17. Mechanisms of changes in glucose metabolism and bodyweight after bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsbad, Sten; Dirksen, Carsten; Holst, Jens Juul

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for obesity and also greatly improves glycaemic control, often within days after surgery, independently of weight loss. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) was designed as a purely restrictive procedure, whereas vertical sleeve gastrect...

  18. Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volek JS

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare the effects of isocaloric, energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate ketogenic (VLCK and low-fat (LF diets on weight loss, body composition, trunk fat mass, and resting energy expenditure (REE in overweight/obese men and women. Design Randomized, balanced, two diet period clinical intervention study. Subjects were prescribed two energy-restricted (-500 kcal/day diets: a VLCK diet with a goal to decrease carbohydrate levels below 10% of energy and induce ketosis and a LF diet with a goal similar to national recommendations (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~60:25:15%. Subjects: 15 healthy, overweight/obese men (mean s.e.m.: age 33.2 2.9 y, body mass 109.1 4.6 kg, body mass index 34.1 1.1 kg/m2 and 13 premenopausal women (age 34.0 2.4 y, body mass 76.3 3.6 kg, body mass index 29.6 1.1 kg/m2. Measurements: Weight loss, body composition, trunk fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and resting energy expenditure (REE were determined at baseline and after each diet intervention. Data were analyzed for between group differences considering the first diet phase only and within group differences considering the response to both diets within each person. Results Actual nutrient intakes from food records during the VLCK (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~9:63:28% and the LF (~58:22:20% were significantly different. Dietary energy was restricted, but was slightly higher during the VLCK (1855 kcal/day compared to the LF (1562 kcal/day diet for men. Both between and within group comparisons revealed a distinct advantage of a VLCK over a LF diet for weight loss, total fat loss, and trunk fat loss for men (despite significantly greater energy intake. The majority of women also responded more favorably to the VLCK diet, especially in terms of trunk fat loss. The greater reduction in trunk fat was not merely due to the greater total fat loss, because the ratio of trunk fat/total fat was also significantly reduced during the VLCK diet in men and women

  19. Does the method of weight loss effect long-term changes in weight, body composition or chronic disease risk factors in overweight or obese adults? A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Washburn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Differences in biological changes from weight loss by energy restriction and/or exercise may be associated with differences in long-term weight loss/regain. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of weight loss method on long-term changes in weight, body composition and chronic disease risk factors. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990-October 2013 for studies with data on the effect of energy restriction, exercise (aerobic and resistance on long-term weight loss. Twenty articles were included in this review. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Primary source, peer reviewed randomized trials published in English with an active weight loss period of >6 months, or active weight loss with a follow-up period of any duration, conducted in overweight or obese adults were included. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: Considerable heterogeneity across trials existed for important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and grouped by comparisons (e.g. diet vs. aerobic exercise, diet vs. diet + aerobic exercise etc. and study design (long-term or weight loss/follow-up. RESULTS: Forty percent of trials reported significantly greater long-term weight loss with diet compared with aerobic exercise, while results for differences in weight regain were inconclusive. Diet+aerobic exercise resulted in significantly greater weight loss than diet alone in 50% of trials. However, weight regain (∼ 55% of loss was similar in diet and diet+aerobic exercise groups. Fat-free mass tended to be preserved when interventions included exercise.

  20. Influence of female bodyweight on IVF outcome: a longitudinal multicentre cohort study of 487 infertile couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, A; Gaarslev, C; Hougaard, C O;

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of women's body mass index (BMI) on the outcome after consecutive IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles in 487 patients initiating treatment with 5-year follow-up. The total number of cycles was 1417. In total 103 (21.1%) were overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m²...

  1. Organ weight/bodyweight ratios: growth rates of fetal organs in the latter half of pregnancy with a simple method for calculating mean organ weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitropoulos, G; Scurry, J; Cussen, L

    1992-06-01

    Ratios for major organ weights compared with bodyweights of 1023 stillborn and liveborn babies who lived less than 72 h are presented. The ratios were calculated for 2 week increments of gestational age from 20 to 43 weeks and clearly depict the relative growth of fetal organs during the last half of pregnancy. The ratios for heart and for kidneys were virtually constant for the whole period of gestation examined. The ratios for thymus and spleen increased between 20 and 30 weeks gestation and then became constant, although the ratio for the spleen dropped slightly during the last 6 weeks. The ratios for liver, lungs and adrenals decreased between 20 and 30 weeks gestation, and then steadied. The ratio for brain declined very slowly throughout the period examined. An observation of practical importance was that all organ weight/bodyweight ratios were virtually constant after 30 weeks gestation. Approximate mean organ weight/bodyweight ratios between 30 and 43 weeks gestation were: heart 0.007, lungs 0.02, spleen 0.003, liver 0.04, kidneys 0.01, adrenals 0.003, thymus 0.004 and brain 0.13. By multiplying the mean ratio by the total bodyweight, the approximate mean weight for a particular fetal organ can be calculated in situations where charts of normal organ weights are not at hand. PMID:1605975

  2. Fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight in European women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Dethlefsen, Claus; Due, Karen M;

    2013-01-01

    Fish consumption is the major dietary source of EPA and DHA, which according to rodent experiments may reduce body fat mass and prevent obesity. Only a few human studies have investigated the association between fish consumption and body-weight gain. We investigated the association between fish...

  3. Whole body 59Fe-elimination rates and corresponding blood losses in patients with factitious anemia induced by self-blood letting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within a year two cases were identified and quantitated for blood losses by whole body counting of retained iron. Whereas the 2 patients did not lose much blood during their observation within the hospital their blood losses increased upon release from the hospital. Although they lost about 5 liter blood in 50 days faecal occult blood tests were always negative and the daily faecal and urinary 59Fe-excretion was within the normal range. Haemoglobin and erythrocyte levels were stable during the periods of clinical observation when the whole body 59Fe-elimination rates were only just above the normal range. These values dropped however to very low values during or following periods of extremely elevated whole body 59Fe-elimination rates immediately after release of the patients from the hospital. Blood losses of up to 145 ml/d (=50 mg Fe/d) can be compensated by oral ferrous iron therapy with 4 x 50 = 200 mg Fe2+ /d. The patients did however refuse to take oral or parenteral iron and insisted in one case on regular blood transfusions twice per week. Two more probable cases of factitious anemia were subsequently observed and partially investigated. (orig./MG)

  4. Daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable intake, and water consumption: a feasible and effective long-term weight loss maintenance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Jeremy D; Cornett, Rachel A; Savla, Jyoti S; Davy, Kevin P; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-05-01

    Maintenance of weight loss remains a challenge for most individuals. Thus, practical and effective weight-loss maintenance (WTLM) strategies are needed. A two-group 12-month WTLM intervention trial was conducted from June 2007 to February 2010 to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of a WTLM intervention for older adults using daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable (F/V) intake, and water consumption. Forty weight-reduced individuals (mean weight lost=6.7±0.6 kg; body mass index [calculated as kg/m²] 29.2±1.1), age 63±1 years, who had previously participated in a 12-week randomized controlled weight-loss intervention trial, were instructed to record daily body weight, step count, and F/V intake (WEV [defined as weight, exercise, and F/V]). Experimental group (WEV+) participants were also instructed to consume 16 fl oz of water before each main meal (ie, three times daily), and to record daily water intake. Outcome measures included weight change, diet/physical activity behaviors, theoretical constructs related to health behaviors, and other clinical measures. Statistical analyses included growth curve analyses and repeated measures analysis of variance. Over 12 months, there was a linear decrease in weight (β=-0.32, Pwater consumption may provide additional WTLM benefits. PMID:22709772

  5. Pioglitazone Treatment Increases Survival and Prevents Body Weight Loss in Tumor–Bearing Animals: Possible Anti-Cachectic Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Beluzi, Mércia; Peres, Sidney B.; Henriques, Felipe S.; Rogério A L Sertié; Franco, Felipe O.; Kaltinaitis B Santos; Knobl, Pâmela; Andreotti, Sandra; Shida, Cláudio S.; Neves, Rodrigo X.; Farmer, Stephen R.; Seelaender, Marília; Fábio B Lima; Batista Jr., Miguel L.

    2015-01-01

    Cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by profound involuntary weight loss, fat depletion, skeletal muscle wasting, and asthenia; all symptoms are not entirely attributable to inadequate nutritional intake. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle loss during cancer cachexia development has been described systematically. The former was proposed to precede and be more rapid than the latter, which presents a means for the early detection of cachexia in cancer patients. Recently, pioglita...

  6. Set-up errors in patients undergoing image guided radiation treatment. Relationship to body mass index and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jørgen; Bertelsen, Anders; Hansen, Christian Rønn;

    2008-01-01

    Limit protocol and compared to pre-treatment CT images. The average 3D deviation from three initial cone beam scans was compared to deviations at the 10th and 20th treatment session and correlated by linear regression analysis to height, weight, and BMI, and in H&N to weight loss as expressed...

  7. BODY COMPOSITION AND PLASMA ADIPOCYTOKINS, GHRELIN AND INSULIN BEFORE AND AFTER WEIGHT LOSS IN OVERWEIGHT AND OBESE WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determine the relationships between changes in body composition, and plasma concentrations of hormones (acylation stimulating protein (ASP), adiponectin, leptin, insulin, and ghrelin), complement C3 and C-reactive protein (CRP). 35 overweight/obese (BMI 28-39 kg/m2), hyperlipidemic women aged 35-60 ...

  8. Maternal low protein diet causes body weight loss in male, neonate Sprague-Dawley rats involving UCP-1 mediated thermogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in regulating body weight (BW) by modifying thermogenesis. Maternal low protein (LP) diets reduce offspring birth weight. Increased BAT thermogenesis in utero may be one mechanism for the lower BW. However, whether maternal LP nutrition alters BAT...

  9. Impact of preoperative weight loss and body composition changes on postoperative outcome in surgery for inflammatory bowel disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Higgens, C S; Keighley, M. R.; Allan, R N

    1984-01-01

    One hundred and twenty seven patients undergoing elective surgery for inflammatory bowel disease were divided into three groups according to their preoperative ideal body weight (less than 80%, 80-90%, and greater than 90%). The groups were well matched in respect of age, sex, corticosteroid therapy, pre-existing sepsis, peroperative antimicrobial chemotherapy, and resection site. None received peroperative nutritional support. The postoperative outcome was similar in each of the three nutrit...

  10. Effects of grapefruit, grapefruit juice and water preloads on energy balance, weight loss, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk in free-living obese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niswender Kevin D

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing dietary energy density has proven to be an effective strategy to reduce energy intakes and promote weight control. This effect appears most robust when a low energy dense preload is consumed before meals. Yet, much discussion continues regarding the optimal form of a preload. The purpose of the present study was to compare effects of a solid (grapefruit, liquid (grapefruit juice and water preload consumed prior to breakfast, lunch and dinner in the context of caloric restriction. Methods Eighty-five obese adults (BMI 30-39.9 were randomly assigned to (127 g grapefruit (GF, grapefruit juice (GFJ or water preload for 12 weeks after completing a 2-week caloric restriction phase. Preloads were matched for weight, calories, water content, and energy density. Weekly measures included blood pressure, weight, anthropometry and 24-hour dietary intakes. Resting energy expenditure, body composition, physical performance and cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were assessed. Results The total amount (grams of food consumed did not change over time. Yet, after preloads were combined with caloric restriction, average dietary energy density and total energy intakes decreased by 20-29% from baseline values. Subjects experienced 7.1% weight loss overall, with significant decreases in percentage body, trunk, android and gynoid fat, as well as waist circumferences (-4.5 cm. However, differences were not statistically significant among groups. Nevertheless, the amount and direction of change in serum HDL-cholesterol levels in GF (+6.2% and GFJ (+8.2% preload groups was significantly greater than water preload group (-3.7%. Conclusions These data indicate that incorporating consumption of a low energy dense dietary preload in a caloric restricted diet is a highly effective weight loss strategy. But, the form of the preload did not have differential effects on energy balance, weight loss or body composition. It is notable that subjects in GF

  11. Crack modelling for the assessment of stiffness loss of reinforced concrete structures under mechanical loading - determination of the permeability of the micro-cracked body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a model describing the evolution of mechanical and permeability properties of concrete under slow mechanical loading. Calling upon the theory of continua with microstructure, the kinematic of the domain is enriched by a variable characterising size and orientation of the crack field. We call upon configurational forces to deal with crack propagation and we determine the balance equations governing both strain and propagation. The geometry of the microstructure is representative of the porous media: the permeability is obtained from the resolution of Stokes equations in an elementary volume. An example has been treated: we considered simple assumptions (uniform crack field, application of linear fracture mechanics...) and we determined the behaviour of a body under tensile loading. Strain, crack propagation and stiffness loss are completely assessed. Finally the evolution of permeability is plotted: once activated, crack propagation is the main cause of water tightness loss. (author)

  12. Optimized Bose-Einstein-condensate production in a dipole trap based on a 1070-nm multifrequency laser: Influence of enhanced two-body loss on the evaporation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an optimized strategy for the production of tightly confined Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) of 87Rb in a crossed dipole trap with direct loading from a magneto-optical trap. The dipole trap is created with light of a multifrequency fiber laser with a center wavelength of 1070 nm. Evaporative cooling is performed by ramping down the laser power only. A comparison of the resulting atom number in an almost pure BEC to the initial atom number and the value for the gain in phase space density per atom lost confirm that this straightforward strategy is very efficient. We observe that the temporal characteristics of evaporation sequence are strongly influenced by power-dependent two-body losses resulting from enhanced optical pumping to the higher-energy hyperfine state. We characterize these losses and compare them to results obtained with a single-frequency laser at 1030 nm.

  13. Body fat loss and compensatory mechanisms in response to different doses of aerobic exercise - a randomized controlled trial in overweight sedentary males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mads Rosenkilde; Auerbach, Pernille Landrock; Reichkendler, Michala Holm; Ploug, Thorkil; Stallknecht, Bente Merete; Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2012-01-01

    limited. A randomized controlled trial was performed in healthy sedentary moderately overweight young men to examine the effects of increasing doses of aerobic exercise on body composition, accumulated energy balance, and the degree of compensation. Eighteen participants were randomized to a continuous...... sedentary control group, 21 to a moderate (MOD; 300 kcal/day) and 22 to a high dose (HIGH; 600 kcal/day) exercise group for 13 weeks, corresponding to approximately 30 and 60 minutes of daily aerobic exercise, respectively. Body weight (MOD: -3.6kg, P......The amount of weight loss induced by exercise is often disappointing. A diet-induced negative energy balance triggers compensatory mechanisms, e.g. lower metabolic rate and increased appetite. However, knowledge about potential compensatory mechanisms triggered by increased aerobic exercise is...

  14. Novel application of pre-operative vertebral body embolization to reduce intraoperative blood loss during a three-column spinal osteotomy for non-oncologic spinal deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchman, Alexander; Mehta, Vivek A; Mack, William J; Acosta, Frank L

    2015-04-01

    Three column osteotomies (3CO) of the lumbar spine are powerful corrective procedures used in the treatment of kyphoscoliosis. Their efficacy comes at the cost of high reported complication rates, notably significant estimated blood loss (EBL). Previously reported techniques to reduce EBL have had modest efficacy. Here we describe a potential technique to decrease EBL during pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) of the lumbar spine by means of pre-operative vertebral body embolization - a technique traditionally used to reduce blood loss prior to spinal column tumor resection. We present a 62-year-old man with iatrogenic kyphoscoliosis who underwent staged deformity correction. Stage 1 involved thoracolumbar instrumentation followed by transarterial embolization of the L4 vertebral body through bilateral segmental arteries. A combination of polyvinyl alcohol particles and Gelfoam (Pfizer, New York, NY, USA) were used. Following embolization there was decreased angiographic blood flow to the small vessels of the L4 vertebral body, while the segmental arteries remained patent. Stage 2 consisted of an L4 PSO and fusion. The EBL during the PSO procedure was 1L, which compared favorably to that during previous PSO at this institution as well as to quantities reported in previous literature. There have been no short term (5 month follow-up) complications attributable to the vertebral body embolization or surgical procedure. Although further investigation into this technique is required to better characterize its safety and efficacy in reducing EBL during 3CO, we believe this patient illustrates the potential utility of pre-operative vertebral embolization in the setting of non-oncologic deformity correction surgery. PMID:25564274

  15. The Influence of Body Size and Food Preparation Practices on the Uptake and Loss of Radionuclides in Cumbrian Winkles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been suggested that larger winkles may show higher concentrations of radioactivity and that critical group members, when providing MAFF with sub-samples of winkles they have collected, retain the largest organisms for consumption. If both these hypotheses are true, this could imply higher doses than typically estimated. Conversely, it is assumed that winkles are consumed immediately following collection, without gut clearance, which may overestimate the consumption dose. Results obtained in this study indicate the following. (1) Inverse correlations are observed between concentration and body size for 106Ru and 241Am. A positive relationship is observed for 60Co. Although concentrations of 137Cs decrease with increasing body size the negative correlation is not significant, while 110Agm concentration is independent of body size. (2) There is no evidence that critical group consumers retain larger organisms. In any case, consuming larger or smaller winkles, over the size range tested, probably does not affect dose uptake by more than 10%. (3) Concentrations of plutonium and americium decline to 50% of original by soaking winkles for 18 h. Concentrations of caesium are also reduced. (4) Concentrations of 106Ru, 110Agm and 60Co are not reduced by soaking. Overall, current approaches to deriving consumption doses are not likely to suffer from selection bias. Overnight soaking of winkles in saline solution could decrease radiation doses to consumers by a factor of nearly 2; provided that the fractional gut transfer of activity remaining is unaffected. This last assumption, however is questionable and the current approach should provide a 'reasonably conservative' dose estimate appropriate to critical group studies. (author)

  16. Set-up errors in patients undergoing image guided radiation treatment. Relationship to body mass index and weight loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. The purpose of this study was to quantify the set-up errors of patient positioning during IGRT and to correlate set-up errors to patient-specific factors such as weight, height, BMI, and weight loss. Patients and methods. Thirty four consecutively treated head-and-neck cancer patients (H and N) and 20 lung cancer patients were investigated. Patients were positioned using customized immobilization devices consisting of vacuum cushions and thermoplastic shells. Treatment was given on an Elekta Synergy accelerator. Cone-beam acquisitions were obtained according to a standardized Action Limit protocol and compared to pre-treatment CT images. The average 3D deviation from three initial cone beam scans was compared to deviations at the 10th and 20th treatment session and correlated by linear regression analysis to height, weight, and BMI, and in H and N to weight loss as expressed by the relative weight change over time. Results. The SD of the translational and rotational random set-up errors during the first three sessions for H and N were 0.9mm (Left-Right), 1.1mm (Anterior-Posterior), 0.7mm (Cranio-Caudal) and 0.7 deg (LR-axis), 0.5 deg (AP-axis), and 0.7 deg (CC-axis). The equivalent data for lung cancer patients were 1.1mm (LR), 1.1mm (AP), 1.5 mm (CC) and 0.5 deg (LR-axis), 0.6 deg (AP-axis), and 0.4 deg (CC-axis). The median BMI for H and N and lung was 25.8 (17.6-39.7) and 23.7 (17.4-38.8), respectively. The median weekly weight change for HandN was -0.3% (-2.0 to 1.1%). With H and N and lung cancer analyzed separately, no statistically significant correlation was observed between set-up errors and height, weight, BMI, or weight change during treatment, irrespectively whether the 3D deviations from the initial three cone beam scans or scans from the 10th or 20th treatment sessions were used. Conclusion. This IGRT study did not support the hypothesis that set-up errors during radiotherapy are correlated to patient height, weight, BMI, or weight loss

  17. High whey protein intake delayed the loss of lean body mass in healthy old rats, whereas protein type and polyphenol/antioxidant supplementation had no effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Mosoni

    Full Text Available Our aim was to compare and combine 3 nutritional strategies to slow down the age-related loss of muscle mass in healthy old rats: 1 increase protein intake, which is likely to stimulate muscle protein anabolism; 2 use leucine rich, rapidly digested whey proteins as protein source (whey proteins are recognized as the most effective proteins to stimulate muscle protein anabolism. 3 Supplement animals with a mixture of chamomile extract, vitamin E, vitamin D (reducing inflammation and oxidative stress is also effective to improve muscle anabolism. Such comparisons and combinations were never tested before. Nutritional groups were: casein 12% protein, whey 12% protein, whey 18% protein and each of these groups were supplemented or not with polyphenols/antioxidants. During 6 months, we followed changes of weight, food intake, inflammation (plasma fibrinogen and alpha-2-macroglobulin and body composition (DXA. After 6 months, we measured muscle mass, in vivo and ex-vivo fed and post-absorptive muscle protein synthesis, ex-vivo muscle proteolysis, and oxidative stress parameters (liver and muscle glutathione, SOD and total antioxidant activities, muscle carbonyls and TBARS. We showed that although micronutrient supplementation reduced inflammation and oxidative stress, the only factor that significantly reduced the loss of lean body mass was the increase in whey protein intake, with no detectable effect on muscle protein synthesis, and a tendency to reduce muscle proteolysis. We conclude that in healthy rats, increasing protein intake is an effective way to delay sarcopenia.

  18. High whey protein intake delayed the loss of lean body mass in healthy old rats, whereas protein type and polyphenol/antioxidant supplementation had no effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosoni, Laurent; Gatineau, Eva; Gatellier, Philippe; Migné, Carole; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Rémond, Didier; Rocher, Emilie; Dardevet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to compare and combine 3 nutritional strategies to slow down the age-related loss of muscle mass in healthy old rats: 1) increase protein intake, which is likely to stimulate muscle protein anabolism; 2) use leucine rich, rapidly digested whey proteins as protein source (whey proteins are recognized as the most effective proteins to stimulate muscle protein anabolism). 3) Supplement animals with a mixture of chamomile extract, vitamin E, vitamin D (reducing inflammation and oxidative stress is also effective to improve muscle anabolism). Such comparisons and combinations were never tested before. Nutritional groups were: casein 12% protein, whey 12% protein, whey 18% protein and each of these groups were supplemented or not with polyphenols/antioxidants. During 6 months, we followed changes of weight, food intake, inflammation (plasma fibrinogen and alpha-2-macroglobulin) and body composition (DXA). After 6 months, we measured muscle mass, in vivo and ex-vivo fed and post-absorptive muscle protein synthesis, ex-vivo muscle proteolysis, and oxidative stress parameters (liver and muscle glutathione, SOD and total antioxidant activities, muscle carbonyls and TBARS). We showed that although micronutrient supplementation reduced inflammation and oxidative stress, the only factor that significantly reduced the loss of lean body mass was the increase in whey protein intake, with no detectable effect on muscle protein synthesis, and a tendency to reduce muscle proteolysis. We conclude that in healthy rats, increasing protein intake is an effective way to delay sarcopenia. PMID:25268515

  19. Effects of protein deficiency on the rate of radioactivity loss from body constituents in adult rats given 14C-amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of protein deficiency on the rate of loss of radioactivity from body constituents was studied in adult rats administered 14C-Chlorella protein hydrolysate or 14C-lysine. Rats were kept on a protein-free diet for 3 weeks and then injected with labelled amino acids and fed on a protein-free diet for 3 more days to allow 14C deposition in tissues. Then they were given experimental diets (protein-free diet, 1% and 10% wheat gluten diets pair-fed with the protein-free diet, and 10% wheat gluten diet ad libitum) for 7 days and sacrificed. The rates of loss of radioactivity from tissue proteins became low in general with the extent of protein deficiency. This increased capacity of tissues to retain 14C-amino acids may result from higher efficiency of protein utilization in protein deficiency. The reutilization of free amino acids and the rate of catabolism of tissue protein are discussed on the basis of the results. The half-life of muscle protein was too long to observe the effects of experimental diets given for 7 days on the rate of loss of radioactivity. (auth.)

  20. Effect of dietary Ulva and Spirulina on weight loss and body composition of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), during a starvation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güroy, D; Güroy, B; Merrifield, D L; Ergün, S; Tekinay, A A; Yiğit, M

    2011-06-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary algal supplementation on weight loss and proximate composition in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, during starvation. An algae-free control diet (C) and four experimental diets, including varying levels of raw Ulva meal (5% = U5; 10% = U10) and Spirulina meal (5% = S5; 10% = S10) were formulated. Fish were fed to satiation for 12 weeks and then subjected to a 3-week starvation period. Body weight, viscerosomatic index (VSI, %), hepatosomatic index (HSI, %), dress-out (DO, %) and chemical composition of carcass were analysed at the end of each starvation week. The accumulated weight loss of the fish fed dietary algae was almost 50% less than the control group (p algae in aquafeeds may have economical advantages in terms of reducing weight loss in fish when subjected to a short-term fasting period, that sometimes is necessary after a heavy rainfall or when fish stocks are held back to meet market demand. PMID:20880289

  1. National, regional, and global trends in body-mass index since 1980

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finucane, Mariel M; Stevens, Gretchen A; Cowan, Melanie J;

    2011-01-01

    Excess bodyweight is a major public health concern. However, few worldwide comparative analyses of long-term trends of body-mass index (BMI) have been done, and none have used recent national health examination surveys. We estimated worldwide trends in population mean BMI....

  2. Body weight satisfaction and disordered eating among youth who are active in sport in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Chia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The research examined the relationship between body weight satisfaction and disordered eating among youth who are active in sport in Singapore. Method : 137 youths (82 boys and 55 girls; age 12-13 enrolled in school sport completed two self-report questionnaires- SCOFF for disordered eating and body weight satisfaction- on two separate occasions that were six months apart (T1 vs. T2. Results : Body mass index for age classifications revealed that 5.1% were severely underweight; 1.5% underweight; 88.3% acceptable weight; 4.4% overweight and 0.7% were severely overweight. Conclusions : (i the prevalence of disordered eating was 46% at baseline measurement and this remained stable at 45.3% six months later; (ii there was no sex difference for disordered eating on the two measurement occasions (T1 vs. T2, p>0.05; (iii the prevalence of youths unsure of their bodyweight satisfaction was 26.6-21.2% which compared to 88.3% adjudged to be of healthy weight; across T1 and T2, more male subjects wanted to gain bodyweight while more female subjects wanted to lose bodyweight; and (iv subjects who were dissatisfied with their bodyweight had significantly greater odds of being at risk for developing DE. Holistic education programmes based upon body image and nutrition, are recommended.

  3. Lifestyle patterns associated with diet, physical activity, body mass index and amount of recent weight loss in a sample of successful weight losers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuglestad Paul T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests that the interaction between biological susceptibility and environmental risk is complex and that further study of behavioral typologies related to obesity and associated behaviors is important to further elucidate the nature of obesity risk and how to approach it for intervention. The current investigation aims to identify phenotypical lifestyle patterns that might begin to unify our understanding of obesity and obesity related behaviors. Methods Individuals who had recently lost substantial weight of their own initiative completed measures of intentional weight control behaviors and lifestyle behaviors associated with eating. These behaviors were factor analyzed and the resulting factors were examined in relation to BMI, recent weight loss, diet, and physical activity. Results Four meaningful lifestyle and weight control behavioral factors were identified— regularity of meals, TV related viewing and eating, intentional strategies for weight control, and eating away from home. Greater meal regularity was associated with greater recent weight loss and greater fruit and vegetable intake. Greater TV related viewing and eating was associated with greater BMI and greater fat and sugar intake. More eating away from home was related to greater fat and sugar intake, lower fruit and vegetable intake, and less physical activity. Greater use of weight control strategies was most consistently related to better weight, diet, and physical activity outcomes. Conclusions Compared to the individual behavior variables, the identified lifestyle patterns appeared to be more reliably related to diet, physical activity, and weight (both BMI and recent weight loss. These findings add to the growing body of literature identifying behavioral patterns related to obesity and the overall weight control strategy of eating less and exercising more. In future research it will be important to replicate these behavioral factors (over

  4. Effects of Weight Loss Speed on Kidney Function Differ Depending on Body Mass Index in Nondiabetic Healthy People: A Prospective Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichiro Kanda

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. However, it has been reported that weight loss is associated with incident chronic kidney disease (CKD in healthy males. The purpose of this prospective cohort study is to investigate the effects of weight loss on kidney function in healthy people in terms of body mass index (BMI and gender.A total of 8447 nondiabetic healthy people were enrolled in the Saitama Cardiometabolic Disease and Organ Impairment Study, Japan. Relationships between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR change, BMI, and BMI change were evaluated using 3D-scatter plots with spline and generalized additive models (GAMs adjusted for baseline characteristics.The subjects were stratified into four groups according to BMI. The mean±standard deviations for males and females were, respectively, 40.11±9.49, and 40.3±9.71 years for age and 76.39±17.72 and 71.49±18.4 ml/min/1.73m2 for eGFR. GAMs showed that a decreasing BMI change (<-1 kg/m2/year was associated with a decreasing eGFR change in males with high normal BMIs (22 kg/m2≤BMI<25 kg/m2. A decreasing BMI change (<-2 kg/m2/year was associated with an increasing eGFR change in overweight males (25 kg/m2≤BMI. Among underweight females (BMI<18.5 kg/m2, decreasing BMI was observed with decreasing eGFR.These findings suggest that the benefit and risk of weight loss in relation to kidney function differs depending on BMI and weight loss speed, especially in males.

  5. Microbial fixation of CO2 in water bodies and in drylands to combat climate change, soil loss and desertification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Federico; Olguín, Eugenia J; Diels, Ludo; De Philippis, Roberto

    2015-01-25

    The growing concern for the increase of the global warming effects due to anthropogenic activities raises the challenge of finding novel technological approaches to stabilize CO2 emissions in the atmosphere and counteract impinging interconnected issues such as desertification and loss of biodiversity. Biological-CO2 mitigation, triggered through biological fixation, is considered a promising and eco-sustainable method, mostly owing to its downstream benefits that can be exploited. Microorganisms such as cyanobacteria, green algae and some autotrophic bacteria could potentially fix CO2 more efficiently than higher plants, due to their faster growth. Some examples of the potential of biological-CO2 mitigation are reported and discussed in this paper. In arid and semiarid environments, soil carbon sequestration (CO2 fixation) by cyanobacteria and biological soil crusts is considered an eco-friendly and natural process to increase soil C content and a viable pathway to soil restoration after one disturbance event. Another way for biological-CO2 mitigation intensively studied in the last few years is related to the possibility to perform carbon dioxide sequestration using microalgae, obtaining at the same time bioproducts of industrial interest. Another possibility under study is the exploitation of specific chemotrophic bacteria, such as Ralstonia eutropha (or picketii) and related organisms, for CO2 fixation coupled with the production chemicals such as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). In spite of the potential of these processes, multiple factors still have to be optimized for maximum rate of CO2 fixation by these microorganisms. The optimization of culture conditions, including the optimal concentration of CO2 in the provided gas, the use of metabolic engineering and of dual purpose systems for the treatment of wastewater and production of biofuels and high value products within a biorefinery concept, the design of photobioreactors in the case of phototrophs are some

  6. Beneficial effects of training at the anaerobic threshold in addition to pharmacotherapy on weight loss, body composition, and exercise performance in women with obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcelik O

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oguz Ozcelik,1 Yusuf Ozkan,2 Sermin Algul,1 Ramis Colak2,3 1Department of Physiology, 2Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, 3Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun, Turkey Objective: The aim of this study was to determine and compare the effects of weight loss achieved through orlistat therapy alone or a combination of orlistat and an aerobic exercise training program on aerobic fitness and body composition in obese females.Methods: Twenty-eight obese patients were randomly assigned to receive 12-week treatment with hypocaloric diet–orlistat or diet–orlistat–exercise. Each participant performed an incremental ramp exercise test every 4 weeks to measure aerobic fitness. Fourteen participants performed continuous exercise (approximately 45 minutes per session at a work rate corresponding to the anaerobic threshold three times per week.Results: A decrease in the fat mass to body weight ratio of 3.8% (P=0.006 was observed at the end of the 12 weeks in the orlistat group, while a decrease of 9.5% (P=0.001 was seen in the orlistat–exercise group. Maximal exercise capacity increased by 46.5% in the orlistat–exercise group and by 19.5% in the orlistat group.Conclusion: While orlistat therapy resulted in an improvement in body composition and aerobic fitness at the end of the 12-week period, its combination with exercise training provided improvements in the same parameters within the first 4 weeks of the study. These additional beneficial effects of combining aerobic exercise with orlistat therapy are important with regards to obesity-associated risk factors. Keywords: obesity, orlistat, body mass index, anaerobic threshold, aerobic fitness

  7. Evaluation of effect of body mass index and weight loss on survival of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies report body-mass index (BMI) and percent weight loss (WL) to have prognostic significance when treating patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, most of these investigations studied patients treated using different radiotherapeutic techniques. We evaluated the predictive effect of these two nutrition-related measurements on therapeutic outcome in NPC patients who only received intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) as part of their total treatment program. We retrospectively studied NPC patients treated with IMRT from January 2006 to February 2012. Cox proportional hazards was used to test the association of pretreatment BMI (<23 kg/m2 vs. ≥23 kg/m2) and percent weight loss (≥5 % vs. <5 %) during therapy and related survival rates while controlling for various potential confounders. Eighty-one (34 %) of the 238 patients had BMIs ≥23 kg/m2 at pretreatment and 150 (63 %) had significant (≥5 %) weight loss. Median follow-up time was 41.71 months; median radiotherapy was 7.46 ± 0.77 weeks. Those with BMIs ≥23 kg/m2 did not have a better 3-year overall survival (p = 0.672), 3-year disease specific survival (p = 0.341), 3-year locoregional free survival (p = 0.281), or 3-year distant metastatic free survival (p = 0.134). Those with significant WL (≥5 %) did not have worse 3-year clinical endpoints, even after stratifying magnitude of weight loss by BMI category. In sensitivity test, the adjusted hazard ratio remained statistically insignificant using different cutoffs for BMIs and percent weight loss. This study found no significant relationship between BMI and percent weight loss on survival of NPC patients receiving IMRT based therapy. Further studies might want to consider other nutrition related factors as prognostic indicators when studying the correlate between malnutrition and survival in this population. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13014-015-0443-3) contains supplementary material, which is

  8. Evaluation of Treadmill Exercise in a Lower Body Negative Pressure Chamber as a Countermeasure for Weightlessness-Induced Bone Loss: a Bed Rest Study with Identical Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Davis-Street, Janis E.; Fesperman, J. Vernell; Calkins, D. S.; Bawa, Maneesh; Macias, Brandon R.; Meyer, R. Scott; Hargens, Alan R.

    2003-01-01

    Counteracting bone loss is required for future space exploration. We evaluated the ability of treadmill exercise in a LBNP chamber to counteract bone loss in a 30-day bed rest study. Eight pairs of identical twins were randomly assigned to sedentary control or exercise groups. Exercise within LBNP decreased the bone resorption caused by bed rest and may provide a countermeasure for spaceflight. INTRODUCTION: Bone loss is one of the greatest physiological challenges for extended-duration space missions. The ability of exercise to counteract weightlessness-induced bone loss has been studied extensively, but to date, it has proven ineffective. We evaluated the effectiveness of a combination of two countermeasures-treadmill exercise while inside a lower body negative pressure (LBNP) chamber-on bone loss during a 30-day bed rest study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight pairs of identical twins were randomized into sedentary (SED) or exercise/LBNP (EX/LBNP) groups. Blood and urine samples were collected before, several times during, and after the 30-day bed rest period. These samples were analyzed for markers of bone and calcium metabolism. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine statistical significance. Because identical twins were used, both time and group were treated as repeated variables. RESULTS: Markers of bone resorption were increased during bed rest in samples from sedentary subjects, including the collagen cross-links and serum and urinary calcium concentrations. For N-telopeptide and deoxypyridinoline, there were significant (p < 0.05) interactions between group (SED versus EX/LBNP) and phase of the study (sample collection point). Pyridinium cross-links were increased above pre-bed rest levels in both groups, but the EX/LBNP group had a smaller increase than the SED group. Markers of bone formation were unchanged by bed rest in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that this weight-bearing exercise combined with LBNP ameliorates some of the negative

  9. Events of elevated somatic cell counts in high-producing dairy cows are associated with daily body weight loss in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Straten, M; Friger, M; Shpigel, N Y

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine associations between body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) variables indicating a more severe negative energy balance in early lactation and events of somatic cell counts (SCC) >250,000 cells/mL and SCC >400,000 cells/mL in dairy cows. We studied lactations from 634 primiparous and 1,086 multiparous Israeli Holstein dairy cows originating from 7 commercial dairy farms. Generalized mixed models with a random herd effect were used to quantify the effects of BW and BCS variables in early lactation on events of elevated SCC. Data were analyzed using 2 different approaches. In the first approach, only first events in a lactation were taken into account, whereas in the second approach, all events in a lactation were analyzed and repeated events from the same cow were accounted for. Although no associations were found between the different BW and BCS variables and first events of elevated SCC, associations were present between these variables and events of elevated SCC when all events were analyzed. The cumulative incidence of a lactation with multiple events of SCC >250,000 cells/mL was 8.8 and 27.7% for primiparous and multiparous cows, respectively. The odds of an event of SCC >250,000 cells/mL were 25% greater for cows belonging to the upper quartile in relative BW loss from calving to nadir BW (loss >12.3, 15.0, and 15.7% for first-, second-, and third- parity and greater cows, respectively) compared with cows losing less relative BW. Odds of an event were 44% greater for cows with ketosis when compared with cows without. The cumulative incidence of a lactation with multiple events of SCC >400,000 cells/mL was 4.1 and 14.3% for primiparous and multiparous cows, respectively. The odds of an event of SCC >400,000 cells/mL were 43% greater for cows belonging to the upper quartile in relative BW loss from calving to nadir BW compared with cows losing less relative BW. Odds of an event were 33% greater for cows with

  10. The association of subclinical hypocalcemia, negative energy balance and disease with bodyweight change during the first 30 days post-partum in dairy cows milked with automatic milking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caixeta, L S; Ospina, P A; Capel, M B; Nydam, D V

    2015-05-01

    In a prospective cohort study, the daily bodyweight (BW) and milk production of 92 cows were recorded using automatic milking systems. The objectives were to characterize calcium serum concentration variability on days 1-3 post-partum and to evaluate the association between subclinical hypocalcemia (SHPC) and change in BW over the first 30 days in milk (DIM) in Holstein dairy cows, while controlling for concurrent disease and negative energy balance (NEB). SHPC was defined as total serum calcium concentration between 6 and 8 mg/dL, NEB was defined as non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) > 0.7 mEq/L or β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) ≥ 1.2 mmol/L. The peak incidence of SHPC was at 1 DIM for all groups (11%, 42% and 60% for parities 1, 2, and ≥3, respectively). All parity groups lost weight (21, 33, and 34 kg) during the first 30 DIM. Parity 1 animals with disease compared with those without disease lost the most weight (2.6 kg/day BW loss vs. 5 kg/day) compared with those in the SHPC group (≤4.5 kg/day). In parity ≥ 3 animals, SHPC was an important factor for BW loss; SHPC animals lost the most weight (>3.7 kg/day) vs. normocalcemic cows (≤3.3 kg/day) regardless of NEB or disease status. Even though all animals lost weight during early lactation the effect of disease, NEB, and SHPC on BW loss was different in each parity group. PMID:25819756

  11. Can a single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise acutely reduce blood pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Romeu; Sousa, Nelson; Garrido, Nuno; Cavaco, Braulio; Quaresma, Luís; Reis, Victor Machado

    2014-09-29

    This study aimed to analyze the acute effects of a single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise on blood pressure in healthy young adult women. Twenty-three healthy young adult women (aged 31.57 ± 7.87 years) participated in two experimental sessions (exercise and control) in a crossover study design. Blood pressure was monitored before, immediately after and at 10, 20 and 30 min of recovery. The exercise session consisted of four phases: 1) a warm-up (5 min of dance aerobics); 2) aerobic exercise training (30 min of step aerobics); 3) resistance exercise training (six sets of 12 repetitions of three bodyweight exercises in a circuit mode, 10 min); and 4) a cool-down (5 min of breathing and flexibility exercises); totaling 50 min of duration. Systolic blood pressure after exercise was significantly lower compared to control at the 10th min (-10.83 ± 2.13 vs. -2.6 ± 2.13 mmHg; p = 0.009), 20th min (-11.26 ± 2.13 vs. -3.04 ± 2.13 mmHg; p = 0.009) and 30th min of recovery (-10.87 ± 2.39 vs. -0.48 ± 2.39 mmHg; p = 0.004). A single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise was effective in inducing significant post-exercise hypotension in healthy young adult women. This type of low-cost exercise interventions may have an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and in community health promotion. PMID:25713644

  12. Can a Single Session of a Community-Based Group Exercise Program Combining Step Aerobics and Bodyweight Resistance Exercise Acutely Reduce Blood Pressure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Romeu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the acute effects of a single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise on blood pressure in healthy young adult women. Twentythree healthy young adult women (aged 31.57 ± 7.87 years participated in two experimental sessions (exercise and control in a crossover study design. Blood pressure was monitored before, immediately after and at 10, 20 and 30 min of recovery. The exercise session consisted of four phases: 1 a warm-up (5 min of dance aerobics; 2 aerobic exercise training (30 min of step aerobics; 3 resistance exercise training (six sets of 12 repetitions of three bodyweight exercises in a circuit mode, 10 min; and 4 a cool-down (5 min of breathing and flexibility exercises; totaling 50 min of duration. Systolic blood pressure after exercise was significantly lower compared to control at the 10th min (-10.83 ± 2.13 vs. -2.6 ± 2.13 mmHg; p = 0.009, 20th min (-11.26 ± 2.13 vs. -3.04 ± 2.13 mmHg; p = 0.009 and 30th min of recovery (-10.87 ± 2.39 vs. -0.48 ± 2.39 mmHg; p = 0.004. A single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise was effective in inducing significant post-exercise hypotension in healthy young adult women. This type of low-cost exercise interventions may have an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and in community health promotion.

  13. Pre-Exercise Hyperhydration-Induced Bodyweight Gain Does Not Alter Prolonged Treadmill Running Time-Trial Performance in Warm Ambient Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Goulet, Eric D. B.; Felix Berrigan; Audrey Asselin; Tommy Dion; Pierre-Yves Gigou

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the effect of pre-exercise hyperhydration (PEH) and pre-exercise euhydration (PEE) upon treadmill running time-trial (TT) performance in the heat. Six highly trained runners or triathletes underwent two 18 km TT runs (~28 °C, 25%–30% RH) on a motorized treadmill, in a randomized, crossover fashion, while being euhydrated or after hyperhydration with 26 mL/kg bodyweight (BW) of a 130 mmol/L sodium solution. Subjects then ran four successive 4.5 km blocks alternating between...

  14. Can a Single Session of a Community-Based Group Exercise Program Combining Step Aerobics and Bodyweight Resistance Exercise Acutely Reduce Blood Pressure?

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes Romeu; Sousa Nelson; Garrido Nuno; Cavaco Braulio; Quaresma Luís; Reis Victor Machado

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the acute effects of a single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise on blood pressure in healthy young adult women. Twenty-three healthy young adult women (aged 31.57 ± 7.87 years) participated in two experimental sessions (exercise and control) in a crossover study design. Blood pressure was monitored before, immediately after and at 10, 20 and 30 min of recovery. The exercise session consist...

  15. The relationship between body mass index and subjective well-being - the moderating role of body dissatisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brdarić Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Excess bodyweight and obesity are widespread health problems throughout the world. In Serbia, over 50% of the adult population is overweight and the Province of Vojvodina is one of the regions with the highest percentage of obesity. The relationship between obesity and health complications has been consistently demonstrated. However, research on the relationship between obesity and subjective well-being has not provided clear results. Body dissatisfaction is considered to be an important factor for understanding this relationship. The main objective of this study was to investigate the moderating effect of body dissatisfaction in the relationship between body mass index and subjective well-being. Material and Methods. The study sample included 731 respondents (72.6% women, with the mean age 28.93 years (SD = 8.47 from the Province of Vojvodina who had completed an online set of tests consisting of Body Shape Questionnaire, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Scale of Positive and Negative Experience and a self-assessment of bodyweight and body height. Results. The results indicate that the moderating effect of body dissatisfaction in the relationship between body mass index and indicators of subjective well-being is statistically significant in both sexes. Specifically, the women with higher body mass index values who expressed lower body dissatisfaction reported lower levels of emotional distress and higher levels of pleasant emotions than those with lower body mass index. On the other hand, the men with higher bodyweight preoccupation and low body mass index reported significantly higher levels of pleasant emotions than those with higher body mass index values. Conclusion. These results suggest the necessity of a more detailed study of this relationship on both clinical and general population samples from Serbia.

  16. Changes in weight loss, body composition and cardiovascular disease risk after altering macronutrient distributions during a regular exercise program in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Mike D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study's purpose investigated the impact of different macronutrient distributions and varying caloric intakes along with regular exercise for metabolic and physiological changes related to weight loss. Methods One hundred forty-one sedentary, obese women (38.7 ± 8.0 yrs, 163.3 ± 6.9 cm, 93.2 ± 16.5 kg, 35.0 ± 6.2 kg•m-2, 44.8 ± 4.2% fat were randomized to either no diet + no exercise control group (CON a no diet + exercise control (ND, or one of four diet + exercise groups (high-energy diet [HED], very low carbohydrate, high protein diet [VLCHP], low carbohydrate, moderate protein diet [LCMP] and high carbohydrate, low protein [HCLP] in addition to beginning a 3x•week-1 supervised resistance training program. After 0, 1, 10 and 14 weeks, all participants completed testing sessions which included anthropometric, body composition, energy expenditure, fasting blood samples, aerobic and muscular fitness assessments. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with an alpha of 0.05 with LSD post-hoc analysis when appropriate. Results All dieting groups exhibited adequate compliance to their prescribed diet regimen as energy and macronutrient amounts and distributions were close to prescribed amounts. Those groups that followed a diet and exercise program reported significantly greater anthropometric (waist circumference and body mass and body composition via DXA (fat mass and % fat changes. Caloric restriction initially reduced energy expenditure, but successfully returned to baseline values after 10 weeks of dieting and exercising. Significant fitness improvements (aerobic capacity and maximal strength occurred in all exercising groups. No significant changes occurred in lipid panel constituents, but serum insulin and HOMA-IR values decreased in the VLCHP group. Significant reductions in serum leptin occurred in all caloric restriction + exercise groups after 14 weeks, which were unchanged in other non

  17. Menopause and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet & Menopause Bone Loss How are bone loss and menopause related? Throughout life your body keeps a balance between the loss ... The sooner you take steps to prevent bone loss, the lower your risk of osteoporosis later in life. If you are skipping menstrual periods, have had ...

  18. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Peptide in the Central Amygdala Causes Anorexia and Body Weight Loss via the Melanocortin and the TrkB Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iemolo, Attilio; Ferragud, Antonio; Cottone, Pietro; Sabino, Valentina

    2015-07-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/PAC1 receptor system represents one of the main regulators of the behavioral, endocrine, and autonomic responses to stress. Although induction of anorexia is a well-documented effect of PACAP, the central sites underlying this phenomenon are poorly understood. The present studies addressed this question by examining the neuroanatomical, behavioral, and pharmacological mechanisms mediating the anorexia produced by PACAP in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), a limbic structure implicated in the emotional components of ingestive behavior. Male rats were microinfused with PACAP (0-1 μg per rat) into the CeA and home-cage food intake, body weight change, microstructural analysis of food intake, and locomotor activity were assessed. Intra-CeA (but not intra-basolateral amygdala) PACAP dose-dependently induced anorexia and body weight loss without affecting locomotor activity. PACAP-treated rats ate smaller meals of normal duration, revealing that PACAP slowed feeding within meals by decreasing the regularity and maintenance of feeding from pellet-to-pellet; postprandial satiety was unaffected. Intra-CeA PACAP-induced anorexia was blocked by coinfusion of either the melanocortin receptor 3/4 antagonist SHU 9119 or the tyrosine kinase B (TrKB) inhibitor k-252a, but not the CRF receptor antagonist D-Phe-CRF(12-41). These results indicate that the CeA is one of the brain areas through which the PACAP system promotes anorexia and that PACAP preferentially lessens the maintenance of feeding in rats, effects opposite to those of palatable food. We also demonstrate that PACAP in the CeA exerts its anorectic effects via local melanocortin and the TrKB systems, and independently from CRF. PMID:25649277

  19. Body condition loss and increased serum levels of nonesterified fatty acids enhance progesterone levels at estrus and reduce estrous activity and insemination rates in postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüttgenau, J; Purschke, S; Tsousis, G; Bruckmaier, R M; Bollwein, H

    2016-03-01

    , especially 14, 28, and 42 days pp, were associated with lower probability to inseminate a cow. Regarding the cows that were inseminated, no influence of BCS, BFT, or NEFA levels on pregnancy per artificial insemination was found. In conclusion, cows with higher loss of body condition and elevated NEFA concentrations had higher P4 concentrations during estrus, a reduced estrous activity and insemination rate, but no depression in pregnancy per artificial insemination. PMID:26586277

  20. Do psychological factors help to reduce body mass in obesity or is it vice versa? Selected psychological aspects and effectiveness of the weight-loss program in the obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bąk-Sosnowska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the strength and direction of the correlation between cognitive appraisal, emotional state, social functioning and the effectiveness of a weight-loss program undertaken by obese subjects. The out-patient weight-loss program encompassed 150 obese women. Assessments were carried out at four time points: at the start of the weight-loss program and then after a 5%, 10% and a 15% reduction of the initial body mass. The research tools used were: a survey, the Situation Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ, the Emotional State Questionnaire (ESQ, and the Q-Sort Social Functioning Questionnaire. The cognitive appraisal, emotional state and social functioning of the study group changed significantly (P<0.001. Significantly more individuals with a 15% body mass reduction, as compared with individuals with no body mass reduction, had an early obesity onset, i.e. at the age of <10 years old (P<0.001. Significantly more individuals with no body mass reduction, compared with individuals with a 15% reduction, had a later obesity onset, i.e. between the ages of 20 and 30 (P<0.001 and between 50 and 60 (P<0.001. Significantly more individuals with a 15% body mass reduction, compared with individuals with no mass reduction, had previously experienced the jojo effect (P<0.001 and had successfully lost weight (P<0.001. Significantly more individuals with no body mass reduction, compared with individuals with a15% reduction, had a history of unsuccessful attempts at reducing body mass (P<0.001. We conclude that the attitude of obese patients towards a weight-loss program is not a deciding factor for its effectiveness. As body mass reduces, the attitude improves.

  1. Lewy Body Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewy body disease is one of the most common causes of dementia in the elderly. Dementia is the loss of mental ... to affect normal activities and relationships. Lewy body disease happens when abnormal structures, called Lewy bodies, build ...

  2. Do Psychological Factors Help to Reduce Body Mass in Obesity or is it Vice Versa? Selected Psychological Aspects and Effectiveness of the Weight-Loss Program in the Obese Patients

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the strength and direction of the correlation between cognitive appraisal, emotional state, social functioning and the effectiveness of a weight-loss program undertaken by obese subjects. The out-patient weight-loss program encompassed 150 obese women. Assessments were carried out at four time points: at the start of the weight-loss program and then after a 5%, 10% and a 15% reduction of the initial body mass. The research tools used were: a survey, the Sit...

  3. Do psychological factors help to reduce body mass in obesity or is it vice versa? Selected psychological aspects and effectiveness of the weight-loss program in the obese patients

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Bąk-Sosnowska; Adam Pawlak; Violetta Skrzypulec-Plinta

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the strength and direction of the correlation between cognitive appraisal, emotional state, social functioning and the effectiveness of a weight-loss program undertaken by obese subjects. The out-patient weight-loss program encompassed 150 obese women. Assessments were carried out at four time points: at the start of the weight-loss program and then after a 5%, 10% and a 15% reduction of the initial body mass. The research tools used were: a survey, the Sit...

  4. Distinguishing Emotional Co-Regulation From Co-Dysregulation: An Investigation of Emotional Dynamics and Body-Weight in Romantic Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Rebecca G.; Barnard, Kobus; Butler, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    Well-regulated emotions, both within people and between relationship partners, play a key role in facilitating health and well-being. The present study examined 39 heterosexual couples’ joint weight status (both partners are healthy-weight, both overweight, one healthy-weight and one overweight) as a predictor of two interpersonal emotional patterns during a discussion of their shared lifestyle choices. The first pattern, co-regulation, is one in which partners’ coupled emotions show a dampen...

  5. Endocrine Changes and Their Relationships with Body weight of Growing Yak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田永强

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of growth hormone (GH), insulin, thyroxin(T4 ) and 3,3 ' 5 '-tri-iodothyronine (T3)in blood samples of growing yak during different seasons were determined by radio-immunoassay.Changes in bodyweight of the growing yak and compositions of grass were also measured. The seasonal changes in hormones were significant (at least P<0.05). In the same season, variation in hormonal concentration was affected by the growth stage of the animal. The bodyweight gains varied in different seasons, with significant increase from May to September and decrease from January to May. Correlation analysis indicated that T4 had a significant positive correlation with bodyweight of the growing yak(r= 0.323,P<0.05) ,but other hormones did not have significant correlations with bodyweight. The results show that annual cycle of weight loss and gain is attributable to the seasonal changes in feed supply and that the seasonal changes in the concentrations of the assayed hormones were indirectly dependent on grass growth.

  6. Association of dietary pattern with biochemical blood profiles and bodyweight among adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Darani Zad, Nasrin; Mohd Yusof, Rokiah; Esmaili, Haleh; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Mohseni, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to identify dietary patterns and evaluated their association with biochemical blood profiles and body weight among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods This was a cross sectional study conducted among 400 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Tehran from March to August 2013. Biochemical blood profiles, socio-demographic, lifestyle, anthropometric measurements, and dietary data were obtained. Dietary data from food frequency questionnaire were ...

  7. Hearing loss and music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noise induced hearing loss - music; Sensory hearing loss - music ... damaged by loud sounds. The human ear is like any other body part -- too much use can damaged it. Over time, repeated exposure to loud noise and music can cause hearing loss.

  8. Do Psychological Factors Help to Reduce Body Mass in Obesity or is it Vice Versa? Selected Psychological Aspects and Effectiveness of the Weight-Loss Program in the Obese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bąk-Sosnowska, Monika; Pawlak, Adam; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the strength and direction of the correlation between cognitive appraisal, emotional state, social functioning and the effectiveness of a weight-loss program undertaken by obese subjects. The out-patient weight-loss program encompassed 150 obese women. Assessments were carried out at four time points: at the start of the weight-loss program and then after a 5%, 10% and a 15% reduction of the initial body mass. The research tools used were: a survey, the Situation Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ), the Emotional State Questionnaire (ESQ), and the Q-Sort Social Functioning Questionnaire. The cognitive appraisal, emotional state and social functioning of the study group changed significantly (Pobesity onset, i.e. at the age of obesity onset, i.e. between the ages of 20 and 30 (Pattitude of obese patients towards a weight-loss program is not a deciding factor for its effectiveness. As body mass reduces, the attitude improves. PMID:26973887

  9. Neighbourhood Influences on Children’s Weight-related Behaviours and Body Mass Index

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielle L. Jenkin; Pearson, Amber L.; Graham Bentham; Peter Day; Simon Kingham

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Neighbourhood contextual factors such as accessibility of food shops and green spaces are associated with adult bodyweight but not necessarily weight-related behaviours. Whether these associations are replicated amongst children is unknown.Aim: To understand which aspects of childrens' neighbourhoods are associated with unhealthy weight and weight-related behaviours.Methods: Individual-level data for children from the 2006/7 New Zealand Health Survey (of Body Mass Index (BMI), d...

  10. Extracting Information from Electronic Medical Records to Identify the Obesity Status of a Patient Based on Comorbidities and Bodyweight Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Rosa L; Flores, Christopher A

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease with an increasing impact on the world's population. In this work, we present a method of identifying obesity automatically using text mining techniques and information related to body weight measures and obesity comorbidities. We used a dataset of 3015 de-identified medical records that contain labels for two classification problems. The first classification problem distinguishes between obesity, overweight, normal weight, and underweight. The second classification problem differentiates between obesity types: super obesity, morbid obesity, severe obesity and moderate obesity. We used a Bag of Words approach to represent the records together with unigram and bigram representations of the features. We implemented two approaches: a hierarchical method and a nonhierarchical one. We used Support Vector Machine and Naïve Bayes together with ten-fold cross validation to evaluate and compare performances. Our results indicate that the hierarchical approach does not work as well as the nonhierarchical one. In general, our results show that Support Vector Machine obtains better performances than Naïve Bayes for both classification problems. We also observed that bigram representation improves performance compared with unigram representation. PMID:27402260

  11. Pre-exercise hyperhydration-induced bodyweight gain does not alter prolonged treadmill running time-trial performance in warm ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigou, Pierre-Yves; Dion, Tommy; Asselin, Audrey; Berrigan, Felix; Goulet, Eric D B

    2012-08-01

    This study compared the effect of pre-exercise hyperhydration (PEH) and pre-exercise euhydration (PEE) upon treadmill running time-trial (TT) performance in the heat. Six highly trained runners or triathletes underwent two 18 km TT runs (~28 °C, 25%-30% RH) on a motorized treadmill, in a randomized, crossover fashion, while being euhydrated or after hyperhydration with 26 mL/kg bodyweight (BW) of a 130 mmol/L sodium solution. Subjects then ran four successive 4.5 km blocks alternating between 2.5 km at 1% and 2 km at 6% gradient, while drinking a total of 7 mL/kg BW of a 6% sports drink solution (Gatorade, USA). PEH increased BW by 1.00 ± 0.34 kg (P hyperhydration of a magnitude of 1 L does not alter 80-90 min running TT performance under warm conditions in highly-trained runners drinking ~500 mL sports drink during exercise. PMID:23016126

  12. Fatty Acid Synthase and Hormone-sensitive Lipase Expression in Liver Are Involved in Zinc-α2-glycoprotein-induced Body Fat Loss in Obese Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-ying Gong; Jie-ying Deng; Hui-juan Zhu; Hui Pan; Lin-jie Wang; Hong-bo Yang

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of zinc-a2-glycoprotein (ZAG) on body weight and body fat in high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice and the possible mechanism.Methods Thirty-six male mice were fed with standard food (SF) (n=9) and HFD (n=27), respec-tively. Five weeks later, 9 mice fed with HFD were subjected to ZAG expression plasmid DNA transfection by liposome transfection method, and another 9 mice to negative control plasmid transfection. Two weeks later, serum ZAG level in the mice was assayed by Western blot, and the effects of ZAG over-expression on body weight, body fat, serum biochemical indexes, and adipose tissue of obese mice were evaluated. The mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in liver tissue were de-termined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.Results Serum ZAG level significantly lowered in simple HFD-fed mice in comparison to SF-fed mice (0.51±0.10 AU vs. 0.75±0.07 AU, P<0.01). Further statistical analysis demonstrated that ZAG level was negatively correlated with body weight (r =-0.56, P<0.001), epididymal fat mass (r=-0. 67, P<0.001), percentage of epididymal fat (r=-0.65, P<0.001 ), and increased weight (r=-0.57, P<0.001) in simple SF-and HFD-fed mice. ZAG over-expression in obese mice reduced body weight and the percentage of epididy-mal fat. Furthermore, FAS mRNA expression decreased (P<0.01) and HSL mRNA expression increased (P<0.001) in the liver in ZAG over-expressing mice.Conclusions ZAG is closely related to obesity. Serum ZAG level is inversely correlated with body weight and percentage of body fat. The action of ZAG is associated with reduced FAS expression and in-creased HSL expression in the liver of obese mice.

  13. Fat‐free mass and calf circumference as body composition indices to determine non‐exercise activity thermogenesis in patients with diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Isobe, Yuki; Sakurai, Masaru; Kita, Yuki; Takeshita, Yumie; Misu, Hirofumi; Kaneko, Shuichi; Takamura, Toshinari

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims/Introduction To investigate the clinical and anthropometrical parameters that are associated with non‐exercise activity thermogenesis that is composed of basal energy expenditure (BEE) and diet‐induced thermogenesis (DIT) in patients with diabetes. Materials and Methods Body composition was assessed using bioelectrical impedance, and BEE and DIT were measured using indirect calorimetry in 40 Japanese patients with diabetes. Results BEE correlated positively with bodyweight, body...

  14. Fat-free mass and calf circumference as body composition indices to determine non-exercise activity thermogenesis in patients with diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Isobe, Yuki; Sakurai, Masaru; Kita, Yuki; Takeshita, Yumie; Misu, Hirofumi; Kaneko, Shuichi; Takamura, Toshinari

    2016-01-01

    Aims/Introduction: To investigate the clinical and anthropometrical parameters that are associated with non-exercise activity thermogenesis that is composed of basal energy expenditure (BEE) and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) in patients with diabetes. Materials and Methods: Body composition was assessed using bioelectrical impedance, and BEE and DIT were measured using indirect calorimetry in 40 Japanese patients with diabetes. Results: BEE correlated positively with bodyweight, body mass ...

  15. High Whey Protein Intake Delayed the Loss of Lean Body Mass in Healthy Old Rats, whereas Protein Type and Polyphenol/Antioxidant Supplementation Had No Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent Mosoni; Eva Gatineau; Philippe Gatellier; Carole Migné; Isabelle Savary-Auzeloux; Didier Rémond; Emilie Rocher; Dominique Dardevet

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to compare and combine 3 nutritional strategies to slow down the age-related loss of muscle mass in healthy old rats: 1) increase protein intake, which is likely to stimulate muscle protein anabolism; 2) use leucine rich, rapidly digested whey proteins as protein source (whey proteins are recognized as the most effective proteins to stimulate muscle protein anabolism). 3) Supplement animals with a mixture of chamomile extract, vitamin E, vitamin D (reducing inflammation and oxidat...

  16. Pegylated G-CSF Inhibits Blood Cell Depletion, Increases Platelets, Blocks Splenomegaly, and Improves Survival after Whole-Body Ionizing Irradiation but Not after Irradiation Combined with Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliann G. Kiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to ionizing radiation alone (radiation injury, RI or combined with traumatic tissue injury (radiation combined injury, CI is a crucial life-threatening factor in nuclear and radiological accidents. As demonstrated in animal models, CI results in greater mortality than RI. In our laboratory, we found that B6D2F1/J female mice exposed to 60Co-γ-photon radiation followed by 15% total-body-surface-area skin burns experienced an increment of 18% higher mortality over a 30-day observation period compared to irradiation alone; that was accompanied by severe cytopenia, thrombopenia, erythropenia, and anemia. At the 30th day after injury, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets still remained very low in surviving RI and CI mice. In contrast, their RBC, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were similar to basal levels. Comparing CI and RI mice, only RI induced splenomegaly. Both RI and CI resulted in bone marrow cell depletion. It was observed that only the RI mice treated with pegylated G-CSF after RI resulted in 100% survival over the 30-day period, and pegylated G-CSF mitigated RI-induced body-weight loss and depletion of WBC and platelets. Peg-G-CSF treatment sustained RBC balance, hemoglobin levels, and hematocrits and inhibited splenomegaly after RI. The results suggest that pegylated G-CSF effectively sustained animal survival by mitigating radiation-induced cytopenia, thrombopenia, erythropenia, and anemia.

  17. Ghrelin Therapy Improves Survival after Whole-Body Ionizing Irradiation or Combined with Burn or Wound: Amelioration of Leukocytopenia, Thrombocytopenia, Splenomegaly, and Bone Marrow Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Juliann G.; Zhai, Min; Liao, Pei-Jyun; Elliott, Thomas B.; Gorbunov, Nikolai V.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation alone (RI) or combined with traumatic tissue injury (CI) is a crucial life-threatening factor in nuclear and radiological events. In our laboratory, mice exposed to 60Co-γ-photon radiation (9.5 Gy, 0.4 Gy/min, bilateral) followed by 15% total-body-surface-area skin wounds (R-W CI) or burns (R-B CI) experienced an increment of ≥18% higher mortality over a 30-day observation period compared to RI alone. CI was accompanied by severe leukocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, erythropenia, and anemia. At the 30th day after injury, numbers of WBC and platelets still remained very low in surviving RI and CI mice. In contrast, their RBC, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were recovered towards preirradiation levels. Only RI induced splenomegaly. RI and CI resulted in bone-marrow cell depletion. In R-W CI mice, ghrelin (a hunger-stimulating peptide) therapy increased survival, mitigated body-weight loss, accelerated wound healing, and increased hematocrit. In R-B CI mice, ghrelin therapy increased survival and numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets and ameliorated bone-marrow cell depletion. In RI mice, this treatment increased survival, hemoglobin, and hematocrit and inhibited splenomegaly. Our novel results are the first to suggest that ghrelin therapy effectively improved survival by mitigating CI-induced leukocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, and bone-marrow injury or the RI-induced decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit. PMID:25374650

  18. Tendency toward Weight Loss among Iranian Adolescent Girls: Study on Perceived Weight, Ideal Body Mass Index and Attitude toward Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Farid

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Adolescents’ perception of their weight is a strong factor in shaping dietary habits and weight control and management. Among non-overweight and overweight adolescents, both overestimation and underestimation of weight status are associated with harmful effects. This study aimed to examine the relationship between perceived weight and attitude toward eating disorders among adolescent girls living in Karaj, Iran. Materials and Methods Involving a two-stage random sampling, this cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 537 high school girls 14-18 years of age living in Karaj. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 was employed to screen for attitude toward eating disorders. Also, anthropometric measurements (weight and height, perceived and the ideal weights of the participants were assessed.  Results The average age of girls participating in the study was 16.12±1.20. According to the results, 70% of girls had normal body mass index. It was found that the ideal weight of 55% of the girls in the normal body mass index group fell under the lower than normal boundary. Moreover, the prevalence of eating disorders was estimated to be 23.6%. The attitude toward eating disorder was significantly correlated with body mass index of participants and their self-concept (P

  19. Short communication: timeline of radiation-induced kidney function loss after stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy of renal cell carcinoma as evaluated by serial 99mTc-DMSA SPECT/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) has been proposed as a definitive treatment for patients with inoperable primary renal cell carcinoma. However, there is little documentation detailing the radiobiological effects of hypofractionated radiation on healthy renal tissue. In this study we describe a methodology for assessment of regional change in renal function in response to single fraction SABR of 26 Gy. In a patient with a solitary kidney, detailed follow-up of kidney function post-treatment was determined through 3-dimensional SPECT/CT imaging and 51Cr-EDTA measurements. Based on measurements of glomerular filtration rate, renal function declined rapidly by 34% at 3 months, plateaued at 43% loss at 12 months, with minimal further decrease to 49% of baseline by 18 months. The pattern of renal functional change in 99mTc-DMSA uptake on SPECT/CT imaging correlates with dose delivered. This study demonstrates a dose effect relationship of SABR with loss of kidney function

  20. Effects of diet type and supplementation of glucosamine, chondroitin, and MSM on body composition, functional status, and markers of health in women with knee osteoarthritis initiating a resistance-based exercise and weight loss program

    OpenAIRE

    Dugan Kristin; Cooke Matt; Li Rui; Iosia Mike; Nassar Erica; Kerksick Chad M; Campbell Bill; Greenwood Lori; Ferreira Maria; Rasmussen Christopher; Wilborn Colin; Magrans-Courtney Teresa; Willoughby Darryn; Soliah LuAnn; Kreider Richard B

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether sedentary obese women with knee OA initiating an exercise and weight loss program may experience more beneficial changes in body composition, functional capacity, and/or markers of health following a higher protein diet compared to a higher carbohydrate diet with or without GCM supplementation. Methods Thirty sedentary women (54 ± 9 yrs, 163 ± 6 cm, 88.6 ± 13 kg, 46.1 ± 3% fat, 33.3 ± 5 kg/m2) with clinically diagnosed kne...

  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Different Macronutrient Profiles on Weight, Body Composition and Metabolic Parameters in Obese Adolescents Seeking Weight Loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Truby

    Full Text Available Adolescent obesity is difficult to treat and the optimal dietary pattern, particularly in relation to macronutrient composition, remains controversial. This study tested the effect of two structured diets with differing macronutrient composition versus control, on weight, body composition and metabolic parameters in obese adolescents.A randomized controlled trial conducted in a children's hospital.Eighty seven obese youth (means: age 13.6 years, BMI z-score 2.2, waist: height ratio 0.65, 69% female completed a psychological preparedness program and were then randomized to a short term 'structured modified carbohydrate' (SMC, 35% carbohydrate; 30% protein; 35% fat, n = 37 or a 'structured low fat' (SLF, 55% carbohydrate; 20% protein; 25% fat, n = 36 or a wait listed control group (n = 14. Anthropometric, body composition and biochemical parameters were measured at randomization and after 12 weeks, and analyzed under the intention to treat principle using analysis of variance models.After 12 weeks, data was collected from 79 (91% participants. BMI z-scores were significantly lower in both intervention groups compared to control after adjusting for baseline values, SLF vs. control, mean difference = -0.13 (95%CI = -0.18, -0.07, P<0.001; SMC vs. control, -0.14 (-0.19, -0.09, P<0.001, but there was no difference between the two intervention diet groups: SLF vs. SMC, 0.00 (-0.05, 0.04, P = 0.83.Both dietary patterns resulted in similar changes in weight, body composition and metabolic improvements compared to control. The use of a structured eating system which allows flexibility but limited choices can assist in weight change and the rigid application of a low fat eating pattern is not exclusive in its efficacy.International Clinical Trials Registry ISRCTN49438757.

  2. 环境温度和体内储备物共同影响煤山雀夜间体重的下降%Nocturnal body ass loss in coal tits Periparus ater:the combined effects of ambient temperature and body reserves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vicente POLO; Luis M·Crrascal

    2008-01-01

    环境温度和体内储备物水平被认为是鸟类在静止状态下能量利用的重要调节因子(夜间体重降低).然而,以往的研究没有把环境温度和体内储备物对夜间能量维持加以明确的区分.为了研究环境温度是否是为煤山雀(Periparus ater)夜间体重调节的直接因子,在自由取食条件下,实验室控制日-日和日-夜环境温度.温度变化模拟西班牙中部地中海山区秋季日-夜温度的变化.夜间体重取决于黄昏时的体重以及前一天体重的增加值.当前一日白天煤山雀体重增加最大时,记录夜间体重最大降低的比率.然而,环境温度的不可预见性没有影响煤山雀夜间体重降低,可以解释煤山雀内在的生理能量平衡.这些结果提示,当一些环境因子如温度变得不可预见时,鸟类在狭小范围内保持体内储备物%The environmental temperature and the l evel of body reserves have been described as important regulating factors of the amount of energy used at resting (I.e. Nocturnal body mass loss). However, because these variables are associ ated in natural conditions, previous studies have not made a clear distinction between the separate effect of ambient temperature and body reserves on nightly energy management. To investigate whether ambient temperature acts as a proximate factor on nocturnal body mass regulation in captive coal tits Periparus ater, the day-to-day and day-to-night changes in environmental temperatures were experimentally manipulated, under unrestricted food availability. The experiment was conducted within the normal autumn range of temperature variation in a mountain area of continental Mediterranean climate in Central Spain. Nocturnal body mass loss depended on the level of body mass at dusk and daily body-mass gain in the previous day. The largest rates of body mass loss at night were recorded when birds ended the previous day-time period with the highest levels of body reserves obtained

  3. Protein-pacing caloric-restriction enhances body composition similarly in obese men and women during weight loss and sustains efficacy during long-term weight maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arciero, Paul J; Edmonds, Rohan; He, Feng;

    2016-01-01

    TBF, ABF, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and biomarkers between obese men and women during WL (weeks 0-12); and (2) mP-CR compared to a HH diet during WM (weeks 13-64). During WL, men (n = 21) and women (n = 19) were assessed for TBF, ABF, VAT, RMR, and biomarkers at weeks 0 (pre) and 12 (post). Men......Short-Term protein-pacing (P; ~6 meals/day, >30% protein/day) and caloric restriction (CR, ~25% energy deficit) improves total (TBF), abdominal (ABF) and visceral (VAT) fat loss, energy expenditure, and biomarkers compared to heart healthy (HH) recommendations (3 meals/day, 15% protein/day) in...... obese adults. Less is known whether obese men and women respond similarly to P-CR during weight loss (WL) and whether a modified P-CR (mP-CR) is more efficacious than a HH diet during long-term (52 week) weight maintenance (WM). The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of: (1) P-CR on...

  4. Beam Loss in Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M A

    2016-01-01

    Beam loss is a critical issue in high-intensity accelerators, and much effort is expended during both the design and operation phases to minimize the loss and to keep it to manageable levels. As new accelerators become ever more powerful, beam loss becomes even more critical. Linacs for H- ion beams, such as the one at the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source, have many more loss mechanisms compared to H+ (proton) linacs, such as the one being designed for the European Spallation Neutron Source. Interesting H- beam loss mechanisms include residual gas stripping, H+ capture and acceleration, field stripping, black-body radiation and the recently discovered intra-beam stripping mechanism. Beam halo formation, and ion source or RF turn on/off transients, are examples of beam loss mechanisms that are common for both H+ and H- accelerators. Machine protection systems play an important role in limiting the beam loss.

  5. Inferring relationships between Phosphorus utilization, feed per gain, and bodyweight gain in an F2 cross of Japanese quail using recursive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, P; Piepho, H-P; Rodehutscord, M; Bennewitz, J

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorus utilization (PU) has received considerable attention in poultry nutrition. However, reliable estimates of genetic parameters for PU and related traits have largely not been reported until now; however, these are needed to assess whether selection for an improved PU would result in selection response. A large Japanese quail F2 cross was generated and 888 F2 individuals were phenotyped for PU, bodyweight gain (BWG), and feed per gain (F:G). Because it can reasonably be assumed that the interrelationships between these traits are complex, structural equation models were used. The structural coefficient λij describes the rate of change of trait I with respect to trait j for a model with a recursive effect of trait j on trait i Three recursive structural coefficients (λF:G,PU,λBWG,PU,λBWG,F:G) were selected a priori based on biological knowledge. The model was fitted using ASReml software. Standard errors of estimated variance components and genetic parameters were approximated using the delta method. The heritability of PU, F:G, and BWG were 0.136, 0.118, and 0.092. The structural coefficient[Formula: see text]indicates that an increase in PU leads to reduced and thus improved F:G. The estimate[Formula: see text]indicates that improved F:G leads to an increase in BWG. The overall effect of PU on BWG was[Formula: see text]i.e. an increase in PU of 1% leads to an increase of BWG of 0.374 g in the data collection period, which spanned five days. The phenotypic and genetic correlations were negative between PU and F:G as well as between BWG and F:G and were positive between PU and BWG. These correlations are driven by direct genetic effects (pleiotropic genes or genes being in linkage disequilibrium) as well as by indirect genetic effects (genes affecting trait j affected indirectly trait i). The application of structural equation models contributed to our understanding of the complex biological relationship between PU, F:G, and BWG in quails. PU shows a

  6. Maternal low-protein diet causes body weight loss in male, neonate Sprague-Dawley rats involving UCP-1-mediated thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycombe, Kate J; Vomhof-DeKrey, Emilie E; Roemmich, James N; Rhen, Turk; Ghribi, Othman

    2015-07-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in regulating body weight (BW) by modifying thermogenesis. Maternal low protein (LP) diets reduce offspring birth weight. Increased BAT thermogenesis in utero may be one mechanism for the lower BW. However, whether maternal LP nutrition alters BAT thermogenesis and BW of offspring in utero is not yet known. We fed obese-prone Sprague-Dawley dams 8% LP or 20% normal protein (NP) diets for 3 weeks prior to breeding and through pregnancy. BW and gene expression of interscapular BAT (iBAT) thermogenic markers were measured in male fetal (gestation day 18) and neonatal (day 0 or 1) offspring. BW of neonatal LP males was lower than NP males but no difference was observed in females. Gene and protein expression of UCP-1 and transcription factors PRDM16 and PPARα in iBAT were 2- to 6-fold greater in LP than in NP male neonatal offspring. FNDC5, a precursor of irisin and activator of thermogenesis, was expressed 2-fold greater in neonatal LP iBAT than NP males. However, fetal iBAT UCP-1, PRDM16, PPARα and irisin mRNA did not differ between LP and NP groups. Maternal LP diet had no effects on placental irisin and UCP-2 expression. These results suggest that prenatal protein restriction increases the risk for low BW through mechanisms affecting full-term offspring iBAT thermogenesis but not greatly altering fetal iBAT or placental thermogenesis. PMID:25858881

  7. A robot hand testbed designed for enhancing embodiment and functional neurorehabilitation of body schema in subjects with upper limb impairment or loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Randall B; Chang, Eric; Tanner, Justin; Helms Tillery, Stephen I; Santos, Veronica J

    2015-01-01

    Many upper limb amputees experience an incessant, post-amputation "phantom limb pain" and report that their missing limbs feel paralyzed in an uncomfortable posture. One hypothesis is that efferent commands no longer generate expected afferent signals, such as proprioceptive feedback from changes in limb configuration, and that the mismatch of motor commands and visual feedback is interpreted as pain. Non-invasive therapeutic techniques for treating phantom limb pain, such as mirror visual feedback (MVF), rely on visualizations of postural changes. Advances in neural interfaces for artificial sensory feedback now make it possible to combine MVF with a high-tech "rubber hand" illusion, in which subjects develop a sense of embodiment with a fake hand when subjected to congruent visual and somatosensory feedback. We discuss clinical benefits that could arise from the confluence of known concepts such as MVF and the rubber hand illusion, and new technologies such as neural interfaces for sensory feedback and highly sensorized robot hand testbeds, such as the "BairClaw" presented here. Our multi-articulating, anthropomorphic robot testbed can be used to study proprioceptive and tactile sensory stimuli during physical finger-object interactions. Conceived for artificial grasp, manipulation, and haptic exploration, the BairClaw could also be used for future studies on the neurorehabilitation of somatosensory disorders due to upper limb impairment or loss. A remote actuation system enables the modular control of tendon-driven hands. The artificial proprioception system enables direct measurement of joint angles and tendon tensions while temperature, vibration, and skin deformation are provided by a multimodal tactile sensor. The provision of multimodal sensory feedback that is spatiotemporally consistent with commanded actions could lead to benefits such as reduced phantom limb pain, and increased prosthesis use due to improved functionality and reduced cognitive burden

  8. A robot hand testbed designed for enhancing embodiment and functional neurorehabilitation of body schema in subjects with upper limb impairment or loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall B. Hellman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many upper limb amputees experience an incessant, post-amputation phantom limb pain and report that their missing limbs feel paralyzed in an uncomfortable posture. One hypothesis is that efferent commands no longer generate expected afferent signals, such as proprioceptive feedback from changes in limb configuration, and that the mismatch of motor commands and visual feedback is interpreted as pain. Non-invasive therapeutic techniques for treating phantom limb pain, such as mirror visual feedback (MVF, rely on visualizations of postural changes. Advances in neural interfaces for artificial sensory feedback now make it possible to combine MVF with a high-tech rubber hand illusion, in which subjects develop a sense of embodiment with a fake hand when subjected to congruent visual and somatosensory feedback. We discuss clinical benefits that could arise from the confluence of known concepts such as MVF and the rubber hand illusion, and new technologies such as neural interfaces for sensory feedback and highly sensorized robot hand testbeds, such as the BairClaw presented here. Our multi-articulating, anthropomorphic robot testbed can be used to study proprioceptive and tactile sensory stimuli during physical finger-object interactions. Conceived for artificial grasp, manipulation, and haptic exploration, the BairClaw could also be used for future studies on the neurorehabilitation of somatosensory disorders due to upper limb impairment or loss. A remote actuation system enables the modular control of tendon-driven hands. The artificial proprioception system enables direct measurement of joint angles and tendon tensions while temperature, vibration, and skin deformation are provided by a multimodal tactile sensor. The provision of multimodal sensory feedback that is spatiotemporally consistent with commanded actions could lead to benefits such as reduced phantom limb pain, and increased prosthesis use due to improved functionality and reduced

  9. Effects of diet type and supplementation of glucosamine, chondroitin, and MSM on body composition, functional status, and markers of health in women with knee osteoarthritis initiating a resistance-based exercise and weight loss program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugan Kristin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether sedentary obese women with knee OA initiating an exercise and weight loss program may experience more beneficial changes in body composition, functional capacity, and/or markers of health following a higher protein diet compared to a higher carbohydrate diet with or without GCM supplementation. Methods Thirty sedentary women (54 ± 9 yrs, 163 ± 6 cm, 88.6 ± 13 kg, 46.1 ± 3% fat, 33.3 ± 5 kg/m2 with clinically diagnosed knee OA participated in a 14-week exercise and weight loss program. Participants followed an isoenergenic low fat higher carbohydrate (HC or higher protein (HP diet while participating in a supervised 30-minute circuit resistance-training program three times per week for 14-weeks. In a randomized and double blind manner, participants ingested supplements containing 1,500 mg/d of glucosamine (as d-glucosamine HCL, 1,200 mg/d of chondroitin sulfate (from chondroitin sulfate sodium, and 900 mg/d of methylsulfonylmethane or a placebo. At 0, 10, and 14-weeks, participants completed a battery of assessments. Data were analyzed by MANOVA with repeated measures. Results Participants in both groups experienced significant reductions in body mass (-2.4 ± 3%, fat mass (-6.0 ± 6%, and body fat (-3.5 ± 4% with no significant changes in fat free mass or resting energy expenditure. Perception of knee pain (-49 ± 39% and knee stiffness (-42 ± 37% was decreased while maximal strength (12%, muscular endurance (20%, balance indices (7% to 20%, lipid levels (-8% to -12%, homeostasis model assessment for estimating insulin resistance (-17%, leptin (-30%, and measures of physical functioning (59%, vitality (120%, and social function (66% were improved in both groups with no differences among groups. Functional aerobic capacity was increased to a greater degree for those in the HP and GCM groups while there were some trends suggesting that supplementation affected

  10. Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & ... labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Ask ...

  11. Creep and water loss characteristics in hardening bodies of water-rich filling materials%富水充填材料蠕变及其硬化体内水分损失特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟红; 周茜; 赵向辉

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the characteristics of deformation and water loss of hardened paste of water-rich filling material under aging effect, the creep property of water-rich filling materials with a certain mass ratio of water to solid was studied in different stress conditions. The deformation characteristics, water loss and its relationship with external load on the filling body in the process of creep were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy and differential thermal analysis- thermal gravimetry ( DTA- TG ) . It is found that the instability and failure critical stress of water-rich filling materials with a 2. 0 water-to-solid mass ratio is 1. 96 MPa, which is 90% of their compressive strength. Creep cannot affect the content of combined water in water-rich filling materials. But un-bound water in water-rich filling materials can run off when instability and failure happen. The relative loss value of unbound water content is of linear positive correlation with the external load level. The loss of unbound water can induce more interspaces in water-rich filling materials. These cracks are quickly pressed and the hardening body produces large deformation under the external load, which leads to the local instability of the filling body and thus affects the overall stability of the goaf.%为探讨富水充填材料在时效作用下的变形及其硬化体内水分损失特征,本文研究一定水固质量比的富水充填材料在不同应力水平下的蠕变性能,并通过扫描电镜观察、差热-热重分析等实验探讨充填体在蠕变过程前后的形变特征、水分损失及其与外界荷载的关系.结果表明:水固质量比为2.0的富水充填材料失稳破坏的临界应力为1.96 MPa,为其单轴抗压强度的90%;蠕变不会对富水充填材料中结合水含量造成影响;富水充填材料失稳破坏时内部结构发生非结合水的流失,非结合水含量损失相对值与所受荷载水

  12. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to changes in body weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in adult Danes 1-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Flint, Anne; L. Heitmann, Berit

    2006-01-01

    born in 1922, 1932, 1942, or 1952. A baseline health examination and a dietary history interview were carried out in 1987 and 1988; a follow-up health examination was performed in 1993 and 1994. Results: Positive associations between GI and changes in bodyweight (¿BW), percentage body fat (%BF), and......ABSTRACT Background: A diet with a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) may promote overconsumption of energy and increase the risk of weight gain.Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the relation between GI and GL of habitual diets and subsequent 6-y changes in body...... waist circumference (¿WC) were observed in women after adjustment for covariates.Significant GI X sex X physical activity interactions for ABSTRACTBackground: A diet with a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemicload (GL) may promote overconsumption of energy and increase therisk of weight gain...

  13. Central sensibility of human cases with different body mass during oral glucose tolerance test using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Because of the limitation of technique, there are few researches on regulating function of central hypothalamus by metabolism, especially the researches on real-time function.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the response of hypothalamus to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in different body-weighted subjects by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) so as to investigate the relationship between the sensitivity of hypothalamus in glycoregulation and disturbance of carbohydrate metabolism.DESIGN: Paired design.SETTING: Department of Radiology and Beijing Geriatrics Institute, Beijing Hospital, National Public Health Bureau.PARTICIPANTS: A total of twenty healthy volunteers were selected from Beijing Geriatrics Institute,National Public Health Bureau, including 10 subjects with obesity (5 males and 5 females; body mass >28.0 kg/m2) and 10 subjects with normal body mass (5 males and 5 females; body mass from 18.5 to 23.9 kg/m2). All subjects gave written informed consent before participating in the study.METHODS: fMRI study was performed on GE 1.5 T Signa Twinspeed Infinity with Excite. Each volunteer was ingested of glucose during the fMRI scan. T2* images were acquired using a single-shot gradient echo (EPI) technique. The parameters of EPI included: TR 3 000 ms, TE 40 ms, Flip angle 90 ° , field of view (FOV) 24 cm × 24 cm, thickness 5 mm, gap 0 mm, matrix 64 × 64, number of excitation 1. All 10 subjects with normal body mass underwent a repeat fMRI scan after consuming an equivalent amount of water without glucose on a separate day. The procedure for the fMRI scan with water intake was the same as for glucose ingestion. fMRI data were processed with Intensity Averaging Method.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The central response of hypothalamus and feedback orientation during OGTT in different body-weighted subjects.RESULTS: An acute transient decrease of fMRI intensity in posterior inferior and anterior inferior of hypothalamus was observed in all

  14. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard at first. Then ... and anywhere on your body may fall out. Hair loss is called alopecia. When will my hair start ...

  15. Hidden loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieffer-Kristensen, Rikke; Johansen, Karen Lise Gaardsvig

    2013-01-01

    finding indicates that the children experienced numerous losses, many of which were often suppressed or neglected by the children to protect the ill parents. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated that the children seemed to make a special effort to hide their feelings of loss and grief in order to protect...

  16. Memory loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    A person with memory loss needs a lot of support. It helps to show the person familiar objects, music, or and photos or play familiar music. Write down when the person should take any medicine or do other ...

  17. Dairy Intake Enhances Body Weight and Composition Changes during Energy Restriction in 18–50-Year-Old Adults—A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonehouse, Welma; Wycherley, Thomas; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie; Taylor, Pennie; Brinkworth, Grant; Riley, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed to investigate the effects of dairy food or supplements during energy restriction on body weight and composition in 18–50-year-old. Methods: RCTs ≥ 4 weeks comparing the effect of dairy consumption (whole food or supplements) with control diets lower in dairy during energy restriction on body weight, fat and lean mass were identified by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, Pubmed, Cochrane Central and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) until March 2016. Reports were identified and critically appraised in duplicate. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Chi2- and I2-statistics indicated heterogeneity. Dose effect was assessed using meta-regression analysis. GRADE guidelines were used to rate the quality (QR) of the evidence considering risk of bias, inconsistency, indirectness, imprecision, publication bias and effect estimates. Results: 27 RCTs were reviewed. Participants consumed between 2 and 4 standard servings/day of dairy food or 20–84 g/day of whey protein compared to low dairy control diets, over a median of 16 weeks. A greater reduction in body weight (−1.16 kg [−1.66, −0.66 kg], p < 0.001, I2 = 11%, QR = high, n = 644) and body fat mass (−1.49 kg [−2.06, −0.92 kg], p < 0.001, I2 = 21%, n = 521, QR = high) were found in studies largely including women (90% women). These effects were absent in studies that imposed resistance training (QR = low-moderate). Dairy intake resulted in smaller loss of lean mass (all trials pooled: 0.36 kg [0.01, 0.71 kg], p = 0.04, I2 = 64%, n = 651, QR = moderate). No between study dose-response effects were seen. Conclusions: Increased dairy intake as part of energy restricted diets resulted in greater loss in bodyweight and fat mass while attenuating lean mass loss in 18–50-year-old adults. Further research in males is needed to investigate sex effects. PMID:27376321

  18. Dairy Intake Enhances Body Weight and Composition Changes during Energy Restriction in 18–50-Year-Old Adults—A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welma Stonehouse

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs was performed to investigate the effects of dairy food or supplements during energy restriction on body weight and composition in 18–50-year-old. Methods: RCTs ≥ 4 weeks comparing the effect of dairy consumption (whole food or supplements with control diets lower in dairy during energy restriction on body weight, fat and lean mass were identified by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, Pubmed, Cochrane Central and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP until March 2016. Reports were identified and critically appraised in duplicate. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Chi2- and I2-statistics indicated heterogeneity. Dose effect was assessed using meta-regression analysis. GRADE guidelines were used to rate the quality (QR of the evidence considering risk of bias, inconsistency, indirectness, imprecision, publication bias and effect estimates. Results: 27 RCTs were reviewed. Participants consumed between 2 and 4 standard servings/day of dairy food or 20–84 g/day of whey protein compared to low dairy control diets, over a median of 16 weeks. A greater reduction in body weight (−1.16 kg [−1.66, −0.66 kg], p < 0.001, I2 = 11%, QR = high, n = 644 and body fat mass (−1.49 kg [−2.06, −0.92 kg], p < 0.001, I2 = 21%, n = 521, QR = high were found in studies largely including women (90% women. These effects were absent in studies that imposed resistance training (QR = low-moderate. Dairy intake resulted in smaller loss of lean mass (all trials pooled: 0.36 kg [0.01, 0.71 kg], p = 0.04, I2 = 64%, n = 651, QR = moderate. No between study dose-response effects were seen. Conclusions: Increased dairy intake as part of energy restricted diets resulted in greater loss in bodyweight and fat mass while attenuating lean mass loss in 18–50-year-old adults. Further research in males is needed to investigate sex effects.

  19. Muscle Loss in Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić, Marina; Šoić Vranić, Tamara; Arbanas, Juraj; Cvijanović, Olga; Bajek, Snježana

    2010-01-01

    Aging is associated with loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength and endurance. The aim of this study was to determinate age related changes in human muscles with different function and location in the body (vastus lateralis muscle and intercostal internus muscle). Our results suggest that age related muscle atrophy affect both human skeletal muscles. Also, the results showed the increase in percentage of muscle fibers with high oxidative activity during aging.

  20. Potential for Loss of Breeding Habitat for Imperiled Mountain Yellow-legged Frog ( Rana muscosa) in High Sierra Nevada Mountain Water Bodies due to Reduced Snowpack: Interaction of Climate Change and an Introduced Predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacan, I.; Matthews, K. R.

    2005-12-01

    Year to year variation in snowpack (20-200% average) and summer rain create large fluctuations in the volume of water in ponds and small lakes of the higher elevation (> 3000 m) Sierra Nevada. These water bodies are critical habitat for the imperiled mountain yellow-legged frog, Rana muscosa, which has decreased in abundance by 90% during the past century, due in part to the loss of suitable habitat and introduction of a fish predator (trout, Oncorhynchus spp.). Climate change is predicted to reduce the amount of snowpack, potentially impacting amphibian habitats throughout the Sierra Nevada by further reducing the lake and pond water levels and resulting in drying of small lakes during the summer. Mountain yellow-legged frogs are closely tied to water during all life stages, and are unique in having a three- to four-year tadpole phase. Thus, tadpole survival and future recruitment of adult frogs requires adequate water in lakes and ponds throughout the year, but larger lakes are populated with fish that prey on frogs and tadpoles. Thus, most successful frog breeding occurs in warm, shallow, fishless ponds that undergo wide fluctuations in volume. These water bodies would be most susceptible to the potential climate change effects of reduced snowpack, possibly resulting in lower tadpole survival. This study explores the link between the changes in water availability -- including complete pond drying -- and the abundance and recruitment of mountain yellow-legged frog in Dusy Basin, Kings Canyon National Park, California, USA. We propose using the low-snowpack years (1999, 2002, 2004) as comparative case studies to predict future effects of climate change on aquatic habitat availability and amphibian abundance and survival. To quantify the year to year variation and changes in water volume available to amphibians, we initiated GPS lake mapping in 2002 to quantify water volumes, water surface area, and shoreline length. We tracked these changes by repeated mapping of

  1. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 • 3 • 4 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Trichotillomania Dealing With a Health Condition Taking Care of Your Hair Skin, Hair, and Nails Body Image and Self-Esteem Alopecia: Kayla's Story Dealing With Cancer Contact Us ...

  2. Two new Loci for body-weight regulation identified in a joint analysis of genome-wide association studies for early-onset extreme obesity in French and german study groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Scherag

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Meta-analyses of population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS in adults have recently led to the detection of new genetic loci for obesity. Here we aimed to discover additional obesity loci in extremely obese children and adolescents. We also investigated if these results generalize by estimating the effects of these obesity loci in adults and in population-based samples including both children and adults. We jointly analysed two GWAS of 2,258 individuals and followed-up the best, according to lowest p-values, 44 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP from 21 genomic regions in 3,141 individuals. After this DISCOVERY step, we explored if the findings derived from the extremely obese children and adolescents (10 SNPs from 5 genomic regions generalized to (i the population level and (ii to adults by genotyping another 31,182 individuals (GENERALIZATION step. Apart from previously identified FTO, MC4R, and TMEM18, we detected two new loci for obesity: one in SDCCAG8 (serologically defined colon cancer antigen 8 gene; p = 1.85x10(-8 in the DISCOVERY step and one between TNKS (tankyrase, TRF1-interacting ankyrin-related ADP-ribose polymerase gene and MSRA (methionine sulfoxide reductase A gene; p = 4.84x10(-7, the latter finding being limited to children and adolescents as demonstrated in the GENERALIZATION step. The odds ratios for early-onset obesity were estimated at approximately 1.10 per risk allele for both loci. Interestingly, the TNKS/MSRA locus has recently been found to be associated with adult waist circumference. In summary, we have completed a meta-analysis of two GWAS which both focus on extremely obese children and adolescents and replicated our findings in a large followed-up data set. We observed that genetic variants in or near FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, SDCCAG8, and TNKS/MSRA were robustly associated with early-onset obesity. We conclude that the currently known major common variants related to obesity overlap to a substantial degree between children and adults.

  3. Pseudotumor of Ciliary Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Varghese

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital pseudotumor is a benign disease involving the orbital structures. Pseudotumor of the ciliary body is rare. We present a case of a 27-year-old male who presented with gradual visual loss, pain, and redness in his left eye. On examination he was found to have a yellowish white mass at the periphery of anterior chamber in his left eye and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM revealed a ciliary body mass in the same eye. He was treated with systemic steroids, which was tapered over a period of 8 weeks. His symptoms improved and the ciliary body mass disappeared with no recurrence over the next 6 months. UBM is an important diagnostic tool for diagnosing ciliary body mass. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment with systemic steroids may help resolve pseudotumor of the ciliary body.

  4. Body Shape Changes (Lipodystrophy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CAN LIPO BE TREATED? If you have serious fat loss and are taking stavudine (d4T), retrovir (AZT) or efavirenz (Sustiva,) talk to your doctor about changing medications.However, it can take a long time to reverse changes in body shape. Implants or injections are the only way to deal with sunken ...

  5. Aging changes in body shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003998.htm Aging changes in body shape To use the sharing ... and both sexes. Height loss is related to aging changes in the bones, muscles, and joints. People ...

  6. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  7. Magnetic human body communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jiwoong; Mercier, Patrick P

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a new human body communication (HBC) technique that employs magnetic resonance for data transfer in wireless body-area networks (BANs). Unlike electric field HBC (eHBC) links, which do not necessarily travel well through many biological tissues, the proposed magnetic HBC (mHBC) link easily travels through tissue, offering significantly reduced path loss and, as a result, reduced transceiver power consumption. In this paper the proposed mHBC concept is validated via finite element method simulations and measurements. It is demonstrated that path loss across the body under various postures varies from 10-20 dB, which is significantly lower than alternative BAN techniques. PMID:26736639

  8. EFFECTS OF WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION TRAINING ON BONE-FREE LEAN BODY MASS AND MUSCLE STRENGTH IN YOUNG ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Osawa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Resistance training with whole-body vibration (WBV is becoming increasingly popular as an alternative to conventional resistance training or as supplementary training. Despite its growing popularity, the specific effects of WBV training on muscle morphology, strength, and endurance are not well understood, particularly in young adults. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of WBV training on bone-free lean body mass (BFLBM, and maximal muscle strength and endurance in healthy, untrained, young individuals. Eighteen healthy men and women (21-39 years were randomly assigned to either a body-weight exercise with WBV (VT group or a control exercise group without WBV (CON. Participants performed eight exercises per 40- min session on a vibration platform (VT group, frequency = 30-40 Hz; amplitude = 2 mm twice weekly for 12 weeks. Anthropometry, total and regional BFLBM (trunks, legs, and arms measured by dual- energy X-ray absorptiometry, and muscle strength and endurance measured by maximal isometric lumbar extension strength, maximal isokinetic knee extension and flexion strength, and the number of sit- ups performed were recorded and compared. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA revealed no significant changes between the groups in any of the measured variables. We conclude that 12 weeks of body weight vibration exercise compared to body weight exercise alone does not provide meaningful changes to BFLBM or muscle performance in healthy young adults.

  9. Body Odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Body Odor Posted under Health Guides . Updated 29 October 2014. + ... guy has to deal with. What causes body odor? During puberty, your sweat glands become much more ...

  10. Body Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Diaper-Changing Steps for Childcare Settings Body Hygiene Dental Hygiene Water Fluoridation Facial Cleanliness Fish Pedicures and ... spread of hygiene-related diseases . Topics for Body Hygiene Facial Cleanliness Dental Hygiene Water Fluoridation Fish Pedicures and Fish Spas ...

  11. Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help your child have a healthy body image Cosmetic surgery Breast surgery Botox Liposuction Varicose or spider veins Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) Eating disorders Anorexia nervosa Binge eating ... nervosa Cosmetics and your health Depression during and after pregnancy ...

  12. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System ...

  13. Body embellishment

    OpenAIRE

    Zellweger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The exhibition Body Embellishment explores the most innovative artistic expression in the 21st-century international arenas of body extension, augmentation, and modification, focusing on jewelry, tattoos, nail arts, and fashion. The areas of focus are jewelry, tattoos, nail arts, and fashion. Avant-garde jewelry consciously engages the body by intersecting and expanding the planes of the human form. Tattoos are at once on and in the body. Nail art, from manicures to pedicures, has humble ...

  14. Body Clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2000-01-01

    Body clocks” are biological methods of controling body activities.Every living thing has one. In humans, a body clock controls normal periods of sleeping and waking. It controls the time swhen you are most likely to feel pain.Eating, sleeping and exercising at about the same time each day will help keep body activities normal. But changes in your life, a new job, for example, destroy the balance and thus cause health problems.

  15. Coupled simulation of CFD, radiation and moisture transport for sensible and latent heat loss from human body. Study of computational thermal manikin; Jinko hifu zennetsu honetsu tokusei ni kansuru CFD hosha shikke yuso rensei kaiseki. Suchi thermal manikin no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, J.; Kato, S.; Murakami, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science

    1998-01-01

    Described herein is coupled simulation of CFD, radiation and moisture transport, as part of the program for development of computational thermal manikin, to investigate total heat radiation characteristics from a human body. The transport phenomena are investigated for a single human body model, approximately 1.65m high, in an indoor space of 15.4m{sup 3} in volume, where the Fanger model and Gagge`s 2 node model are used to simulate heat radiation from a model. The results include heat balances on the walls, and temperature distributions, heat transport characteristics by convection and radiation, latent heat transport characteristics and wet fraction distributions over the manikin surfaces under given conditions of wind velocity, temperature and temperature distribution. It is found that both models give proper estimates for average characteristics of total heat radiation from a human body, and that the Gagge model gives slightly better results for local distributions of latent heat transfer over the body surface. 16 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... these products are intended for people at least 18 years of age who: have a body mass ... For More Information "Lose it Overnight!" - FDA YouTube Video Tainted Weight Loss Products Health Fraud Scams - Weight ...

  17. Limited Weight Loss or Simply No Weight Gain following Lifestyle-Only Intervention Tends to Redistribute Body Fat, to Decrease Lipid Concentrations, and to Improve Parameters of Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Valeri Lenin; Molina Zarela; Cichetti Rosanna; Camacho Nolis; Santomauro Mercedes; Paoli Mariela; Fernández Maricelia; Marcano Henry; Lanes Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate whether lifestyle-only intervention in obese children who maintain or lose a modest amount of weight redistributes parameters of body composition and reverses metabolic abnormalities. Study Design. Clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic parameters were assessed in 111 overweight or obese children (CA of 11.3 ± 2.8 years; 63 females and 48 males), during 8 months of lifestyle intervention. Patients maintained or lost weight (1–5%) (group A; n: 72) or gained weight ...

  18. Crack modelling for the assessment of stiffness loss of reinforced concrete structures under mechanical loading - determination of the permeability of the micro-cracked body; Modelisation de la fissuration pour l'evaluation de la perte d'etancheite des structures en beton arme sous chargements mecaniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bongue Boma, M

    2007-12-15

    We propose a model describing the evolution of mechanical and permeability properties of concrete under slow mechanical loading. Calling upon the theory of continua with microstructure, the kinematic of the domain is enriched by a variable characterising size and orientation of the crack field. We call upon configurational forces to deal with crack propagation and we determine the balance equations governing both strain and propagation. The geometry of the microstructure is representative of the porous media: the permeability is obtained from the resolution of Stokes equations in an elementary volume. An example has been treated: we considered simple assumptions (uniform crack field, application of linear fracture mechanics...) and we determined the behaviour of a body under tensile loading. Strain, crack propagation and stiffness loss are completely assessed. Finally the evolution of permeability is plotted: once activated, crack propagation is the main cause of water tightness loss. (author)

  19. Body punk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kevin

    BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along with an...... analysis of the embodied meaning of men‘s bodybuilding....

  20. Body Weight and Body Image

    OpenAIRE

    McFarlane Traci; Olmsted Marion P

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Health Issue Body weight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight and obesity are indeed serious, there are also problems connected to being underweight. Weight prejudice and the dieting industry intensify body image concerns for Canadian women and can have a major negative impact on self-esteem. Key Findings Women have lower BMIs...

  1. Vision Loss, Sudden

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of age-related macular degeneration. Spotlight on Aging: Vision Loss in Older People Most commonly, vision loss ... Some Causes and Features of Sudden Loss of Vision Cause Common Features* Tests Sudden loss of vision ...

  2. Does job loss make you smoke and gain weight?

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This paper estimates the effect of involuntary job loss on smoking behavior and body weight using German Socio-Economic Panel Study data. Baseline nonsmokers are more likely to start smoking due to job loss, while smokers do not intensify their smoking. Job loss increases body weight slightly, but significantly. In particular, single individuals as well as those with lower health or socioeconomic status prior to job loss exhibit high rates of smoking initiation. The applied regression-adjuste...

  3. Período de descanso dos suínos no frigorífico e seu impacto na perda de peso corporal e em características do estômago Resting time of pigs at the processing plant: impact on body weight losses and stomach characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Antonio Dalla Costa

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O manejo pré-abate dos suínos, quando realizado de maneira inadequada, pode proporcionar perdas qualitativas e quantitativas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do período de descanso dos suínos no frigorífico (PDF (3, 5, 7 e 9 horas e da posição do box na carroceria do caminhão (PBO sobre a perda de peso corporal (PPC, o peso do estômago cheio (PEC e vazio (PEV, o peso do conteúdo estomacal (PCE e o escore de lesão na mucosa esofágica-gástrica (ELG. Foram utilizadas 192 fêmeas, com peso vivo médio de 130,0±9,9kg. Para a análise estatística, considerou-se no modelo os efeitos de bloco (BL, relativo à estação do ano e à granja avaliada o PDF, PBO e a interação entre PDF x BL. Não houve efeito significativo do PDF nas variáveis estudadas. Verificou-se efeito significativo da PBO somente sobre a perda de peso corporal dos suínos, sendo que animais transportados na parte da frente perderam mais peso em relação aos transportados nos boxes do meio e de trás. Observou-se que somente 11% dos suínos apresentaram ELG característico de úlcera gástrica e que uma elevada porcentagem de suínos (41,9% apresentou ELG grau 1, caracterizando paraqueratose. Conclui-se que suínos transportados em boxes localizados na parte frontal da carroceria do caminhão apresentam maior perda de peso corporal do que os demais e que a variação de 3 a 9 horas no período de descanso no frigorífico não afeta a perda de peso corporal nem as características do estômago dos animais.Pre-slaughter events might result in qualitative and quantitative losses on pig carcasses in inadequate management conditions. This study was aimed at evaluating the resting time at the processing plant (PDF= 3, 5, 7, and 9 hours and the pen position in the lorry's livestock compartment (PBO on body weight loss (PPC, weight of stomach (full= PEC and empty= PEV, weight of stomach contents (PCE and stomach lesion score (ELG related to gastric ulcer. For

  4. Limited Weight Loss or Simply No Weight Gain following Lifestyle-Only Intervention Tends to Redistribute Body Fat, to Decrease Lipid Concentrations, and to Improve Parameters of Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeri Lenin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate whether lifestyle-only intervention in obese children who maintain or lose a modest amount of weight redistributes parameters of body composition and reverses metabolic abnormalities. Study Design. Clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic parameters were assessed in 111 overweight or obese children (CA of 11.3 ± 2.8 years; 63 females and 48 males, during 8 months of lifestyle intervention. Patients maintained or lost weight (1–5% (group A; n: 72 or gained weight (group B. Results. Group A patients presented with a decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP ( and , resp., BMI (, z-score BMI (, waist circumference (, fat mass (, LDL-C (, Tg/HDL-C ratio (, fasting and postprandial insulin (, and HOMA (, while HDL-C ( and QUICKI increased (. Conversely, group B patients had an increase in BMI (, waist circumference (, SBP (, and in QUICKI (, while fat mass (, fasting insulin (, and HOMA ( decreased. Lean mass, DBP, lipid concentrations, fasting and postprandial glucose, postprandial insulin, and ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (CRP remained stable. Conclusions. Obese children who maintain or lose a modest amount of weight following lifestyle-only intervention tend to redistribute their body fat, decrease blood pressure and lipid levels, and to improve parameters of insulin sensitivity.

  5. Body lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lice - body; Pediculosis corporis; Vagabond disease ... Diaz JH. Lice (pediculosis). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . 8th ...

  6. Bog bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    the bog bodies have been studied using medical and natural scientific methods, and recently many bog bodies have been re-examined using especially modern, medical imaging techniques. Because of the preservation of soft tissue, especially the skin, it has been possible to determine lesions and trauma......In northern Europe during the Iron Age, many corpses were deposited in bogs. The cold, wet and anaerobic environment leads in many cases to the preservation of soft tissues, so that the bodies, when found and excavated several thousand years later, are remarkably intact. Since the 19th century....... Conversely, the preservation of bones is less good, as the mineral component has been leached out by the acidic bog. Together with water-logging of collagenous tissue, this means that if the bog body is simply left to dry out when found, as was the case pre-19th century, the bones may literally warp...

  7. Effect of Load on Peak Power of the Bar, Body and System during the Deadlift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin A. Blatnik, Courtney L. Goodman, Christopher R. Capps, Olumide O. Awelewa, Travis N. Triplett, Travis M. Erickson, Jeffery M. McBride

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to examine how load would affect peak power (PP of the bar, body and system (bar + body during the deadlift. Eight healthy males (age = 22.00 ± 2.38 years; height = 1.80 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 88.97 ± 14.88 kg; deadlift one repetition maximum [1RM] = 203.44 ± 21.59 kg, 1RM/BM = 2.32 ± 0.31 with a minimum of 2 years’ resistance training experience and a deadlift 1RM over 1.5 times their bodyweight participated in the investigation. During the first session, anthropometric data were recorded and a 1RM deadlift was obtained from the participants. During the second session, participants performed two repetitions at intensities of 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90% of their 1RM in a randomized order. Three-dimensional videography with a force plate was used for data collection and analysis. Peak force (PF, peak velocity (PV, an d PP were calculated for the bar, body, and system (bar + body during the deadlift. PP occurred at 50%, 30%, and 70% of 1RM for the bar, body, and system, respectively. The optimal loading for the deadlift exercise may vary depending on the desired stimulus and whether the bar, body, or system variables are of most interest.

  8. Body-mass dependence of age-related deterioration in human muscular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, D E

    1996-04-01

    Maximal anaerobic power of human muscles declines with increasing chronological age and is correlated with body mass. This study investigated whether the rate of deterioration in human muscular function among trained weight lifters is also correlated with body mass. Cross-sectional analysis of performance data of over 1,100 Masters competitors in Olympic-style weight lifting was carried out; eight body-weight classes and six age groups were represented. Two-lift total data (sum of snatch and clean and jerk lifts) were analyzed. Mean deterioration rates in the performance of athletes of widely diverse body masses were compared over the following age ranges: 42-57, 42-62, and 42-67 yr. No statistically significant correlation (P < 0.05) was found between rate of performance decline and body mass. The relationship between body mass and the magnitude of age-related variation of deterioration rate was also studied; no significant correlation was found. Previous studies have demonstrated that performance in Olympic-style weight lifting is correlated with maximal anaerobic muscular power. This leads us to suggest that the age-related deterioration rate of anaerobic power in trained subjects may not be correlated with the body mass of the individual. PMID:8926240

  9. The effect of a dietary supplement (N-oleyl-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine and epigallocatechin gallate on dietary compliance and body fat loss in adults who are overweight: A double-blind, randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangine Gerald T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A dietary supplement containing a blend of 170 mg of N-oleyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (NOPE and 100 mg of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG has been shown to improve compliance to low caloric diets. Considering the cost of dietary ingredients, many manufacturers attempt to determine the lowest efficacious dose. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 8-weeks of supplementation with a daily intake of 120 mg of NOPE and 105 mg of EGCG in conjunction with a low caloric diet and regular, moderate exercise on dietary compliance in healthy, overweight adults. An additional purpose was to examine the effect of this supplement/diet/exercise paradigm on changes in body composition, sensation of appetite, mood and severity of binge eating. Methods Fifty healthy, overweight (BMI > 25 m·kg2 men (15 and women (35 (SUP; n = 25; 32.7 ± 13.75 y; BMI = 33.4 ± 6.2; PLA; n = 25, 34.3 ± 12.7 years; BMI = 33.2 ± 6.8 were recruited for a double-blind, placebo controlled study. Each volunteer was randomly assigned to either the supplement (SUP; n = 25 or placebo group (PLA; n = 25. Based upon a self-reported 3-day dietary recall all volunteers were recommended a 500 kcal or 30% (maximum of 1000 kcal reduction in caloric intake. Volunteers were also encouraged to exercise 30 minutes per day, three times per week. Results Subjects in SUP were significantly more compliant (x2 = 3.86, p = 0.049 in maintaining a low caloric diet at week 4, but this was not able to be maintained through the 8-week study. In addition, a significant difference in mood, feelings of fatigue and confusion were noted between the groups at week 4, but again not maintained by week 8 where only feelings of tension were improved. No differences between groups (p > 0.05 were observed for body mass, body composition, feelings of hunger, and binge eating after eight weeks. Conclusion

  10. Evaluation of a commercially available organic acid product on body weight loss, carcass yield, and meat quality during preslaughter feed withdrawal in broiler chickens: a poultry welfare and economic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menconi, A; Kuttappan, V A; Hernandez-Velasco, X; Urbano, T; Matté, F; Layton, S; Kallapura, G; Latorre, J; Morales, B E; Prado, O; Vicente, J L; Barton, J; Andreatti Filho, R L; Lovato, M; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G

    2014-02-01

    The effect of a commercial organic acid (OA) product on BW loss (BWL) during feed withdrawal and transportation, carcass yield, and meat quality was evaluated in broiler chickens. Two experiments were conducted in Brazil. Commercial houses were paired as control groups receiving regular water and treated groups receiving OA in the water. Treated birds had a reduction in BWL of 37 g in experiment 1 and 32.2 g in experiment 2. In experiment 2, no differences were observed in carcass yield between groups. Estimation of the cost benefit suggested a 1:16 ratio by using the OA. In experiment 3, conducted in Mexico, significant differences on water consumption, BWL, and meat quality characteristics were observed in chickens that were treated with the OA (P poultry industry by reducing BWL and improving meat quality attributes. PMID:24570468

  11. The mitochondrial phylogeny of an ancient lineage of ray-finned fishes (Polypteridae with implications for the evolution of body elongation, pelvic fin loss, and craniofacial morphology in Osteichthyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandley Matthew C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Polypteridae, commonly known as "bichirs", is a lineage that diverged early in the evolutionary history of Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish, but has been the subject of far less evolutionary study than other members of that clade. Uncovering patterns of morphological change within Polypteridae provides an important opportunity to evaluate if the mechanisms underlying morphological evolution are shared among actinoptyerygians, and in fact, perhaps the entire osteichthyan (bony fish and tetrapods tree of life. However, the greatest impediment to elucidating these patterns is the lack of a well-resolved, highly-supported phylogenetic tree of Polypteridae. In fact, the interrelationships of polypterid species have never been subject to molecular phylogenetic analysis. Here, we infer the first molecular phylogeny of bichirs, including all 12 recognized species and multiple subspecies using Bayesian analyses of 16S and cyt-b mtDNA. We use this mitochondrial phylogeny, ancestral state reconstruction, and geometric morphometrics to test whether patterns of morphological evolution, including the evolution of body elongation, pelvic fin reduction, and craniofacial morphology, are shared throughout the osteichthyan tree of life. Results Our molecular phylogeny reveals 1 a basal divergence between Erpetoichthys and Polypterus, 2 polyphyly of P. endlicheri and P. palmas, and thus 3 the current taxonomy of Polypteridae masks its underlying genetic diversity. Ancestral state reconstructions suggest that pelvic fins were lost independently in Erpetoichthys, and unambiguously estimate multiple independent derivations of body elongation and shortening. Our mitochondrial phylogeny suggested species that have lower jaw protrusion and up-righted orbit are closely related to each other, indicating a single transformation of craniofacial morphology. Conclusion The mitochondrial phylogeny of polypterid fish provides a strongly

  12. Signifying Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

     In our everyday lives we strive to stay healthy and happy, while we live as our selves, engage with each other, and discover an infinite world of possibilities. Health arises and diminishes as human beings draw on a vibrant ecology of actions, interactions and coactions. Intricate processes of...... biosemiosis connect signifying bodies with their natural surroundings, cultural activities and subjective experiences. Health stretches all the way from the ecosocial surroundings, through the skin and into the self-organizing processes of every living cell. Signifying Bodies lays out a new approach to health...... and health care. Eschewing all forms of dualism, the authors emphasise the interdependency of how we act, think, feel and function. They advocate a relational turn in health care, in which bodies live and learn from suffering and care. In this view, health is inseparable from both living beings and...

  13. Body Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The high-tech art of digital signal processing (DSP) was pioneered at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the mid-1960s for use in the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. Designed to computer enhance pictures of the Moon, this technology became the basis for the Landsat Earth resources satellites and subsequently has been incorporated into a broad range of Earthbound medical and diagnostic tools. DSP is employed in advanced body imaging techniques including Computer-Aided Tomography, also known as CT and CATScan, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CT images are collected by irradiating a thin slice of the body with a fan-shaped x-ray beam from a number of directions around the body's perimeter. A tomographic (slice-like) picture is reconstructed from these multiple views by a computer. MRI employs a magnetic field and radio waves, rather than x-rays, to create images.

  14. Muscle activation and estimated relative joint force during running with weight support on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente Rona; Hovgaard-Hansen, Line; Cappelen, Katrine Louise

    2016-01-01

    Running on a lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) treadmill allows effects of weight support on leg muscle activation to be assessed systematically, and has the potential to facilitate rehabilitation and prevent overloading. The aim was to study the effect of running with weight support on leg......, while activity of biceps femoris muscle remained unchanged. Unweighting with LBPP reduced estimated joint force significantly although less than proportional to the degree of weight support (ankle). It was concluded that leg muscle activation adapted to the new biomechanical environment, and the effect...... muscle activation and to estimate relative knee and ankle joint forces. Runners performed 6-min running sessions at 2.22 m/s and 3.33 m/s, at 100, 80, 60, 40 and 20% body-weight (BW). Surface EMG, ground reaction force and running characteristics were measured. Relative knee and ankle joint forces were...

  15. Living with vision loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - vision loss; Retinopathy - vision loss; Low vision; Blindness - vision loss ... Low vision is a visual disability. Wearing regular glasses or contacts does not help. People with low vision have ...

  16. Body Rainbow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Phubu did not know how long hehad walked after leaving Baxoi, buthe did know that he was halfwaybetween home and Lhasa. Feelingthe weight of the sack containingPhumo's body on his back, Fhubuhad calmed down from the grief anddesperation. He had just one wish:to carry Phumo to Lhasa. He knewthat Phumo had gone, and her soulwas no longer in this body. But hewas determined to finish the trip, notonly because he had promised so, butalso that he believed that it would beredemption for him.

  17. Sacralising Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2010-01-01

    sacralisation is realised through co-production within a social setting when the object of sacralisation is recognised as such by others. In contemporary Iran, however, the moment of sacralising bodies by the state is also the moment of its own subversion as the political-theological field of martyrdom is......-sacrifice became central to the mass mobilisation against the monarchy. Once the revolutionary government came into existence, this sacred tradition was regulated to create ‘martyrs’ as a fixed category, in order to consolidate the legacy of the revolution. In this political theatre, the dead body is a site of...

  18. Economic Loan Loss Provision and Expected Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hlawatsch

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The intention of a loan loss provision is the anticipation of the loan's expected losses by adjusting the book value of the loan. Furthermore, this loan loss provision has to be compared to the expected loss according to Basel II and, in the case of a difference, liable equity has to be adjusted. This however assumes that the loan loss provision and the expected loss are based on a similar economic rationale, which is only valid conditionally in current loan loss provisioning methods according to IFRS. Therefore, differences between loan loss provisions and expected losses should only result from different approaches regarding the parameter estimation within each model and not due to different assumptions regarding the outcome of the model. The provisioning and accounting model developed in this paper overcomes the before-mentioned shortcomings and is consistent with an economic rationale of expected losses. Additionally, this model is based on a close-to-market valuation of the loan that is in favor of the basic idea of IFRS. Suggestions for changes in current accounting and capital requirement rules are provided.

  19. Central control of body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F

    2016-01-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis. PMID:27239289

  20. Central control of body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F.

    2016-01-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis. PMID:27239289

  1. Nutritional assessment with body composition measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution provides an accurate and precise measure of both the nutritional state and the response to nutritional support. A multiple isotope dilution technique has been developed that permits measurement of the three major components of body composition: body fat, extracellular mass (ECM), and body cell mass (BCM). Normal body composition was defined by data obtained in 25 healthy volunteers. Malnutrition is characterized by a loss of BCM and an expansion of the ECM, and as a result the lean body mass is not significantly different from normal. The loss of body weight with malnutrition therefore often reflects the loss of body fat. The utility of body composition measurements was demonstrated by determining the effect of total parenteral nutrition on body composition to determine the relationship between caloric intake and the change in the BCM. A statistically significant relationship was developed which demonstrated that a caloric intake in the range of 30-40 cal/kg/day is required for maintenance. To restore a depleted or malnourished BCM requires a caloric intake in excess of that required for maintenance. The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution is complex and time consuming, and requires specialized laboratory facilities and specially trained personnel. As a result, these measurements are not suited for routine patient management, but should rather be reserved for research purposes

  2. Body composition in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Angela; Garaci, Francesco; Cafarelli, Francesco Pio; Guglielmi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Nutritional status is the results of nutrients intake, absorption and utilization, able to influence physiological and pathological conditions. Nutritional status can be measured for individuals with different techniques, such as CT Body Composition, quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Ultrasound, Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry and Bioimpendance. Because obesity is becoming a worldwide epidemic, there is an increasing interest in the study of body composition to monitor conditions and delay in development of obesity-related diseases. The emergence of these evidence demonstrates the need of standard assessment of nutritional status based on body weight changes, playing an important role in several clinical setting, such as in quantitative measurement of tissues and their fluctuations in body composition, in survival rate, in pathologic condition and illnesses. Since body mass index has been shown to be an imprecise measurement of fat-free and fat mass, body cell mass and fluids, providing no information if weight changes, consequently there is the need to find a better way to evaluate body composition, in order to assess fat-free and fat mass with weight gain and loss, and during ageing. Monitoring body composition can be very useful for nutritional and medical interventional. This review is focused on the use of Body Composition in Clinical Practice. PMID:26971404

  3. Hair loss in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfmann, Katya L; Bechtel, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Hair loss is a common cause of morbidity for many women. As a key member of the woman's health care team, the obstetrician/gynecologist may be the first person to evaluate the complaint of hair loss. Common types of nonscarring hair loss, including female pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium, may be diagnosed and managed by the obstetrician/gynecologist. A systematic approach to diagnosis and management of these common forms of hair loss is presented. PMID:25517757

  4. Body contact and body language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Helle Dagmar

    2008-01-01

    and the boundaries between self and world. In western societies, the modern premises for contact are in some ways developing from close contact to virtual communication. With this breadth of perspective in mind, the ques­tion is whether conscious and experimental work with body contact and body language in move......­ment psychology and education provide potential for intense personal develop­ment as well as for social and cultural learning processes. This performative research project originates from the research project entitled, Movement Psy­chol­ogy: The Language of the Body and the Psy­chol­ogy of Movement based...... on the Dance Therapy Form Dansergia. The author, who is a practi­tioner-researcher, is methodologically inspir­ed by phenomenology, performative methods and a narrative and auto-ethnographic approach. The project will be presented in an organic, cre­at­ive and performative way. Through a moving dia...

  5. Body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives a survey on some applications of the whole body counter in clinical practice and a critical study of its application as a routine testing method. Remarks on the necessary precautions are followed by a more detailed discussion of the determination of the natural potassium content, the iron metabolism, the vitamin B12 test, investigations of the metabolism of the bone using 47Ca and 85Sr, investigations with iodine and iodine-labelled substances, clearance investigations (in particular the 51Cr EDTA clearance test), as well as the possibilities of neutron activation in vivo. (ORU/AK)

  6. Corona helps curb losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laasonen, M.; Lahtinen, M.; Lustre, L.

    1996-11-01

    The greatest power losses in electricity transmission arise through a phenomenon called load losses. Corona losses caused by the surface discharge of electricity also constitute a considerable cost item. IVS, the nationwide network company, is investigating corona- induced losses, and has also commissioned similar research from IVO International, the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and from Tampere University of Technology. The research work strives to gain more in-depth knowledge on the phenomenon of frosting and its impact on corona losses. The correct prediction of frost helps reduce corona losses, while also cutting costs considerably. (orig.)

  7. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Foreign Body Retrieval Foreign body retrieval is the removal ... of foreign body detection and removal? What is Foreign Body Retrieval? Foreign body retrieval involves the removal ...

  8. Energy Balance and Body Weight Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chris Melby; Matt Hickey

    2006-01-01

    @@ KEY POINTS · Thermodynamic laws dictate that an excess of food energy intake relative to energy expenditure will lead to energy storage-an accumulation of fat. Conversely, a deficit of energy intake relative to expenditure will lead to a loss of body energy stores and a reduced body weight.

  9. Genetics of Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Latin America Information For... Media Policy Makers Genetics of Hearing Loss Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... of hearing loss in babies is due to genetic causes. There are also a number of things ...

  10. Pregnancy Loss and Miscarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share this: Page Content What is pregnancy loss/miscarriage? A miscarriage, also called pregnancy loss or spontaneous abortion, is ... D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia. (2010, November 21). Miscarriage . Retrieved May 21, 2012, from http://www.ncbi. ...

  11. Hair Loss (Alopecia Areata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Hair Loss (Alopecia Areata) Information for adults A A A This ... scalp with a round area of non-scarring hair loss typical of alopecia areata. Overview Alopecia areata is ...

  12. Coping with Memory Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Coping With Memory Loss Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... a health professional. back to top What Causes Memory Loss? Anything that affects cognition—the process of ...

  13. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eating disorder: When a person has an eating disorder, hair loss is common. Anorexia (not eating enough) and bulimia (vomiting after eating) can cause hair loss. Medicine Some prescription medicines can cause ...

  14. Genes and Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Genes and Hearing Loss Genes and Hearing Loss Patient ... mutation may only have dystopia canthorum. How Do Genes Work? Genes are a road map for the ...

  15. VLCD compliance and lean body mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Quaade, F

    1989-01-01

    occur after cycles of weight loss and regain have not been clarified. After weight cycles with weight losses obtained by conventional diets, obese women have lower lean body mass than obese non-dieting controls. Hence, more information about the changes in body composition during dieting on conventional......Very low calorie diets (VLCD) have many advantages, as they are inexpensive, safe and easy to comply with, and give rapid and encouraging weight loss. On the other hand, many patients complain of hunger and constipation. We have shown that these drawbacks can be reduced by the supplementation of 30...... diets and VLCD are needed....

  16. Significant Weight Loss May Delay or Eliminate the Need for Total Knee Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey H. DeClaire

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old morbidly obese woman with a left medial meniscal tear and moderately severe degenerative joint disease (DJD reported for 14-month follow-up visit from arthroscopic surgery. She reported a resolution of pain, swelling and an improved range of motion (ROM. The patient was first evaluated 14 months ago, and at that time was considered a strong candidate for total knee replacement due to her limited (ROM, knee pain, swelling and functional impairment. At a 3 month visit prior to her initial evaluation the patient voluntarily enrolled in a nutritional and exercise program overseen by a licensed personal trainer and kinesiologist. At her final evaluation 14 months later, it was noted that in addition to her improved knee symptoms, the patient lost 15% of her initial bodyweight and exhibited significant gains in quadriceps strength. Her clinical exam and imaging suggested an arrest of progression of her joint disease. It was decided mutually by the patient and physician that she was no longer a candidate for total knee replacement surgery. Although the association between her weight loss and her knee DJD can only be hypothesized, this case report may highlight the need to discuss weight loss as an alternative treatment modality for end stage DJD.

  17. Significant weight loss may delay or eliminate the need for total knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeClaire, Jeffrey H; Savich, Tatjana T; Montgomery, B S Adrienne LeGasse; Warritay, Olayinka K

    2014-05-01

    A 48-year-old morbidly obese woman with a left medial meniscal tear and moderately severe degenerative joint disease (DJD) reported for 14-month follow-up visit from arthroscopic surgery. She reported a resolution of pain, swelling and an improved range of motion (ROM). The patient was first evaluated 14 months ago, and at that time was considered a strong candidate for total knee replacement due to her limited (ROM), knee pain, swelling and functional impairment. At a 3 month visit prior to her initial evaluation the patient voluntarily enrolled in a nutritional and exercise program overseen by a licensed personal trainer and kinesiologist. At her final evaluation 14 months later, it was noted that in addition to her improved knee symptoms, the patient lost 15% of her initial bodyweight and exhibited significant gains in quadriceps strength. Her clinical exam and imaging suggested an arrest of progression of her joint disease. It was decided mutually by the patient and physician that she was no longer a candidate for total knee replacement surgery. Although the association between her weight loss and her knee DJD can only be hypothesized, this case report may highlight the need to discuss weight loss as an alternative treatment modality for end stage DJD. PMID:24932398

  18. Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Dementia With Lewy Bodies Information Page Synonym(s): Lewy Body ... and Information Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Dementia With Lewy Bodies? Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) ...

  19. Railgun launch of small bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drobyshevski, E.M.; Zhukov, B.G.; Sakharov, V.A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation). Ioffe Physico-Technical Inst.

    1995-01-01

    The small body launching using gas or plasma faces the fundamental problem caused by excess energy loss due to great wall surface/volume of the barrel ratio. That is why the efficiency of the plasma armature (PA) railgun acceleration is maximum for 8--10 mm-size bodies and drops as their size decreases. For the nuclear fusion applications, where {number_sign}1--2 mm-size pellets at 5--10 km/s velocity are desirable, one is forced to search for compromise between the body size (3--4 mm) and its velocity (3 km/s). Under these conditions, EM launchers did not demonstrate an advantage over the light-gas guns. When elaborating the {number_sign}1 mm railgun, the authors made use of the ideology of the body launching at constant acceleration close to the body strength or the electrode skin-layer explosion limits. That shortened the barrel length sufficiently. The system becomes highly compact thus permitting rapid test of new operation modes and different modifications of the design including the magnetic field augmentation. As a result of these refinements, the difficulties caused by the catastrophic supply of mass ablated from the electrodes were overcome and regimes of {number_sign}1 mm body non-sabot speed-up to 4.5 km/s were found. Potentialities of the small system created are far from being exhausted.

  20. A Network Coding Approach to Loss Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sattari, Pegah; Markopoulou, Athina; Fragouli, Christina;

    2013-01-01

    Network tomography aims at inferring internal network characteristics based on measurements at the edge of the network. In loss tomography, in particular, the characteristic of interest is the loss rate of individual links. There is a significant body of work dedicated to this problem using...... multicast and/or unicast end-to-end probes. Independently, recent advances in network coding have shown that there are several advantages from allowing intermediate nodes to process and combine, in addition to just forward, packets. In this paper, we pose the problem of loss tomography in networks that have...... network coding capabilities. We design a framework for estimating link loss rates, which leverages network coding capabilities and we show that it improves several aspects of tomography, including the identifiability of links, the tradeoff between estimation accuracy and bandwidth efficiency, and the...

  1. Hereditary Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, LenhAnh P.; Grundfast, Kenneth M.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses inheritance patterns in hearing loss, epidemiology, clues to genetic causes, locating genes that cause hereditary disorders, genes related to hearing loss disorders in individuals with Usher syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome, Treacher-Collins syndrome, Branchio-oto-renal and Pendred syndromes, and the significance of finding…

  2. Understanding Rural Population Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGranahan, David A.; Beale, Calvin L.

    2002-01-01

    A quarter of nonmetro counties lost population in the 1990s, but population loss was not related to poverty rate or low educational levels, perhaps because low-skill workers can no longer expect better wages in urban areas. Population loss was related to low population density and remoteness (which decrease access to services), lack of natural…

  3. Loss muinasjuturaamatust / Agu Veetamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veetamm, Agu, 1953-

    2004-01-01

    Ballindaloch on üks väheseid Shoti losse, kus omanikud aastaringselt elavad. 450 aastat on loss kuulunud Macpherson-Grantide suguvõsale. Praegu on lossi omanikuks Clare Nancy Macpherson-Grant Russell, kelle kujundatud on kiviktaimla ja rosaarium. Lossi ajaloost, omanikest, ümberehitustest, ringkäigust lossis, pargist. 14 ill

  4. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Help! It's Hair Loss! KidsHealth > For Kids > Help! It's Hair Loss! Print A A A Text Size ... part above the skin, is dead. (That's why it doesn't hurt to get a haircut!) This ...

  5. Weight Loss Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight through diet and exercise or have serious health problems caused by obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the ...

  6. [Inner Ear Hearing Loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, G

    2016-06-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most dominant handicaps in modern societies, which additionally very often is not realized or not admitted. About one quarter of the general population suffers from inner ear hearing loss and is therefore restricted in communicational skills. Demographic factors like increasing age play an important role as well as environmental influences and an increasing sound and noise exposure especially in leisure activities. Thus borders between a "classical" presbyacusis - if it ever existed - and envirionmentally induced hearing loss disappear. Today restrictions in hearing ability develop earlier in age but at the same time they are detected and diagnosed earlier. This paper can eventually enlighten the wide field of inner ear hearing loss only fragmentarily; therefore mainly new research, findings and developments are reviewed. The first part discusses new aspects of diagnostics of inner ear hearing loss and different etiologies. PMID:27259171

  7. Acute loss of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tristán, Bekinschtein; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Manes, Facundo

    2015-01-01

    Acute loss of consciousness poses a fascinating scenario for theoretical and clinical research. This chapter introduces a simple yet powerful framework to investigate altered states of consciousness. We then explore the different disorders of consciousness that result from acute brain injury, and techniques used in the acute phase to predict clinical outcome in different patient populations in light of models of acute loss of consciousness. We further delve into post-traumatic amnesia as a model for predicting cognitive sequels following acute loss of consciousness. We approach the study of acute loss of consciousness from a theoretical and clinical perspective to conclude that clinicians in acute care centers must incorporate new measurements and techniques besides the classic coma scales in order to assess their patients with loss of consciousness. PMID:25702218

  8. Iron Status in Diffuse Telogen Hair Loss among Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeinvaziri, Mojdeh; Mansoori, Parvin; Holakooee, Koorosh; Naraghi, Zahra Safaee; Abbasi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between iron body status and different types of hair loss has been investigated in a number of studies, however, with relatively discrepant findings. Therefore we conducted an analytical case-control study to assess whether diffuse telogen hair loss in women of childbearing age (15

  9. Time course and determinants of leptin decline during weight loss in obese boys and girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jens-Christian; Gamborg, Michael; Kaas-Ibsen, Karsten;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether changes in leptin concentrations during weight loss can be explained by gender, puberty, baseline adiposity and changes in adiposity, body composition, rate of weight loss, physical activity and insulin concentrations. DESIGN: A longitudinal study with 9 repeated......, body composition, rate of weight loss, physical activity scores and insulin concentrations. The dissociation of the leptin-weight relationship during weight loss may contribute to the general leptin variability in obese subjects....

  10. Associations between smoking and tooth loss according to reason for tooth loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Xiaodan; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Hovey, Kathleen M.; LaMonte, Michael J.; Chen, Chaoru; Tezal, Mine; Genco, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Smoking is associated with tooth loss. However, smoking's relationship to the specific reason for tooth loss in postmenopausal women is unknown. Methods Postmenopausal women (n = 1,106) who joined a Women's Health Initiative ancillary study (The Buffalo OsteoPerio Study) underwent oral examinations for assessment of the number of missing teeth, as well as the self-reported reasons for tooth loss. The authors obtained information about smoking status via a self-administered questionnaire. The authors calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95 percent confidence intervals (CIs) by means of logistic regression to assess smoking's association with overall tooth loss, as well as with tooth loss due to periodontal disease (PD) and with tooth loss due to caries. Results After adjusting for age, education, income, body mass index (BMI), history of diabetes diagnosis, calcium supplement use and dental visit frequency, the authors found that heavy smokers (≥ 26 pack-years) were significantly more likely to report having experienced tooth loss compared with never smokers (OR = 1.82; 95 percent CI, 1.10-3.00). Smoking status, packs smoked per day, years of smoking, pack-years and years since quitting smoking were significantly associated with tooth loss due to PD. For pack-years, the association for heavy smokers compared with that for never smokers was OR = 6.83 (95 percent CI, 3.40-13.72). The study results showed no significant associations between smoking and tooth loss due to caries. Conclusions and Practical Implications Smoking may be a major factor in tooth loss due to PD. However, smoking appears to be a less important factor in tooth loss due to caries. Further study is needed to explore the etiologies by which smoking is associated with different types of tooth loss. Dentists should counsel their patients about the impact of smoking on oral health, including the risk of tooth loss due to PD. PMID:23449901

  11. Increase of Total Body Water with Decrease of Body Mass while Running 100 km Nonstop--Formation of Edema?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether ultraendurance runners in a 100-km run suffer a decrease of body mass and whether this loss consists of fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, or total body water. Male ultrarunners were measured pre- and postrace to determine body mass, fat mass, and skeletal muscle mass by using the anthropometric method. In addition,…

  12. Osteoarthritis, obesity and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Henning; Leeds, A R; Christensen, Robin Daniel Kjersgaard

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is widely acknowledged as a risk factor for both the incidence and progression of osteoarthritis, and has a negative influence on outcomes. Loss of at least 10% of body weight, coupled with exercise, is recognized as a cornerstone in the management of obese patients with osteoarthritis, and...... can lead to significant improvement in symptoms, pain relief, physical function and health-related quality of life. However, questions still remain surrounding optimal management. Given the significant health, social and economic burden of osteoarthritis, especially in obese patients, it is imperative...... to advance our knowledge of osteoarthritis and obesity, and apply this to improving care and outcomes. This paper overviews what is already known about osteoarthritis and obesity, discusses current key challenges and ongoing hypotheses arising from research in these areas, and finally, postulates...

  13. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, obesity, and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has frequently been found to have an impact on the development of obesity, with the relationship between past traumatic episodes and obesity usually thought of as uni-directional. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the level of PTSD......-symptoms would decrease as a result of weight loss in obese participants during a 16 week stay at a weight loss facility. During the 16 weeks participants’ Body Mass Index (BMI) decreased significantly. Concurrently, a significant decline in the level of PTSD symptoms was also reported. During the first week of...

  14. Surgical solutions to the problem of massive weight loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jason A Spector; Steven M Levine; Nolan S Karp

    2006-01-01

    In response to the global rise in obesity, bariatric surgery has become increasingly more popular and successful.As a result, the demand for body contouring following massive weight loss is rapidly growing. Although bariatric procedures may produce impressive weight loss, people who achieve massive weight loss are often unhappy with the hanging folds of skin and subcutaneous tissue that remain. This review examines the nature of the post-bariatric deformity in each body region and briefly reviews common approaches to their treatment.

  15. What's Hearing Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cochlea during an operation. It takes over the job of the damaged or destroyed hair cells in the ... and Communicating A kid with hearing loss may attend a special school, special classes within ...

  16. Bone Loss in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DENSITY? Although bone seems as hard as a rock, it’s actually living tissue. Throughout your life, old ... available Bone Loss (.pdf) File: 290 KB 733 Third Avenue, Suite 510, New York, NY 10017 | 800- ...

  17. Weight loss - unintentional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of laxatives Other causes such as: Eating disorders, anorexia nervosa that have not been diagnosed yet Diabetes that ... do not know the reason. You have other symptoms along with the weight loss.

  18. Understanding Grief and Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other common behaviors include restlessness and excessive activity. Religion and spirituality Grief and loss may also cause ... The grieving person’s age and gender The life history of the person who is grieving, including previous ...

  19. Nickel hydrogen capacity loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goualard, Jacques; Paugam, D.; Borthomieu, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The results of tests to assess capacity loss in nickel hydrogen cells are presented in outline form. The effects of long storage (greater than 1 month), high hydrogen pressure storage, high cobalt content, and recovery actions are addressed.

  20. Prizes for weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englberger, L.

    1999-01-01

    A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. PMID:10063662

  1. Types of Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on this topic can be found in our Audiology Information Series [PDF]. Hearing loss can be categorized ... speech-language pathologists; speech, language, and hearing scientists; audiology and speech-language pathology support personnel; and students. ...

  2. Occupational hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... music can cause hearing loss. Sounds above 80 decibels (dB, a measurement of the loudness or strength ... is allowed. Both the length of exposure and decibel level are considered. If the sound is at ...

  3. Prizes for weight loss.

    OpenAIRE

    Englberger, L

    1999-01-01

    A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health.

  4. Comparing energy loss phenomenology

    OpenAIRE

    van Leeuwen, M.(Institute for Subatomic Physics of Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    High-pT particle production is suppressed in heavy ion collisions due to parton energy loss in dense QCD matter. Here we present a systematic comparison of two different theoretical approximations to parton energy loss calculations: the opacity expansion and the multiple-soft scattering approximation for the simple case of a quark traversing a homogeneous piece of matter with fixed length (the TECHQM 'brick problem'), with focus on the range of parameters that is relevant for interpreting RHI...

  5. Sleep Loss and Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Mullington, Janet M.; Simpson, Norah S.; Meier-Ewert, Hans K.; Haack, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Controlled, experimental studies on the effects of acute sleep loss in humans have shown that mediators of inflammation are altered by sleep loss. Elevations in these mediators have been found to occur in healthy, rigorously screened individuals undergoing experimental vigils of more than 24 hours, and have also been seen in response to various durations of sleep restricted to between 25 and 50% of a normal 8 hour sleep amount. While these altered profiles represent small changes, such sub-cl...

  6. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İdil Ünal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Female androgenetic alopecia is the commonest cause of hair loss in women. It is characterized by a diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline and a characteristic pattern distribution in genetically predisposed women. Because of the uncertain relationship with the androgens Female Pattern Hair Loss (FPHL is the most preferred definition of the condition. This review has been focused on the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment alternatives of FPHL.

  7. Female pattern hair loss

    OpenAIRE

    İdil Ünal

    2014-01-01

    Female androgenetic alopecia is the commonest cause of hair loss in women. It is characterized by a diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline and a characteristic pattern distribution in genetically predisposed women. Because of the uncertain relationship with the androgens Female Pattern Hair Loss (FPHL) is the most preferred definition of the condition. This review has been focused on the clinical features, diagnosis and treatm...

  8. Female pattern hair loss

    OpenAIRE

    Archana Singal; Sidharth Sonthalia; Prashant Verma

    2013-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident...

  9. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type)...

  10. Reconceptualizing causative factors and intervention strategies in the eating disorders: a shift from body image to self-concept impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Karen Farchaus; Corte, Colleen

    2003-04-01

    In this report, we argue that impairments in self-concept development function as a cognitive vulnerability that contributes to the formation of the eating disorders (ED) of anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). More specifically we argue that impairments in development of the total collection of identities that comprise the self-concept contribute to body image disturbances which in turn, motivate the eating and body-weight attitudes and behaviors that characterize the disorders. First, we review current understandings of the role of body image disturbances in the ED and discuss limitations of this approach. Then we review theories from psychoanalytic and feminist traditions that suggest that identity disturbances are a key factor in the etiology of the ED. Next, results of studies that examine identity disturbances in the ED are reviewed. Results of a study of women with AN and BN using the schema model of the self-concept as the theoretical framework showed that women with few positive and many negative self-cognitions are particularly vulnerable to cultural messages about body weight and form weight-related cognitions about the self that contribute to disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. Finally, the implications of these findings for primary and secondary level prevention of ED are addressed. PMID:12701083

  11. Sociocultural influences on body image and body changes among adolescent boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P; Ricciardelli, Lina A

    2003-02-01

    In 2 studies, the authors evaluated the role of parents, peers, and the media in body image and body-change strategies among adolescent boys and girls. The respondents for Study 1 (423 boys and 377 girls) completed the Body Image and Body Change Inventory (L. A. Ricciardelli & M. P. McCabe, 2002) and the Perceived Sociocultural Influences on Body Image and Body Change Questionnaire (M. P. McCabe & L. A. Ricciardelli, 2001b). Body mass index and age were also included in the analyses. Regression analyses demonstrated that sociocultural influences and feedback from the participant's best male friend were important predictors for all body-change strategies among boys. For girls, sociocultural influences and feedback from the participant's best female friend and mother were important predictors for body-change strategies. The most consistent predictor of weight loss, weight gain, and strategies to increase muscles was body-image importance. In Study 2, the authors examined the influence of the same sociocultural variables, as well as negative affect and puberty on body image and body-change strategies among a second group of 199 boys and 267 girls. The results demonstrated that a broad range of sociocultural influences predicted body-change strategies for boys and girls, with negative affect also having a unique influence for boys but not for girls. Puberty played a minor role, once other sociocultural variables were entered into the regression equation. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:12617344

  12. Body Odor (For Girls)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Body Odor Posted under Health Guides . Updated 26 June 2015. + ... moisture, your body cools down. Where does body odor come from? When sweat mixes with the natural ...

  13. Body & Lifestyle Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Close X Home > Pregnancy > Body & lifestyle changes Body & lifestyle changes E-mail to a friend Please fill ... between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Body & lifestyle changes Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care ...

  14. Inclusion Body Myositis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Inclusion Body Myositis Information Page Table of Contents (click ... and Information Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Inclusion Body Myositis? Inclusion body myositis (IBM) is one ...

  15. Loss Allocation in Securitization Transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Günter Franke; Markus Herrmann; Thomas Weber

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the loss allocation to First, Second and Third Loss Positions in European collateralized debt obligation transactions. The quality of the underlying asset pool plays a predominant role for the loss allocation. A lower asset pool quality induces the originator to take a higher First Loss Position, but, in a synthetic transaction, a smaller Third Loss Position. The share of expected default losses, borne by the First Loss Position, is largely independent of asset pool qualit...

  16. Association Between Dental Caries and Body Mass Index Among Hamedan Elementary School Children in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Haeri Maybodi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Excessive weight in children is a major public health concern. The intake of refined carbohydrates, especially sugars and the prevalence of dental caries are well documented in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between dental caries and BMI in elementary school children.Materials and Methods: The sampling technique used in the present study was a cluster random sampling. A total of 1000 pupils (500 girls, 500 boys aged 6-11 years from 20 private and state elementary schools (10 boys, 10 girls. The weight status was measured in children by assessment of body mass index (BMI (=bodyweight/body height2 kg/m2 corresponding to gender and age-ranked percentages.To assess the caries frequency the decayed filled teeth (DFT index for permanent dentition and the dft index for primary dentition were used since they give good perception about the situation of tooth caries in young patients.Results: The highest mean total dft/DFT was seen in normal weight and lowest average in at risk of overweight children. There was not a statistically significant relationship found between high weight and caries frequency in the first (p=0.08 and permanent dentitions (p=0.06.Conclusion: The results of this preliminary study do not support an association between dental caries and obesity.

  17. Foreign body orbital cyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanfard, Younes; Heegard, Steffen; Fledelius, Hans C.;

    2001-01-01

    Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology......Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology...

  18. Realistic Simulation for Body Area and Body-To-Body Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Muhammad Mahtab; Ben Hamida, Elyes; Ben Arbia, Dhafer; Maman, Mickael; Mani, Francesco; Denis, Benoit; D'Errico, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present an accurate and realistic simulation for body area networks (BAN) and body-to-body networks (BBN) using deterministic and semi-deterministic approaches. First, in the semi-deterministic approach, a real-time measurement campaign is performed, which is further characterized through statistical analysis. It is able to generate link-correlated and time-varying realistic traces (i.e., with consistent mobility patterns) for on-body and body-to-body shadowing and fading, including body orientations and rotations, by means of stochastic channel models. The full deterministic approach is particularly targeted to enhance IEEE 802.15.6 proposed channel models by introducing space and time variations (i.e., dynamic distances) through biomechanical modeling. In addition, it helps to accurately model the radio link by identifying the link types and corresponding path loss factors for line of sight (LOS) and non-line of sight (NLOS). This approach is particularly important for links that vary over time due to mobility. It is also important to add that the communication and protocol stack, including the physical (PHY), medium access control (MAC) and networking models, is developed for BAN and BBN, and the IEEE 802.15.6 compliance standard is provided as a benchmark for future research works of the community. Finally, the two approaches are compared in terms of the successful packet delivery ratio, packet delay and energy efficiency. The results show that the semi-deterministic approach is the best option; however, for the diversity of the mobility patterns and scenarios applicable, biomechanical modeling and the deterministic approach are better choices. PMID:27104537

  19. Realistic Simulation for Body Area and Body-To-Body Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Muhammad Mahtab; Ben Hamida, Elyes; Ben Arbia, Dhafer; Maman, Mickael; Mani, Francesco; Denis, Benoit; D’Errico, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present an accurate and realistic simulation for body area networks (BAN) and body-to-body networks (BBN) using deterministic and semi-deterministic approaches. First, in the semi-deterministic approach, a real-time measurement campaign is performed, which is further characterized through statistical analysis. It is able to generate link-correlated and time-varying realistic traces (i.e., with consistent mobility patterns) for on-body and body-to-body shadowing and fading, including body orientations and rotations, by means of stochastic channel models. The full deterministic approach is particularly targeted to enhance IEEE 802.15.6 proposed channel models by introducing space and time variations (i.e., dynamic distances) through biomechanical modeling. In addition, it helps to accurately model the radio link by identifying the link types and corresponding path loss factors for line of sight (LOS) and non-line of sight (NLOS). This approach is particularly important for links that vary over time due to mobility. It is also important to add that the communication and protocol stack, including the physical (PHY), medium access control (MAC) and networking models, is developed for BAN and BBN, and the IEEE 802.15.6 compliance standard is provided as a benchmark for future research works of the community. Finally, the two approaches are compared in terms of the successful packet delivery ratio, packet delay and energy efficiency. The results show that the semi-deterministic approach is the best option; however, for the diversity of the mobility patterns and scenarios applicable, biomechanical modeling and the deterministic approach are better choices. PMID:27104537

  20. Mass loss from stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses the different mass-loss processes of stars and how mass-loss rates determine the fate of stars in advanced stages of stellar evolution. Main sequence stars have their atmospheric structure dominated by radiation pressure. The pressure exerted by energetic photons is sufficient to drive gases off into space. This process can impact enormous turbulence to the local interstellar medium. Evolutionary effects keep these stars from fully evaporating, but the very course of their evolution is determined by this mass shedding process. Lower main sequence stars, like the sun, have a turbulent atmosphere enveloped in hot, thin coronal gas, blowing off a light stellar breeze. As the main sequence star evolves to a giant, its corona dissipates and the breeze turns into a strong stellar wind. Intermitten sputters combined with pulsational instabilities can lead to partial ejection of the atmosphere and envelope of a red giant, i.e. a planetary nebula results. The mass-loss from stars through planetary nebule combined with other mass-loss processes such as stellar winds returns a substantial amount of material to the interstellar environment. Mass-loss in binary systems is also discussed

  1. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder obesity and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has frequently been found to have a significant impact on the development of obesity. Yet, while a reciprocal relationship has been found between obesity and depression, the relationship between past traumatic episodes and obesity is usually thought of as uni...... directional. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the level of PTSD symptoms decrease as a result of weight loss in 30 obese participants during a 16 week stay at a weight loss facility. During the 16 weeks participants’ Body Mass Index (BMI) decreased significantly. Concurrently, a...... depression also declined, whereas perceived social support was stable. The fact that the level of PTSD symptoms decreases simultaneously with weight loss is an interesting and positive side effect that has not been reported previously. The findings are discussed in term of cognitive theories of PTSD....

  2. Influence of gear loss factor on the power loss prediction

    OpenAIRE

    C. M. C. G. Fernandes; P. M. T. Marques; R. C. Martins; J. H. O. Seabra

    2015-01-01

    In order to accurately predict the power loss generated by a meshing gear pair the gear loss factor must be properly evaluated. Several gear loss factor formulations were compared, including the author's approach. A gear loss factor calculated considering the load distribution along the path of contact was implemented. The importance of the gear loss factor in the power loss predictions was put in evidence comparing the predictions with experimental results. It was ...

  3. Congenital sensorineural hearing loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ears of 47 selected patients with congenital sensorineural hearing loss were examined with complex-motion tomography. The patients were divided into 3 general categories: those with a recognized syndrome, those with sensorineural hearing loss unrelated to any known syndrome, and those with microtia. A great variety of inner ear anomalies was detected, but rarely were these characteristic of a particular clinical entity. The most common finding was the Mondini malformation or one of its variants. Isolated dysplasia of the internal auditory canal or the vestibular aqueduct may be responsible for sensorineural hearing loss in some patients. Patients with microtia may also have severe inner ear abnormalities despite the fact that the outer and inner ears develop embryologically from completely separate systems

  4. Body Matters: Narratives of the Body

    OpenAIRE

    Asandi, Iren; Filipovska, Kalina; Neault, Megan; Olsen, Sara Høier

    2014-01-01

    This project engages the notion of the subjective body in a pasture of social constructions in order to gather an understanding of the narratives created by women about their bodies in relation to cosmetic surgery. The empirical data for this project comes from our virtual ethnographic research on the various forums from the MyLooks website. Moreover, perspectives regarding the body, beauty ideals and theoretical positions from Kathryn Morgan and Kathy Davis fill out the structure of the proj...

  5. Determination of Star Bodies from -Centroid Bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lujun Guo; Gangsong Leng

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we prove that an origin-symmetric star body is uniquely determined by its -centroid body. Furthermore, using spherical harmonics, we establish a result for non-symmetric star bodies. As an application, we show that there is a unique member of $_p\\langle K \\rangle$ characterized by having larger volume than any other member, for all real ≥ 1 that are not even natural numbers, where $_p\\langle K \\rangle$ denotes the -centroid equivalence class of the star body .

  6. Parkinson's, a Selfobject Loss: Theoretical Discussion and Personal Experience and History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichler, Harvey

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a conceptualization of physical impairment as an object loss comparable to the loss of a loved one. It exists when, for example, a person has only one limb, or an illness in an organ of the body. Parkinson's disease is just such an impairment that denies the author the ability to utilize his body's previous capacity of…

  7. Media and Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Media and Body Image Home For Patients Search FAQs Media and Body ... and Body Image TFAQ002, June 2016 PDF Format Media and Body Image Especially For Teens How can the media make ...

  8. Reinforced Airfoil Shaped Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to an airfoil shaped body with a leading edge and a trailing edge extending along the longitudinal extension of the body and defining a profile chord, the airfoil shaped body comprising an airfoil shaped facing that forms the outer surface of the airfoil shaped body...

  9. Adolescence and Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinshenker, Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses body image among adolescents, explaining that today's adolescents are more prone to body image distortions and dissatisfaction than ever and examining the historical context; how self-image develops; normative discontent; body image distortions; body dysmorphic disorder (BDD); vulnerability of boys (muscle dysmorphia); who is at risk;…

  10. FUE高密度毛囊单位移植治疗各部位毛发缺失的回顾性研究%The retrospective study of using high density follicular unit extraction to cure hair loss in every part of the body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛萍; 徐盼盼; 周聪

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo retrospective study and analyze the effect of hair loss treated by follicular unit extraction(FUE). Methods Using FUE technique to extract the follicles of postauricular or occipital region, isolating the follicles to remove redundant adipose and epidermal tissue, then transplant the follicle unit into the forehead hairline, scalp scar, eyebrow, beard, eyelash, pubic hair, et al, with high density. Results All 218 cases treated with FUE were satisifed, got matural appearance, there are no signiifcant scar in the donor site.Conclusion The effect of FUE technology treatment in every part of the body are well, with little trauma, rapid postoperative recovery, natural and beautiful appearance, the method is worth promoting.%目的:回顾性研究并分析毛囊单位移植术( FUE 技术)治疗毛发缺失的应用效果。方法:采用 FUE 技术,选取患者耳后或者枕后区毛囊并提取毛囊单位,对所获得毛囊进行分离,去除多余的脂肪及表皮组织,然后将完整的毛囊单位高密度移植于患者的发际线、头皮瘢痕、眉毛、胡须、睫毛、阴毛等部位。结果:218例患者经过FUE手术均获得了满意的临床效果,外观自然,供区不遗留瘢痕。结论:FUE技术能够有效地治疗瘢痕及各种类型毛发缺失,手术创伤小,术后恢复快,外观自然美观,值得推广使用。

  11. Water and electrolytes. [in human bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Harrison, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    It has been found that the performance of the strongest and fittest people will deteriorate rapidly with dehydration. The present paper is concerned with the anatomy of the fluid spaces in the body, taking into account also the fluid shifts and losses during exercise and their effects on performance. Total body water is arbitrarily divided into that contained within cells (cellular) and that located outside the cells (extracellular). The anatomy of body fluid compartments is considered along with the effects of exercise on body water, fluid shifts with exercise, the consequences of sweating, dehydration and exercise, heat acclimatization and endurance training, the adverse effects of dehydration, thirst and drinking during exercise, stimuli for drinking, and water, electrolyte, and carbohydrate replacement during exercise. It is found that the deterioration of physical exercise performance due to dehydration begins when body weight decreases by about 1 percent.

  12. Adult weight loss diets: metabolic effects and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarese, Laura E; Pories, Walter J

    2014-12-01

    The global prevalence of overweight and obesity as a public health concern is well established and reflects the overall lack of success in our ability to achieve and maintain a healthy body weight. Being overweight and obese is associated with numerous comorbidities and is a risk factor for several of the leading causes of death, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and many types of cancer. The foundation of treatment has been diet and exercise. There are >1,000 published weight loss diets, with more appearing in the lay literature and the media on a regular basis. The sheer number of existing diet regimens would suggest that no one diet has been universally successful at inducing and maintaining weight loss. Many of these dietary programs are based on sound scientific evidence and follow contemporary principles of weight loss. Others simply eliminate 1 or more of the essential food groups or recommend consumption of 1 type of food at the expense of other foods with little to no supporting evidence. The focus of this review is on weight loss diets, specifically those with the most supporting scientific evidence and those that are most likely to succeed in achievement and maintenance of desirable body weight. The effects of weight loss diets on energy expenditure, body weight, body composition, and metabolic parameters will be evaluated. Ultimately, the best diet is the one the patient will follow and incorporate into his or her daily life for lifelong maintenance of a healthy body weight. PMID:25293593

  13. Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Authors Information for Reviewers Human & Animal Rights Job Postings Sections of the JAOCD JAOCD Archive Published Members Online Dermatology Journals Edit This Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss Share | It is normal to lose up to ...

  14. OI Issues: Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that focuses on hearing loss and hearing issues. Miracle Ear Children’s Foundation P.O. Box 59261 Minneapolis, MN 55459-0261 (800) 234-5422 www.miracle-ear.com Miracle Ear Children’s Foundation provides free ...

  15. Autism and Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenhall, Ulf; Nordin, Viviann; Sandstrom, Mikael; Ahlsen, Gunilla; Gillberg, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    Children and adolescents (N=199) with autistic disorder were audiologically evaluated. Mild to moderate hearing loss was diagnosed in 7.9 percent, with deafness diagnosed in 3.5 percent of all cases, which represented a prevalence considerably above that in the general population and comparable to the prevalence found in populations with mental…

  16. Cascadia's Staggering Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Vogt, B.

    2001-05-01

    Recent worldwide earthquakes have resulted in staggering losses. The Northridge, California; Kobe, Japan; Loma Prieta, California; Izmit, Turkey; Chi-Chi, Taiwan; and Bhuj, India earthquakes, which range from magnitudes 6.7 to 7.7, have all occurred near populated areas. These earthquakes have resulted in estimated losses between \\3 and \\300 billion, with tens to tens of thousands of fatalities. Subduction zones are capable of producing the largest earthquakes. The 1939 M7.8 Chilean, the 1960 M9.5 Chilean, the 1964 M9.2 Alaskan, the 1970 M7.8 Peruvian, the 1985 M7.9 Mexico City and the 2001 M7.7 Bhuj earthquakes are damaging subduction zone quakes. The Cascadia fault zone poses a tremendous hazard in the Pacific Northwest due to the ground shaking and tsunami inundation hazards combined with the population. To address the Cascadia subduction zone threat, the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries conducted a preliminary statewide loss study. The 1998 Oregon study incorporated a M8.5 quake, the influence of near surface soil effects and default building, social and economic data available in FEMA's HAZUS97 software. Direct financial losses are projected at over \\$12 billion. Casualties are estimated at about 13,000. Over 5,000 of the casualties are estimated to result in fatalities from hazards relating to tsunamis and unreinforced masonry buildings.

  17. Heat loss from Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Kenneth; Næraa, Rikke

    1997-01-01

    Determination of heat loss coefficients for buildings in Denmark. The coefficient are determined for 15 building groups and 3 year intervals. They are based on the BBR-registre and assumptions of U-values(W/K*m2)and computed in a simple spreed sheet model.The results are used in the REVEILLE...

  18. Independents' group posts loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low oil gas prices and special charges caused the group of 50 U.S. independent producers Oil and Gas Journal tracks to post a combined loss in first half 1992. The group logged a net loss of $53 million in the first half compared with net earnings of $354 million in first half 1991, when higher oil prices during the Persian Gulf crisis buoyed earnings in spite of crude oil and natural gas production declines. The combined loss in the first half follows a 45% drop in the group's earnings in 1991 and compares with the OGJ group of integrated oil companies whose first half 1992 income fell 47% from the prior year. Special charges, generally related to asset writedowns, accounted for most of the almost $560 million in losses posted by about the third of the group. Nerco Oil and Gas Inc., Vancouver, Wash., alone accounted for almost half that total with charges related to an asset writedown of $238 million in the first quarter. Despite the poor first half performance, the outlook is bright for sharply improved group earnings in the second half, assuming reasonably healthy oil and gas prices and increased production resulting from acquisitions and in response to those prices

  19. Muscle function loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nerve injury, or brain damage ( stroke or other brain injury) The loss of muscle function after these types of events can be severe. Often it will not completely return, even with treatment. Paralysis can be temporary or permanent. It can affect ...

  20. General -Harmonic Blaschke Bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yibin Feng; Weidong Wang

    2014-02-01

    Lutwak introduced the harmonic Blaschke combination and the harmonic Blaschke body of a star body. Further, Feng and Wang introduced the concept of the -harmonic Blaschke body of a star body. In this paper, we define the notion of general -harmonic Blaschke bodies and establish some of its properties. In particular, we obtain the extreme values concerning the volume and the -dual geominimal surface area of this new notion.

  1. VA paradigm shift in care of veterans with limb loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle E. Reiber, PhD, MPH

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic limb loss results in pain and discomfort in addition to the loss of an important part of the body and its function. The mental health challengesaccompanying limb loss include issues of frustration and body image, role in life, and feelings of not being whole. Many servicemembers and veteranswith limb loss need to prove to themselves that they can still accomplishphysical feats, such as those with lower-limb loss returning to running or those with upper-limb loss working with tools. If our servicemembers and veterans let these activities go, they again feel a loss. Therefore, Department of Veterans Affairs (VA services are available to help individuals meet their physical and recreational goals, whether they be running, walking, or masteringcomplex upper-limb activities. Veterans with limb loss need ongoing clinical care, prosthetic devices, and mobility assistance. As their prosthetic devices are repaired, replaced, and updated, they need corresponding educationand training. Too often in the past, the VA has taken a narrow view of amputation care, focusing only on managing prosthetic devices. Prosthetic care is one small but important aspect of the complex rehabilitation partnershipbetween the veteran with limb loss and the VA.

  2. Body Image and Body Dysmorphic Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas-Aragones, Lucia; Marron, Servando E

    2016-08-23

    Most people would like to change something about their bodies and the way that they look, but for some it becomes an obsession. A healthy skin plays an important role in a person's physical and mental wellbeing, whereas a disfiguring appearance is associated with body image concerns. Skin diseases such as acne, psoriasis and vitiligo produce cosmetic disfigurement and patients suffering these and other visible skin conditions have an increased risk of depression, anxiety, feelings of stigmatization and self-harm ideation. Body image affects our emotions, thoughts, and behaviours in everyday life, but, above all, it influences our relationships. Furthermore, it has the potential to influence our quality of life. Promotion of positive body image is highly recommended, as it is important in improving people's quality of life, physical health, and health-related behaviors. Dermatologists have a key role in identifying body image concerns and offering patients possible treatment options. PMID:27283435

  3. Physiological Response of Adipocytes to Weight Loss and Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Sanne P. M.; Camps, Stefan G. J. A.; Bouwman, Freek G.; Mariman, Edwin C. M.; Westerterp, Klaas R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Metabolic processes in adipose tissue are dysregulated in obese subjects and, in response to weight loss, either normalize or change in favor of weight regain. Objective To determine changes in adipocyte glucose and fatty acid metabolism in relation to changes in adipocyte size during weight loss and maintenance. Methods Twenty-eight healthy subjects (12 males), age 20–50 y, and BMI 28–35 kg/m2, followed a very low energy diet for 2 months, followed by a 10-month period of weight maintenance. Body weight, body composition (deuterium dilution and BodPod), protein levels (Western blot) and adipocyte size were assessed prior to and after weight loss and after the 10-month follow-up. Results A 10% weight loss resulted in a 16% decrease in adipocyte size. A marker for glycolysis decreased (AldoC) during weight loss in association with adipocyte shrinking, and remained decreased during follow-up in association with weight maintenance. A marker for fatty acid transport increased (FABP4) during weight loss and remained increased during follow-up. Markers for mitochondrial beta-oxidation (HADHsc) and lipolysis (ATGL) were only increased after the 10-month follow-up. During weight loss HADHsc and ATGL were coordinately regulated, which became weaker during follow-up due to adipocyte size-related changes in HADHsc expression. AldoC was the major denominator of adipocyte size and body weight, whereas changes in ATGL during weight loss contributed to body weight during follow-up. Upregulation of ATGL and HADHsc occured in the absence of a negative energy balance and was triggered by adipocyte shrinkage or indicated preadipocyte differentiation. Conclusion Markers for adipocyte glucose and fatty acid metabolism are changed in response to weight loss in line with normalization from a dysregulated obese status to an improved metabolic status. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01015508 PMID:23505452

  4. The effect of swimming on pulmonary functions, blood pressure and body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Aykut Aysan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate theeffect of 8 week swimming exercise on adult sedentarymen’s respiratory functions, resting heart rate, bloodpressures and body composition.Materials and methods: A total of 80 volunteers (40 inthe study group, 40 in the control group, aged between20 and 29 years were included. The participants’ bodyweight, percentage of body fat (PBF, body mass index(BMI, resting heart rate (RHR, systolic (SBP and diastolicblood pressures (DBP, and respiratory functionswere measured before and after 8 week of swimmingtraining program and compared with each other.Results: Significant decreases were observed betweenpre- and post-exercise (following 8 weeks exercise trainingin PBF (18.1±5% vs. 14.3±4%, respectively, RHR(83.1±6/min vs. 74.6±3.8/min, DBP (83±7,2 mmHg vs.74.6±3,8 mmHg (p0.001.No significant differences were found between pre-testand post-test measurements in body weight (78.1±11.4kg vs. 75.3±9.9 kg, respectively, BMI (25.2±3.9 kg/m2 vs.24.3±2.8 kg/m2 and SBP (127.6±11.8 mmHg vs.115.8±5.1 mmHg (p>0.05.Conclusion: Eight weeks swimming exercise reduced thePBF and increased the forced expiration volume, maximumvoluntarily ventilation, vital capacity and forced vitalcapacity. Swimming training also decreased RHR andbalanced DBP. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2(1: 35-41

  5. Loss of Heterozygosity

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: Molecular Profiling Initiative, NCI *This method was successful in our lab using prostate tissue and for our specific objectives. Investigators must be aware that they will need to tailor the following protocol for their own research objectives and tissue under study*. This method is used to detect genomic DNA deletions in tumor cells. For a more detailed discussion of applying this approach to microdissected samples, see [Allelic Loss Studies](http://cgap-mf.nih.gov/ProstateE...

  6. Valuing Catastrophic Citrus Losses

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Damian C.; Kilmer, Richard L.; Moss, Charles B.; Schmitz, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Courts are often required to estimate changes in welfare to agricultural operations from catastrophic events. For example, courts must assign damages in lawsuits, such as with pesticide drift cases, or determine "just compensation" when the government takes private land for public use, as with the removal of dairy farms from environmentally sensitive land or destruction of canker-contaminated citrus trees. In economics, the traditional method of quantifying producer losses is estimating chang...

  7. Decisions under unpredictable losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahmed

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available An experimental test of the descriptive adequacy of the extit{restated diversification principle} is presented. The principle postulates that risk-averse utility maximizers will pool risks for their mutual benefit, even if information is missing about the probabilities of losses. It is enough for people to assume that they face equal risks when they pool risks. The results of the experiment support the principle.

  8. Maintenance of weight loss after lifestyle interventions for overweight and obesity, a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barte, J. C. M.; ter Bogt, N. C. W.; Bogers, R. P.; Teixeira, P. J.; Blissmer, B.; Mori, T. A.; Bemelmans, W. J. E.

    2010-01-01

    P>Lifestyle interventions can reduce body weight, but weight regain is common and may particularly occur with higher initial weight loss. If so, one may argue whether the 10% weight loss in clinical guidelines is preferable above a lower weight loss. This systematic review explores the relation betw

  9. ADT fast losses MD

    CERN Document Server

    Priebe, A; Dehning, B; Redaelli, S; Salvachua Ferrando, BM; Sapinski, M; Solfaroli Camillocci, M; Valuch, D

    2013-01-01

    The fast beam losses in the order of 1 ms are expected to be a potential major luminosity limitation for higher beam energies after the LHC long shutdown (LS1). Therefore a Quench Test is planned in the winter 2013 to estimate the quench limit in this timescale and revise the current models. This experiment was devoted to determination the LHC Transverse Damper (ADT) as a system for fast losses induction. A non-standard operation of the ADT was used to develop the beam oscillation instead of suppressing them. The sign flip method had allowed us to create the fast losses within several LHC turns at 450 GeV during the previous test (26th March 2012). Thus, the ADT could be potentially used for the studies of the UFO ("Unidentied Falling Object") impact on the cold magnets. Verification of the system capability and investigations of the disturbed beam properties were the main objectives of this MD. During the experiment, the pilot bunches of proton beam were excited independently in the horizontal and vertical ...

  10. A systematic review of the effectiveness of smartphone applications that encourage dietary self-regulatory strategies for weight loss in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semper, H M; Povey, R; Clark-Carter, D

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to systematically review the evidence to explore whether smartphone applications that use self-regulatory strategies are beneficial for weight loss in overweight and obese adults over the age of 18 years. Sixteen electronic databases were searched for articles published up to April 2015 including MEDLINE, OVID, Ingenta, PSYCARTICLES and PSYCINFO, CINAHL, Sportdiscus, Science Direct, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Library, JSTOR, EBSCO, Proquest, Wiley and Google Scholar. Twenty nine eligible studies were retrieved of which six studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies that recruited participants under the age of 18 years, adults with a chronic condition or did not report weight loss outcomes were excluded. Study findings were combined using a narrative synthesis. Overall, evidence suggests that smartphone applications may be a useful tool for self-regulating diet for weight loss as participants in the smartphone application group in all studies lost at least some bodyweight. However, when compared to other self-monitoring methods, there was no significant difference in the amount of weight lost. Findings should be interpreted with caution based on the design of the studies and the comparator groups used. Future research needs to be more methodologically rigorous and incorporate measures of whether eating habits become healthier in addition to measuring weight and BMI. PMID:27192162

  11. Lewy Body Dementia Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis Symptoms Treatment Options Help end Lewy body dementia now! Donate Diagnosis An experienced clinician within the ... an experienced diagnostic team skilled in Lewy body dementia. A thorough dementia diagnostic evaluation includes physical and ...

  12. Lewy Body Dementia Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Abstracts Clinical Trials Help end Lewy body dementia now! Donate Research Links Treating Psychosis in Parkinson’s ... The use of antipsychotic medications in Lewy body dementias is a known challenge. Are the medications helpful ...

  13. About Body Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Insulin Delivery Additional Content Medical News About Body Water By James L. Lewis, III, MD NOTE: This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Water Balance About Body Water Dehydration Overhydration Water accounts ...

  14. Abstract: Body Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Lene

    2012-01-01

    This panel will explore the usefulness of the term ‘body work’ in cultural history. Body work is understood as work focusing on the bodies of others as component in a range of occupations in health and social care, as well as in unpaid work in the family. How can the notion of body work inform...... cultural history of health and illness whether through a micro-social focus on the intercorporeal aspects of work in health and social care, or through clarifying our understanding of the times and spaces of work, or through highlighting the relationship between mundane body work and global processes....... The British sociologist Julia Twigg has introduced and explored the term `bodywork', most recently in Body Work in Health and Social Care - Critical Themes, New Agendas (2011). She extends the term body work from applying to the work that individuals undertake on their own bodies, often as part of regimens...

  15. Body mass index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007196.htm Body mass index To use the sharing features on this ... your height is to figure out your body mass index (BMI). You and your health care provider ...

  16. Written on the Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Steen Ledet

    Our bodies define a border between ourselves and the world around us. However we might feel about our body, it is what we present to the world. Victoria L. Blum in her book Flesh Wounds discusses how bodies are a form of inkblots, where discontent is projected onto. As bodies can be modified, we...... to the photo shoots, as the models remain in control, not the photographer. Marked by their body modifications, the Suicide Girls (as they call themselves), they actively attempt to subvert the typical pin-up conventions, by transgressing mainstream standards of beauty. In what seems remarkably...... similar to Judith Butler's account of subversive bodily acts, the pin-up shoots of the Suicide Girls mount a critique of a culture's view of the body as a natural entity. Cultural borders are crossed, as the bodies of the Suicide Girls embed ink into their bodies in the form of tattoos, and gender is...

  17. Zooplankton body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    I compiled literature on zooplankton body composition, from protozoans to gelatinous plankton, and report allometric relations and average body composition. Zooplankton segregate into gelatinous and non-gelatinous forms, with few intermediate taxa (chaetognaths, polychaetes, and pteropods). In most...... groups body composition is size independent. Exceptions are protozoans, chaetognaths, and pteropods, where larger individuals become increasingly watery. I speculate about the dichotomy in body composition and argue that differences in feeding mechanisms and predator avoidance strategies favor either a...

  18. Antennas, Wave Propagation, and Localization in Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Rohit

    2014-01-01

    A network of communicating wireless devices that are implantable, wearable or within close proximity of a human body is called wireless body area network (WBAN). The propagation channels for the devices in the WBAN are either through the body or over the body. This results in the attenuation and the absorption of electromagnetic waves radiated by the antenna of these devices due to the lossy tissues of the body. With a proper antenna and knowledge of the signal loss between the devices in the...

  19. Pathologically Collapsed Vertebral Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Saadat Mostafavi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available An 8-year-old boy, a case of CGD, presenting with quadriparesis "nFindings: Collapsed contiguous vertebral bodies"nSpared disks"nEpidural components extending one level above and below the involved vertebral bodies"nSignal of involved vertebral bodies: low on T1W and high on T2W image

  20. Job Loss: Eat, drink and try to be merry?

    OpenAIRE

    Partha Deb; Gallo, William T; Padmaja Ayyagari; Fletcher, Jason M.; Sindelar, Jody L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of job loss from business closings on body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption. We improve upon extant literature by using: exogenously determined business closings, a sophisticated estimation approach (finite mixture models) to deal with complex heterogeneity, and national, longitudinal data (Health and Retirement Study). For both alcohol consumption and BMI, we find evidence that individuals who are more likely to respond to job loss by increasing unhealt...

  1. Intracranial germinoma presenting as anorexia and unexplained weight loss

    OpenAIRE

    Shashank Kraleti; David Nelsen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe a patient with germinoma of pineal body who presented with anorexia and unexplained weight loss of 70 pounds. Case Summary: A 23-year-old man with no significant past medical history presented with nausea, vomiting, anorexia and weight loss of 70 pounds over a period of 6–8 months. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans demonstrated tumor lesions that were confirmed as germinoma histologically. A good treatment response to surgery, radiation, chemot...

  2. Hair loss in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Martínez, Francisco M

    2009-03-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a clinical problem that is becoming more common in women. Female alopecia with androgen increase is called female androgenetic alopecia (FAGA) and without androgen increase is called female pattern hair loss. The clinical picture of typical FAGA begins with a specific "diffuse loss of hair from the parietal or frontovertical areas with an intact frontal hairline." Ludwig called this process "rarefaction." In Ludwig's classification of hair loss in women, progressive type of FAGA, 3 patterns were described: grade I or minimal, grade II or moderate, and grade III or severe. Ludwig also described female androgenetic alopecia with male pattern (FAGA.M) that should be subclassified according to Ebling's or Hamilton-Norwood's classification. FAGA.M may be present in 4 conditions: persistent adrenarche syndrome, alopecia caused by an adrenal or an ovarian tumor, posthysterectomy, and as an involutive alopecia. A more recent classification (Olsen's classification of FPHL) proposes 2 types: early- and late-onset with or without excess of androgens in each. The diagnosis of FPHL is made by clinical history, clinical examination, wash test, dermoscopy, trichoscan, trichograms and laboratory test, especially androgenic determinations. Topical treatment of FPHL is with minoxidil, 2-5% twice daily. When FPHL is associated with high levels of androgens, systemic antiandrogenic therapy is needed. Persistent adrenarche syndrome (adrenal SAHA) and alopecia of adrenal hyperandrogenism is treated with adrenal suppression and antiandrogens. Adrenal suppression is achieved with glucocorticosteroids. Antiandrogens therapy includes cyproterone acetate, drospirenone, spironolactone, flutamide, and finasteride. Excess release of ovarian androgens (ovarian SAHA) and alopecia of ovarian hyperandrogenism is treated with ovarian suppression and antiandrogens. Ovarian suppression includes the use of contraceptives containing an estrogen, ethinylestradiol, and a

  3. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Singal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients.

  4. Higher body mass index is associated with episodic memory deficits in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheke, Lucy G; Simons, Jon S; Clayton, Nicola S

    2016-11-01

    Obesity has become an international health crisis. There is accumulating evidence that excess bodyweight is associated with changes to the structure and function of the brain and with a number of cognitive deficits. In particular, research suggests that obesity is associated with hippocampal and frontal lobe dysfunction, which would be predicted to impact memory. However, evidence for such memory impairment is currently limited. We hypothesised that higher body mass index (BMI) would be associated with reduced performance on a test of episodic memory that assesses not only content, but also context and feature integration. A total of 50 participants aged 18-35 years, with BMIs ranging from 18 to 51, were tested on a novel what-where-when style episodic memory test: the "Treasure-Hunt Task". This test requires recollection of object, location, and temporal order information within the same paradigm, as well as testing the ability to integrate these features into a single event recollection. Higher BMI was associated with significantly lower performance on the what-where-when (WWW) memory task and all individual elements: object identification, location memory, and temporal order memory. After controlling for age, sex, and years in education, the effect of BMI on the individual what, where, and when tasks remained, while the WWW dropped below significance. This finding of episodic memory deficits in obesity is of concern given the emerging evidence for a role for episodic cognition in appetite regulation. PMID:26447832

  5. Neighbourhood Influences on Children’s Weight-related Behaviours and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle L. Jenkin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neighbourhood contextual factors such as accessibility of food shops and green spaces are associated with adult bodyweight but not necessarily weight-related behaviours. Whether these associations are replicated amongst children is unknown.Aim: To understand which aspects of childrens' neighbourhoods are associated with unhealthy weight and weight-related behaviours.Methods: Individual-level data for children from the 2006/7 New Zealand Health Survey (of Body Mass Index (BMI, dietary indicators and socioeconomic variables were linked with geographic level data on neighbourhood deprivation, rural/urban status, percentage of community engaged in active travel, access to green space, food shops and sports/leisure facilities. Logistic regression models were fitted for measures of BMI and weight-related behaviours; sugar sweetened beverage (SSB consumption; fast-food consumption; and television viewing. Results:Increased Ccommunity engagement in active transport was, counterintuitively, the only neighbourhood contextual factor associated with unhealthy weight amongst children. After adjustment for socioeconomic and environmental variables, greater access to green space appeared to have a protective effect on SSB consumption and neighbourhood deprivation was associated with all three unhealthy weight-related behaviours (SSB and fast-food consumption and television viewing. Conclusions: Although further research is needed, evidence from the current study suggests that a repertoire of health promotion interventions and policies to change unhealthy weight- related behaviours in high deprivation neighbourhoods may be required to address childhood obesity.

  6. Psychiatric Considerations of the Massive Weight Loss Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Sarwer, David B.; Fabricatore, Anthony N.

    2008-01-01

    As bariatric surgery for extreme obesity continues to grow in popularity, so does interest in post-bariatric surgery body contouring surgery. There is an extensive literature on the psychological characteristics of persons with extreme obesity who undergo bariatric surgery, as well as the psychological changes that typically occur postoperatively. Far less, however, is known about the psychological aspects of body contouring following massive weight loss. In this article, we review the psycho...

  7. Weight-Influenced Self-Esteem, Body Comparisons and Body Satisfaction : Findings among Women from The Netherlands and Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick. P. H.; van Brummen-Girigori, Odette

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined young women's weight-influenced self-esteem (WISE) in response to imagined weight gain and weight loss, and its relations to body satisfaction, body comparisons and global self-esteem. Young women from two different regions, that is, from the north of The Netherlands (n =

  8. Michel Foucault's bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Potte-Bonneville, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    How is it possible for Foucault to present the body at the same time as the foundation and the result of history, as condition and horizon of the theory that takes hold of it ? One has to pay attention to the various registers in which Foucault distributes the acceptations ordinarily confused with the general notion of the body : from "my body" (as it appears in Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology) to "the body' (as it is understood by modern medicine) ; from this body as an object for positive exp...

  9. Media and Life Dissatisfaction as Predictors of Body Dissatisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Body dissatisfaction can contribute to social, occupational and recreational losses, constituting a risk factor to health. This study aimed to evaluate the predictors of body dissatisfaction regarding demographic variables, media and life satisfaction among university students. The sample consisted of 321 participants older than 18 years. Body dissatisfaction, life dissatisfaction and media messages internalization were evaluated by Escala de Silhuetas para Adultos Brasileiros, Subjective Wel...

  10. A pilot study of temsirolimus and body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Veasey-Rodrigues, Heloisa; Parsons, Henrique A.; Janku, Filip; Naing, Aung; Wheler, Jennifer J.; Apostolia M Tsimberidou; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Body weight and composition play a role in cancer etiology, prognosis, and treatment response. Therefore, we analyzed the weight, body composition changes, and outcome in patients treated with temsirolimus, an mTor inhibitor that has weight loss as one of its side effects. Patients and methods Sixteen patients with advanced solid tumors treated with temsirolimus were studied; body composition was evaluated utilizing computerized tomography images. Sarcopenia was defined as skeletal mu...

  11. [Progressive hearing loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, M; Reiss, G

    2000-01-01

    Progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is defined as hearing loss of unknown etiology with fairly high-speed progression. Its diagnostic criteria consist of the following: that it is 1) progressive, 2) with bilateral involvement, and 3) of unknown etiology. Due to recent advances in diagnostics, imaging and management, SNHL has gained much interest from otologists in the last few years. They provide new insight into the physiology and pathophysiology of hearing. SNHL which is sudden in onset, fluctuating, and/or progressive complicates medical management, hearing aid selection, and individualized educational planning for a hearing-impaired patient. Existing hypotheses on the etiology of SNHL are judged on experimental, clinical, laboratory and radiological evidence. Cardiovascular and rheologic diseases, hereditary disorders, immunological phenomena, infections, environmental causes like noise, ototoxic drugs and industrial substances and systemic maladies must be included in the diagnostic reflections. Potential concepts of treatment include rheologic medications and corticosteroids. Hearing aids and timely cochlear implant operation are further possible forms of treatment. PMID:10893764

  12. Tragic loss at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Ski Club

    2015-01-01

    Tragic loss at CERN The CERN community is mourning the tragic loss of two members of the CERN Ski Club. On Sunday, April 12, an avalanche buried four out of five skiers, taking part in a ski touring in the region of the Becs de Bosson in Valais (CH). The fifth skier, who had not been buried in the snow,  courageously managed to save two of the skiers, but Hervé Milcent, 49 years, federal ski instructor, and Mattieu Cattin, 33 years, were buried under two to three meters of snow, far down the avalanche slope, and did not survive, despite the fast arrival of the mountain rescue. In its 40 years of existence, the CERN Ski Club, one of the biggest in the Geneva area, has never been confronted with such a tragedy. The passing of Hervé and Matthieu has deeply shocked and saddened all volunteers of the Club as well as the entire alpine community. The ski touring section of the club would like to honour its friend Hervé, who joined the club in 1998. In 2003 he became res...

  13. Genetics of Nonsyndromic Congenital Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egilmez, Oguz Kadir; Kalcioglu, M Tayyar

    2016-01-01

    Congenital hearing impairment affects nearly 1 in every 1000 live births and is the most frequent birth defect in developed societies. Hereditary types of hearing loss account for more than 50% of all congenital sensorineural hearing loss cases and are caused by genetic mutations. HL can be either nonsyndromic, which is restricted to the inner ear, or syndromic, a part of multiple anomalies affecting the body. Nonsyndromic HL can be categorised by mode of inheritance, such as autosomal dominant (called DFNA), autosomal recessive (DFNB), mitochondrial, and X-linked (DFN). To date, 125 deafness loci have been reported in the literature: 58 DFNA loci, 63 DFNB loci, and 4 X-linked loci. Mutations in genes that control the adhesion of hair cells, intracellular transport, neurotransmitter release, ionic hemeostasis, and cytoskeleton of hair cells can lead to malfunctions of the cochlea and inner ear. In recent years, with the increase in studies about genes involved in congenital hearing loss, genetic counselling and treatment options have emerged and increased in availability. This paper presents an overview of the currently known genes associated with nonsyndromic congenital hearing loss and mutations in the inner ear. PMID:26989561

  14. Genetics of Nonsyndromic Congenital Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz Kadir Egilmez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital hearing impairment affects nearly 1 in every 1000 live births and is the most frequent birth defect in developed societies. Hereditary types of hearing loss account for more than 50% of all congenital sensorineural hearing loss cases and are caused by genetic mutations. HL can be either nonsyndromic, which is restricted to the inner ear, or syndromic, a part of multiple anomalies affecting the body. Nonsyndromic HL can be categorised by mode of inheritance, such as autosomal dominant (called DFNA, autosomal recessive (DFNB, mitochondrial, and X-linked (DFN. To date, 125 deafness loci have been reported in the literature: 58 DFNA loci, 63 DFNB loci, and 4 X-linked loci. Mutations in genes that control the adhesion of hair cells, intracellular transport, neurotransmitter release, ionic hemeostasis, and cytoskeleton of hair cells can lead to malfunctions of the cochlea and inner ear. In recent years, with the increase in studies about genes involved in congenital hearing loss, genetic counselling and treatment options have emerged and increased in availability. This paper presents an overview of the currently known genes associated with nonsyndromic congenital hearing loss and mutations in the inner ear.

  15. Pricing Excess-of-loss Reinsurance Contracts Against Catastrophic Loss

    OpenAIRE

    J. David Cummins; Lewis, Christopher M.; Phillips, Richard D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper develops a pricing methodology and pricing estimates for the proposed Federal excess-of- loss (XOL) catastrophe reinsurance contracts. The contracts, proposed by the Clinton Administration, would provide per-occurrence excess-of-loss reinsurance coverage to private insurers and reinsurers, where both the coverage layer and the fixed payout of the contract are based on insurance industry losses, not company losses. In financial terms, the Federal government would be selling earthqua...

  16. Diet and psoriasis, part I: Impact of weight loss interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbaneh, Maya; Millsop, Jillian W; Bhatia, Bhavnit K; Koo, John; Liao, Wilson

    2014-07-01

    One of the most frequently asked questions by patients with psoriasis is whether dietary changes can improve their condition. Included in this discussion is whether dietary weight loss can benefit their skin disease. Obesity has been associated with a proinflammatory state and several studies have demonstrated a relationship between body mass index and psoriasis severity. However, the question of whether weight loss interventions can impact psoriasis outcome is less clear. Here, we review the literature to examine the efficacy of weight loss interventions, both dietary and surgical, on psoriasis disease course. PMID:24709272

  17. Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Follow us on Twitter Noise Manufacturing Construction SafeInSound Noise and Hearing Loss on the NIOSH Science Blog ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH NOISE AND HEARING LOSS PREVENTION Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  18. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Noise-Induced Hearing Loss On this page: What is ... I find additional information about NIHL? What is noise-induced hearing loss? Every day, we experience sound ...

  19. Hypothyroidism and pregnancy loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Olsen, Jørn; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disease. The frequency of pregnancy loss in women with known hypothyroidism as opposed to women with a later diagnosis of hypothyroidism has not been evaluated and compared with other common endocrine diseases. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study...... using Danish nationwide registers. PARTICIPANTS: All pregnancies in Denmark, 1997-2008, resulting in live birth (n=732,533), spontaneous abortion (n=112,487) or stillbirth (n=2,937) were identified together with information on maternal hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism and diabetes. METHODS: Cox model was...... used to estimate adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) with 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for spontaneous abortion and stillbirth, reference: no hypo- or hyperthyroidism or diabetes (n=824,310). RESULTS: We identified 4,951 pregnancies where maternal hypothyroidism was diagnosed before the pregnancy (group 1...

  20. Change, Gain and Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Mengzi

    2006-01-01

    @@ Five years have passed since the September 11 terrorist attacks occurred. America's counter-terrorism campaign is still on the way.Besides the momentary monumental significance of the fifth anniversary, five years is still too short in regard to the long-term counter-terrorism campaign. Yet, America's president's tenure is eight years at best; most of Bush's presidency time has passed. Five years ago, the U. S. encountered the most serious terrorist attack; the whole nation formed a consensus that counter-terrorism is its utmost priority. President Bush once enjoyed a support rate as high as 90% for over 16 months. But five years later, the trend changes. People can not help but ask: what are the gains and losses of the Republican Party in dealing with national security affairs?

  1. Methodology for Evaluating Water Losses

    OpenAIRE

    Mindaugas Rimeika; Anželika Jurkienė

    2013-01-01

    A reduction in water losses is significant for improving the efficiency of water supply systems and sustainable water use. The major part of water supply companies does not have enough experience in reducing water losses; therefore, a lack of information about practically applied measures for reducing water losses can be noticed. The article presents a method for determining water losses implemented under real conditions. The conducted research defines minimum night-time water consumption for...

  2. Relative Information Loss - An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Geiger, Bernhard C

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a relative variant of information loss to characterize the behavior of deterministic input-output systems. We show that the relative loss is closely related to Renyi's information dimension. We provide an upper bound for continuous input random variables and an exact result for a class of functions (comprising quantizers) with infinite absolute information loss. A connection between relative information loss and reconstruction error is investigated.

  3. Physiogenomic analysis of weight loss induced by dietary carbohydrate restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Richard J

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. The extent to which genetic factors associate with the magnitude of weight loss induced by CHO restriction is unknown. We examined associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and weight loss in order to understand the physiological factors influencing body weight responses to CHO restriction. Methods We screened for genetic associations with weight loss in 86 healthy adults who were instructed to restrict CHO to a level that induced a small level of ketosis (CHO ~10% of total energy. A total of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were selected from 15 candidate genes involved in fat digestion/metabolism, intracellular glucose metabolism, lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite regulation. Multiple linear regression was used to rank the SNPs according to probability of association, and the most significant associations were analyzed in greater detail. Results Mean weight loss was 6.4 kg. SNPs in the gastric lipase (LIPF, hepatic glycogen synthase (GYS2, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP and galanin (GAL genes were significantly associated with weight loss. Conclusion A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic adaptations underlying the body mass response to CHO restriction.

  4. Loss and modification of habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemckert, Francis; Hecnar, Stephen; Pilliod, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Amphibians live in a wide variety of habitats around the world, many of which have been modified or destroyed by human activities. Most species have unique life history characteristics adapted to specific climates, habitats (e.g., lentic, lotic, terrestrial, arboreal, fossorial, amphibious), and local conditions that provide suitable areas for reproduction, development and growth, shelter from environmental extremes, and predation, as well as connectivity to other populations or habitats. Although some species are entirely aquatic or terrestrial, most amphibians, as their name implies, lead a dual life and require a mosaic of habitats in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. With over 6 billion people on Earth, most species are now persisting in habitats that have been directly or indirectly influenced by human activities. Some species have disappeared where their habitats have been completely destroyed, reduced, or rendered unsuitable. Habitat loss and degradation are widely considered by most researchers as the most important causes of amphibian population decline globally (Barinaga 1990; Wake and Morowitz 1991; Alford and Richards 1999). In this chapter, a background on the diverse habitat requirements of amphibians is provided, followed by a discussion of the effects of urbanization, agriculture, livestock grazing, timber production and harvesting, fire and hazardous fuel management, and roads on amphibians and their habitats. Also briefly discussed is the influence on amphibian habitats of natural disturbances, such as extreme weather events and climate change, given the potential for human activities to impact climate in the longer term. For amphibians in general, microhabitats are of greater importance than for other vertebrates. As ectotherms with a skin that is permeable to water and with naked gelatinous eggs, amphibians are physiologically constrained to be active during environmental conditions that provide appropriate body temperatures and adequate

  5. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Breast Cancer and Bone Loss Fact Sheet Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  6. Loss Aversion and Individual Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have shown that loss aversion affects the valuation of non-market goods. Using stated choice data, this paper presents an empirical investigation of how individual-level loss aversion varies with observable personal characteristics and with the choice context. We investigate loss...

  7. Losses compensation; Compensation des pertes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    One mission of RTE (Electric Power Transportation), is to watch over the losses compensation resulting from the power transport on the electric power network. Since january 2001, RTE makes good the electric losses by the purchase of energy. To choose the marketers, a consultation has been realized by RTE. This document presents the rules concerning these losses compensation. (A.L.B.)

  8. Characterization of on-body communication channel and energy efficient topology design for wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusens, Elisabeth; Joseph, Wout; Latré, Benoît; Braem, Bart; Vermeeren, Günter; Tanghe, Emmeric; Martens, Luc; Moerman, Ingrid; Blondia, Chris

    2009-11-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBANs) offer many promising new applications in the area of remote health monitoring. An important element in the development of a WBAN is the characterization of the physical layer of the network, including an estimation of the delay spread and the path loss between two nodes on the body. This paper discusses the propagation channel between two half-wavelength dipoles at 2.45 GHz, placed near a human body and presents an application for cross-layer design in order to optimize the energy consumption of different topologies. Propagation measurements are performed on real humans in a multipath environment, considering different parts of the body separately. In addition, path loss has been numerically investigated with an anatomically correct model of the human body in free space using a 3-D electromagnetic solver. Path loss parameters and time-domain channel characteristics are extracted from the measurement and simulation data. A semi-empirical path loss model is presented for an antenna height above the body of 5 mm and antenna separations from 5 cm up to 40 cm. A time-domain analysis is performed and models are presented for the mean excess delay and the delay spread. As a cross-layer application, the proposed path loss models are used to evaluate the energy efficiency of single-hop and multihop network topologies. PMID:19789118

  9. The Mallory body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K; Gluud, C

    1994-01-01

    , a variety of experimental drugs have been developed that cause Mallory body formation, but markedly different cell dynamics and metabolic pathways may raise questions about the relevance of such animal models for human Mallory body formation. In conclusion, the Mallory body is indicative but not......To aid understanding of markers of disease and predictors of outcome in alcohol-exposed systems, we undertook a literature survey of more than 700 articles to view the morphological characteristics and the clinical and experimental epidemiology of the Mallory body. Mallory bodies are filaments of...... electron microscopy (with fibrillar structure parallel, random or absent), they remain stereotypical manifestations of hepatocyte injury. A summary of the conditions associated with Mallory bodies in the literature and their validity and potential etiological relationships is presented and discussed...

  10. Whole-body synthesis of L-homoarginine in pigs and rats supplemented with L-arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yongqing; Hu, Shengdi; Jia, Sichao; Nawaratna, Gayan; Che, Dongsheng; Wang, Fenglai; Bazer, Fuller W; Wu, Guoyao

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies suggest an important role for L-homoarginine in cardiovascular, hepatic and neurological functions, as well as the regulation of glucose metabolism. However, little is known about whole-body L-homoarginine synthesis or its response to dietary L-arginine intake in animals. Four series of experiments were conducted to determine L-homoarginine synthesis and catabolism in pigs and rats. In Experiment 1, male and female pigs were fed a corn- and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 0.0-2.42 % L-arginine-HCl. In Experiment 2, male and female rats were fed a casein-based diet, while receiving drinking water containing supplemental L-arginine-HCl to provide 0.0-3.6 g L-arginine/kg body-weight/day. In both experiments, urine collected from the animals for 24 h was analyzed for L-homoarginine and related metabolites. In Experiment 3, pigs and rats received a single oral dose of 1 or 10 mg L-homoarginine/kg body-weight, respectively, and their urine was collected for 24 h for analyses of L-homoarginine and related substances. In Experiment 4, slices of pig and rat tissues (including liver, brain, kidney, heart, and skeletal-muscle) were incubated for 1 h in Krebs-bicarbonate buffer containing 5 or 50 µM L-homoarginine. Our results indicated that: (a) animal tissues did not degrade L-homoarginine in the presence of physiological concentrations of other amino-acids; (b) 95-96 % of orally administered L-homoarginine was recovered in urine; (c) L-homoarginine was quantitatively a minor product of L-arginineg catabolism in the body; and (d) dietary L-arginine supplementation dose-dependently increased whole-body L-homoarginine synthesis. These novel findings provide a new framework for future studies of L-homoarginine metabolism and physiology in animals and humans. PMID:26676627

  11. Orphan Nuclear Bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Carmo-Fonseca, Maria; Berciano, Maria T.; Lafarga, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Orphan nuclear bodies are defined as nonchromatin nuclear compartments that have been less well studied compared with other well-characterized structures in the nucleus. Nuclear bodies have traditionally been thought of as uniform distinct entities depending on the protein “markers” they contain. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that nuclear bodies enriched in different sets of transcriptional regulators share a link to the ubiquitin-proteasome and SUMO-conjugation pathways. An e...

  12. Body composition changes in monkeys during long-term exposure to high acceleration fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Kodama, A. M.; Smith, A. H.

    1977-01-01

    Adult male pig-tailed monkeys, weighing 10-14 kg, were subjected to continuous centrifuging stress for 7 months in acceleration fields up to 2.5 g. In vivo analytical techniques were used to evaluate parameters of body composition, body-fluid distribution, and hematology. Statistically significant losses in total body mass, lean body mass, total body water, extracellular water content and interstitial water content proportional to the level of high g were demonstrated.

  13. Loss measurement programs at TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the KAON Factory Project Definition Study year we plan to directly measure magnet losses at sinusoidal excitation and at the proposed dual frequency excitation of the booster and driver rings. The losses due to transverse fields in the conductors will be measured using the NINA magnets and core losses will be measured on steel samples using an Epstein Bridge method which allows dc bias levels to be applied. The proposed tests are described and some preliminary findings are presented. The aim of these tests is to allow us to understand the loss processes and to allow us to calculate these losses with greater accuracy and confidence

  14. Channel models for wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Kenichi; Aoyagi, Akahiro; Takada, Jun-Ichi; Katayama, Norihiko; Yekeh, Kamya; Takehiko, Yazdandoost; Kohno, Kobayashi Ryuji

    2008-01-01

    Wireless patient monitoring using wearable sensors is a promising application. This paper provides stochastic channel models for wireless body area network (WBAN) on the human body. Parameters of the channel models are extracted from measured channel transfer functions (CTFs) in a hospital room. Measured frequency bands are selected so as to include permissible bands for WBAN; ultra wideband (UWB), the industry, science and medical (ISM) bands, and wireless medical telemetry system (WMTS) bands. As channel models, both a path loss model and a power delay profile (PDP) model are considered. But, even though path loss models are derived for the all frequency bands, PDP model is only for the UWB band due to the highly frequency selectiveness of UWB channels. The parameters extracted from the measurement results are summarized for each channel model. PMID:19162968

  15. The Effects of Topical Application of Polycal (a 2:98 (g/g Mixture of Polycan and Calcium Gluconate on Experimental Periodontitis and Alveolar Bone Loss in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-In Park

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to observe whether Polycal has inhibitory activity on ligation-induced experimental periodontitis and related alveolar bone loss in rats following topical application to the gingival regions. One day after the ligation placements, Polycal (50, 25, and 12.5 mg/mL solutions at 200 μL/rat was topically applied to the ligated gingival regions daily for 10 days. Changes in bodyweight, alveolar bone loss index, and total number of buccal gingival aerobic bacterial cells were monitored, and the anti-inflammatory effects were investigated via myeloperoxidase activity and levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α. The activities of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and lipid peroxidation (MDA were also evaluated. Bacterial proliferation, periodontitis, and alveolar bone loss induced by ligature placements were significantly inhibited after 10 days of continuous topical application of Polycal. These results indicate that topical application of Polycal has a significant inhibitory effect on periodontitis and related alveolar bone loss in rats mediated by antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative activities.

  16. Calf Strength Loss During Mechanical Unloading: Does It Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, K. L.; Mulavara, A.; Bloomberg, J.; Ploutz-Snyder, LL

    2016-01-01

    During the mechanical unloading of spaceflight and its ground-based analogs, muscle mass and muscle strength of the calf are difficult to preserve despite exercise countermeasures that effectively protect these parameters in the thigh. It is unclear what effects these local losses have on balance and whole body function which will be essential for successful performance of demanding tasks during future exploration missions.

  17. Energy Drinks, Weight Loss, and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Amy J.; Vatalaro Hill, Katherine E.; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined energy drink consumption and relations with weight loss attempts and behaviors, body image, and eating disorders. Participants/Methods: This is a secondary analysis using data from 856 undergraduate students who completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II…

  18. Autoimmunity in visual loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Axel; Wong, Sui; Plant, Gordon T

    2016-01-01

    There are a number of autoimmune disorders which can affect visual function. There are a very large number of mechanisms in the visual pathway which could potentially be the targets of autoimmune attack. In practice it is the retina and the anterior visual pathway (optic nerve and chiasm) that are recognised as being affected in autoimmune disorders. Multiple Sclerosis is one of the commonest causes of visual loss in young adults because of the frequency of attacks of optic neuritis in that condition, however the basis of the inflammation in Multiple Sclerosis and the confirmation of autoimmunity is lacking. The immune process is known to be highly unusual in that it is not systemic and confined to the CNS compartment. Previously an enigmatic partner to Multiple Sclerosis, Neuromyelitis Optica is now established to be autoimmune and two antibodies - to Aquaporin4 and to Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein - have been implicated in the pathogenesis. The term Chronic Relapsing Inflammatory Optic Neuropathy is applied to those cases of optic neuritis which require long term immunosuppression and hence are presumed to be autoimmune but where no autoimmune pathogenesis has been confirmed. Optic neuritis occurring post-infection and post vaccination and conditions such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and various vasculitides may cause direct autoimmune attack to visual structures or indirect damage through occlusive vasculopathy. Chronic granulomatous disorders such as Sarcoidosis affect vision commonly by a variety of mechanisms, whether and how these are placed in the autoimmune panoply is unknown. As far as the retina is concerned Cancer Associated Retinopathy and Melanoma Associated Retinopathy are well characterised clinically but a candidate autoantibody (recoverin) is only described in the former disorder. Other, usually monophasic, focal retinal inflammatory disorders (Idiopathic Big Blind Spot Syndrome, Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy and Acute Macular

  19. Sensorineural hearing loss in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wormald, R

    2010-02-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the aetiology of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in a paediatric population presenting to the National Centre of Medical Genetics. A retrospective chart review from 1998 to 2006. One hundred and twenty nine children were investigated for SNHL. The average age of diagnosis of hearing loss was 36 months. The degree of hearing loss was mild in 8 children, moderate in 33 children, severe in 31 children and profound in 57 children. Eighty-five children (66%) were diagnosed with a hereditary hearing loss, 11 (8%) children had an acquired hearing loss and no cause found in 33 (26%) children. This is the first report of the causes of hearing loss in Irish children. The mean age of diagnosis in our cohort is high and emphasises the need for a neonatal screening programme. There remains a number of children for whom the cause of hearing loss remains unknown.

  20. Body-Worn Antennas for Body-Centric Wireless Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren H.; Ôzden, Sinasi ̈;

    2014-01-01

    Ear-to-ear (E2E) on-body propagation and on-body antennas for body-centric wireless communications are presented.......Ear-to-ear (E2E) on-body propagation and on-body antennas for body-centric wireless communications are presented....

  1. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to capsaicin and maintenance of body weight after weight loss (ID 2039, 2041, 2042), increase in carbohydrate oxidation (ID 2040), and contribution to normal hair growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to capsaicin and contribution to the maintenance or achievement of a normal body weight, increase in carbohydrate oxidation, and contribution to normal hair growth. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of...

  2. Experimental Characterization of a UWB Channel for Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Lingli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrawideband (UWB communication is a promising technology for wireless body area networks (BANs, especially for applications that require transmission of both low and high data rates with excellent energy efficiency. Therefore, understanding the unique UWB channel propagation characteristics around the human body is critical for a successful wireless system, especially for insuring the reliability of important vital sign data. Previous work has focused only on on-body channels, where both TX and RX antennas are located on the human body. In this paper, a 3–5 GHz UWB channel is measured and analyzed for human body wireless communications. Beyond the conventional on-body channel model, line-of-sight (LOS and non-line-of-sight (NLOS channel models are obtained using a TX antenna placed at various locations of the human body while the RX antenna is placed away from the human body. Measurement results indicate that the human body does not significantly degrade the impedance of a monopole omnidirectional antenna. The measured path loss and multipath analysis suggest that a LOS UWB channel is excellent for low-power, high-data-rate transmission, while NLOS and on-body channels need to be reconfigured to operate at a lower data rate due to high path loss.

  3. Body image in the mass media

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Iris Bazán; Rosinella Miño

    2015-01-01

    The concern about weight that characterizes most modern women stemmed from the medical research that showed the relationship between obesity and diseases such as hypertension or cardiovascular disease. As shown by the American filmmaker Michael Moore in his documentary film “Sicko” in 2007, large US health companies financially rewarded those with a thinner body and sanctioned overweight people because they had higher risks of disease and thus generate losses to their companies. From there, t...

  4. Vertigo and hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman-Toker, David E; Della Santina, Charles C; Blitz, Ari M

    2016-01-01

    Symptoms referable to disorders affecting the inner ear and vestibulocochlear nerve (eighth cranial nerve) include dizziness, vertigo, tinnitus, and hearing loss, in various combinations. Similar symptoms may occur with involvement of the central nervous system, principally the brainstem and cerebellum, to which the vestibular and auditory systems are connected. Imaging choices should be tailored to patient symptoms and the clinical context. Computed tomography (CT) should be used primarily to assess bony structures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be used primarily to assess soft-tissue structures. Vascular imaging by angiography or venography should be obtained when vascular lesions are suspected. No imaging should be obtained in patients with typical presentations of common peripheral vestibular or auditory disorders. In current clinical practice, neuroimaging is often overused, especially CT in the assessment of acute dizziness and vertigo in the emergency department. Despite low sensitivity for ischemic strokes, CT is often used to rule out neurologic causes. When ischemic stroke is the principal concern in acute vestibular presentations, imaging should almost always be by MRI with diffusion-weighted images, rather than CT. In this chapter, we describe recommended strategies for audiovestibular imaging based on patient symptoms and signs. PMID:27430449

  5. The role of protein in weight loss and maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leidy, Heather J; Clifton, Peter M; Astrup, Arne;

    2015-01-01

    -analyses of shorter-term, tightly controlled feeding studies showed greater weight loss, fat mass loss, and preservation of lean mass after higher-protein energy-restriction diets than after lower-protein energy-restriction diets. Reductions in triglycerides, blood pressure, and waist circumference were also...... feeding studies consistently identified benefits with increased protein consumption, longer-term studies produced limited and conflicting findings; nevertheless, a recent meta-analysis showed persistent benefits of a higher-protein weight-loss diet on body weight and fat mass. Dietary compliance appears......Over the past 20 y, higher-protein diets have been touted as a successful strategy to prevent or treat obesity through improvements in body weight management. These improvements are thought to be due, in part, to modulations in energy metabolism, appetite, and energy intake. Recent evidence also...

  6. Teaching Bodies in Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie; Woglom, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: This piece draws on literature in justice-oriented teacher education, feminist pedagogy, and postmodern notions of bodies and place to make sense of data generated from a three-year study of an undergraduate teacher education course. A feminist lens was used to engage a body- and place-focused pedagogy that aimed to engage…

  7. Our Bodies Are Changing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程国清

    2004-01-01

    Have you ever thought about your body changes?Up to about the age of eight or nine,girls and boys look quite alike.They have similar shaped bodies(形体相似)and their voices sound almost the same.As they grow, all their organs(器官)grow,too.

  8. Body-building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正In recent years, more and more people spare no pains to join in the body-building group. People begin to take part in various fitness clubs or fitness centers in their spare time. This shows body-building has become an indispensable part of many people’s life.

  9. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? About the Body Basics Library KidsHealth > For Teens > About the Body Basics Library Print A A A Text Size Did you ... system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ...

  10. Healthy Mouth, Healthy Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOR THE DENTAL PATIENT ... Healthy mouth, healthy body T he mouth is a window into the health of the body. It can show signs of nutri- tional ... Sjögren’s syndrome—may first become apparent because of mouth lesions or other oral problems. The mouth is ...

  11. Short-term, daily exposure to cold temperature may be an efficient way to prevent muscle atrophy and bone loss in a microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Claudia; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ya

    2015-04-01

    Microgravity induces less pressure on muscle/bone, which is a major reason for muscle atrophy as well as bone loss. Currently, physical exercise is the only countermeasure used consistently in the U.S. human space program to counteract the microgravity-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and bone loss. However, the routinely almost daily time commitment is significant and represents a potential risk to the accomplishment of other mission operational tasks. Therefore, development of more efficient exercise programs (with less time) to prevent astronauts from muscle atrophy and bone loss are needed. Consider the two types of muscle contraction: exercising forces muscle contraction and prevents microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss, which is a voluntary response through the motor nervous system; and cold temperature exposure-induced muscle contraction is an involuntary response through the vegetative nervous system, we formed a new hypothesis. The main purpose of this pilot study was to test our hypothesis that exercise at 4 °C is more efficient than at room temperature to prevent microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss and, consequently reduces physical exercise time. Twenty mice were divided into two groups with or without daily short-term (10 min × 2, at 12 h interval) cold temperature (4 °C) exposure for 30 days. The whole bodyweight, muscle strength and bone density were measured after terminating the experiments. The results from the one-month pilot study support our hypothesis and suggest that it would be reasonable to use more mice, in a microgravity environment and observe for a longer period to obtain a conclusion. We believe that the results from such a study will help to develop efficient exercise, which will finally benefit astronauts' heath and NASA's missions.

  12. High Speed Gear Sized and Configured to Reduce Windage Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Robert F. (Inventor); Medvitz, Richard B. (Inventor); Hill, Matthew John (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A gear and drive system utilizing the gear include teeth. Each of the teeth has a first side and a second side opposite the first side that extends from a body of the gear. For each tooth of the gear, a first extended portion is attached to the first side of the tooth to divert flow of fluid adjacent to the body of the gear to reduce windage losses that occur when the gear rotates. The gear may be utilized in drive systems that may have high rotational speeds, such as speeds where the tip velocities are greater than or equal to about 68 m/s. Some embodiments of the gear may also utilize teeth that also have second extended portions attached to the second sides of the teeth to divert flow of fluid adjacent to the body of the gear to reduce windage losses that occur when the gear rotates.

  13. Experimental Investigation of Subject-Specific On-Body Radio Propagation Channels for Body-Centric Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Monirujjaman Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, subject-specific narrowband (2.45 GHz and ultra-wideband (3–10.6 GHz on-body radio propagation studies in wireless body area networks (WBANs were performed by characterizing the path loss for eight different human subjects of different shapes and sizes. The body shapes and sizes of the test subjects used in this study are characterised as thin, medium build, fatty, shorter, average height and taller. Experimental investigation was made in an indoor environment using a pair of printed monopoles (for the narrowband case and a pair of tapered slot antennas (for the ultra-wideband (UWB case. Results demonstrated that, due to the different sizes, heights and shapes of the test subjects, the path loss exponent value varies up to maximum of 0.85 for the narrowband on-body case, whereas a maximum variation of the path loss exponent value of 1.15 is noticed for the UWB case. In addition, the subject-specific behaviour of the on-body radio propagation channels was compared between narrowband and UWB systems, and it was deduced that the on-body radio channels are subject-specific for both narrowband and UWB system cases, when the same antennas (same characteristics are used. The effect of the human body shape and size variations on the eight different on-body radio channels is also studied for both the narrowband and UWB cases.

  14. The Semiotic Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    Most bodies in this world do not have brains and the minority of animal species that do have brained bodies are descendents from species with more distributed or decentralized nervous systems. Thus, bodies were here first, and only relatively late in evolution did the bodies of a few species grow...... supplementary organs, brains, sophisticated enough to support a psychological life. Psychological life therefore from the beginning was embedded in and served as a tool for corporeal life. This paper discusses the semiotically controlled dynamics of bodily existence that has allowed the evolution of these...... intracellular world of signal transduction through which the activity of single cells are put to service for bodily needs. The paper further considers the mechanisms behind homeostasis and the semiotics of the psycho-neuro-endocrine integration in the body. The concept of semiotic emergence is introduced and a...

  15. [Steroid-responsive sensorineural hearing loss with low tone loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriya, R; Yamashita, H; Hisashi, K; Komune, S; Komiyama, S

    1995-11-01

    Five cases of sensorineural hearing loss of sudden onset were reviewed. They were not responsive to administration of ATP and Vit. B12, but very responsive to steroid administration. All the patients were male and showed hearing loss in low frequencies in pure tone audiogram. Administration of steroid recovered hearing impairment immediately. However, cessation of steroid aggravated the recovered hearing. Serological and immunological examinations did not show any abnormal findings on all the patients. It was considered that these five patients had characteristics of both steroid-sensitive and low tone-loss type sensorineural hearing losses. PMID:8566929

  16. New insights into body condition score and its association with fatty liver in holstein dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Šamanc H.; Kirovski Danijela; Jovanović M.; Vujanac I.; Bojković-Kovačević Slavica; Jakić-Dimić Dobrila; Prodanović R.; Stajković Silvana

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the association between body condition and fatty liver in high-yielding dairy cows. One hundred dry Holstein cows were selected. Cows were scored once for body condition during the dry period, puerperium and month 2 of lactation, according to the system provided by Elanco Animal Health Buletin Al 8478. Body condition loss was determined as marked if loss was over 0.7 points between two consecutive phases of cycles and o...

  17. Effective diet and exercise treatments for overweight and recommendations for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W C

    2001-01-01

    Traditional diet and exercise treatments for obesity have been ineffective in reducing the prevalence of overweight in the population. Treatment outcomes for overweight can be measured in terms of physical parameters (e.g. bodyweight, percentage body fat, body mass index), medical terms (e.g. blood pressure, blood glucose control, blood lipid levels), psychological terms (e.g. eating pathology, self-esteem, mood state) and behavioural terms (e.g. frequency of exercise, eating patterns, self healthcare). Regardless of the specific outcome measures used to define successful treatment, the desired outcome must be maintained for several years to be considered effective. Energy restrictive diets cause significant initial bodyweight loss, but are plagued with high dropout- and relapse-rate. Low-fat diets have met with minimal success for bodyweight control, but nonetheless can significantly lower blood lipid levels. High-protein/low-carbohydrate diets are claimed to be the most effective in reducing bodyweight, but there are no scientific data to support these claims. Persons on these types of diets are also at the greatest risk for metabolic adverse effects. Nondieting approaches and programmes that stress 'health at any size' have not been researched rigorously, but preliminary data show minimal bodyweight loss with significant improvements in psychological state, eating pathology and well-being. Exercise is the only variable that consistently shows effectiveness in physiological, medical, psychological and behavioural outcomes. A treatment programme that has the greatest potential for success, regardless of outcome measure, is a programme that consists of 4 key components. These components are: (i) pre-evaluation, where historical information is gathered and used to set programme goals, objectives and outcome measures; (ii) exercise, wherein enjoyable exercise is encouraged for health, bodyweight control and well being; (iii) a behavioural plan, which is based on

  18. Reducing catalytic converter pressure loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This article examines why approximately 30--40% of total exhaust-system pressure loss occurs in the catalytic converter and what can be done to reduce pressure loss. High exhaust-system backpressure is of concern in the design of power trains for passenger cars and trucks because it penalizes fuel economy and limits peak power. Pressure losses occur due to fluid shear and turning during turbulent flow in the converter headers and in entry separation and developing laminar-flow boundary layers within the substrate flow passages. Some of the loss mechanisms are coupled. For example, losses in the inlet header are influenced by the presence of the flow resistance of a downstream substrate. Conversely, the flow maldistribution and pressure loss of the substrate(s) depend on the design of the inlet header.

  19. LHC beam loss pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Marsili, A; Puzo, P

    2011-01-01

    One of the systems protecting CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the Beam Loss Monitoring system (BLM). More than 3600 monitors are installed around the ring. The beam losses are permanently integrated over 12 different time intervals (from 40 microseconds to 84 seconds). When any loss exceeds the thresholds defined for the integration window, the beam is removed from the machine. Understanding the origin of a beam loss is crucial for machine operation, as it can help to avoid a repetition of the same scenario. The signals read from given monitors can be considered as entries of a vector. This article presents how a loss map of unknown cause can be decomposed using vector based analysis derived from well-known loss scenarios. The algorithms achieving this decomposition are described, as well as the accuracy of the results.

  20. TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocks, Tanja; Angquist, Lars; Banasik, Karina;

    2012-01-01

    Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction....

  1. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, F L

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem and predisposes individuals to several comorbidities that can affect life expectancy. Interventions based on lifestyle modification (for example, improved diet and exercise) are integral components in the management of obesity. However, although weight loss can be achieved through dietary restriction and/or increased physical activity, over the long term many individuals regain weight. The aim of this article is to review the research into the processes and mechanisms that underpin weight regain after weight loss and comment on future strategies to address them. Maintenance of body weight is regulated by the interaction of a number of processes, encompassing homoeostatic, environmental and behavioural factors. In homoeostatic regulation, the hypothalamus has a central role in integrating signals regarding food intake, energy balance and body weight, while an 'obesogenic' environment and behavioural patterns exert effects on the amount and type of food intake and physical activity. The roles of other environmental factors are also now being considered, including sleep debt and iatrogenic effects of medications, many of which warrant further investigation. Unfortunately, physiological adaptations to weight loss favour weight regain. These changes include perturbations in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones and energy homoeostasis, in addition to alterations in nutrient metabolism and subjective appetite. To maintain weight loss, individuals must adhere to behaviours that counteract physiological adaptations and other factors favouring weight regain. It is difficult to overcome physiology with behaviour. Weight loss medications and surgery change the physiology of body weight regulation and are the best chance for long-term success. An increased understanding of the physiology of weight loss and regain will underpin the development of future strategies to support overweight and obese individuals in their efforts

  2. Occupational Hearing Loss in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyoo Sang

    2010-01-01

    In this article, current status of noise exposure in workplaces, trend of workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), and prevalence of NIHL in workers by industry and job category in Korea were reviewed. In addition, trends of research on the audiological effects such as hearing loss from noise and occupational hearing loss from non-noise in Korea were addressed through reports in industrial audiology. Though noise exposure level has improved, noise still shows the highest rate of cases ...

  3. The body as art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, D J; Barker, M J

    2002-07-01

    For millennia people have altered the appearance of their bodies with cosmetics, jewellery, tattoos, piercings, and other surgical procedures. It would appear that they wish to conform to a perceived 'ideal body', although the actual appearance of such a body is subject to temporal, cultural and geographical change. In contemporary society the media are largely responsible for providing the yardsticks against which individual body shape is measured. Today the desired form is generally young, slim, tanned and blemish-free. Sadly, dissatisfaction with body image can be the source of great unhappiness and may even lead to suicide. Interested scholars have debated the meaning of beauty for centuries but it seems that every human society has its own standards. At the simplest it would appear that youth and symmetry are the most highly prized ingredients. There is no doubt that those who fit the conventional standards of attractiveness are treated better by society. Individuals have an inalienable right to their own body appearance, and to alter it as they see fit, however such modifications may not always be in their own best interests. Practitioners of cosmetic procedures must be alert to clients with histories of weight fluctuation, unrealistic body image, or low self-esteem. Psychological disorders may present with dysmorphophobic symptoms. Doctors providing cosmetic services need to be adept at diagnosing psychological illness. PMID:17147524

  4. Muscle contributions to fore-aft and vertical body mass center accelerations over a range of running speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamner, Samuel R; Delp, Scott L

    2013-02-22

    Running is a bouncing gait in which the body mass center slows and lowers during the first half of the stance phase; the mass center is then accelerated forward and upward into flight during the second half of the stance phase. Muscle-driven simulations can be analyzed to determine how muscle forces accelerate the body mass center. However, muscle-driven simulations of running at different speeds have not been previously developed, and it remains unclear how muscle forces modulate mass center accelerations at different running speeds. Thus, to examine how muscles generate accelerations of the body mass center, we created three-dimensional muscle-driven simulations of ten subjects running at 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0m/s. An induced acceleration analysis determined the contribution of each muscle to mass center accelerations. Our simulations included arms, allowing us to investigate the contributions of arm motion to running dynamics. Analysis of the simulations revealed that soleus provides the greatest upward mass center acceleration at all running speeds; soleus generates a peak upward acceleration of 19.8m/s(2) (i.e., the equivalent of approximately 2.0 bodyweights of ground reaction force) at 5.0m/s. Soleus also provided the greatest contribution to forward mass center acceleration, which increased from 2.5m/s(2) at 2.0m/s to 4.0m/s(2) at 5.0m/s. At faster running speeds, greater velocity of the legs produced larger angular momentum about the vertical axis passing through the body mass center; angular momentum about this vertical axis from arm swing simultaneously increased to counterbalance the legs. We provide open-access to data and simulations from this study for further analysis in OpenSim at simtk.org/home/nmbl_running, enabling muscle actions during running to be studied in unprecedented detail. PMID:23246045

  5. Hearing Loss: Diagnosis and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazove, Philip; Atcherson, Samuel R; Moreland, Christopher; McKee, Michael M

    2015-07-01

    Hearing loss is a common disability in the United States, most frequent among men, elderly individuals, and veterans but is increasingly affecting other younger adults. Types of hearing loss include sensorineural, conductive, and mixed. Hearing loss in children often is related to infections, time spent in a neonatal intensive care unit, and genetic etiologies. Presbycusis (ie, age-related hearing loss) is the most common etiology in adults. Adverse effects of untreated hearing loss include isolation, depression, lower income, and higher unemployment. Hearing aid use reduces levels of disability, cognitive impairment, and psychosocial distress while improving quality of life. At least 75% of individuals with hearing loss are not receiving treatment for it. All infants should be screened for hearing loss, as should children and adults with risk factors. The Joint Commission on Infant Hearing Screening has a 1-3-6 goal for screening: identification by age 1 month, confirmation by age 3 months, and intervention by age 6 months. The presence of an ongoing physician-patient relationship increases the likelihood that a patient will admit to having a hearing loss. Adults can be screened using single-question or standardized instrument screens. All patients with suspected hearing loss should undergo audiometry by an audiology subspecialist. PMID:26161523

  6. Feather loss in laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Hristov Slavča; Mitrović Sreten; Todorović Mirjana; Đermanović Vladan; Cvetković Ivica

    2006-01-01

    The paper examined the incidence of different forms of feather loss and cannibalism in laying hens aged 74 weeks following moulting and in laying hens following exploitation for a period of one year. The forms of feather loss were considered in detail through a repeated examination of video recordings and they were sorted according to localization - to feather loss on the ventral part of the neck, on the dorsal part of the neck, and on the back between the wings. Feather loss on the ventral p...

  7. Dose dependence and cause of X-irradiation induced protein loss in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A significant loss of protein (10-30%) occurs in rats between 1 and 3 days after whole body X-irradiation in the dose range of 1 to 10 Gy although protein loss due to death of radiosensitive tissues amounts to only 2 or 3% of total body protein. The spleen, liver, intestinal wall, intestinal content, blood plasma, erythrocytes and the remaining carcass of the body were investigated. The protein loss was mainly due to a significant depression of protein synthesis in the carcass. The unchanged protein synthesis of the liver, the increased protein synthesis in the intestinal wall and the elevated protein transfer into the blood plasma were not able to compensate this decrease. The protein loss cannot be explained by decreased food intake or amino acid levels, increased nitrogen loss through feces and urine, or increased protease or esterase activity. None of the measured parameters seems suitable for fast radiation dosimetry in humans. (orig.)

  8. Foreign Body Granulomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Ruiz, Ana M; Requena, Luis

    2015-07-01

    A large list of foreign substances may penetrate the skin and induce a foreign body granulomatous reaction. These particles can enter the skin by voluntary reasons or be caused by accidental inclusion of external substances secondary to cutaneous trauma. In these cases, foreign body granulomas are formed around such disparate substances as starch, cactus bristles, wood splinters, suture material, pencil lead, artificial hair, or insect mouthparts. The purpose of this article is to update dermatologists, pathologists, and other physicians on the most recent etiopathogenesis, clinical presentations, systemic associations, evaluation, and evidence-based management concerning foreign body granulomatous reactions of skin. PMID:26143429

  9. Adolescence and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinshenker, Naomi

    2002-05-01

    Concerns about body image range from a normal desire to look attractive to a pathological concern with thinness or physical perfection. Today, more than ever, adolescents in America are prone to body image distortions and dissatisfaction. The reasons for this are multi-determined and include the influence of the media and cultural expectations, as well as a discrepancy between an adolescent's own physical characteristics and the expectations of his or her social environment. Adolescents with severe body image distortions are vulnerable to developing serious psychiatric disorders that can have life-threatening consequences. Schools can help by providing guidance and information in a time of uncertainty. PMID:12046161

  10. Materiality, Practice and Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv; Skovbjerg-Karoff, Helle

    2009-01-01

    In order to understand the interaction between human and technology, the relationship must be emphasized as a triangulation between materiality, body and practice. By introducing play situations from a just finished empirical study in three bigger cities in Denmark, this paper will address the...... interplay from the human‟s point of view, as a body doing a certain practice, which is constantly produced by taking approaches which comes from phenomenology and practice theory. We introduce aspects of play understood as a dynamic between materiality, body and practice with the goal of inspiring not only...

  11. Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perihan Cam Ray

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Body dysmorphic disorder is a type of mental illness, wherein the affected person is concerned with body image, manifested as excessive concern about and preoccupation with a perceived defect of their physical features. Although it is a common disease and has been defined in the literature over a century, it is not a well known disease. Chronic, treatment resistant and sometimes delusional nature could result in severe functional impairment. The diagnosis and appropriate therapy of disorder are crucial because of increased suicidality and reduction in life quality. In this article the symptoms, etiology, clinical features and treatment of body dysmorphic disorder are briefly reviewed.

  12. Relationship of transport distance, sex on live weight loss of pigs during transit to slaughter house

    OpenAIRE

    P H G J DeSilva; A Kalubowila

    2012-01-01

    The transport distance have a significant impact on the levels of stress burden on animals before slaughter and have an impact on veterinary decision-making about meat edibility and also on the quality of slaughtered animal meat. The objective of the study was to determine live weight, dress weight and body weight loss during transportation of different sex group of pigs into the Slaughtering house. The body weight loss during pre-slaughter treatment of animals was recorded and carcass value ...

  13. Indian story on semen loss and related Dhat syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Om; Kar, Sujit Kumar; Sathyanarayana Rao, T S

    2014-10-01

    India is a country of many religions and ancient cultures. Indian culture is largely directed by the Vedic culture since time immemorial. Later Indian culture is influenced by Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity. Indian belief system carries the footprints of these cultures. Every culture describes human behaviors and an interpretation of each human behavior is largely influenced by the core cultural belief system. Sexuality is an important domain which is colored by different cultural colors. Like other cultures, Indian culture believes "semen" as the precious body fluid which needs to be preserved. Most Indian beliefs consider loss of semen as a threat to the individual. Ancient Indian literature present semen loss as a negative health related event. Dhat syndrome (related to semen loss) is a culture-bound syndrome seen in the natives of Indian subcontinent. This article gathers the Indian concepts related to semen loss. It also outlines belief systems behind problems of Dhat syndrome. PMID:25568479

  14. Lewy Body Dementia Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... promoting scientific advances. Featured LBD Stories & Tributes Dad's Dementia Journey It's been years since my father passed ... I received an email from the Lewy Body Dementia Association about a benefit... Read Story The Lewy ...

  15. Foreign body pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rief, Peter; Belaj, Klara; Smaczny, Nicole; Augustin, Michael; Eller, Philipp; Brodmann, Marianne; Pilger, Ernst

    2013-06-01

    We report a case of a foreign body embolism caused by a tip of an explanted port-a-cath system. The embolus could be removed with a gooseneck snare catheter, the patient fully recovered. PMID:23765525

  16. Unusual orbital foreign bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal P

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Retained intraorbital organic foreign bodies, particularly wooden, are commonly encountered in ophthalmologic practice. We treated two children who had sustained such injury while playing. They presented to us with non-healing sinus with purulent discharge. In one of the patients, X-rays and CT scan helped to clinch the diagnosis, whereas in the other patient diagnosis was possible by correlating history with clinical findings. Surgical exploration in both patients helped us to remove the foreign bodies. Surprisingly, both the foreign bodies were 7 cm long wooden pieces. We, however, caution that management of such cases should be conservative and that surgical exploration be done only in case of complication. From our experience, we recommend proper localisation by all possible means, blunt dissection, careful haemostasis coupled with excellent lighting and exposure in the atraumatic removal of intraorbital foreign bodies.

  17. Body Fat Measurement Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advisors Press Releases Annual Reports Donations Privacy Policy Advertising Site Map Adults Cyberkitchen Fitness Center Shape Up & Drop 10 Body Fat Lab BMI Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Children Assessing Childhood Obesity Pediatric BMI Assessment Overweight Assessment: A Parent's Guide ...

  18. Post Newtonian Rigid Body

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, C; Wu, X; Wu, Xuejun

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, it is the first time to construct a complete post-Newtonian (PN) model of a rigid body by means of a new constraint on the mass current density and mass density. In our PN rigid body model most of relations, such as spin vector proportional to the angular velocity, the definition on the moment of inertia tensor, the key relation between the mass quadrupole moment and the moment of inertia tensor, rigid rotating formulae of mass quadrupole moment and the moment of inertia tensor, are just the extension of the main relations in Newtonian rigid body model. When all of $1/c^2$ terms are neglected, the PN rigid body model and the corresponding formulae reduce to Newtonian version. The key relation is obtained in this paper for the first time, which might be very useful in the future application to problems in geodynamics and astronomy.

  19. [Foreign body stories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenz, Volker; Thurnheer, Robert; Widmer, Fritz; Krause, Martin

    2008-12-01

    Gastrointestinal and bronchial foreign bodies may cause significant clinical complications with a high degree of morbidity. In adults, a large variety of foreign bodies are accidentally or intentionally ingested, inserted or aspirated. In the majority of cases, the objects are expelled conservatively by coughing, vomiting or bowel movements. The risk for obstruction, perforation and penetration depends upon the type of object, those with sharp edges or tips having the highest risk. In these situations, the objects have to be removed by an endoscopic or an operative intervention. We present four foreign body stories including a young lady who swallowed a pen during sleep, a farmer who inserted a corncob into the rectum because of intractable diarrhoea, an elderly gentleman who aspirated a dental bridge while laughing and a cocain body packer who was caught at the border. Back ground, complications and removal procedures of the four cases are discussed. PMID:19048523

  20. Investigating body function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to the investigation of body function, especially small bowel function but also liver function, using bile acids and bile salts or their metabolic precursors labelled with radio isotopes and selenium or tellurium. (author)

  1. Comfortable bodies: sedentary affects

    OpenAIRE

    David Bissell

    2008-01-01

    Whilst to be comfortable is often equated with conservatism and complacency, this paper considers the various and often complex configurations of comfort as a desirable corporeal sensibility. Subsequently, this paper considers what corporeal comfort as an affective sensibility is and can do to theorisations of the sedentary body. The sensibility of corporeal comfort induced through the relationality between bodies and proximate objects is explored to trace through some of the affectual circul...

  2. Multichannel Human Body Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przystup, Piotr; Bujnowski, Adam; Wtorek, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Human Body Communication is an attractive alternative for traditional wireless communication (Bluetooth, ZigBee) in case of Body Sensor Networks. Low power, high data rates and data security makes it ideal solution for medical applications. In this paper, signal attenuation for different frequencies, using FR4 electrodes, has been investigated. Performance of single and multichannel transmission with frequency modulation of analog signal has been tested. Experiment results show that HBC is a feasible solution for transmitting data between BSN nodes.

  3. Three-body forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-body forces are defined and their properties discussed. Evidence for such forces in the trinucleon bound states and scattering reactions is reviewed. The binding energy defects of the trinucleon bound states, the 3He charge density, the Phillips line for doublet n-d scattering lengths, and three-nucleon breakup reactions are discussed, together with the possible influence of three-body forces on these observables

  4. Bursting bodies of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2014-01-01

    A silent threat is growing below receding glaciers: lakes are formed as the tongues of the glaciers draw back up the mountain, and huge and growing bodies of water beneath them are contained only be weak moraine walls.......A silent threat is growing below receding glaciers: lakes are formed as the tongues of the glaciers draw back up the mountain, and huge and growing bodies of water beneath them are contained only be weak moraine walls....

  5. Giant peritoneal loose bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris van Zyl

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Giant peritoneal loose bodies are rare lesions, originating from auto-amputated appendices epiploicae. They may cause urinary or gastrointestinal obstruction and, should the radiologist not be familiar with the entity, can potentially be confused with malignant or parasitic lesions.Familiarity with their characteristic computed tomographic features is essential to prevent unnecessary surgery in the asymptomatic patient. We present a case of a 70-year-old man diagnosed with two giant peritoneal loose bodies.

  6. Hacking the body

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, C

    2013-01-01

    This conference paper is available to download from the publisher’s website at the link below. Hacking the Body is a proposed collaborative re-search project that explores the use of the concept of 'hacking' to repurpose and re-imagine internal signals from the body through DIY biosensors and soft circuits. This paper outlines definitions of hacking and how these apply to workshops exploring how to create these sensors.

  7. [Colorectal foreign bodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thim, Troels; Laurberg, Søren

    2006-09-25

    A patient with a retained anally introduced colorectal foreign body or complications hereof needs appropriate treatment. The patient may be in danger and is certainly in discomfort. The problem is relatively rare; however, its incidence may be expected to increase. Guidelines for handling of the situation are lacking in many textbooks. Here, a suggestion for handling of a patient with a retained colorectal foreign body or complications hereof is presented. PMID:17032594

  8. Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Perihan Çam; Demirkol, Mehmet Emin; Tamam, Lut

    2012-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder is a type of mental illness, wherein the affected person is concerned with body image, manifested as excessive concern about and preoccupation with a perceived defect of their physical features. Although it is a common disease and has been defined in the literature over a century, it is not a well known disease. Chronic, treatment resistant and sometimes delusional nature could result in severe functional impairment. The diagnosis and appropriate therapy of disorder a...

  9. Body dysmorphic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Veale, D

    2004-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is defined as a preoccupation with an "imagined" defect in one's appearance. Alternatively, where there is a slight physical anomaly, then the person's concern is markedly excessive. The preoccupation is associated with many time consuming rituals such as mirror gazing or constant comparing. BDD patients have a distorted body image, which may be associated with bullying or abuse during childhood or adolescence. Such patients have a poor quality of life, are soci...

  10. Esophageal Foreign Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Cobanoglu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal foreign body aspiration is a common event which can cause serious morbidity and mortality in the children and adult population. For that reason, early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for preventing these life threateining complications. Children most often ingest coins and toys whereas adults commonly tend to have problems with meat and bones. Esophageal foreign bodies are located at the cricopharyngeus muscle level in 70%, the thoracic esophagus in 15% and the gastroesophageal junction in the remaining 15%. Symptoms can vary according to the shape and structure of the ingested object, type of location, patient%u2019s age and complications caused by the foreign body. Delay in treatment, esophageal perforation and an underlying esophageal disease are poor prognostic factors. In treatment, observation, foley catheter, rigid or flexible esophagoscopy and removing the foreign body with a Magill forceps, pushing the foreign body into the stomach, giving intravenous glucagon and surgical treatment methods can be used. Rigid esophagoscopy is an effective and safe procedure for foreign body diagnosis and removal. Improved endoscopic experience and clinical management of thoracic surgeons led to reduced morbidity and mortality in recent years. Most of those emergencies of childhood are preventable. Family education is very important.

  11. Genes and Syndromic Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keats, Bronya J. B.

    2002-01-01

    This article provides a description of the human genome and patterns of inheritance and discusses genes that are associated with some of the syndromes for which hearing loss is a common finding, including: Waardenburg, Stickler, Jervell and Lange-Neilsen, Usher, Alport, mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, and sensorineural hearing loss. (Contains…

  12. Interface losses in multimaterial resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, L.G.; Amato, B.; Larsen, Tom;

    2014-01-01

    vibrational modes to achieve a total of more than 3000 experimental points that allow us to quantify the contribution of surface and volume intrinsic (material related) losses in MEMS resonators. We conclude that the losses in the interface between silicon nitride and aluminum is a very important contributor...

  13. 10-minute consultation Olfactory loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E Ofo; B O'Reilly; A O'Doherty

    2007-01-01

    @@ A 65 year old man presents with loss of smell and altered taste,affecting his appetite and food intake. He had an upper respiratory tract infection before the onset of symptoms nine months ago.Initially, normal odours were distorted, followed by a constant foul smell for three months, and then complete loss of smell.

  14. World offshore energy loss statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offshore operations present a unique set of environmental conditions and adverse exposure not observed in a land environment taking place in a confined space in a hostile environment under the constant danger of catastrophe and loss. It is possible to engineer some risks to a very low threshold of probability, but losses and unforeseen events can never be entirely eliminated because of cost considerations, the human factor, and environmental uncertainty. Risk events occur infrequently but have the potential of generating large losses, as evident by the 2005 hurricane season in the Gulf of Mexico, which was the most destructive and costliest natural disaster in the history of offshore production. The purpose of this paper is to provide a statistical assessment of energy losses in offshore basins using the Willis Energy Loss database. A description of the loss categories and causes of property damage are provided, followed by a statistical assessment of damage and loss broken out by region, cause, and loss category for the time horizon 1970-2004. The impact of the 2004-2005 hurricane season in the Gulf of Mexico is summarized

  15. Perception of body image and sexuality for women with mastectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H D; Gregersen, A M; Thorup, Charlotte Brun;

    Background Having cancer and having one breast removed can affect all aspects of a woman's life. The literature shows that many women experience an altered body image and sexuality, loss of femininity, a feeling of less sexual attractiveness and decline in self-esteem. Furthermore mastectomy can...... affect women's perception of quality of life and psychosocial state.In Denmark, no previous studies have focused on perception of body image and sexuality in the acute phase after mastectomy. Furthermore, no study addresses the influence of perceived body image and sexuality on the decision to have....... Objectives The aim is to explore perceived body image and sexuality after having had mastectomy in the acute phase. Further, the aim is to focus on body image and sexuality as determinants for whether women choose reconstruction or not. Insight into women's perceived body image and sexuality is valuable...

  16. Measuring body composition in dogs using multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, L S; Vankan, D M; Rand, J S; Flickinger, E A; Ward, L C

    2016-06-01

    Thirty-five healthy, neutered, mixed breed dogs were used to determine the ability of multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MFBIA) to predict accurately fat-free mass (FFM) in dogs using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-measured FFM as reference. A second aim was to compare MFBIA predictions with morphometric predictions. MFBIA-based predictors provided an accurate measure of FFM, within 1.5% when compared to DXA-derived FFM, in normal weight dogs. FFM estimates were most highly correlated with DXA-measured FFM when the prediction equation included resistance quotient, bodyweight, and body condition score. At the population level, the inclusion of impedance as a predictor variable did not add substantially to the predictive power achieved with morphometric variables alone; in individual dogs, impedance predictors were more valuable than morphometric predictors. These results indicate that, following further validation, MFBIA could provide a useful tool in clinical practice to objectively measure FFM in canine patients and help improve compliance with prevention and treatment programs for obesity in dogs. PMID:27256027

  17. Retained, incarcerated oropharyngeal foreign bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Sonkhya, Nishi; Luckwani, Ashok; Mishra, Prakash; Yadav, Ramesh

    2006-01-01

    Foreign body ingestion is a well documented entity. Incarcerated oropharyngel foreign bodies are fre quently observed. Care should be taken for the symptoms like dysphagia and odynophagia, even if no positive history for foreign body ingestion is present. Two cases of incarcerated oropharyngeal foreign bodies are presented here who did not report with history of foreign body ingestion.

  18. Reduction of the absorption loss in the head via a metamaterial inspired Z antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Bonev, Ivan Bonev; Pelosi, Mauro;

    2011-01-01

    A Z element located in the Reactive Near Field (RNF) of an electrically small antenna is used in order to reduce the absorption loss in the head and the mismatch loss due to the user's body. The simulations are performed at both 2.45 GHz and 1.8 GHz. The results show always an improvement, up to 2...

  19. Energy balance and the composition of weight loss during prolonged space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1982-01-01

    Integrated metabolic balance analysis, Skylab integrated metabolic balance analysis and computer simulation of fluid-electrolyte responses to zero-g, overall mission weight and tissue losses, energy balance, diet and exercise, continuous changes, electrolyte losses, caloric and exercise requirements, and body composition are discussed.

  20. Control of body weight by eating behavior in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modjtaba eZandian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have limited effects in counteracting the worldwide increase in pediatric body weight. Moreover, the promise that individualized drug design will work to induce weight loss appears to be exaggerated. We suggest that the reason for this limited success is that the cause of obesity has been misunderstood. Body weight is mainly under external control; our brain permits us to eat under most circumstances, and unless the financial or physical cost of food is high, eating and body weight increase by default. When energy-rich, inexpensive foods are continually available, people need external support to maintain a healthy body weight. Weight loss can thereby be achieved by continuous feedback on how much and how fast to eat on a computer screen.

  1. Control of Body Weight by Eating Behavior in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandian, Modjtaba; Bergh, Cecilia; Ioakimidis, Ioannis; Esfandiari, Maryam; Shield, Julian; Lightman, Stafford; Leon, Michael; Södersten, Per

    2015-01-01

    Diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have limited effects in counteracting the worldwide increase in pediatric body weight. Moreover, the promise that individualized drug design will work to induce weight loss appears to be exaggerated. We suggest that the reason for this limited success is that the cause of obesity has been misunderstood. Body weight is mainly under external control; our brain permits us to eat under most circumstances, and unless the financial or physical cost of food is high, eating and body weight increase by default. When energy-rich, inexpensive foods are continually available, people need external support to maintain a healthy body weight. Weight loss can thereby be achieved by continuous feedback on how much and how fast to eat on a computer screen. PMID:26539422

  2. Young adult women's experiences of body image after bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froulund Jensen, Janet; Petersen, Mette H; Larsen, Tine B;

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To understand the lived experience of body image in young women after obesity surgery. BACKGROUND: Quantitative studies have documented that health-related quality of life and body image are improved after bariatric surgery, probably due to significant weight loss. Female obesity surgery...... candidates are likely to be motivated by dissatisfaction regarding physical appearance. However, little is known about the experience of the individual woman, leaving little understanding of the association between bariatric surgery and changes in health-related quality of life and body image. DESIGN...... synthesized into one major theme: on the edge of control, that is describing these women's feelings of being on the edge of balance between control and loss of control. CONCLUSION: Perception of control may be an essential aspect of body image and the key to understanding these young women's feelings...

  3. Trends in global earthquake loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnst, Isabel; Wenzel, Friedemann; Daniell, James

    2016-04-01

    Based on the CATDAT damage and loss database we analyse global trends of earthquake losses (in current values) and fatalities for the period between 1900 and 2015 from a statistical perspective. For this time period the data are complete for magnitudes above 6. First, we study the basic statistics of losses and find that losses below 10 bl. US satisfy approximately a power law with an exponent of 1.7 for the cumulative distribution. Higher loss values are modelled with the General Pareto Distribution (GPD). The 'transition' between power law and GPD is determined with the Mean Excess Function. We split the data set into a period of pre 1955 and post 1955 loss data as in those periods the exposure is significantly different due to population growth. The Annual Average Loss (AAL) for direct damage for events below 10 bl. US differs by a factor of 6, whereas the incorporation of the extreme loss events increases the AAL from 25 bl. US/yr to 30 bl. US/yr. Annual Average Deaths (AAD) show little (30%) difference for events below 6.000 fatalities and AAD values of 19.000 and 26.000 deaths per year if extreme values are incorporated. With data on the global Gross Domestic Product (GDP) that reflects the annual expenditures (consumption, investment, government spending) and on capital stock we relate losses to the economic capacity of societies and find that GDP (in real terms) grows much faster than losses so that the latter one play a decreasing role given the growing prosperity of mankind. This reasoning does not necessarily apply on a regional scale. Main conclusions of the analysis are that (a) a correct projection of historic loss values to nowadays US values is critical; (b) extreme value analysis is mandatory; (c) growing exposure is reflected in the AAL and AAD results for the periods pre and post 1955 events; (d) scaling loss values with global GDP data indicates that the relative size - from a global perspective - of losses decreases rapidly over time.

  4. Managing Regulatory Body Competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2001, the IAEA published TECDOC 1254, which examined the way in which the recognized functions of a regulatory body for nuclear facilities results in competence needs. Using the systematic approach to training (SAT), TECDOC 1254 provided a framework for regulatory bodies for managing training and developing and their maintaining their competence. It has been successfully used by many regulators. The IAEA has also introduced a methodology and an assessment tool - Guidelines for Systematic Assessment of Regulatory Competence Needs (SARCoN) - which provides practical guidance on analysing the training and development needs of a regulatory body and, through a gap analysis, guidance on establishing competence needs and how to meet them. In 2009, the IAEA established a steering committee (supported by a bureau) with the mission to advise the IAEA on how it could best assist Member States to develop suitable competence management systems for their regulatory bodies. The committee recommended the development of a safety report on managing staff competence as an integral part of a regulatory body's management system. This Safety Report was developed in response to this request. It supersedes TECDOC 1254, broadens its application to regulatory bodies for all facilities and activities, and builds upon the experience gained through the application of TECDOC 1254 and SARCoN and the feedback received from Member States. This Safety Report applies to the management of adequate competence as needs change, and as such is equally applicable to the needs of States 'embarking' on a nuclear power programme. It also deals with the special case of building up the competence of regulatory bodies as part of the overall process of establishing an 'embarking' State's regulatory system

  5. Reconstruction of material losses by perimeter penalization and phase-field methods

    OpenAIRE

    Rondi, Luca

    2009-01-01

    We treat the inverse problem of determining material losses, such as cavities, in a conducting body, by performing electrostatic measurements at the boundary. We develop a numerical approach, based on variational methods, to reconstruct the unknown material loss by a single boundary measurement of current and voltage type. The method is based on the use of phase-field functions to model the material losses and on a perimeter-like penalization to regularize the otherwise ill-posed problem.We j...

  6. Augmentation-Mastopexy after Massive Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILya V. Sergeev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an assessment of the results of mastopexy surgery carried out by using the technique of autologous breast enlargement axillary lateral flap, which the authors developed for patients who have suffered a decline in breast volume, as a result of massive weight loss after bariatric surgery. The mastopexy was carried out by the improved method with preliminary Doppler ultrasound of the perforating branches of intercostal arteries in women after a significant reduction in body weight. This method provides a good aesthetic result with the correct position of the nipple and a satisfactory volume of the breast and with a simultaneous removal of excessive skin flaps and excess fat in the anterolateral area of the chest.

  7. Muscle Strength and Body Cell Mass in Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Callie Griggs

    2001-01-01

    It has been observed that the normal process of aging is associated with a decline in muscle strength and mass. It has also been observed that total body potassium and intracellular water (ICW) decrease with age, reflecting a loss of body cell mass (BCM), 60% of which is the skeletal muscle. It is generally accepted that traditional high-intensity strength training (ST) regimens can not only attenuate, but in some cases, reverse some of these aging-related changes. Periodization, a nontradi...

  8. Cortical Lewy body dementia: clinical features and classification.

    OpenAIRE

    Gibb, W R; Luthert, P. J.; Janota, I; Lantos, P. L.

    1989-01-01

    Seven patients, aged 65-72 years, are described with dementia and cortical Lewy bodies. In one patient a Parkinsonian syndrome was followed by dementia and motor neuron disease. In the remaining six patients dementia was accompanied by dysphasia, dyspraxia and agnosia. One developed a Parkinsonian syndrome before the dementia, in three cases a Parkinsonian syndrome occurred later, and in two cases not at all. All patients showed Lewy bodies and cell loss in the substantia nigra, locus coerule...

  9. Control of Body Weight by Eating Behavior in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Zandian, Modjtaba; Bergh, Cecilia; Ioakimidis, Ioannis; Esfandiari, Maryam; Shield, Julian; Lightman, Stafford; Leon, Michael; Södersten, Per

    2015-01-01

    Diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have limited effects in counteracting the worldwide increase in pediatric body weight. Moreover, the promise that individualized drug design will work to induce weight loss appears to be exaggerated. We suggest that the reason for this limited success is that the cause of obesity has been misunderstood. Body weight is mainly under external control; our brain permits us to eat under most circumstances, and unless the financial or physical cost ...

  10. Whole body monitoring - Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the radiological Cs accident in Goiania, Goias in September 1987, it became necessary to evaluate internal contamination levels of: - Individual from the general public that for any reason had direct or indirect involvement with the radioactive source (group 1). - Occupationally involved persons (group 2). For each of these groups, procedures of whole body monitoring were developped. In order to attend group 1 individuals, the IRD/CNEN installed a whole body unit in the INAMPS General Hospital of Goiania in 11.08.87, which was later transferred to 121,57 street, Central Sector in Goiania in 2.06.88. In this unit 547 people were monitored, 356 from group 1 and 241 from group 2, until 04.13.88. In the IRD whole body counter installation, 194 individuals were counted, 185 from group 2 and 9 from group 1. The frequency of monitoring of each individual was established according to the Cs activity present in the body or to the job to be assigned. In this paper we will present some burden activity curves for Cs 137 as a function of the time elapsed from the first measurement. There people from group 1 were measured in both counters, the IRD and the Goiania ones. The values obtained in both installations are compatible with the body activity x time curve. (author)

  11. Body Building on Diamonds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrei P. Sommer; Dan Zhu; Tim Scharnweber; Hans-Joerg Fecht

    2009-01-01

    Whereas conservative therapies aim to stall the advance of disease, regenerative medicine strives to reverse it. The capacity of most tissues to regenerate derives from stem cells, but there are a number of barriers which have to be circumvented before it will be possible to use stem-cell-based therapies. Such therapies, however, are expected to improve human health enormously,and knowledge gained from studying stem cells in culture and in model organisms is now laying the groundwork for a new era of regenerative medicine. One of the most prominent methods to study stem cell differentiation is to let them to form embryoid bodies. Under favourable conditions any stem cell line will form embryoid bodies. However, the mechanism of the formation of embryoid bodies is not very well understood, and to produce them in the laboratory is in no way trivial - an important technical barrier in stem cell research. Recently, the embryoid body cultivation step has been successfully circumvented for the derivation of osteogenic cultures of embryonic stem cells. Here we report on a simple and reusable system to cultivate embryoid bodies in extremely short times. The method is inspired by the principles that lead to the establishment of the biomimetic triangle.

  12. A Clinical Trial on Weight Loss among Truck Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    MS Thiese; AC Effiong; Ott, U.; DG Passey; ZC Arnold; BB Ronna; PA Muthe; EM Wood; MA Murtaugh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The high prevalence of obesity among commercial truck drivers may be related to sedentary nature of the job, lack of healthy eating choices, and lack of exercise. There may be a link between obesity and crash risk, therefore an intervention to reduce obesity in this population is needed.Objective: To assess feasibility of a 12-week weight loss intervention for truck drivers with a weight loss goal of 10% of initial body weight.Methods: Drivers were selected based on age (≥21 years...

  13. Weight Loss, Dietary Intake and Pulse Wave Velocity

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Kristina; Blanch, Natalie; Keogh, Jennifer; Clifton, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We have recently conducted a meta-analysis to determine the effect of weight loss achieved by an energy-restricted diet with or without exercise, anti-obesity drugs or bariatric surgery on pulse wave velocity (PWV) measured at all arterial segments. Twenty studies, including 1,259 participants, showed that modest weight loss (8% of the initial body weight) caused a reduction in PWV measured at all arterial segments. However, due to the poor methodological design of the included studies, the r...

  14. Symptoms of Lewy Body Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lewy body dementia now! Donate Symptoms Lewy body dementia symptoms and diagnostic criteria Every person with LBD ... an umbrella term for two related clinical diagnoses, dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease dementia. The ...

  15. Body Lice Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lice - Body Lice Parasites Home Share Compartir Prevention & Control Body lice are spread most commonly by direct ... that can be taken to help prevent and control the spread of body lice: Bathe regularly and ...

  16. Estimation of economic losses due to Peste de Petits Ruminants in small ruminants in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Singh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To develop a simple mathematical model to assess the losses due to peste des petits ruminants (PPR in small ruminants in India. Materials and Methods: The study was based on cases and deaths in goats and sheep due to PPR from the average combined data on ovine/caprine as published by Government of India for the last 5 years (2008-2012. All possible direct and indirect losses due to the disease, viz. mortality losses, losses due to direct reduction in milk/wool yield, losses due to reproduction failure, body weight losses, treatment costs and opportunity costs, were considered to provide estimate of annual economic losses due to PPR in sheep and goats in India. Based on cases and deaths as reported in sample survey studies, the annual economic loss was also estimated. Results: On the basis of data reported by Government of India, the study has shown average annual economic loss of Rs. 167.83 lacs, of which Rs. 125.67 lacs and Rs. 42.16 lacs respectively are due to the incidence of the disease in goats and sheep. Morbidity losses constituted the greater share of the total loss in both goats and sheep (56.99% and 61.34%, respectively. Among different components of morbidity loss, direct body weight loss was the most significant in both goats and sheep. Based on cases and deaths as reported in sample survey studies, the estimated annual economic loss due to PPR in goats and sheep is Rs. 8895.12 crores, of which Rs. 5477.48 and Rs. 3417.64 crores respectively are due to the disease in goats and sheep. Conclusion: The low economic losses as reported based on Government of India data points towards underreporting of cases and deaths due to the disease. The study thus revealed a significant loss due to PPR in small ruminants on a large scale.

  17. Hearing loss in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pemmaiah K.D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The complex arrangement of inner ear makes it potential target of hyperglycaemic damage. A study was conducted to identify the probable occurrence of hearing loss as a complication of Diabetes Mellitus (DM.Aims and objective:· To assess the hearing loss in type 2 diabetic patients and correlate with age, duration of diabetes, HbA1C.· To correlate hearing loss with nerve conduction study.Design: Cross sectional study was done involving randomly 110 Type 2 DM patients. Data regarding their age and duration of diabetes was collected. Pure tone Audiometry and Nerve conduction study was done. HbA1c level determined. Data statistically analysed using Pearson correlation coefficient.Results: Out of 110 patients 48 patients (43.6% had bilateral Sensorineural hearing in higher frequency (2000hz, 4000hz. Among them Severe hearing loss (71 dB to 90dB was seen in 7 patients (6.36%, moderately severe hearing loss (61dB to 70dB in 16 patients (14.54% and moderate hearing loss(30dB to 60 dB in 25 patients (22.7%. Among 47 patients who had diabetes for more than 10 years, 29 patients (61.7% showed at least mild hearing loss. Duration of DM and sensorineural hearing loss at 2000Hz and 4000Hz showed statistically significant correlation (Pearson coefficient r= 0.561 and r= 0.727 respectively at 0.01 level. In other frequencies no significant correlation was found. Coefficient of determination was r2=0.31(31% and r2=0.52(52% respectively between duration of DM and hearing loss at 2000Hz and 4000Hz. The correlation of hearing loss in lower frequency with HbA1c did not show any statistical significance. However HbA1c and hearing loss in higher frequency (2000 hz and 4000hz showed statistically significant correlation (Pearson coefficient r= 0.282 and r= 0.385 respectively. The correlation of hearing loss with Nerve conduction study did not show any statistical significance.

  18. Stationary bubbles: information loss paradox?

    CERN Document Server

    Domènech, Guillem

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to build classically stationary bubbles, within the thin-shell formalism, which are unstable under quantum effects; they either collapse into a black hole or expand. Thus, the final state can be thought of a superposition of geometries. We point out that, from a quantum mechanical point of view, there is no issue with a loss of information in such configuration. A classical observer sees a definite geometry and, hence, finds an effective loss of information. Although it does not cover all possible cases, we emphasise the role of semi-classical gravitational effects, mediated by instatons, in alleviating/solving the information loss paradox.

  19. 运动减肥对肥胖女大学生身体形态和心率影响的实验研究%Experimental Study on Movement Effect of Weight Loss on Obesity Female College Students' Body Shape and Heart Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于霞

    2013-01-01

      文章通过对肥胖女生进行为期八周的定量负荷、中小强度有氧运动训练,测量其训练前后身体形态、心率指标变化,表明选择运动减肥的方法,使受试者达到较好的减肥效果。修正肥胖女生的身体形态,适度降低安静和定量负荷后的心率,心血管系统机能、对运动负荷的承受能力均有比较明显的提高,健康状态改善。有氧运动对肥胖女大学生身心发展、身体健康具有积极促进作用。%  The paper analyzed the changes of obese female college students in body shape, heart rate before and after the training by quantitative load and small-medium strength aerobic exercise in eight weeks. The results showed that it had achieved a better result to lose weight by having the method of exercise. Such as: the improvement of obese female college students’ body shape, the moderate reduction of the quiet and after quantitative load heart rate, the obvious enhancement of cardiovascular system performance and capacity of exercise load and the improvement of health state. To sum up, the aerobic exercise played a positive role in physical and mental development and the health of obese female college students.

  20. 'Bad boys'' Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skårderud, Finn; Nygren, Pär; Edlund, Birgitta

    2005-01-01

    Children residing in care (hereafter referred to as childcare residents) are a risk¬group for emotional disturbances and behaviour problems. Based on existing knowledge of risk factors one would also expect this population to be a high-risk group for eating disorders and related body-image...... resident group; few differences between girls in the two samples; and a high frequency of having used anabolic?androgenic steroids among boys in care. Body-image problems among boys have hitherto been given little attention. The results call for increased efforts in describing and detecting patho...... disorders. The objective of this study was to describe pathological eating behaviour, dysfunctional body focusing and psychological symptoms in a sample of childcare residents compared with a non-clinical sample. Sixty-one childcare residents (aged 14?21 years, mean 16.2) and a non-clinical comparison group...

  1. Body Image Concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Ansari, Walid; Dibba, Emily; Stock, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the socio-demographic, lifestyle and well-being variables that are associated with body image concerns (BIC) and whether these associations differed between female and male students. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey; 3,706 undergraduate students......, perceived health, depressive symptoms) on the other. RESULTS: More females (35%) than males (8%) reported being moderately or markedly concerned with their body image. For both genders, BIC was associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms and to variable extents, with nutrition and year...... (2,699 females, 765 males) from seven universities in the UK completed a self-administered questionnaire that assessed socio-demographic, lifestyle, well-being and BIC based on the Body Shape Questionnaire developed by Cooper et al. Multifactorial logistic regression analysis examined the odds ratios...

  2. Culture and body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Alves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the relationship between culture and body image. We intend to know how socio-cultural factors influence the levels of satisfaction with body image. The emphasis is given to the cultural values as represented by the sociocultural norms of societies such as the United States of America and Europe. It is argued that through the media, the values of these industrialized societies are dissipated throughout the world provoking cultural changes and uniformization of behavioural standards. From the literature review, it is possible to conclude that body dissatisfaction is a reality to both sexes and a direct result of the non-conformity to cultural-esthetical patterns promoted by the profit-oriented societies.

  3. Body integrity identity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianne M Blom

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID is a rare, infrequently studied and highly secretive condition in which there is a mismatch between the mental body image and the physical body. Subjects suffering from BIID have an intense desire to amputate a major limb or severe the spinal cord in order to become paralyzed. Aim of the study is to broaden the knowledge of BIID amongst medical professionals, by describing all who deal with BIID. METHODS: Somatic, psychiatric and BIID characteristic data were collected from 54 BIID individuals using a detailed questionnaire. Subsequently, data of different subtypes of BIID (i.e. wish for amputation or paralyzation were evaluated. Finally, disruption in work, social and family life due to BIID in subjects with and without amputation were compared. RESULTS: Based on the subjects' reports we found that BIID has an onset in early childhood. The main rationale given for their desire for body modification is to feel complete or to feel satisfied inside. Somatic and severe psychiatric co-morbidity is unusual, but depressive symptoms and mood disorders can be present, possibly secondary to the enormous distress BIID puts upon a person. Amputation and paralyzation variant do not differ in any clinical variable. Surgery is found helpful in all subjects who underwent amputation and those subjects score significantly lower on a disability scale than BIID subjects without body modification. CONCLUSIONS: The amputation variant and paralyzation variant of BIID are to be considered as one of the same condition. Amputation of the healthy body part appears to result in remission of BIID and an impressive improvement of quality of life. Knowledge of and respect for the desires of BIID individuals are the first steps in providing care and may decrease the huge burden they experience.

  4. Deficient mental own-body imagery in a neurological patient with out-of-body experiences due to cannabis use

    OpenAIRE

    Overney, Leila S.; Arzy, Shahar; Blanke, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, we report repeated out-of-body experiences (OBEs) in a patient with tetraplegia and severe somatosensory loss due to multiple sclerosis and predominant involvement of the cervical spinal cord. OBEs were experienced on a daily basis and induced by cannabis treatment that was started for severe spasticity with painful cramps and cloni. In order to investigate the link between OBEs and mental own-body imagery, the patient was asked to imagine himself in the position and visu...

  5. Silicon carbide bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A self-bonded silicon carbide body produced by siliconising a preformed mixture of particles (shaped by means other than slip-casting) of carbon and silicon carbide in the beta form has a mean grain size in the range of 0.1 to 5 microns. Such a body may be produced using silicon carbide particles having a mean surface area in the range 0.5 to 20 square metres per gram. The silicon carbide particles may be produced by heating a mixture of silica and silicon to generate silicon monoxide vapour and passing the vapour through a bed of particulate carbon. (author)

  6. Biometrics Bodies, Technologies, Biopolitics

    CERN Document Server

    Pugliese, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Biometric technologies, such as finger- or facial-scan, are being deployed across a variety of social contexts in order to facilitate and guarantee identity verification and authentication. In the post-9/11 world, biometric technologies have experienced an extraordinary period of growth as concerns about security and screening have increased. This book analyses biometric systems in terms of the application of biopolitical power - corporate, military and governmental - on the human body. It deploys cultural theory in examining the manner in which biometric technologies constitute the body as a

  7. Radioactive test body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent application describes a test body or phantom for use in checking the performance of apparatus which detects the emission of radiations from a body, such as a matrix of detectors, includes an element of pre-determined shape, a material having a known level of radiation intensity being included within the said element. The material is preferably in the shape of part-charter segments arranged in sets to form tubular bands. The central aperture left by the part segments contains a tubular rod having apertures for receiving further rods of varying levels of emission. The sets of segments preferably contain material with different levels of radiation intensity. (author)

  8. Listening to the body?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Susanne; Christensen, Mette Krogh

    2014-01-01

    Based on a single case study of a Danish elite golfer, this article focuses on describing the different ways in which the golfer experiences the physicality of her body during training. The aim of the article is to explore how phenomenological insights concerning self-consciousness can be used...... suggest that the golfer’s experience of the physicality of her body can be considered in relation to three possible dimensions of self-consciousness: a pre-reflective subject-related dimension, a reflective object-directed dimension and a pre-reflective performative dimension. The pre...

  9. Post Newtonian Rigid Body

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Chongming; Tao, Jin-he; Wu, Xuejun

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, it is the first time to construct a complete post-Newtonian (PN) model of a rigid body by means of a new constraint on the mass current density and mass density. In our PN rigid body model most of relations, such as spin vector proportional to the angular velocity, the definition on the moment of inertia tensor, the key relation between the mass quadrupole moment and the moment of inertia tensor, rigid rotating formulae of mass quadrupole moment and the moment of inertia tensor...

  10. The intersectional body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elg, Camilla; Jensen, Sune Qvotrup

    2012-01-01

    from Merleau-Ponty’s thinking about human experience as always already being part of the physical world, and from the concept of mimesis which denotes that we are always as human beings spontaneously engaged with sociality, implying both the accumulation of practical sense and radical conditionality...... producing non-additive analyses might be managed as the body is by definition non-additive. 2, Considerations about fluidity and changeability might be refocused, as a central characteristic of the body is its intertia. 3, Thinking about power relations might be recast as attention is drawn to how power...

  11. Age-Related Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hearing loss. Here are the most common ones: Styles of hearing aids Source: NIH/NIDCD Hearing aids ... list of organizations, contact: NIDCD Information Clearinghouse 1 Communication Avenue Bethesda, MD 20892-3456 Toll-free Voice: ( ...

  12. Coping with cancer -- hair loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... loss: stress and the underestimated psychosocial impact of telogen effluvium and androgenetic alopecia. Journal of Investigative Dermatology . ... for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department ...

  13. Resounding Facts on Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfel, Robert E.

    1977-01-01

    Provides a brief description of the physiology of the human ear. The effect of sustained noise levels on hearing loss is discussed, as well as the establishment of maximum noise levels for American industries. (CP)

  14. Older Adults and Smell Loss

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can't detect them. Narrator: When smell loss does occur, it can be more than an unpleasant ... Dr. Cowart: You need to be sure, as does everyone, obviously, that you have functioning smoke detectors ...

  15. Older Adults and Smell Loss

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... environment and it warns us of dangers, such as bad smells, it attracts us to good smells. ... all. I have no sense of smell. Narrator: A sinus infection led to her loss of smell. ...

  16. Age-differentiated QALI Losses

    OpenAIRE

    Praag, van, B.; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the QALY loss, which may be assigned to the prevalence of specific chronic illnesses and physical handicaps. The analysis is based on an individual self-rating health satisfaction question asked in the British Household Panel Survey data set. This question provides a natural cardinalization of health utility .Our method is a refinement of the method introduced by Cutler and Richardson (1997). We extend their approach in two directions. First, the health utility loss ...

  17. Job loss and broken partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Christensen, Ulla; Lund, Rikke;

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the accumulated number of job losses and broken partnerships (defined as the end of cohabitation) on the risk of fatal and nonfatal events of ischemic heart disease (IHD).......The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the accumulated number of job losses and broken partnerships (defined as the end of cohabitation) on the risk of fatal and nonfatal events of ischemic heart disease (IHD)....

  18. An energy loss straggling formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analytical formulae for straggling widths were obtained solving Symon's equations for the second and third order central moments of the straggling distributions in non-relativistic approximation, enabling prediction of peak widths and asymmetry parameters of charged particle energy loss distributions for thick targets. The respective calculations based on these formulae were found to be in good agreement with experimental values for particle energy losses of light ions up to 70% of the nominal projectile energy value. ((orig.))

  19. Wetland Loss and Research Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Patrick J.; Ziyan Wang; Mark Bain; Xi Chen

    2012-01-01

    The literature analysis method used in this paper outlines variations in research topics. We tested whether research on wetlands is topic-centered, comparative of different wetland classes, or aimed at wetland loss. We analyzed research papers to identify clusters of research activity and interpreted these clusters relative to wetland function and type. Furthermore, a case study on 61 papers was conducted in order to find a critical path of wetland loss induced by different causes. From this ...

  20. Feather loss in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Slavča

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examined the incidence of different forms of feather loss and cannibalism in laying hens aged 74 weeks following moulting and in laying hens following exploitation for a period of one year. The forms of feather loss were considered in detail through a repeated examination of video recordings and they were sorted according to localization - to feather loss on the ventral part of the neck, on the dorsal part of the neck, and on the back between the wings. Feather loss on the ventral part of the neck was established in 47.9% hens, and in the dorsal part in 16.77% hens of the 167 laying hens aged 74 weeks following moulting. The group of 129 laying hens that were observed following one-year exploitation exhibited considerably more frequent feather loss, in 96.90% hens it was localized on the ventral part of the neck, in 60.47% hens on the dorsal part of the neck, and in 20.16% hens it was localized on the back between the wings. A comparison of the results of the incidence of co localized forms of feather loss in the one and the other group of laying hens using the t-test showed statistically very significant differences. A detailed consideration of the video recordings using the method of sequence analysis did not reveal any cannibalism in either group of laying hens.

  1. Very Young Children's Body Image: Bodies and Minds under Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birbeck, David; Drummond, Murray

    2006-01-01

    In recent years research has recognised that notions of body image, body image ideals and body dissatisfaction develop much earlier than was once thought. Forty-seven children (25 male; 22 female) aged between 5 and 6 years were interviewed on three occasions over 12 months regarding their perceptions of body image. The interviews revealed…

  2. Brain, body and culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2010-01-01

    This essay sketches out a biocultural theory of religion which is based on an expanded view of cognition that is anchored in brain and body (embrained and embodied), deeply dependent on culture (enculturated) and extended and distributed beyond the borders of individual brains. Such an approach u...... to scholars of religion and be submitted to further hypotheses and tests by cognitive scientists....

  3. With body and soul

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Nikolaj Ilsted

    2002-01-01

    Aktuel Naturvidenskab(4):34-36. 2002 Short description: ?Man, has by evolution, been equipped with different systems of learning. Children and adults alike have a head as well as a body and both parts can be stimulated,? writes Nikolaj Ilsted Bech and Theresa Schilhab in this article from the...

  4. Bodies and Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A wide-ranging collection of essays centred on readings of the body in contemporary literary and socio-anthropological discourse, from slavery and rape to female genital mutilation, from clothing, ocular pornography, voice, deformation and transmutation to the imprisoned, dismembered, remembered...

  5. Introduction: Minds, Bodies, Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Coleman

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This issue of 19 brings together a selection of essays from an interdisciplinary conference on 'Minds, Bodies, Machines' convened last year by Birkbeck's Centre for Nineteenth-Century Studies, University of London, in partnership with the English programme, University of Melbourne and software developers Constraint Technologies International (CTI. The conference explored the relationship between minds, bodies and machines in the long nineteenth century, with a view to understanding the history of our technology-driven, post-human visions. It is in the nineteenth century that the relationship between the human and the machine under post-industrial capitalism becomes a pervasive theme. From Blake on the mills of the mind by which we are enslaved, to Carlyle's and Arnold's denunciation of the machinery of modern life, from Dickens's sooty fictional locomotive Mr Pancks, who 'snorted and sniffed and puffed and blew, like a little labouring steam-engine', and 'shot out […]cinders of principles, as if it were done by mechanical revolvency', to the alienated historical body of the late-nineteenth-century factory worker under Taylorization, whose movements and gestures were timed, regulated and rationalised to maximize efficiency; we find a cultural preoccupation with the mechanisation of the nineteenth-century human body that uncannily resonates with modern dreams and anxieties around technologies of the human.

  6. Form and Human Body

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Mingchao

    2014-01-01

    Architectural form offers an expression and an observer receives an impression. This interaction exists at both intellectual (mind) and physical (body) levels. Through designing a sculpture pavilion in a forest, this thesis explores different means of empathetic expression in modern architectural form.

  7. Many-body theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of the discipline of many-body theory during the past 25 years is outlined and the developments originated in the Theoretical Physics Division, AERE, are discussed. Topics considered include; the connection between plasma oscillations and the dielectric properties of an electron gas, superconductivity, Fermi levels, ferromagnetism in metals, phase transformations, scaling laws, and quasi-one-dimensional solids. (UK)

  8. The Mallory body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K; Gluud, C

    1994-01-01

    Drawing on data from a previously published literature survey on the clinical and experimental epidemiology of the Mallory body, we discuss current theories on its development in a pro et contra manner. Conclusions have been largely left open to the interpretations of the reader because many are ...

  9. Adherence to a behavioral weight loss treatment program enhances weight loss and improvements in biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushama D Acharya

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sushama D Acharya3, Okan U Elci3, Susan M Sereika1,2,3, Edvin Music3, Mindi A Styn3, Melanie Warziski Turk3, Lora E Burke2,31Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, 2Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, 3School of Nursing, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USAObjectives: To describe participants’ adherence to multiple components (attendance, energy intake, fat gram, exercise goals, and self-monitoring eating and exercise behaviors of a standard behavioral treatment program (SBT for weight loss and how adherence to these components may influence weight loss and biomarkers (triglycerides, low density lipoproteins [LDL], high density lipoprotein, and insulin during the intensive and less-intensive intervention phases. Methods: A secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial consisting of a SBT with either fat-restricted standard or lacto-ovo vegetarian diet. The 12-month intervention was delivered in 33 group sessions. The first six months reflected the intensive phase; the second six months, the less-intensive intervention phase. We conducted the analysis without regard to treatment assignment. Eligible participants included overweight/obese adults (N = 176; mean body mass index = 34.0 kg/m2. The sample was 86.9% female, 70.5% White, and 44.4 ± 8.6 years old. The outcome measures included weight and biomarkers. Results: There was a significant decline in adherence to each treatment component over time (P < 0.0001. In the first six months, adherence to attendance, self-monitoring and the energy goal were significantly associated with greater weight loss (P < 0.05. Adherence to attendance and exercise remained significantly associated with weight loss in the second six months (P < 0.05. Adherence to attendance, self-monitoring and exercise had indirect effects through weight loss on LDL, triglycerides, and insulin (P < 0.05.Conclusions: We observed a decline in adherence to each

  10. The change in body stressed to relaxed body through breathing, visualization and a protective environment together

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn I. Rodríguez Morrill

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This work shows several ways to meet and relax the body through personal knowledge and techniques encounter with nature. Modern life and fast, the constant pressure from childhood to adulthood, in the modes of interaction between individuals and groups, they lead to construction of bodies that reflect emotional anatomy visible loss of balance, contractures, inflammation, multiple imbalances by lack of knowledge and awareness especially being in the world fully, the person has moved away from its ecological relationship with itself and the environment. Methods are shown to positively change a condition of constant stress and chronic discomfort, a learned condition of physical and psychological wellbeing, with a series of movements, recovering the body through exercise, to tend to personal balance, obtaining a positive relationship with the environment and the people attended. The proposal starts promoting new habits that can be saved in consciousness. Partly, mainly of breath, alignment with the music and the environment and personal and group work

  11. Obesity-induced Lymphedema Nonreversible following Massive Weight Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Arin K.; Grant, Frederick D; Maclellan, Reid A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Lymphedema is the progressive enlargement of tissue due to inadequate lymphatic function. Obesity-induced lymphedema of the lower extremities can occur once a patient’s body mass index (BMI) exceeds 50. We report our first patient with obesity-induced lower extremity lymphedema who was followed prospectively before and after weight loss. A 46-year-old woman with a BMI of 80 presented to our Lymphedema Program complaining of bilateral lower extremity swelling. Lymphoscintigraphy showe...

  12. Dietary Adherence During Weight Loss Predicts Weight Regain

    OpenAIRE

    Corral, Pedro Del; Bryan, David R.; Garvey, W. Timothy; Gower, Barbara A.; Gary R. Hunter

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between previous dietary adherence during a low-calorie diet weight loss intervention and subsequent weight change during a 2-year follow-up for weight maintenance. One hundred and sixteen healthy, recently weight reduced (lost ~12 kg, BMI 22–25 kg/m2) premenopausal women were studied. Dietary adherence was assessed by doubly labeled water (DLW) and body composition change. Comparisons were made between the upper and lower tertiles for previous dietary adh...

  13. Body composition analysis: Cellular level modeling of body component ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Wang; Heymsfield, S. B.; PI-SUNYER, F.X.; Gallagher, D.; PIERSON, R.N.

    2008-01-01

    During the past two decades, a major outgrowth of efforts by our research group at St. Luke’s-Roosevelt Hospital is the development of body composition models that include cellular level models, models based on body component ratios, total body potassium models, multi-component models, and resting energy expenditure-body composition models. This review summarizes these models with emphasis on component ratios that we believe are fundamental to understanding human body composition during growt...

  14. Implicit beliefs about ideal body image predict body image dissatisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Heider, Niclas; Spruyt, Adriaan; De Houwer, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether implicit measures of actual and ideal body image can be used to predict body dissatisfaction in young female adults. Participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures (IRAPs) to examine their implicit beliefs concerning actual (e.g., I am thin) and desired ideal body image (e.g., I want to be thin). Body dissatisfaction was examined via self-report questionnaires and rating scales. As expected, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential i...

  15. Dementia with Lewy bodies: early diagnostic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, Hiroshige; Iseki, Eizo; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Kasanuki, Koji; Chiba, Yuhei; Ota, Kazumi; Murayama, Norio; Sato, Kiyoshi

    2013-06-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is defined pathologically as neurodegeneration associated with Lewy bodies (LB). LB-related symptoms, including olfactory dysfunction, dysautonomia, and mood and sleep disorders, are increasingly recognized as clinical signs that enable the early detection of DLB, because these symptoms often antedate dementia by years or even decades. It remains unknown if the clinical history of LB-related symptoms is sufficient for the prodromal state of DLB to be suspected in memory clinics. We retrospectively investigated the clinical courses, including olfactory dysfunction, dysautonomia, depression, and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, of 90 patients with probable DLB. The timing of LB-related symptoms that preceded or followed relative to the onset of memory loss was calculated. LB-related symptoms were present in 79 of 90 patients (87.8%) with probable DLB before or at the time of memory loss onset. These symptoms preceded the onset of memory loss between 1.2 and 9.3 years. We also report on four non-demented patients with a clinical history of LB-related symptoms in our memory clinic. All four patients showed reduced cardiac [(123) I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine levels. Moreover, [(18) F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography scans revealed glucose hypometabolism in the occipital cortex in two patients. One patient converted to probable DLB with the development of parkinsonism 2 years after major depression was diagnosed. Based on a clinical history of LB-related symptoms, we propose a conceptual framework to identify these symptomatic but non-demented individuals that led us to suspect the underlying pathophysiology of Lewy body disease. Further prospective study is warranted to determine the clinical significance of LB-related symptoms in non-demented patients. PMID:23909972

  16. ‘ SILENT’ LARYNGEAL FOREIGN BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekhar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal foreign bodies in adults are rare. The foreign bodies accidentally entering the larynx are symptomatic in the form of choking , stridor or even death. We are presenting a rare case of foreign body in the larynx in a 42 year old male who was symptom free except for dysphonia. The foreign body was removed successfully under local anesthesia.

  17. Inclusion bodies in Plesiomonas shigelloides.

    OpenAIRE

    Pastian, M R; Bromel, M C

    1984-01-01

    Inclusion bodies were discovered in seven environmental isolates of Plesiomonas shigelloides and the P. shigelloides control (ATCC 14029). Differential staining indicated that the inclusion bodies may be composed of polyphosphates, and developmental stages of the bodies may occur. The inclusion bodies may be useful for rapid presumptive identification of this organism.

  18. Body image inflexibility mediates the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Serafino G

    2016-03-01

    Body image inflexibility, the unwillingness to experience negative appearance-related thoughts and emotions, is associated with negative body image and eating disorder symptoms. The present study investigated whether body image inflexibility mediated the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies (appearance-fixing and experiential avoidance) in a college and community sample comprising 156 females aged 18-51 years (M=22.76, SD=6.96). Controlling for recruitment source (college vs. community), body image inflexibility fully mediated the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies. Results indicated that an unwillingness to experience negative appearance-related thoughts and emotions is likely responsible for negative body image evaluation's relationship to appearance-fixing behaviours and experiential avoidance. Findings support extant evidence that interventions that explicitly target body image inflexibility, such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, may have utility in treating body dissatisfaction in nonclinical populations. PMID:26595857

  19. Body composition in detoxified alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, J L; Pendergast, D E

    1990-04-01

    Body composition was evaluated in healthy detoxified alcoholics (aged 20-39) and lifestyle controls, with the expectation that prolonged, excessive consumption of alcohol may bring about nutritional or toxicologic alterations in the relationship between body fat and lean body mass. Body fat was assessed by measurements of skin-fold thickness and by means of bioelectric impedance methodology. No noteworthy differences were observed between alcoholics and controls with regard to the relationship between lean body mass and body fat or in the relationship between extracellular and intracellular water. It would appear that 15-20 years of heavy alcohol consumption does not necessarily alter body composition in healthy, young alcoholics. PMID:2190482

  20. Central control of body temperature [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun F. Morrison

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis.