Sample records for body water homeostasis

  1. Sleep and bodily functions: the physiological interplay between body homeostasis and sleep homeostasis. (United States)

    Amici, R; Bastianini, S; Berteotti, C; Cerri, M; Del Vecchio, F; Lo Martire, V; Luppi, M; Perez, E; Silvani, A; Zamboni, G; Zoccoli, G


    Body homeostasis and sleep homeostasis may both rely on the complex integrative activity carried out by the hypothalamus. Thus, the three main wake-sleep (WS) states (i.e. wakefulness, NREM sleep, and REM sleep) may be better understood if the different cardio-respiratory and metabolic parameters, which are under the integrated control of the autonomic and the endocrine systems, are studied during sleep monitoring. According to this view, many physiological events can be considered as an expression of the activity that physiological regulations should perform in order to cope with the need to fulfill body and sleep homeostasis. This review is aimed at making an assessment of data showing the existence of a physiological interplay between body homeostasis and sleep homeostasis, starting from the spontaneous changes observed in the somatic and autonomic activity during sleep, through evidence showing the deep changes occurring in the central integration of bodily functions during the different WS states, to the changes in the WS states observed when body homeostasis is challenged by the external environment and when the return to normal ambient conditions allows sleep homeo- stasis to run without apparent physiological restrictions. The data summarized in this review suggest that an approach to the dichotomy between NREM and REM sleep based on physiological regulations may offer a framework within which observations that a traditional behavioral approach may overlook can be interpreted. The study of the interplay between body and sleep homeostasis appears, therefore, to be a way to understand the function of complex organisms beyond that of the specific regulations.

  2. Neuroendocrine control of body fluid homeostasis

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    McCann S.M.


    Full Text Available Angiotensin II and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP play important and opposite roles in the control of water and salt intake, with angiotensin II promoting the intake of both and ANP inhibiting the intake of both. Following blood volume expansion, baroreceptor input to the brainstem induces the release of ANP within the hypothalamus that releases oxytocin (OT that acts on its receptors in the heart to cause the release of ANP. ANP activates guanylyl cyclase that converts guanosine triphosphate into cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP. cGMP activates protein kinase G that reduces heart rate and force of contraction, decreasing cardiac output. ANP acts similarly to induce vasodilation. The intrinsic OT system in the heart and vascular system augments the effects of circulating OT to cause a rapid reduction in effective circulating blood volume. Furthermore, natriuresis is rapidly induced by the action of ANP on its tubular guanylyl cyclase receptors, resulting in the production of cGMP that closes Na+ channels. The OT released by volume expansion also acts on its tubular receptors to activate nitric oxide synthase. The nitric oxide released activates guanylyl cyclase leading to the production of cGMP that also closes Na+ channels, thereby augmenting the natriuretic effect of ANP. The natriuresis induced by cGMP finally causes blood volume to return to normal. At the same time, the ANP released acts centrally to decrease water and salt intake.

  3. About Body Water (United States)

    ... Diabetes Epidemic Additional Content Medical News About Body Water By James L. Lewis, III, MD NOTE: This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Water Balance About Body Water Dehydration Overhydration Water accounts ...

  4. Renal renin secretion as regulator of body fluid homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Mads; Isaksson, Gustaf L; Stubbe, Jane;


    intake, but the specific pathways involved and the relations between them are not well defined. In animals, renin secretion is a log-linear function of sodium intake. Close associations exist between sodium intake, total body sodium, extracellular fluid volume, and blood volume. Plasma volume increases...... by about 1.5 mL/mmol increase in daily sodium intake. Several lines of evidence indicate that central blood volume may vary substantially without measurable changes in arterial blood pressure. At least five intertwining feedback loops of renin regulation are identifiable based on controlled variables......The renin-angiotensin system is essential for body fluid homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. This review focuses on the homeostatic regulation of the secretion of active renin in the kidney, primarily in humans. Under physiological conditions, renin secretion is determined mainly by sodium...

  5. Homeostasis

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    Anna Negroni


    Full Text Available Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs form a physiochemical barrier that separates the intestinal lumen from the host’s internal milieu and is critical for electrolyte passage, nutrient absorption, and interaction with commensal microbiota. Moreover, IECs are strongly involved in the intestinal mucosal inflammatory response as well as in mucosal innate and adaptive immune responses. Cell death in the intestinal barrier is finely controlled, since alterations may lead to severe disorders, including inflammatory diseases. The emerging picture indicates that intestinal epithelial cell death is strictly related to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. This review is focused on previous reports on different forms of cell death in intestinal epithelium.

  6. Alkaline ceramidase 1 is essential for mammalian skin homeostasis and regulating whole-body energy expenditure. (United States)

    Liakath-Ali, Kifayathullah; Vancollie, Valerie E; Lelliott, Christopher J; Speak, Anneliese O; Lafont, David; Protheroe, Hayley J; Ingvorsen, Camilla; Galli, Antonella; Green, Angela; Gleeson, Diane; Ryder, Ed; Glover, Leanne; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Karp, Natasha A; Arends, Mark J; Brenn, Thomas; Spiegel, Sarah; Adams, David J; Watt, Fiona M; van der Weyden, Louise


    The epidermis is the outermost layer of skin that acts as a barrier to protect the body from the external environment and to control water and heat loss. This barrier function is established through the multistage differentiation of keratinocytes and the presence of bioactive sphingolipids such as ceramides, the levels of which are tightly regulated by a balance of ceramide synthase and ceramidase activities. Here we reveal the essential role of alkaline ceramidase 1 (Acer1) in the skin. Acer1-deficient (Acer1(-/-) ) mice showed elevated levels of ceramide in the skin, aberrant hair shaft cuticle formation and cyclic alopecia. We demonstrate that Acer1 is specifically expressed in differentiated interfollicular epidermis, infundibulum and sebaceous glands and consequently Acer1(-/-) mice have significant alterations in infundibulum and sebaceous gland architecture. Acer1(-/-) skin also shows perturbed hair follicle stem cell compartments. These alterations result in Acer1(-/-) mice showing increased transepidermal water loss and a hypermetabolism phenotype with associated reduction of fat content with age. We conclude that Acer1 is indispensable for mammalian skin homeostasis and whole-body energy homeostasis. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  7. Bursting bodies of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg


    A silent threat is growing below receding glaciers: lakes are formed as the tongues of the glaciers draw back up the mountain, and huge and growing bodies of water beneath them are contained only be weak moraine walls.......A silent threat is growing below receding glaciers: lakes are formed as the tongues of the glaciers draw back up the mountain, and huge and growing bodies of water beneath them are contained only be weak moraine walls....

  8. Disorders of water homeostasis in neurosurgical patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hannon, Mark J


    Context: Disorders of water balance are common in neurosurgical patients and usually manifest as hypo- or hypernatremia. They are most commonly seen after subarachnoid hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, with intracranial tumors, and after pituitary surgery. Setting: We reviewed the experience of endocrine evaluation and management of disorders of salt and water balance in a large cohort of inpatients attending the national neurosciences referral centre in Dublin, Ireland, and compared this experience with findings from other studies. Patients: The study group included unselected neurosurgical patients admitted to our centre and requiring endocrine evaluation. Interventions: We conducted investigations to determine the underlying mechanistic basis for disorders of salt and water balance in neurosurgical patients and treatment to restore normal metabolism. Main Outcome Measures: Morbidity and mortality associated with deranged salt and water balance were measured. Results: The underlying pathophysiology of disordered water balance in neurosurgical patients is complex and varied and dictates the optimal therapeutic approach. Conclusions: A systematic and well-informed approach is needed to properly diagnose and manage disorders of salt and water balance in neurosurgical patients.

  9. Targeting Protein Homeostasis in Sporadic Inclusion Body Myositis (United States)

    Ahmed, Mhoriam; Machado, Pedro M.; Miller, Adrian; Spicer, Charlotte; Herbelin, Laura; He, Jianghua; Noel, Janelle; Wang, Yunxia; McVey, April L.; Pasnoor, Mamatha; Gallagher, Philip; Statland, Jeffrey; Lu, Ching-Hua; Kalmar, Bernadett; Brady, Stefen; Sethi, Huma; Samandouras, George; Parton, Matt; Holton, Janice L.; Weston, Anne; Collinson, Lucy; Taylor, J. Paul; Schiavo, Giampietro; Hanna, Michael G.; Barohn, Richard J.; Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Greensmith, Linda


    Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) is the commonest severe myopathy in patients over age 50. Previous therapeutic trials have targeted the inflammatory features of sIBM, but all have failed. Since protein dyshomeostasis may also play a role in sIBM, we tested the effects of targeting this feature of the disease. Using rat myoblast cultures, we found that up-regulation of the heat shock response with Arimoclomol reduced key pathological markers of sIBM in vitro. Furthermore, in mutant valosin-containing protein VCP mice, which develop an inclusion body myopathy (IBM), treatment with Arimoclomol ameliorated disease pathology and improved muscle function. We therefore evaluated the safety and tolerability of Arimoclomol in an investigator-lead, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept patient trial and gathered exploratory efficacy data which showed that Arimoclomol was safe and well tolerated. Although Arimoclomol improved some IBM-like pathology in vitro and in vivo in the mutant VCP mouse, we did not see statistically significant evidence of efficacy in this proof of concept patient trial. PMID:27009270

  10. Targeting protein homeostasis in sporadic inclusion body myositis. (United States)

    Ahmed, Mhoriam; Machado, Pedro M; Miller, Adrian; Spicer, Charlotte; Herbelin, Laura; He, Jianghua; Noel, Janelle; Wang, Yunxia; McVey, April L; Pasnoor, Mamatha; Gallagher, Philip; Statland, Jeffrey; Lu, Ching-Hua; Kalmar, Bernadett; Brady, Stefen; Sethi, Huma; Samandouras, George; Parton, Matt; Holton, Janice L; Weston, Anne; Collinson, Lucy; Taylor, J Paul; Schiavo, Giampietro; Hanna, Michael G; Barohn, Richard J; Dimachkie, Mazen M; Greensmith, Linda


    Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) is the commonest severe myopathy in patients more than 50 years of age. Previous therapeutic trials have targeted the inflammatory features of sIBM but all have failed. Because protein dyshomeostasis may also play a role in sIBM, we tested the effects of targeting this feature of the disease. Using rat myoblast cultures, we found that up-regulation of the heat shock response with arimoclomol reduced key pathological markers of sIBM in vitro. Furthermore, in mutant valosin-containing protein (VCP) mice, which develop an inclusion body myopathy, treatment with arimoclomol ameliorated disease pathology and improved muscle function. We therefore evaluated arimoclomol in an investigator-led, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept trial in sIBM patients and showed that arimoclomol was safe and well tolerated. Although arimoclomol improved some IBM-like pathology in the mutant VCP mouse, we did not see statistically significant evidence of efficacy in the proof-of-concept patient trial.

  11. The human kidney as a regulator of body cytokine homeostasis

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    A. Bonanni


    Full Text Available Evidence is accumulating that the human kidney is a major site for the removal of several cytokines and growth factors, which can accumulate in body pools in patients with acute and chronic kidney disease (CKD. In addition, progressive renal failure and the increase in circulating proinflammatory cytokines are associated with mortality, suggesting that altered cytokines handling by the kidney is associated with worse outcome. Also, the kidney itself may be damaged by signals arising by endothelia and peripheral tissues during the course of the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and obesity. In this paper we provide a review of kidney handling of several adipokines and myokines, with special emphasis to interleukin-6 (IL-6, leptin, resistin and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta.

  12. Water homeostasis, frailty and congnitive function in the nursing home (United States)

    The goal of this study is to develop and test a practical clinical method to assess frailty in nursing homes and to investigate the relationship between cognitive status of the elderly and the balance between water compartments of their body composition. This is a cross-sectional study, conducted a...

  13. Neuronal expression of glucosylceramide synthase in central nervous system regulates body weight and energy homeostasis.

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    Viola Nordström

    Full Text Available Hypothalamic neurons are main regulators of energy homeostasis. Neuronal function essentially depends on plasma membrane-located gangliosides. The present work demonstrates that hypothalamic integration of metabolic signals requires neuronal expression of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS; UDP-glucose:ceramide glucosyltransferase. As a major mechanism of central nervous system (CNS metabolic control, we demonstrate that GCS-derived gangliosides interacting with leptin receptors (ObR in the neuronal membrane modulate leptin-stimulated formation of signaling metabolites in hypothalamic neurons. Furthermore, ganglioside-depleted hypothalamic neurons fail to adapt their activity (c-Fos in response to alterations in peripheral energy signals. Consequently, mice with inducible forebrain neuron-specific deletion of the UDP-glucose:ceramide glucosyltransferase gene (Ugcg display obesity, hypothermia, and lower sympathetic activity. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV-mediated Ugcg delivery to the arcuate nucleus (Arc significantly ameliorated obesity, specifying gangliosides as seminal components for hypothalamic regulation of body energy homeostasis.

  14. Vagotomy ameliorates islet morphofunction and body metabolic homeostasis in MSG-obese rats

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    Lubaczeuski, C.; Balbo, S.L. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Endócrina e Metabolismo, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Ribeiro, R.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Macaé, RJ (Brazil); Vettorazzi, J.F.; Santos-Silva, J.C.; Carneiro, E.M. [Laboratório de Pâncreas Endócrino e Metabolismo, Departamento de Biologia Estrutural e Funcional, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Bonfleur, M.L. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Endócrina e Metabolismo, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, PR (Brazil)


    The parasympathetic nervous system is important for β-cell secretion and mass regulation. Here, we characterized involvement of the vagus nerve in pancreatic β-cell morphofunctional regulation and body nutrient homeostasis in 90-day-old monosodium glutamate (MSG)-obese rats. Male newborn Wistar rats received MSG (4 g/kg body weight) or saline [control (CTL) group] during the first 5 days of life. At 30 days of age, both groups of rats were submitted to sham-surgery (CTL and MSG groups) or subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (Cvag and Mvag groups). The 90-day-old MSG rats presented obesity, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and hypertriglyceridemia. Their pancreatic islets hypersecreted insulin in response to glucose but did not increase insulin release upon carbachol (Cch) stimulus, despite a higher intracellular Ca{sup 2+} mobilization. Furthermore, while the pancreas weight was 34% lower in MSG rats, no alteration in islet and β-cell mass was observed. However, in the MSG pancreas, increases of 51% and 55% were observed in the total islet and β-cell area/pancreas section, respectively. Also, the β-cell number per β-cell area was 19% higher in MSG rat pancreas than in CTL pancreas. Vagotomy prevented obesity, reducing 25% of body fat stores and ameliorated glucose homeostasis in Mvag rats. Mvag islets demonstrated partially reduced insulin secretion in response to 11.1 mM glucose and presented normalization of Cch-induced Ca{sup 2+} mobilization and insulin release. All morphometric parameters were similar among Mvag and CTL rat pancreases. Therefore, the higher insulin release in MSG rats was associated with greater β-cell/islet numbers and not due to hypertrophy. Vagotomy improved whole body nutrient homeostasis and endocrine pancreatic morphofunction in Mvag rats.

  15. Contribution of a Membrane Estrogen Receptor to the Estrogenic Regulation of Body Temperature and Energy Homeostasis (United States)

    Roepke, Troy A.; Bosch, Martha A.; Rick, Elizabeth A.; Lee, Benjamin; Wagner, Edward J.; Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana; Wuttke, Wolfgang; Scanlan, Thomas S.; Rønnekleiv, Oline K.; Kelly, Martin J.


    The hypothalamus is a key region of the central nervous system involved in the control of homeostasis, including energy and core body temperature (Tc). 17β-Estradiol (E2) regulates Tc, in part, via actions in the basal hypothalamus and preoptic area. E2 primarily controls hypothalamic functions via the nuclear steroid receptors, estrogen receptor α/β. However, we have previously described an E2-responsive, Gq-coupled membrane receptor that reduces the postsynaptic inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid-ergic tone and attenuates postovariectomy body weight gain in female guinea pigs through the administration of a selective Gq-mER ligand, STX. To determine the role of Gq-mER in regulating Tc, energy and bone homeostasis, ovariectomized female guinea pigs, implanted ip with temperature probes, were treated with STX or E2 for 7–8 wk. Tc was recorded for 4 wk, whereas food intake and body weight were monitored daily. Bone density and fat accumulation were determined postmortem. Both E2 and STX significantly reduced Tc in the females compared with controls. STX, similar to E2, reduced food intake and fat accumulation and increased tibial bone density. Therefore, a Gq-mER-coupled signaling pathway appears to be involved in maintaining homeostatic functions and may constitute a novel therapeutic target for treatment of hypoestrogenic symptoms. PMID:20685867

  16. Stratification in Natural Water Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob Steen


    Density stratification of natural water bodies plays an important role for a number of civil engineering problems. The origin of stratification in natural water is discussed and the Black Sea, the Gulf of Katchch, and Maarmorilik Fiord in Greenland are described and used as examples. Stratification...... has a number of civil engineering implications. The lock exchange problem is used as a canonical example, and implications for water exchange and sedimentation is discussed by means of examples: Sedimentation in locks and estuaries, salt transport into fresh water reservoirs, water exchange...

  17. AMPK: positive and negative regulation, and its role in whole-body energy homeostasis. (United States)

    Hardie, D Grahame


    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of energy status that, when activated by metabolic stress, maintains cellular energy homeostasis by switching on catabolic pathways and switching off ATP-consuming processes. Recent results suggest that activation of AMPK by the upstream kinase LKB1 in response to nutrient lack occurs at the surface of the lysosome. AMPK is also crucial in regulation of whole body energy balance, particularly by mediating effects of hormones acting on the hypothalamus. Recent crystal structures of complete AMPK heterotrimers have illuminated its complex mechanisms of activation, involving both allosteric activation and increased net phosphorylation mediated by effects on phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Finally, AMPK is negatively regulated by phosphorylation of the 'ST loop' within the catalytic subunit.

  18. SAPHIR: a physiome core model of body fluid homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. (United States)

    Thomas, S Randall; Baconnier, Pierre; Fontecave, Julie; Françoise, Jean-Pierre; Guillaud, François; Hannaert, Patrick; Hernández, Alfredo; Le Rolle, Virginie; Mazière, Pierre; Tahi, Fariza; White, Ronald J


    We present the current state of the development of the SAPHIR project (a Systems Approach for PHysiological Integration of Renal, cardiac and respiratory function). The aim is to provide an open-source multi-resolution modelling environment that will permit, at a practical level, a plug-and-play construction of integrated systems models using lumped-parameter components at the organ/tissue level while also allowing focus on cellular- or molecular-level detailed sub-models embedded in the larger core model. Thus, an in silico exploration of gene-to-organ-to-organism scenarios will be possible, while keeping computation time manageable. As a first prototype implementation in this environment, we describe a core model of human physiology targeting the short- and long-term regulation of blood pressure, body fluids and homeostasis of the major solutes. In tandem with the development of the core models, the project involves database implementation and ontology development.

  19. A novel oral form of salmon calcitonin improves glucose homeostasis and reduces body weight in diet-induced obese rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feigh, M; Henriksen, K; Andreassen, K V


    To investigate the effects of acute and chronic administration of a novel oral formulation of salmon calcitonin (sCT) on glycaemic control, glucose homeostasis and body weight regulation in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats-an animal model of obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Ines Escobar


    Full Text Available Se presenta una experiencia de aula  desarrollada  con un  grupo  de estudiantes de grado octavo de la Escuela Pedagógica Experimental durante el año 2014, ésta se constituyó alrededor del estudio del organismo teniendo como referente la comprensión del proceso  homeostático. El trabajo  se enmarcó dentro de la concepción de proyectos  que se implementan a través de la estrategia pedagógica  ATAs (Actividades Totalidad Abiertas.   Se  indagó  a los estudiantes  sobre ¿Qué  líquidos se producen en el cuerpo y en qué situaciones en particular se producen? para  dar inicio al trabajo.  Se desarrollaron  cuatro  tipos de actividades: el estudio sobre lo que ocurre en el organismo cuando se asciende a una montaña como el nevado del Cocuy[1]; la constitución rutas de trabajo específicas   para estudiar la producción de un líquido en particular en el cuerpo humano; la construcción de un artefacto autorregulado (la termita   y el estudio de artefactos cotidianos donde se analice su funcionamiento a partir de la autorregulación. Con esta forma de trabajo se busca  que los estudiantes  se acerquen al estudio del cuerpo humano a partir de la homeostasis con la intención de  superar la visión tradicional de enseñanza del cuerpo humano como una sumatoria de partes. Desde esta perspectiva se pretende generar  situaciones de análisis donde se hagan evidentes las relaciones que hay entre los diferentes  sistemas y órganos  a partir de situaciones particulares. Además se recurre a la comprensión del funcionamiento de artefactos cotidianos que posibiliten enriquecer esa mirada del organismo a partir de su interacción con el medio interno y el medio externo.

  1. Effects of Beer, Non-Alcoholic Beer and Water Consumption before Exercise on Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis in Athletes. (United States)

    Castro-Sepulveda, Mauricio; Johannsen, Neil; Astudillo, Sebastián; Jorquera, Carlos; Álvarez, Cristian; Zbinden-Foncea, Hermann; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo


    Fluid and electrolyte status have a significant impact on physical performance and health. Pre-exercise recommendations cite the possibility of consuming beverages with high amounts of sodium. In this sense, non-alcoholic beer can be considered an effective pre-exercise hydration beverage. This double-blind, randomized study aimed to compare the effect of beer, non-alcoholic beer and water consumption before exercise on fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Seven male soccer players performed 45 min of treadmill running at 65% of the maximal heart rate, 45 min after ingesting 0.7 L of water (W), beer (AB) or non-alcoholic beer (NAB). Body mass, plasma Na⁺ and K⁺ concentrations and urine specific gravity (USG) were assessed before fluid consumption and after exercise. After exercise, body mass decreased (p beer before exercise could help maintain electrolyte homeostasis during exercise. Alcoholic beer intake reduced plasma Na⁺ and increased plasma K⁺ during exercise, which may negatively affect health and physical performance, and finally, the consumption of water before exercise could induce decreases of Na⁺ in plasma during exercise.

  2. Fluid and salt supplementation effect on body hydration and electrolyte homeostasis during bed rest and ambulation (United States)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Kakurin, Vassily J.; Kuznetsov, Nikolai A.; Yarullin, Vladimir L.


    Bed rest (BR) induces significant urinary and blood electrolyte changes, but little is known about the effect of fluid and salt supplements (FSS) on catabolism, hydration and electrolytes. The aim was to measure the effect of FSS on catabolism, body hydration and electrolytes during BR. Studies were done during 7 days of a pre-bed rest period and during 30 days of a rigorous bed rest period. Thirty male athletes aged, 24.6±7.6 years were chosen as subjects. They were divided into three groups: unsupplemented ambulatory control subjects (UACS), unsupplemented bed rested subjects (UBRS) and supplemented bed rested subjects (SBRS). The UBRS and SBRS groups were kept under a rigorous bed rest regime for 30 days. The SBRS daily took 30 ml water per kg body weight and 0.1 sodium chloride per kg body weight. Plasma sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels, urinary Na, K, Ca and Mg excretion, plasma osmolality, plasma protein level, whole blood hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) level increased significantly ( p≤0.05), while plasma volume (PV), body weight, body fat, peak oxygen uptake, food and fluid intake decreased significantly ( p≤0.05) in the UBRS group when compared with the SBRS and UACS groups. In contrast, plasma and urinary electrolytes, osmolality, protein level, whole blood Hct and Hb level decreased significantly ( p≤0.05), while PV, fluid intake, body weight and peak oxygen uptake increased significantly ( p≤0.05) in the SBRS group when compared with the UBRS group. The measured parameters did not change significantly in the UACS group when compared with their baseline control values. The data indicate that FSS stabilizes electrolytes and body hydration during BR, while BR alone induces significant changes in electrolytes and body hydration. We conclude that FSS may be used to prevent catabolism and normalize body hydration status and electrolyte values during BR.

  3. Exposure to lithium through drinking water and calcium homeostasis during pregnancy: A longitudinal study. (United States)

    Harari, Florencia; Åkesson, Agneta; Casimiro, Esperanza; Lu, Ying; Vahter, Marie


    There is increasing evidence of adverse health effects due to elevated lithium exposure through drinking water but the impact on calcium homeostasis is unknown. This study aimed at elucidating if lithium exposure through drinking water during pregnancy may impair the maternal calcium homeostasis. In a population-based mother-child cohort in the Argentinean Andes (n=178), with elevated lithium concentrations in the drinking water (5-1660μg/L), blood lithium concentrations (correlating significantly with lithium in water, urine and plasma) were measured repeatedly during pregnancy by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and used as exposure biomarker. Markers of calcium homeostasis included: plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), and calcium, phosphorus and magnesium concentrations in serum and urine. The median maternal blood lithium concentration was 25μg/L (range 1.9-145). In multivariable-adjusted mixed-effects linear regression models, blood lithium was inversely associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (-6.1nmol/L [95%CI -9.5; -2.6] for a 25μg/L increment in blood lithium). The estimate increased markedly with increasing percentiles of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. In multivariable-adjusted mixed-effects logistic regression models, the odds ratio of having 25-hydroxyvitamin D3lithium. Blood lithium was also positively associated with serum magnesium, but not with serum calcium and PTH, and inversely associated with urinary calcium and magnesium. In conclusion, our study suggests that lithium exposure through drinking water during pregnancy may impair the calcium homeostasis, particularly vitamin D. The results reinforce the need for better control of lithium in drinking water, including bottled water.

  4. Physiological and molecular mechanisms of salt and water homeostasis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. (United States)

    Choe, Keith P


    Intracellular salt and water homeostasis is essential for all cellular life. Extracellular salt and water homeostasis is also important for multicellular organisms. Many fundamental mechanisms of compensation for osmotic perturbations are well defined and conserved. Alternatively, molecular mechanisms of detecting salt and water imbalances and regulating compensatory responses are generally poorly defined for animals. Throughout the last century, researchers studying vertebrates and vertebrate cells made critical contributions to our understanding of osmoregulation, especially mechanisms of salt and water transport and organic osmolyte accumulation. Researchers have more recently started using invertebrate model organisms with defined genomes and well-established methods of genetic manipulation to begin defining the genes and integrated regulatory networks that respond to osmotic stress. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is well suited to these studies. Here, I introduce osmoregulatory mechanisms in this model, discuss experimental advantages and limitations, and review important findings. Key discoveries include defining genetic mechanisms of osmolarity sensing in neurons, identifying protein damage as a sensor and principle determinant of hypertonic stress resistance, and identification of a putative sensor for hypertonic stress associated with the extracellular matrix. Many of these processes and pathways are conserved and, therefore, provide new insights into salt and water homeostasis in other animals, including mammals.

  5. Effects of Beer, Non-Alcoholic Beer and Water Consumption before Exercise on Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis in Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Castro-Sepulveda


    Full Text Available Fluid and electrolyte status have a significant impact on physical performance and health. Pre-exercise recommendations cite the possibility of consuming beverages with high amounts of sodium. In this sense, non-alcoholic beer can be considered an effective pre-exercise hydration beverage. This double-blind, randomized study aimed to compare the effect of beer, non-alcoholic beer and water consumption before exercise on fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Seven male soccer players performed 45 min of treadmill running at 65% of the maximal heart rate, 45 min after ingesting 0.7 L of water (W, beer (AB or non-alcoholic beer (NAB. Body mass, plasma Na+ and K+ concentrations and urine specific gravity (USG were assessed before fluid consumption and after exercise. After exercise, body mass decreased (p < 0.05 in W (−1.1%, AB (−1.0% and NAB (−1.0%. In the last minutes of exercise, plasma Na+ was reduced (p < 0.05 in W (−3.9% and AB (−3.7%, plasma K+ was increased (p < 0.05 in AB (8.5%, and USG was reduced in W (−0.9% and NAB (−1.0%. Collectively, these results suggest that non-alcoholic beer before exercise could help maintain electrolyte homeostasis during exercise. Alcoholic beer intake reduced plasma Na+ and increased plasma K+ during exercise, which may negatively affect health and physical performance, and finally, the consumption of water before exercise could induce decreases of Na+ in plasma during exercise.

  6. Activin B regulates islet composition and islet mass but not whole body glucose homeostasis or insulin sensitivity (United States)

    Bonomi, Lara; Brown, Melissa; Ungerleider, Nathan; Muse, Meghan; Matzuk, Martin M.


    Based on the phenotype of the activin-like kinase-7 (ALK7)-null mouse, activins A and B have been proposed to play distinct roles in regulating pancreatic islet function and glucose homeostasis, with activin A acting to enhance islet function and insulin release while activin B antagonizes these actions. We therefore hypothesized that islets from activin B-null (BBKO) mice would have enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In addition, we hypothesized that this enhanced islet function would translate into increased whole body glucose tolerance. We tested these hypotheses by analyzing glucose homeostasis, insulin secretion, and islet function in BBKO mice. No differences were observed in fasting glucose or insulin levels, glucose tolerance, or insulin sensitivity compared with weight-matched young or older males. Similarly, there were no significant differences in insulin secretion comparing islets from WT or BBKO males at either age. However, BBKO islets were more sensitive to activin A, myostatin (MSTN), and follistatin (FST) treatments, so that activin A and FST inhibited and MSTN enhanced glucose stimulated insulin secretion. While mean islet area and the distribution of islet areas were not different between the genotypes, islet mass, islet number, and the proportion of α-cells/islet were significantly reduced in BBKO islets. These results indicate that activin B does not antagonize activin A to influence whole body glucose homeostasis or β-cell function but does influence islet mass and proportion of α-cells/islet. Therefore, loss of activin B signaling alone does not account for the ALK7-null phenotype, but activin B may have important roles in modulating islet mass, islet number, and the cellular composition of islets. PMID:22739106

  7. A whole-body model for glycogen regulation reveals a critical role for substrate cycling in maintaining blood glucose homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Xu


    Full Text Available Timely, and sometimes rapid, metabolic adaptation to changes in food supply is critical for survival as an organism moves from the fasted to the fed state, and vice versa. These transitions necessitate major metabolic changes to maintain energy homeostasis as the source of blood glucose moves away from ingested carbohydrates, through hepatic glycogen stores, towards gluconeogenesis. The integration of hepatic glycogen regulation with extra-hepatic energetics is a key aspect of these adaptive mechanisms. Here we use computational modeling to explore hepatic glycogen regulation under fed and fasting conditions in the context of a whole-body model. The model was validated against previous experimental results concerning glycogen phosphorylase a (active and glycogen synthase a dynamics. The model qualitatively reproduced physiological changes that occur during transition from the fed to the fasted state. Analysis of the model reveals a critical role for the inhibition of glycogen synthase phosphatase by glycogen phosphorylase a. This negative regulation leads to high levels of glycogen synthase activity during fasting conditions, which in turn increases substrate (futile cycling, priming the system for a rapid response once an external source of glucose is restored. This work demonstrates that a mechanistic understanding of the design principles used by metabolic control circuits to maintain homeostasis can benefit from the incorporation of mathematical descriptions of these networks into "whole-body" contextual models that mimic in vivo conditions.

  8. Water and electrolytes. [in human bodies (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Harrison, M. H.


    It has been found that the performance of the strongest and fittest people will deteriorate rapidly with dehydration. The present paper is concerned with the anatomy of the fluid spaces in the body, taking into account also the fluid shifts and losses during exercise and their effects on performance. Total body water is arbitrarily divided into that contained within cells (cellular) and that located outside the cells (extracellular). The anatomy of body fluid compartments is considered along with the effects of exercise on body water, fluid shifts with exercise, the consequences of sweating, dehydration and exercise, heat acclimatization and endurance training, the adverse effects of dehydration, thirst and drinking during exercise, stimuli for drinking, and water, electrolyte, and carbohydrate replacement during exercise. It is found that the deterioration of physical exercise performance due to dehydration begins when body weight decreases by about 1 percent.

  9. Effects of the Soluble Fiber Complex PolyGlycopleX on Glucose Homeostasis and Body Weight in Young Zucker Diabetic Rats. (United States)

    Grover, Gary James; Koetzner, Lee; Wicks, Joan; Gahler, Roland J; Lyon, Michael R; Reimer, Raylene A; Wood, Simon


    Dietary fiber can reduce insulin resistance, body weight, and hyperlipidemia depending on fiber type, water solubility, and viscosity. PolyGlycopleX(®) (PGX(®)) is a natural, novel water soluble, non-starch polysaccharide complex that with water forms a highly viscous gel compared to other naturally occurring dietary fiber. We determined the effect of dietary PGX(®) vs. cellulose and inulin on the early development of insulin resistance, body weight, hyperlipidemia, and glycemia-induced tissue damage in young Zucker diabetic rats (ZDFs) in fasted and non-fasted states. ZDFs (5 weeks old) were fed a diet containing 5% (wgt/wgt) cellulose, inulin, or PGX(®) for 8 weeks. Body weight, lipids, insulin, and glucose levels were determined throughout the study and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was used to measure insulin sensitivity throughout the study in fasted animals. At study termination, insulin sensitivity (oral glucose tolerance test, OGTT) and kidney, liver, and pancreatic histopathology were determined. Body weight and food intake were significantly reduced by PGX(®) vs. inulin and cellulose. Serum insulin in fasted and non-fasted states was significantly reduced by PGX(®) as was non-fasted blood glucose. Insulin resistance, measured as a HOMA score, was significantly reduced by PGX(®) in weeks 5 through 8 as well as terminal OGTT scores in fed and fasted states. Serum total cholesterol was also significantly reduced by PGX(®). PGX(®) significantly reduced histological kidney and hepatic damage in addition to reduced hepatic steatosis and cholestasis. A greater mass of pancreatic β-cells was found in the PGX(®) group. PGX(®) therefore may be a useful dietary additive in the control of the development of the early development of the metabolic syndrome.

  10. Effects of the Soluble Fiber Complex PolyGlycopleX® on Glucose Homeostasis and Body Weight in Young Zucker Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland J. Gahler


    Full Text Available Dietary fiber can reduce insulin resistance, body weight and hyperlipidemia depending on fiber type, water solubility and viscosity. PolyGlycopleX® (PGX® is a natural, novel water soluble, non-starch polysaccharide complex that with water forms a highly viscous gel compared to other naturally-occurring dietary fiber. We determined the effect of dietary PGX® vs cellulose and inulin on the early development of insulin resistance, body weight, hyperlipidemia, and glycemia-induced tissue damage in young Zucker diabetic rats (ZDFs in fasted and nonfasted states. ZDFs (5 weeks old were fed a diet containing 5% (wt/wt cellulose, inulin, or PGX® for 8 weeks. Body weight, lipids, insulin and glucose levels were determined throughout the study and Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA was used to measure insulin sensitivity throughout the study in fasted animals. At study termination, insulin sensitivity (oral glucose tolerance test, OGTT and kidney, liver, and pancreatic histopathology were determined. Body weight and food intake were significantly reduced by PGX® vs inulin and cellulose. Serum insulin in fasted and non-fasted states was significantly reduced by PGX® as was non-fasted blood glucose. Insulin resistance, measured as a HOMA score, was significantly reduced by PGX® in weeks 5 through 8 as well as terminal OGTT scores in fed and fasted states. Serum total cholesterol was also significantly reduced by PGX®. PGX® significantly reduced histological kidney and hepatic damage in addition to reduced hepatic steatosis and cholestasis. A greater mass of pancreatic -cells was found in the PGX® group. PGX® therefore may be a useful dietary additive in the control of the development of the early development of the metabolic syndrome.

  11. Water and electrolyte homeostasis and kidney function of desert-dwelling marsupial wallabies in Western Australia. (United States)

    Bradshaw, S D; Morris, K D; Bradshaw, F J


    Prolonged drought, necessitating conservation of water, is one of the major environmental challenges faced by many Australian marsupials. Radioactive isotopes of water and sodium were used to assess the ability of two species of marsupial wallabies to maintain water and electrolyte balance during periods of extreme water deprivation in the arid Pilbara region of Western Australia. The spectacled hare-wallaby, Lagorchestes conspicillatus, has the lowest mass-specific rate of water turnover at 27.5 yet reported for any mammal and was two to three orders of magnitude lower than that of the Rothschild's rock-wallaby, Petrogale rothschildi. Studies of renal function show that the hare-wallaby conserves water by producing a highly concentrated urine under the influence of lysine vasopressin (LVP), the anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) in macropodid marsupials. In contrast, rock-wallabies show unusual renal responses to water deprivation, with no change in LVP levels and a limited response to water deprivation involving a reduction in renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate, with no significant change in tubular function. Both species are able to maintain water and electrolyte homeostasis during periods of drought, highlighting the efficacy of their differing adaptive solutions to the problem of water scarcity, although the hare-wallaby is superior to the rock-wallaby in this respect. Rock-wallabies appear to rely primarily on behavioural rather than physiological responses for their survival in the Pilbara and appear to be more vulnerable to extinction in the event of significant habitat modification. The secure nature of their rock habitat, however, means that they have suffered less than hare-wallabies in the recent past.

  12. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.


    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation.

  13. Beneficial autoimmunity at body surfaces– immune surveillance and rapid type 2 immunity regulate tissue homeostasis and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eDalessandri


    Full Text Available Epithelial cells line body surface tissues and provide a physicochemical barrier to the external environment. Frequent microbial and non-microbial challenges such as those imposed by mechanical disruption, injury or exposure to noxious environmental substances including chemicals, carcinogens, ultraviolet-irradiation or toxins cause activation of epithelial cells with release of cytokines and chemokines as well as alterations in the expression of cell surface ligands. Such display of epithelial stress is rapidly sensed by tissue resident immunocytes, which can directly interact with self-moieties on epithelial cells and initiate both local and systemic immune responses. Epithelial cells are thus key drivers of immune surveillance at body surface tissues. However, epithelial cells have a propensity to drive type 2 immunity (rather than type 1 upon non-invasive challenge or stress – a type of immunity whose regulation and function still remain enigmatic. Here we review the induction and possible role of type 2 immunity in epithelial tissues and propose that rapid immune surveillance and type 2 immunity are key regulators of tissue homeostasis and carcinogenesis.

  14. Mind-body response and neurophysiological changes during stress and meditation: central role of homeostasis. (United States)

    Jerath, R; Barnes, V A; Crawford, M W


    Stress profoundly impacts quality of life and may lead to various diseases and conditions. Understanding the underlying physiological and neurological processes that take place during stress and meditation techniques may be critical for effectively treating stress-related diseases. The article examines a hypothetical physiological homeostatic response that compares and contrasts changes in central and peripheral oscillations during stress and meditation, and relates these to changes in the autonomic system and neurological activity. The authors discuss how cardiorespiratory synchronization, which occurs during the parasympathetic response and meditation, influences and modulates activity and oscillations of the brain and autonomic nervous system. Evidence is presented on how synchronization of cardiac and respiratory rates during meditation may lead to a homeostatic increase in cellular membrane potentials in neurons and other cells throughout the body. These potential membrane changes may underlie the reduced activity in the amygdala, and other cortical areas during meditation, and research examining these changes may foster better understanding of the restorative properties and health benefits of meditation.

  15. The role of hepatic transferrin receptor 2 in the regulation of iron homeostasis in the body.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christal A Worthen


    Full Text Available Fine tuning of body iron is required to prevent diseases such as iron-overload and anemia. The putative iron-sensor, transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2, is expressed in the liver and mutations in this protein result in the iron-overload disease Type III hereditary hemochromatosis (HH. With the loss of functional TfR2, the liver produces about two-fold less of the peptide hormone hepcidin, which is responsible for negatively regulating iron uptake from the diet. This reduction in hepcidin expression leads to the slow accumulation of iron in the liver, heart, joints, and pancreas and subsequent cirrhosis, heart disease, arthritis, and diabetes. TfR2 can bind iron-loaded transferrin in the bloodstream, and hepatocytes treated with transferrin respond with a two-fold increase in hepcidin expression through stimulation of the BMP-signaling pathway. Loss of functional TfR2 or its binding partner, the original HH protein (HFE, results in a loss of this transferrin-sensitivity. While much is known about the trafficking and regulation of TfR2, the mechanism of its transferrin-sensitivity through the BMP-signaling pathway is still not known.

  16. Fatigue is a brain-derived emotion that regulates the exercise behavior to ensure the protection of whole body homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy David Noakes


    Full Text Available An influential book written by A. Mosso in the late 19th century proposed that fatigue that at first sight might appear an imperfection of our body, is on the contrary one of its most marvellous perfections. The fatigue increasing more rapidly than the amount of work done saves us from the injury which lesser sensibility would involve for the organism so that muscular fatigue also is at bottom an exhaustion of the nervous system.It has taken more than a century to confirm Mosso’s idea that both the brain and the muscles alter their function during exercise and that fatigue is predominantly an emotion, part of a complex regulation, the goal of which is to protect the body from harm. Mosso’s ideas were supplanted in the English literature by those of A.V. Hill who believed that fatigue was the result of biochemical changes in the exercising limb muscles - peripheral fatigue - to which the central nervous system makes no contribution. The past decade has witnessed the growing realization that this brainless model cannot explain exercise performance. This article traces the evolution of our modern understanding of how the CNS regulates exercise specifically to insure that each exercise bout terminates whilst homeostasis is retained in all bodily systems. The brain uses the symptoms of fatigue as key regulators to insure that the exercise is completed before harm develops. These sensations of fatigue are unique to each individual and are illusionary since their generation is largely independent of the real biological state of the athlete at the time they develop. The model predicts that attempts to understand fatigue and to explain superior human athletic performance purely on the basis of the body’s known physiological and metabolic responses to exercise must fail since subconscious and conscious mental decisions made by winners and losers, in both training and competition, are the ultimate determinants of both fatigue and athletic performance.

  17. Estrogen response element-independent signaling partially restores post-ovariectomy body weight gain but is not sufficient for 17β-estradiol's control of energy homeostasis. (United States)

    Mamounis, Kyle J; Yang, Jennifer A; Yasrebi, Ali; Roepke, Troy A


    The steroid 17β-estradiol (E2) modulates energy homeostasis by reducing feeding behavior and increasing energy expenditure primarily through estrogen receptor α (ERα)-mediated mechanisms. Intact ERαKO female mice develop obesity as adults exhibiting decreased energy expenditure and increased fat deposition. However, intact transgenic female mice expressing a DNA-binding-deficient ERα (KIKO) are not obese and have similar energy expenditure, activity and fat deposition as to wild type (WT) females, suggesting that non-estrogen response element (ERE)-mediated signaling is important in E2 regulation of energy homeostasis. Initial reports did not examine the effects of ovariectomy on energy homeostasis or E2's attenuation of post-ovariectomy body weight gain. Therefore, we sought to determine if low physiological doses of E2 (250 ng QOD) known to suppress post-ovariectomy body weight gain in WT females would suppress body weight gain in ovariectomized KIKO females. We observed that the post-ovariectomy increase in body weight was significantly greater in WT females than in KIKO females. Furthermore, E2 did not significantly attenuate the body weight gain in KIKO females as it did in WT females. E2 replacement suppressed food intake and fat accumulation while increasing nighttime oxygen consumption and activity only in WT females. E2 replacement also increased arcuate POMC gene expression in WT females only. These data suggest that in the intact female, ERE-independent mechanisms are sufficient to maintain normal energy homeostasis and to partially restore the normal response to ovariectomy. However, they are not sufficient for E2's suppression of post-ovariectomy body weight gain and its effects on metabolism and activity.

  18. Estrogen response element-independent signaling partially restores post-ovariectomy body weight gain but is not sufficient for 17β-estradiol’s control of energy homeostasis (United States)

    Mamounis, Kyle J.; Yang, Jennifer A.; Yasrebi, Ali; Roepke, Troy A.


    The steroid 17β-estradiol (E2) modulates energy homeostasis by reducing feeding behavior and increasing energy expenditure primarily through estrogen receptor α (ERα)-mediated mechanisms. Intact ERαKO female mice develop obesity as adults exhibiting decreased energy expenditure and increased fat deposition. However, intact transgenic female mice expressing a DNA-binding-deficient ERα (KIKO) are not obese and have similar energy expenditure, activity and fat deposition to wild type (WT) females, suggesting that non-Estrogen Response Element (ERE)-mediated signaling is important in E2 regulation of energy homeostasis. However, initial reports did not examine the effects of ovariectomy on energy homeostasis or E2’s attenuation of post-ovariectomy body weight gain. Therefore, we sought to determine if low physiological doses of E2 (250 ng QOD) known to suppress post-ovariectomy body weight gain in WT females, would suppress body weight gain in ovariectomized KIKO females. We observed that the post-ovariectomy increase in body weight was significantly greater in WT females than in KIKO females. Furthermore, E2 did not significantly attenuate the body weight gain in KIKO females as it did in WT females. E2 replacement suppressed food intake and fat accumulation while increasing nighttime oxygen consumption and activity only in WT females. E2 replacement also increased arcuate POMC gene expression in WT females only. These data suggest that in the intact female, ERE-independent mechanisms are sufficient to maintain normal energy homeostasis and to partially restore the normal response to ovariectomy. However, they are not sufficient for E2’s suppression of post-ovariectomy body weight gain and attenuation of decreases in metabolism and activity. PMID:24252383

  19. [Desmopressin effect on water-salt homeostasis and orthostatic tolerance during head-down tilting]. (United States)

    Larina, I M; Noskov, V B; Nichiporuk, I A; Pastushkova, L Kh; Vasil'eva, G Iu


    Effects of desmopressin, a synthetic analog of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), on water-salt metabolism and orthostatic tolerance were evaluated in human subjects during 24-hr HDT (-15 degrees). Consumption of the preparation was found to dampen losses in total body and extracellular liquids and to slow down diuresis as well as establishment of a positive water balance as compared with control series without ADH. In addition, tolerance of the standard standing test improved noticeably. To conclude, desmopressin precluded hypohydration of the tilted subjects and, consequently, prevented loss of orthostatic tolerance.

  20. Effects of Beer, Non-Alcoholic Beer and Water Consumption before Exercise on Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis in Athletes


    Mauricio Castro-Sepulveda; Neil Johannsen; Sebastián Astudillo; Carlos Jorquera; Cristian Álvarez; Hermann Zbinden-Foncea; Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo


    Fluid and electrolyte status have a significant impact on physical performance and health. Pre-exercise recommendations cite the possibility of consuming beverages with high amounts of sodium. In this sense, non-alcoholic beer can be considered an effective pre-exercise hydration beverage. This double-blind, randomized study aimed to compare the effect of beer, non-alcoholic beer and water consumption before exercise on fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Seven male soccer players performed 45...

  1. Studies of acid-base homeostasis during simulated weightlessness: Application of the water immersion model to man (United States)

    Epstein, M.


    The effects of water immersion on acid-base homeostasis were investigated under carefully controlled conditions. Studies of renal acidification were carried out on seven healthy male subjects, each consuming a diet containing 150 meq sodium and 100 meq potassium. Control and immersion studies were carried out on each subject on the fourth and sixth days, respectively, of dietary equilibration, by which time all subjects had achieved sodium balance. The experimental protocols on study days were similar (except for the amount of water administered).

  2. Role of α{sub 2}-adrenoceptors in the lateral parabrachial nucleus in the control of body fluid homeostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, C.A.F.; Andrade-Franzé, G.M.F.; De Paula, P.M.; De Luca, L.A. Jr.; Menani, J.V. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Patologia, Faculdade de Odontologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)


    Central α{sub 2}-adrenoceptors and the pontine lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) are involved in the control of sodium and water intake. Bilateral injections of moxonidine (α{sub 2}-adrenergic/imidazoline receptor agonist) or noradrenaline into the LPBN strongly increases 0.3 M NaCl intake induced by a combined treatment of furosemide plus captopril. Injection of moxonidine into the LPBN also increases hypertonic NaCl and water intake and reduces oxytocin secretion, urinary sodium, and water excreted by cell-dehydrated rats, causing a positive sodium and water balance, which suggests that moxonidine injected into the LPBN deactivates mechanisms that restrain body fluid volume expansion. Pretreatment with specific α{sub 2}-adrenoceptor antagonists injected into the LPBN abolishes the behavioral and renal effects of moxonidine or noradrenaline injected into the same area, suggesting that these effects depend on activation of LPBN α{sub 2}-adrenoceptors. In fluid-depleted rats, the palatability of sodium is reduced by ingestion of hypertonic NaCl, limiting intake. However, in rats treated with moxonidine injected into the LPBN, the NaCl palatability remains high, even after ingestion of significant amounts of 0.3 M NaCl. The changes in behavioral and renal responses produced by activation of α{sub 2}-adrenoceptors in the LPBN are probably a consequence of reduction of oxytocin secretion and blockade of inhibitory signals that affect sodium palatability. In this review, a model is proposed to show how activation of α{sub 2}-adrenoceptors in the LPBN may affect palatability and, consequently, ingestion of sodium as well as renal sodium excretion.

  3. Machine-learning methods in the classification of water bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sołtysiak Marek


    Full Text Available Amphibian species have been considered as useful ecological indicators. They are used as indicators of environmental contamination, ecosystem health and habitat quality., Amphibian species are sensitive to changes in the aquatic environment and therefore, may form the basis for the classification of water bodies. Water bodies in which there are a large number of amphibian species are especially valuable even if they are located in urban areas. The automation of the classification process allows for a faster evaluation of the presence of amphibian species in the water bodies. Three machine-learning methods (artificial neural networks, decision trees and the k-nearest neighbours algorithm have been used to classify water bodies in Chorzów – one of 19 cities in the Upper Silesia Agglomeration. In this case, classification is a supervised data mining method consisting of several stages such as building the model, the testing phase and the prediction. Seven natural and anthropogenic features of water bodies (e.g. the type of water body, aquatic plants, the purpose of the water body (destination, position of the water body in relation to any possible buildings, condition of the water body, the degree of littering, the shore type and fishing activities have been taken into account in the classification. The data set used in this study involved information about 71 different water bodies and 9 amphibian species living in them. The results showed that the best average classification accuracy was obtained with the multilayer perceptron neural network.

  4. [Body composition at menarche. Estimation of total body weight, total body water, lean and fat body weight]. (United States)

    Zurlo de Mirotti, S M; Lesa, A M; Barrón de Carbonetti, M; Roitter, H; Villagra de Lacuara, S


    Our aim was to confirm in our environment what has been observed and described by other writers about the importance of achieving a "critical body weight'' and an adequate "fat percentage'' -on the basis of the calculation of total body water- for the initiation and development of pubertal events. This study included 92 girls, healthy, well nourished, belonging to upper middle class from a high school of The National University of Cordoba. The longitudinal method of control was used every 6 months and at the precise moment of menarche. Out of 20 antropometrical variables observed height, weight and height, TBW as percentage of body weight, lean body and fat weight, fat percentage and skin folds ppercentiles for each girl at menarche. A regression between fat percentage and skin folds was done. Percentiles 5 to 95 of fat percentage in relation to body water percentage were estimated. At menarche the average for the different variables are: Heigth 155.6 cm +/- 0.469; Weight 45.8 Kg +/- 0,5; TBW 25.216 lit. +/- 0.318; lean body weigth 35.02 Kg (S.D.2.98); fat weigth 10.86 Kg (S. D. 3.17). The addition of skin folds was correlated fat percentage, thus, an equation was obtained for the average calculation of such percentage %F= 12.16 + (0.313 x fold addition). The minium percentage for the onset of menstrual cycles is 17.3% and corresponds to percentile 10. However, there is a 5% of girls who start to menstruate with a 15.5% of fat and none of them is below that value. The reasons mentioned above suggest that is necessary to obtain a "critical body weigth'' as well as a "fat percentage'' minimum for the onset and maintenance of menstrual cycles, among our girls, similar o what has been obtained by doctor Frisch.

  5. FDA Throws Cold Water on Whole Body Cryotherapy (United States)

    ... html FDA Throws Cold Water on Whole Body Cryotherapy Exposure to ultra-low temperatures shows no benefits ... evidence that a growing trend called whole body cryotherapy is effective, but it does pose a number ...

  6. The putative Na⁺/Cl⁻-dependent neurotransmitter/osmolyte transporter inebriated in the Drosophila hindgut is essential for the maintenance of systemic water homeostasis. (United States)

    Luan, Zhuo; Quigley, Caitlin; Li, Hong-Sheng


    Most organisms are able to maintain systemic water homeostasis over a wide range of external or dietary osmolarities. The excretory system, composed of the kidneys in mammals and the Malpighian tubules and hindgut in insects, can increase water conservation and absorption to maintain systemic water homeostasis, which enables organisms to tolerate external hypertonicity or desiccation. However, the mechanisms underlying the maintenance of systemic water homeostasis by the excretory system have not been fully characterized. In the present study, we found that the putative Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent neurotransmitter/osmolyte transporter inebriated (ine) is expressed in the basolateral membrane of anterior hindgut epithelial cells. This was confirmed by comparison with a known basolateral localized protein, the α subunit of Na(+)-K(+) ATPase (ATPα). Under external hypertonicity, loss of ine in the hindgut epithelium results in severe dehydration without damage to the hindgut epithelial cells, implicating a physiological failure of water conservation/absorption. We also found that hindgut expression of ine is required for water conservation under desiccating conditions. Importantly, specific expression of ine in the hindgut epithelium can completely restore disrupted systemic water homeostasis in ine mutants under both conditions. Therefore, ine in the Drosophila hindgut is essential for the maintenance of systemic water homeostasis.

  7. Seasonal changes in total body water; body composition and water turnover in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terje S. Larsen


    Full Text Available Total body water and water turnover were measured at different times throughout the year in 3 captive Norwegian reindeer, using a tritiated water dilution method (Holleman et al. 1982. Total body water (percent of body weight increased during late autumn and winter, from 59.1 ± 1.5 % in October to 72.5 ± 2.0 % in April. Using the equatation by Pace and Rathbun (1945 for predicting total body fat (% fat = 100 - % water/0.732, this increase in total body water indicates a concomitant reduction in body fat, from a maximum value of 18.9 ± 2.6 % (of body weight in October to a minimum of 0.9 ± 2.7 % in April. During summer, on the other hand, fat content increased at the expense of a reduced percentage of body water. Water turnover was low in winter (December - April, ranging between 30.8 ± 5.2and43.6 ± 13.5ml.d-'. kg-1, but increased nearly fourfold during summer (June-August with a maximum of 117.7 ± 5.9 ml.d-1. kg-1 in August. Positive correlations between water turnover and food intake and between water turnover and ambient temperature were found, the latter probably resulting from an incidental correlation between food intake and ambient temperature.Sesongmessige forandringer i totalt kroppsvann, kropps-sammensetning og vannomsetning hos reinsdyr.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Totalt kroppsvann og vannomsetning av vann ble målt til forskjellige årstider i 3 norske reinsdyr ved hjelp av utvasking av tritiert vann (Holleman et al. 1982. Totalt kroppsvann (prosent av kroppsvekt økte utover høsten og vinteren, fra 59.1 ± 1.5 % i oktober til 72.5 ± 2.0 % i april. Ved hjelp av en ligning som er gitt av Pace og Rathbun (1945 for beregning av totalt kroppsfett (% fett = 100 - % vann/0.732, fant en at denne økningen i vanninnhold tilsvarte en samtidig reduksjon i fettinnhold, fra en maksimums-verdi på 18.9 ± 2.6 % av kroppsvekt i oktober til et minimum på 0.9 ± 2.7 % i april. Utover sommeren økte derimot innholdet av fett p

  8. Introduction to landscape design elements - water body beauty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    both in classical gardens of piled mountain water or the water in the modern city landscape, is almost no water is not a scene, as an essential element in landscape water body, not only has the aesthetic value, and has the ecological value. This article through to the water landscape characteristics and the importance of this paper, analyzes the form of waterscape, water landscape design in landscape design provides sufficient theoretical basis and the reference material.

  9. Effective body water and body mass changes during summer ultra-endurance road cycling. (United States)

    Armstrong, Lawrence E; Johnson, Evan C; Ganio, Matthew S; Judelson, Daniel A; Vingren, Jakob L; Kupchak, Brian R; Kunces, Laura J; Muñoz, Colleen X; McKenzie, Amy L; Williamson, Keith H


    Because body mass change (ΔMb) does not represent all water losses and gains, the present field investigation determined if (a) ΔMb equalled the net effective body water change during ultra-endurance exercise and (b) ground speed and exercise duration influenced these variables. Thirty-two male cyclists (age range, 35-52 years) completed a 164-km event in a hot environment, were retrospectively triplet matched and placed into one of three groups based on exercise duration (4.8, 6.3, 9.6 h). Net effective body water loss was computed from measurements (body mass, total fluid intake and urine excreted) and calculations (water evolved and mass loss due to substrate oxidation, solid food mass and sweat loss), including (ΔEBWgly) and excluding (ΔEBW) water bound to glycogen. With all cyclists combined, the mean ΔMb (i.e. loss) was greater than that of ΔEBWgly by 1200 ± 200 g (P = 1.4 × 10(-18)), was similar to ΔEBW (difference, 0 ± 200 g; P = .21) and was strongly correlated with both (R(2) = .98). Analysis of equivalence indicated that ΔMb was not equivalent to ΔEBWgly, but was equivalent to ΔEBW. Due to measurement complexity, we concluded that (a) athletes will not calculate the effective body water calculations routinely and (b) body mass change remains a useful field-expedient estimate of net effective body water change.

  10. [Influence of weightlessness on water and electrolytes balance in body]. (United States)

    Shen, X Y


    The balance of water and electrolytes plays an important role in enabling the human body to adapt to spaceflight. This paper introduced the research methods, and changes in water and electrolytes balance during and after space flight. The mechanism and the hazard of the disorder of water and electrolytes caused by weightlessness were discussed.

  11. Servo-control of water and sodium homeostasis during renal clearance measurements in conscious rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Klaus; Shirley, David G


    Servo-controlled fluid and sodium replacement during clearance studies is used in order to prevent loss of body fluid and sodium following diuretic/natriuretic procedures. However, even under control conditions, the use of this technique is sometimes associated with increases in proximal tubular...

  12. Homeostasis in leaf water potentials on leeward and windward sides of desert shrub crowns: water loss control vs. high hydraulic efficiency. (United States)

    Iogna, Patricia A; Bucci, Sandra J; Scholz, Fabián G; Goldstein, Guillermo


    Phenotypic plasticity in morphophysiological leaf traits in response to wind was studied in two dominant shrub species of the Patagonian steppe, used as model systems for understanding effects of high wind speed on leaf water relations and hydraulic properties of small woody plants. Morpho-anatomical traits, hydraulic conductance and conductivity and water relations in leaves of wind-exposed and protected crown sides were examined during the summer with nearly continuous high winds. Although exposed sides of the crowns were subjected to higher wind speeds and air saturation deficits than the protected sides, leaves throughout the crown had similar minimum leaf water potential (ΨL). The two species were able to maintain homeostasis in minimum ΨL using different physiological mechanisms. Berberis microphylla avoided a decrease in the minimum ΨL in the exposed side of the crown by reducing water loss by stomatal control, loss of cell turgor and low epidermal conductance. Colliguaja integerrima increased leaf water transport efficiency to maintain transpiration rates without increasing the driving force for water loss in the wind-exposed crown side. Leaf physiological changes within the crown help to prevent the decrease of minimum ΨL and thus contribute to the maintenance of homeostasis, assuring the hydraulic integrity of the plant under unfavorable conditions. The responses of leaf traits that contribute to mechanical resistance (leaf mass per area and thickness) differed from those of large physiological traits by exhibiting low phenotypic plasticity. The results of this study help us to understand the unique properties of shrubs which have different hydraulic architecture compared to trees.

  13. Phosphate homeostasis and disorders. (United States)

    Manghat, P; Sodi, R; Swaminathan, R


    Recent studies of inherited disorders of phosphate metabolism have shed new light on the understanding of phosphate metabolism. Phosphate has important functions in the body and several mechanisms have evolved to regulate phosphate balance including vitamin D, parathyroid hormone and phosphatonins such as fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23). Disorders of phosphate homeostasis leading to hypo- and hyperphosphataemia are common and have clinical and biochemical consequences. Notably, recent studies have linked hyperphosphataemia with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This review outlines the recent advances in the understanding of phosphate homeostasis and describes the causes, investigation and management of hypo- and hyperphosphataemia.

  14. Temporal dynamics of stomatal conductance of plants under water deficit: can homeostasis be improved by more complex dynamics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Maia Souza


    Full Text Available In this study we hypothesized that chaotic or complex behavior of stomatal conductance could improve plant homeostasis after water deficit. Stomatal conductance of sunflower and sugar beet leaves was measured in plants grown either daily irrigation or under water deficit using an infrared gas analyzer. All measurements were performed under controlled environmental conditions. In order to measure a consistent time series, data were scored with time intervals of 20s during 6h. Lyapunov exponents, fractal dimensions, KS entropy and relative LZ complexity were calculated. Stomatal conductance in both irrigated and non-irrigated plants was chaotic-like. Plants under water deficit showed a trend to a more complex behaviour, mainly in sunflower that showed better homeostasis than in sugar beet. Some biological implications are discussed.Este estudo testou a hipótese de que a condutância estomática de uma população de estômatos em uma folha poderia apresentar um comportamento caótico ou complexo sob diferentes condições hídricas, o que poderia favorecer a capacidade homeostática das plantas. A condutância estomática em folhas de girassol e de beterraba cultivadas com irrigação diária e sob deficiência hídrica foi medida com um analisador de gás por infra-vermelho em condições controladas. Os dados foram registrados a cada 20s durante 6h. As séries temporais obtidas foram analisadas por meio dos coeficientes de Lyapunov, dimensão fractal, entropia KS e complexidade LZ relativa. A condutância estomática nas plantas cultivadas com e sem deficiência hídrica exibiu um comportamento provavelmente caótico. As plantas sob estresse hídrico mostraram uma tendência para um comportamento mais complexo, principalmente as plantas de girassol cuja capacidade homeostática foi superior. Algumas implicações biológicas destes comportamentos são discutidas no texto.

  15. Acute and chronic effects of growth hormone on renal regulation of electrolyte and water homeostasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimke, H.; Flyvbjerg, A.; Frische, S.


    For decades, growth hormone (GH) has been known to influence electrolyte and water handling in humans and animals. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the GH-induced anti-natriuretic and anti-diuretic effects have remained elusive. This review will examine the existing literature on renal e

  16. Validation of Geoland2 small water bodies product: methodological overview (United States)

    Schlaffer, S.; Kidd, R. A.; Haas, E. M.; Wagner, W.


    Remote sensing products covering the dynamics of small water bodies are important for diverse applications such as hydrology, monitoring of endangered wetlands and natural resources management. The goal of this study is to provide a scientific validation of the BioPar Water Bodies demonstration product derived from SPOT-VEGETATION data within the framework of the EU-funded project GMES-Geoland2. The demonstration product covers Africa during a time span of 1.5 years with a spatial resolution of 1 km and a temporal resolution of 10 days. A description of the product and the underlying algorithms is given in this paper. The validation effort described here is in agreement with level 1 of the validation methodology proposed by the CEOS (Committee on Earth Observation Satellites) Working Group on Calibration and Validation. In order to provide an independent dataset for validation, time series from the Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) onboard ESA's ENVISAT are processed and analysed. Radar data offer a data source which is fundamentally different from the optical data acquired by SPOT-VEGETATION. Time series acquired by ASAR in Wide Swath (WS) mode with a resolution of 150 m have been successfully used to estimate flood extent in boreal and arctic regions. Water bodies cause incoming microwave radiation to be reflected away from the sensor so that they show up as dark areas in the resulting imagery. In a first step, a synthesis map is produced showing water bodies which persisted at least during half of the validation period. The ability of the BioPar product to detect these water bodies is then tested on a number of sites scattered throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. The original approach for water bodies detection with ASAR, a simple thresholding, proved insufficient due to the sparse coverage of ASAR WS data at low latitudes and the occurrence of very dry soil surfaces in semi-arid climates which can be confused with water bodies when using such a simple

  17. Keratinophilic fungi in various types of water bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga


    Full Text Available The keratinophilic fungi in various types of water bodies (slough. pond. beach pool. two lakes and two rivers were studied. Samples of water were collected every other month for bydrochemical analysis and once a month (1989-1990 in order to determine the fungus content. Human hair, snippings of finger-nails, chips of hoofs, feathers and snake exuviae were used as bait. Twenty-five species of keratinophilic fungi were found in various types of water bodies. Hyphochytrium catenoides, Aphanomyces stellatus, Leptolegniella caudala and Achlya oligacantha represent new records as koratinophilic fungi.

  18. The role of GluN2A and GluN2B NMDA receptor subunits in AgRP and POMC neurons on body weight and glucose homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut Üner


    Conclusions: GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in AgRP neurons play a critical role in central control of body weight homeostasis and blood glucose balance via mechanisms that likely involve regulation of AgRP neuronal survival and structure, and modulation of hypothalamic leptin action.

  19. The Association of Unintentional Changes in Weight, Body Composition, and Homeostasis Model Assessment Index with Glycemic Progression in Non-Diabetic Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jung Rhee


    Full Text Available BackgroundWe performed a retrospective longitudinal study on the effects of changes in weight, body composition, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA indices on glycemic progression in subjects without diabetes during a four-year follow-up period in a community cohort without intentional intervention.MethodsFrom 28,440 non-diabetic subjects who participated in a medical check-up program in 2004, data on anthropometric and metabolic parameters were obtained after four years in 2008. Body composition analyses were performed with a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. Skeletal muscle index (SMI, % was calculated with lean mass/weight×100. Subjects were divided into three groups according to weight change status in four years: weight loss (≤-5.0%, stable weight (-5.0 to 5.0%, weight gain (≥5.0%. Progressors were defined as the subjects who progressed to impaired fasting glucose or diabetes.ResultsProgressors showed worse baseline metabolic profiles compared with non-progressors. In logistic regression analyses, the increase in changes of HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR in four years presented higher odds ratios for glycemic progression compared with other changes during that period. Among the components of body composition, a change in waist-hip ratio was the strongest predictor, and SMI change in four years was a significant negative predictor for glycemic progression. Changes in HOMA β-cell function in four years was a negative predictor for glycemic progression.ConclusionIncreased interval changes in HOMA-IR, weight gain and waist-hip ratio was associated with glycemic progression during a four-year period without intentional intervention in non-diabetic Korean subjects.

  20. Alterations in acid-base homeostasis during water immersion in normal man (United States)

    Epstein, M.; Schneider, N. S.; Vaamonde, C. A.


    The effects of water immersion on renal bicarbonate and acid excretion were assessed in 10 normal male subjects. Immersion resulted in a highly significant progressive increase in the rate of sodium and bicarbonate excretion, and in urine pH. Immersion was also associated with a significant increase in urine P-CO2; this increase presupposes a maintained rate of hydrogen secretion in the distal tubular segment. The rapidity of onset of the bicarbonaturia (2 hrs of immersion) and the concomitant increase in urinary P-CO2 suggest that enhanced bicarbonate excretion of immersion cannot be completely accounted for by immersion-induced suppression of aldosterone, and that the natriuresis and bicarbonaturia of immersion is mediated in part by an increased proximal rejection of sodium and bicarbonate.

  1. Relationship between the Water Body Chlorophyll-a and Water Quality Factors of Wetlands Baiguishan Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE Oiu-sheng; TIAN Xun; WANG Guo-zhen; JI Xiao-cun; LI Jiu-xuan; ZHAO Zhen


    [ Objective] The aim was to explore the relationship between water body Chlorophyll-a and water quality factors of wetlands Baiguishan reservoir. [ Method] Chlorophyll-a and water quality factors of water quality of Wetlands BaiGuishan Reservoir was studied, the analysis of the relationship on water quality of Wetlands Baiguishan Reservoir was made by use of trophic status indices and SPSS17.0 statistical analysis.[ Result] Total phosphorus was an irnportant factor of influence Chlorophyll-a in reservoir, water body had slight eutrophication phenomenon in reservoir of July to October in 2010. [ Conclusion] Comprehensive management should be strengthened so as to improve the water quality of Baiguishan wetland.

  2. Intersection of the multivesicular body pathway and lipid homeostasis in RNA replication by a positive-strand RNA virus. (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Diaz, Arturo; Hao, Linhui; Gancarz, Brandi; den Boon, Johan A; Ahlquist, Paul


    Like many positive-strand RNA viruses, brome mosaic virus (BMV) RNA replication occurs in membrane-invaginated vesicular compartments. BMV RNA replication compartments show parallels with membrane-enveloped, budding retrovirus virions, whose release depends on the cellular multivesicular body (MVB) sorting pathway. BMV RNA replication compartments are not released from their parent membranes, but might depend on MVB functions for membrane invagination. Prior results show that BMV RNA replication is severely inhibited by deletion of the crucial MVB gene DOA4 or BRO1. We report here that involvement of DOA4 and BRO1 in BMV RNA replication is not dependent on the MVB pathway's membrane-shaping functions but rather is due to their roles in recycling ubiquitin from MVB cargos. We show that deleting DOA4 or BRO1 inhibits the ubiquitination- and proteasome-dependent activation of homologous transcription factors Mga2p and Spt23p, which regulate many lipid metabolism genes, including the fatty acid desaturase gene OLE1, which is essential for BMV RNA replication. However, Mga2p processing and BMV RNA replication are restored by supplementing free ubiquitin, which is depleted in doa4Δ and bro1Δ cells. The results identify Mga2p and Spt23p processing and lipid regulation as sensitive targets of ubiquitin depletion and correctly predict multiple effects of modulating additional host genes RFU1, UBP6, and UFD3. Our results also show that BMV RNA replication depends on additional Mga2p-regulated genes likely involved in lipid metabolism beyond OLE1. Among other points, these findings show the potential for blocking viral RNA replication by modulating lipid synthesis at multiple levels.

  3. Maternal flaxseed oil intake during lactation changes body fat, inflammatory markers and glucose homeostasis in the adult progeny: role of gender dimorphism. (United States)

    Guarda, Deysla Sabino; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Carvalho, Janaíne Cavalcanti; Reis, Adelina Martha Dos; Soares, Patricia Novaes; Lisboa, Patricia Cristina; Figueiredo, Mariana Sarto


    We evaluated maternal flaxseed oil intake during lactation on body composition, lipid profile, glucose homeostasis and adipose tissue inflammation in male and female progeny at adulthood. Lactating rats were divided into the following: control 7% soybean oil (C), hyper 19% soybean oil (HS) and hyper 17% flaxseed oil+2% soybean oil (HF). Weaned pups received a standard diet. Offspring were killed in PN180. Male HF presented higher visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and triacylglycerol, and female HF showed insulin resistance. Both male and female HF had hyperleptinemia, and only male HF had hyperprolactinemia. In VAT, male HF presented lower PPAR-γ expressions and higher TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and IL-10 expressions; in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), they presented lower PPAR-γ and TNF-α expressions. Female HF presented higher leptin, as well as lower adiponectin, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β expressions in VAT and lower TNF-α in SAT. Flaxseed oil during lactation leads to gender-specific effects with more adiposity and dyslipidemia in male and insulin resistance in female. Higher prolactin and inflammatory cytokines in male could play a role in these gender differences. We suggest that the use of flaxseed oil during lactation increases metabolic syndrome risk in the adult progeny.

  4. Lidar point density analysis: implications for identifying water bodies (United States)

    Worstell, Bruce B.; Poppenga, Sandra; Evans, Gayla A.; Prince, Sandra


    Most airborne topographic light detection and ranging (lidar) systems operate within the near-infrared spectrum. Laser pulses from these systems frequently are absorbed by water and therefore do not generate reflected returns on water bodies in the resulting void regions within the lidar point cloud. Thus, an analysis of lidar voids has implications for identifying water bodies. Data analysis techniques to detect reduced lidar return densities were evaluated for test sites in Blackhawk County, Iowa, and Beltrami County, Minnesota, to delineate contiguous areas that have few or no lidar returns. Results from this study indicated a 5-meter radius moving window with fewer than 23 returns (28 percent of the moving window) was sufficient for delineating void regions. Techniques to provide elevation values for void regions to flatten water features and to force channel flow in the downstream direction also are presented.

  5. Oblique water entry of a three dimensional body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scolan Yves-Marie


    Full Text Available The problem of the oblique water entry of a three dimensional body is considered. Wagner theory is the theoretical framework. Applications are discussed for an elliptic paraboloid entering an initially flat free surface. A dedicated experimental campaign yields a data base for comparisons. In the present analysis, pressure, force and dynamics of the wetted surface expansion are assessed.

  6. Water Hyacinth in the Rift Valley Water Bodies of Ethiopia: Its Distribution, Socioeconomic Importance and Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firehun, Y.; Struik, P.C.; Lantinga, E.A.; Taye, T.


    A survey was conducted in the Rift Valley water bodies of Ethiopia from 2009 to 2011 to (i) determine the prevalence, agro-ecological distribution and sources of infestation of water hyacinth, (ii) investigate the socio-economic impact of water hyacinth, and (iii) assess changes in its agro-ecologic

  7. Spectral measurements of underwater downwelling radiance of inland water bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Potes


    Full Text Available The apparatus exploited in this work is composed of an optical cable linked to a portable FieldSpec UV/VNIR that records the spectral downwelling radiance in underwater environment, allowing us to calculate the shortwave attenuation coefficient in water. Results for three inland water bodies are presented under different atmospheric conditions (sun zenith angle and wind speed and water composition (chlorophyll α concentration and turbidity. We show that the spectral downwelling zenith radiance profiles under high sun elevations present a positive slope in the upper layers due to relatively high scattering of direct sunlight compared to attenuation. For deeper layers, attenuation overcomes the scattering of sunlight leading to a constant negative logarithmic slope. For low sun elevations, a negative slope is observed in the entire water column since the scattering of direct sunlight is always lower than attenuation. Whenever a negative logarithmic constant slope is observed, the attenuation coefficient was computed. A relation was observed between attenuation coefficient in the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR spectral region and water turbidity, for the three water bodies under study.

  8. Shallow Water Body Data Processing Based on the Seismic Oceanography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Huaishan; HU Yi; YIN Yanxin; WANG Linfei; TONG Siyou; MA Hai


    Physical properties of sea water,such as salinity,temperature,density and acoustic velocity,could be demarcated through degradation of energy caused by water absorption,attenuation and other factors.To overcome the challenging difficulties in the quick monitoring of these physical properties,we have explored the high resolution marine seismic survey to instantly characterize them.Based on the unique wavefield propagating in the sea water,we have developed a new approach to suppress the noise caused by the shallow sea water disturbance and obtain useful information for estimating the sea water structure.This approach improves seismic data with high signal-to-noise ratio and resolution.The seismic reflection imaging can map the sea water structure acoustically.Combined with the knowledge of local water body structure profile over years,the instant model for predicting the sea water properties could be built using the seismic data acquired from the specially designed high precision marine seismic acquisition.This model can also be updated with instant observation and the complete data processing system.The present study has the potential value to many applications,such as 3D sea water monitoring,engineering evaluation,geological disaster assessment and environmental assessment.

  9. Water Transport and the Evolution of CM Parent Bodies (United States)

    Coker, R.; Cohen, B.


    Extraterrestrial water-bearing minerals are of great importance both for understanding the formation and evolution of the solar system and for supporting future human activities in space. Asteroids are the primary source of meteorites, many of which show evidence of an early heating episode and varying degrees of aqueous alteration. The origin and characterization of hydrated minerals (minerals containing H2O or OH) among both the main-belt and near-earth asteroids is important for understanding a wide range of solar system formation and evolutionary processes, as well as for planning for human exploration. Current hypotheses postulate asteroids began as mixtures of water ice and anhydrous silicates. A heating event early in solar system history was then responsible for melting the ice and driving aqueous alteration. The link between asteroids and meteorites is forged by reflectance spectra, which show 3-µm bands indicative of bound OH or H2O on the C-class asteroids, which are believed to be the parent bodies of the carbonaceous chondrites in our collections. The conditions at which aqueous alteration occurred in the parent bodies of carbonaceous chondrites are thought to be well-constrained: at 0-25 C for less than 15 Myr after asteroid formation. In previous models, many scenarios exhibit peak temperatures of the rock and co-existing liquid water in more than 75 percent of the asteroid's volume rising to 150 C and higher, due to the exothermic hydration reactions triggering a thermal runaway effect. However, even in a high porosity, water-saturated asteroid very limited liquid water flow is predicted (distances of 100's nm at most). This contradiction has yet to be resolved. Still, it may be possible for water to become liquid even in the near-surface environment, for a long enough time to drive aqueous alteration before vaporizing or freezing then subliming. Thus, we are using physics- and chemistry-based models that include thermal and fluid transport as well

  10. Effect of Selenium-Enriched Agaricus bisporus (Higher Basidiomycetes) Extracts, Obtained by Pressurized Water Extraction, on the Expression of Cholesterol Homeostasis Related Genes by Low-Density Array. (United States)

    Gil-Ramírez, Alicia; Soler-Rivas, Cristina; Rodriguez-Casado, Arantxa; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Reglero, Guillermo; Marín, Francisco Ramón


    Culinary-medicinal mushrooms are able to lower blood cholesterol levels in animal models by different mechanisms. They might impair the endogenous cholesterol synthesis and exogenous cholesterol absorption during digestion. Mushroom extracts, obtained using pressurized water extractions (PWE) from Agaricus bisporus basidiomes, supplemented or not supplemented with selenium, were applied to HepG2 cell cultures to study the expression of 19 genes related to cholesterol homeostasis by low-density arrays (LDA). Only the PWE fractions obtained at 25°C showed 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) inhibitory activity. Besides the enzymatic inhibition, PWE extracts may downregulate some of the key genes involved in the cholesterol homeostasis, such as the squalene synthase gene (FDFT1), since its mRNA expression falls by one third of its initial value. In summary, A. bisporus extracts may also modulate biological cholesterol levels by molecular mechanisms further than the enzymatic way previously reported.

  11. Homeostasis in anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per eSodersten


    Full Text Available Brainstem and hypothalamic orexigenic/anorexigenic networks are thought to maintain body weight homeostasis in response to hormonal and metabolic feedback from peripheral sites. This approach has not been successful in managing over- and underweight patients. It is suggested that concept of homeostasis has been misinterpreted; rather than exerting control, the brain permits eating in proportion to the amount of physical activity necessary to obtain food. In support, animal experiments have shown that while a hypothalamic orexigen excites eating when food is abundant, it inhibits eating and stimulates foraging when food is in short supply. As the physical price of food approaches zero, eating and body weight increase without constraints. Conversely, in anorexia nervosa body weight is homeostatically regulated, the high level of physical activity in anorexia is displaced hoarding for food that keeps body weight constantly low. A treatment based on this point of view, providing patients with computerized mealtime support to re-establish normal eating behavior, has brought 75% of patients with eating disorders into remission, reduced the rate of relapse to 10%, and eliminated mortality.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施红辉; 高见卓也


    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the vater entry phenomenon. A facility was designed to carry out the tests with the entry velocities of around 352 m/s. Visualization, pressure measurement, velocity measurement and underwater impact test were performed to investigate the hydroballistic behavior of the underwater moving body, the underwater flow field, the supercavitation,etc.. This study shows that the motion of a high-speed underwater body is strongly three-dimensional and chaotic. Furthermore, it is found that the distribution of the trajectory deflection of the underwater projectile depends on the depth of water. It is also found by measuring the deformation on a witness plate submerged in water,that the impact energy of an underwater projectile is reduced as it penetrates deeper into vater.

  13. Illegal fishing of inland water bodies of Nigeria: Kainji experience


    RAJI, A.; Okaeme, A.N.; Omorinkoba, W.; Bwala, R.L.


    It is a common knowledge that illegal fishing which includes use of wrong gears, explosives, excessive exploitation of choice stocks, enhancement and stocking of water body and pollution has devastating effects on the critical biomass of fish biodiversity and livelihood activities associated with fishing. Efforts worldwide to arrest these menace are significant because it has been found that illegal fishing has made fishing non sustainable, resulted in poor fishermen catches, and exacerbated...

  14. GFR normalized to total body water allows comparisons across genders and body sizes. (United States)

    Eriksen, Bjørn O; Melsom, Toralf; Mathisen, Ulla D; Jenssen, Trond G; Solbu, Marit D; Toft, Ingrid


    The normalization of GFR to a standardized body-surface area of 1.73 m(2) impedes comparison of GFR across individuals of different genders, heights, or weights. Ideally, GFR should be normalized to a parameter that best explains variation in GFR. Here, we measured true GFR by iohexol clearance in a representative sample of 1627 individuals from the general population who did not have diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or kidney disease. We also estimated total body water (TBW), extracellular fluid volume, lean body mass, liver volume, metabolic rate, and body-surface area. We compared two methods of normalizing GFR to these physiologic variables: (1) the conventional method of scaling GFR to each physiologic variable by simple division and (2) a method based on regression of the GFR on each variable. TBW explained a higher proportion of the variation in GFR than the other physiologic variables. GFR adjusted for TBW by the regression method exhibited less dependence on gender, height, and weight compared with the other physiologic variables. Thus, adjusting GFR for TBW by the regression method allows direct comparisons between individuals of different genders, weights, and heights. We propose that regression-based normalization of GFR to a standardized TBW of 40 L should replace the current practice of normalizing GFR to 1.73 m(2) of body-surface area.

  15. Chitinophilic zoosporic fungi in various types of water bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga


    Full Text Available Chitinophilic fungi in various types of water bodies (slough, pond, beach pool, two lakes and two rivers were studied. Samples of water were collected every other month for hydrochemical analysis and once a month ( 1992 - 1994 in order to determine the fungus content. The wings of dragonfly and flies, carapaces of crayfish and potato beetle and the fructification of two mushrooms were used as bait. Thirty species of chitinophilic fungi were found in various types of water bodiss. Cytriomyces annulatus, Entophlyctis crenata, Obelidium megarrhizum, Rhopalophlyctis sareoptoides, Achlya colorata, A. megasperma and Dictyuchus monosporus represent new records as chitinophilic fungi. However, Entophlyctis crenata, Obelidium megarrhizum and Podochytrium chitinophilum reported for the first time from Poland.

  16. Increase of Total Body Water with Decrease of Body Mass while Running 100 km Nonstop--Formation of Edema? (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas


    We investigated whether ultraendurance runners in a 100-km run suffer a decrease of body mass and whether this loss consists of fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, or total body water. Male ultrarunners were measured pre- and postrace to determine body mass, fat mass, and skeletal muscle mass by using the anthropometric method. In addition,…

  17. Water transport and the evolution of CM parent bodies (United States)

    Coker, R.; Cohen, B.


    Extraterrestrial water-bearing minerals are of great importance both for understanding the formation and evolution of the solar system and for supporting future human activities in space. Asteroids are the primary source of meteorites, many of which show evidence of an early heating episode and varying degrees of aqueous alteration. The origin and characterization of hydrated minerals (minerals containing H_2O or OH) among both the main-belt and near-Earth asteroids is important for understanding a wide range of solar-system formation and evolutionary processes, as well as for planning for human exploration. Current hypotheses postulate asteroids began as mixtures of water ice and anhydrous silicates. A heating event early in solar-system history was then responsible for melting the ice and driving aqueous alteration. The link between asteroids and meteorites is forged by reflectance spectra, which show 3-μm bands indicative of bound OH or H_2O on the C-class asteroids, which are believed to be the parent bodies of the carbonaceous chondrites in our collections [1]. The conditions at which aqueous alteration occurred in the parent bodies of carbonaceous chondrites are thought to be well-constrained: at 0--25°C for less than 15 Myr after asteroid formation [2]. In previous models, many scenarios exhibit peak temperatures of the rock and co-existing liquid water in more than 75 % of the asteroid's volume rising to 150°C and higher[3,4], due to the exothermic hydration reactions triggering a thermal runaway effect. However, even in a high-porosity, water-saturated asteroid, very limited liquid water flow is predicted (distances of 100's μ m at most) [5]. This contradiction has yet to be resolved. Still, it may be possible for water to become liquid even in the near-surface environment, for a long enough time to drive aqueous alteration before vaporizing or freezing then subliming. Thus, we are using physics- and chemistry-based models that include thermal and

  18. [Pollution hazard for water bodies at oil production]. (United States)

    Zholdakova, Z I; Beliaeva, N I


    In the paper there have been summarizes the concepts of the danger of the pollution ofwater bodies in oil production (the most dangerous are reagents used in the drilling, drilling waste, oil and petrochemicals, oil biodestructors. There was shown the danger of the spread of oil pollution. New indices, presenting a hazard during drilling and oil production have been substantiated The tasks aimed to the improvement of the standards and methods of the control of the water pollution by oil, as well as of the documents regulating the conditions of environmental protection during the drilling have been conceived.

  19. State of bream populations in reconstructed water bodies of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian USATYI


    Full Text Available Bream, Abramis brama L., is a key species in fish communities of Moldovian Rivers and a main component of bottom food chains of river and lake ecosystems. With the reconstruction of water bodies, mainly for hydroelectric power stations needs, the ecological conditions changed substantially, which results in modifications in population state of biota. The negative effects of water bodies’ reconstruction upon population status of bream in several Moldovian Rivers and reservoirs were studied. These effects manifest in detrimental changes in bream growth, age composition and reproductive success. The conclusion is made that the economical gain after the regulation of large and middle-size rivers is opposed by the negative impact upon fish community as a whole, as well as upon the ecology of individual species as applied to the indicator species Abramis brama.

  20. Exposure to low level of arsenic and lead in drinking water from Antofagasta city induces gender differences in glucose homeostasis in rats. (United States)

    Palacios, Javier; Roman, Domingo; Cifuentes, Fredi


    Populations chronically exposed to arsenic in drinking water often have increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to compare the glucose homeostasis of male and female rats exposed to low levels of heavy metals in drinking water. Treated groups were Sprague-Dawley male and female rats exposed to drinking water from Antofagasta city, with total arsenic of 30 ppb and lead of 53 ppb for 3 months; control groups were exposed to purified water by reverse osmosis. The two treated groups in both males and females showed arsenic and lead in the hair of rats. The δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase was used as a sensitive biomarker of arsenic toxicity and lead. The activity of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase was reduced only in treated male rats, compared to the control group. Treated males showed a significantly sustained increase in blood glucose and plasma insulin levels during oral glucose tolerance test compared to control group. The oral glucose tolerance test and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance demonstrated that male rats were insulin resistant, and females remained sensitive to insulin after treatment. The total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol increased in treated male rats vs. the control, and triglyceride increased in treated female rats vs. the control. The activity of intestinal Na+/glucose cotransporter in male rats increased compared to female rats, suggesting a significant increase in intestinal glucose absorption. The findings indicate that exposure to low levels of arsenic and lead in drinking water could cause gender differences in insulin resistance.

  1. Quantifying body water kinetics and fecal and urinary water output from lactating Holstein dairy cows. (United States)

    Appuhamy, J A D R N; Wagner-Riddle, C; Casper, D P; France, J; Kebreab, E


    Reliable estimates of fresh manure water output from dairy cows help to improve storage design, enhance efficiency of land application, quantify the water footprint, and predict nutrient transformations during manure storage. The objective of the study was to construct a mechanistic, dynamic, and deterministic mathematical model to quantify urinary and fecal water outputs (kg/d) from individual lactating dairy cows. The model contained 4 body water pools: reticulorumen (QRR), post-reticulorumen (QPR), extracellular (QEC), and intracellular (QIC). Dry matter (DM) intake, dietary forage, DM, crude protein, acid detergent fiber and ash contents, milk yield, and milk fat and protein contents, days in milk, and body weight were input variables to the model. A set of linear equations was constructed to determine drinking, feed, and saliva water inputs to QRR and fractional water passage from QRR to QPR. Water transfer via the rumen wall was subjected to changes in QEC and total water input to QRR. Post-reticulorumen water passage was adjusted for DM intake. Metabolic water production and respiratory cutaneous water losses were estimated with functions of heat production in the model. Water loss in urine was driven by absorbed N left after being removed via milk. Model parameters were estimated simultaneously using observed fecal and urinary water output data from lactating Holstein cows (n=670). The model was evaluated with data that were not used for model development and optimization (n=377). The observations in both data sets were related to thermoneutral conditions. The model predicted drinking water intake, fecal, urinary, and total fresh manure water output with root mean square prediction errors as a percentage of average values of 18.1, 15.6, 30.6, and 14.6%, respectively. In all cases, >97% of the prediction error was due to random variability of data. The model can also be used to determine saliva production, heat and metabolic water production, respiratory

  2. Impact of domestic sewage on fresh water body. (United States)

    Shiddamallayya, N; Pratima, M


    In the present study various (physico-chemical) factors were assessed over a period of two years (from February 2002 to January 2004) to note the chemistry and quality of tank water in Bhalki town of Bidar. Physico-chemical factors like pH, dissolved oxygen, magnesium, chlorine, nitrite, sulphates and chemical oxygen demand were found with maximum concentration during summer season. Similarly, during monsoon season free carbon dioxide, alkalinity hardness, calcium, phosphate, silicon, total solids and biological oxygen demand; and in winter season organic matter were recorded. The concentrations viz., pH, hardness and nitrite were more compared to the potable water standard of WHO. The correlation matrix and dendrogram of physico-chemical factors have been computed and analysed. The positive co-relation coefficient observed between pH and magnesium, dissolved oxygen and hardness, free carbondioxide and calcium, alkalinity and nitrite, alkalinityand phosphate, alkalinity and biological oxygen demand, hardness and calcium, hardness and magnesium, magnesium and chlorine, nitrate and phosphate, nitrite and biological oxygen demand, phosphate and organic matter; and silicon and chemical oxygen demand. The dendrogram confirms chlorine, pH, hardness, silicon, total solids and sulphates are the key factors of the change in the chemistry of water body

  3. A towed body designed for side-scanning hydroacoustic surveying of fish stocks in shallow waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mous, P.J.; Kemper, J.; Schelvis, A.


    An aluminum towed body was designed for use in hydroacoustic surveying of fish stocks in shallow (2–10 m depth) inland waters. The design allows applications in deep (>10 m) water bodies as well. Test results showed that the towed body was a stable platform for the hydroacoustic transducer. The towe

  4. Worldwide Eutrophication of Water Bodies: Causes, Concerns, Controls (United States)

    Prepas, E. E.; Charette, T.


    Eutrophication is the nutrient enrichment of waters that stimulates an array of symptomatic changes, that can include increased phytoplankton and rooted aquatic plant (macrophyte) production, fisheries and water quality deterioration, and other undesirable changes that interfere with water uses (Bartsch, 1972). The trophic state, or degree of fertility, of water bodies ranges from oligotrophic to mesotrophic to eutrophic with increasing supply of nutrients and organic matter ( Table 1). Eutrophication is most often the result of an elevated supply of nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus, to surface waters that results in enhanced production of primary producers, particularly phytoplankton and aquatic plants. Table 1. Mean annual values for the trophic classification system Total phosphorus (μg L-1)Chlorophyll a (μg L-1)Secchi disk depth (m) Ultra-oligotrophic12 Oligotrophic6 Mesotrophic10-352.5-86-3 Eutrophic35-1008-253-1.5 Hypertrophic>100>25systems can lead to high decomposition rates by bacteria. Dissolved oxygen consumption by decomposers, combined with a barrier to gas exchange (thermocline or ice cover), can reduce (hypoxia) or eliminate (anoxia) dissolved oxygen in bottom waters. (A thermocline is the junction between an upper layer of warm, less dense water (the epilimnion) and a deeper layer of cold water (the hypolimnion). When this stratification is in place, the typically oxygen-rich waters of the epilimnion do not mix with the waters of the hypolimnion.) Oxygen depletion is one of the most harmful side effects of eutrophication because it can cause catastrophic fish kills, devastating local fisheries.The accumulation of plant biomass depends on the addition of factors that stimulate plant growth. On average, the macronutrients nitrogen and phosphorus are present in marine phytoplankton at an atomic ratio 16 : 1 (Redfield, 1958). The ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus in freshwaters tends to be greater than the ratio in phytoplankton

  5. Development of a Model for Water and Heat Exchange Between the Atmosphere and a Water Body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Shufen; YAN Jinfeng; XIA Nan; SUN Changhai


    A model for studying the heat and mass exchange between the atmosphere and a water body is developed,in which the phase change process of water freezing in winter and melting in summer and the function of the convective mixing process are taken into consideration. The model uses enthalpy rather than temperature as the predictive variable. It helps to set up governing equations more concisely, to deal with the phase change process more easily, and make the numerical scheme simpler. The model is verified by observed data from Lake Kinneret for a non-frozen lake in summer time, and Lake Lower Two Medicine for a frozen lake in winter time. Reasonably good agreements between the model simulations and observed data indicate that the model can serve as a component for a water body in a land surface model. In order to more efficiently apply the scheme in a climate system model, a sensitivity study of various division schemes with less layers in the vertical direction in the water body is conducted. The results of the study show that the division with around 10 vertical layers could produce a prediction accuracy that is comparable to the fine division with around 40 layers.

  6. Disorders of erythrocyte volume homeostasis. (United States)

    Glogowska, E; Gallagher, P G


    Inherited disorders of erythrocyte volume homeostasis are a heterogeneous group of rare disorders with phenotypes ranging from dehydrated to overhydrated erythrocytes. Clinical, laboratory, physiologic, and genetic heterogeneities characterize this group of disorders. A series of recent reports have provided novel insights into our understanding of the genetic bases underlying some of these disorders of red cell volume regulation. This report reviews this progress in understanding determinants that influence erythrocyte hydration and how they have yielded a better understanding of the pathways that influence cellular water and solute homeostasis.

  7. The model study of water mass and energy exchange between the inland water body and atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN ShuFen; YAN JinFeng; XIA Nan; LI Qian


    Based on a one-dimensional eddy diffusion model, a model to study the water mass and energy exchange between the water body (such as lake and wetland) and the atmosphere is developed, which takes the phase change process due to the seasonal melting and freezing of water and the convection mixing process of en-ergy caused by temperature stratification into consideration. The model uses en-thalpy instead of temperature as predictive variable, which will help to deal with the phase change process and to design an efficient numerical scheme for obtaining the solution more easily. The performance of the model and the rationality of taking convection mixing into the consideration are validated by using observed data of Kinneret Lake in Israel and Lower Two Medicine Lake in Montana State in America. The comparison of model results with observed data indicates that the model pre-sented here is capable of describing the physical process of water mass and en-ergy between the water body (lake and wetland) and atmosphere. Comparison of the result from wetland with shallow and deep lakes under the same forcing condi-tions shows that the evaporation from wetland is much greater than that from lakes,which accords with the real observation fact and physical mechanism.

  8. The model study of water mass and energy exchange between the inland water body and atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on a one-dimensional eddy diffusion model,a model to study the water mass and energy exchange between the water body(such as lake and wetland) and the atmosphere is developed,which takes the phase change process due to the seasonal melting and freezing of water and the convection mixing process of energy caused by temperature stratification into consideration. The model uses enthalpy instead of temperature as predictive variable,which will help to deal with the phase change process and to design an efficient numerical scheme for obtaining the solution more easily. The performance of the model and the rationality of taking convection mixing into the consideration are validated by using observed data of Kinneret Lake in Israel and Lower Two Medicine Lake in Montana State in America. The comparison of model results with observed data indicates that the model presented here is capable of describing the physical process of water mass and energy between the water body(lake and wetland) and atmosphere. Comparison of the result from wetland with shallow and deep lakes under the same forcing conditions shows that the evaporation from wetland is much greater than that from lakes,which accords with the real observation fact and physical mechanism.

  9. Comparison of Two Mercury Contaminated Surface Water Bodies (United States)

    Brooks, S. C.; Southworth, G. R.; Turner, R. R.; Jensen, R.


    Due to the methyl mercury (MeHg) burden in fish tissues, the Virginia Department of Health and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation have posted fish advisories for the South River, VA and the East Fork Poplar Creek, TN (EFPC), respectively. This presentation will compare and contrast the hydrogeochemical characteristics of these two industrially contaminated water bodies. Both streams share broad similarities in terms of their general chemistry and underlying geology. Nevertheless, patterns of waterborne mercury (Hg) and, importantly, MeHg concentration are different. For example, in the South River both Hg and MeHg concentrations increase with increasing distance downstream from the industrial site of mercury origin whereas in EFPC Hg decreases while MeHg increases with increasing distance downstream. Although both sites are the focus of concerted research efforts to identify effective remediation, the underlying mechanisms that drive the patterns within each system and therefore account for the differences between them are poorly understood. We intend for this presentation to provide a context within which attendees can frame their discussion of the challenges inherent to studying the biogeochemical cycling of Hg in general and at contaminated sites in particular where effective remedies can be elusive.

  10. Importance of body-water circulation for body-heat dissipation in hot-humid climates: a distinctive body-water circulation in swamp buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chanpongsang


    Full Text Available Thermo-regulation in swamp buffaloes has been investigated as an adaptive system to hot-humid climates, and several distinctive physiological responses were noted. When rectal temperature increased in hot conditions, blood volume, blood flow to the skin surface and skin temperature markedly increased in buffaloes relatively to cattle. On the other hand, the correlation between blood volume and plasma concentration of arginine vasopressin (AVP was compared between buffaloes and cattle under dehydration. Although plasma AVP in cattle increased immediately for reducing urine volume against a decrease in blood volume as well as the response observed in most animal species, the increase in plasma AVP was delayed in buffaloes, even after a large decrease in blood volume. In buffaloes, a marked increase in blood volume facilitated the dissipation of excess heat from the skin surface during wallowing. In addition, the change in plasma AVP observed in buffaloes was consistent with that of other animals living in habitats with the high availability of water. These results suggest that the thermo-regulatory system in buffaloes accelerates body-water circulation internally and externally. This system may be adaptive for heat dissipation in hot-humid climates, where an abundance of water is common.

  11. Development of fauna of water beetles (Coleoptera in waters bodies of a river valley – habitat factors, landscape and geomorphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakulnicka Joanna


    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to identify the beetle fauna of a small lowland river valley against its spatial arrangement and the directions of beetle migrations between habitats, as well as to determine which environmental factors affect the characteristics of water beetle populations in a river valley's lentic water bodies. The field studies were carried out in various types of water bodies. 112 species of beetles with various ecological characteristics were identified. It was demonstrated that the diversity of water bodies in the valley is conducive to high local species richness. At the same time, the observed high degree of faunistic individualism may be regarded as a sign of poor symmetry in the directions of fauna propagation, particularly that of stagnobionts. The authors argue that high individualism is the consequence of poor hydrological contact between the water bodies due to topography and rare instances of high tide in the river, which, in turn, is the reason for active overflights remaining the main mean of migration between those water bodies. The factors restricting migration of fauna between the water bodies include certain landscape characteristics of the catchment which form topographical obstacles, mainly numerous and dense forest areas. The character of fauna in the respective types of water bodies is affected also by internal environmental factors, particularly the degree to which they are overgrown with macrophytes, type of bottom, type of mineral and organic matter as well as physical parameters of water, such as saturation, pH, temperature and biological oxygen demand.

  12. Detection of pathogenic organisms in food, water, and body fluids (United States)

    Wallace, William H.; Henley, Michael V.; Sayler, Gary S.


    The construction of specific bioluminescent bacteriophage for detection of pathogenic organism can be developed to overcome interferences in complex matrices such as food, water and body fluids. Detection and identification of bacteria often require several days and frequently weeks by standard methods of isolation, growth and biochemical test. Immunoassay detection often requires the expression of the bacterial toxin, which can lead to non-detection of cells that may express the toxin under conditions different from testing protocols. Immunoassays require production of a specific antibody to the agent for detection and interference by contaminants frequently affects results. PCR based detection may be inhibited by substances in complex matrices. Modified methods of the PCR technique, such as magnetic capture-hybridization PCR (MCH-PCR), appear to improve the technique by removing the DNA products away from the inhibitors. However, the techniques required for PCR-based detection are slow and the procedures require skilled personnel working with labile reagents. Our approach is based on transferring bioluminescence (lux) genes into a selected bacteriophage. Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses that are widespread in nature and often are genus and species specific. This specificity eliminates or reduces false positives in a bacteriophage assay. The phage recognizes a specific receptor molecule on the surface of a susceptible bacterium, attaches and then injects the viral nucleic acid into the cell. The injected viral genome is expressed and then replicated, generating numerous exact copies of the viral genetic material including the lux genes, often resulting in an increase in bioluminescence by several hundred fold.

  13. Water-soluble vitamin homeostasis in fasting northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) measured by metabolomics analysis and standard methods. (United States)

    Boaz, Segal M; Champagne, Cory D; Fowler, Melinda A; Houser, Dorian H; Crocker, Daniel E


    Despite the importance of water-soluble vitamins to metabolism, there is limited knowledge of their serum availability in fasting wildlife. We evaluated changes in water-soluble vitamins in northern elephant seals, a species with an exceptional ability to withstand nutrient deprivation. We used a metabolomics approach to measure vitamins and associated metabolites under extended natural fasts for up to 7 weeks in free-ranging lactating or developing seals. Water-soluble vitamins were not detected with this metabolomics platform, but could be measured with standard assays. Concentrations of measured vitamins varied independently, but all were maintained at detectable levels over extended fasts, suggesting that defense of vitamin levels is a component of fasting adaptation in the seals. Metabolomics was not ideal for generating complete vitamin profiles in this species, but gave novel insights into vitamin metabolism by detecting key related metabolites. For example, niacin level reductions in lactating females were associated with significant reductions in precursors suggesting downregulation of the niacin synthetic pathway. The ability to detect individual vitamins using metabolomics may be impacted by the large number of novel compounds detected. Modifications to the analysis platforms and compound detection algorithms used in this study may be required for improving water-soluble vitamin detection in this and other novel wildlife systems.

  14. A new approach to inventorying bodies of water, from local to global scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartout, Pascal


    Full Text Available Having reliable estimates of the number of water bodies on different geographical scales is of great importance to better understand biogeochemical cycles and to tackle the social issues related to the economic and cultural use of water bodies. However, limnological research suffers from a lack of reliable inventories; the available scientific references are predominately based on water bodies of natural origin, large in size and preferentially located in previously glaciated areas. Artificial, small and randomly distributed water bodies, especially ponds, are usually not inventoried. Following Wetzel’s theory (1990, some authors included them in global inventories by using remote sensing or mathematical extrapolation, but fieldwork on the ground has been done on a very limited amount of territory. These studies have resulted in an explosive increase in the estimated number of water bodies, going from 8.44 million lakes (Meybeck 1995 to 3.5 billion water bodies (Downing 2010. These numbers raise several questions, especially about the methodology used for counting small-sized water bodies and the methodological treatment of spatial variables. In this study, we use inventories of water bodies for Sweden, Finland, Estonia and France to show incoherencies generated by the “global to local” approach. We demonstrate that one universal relationship does not suffice for generating the regional or global inventories of water bodies because local conditions vary greatly from one region to another and cannot be offset adequately by each other. The current paradigm for global estimates of water bodies in limnology, which is based on one representative model applied to different territories, does not produce sufficiently exact global inventories. The step-wise progression from the local to the global scale requires the development of many regional equations based on fieldwork; a specific equation that adequately reflects the actual relationship

  15. Teaching in Uncharted Waters: Seeking Critical Body Literacy Scripts (United States)

    Robertson, Lorayne; Thomson, Dianne


    Schools are places of learning, but they are also sites of struggle when fitness, obesity, and body image issues converge for students and teachers. Responding to teachers' concerns about their students on diets, a Canadian teachers' organization produced a body image program which included a training day for schools undertaking whole-school…

  16. Iron Homeostasis and Nutritional Iron Deficiency123



    Nonheme food ferritin (FTN) iron minerals, nonheme iron complexes, and heme iron contribute to the balance between food iron absorption and body iron homeostasis. Iron absorption depends on membrane transporter proteins DMT1, PCP/HCP1, ferroportin (FPN), TRF2, and matriptase 2. Mutations in DMT1 and matriptase-2 cause iron deficiency; mutations in FPN, HFE, and TRF2 cause iron excess. Intracellular iron homeostasis depends on coordinated regulation of iron trafficking and storage proteins enc...

  17. Fluids in human bodies and biomineralization – parallels to global water resources and reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skinner, H. Catherine W.; King, Helen


    The amount of surface freshwaters on Earth is remarkably small considering the human population needing drinking water to survive and to ensure water in their bodies is at that very important locale where cells operate, the transcellular fluid. Like the fluid in and on the planet, body fluid is high

  18. [Biodiversity in plankton, benthos, and fish communities, and ecosystems of fresh water bodies with various productivity]. (United States)

    Alimov, A F


    The species diversity of phyto- and zooplankton, benthic animals, and ichthyofauna was studied in continental water bodies that differ in type, geographic location, size, and productivity. The results showed that the number of species in the communities of aquatic organisms and in ecosystems depends on the area and volume of the water body and the level of plankton primary production. Corresponding relationships can be approximated by the equations of exponential and polymodal functions. The species number and biomass per unit area or volume proved to decrease the area or volume of the water body increased. The greatest number of heterotrophic species was observed in water bodies whose primary production approached 1400 kcal/m2 per year. It is proposed that the number of aquatic species in a body of water depends on the total area of the latter and the area of individual territories occupied by the representatives of certain species.

  19. Heavy metal distribution and water quality characterization of water bodies in Louisiana's Lake Pontchartrain Basin, USA. (United States)

    Zhang, Zengqiang; Wang, Jim J; Ali, Amjad; DeLaune, Ronald D


    The seasonal variation in physico-chemical properties, anions, and the heavy metal (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) concentration was evaluated in water from nine different rivers in Lake Pontchartrain Basin, Louisiana, USA. The water quality parameters were compared with toxicity reference values (TRV), US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking/aquatic life protection, and WHO standards. Among physico-chemical properties, pH, DO, and turbidity were high during spring, while, EC, temperature, and DOC were high during summer and vice versa. The anion study revealed that the concentrations of F(-), Cl(-), and NO3(-) were higher during summer and Br(-) and SO4(-) were higher during spring. Our research findings showed anion concentration decreased in the order of Cl(-) > SO4(-) > NO3(-) > Br(-) > F(-), in accordance with the global mean anion concentration. The dissolved heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb) except Zn were higher during spring than summer. None of the rivers showed any Cd pollution for both seasons. Co showed higher concentrations in Amite River, Mississippi River, Industrial Canal, and Lacombe Bayou during summer. The Cr concentration was higher than WHO drinking water standards, implicating water unsuitability for drinking purposes in all the rivers associated with the Lake Pontchartrain Basin. Cu showed no pollution risk for the study area. Mn and Co were similar to concentration in Lacombe Bayou, Liberty Bayou, Blind River, and Industrial Canal. Mn levels were greater than WHO standards for the Tickfaw River, Tangipahoa River, and Blind River in both seasons. Blind River, Tangipahoa River, Tickfaw River, and Amite River will require more monitoring for determining possible Mn pollution. Ni content in river water during both seasons showed low pollution risk. Liberty Bayou and Industrial Canal concentrations were closer to the WHO regulatory standards, indicating possible risk of Pb pollution in these water bodies. The Zn

  20. Research and application of multi-angle polarization characteristics of water body mirror reflection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO YangJie; ZHAO YunSheng; LI XiaoWen; WU TaiXia; ZHAO LiLi


    On the basis of the multi-angle polarized reflection spectrum of the water samples, the water body mirror reflection polarization characteristics and mechanism are described systematically. By altering such influential factors as the angle of incidence, detecting angle, detecting azimuth angle and polarization angle, ubiquitous laws for the multi-angle polarized reflection spectrum of the water samples are obtained. Combining multi-angle remote sensing with polarized light, the multi-angle polarized reflection method about eliminating the water body mirror reflection and the suitable time of the polarized remote sensing of the water body are proposed. This study provides technical references for the application of multi-angle polarization technology on water body remote sensing.

  1. Research and application of multi-angle polarization characteristics of water body mirror reflection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    On the basis of the multi-angle polarized reflection spectrum of the water samples,the water body mirror reflection polarization characteristics and mechanism are described systematically. By altering such influential factors as the angle of incidence,detecting angle,detecting azimuth angle and polari-zation angle,ubiquitous laws for the multi-angle polarized reflection spectrum of the water samples are obtained. Combining multi-angle remote sensing with polarized light,the multi-angle polarized reflec-tion method about eliminating the water body mirror reflection and the suitable time of the polarized remote sensing of the water body are proposed. This study provides technical references for the ap-plication of multi-angle polarization technology on water body remote sensing.

  2. Lesion simulating disease1, enhanced disease susceptibility1, and phytoalexin deficient4 conditionally regulate cellular signaling homeostasis, photosynthesis, water use efficiency, and seed yield in Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Wituszynska, Weronika; Slesak, Ireneusz; Vanderauwera, Sandy; Szechynska-Hebda, Magdalena; Kornas, Andrzej; Van Der Kelen, Katrien; Mühlenbock, Per; Karpinska, Barbara; Mackowski, Sebastian; Van Breusegem, Frank; Karpinski, Stanislaw


    There is growing evidence that for a comprehensive insight into the function of plant genes, it is crucial to assess their functionalities under a wide range of conditions. In this study, we examined the role of lesion simulating disease1 (LSD1), enhanced disease susceptibility1 (EDS1), and phytoalexin deficient4 (PAD4) in the regulation of photosynthesis, water use efficiency, reactive oxygen species/hormonal homeostasis, and seed yield in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) grown in the laboratory and in the field. We demonstrate that the LSD1 null mutant (lsd1), which is known to exhibit a runaway cell death in nonpermissive conditions, proves to be more tolerant to combined drought and high-light stress than the wild type. Moreover, depending on growing conditions, it shows variations in water use efficiency, salicylic acid and hydrogen peroxide concentrations, photosystem II maximum efficiency, and transcription profiles. However, despite these changes, lsd1 demonstrates similar seed yield under all tested conditions. All of these traits depend on EDS1 and PAD4. The differences in the pathways prevailing in the lsd1 in various growing environments are manifested by the significantly smaller number of transcripts deregulated in the field compared with the laboratory, with only 43 commonly regulated genes. Our data indicate that LSD1, EDS1, and PAD4 participate in the regulation of various molecular and physiological processes that influence Arabidopsis fitness. On the basis of these results, we emphasize that the function of such important regulators as LSD1, EDS1, and PAD4 should be studied not only under stable laboratory conditions, but also in the environment abounding in multiple stresses.

  3. Decadal Variation in Microflora and Fauna in 10 Water Bodies of Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Pani


    Full Text Available Bhopal, the capital of Madhya Pradesh is gifted with number of water resources of multiple uses. However most of the water bodies have shrunken because of siltation, illegal land filling, conversion, and encroachment. The combination of all these factors ultimately resulted in deterioration of water quality and loss of species. The present study therefore was undertaken to evaluate the impact of urbanization on water quality and bio-diversity of the 10 lakes and wetlands situated within the municipal area of the city. A comparison of data generated over the years depicts considerable reduction in total number of species in the water bodies like Upper Lake, Hathaikheda and Sarangpani Lake.

  4. Stable isotope composition of land snail body water and its relation to environmental waters and shell carbonate (United States)

    Goodfriend, Glenn A.; Magaritz, Mordeckai; Gat, Joel R.


    Day-to-day and within-day (diel) variations in δD and δ18O of the body water of the land snail, Theba pisana, were studied at a site in the southern coastal plain of Israel. Three phases of variation, which relate to isotopic changes in atmospheric water vapor, were distinguished: 1) on rain days, snail water becomes isotopically depleted approximately in the direction of the rain isotope values, but always less depleted in D as is atmospheric water vapor; 2) during the 1-3 days following a rain, the snail water becomes isotopically enriched along a line with slope persists until the next rain event. The isotopic variations can be explained by isotopic equilibration with atmospheric water vapor and/or uptake of dew derived therefrom. During the winter, when the snails are active, there is only very minor enrichment in 18O relative to equilibrium with water vapor or dew, apparently as a result of metabolic activity. But this enrichment becomes pronounced after long periods of inactivity. Within-day variation in body water isotopic composition is minor on non-rain days. Shell carbonate is enriched in 18O by ca. 1-2%. relative to equilibrium with body water. In most regions, the isotopic composition of atmospheric water vapor (or dew) is a direct function of that of rain. Because the isotopic composition of snail body water is related to that of atmospheric water vapor and the isotopic composition of shell carbonate in turn is related to that of body water, land snail shell carbonate 18O should provide a reliable indication of rainfall 18O. However, local environmental conditions and the ecological properties of the snail species must be taken into account.

  5. Water-Body types identification in urban areas from radarsat-2 fully polarimetric SAR data (United States)

    Xie, Lei; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Chao; Chen, Fulong


    This paper presents a novel method for supervised water-body extraction and water-body types identification from Radarsat-2 fully polarimetric (FP) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data in complex urban areas. First, supervised water-body extraction using the Wishart classifier is performed, and the false alarms that are formed in built-up areas are removed using morphological processing methods and spatial contextual information. Then, the support vector machine (SVM), the classification and regression tree (CART), TreeBagger (TB), and random forest (RF) classifiers are introduced for water-body types (rivers, lakes, ponds) identification. In SAR images, certain other objects that are misclassified as water are also considered in water-body types identification. Several shape and polarimetric features of each candidate water-body are used for identification. Radarsat-2 PolSAR data that were acquired over Suzhou city and Dongguan city in China are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, and the experimental results are evaluated at both the object and pixel levels. We compared the water-body types classification results using only shape features and the combination of shape and polarimetric features, the experimental results show that the polarimetric features can eliminate the misclassifications from certain other objects like roads to water areas, and the increasement of classification accuracy embodies at both the object and pixel levels. The experimental results show that the proposed methods can achieve satisfactory accuracies at the object level [89.4% (Suzhou), 95.53% (Dongguan)] and the pixel level [96.22% (Suzhou), 97.95% (Dongguan)] for water-body types classification, respectively.

  6. Experimental Research on the Application of Water Hyacinths to the Ecological Restoration of Water Bodies with Eutrophication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Fa-kuo; SHAO; Xiao-long; SUN; Yi-chao; LIU; Hong-lei; YUAN; Min; XIE; Hua-sheng; LI; Li; YU; Dan; LIU; Xu


    [Objective] The study aims to discuss the application of water hyacinths to the ecological restoration of water bodies with eutrophication through simulation experiments. [Method] In this study, water hyacinths were used to restore the simulated eutrophic water with green algae as the dominant algae species, and then the restoration effect of the simulated eutrophic water by water hyacinths was analyzed. [Result] In the simulation test without sediment, the peak chlorophyll concentration was 434.6 mg/m3 in the tank without water hyacinths, which decreased to 285 and 119 mg/m3 respectively in the tanks with 1 and 4 water hyacinths. In the experiment with sediment, compared with the control tank without water hyacinths, a 58% reduction in chlorophyll concentration could be observed in the tank with 4 water hyacinths planted (with a coverage of 51%). The results showed that water hyacinths could inhibit alga growth notably, but there was likely a density threshold (51% coverage), and no significant eco-restoration effect was observed in the simulated eutrophic water with too few water hyacinths planted. [Conclusion] The research could provide scientific references for the ecological restoration of eutrophic water bodies.

  7. Freshwater Fish Survey of Mathews Brake Water Body - 1980 and 1981 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A Freshwater Fish Survey of Mathews Brake water body including land not within Mathews Brake NWR. Methods included Electroshocker, creel census, and seine.

  8. Body water distribution and risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in a healthy population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nikoline Nygård; Kjærulff, Thora Majlund; Ward, Leigh Cordwin;


    Early alterations in the cardiovascular structure and function may change normal body water distribution. The resulting fluid shifts may thus serve as an early marker for cardiovascular disease. However, studies examining this in healthy populations are absent....

  9. Hydrography, Water bodies, Published in 2004, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Washington County. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Hydrography dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2004. It is described as 'Water bodies'....

  10. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Water Body Data - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The SRTM Water Body Data files are a by-product of the data editing performed by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) to produce the finished SRTM...

  11. Quantification of surface energy fluxes from a small water body using scintillometry and eddy covariance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGloin, Ryan; McGowan, Hamish; McJannet, David;


    Accurate quantification of evaporation from small water storages is essential for water management and planning, particularly in water-scarce regions. In order to ascertain suitable methods for direct measurement of evaporation from small water bodies, this study presents a comparison of eddy...... range of seasonal weather conditions. In this study, analysis was undertaken to ascertain whether important theoretical assumptions required for both techniques are valid in the complex environment of a small reservoir. Statistical comparison, energy balance closure, and the relationship between...

  12. Landscape pattern dynamics of water body in Kaifeng city in the 20th century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAOXinxiang; DINGShengyan


    Landscape spatial pattern mainly refers to the distribution of patches, which are different in size and shape in space owing to the interaction of various ecological activities. In landscape ecology study, landscape pattern has been one of the key study areas. Water body landscape plays an important role in the development history of a city, but at present city water body landscape in many cities has been destroyed, hence protecting water body in the city is becoming more and more important. In order to protect city water body landscape reasonably, the precondition is to probe the dynamics of water body landscape. Based on historical data and remote sensing data, six indexes including patch number, patch area, landscape dominance index, fractal dimension, patch density and connectivity index etc. were used to analyze landscape pattern dynamics of water body in Kaifeng city since the end of the Qing Dynasty (in the 20th century). The results showed: (1) Since the end of the Qing Dynasty, landscape area of water body in Kaifeng city increased first and then decreased from 1898 to 2002AD; the landscape dominant degree had the same changing tendency with the area. (2) Patch number of water body landscape in Kaifeng city had an increase from 1898 to 2002, but maximum area of patch, minimum area of patch and average area of patch decreased, which resulted in an increase in landscape fragment degree. (3) Connectivity index decreased and fractal dimension increased from 1898 to 2002. The reasons for these changes were the repeated overflows and flooding of the Yellow River and the influence of human activities.

  13. Trade-off Between Cost and Effectiveness of Control of Nutrient Loading into a Water Body


    Bogardi, I.; DAVID L.; Duckstein, L.


    A system consisting of a watershed and a water body is considered, and a methodology is presented for selecting the alternative scheme offering the best compromise between economic activity in the watershed and quality of the water body. The general problem is specified for the system of a watershed and a lake endangered by eutrophication. Both economic activity and eutrophication can be characterized by several criteria. The method is applied to actual data from a subwatershed of Lake Bal...

  14. Dry body weight: Water and sodium removal targets in PD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.T. Krediet


    Background/Aims: Cardiovascular mortality is high in peritoneal dialysis patients. This may be due to the presence of hypertension and fluid overload. Dietary intake of water and sodium are likely to be important, especially in anuric patients. Methods: A review of the literature on assessment of fl

  15. How close do we live to water? A global analysis of population distance to freshwater bodies. (United States)

    Kummu, Matti; de Moel, Hans; Ward, Philip J; Varis, Olli


    Traditionally, people have inhabited places with ready access to fresh water. Today, over 50% of the global population lives in urban areas, and water can be directed via tens of kilometres of pipelines. Still, however, a large part of the world's population is directly dependent on access to natural freshwater sources. So how are inhabited places related to the location of freshwater bodies today? We present a high-resolution global analysis of how close present-day populations live to surface freshwater. We aim to increase the understanding of the relationship between inhabited places, distance to surface freshwater bodies, and climatic characteristics in different climate zones and administrative regions. Our results show that over 50% of the world's population lives closer than 3 km to a surface freshwater body, and only 10% of the population lives further than 10 km away. There are, however, remarkable differences between administrative regions and climatic zones. Populations in Australia, Asia, and Europe live closest to water. Although populations in arid zones live furthest away from freshwater bodies in absolute terms, relatively speaking they live closest to water considering the limited number of freshwater bodies in those areas. Population distributions in arid zones show statistically significant relationships with a combination of climatic factors and distance to water, whilst in other zones there is no statistically significant relationship with distance to water. Global studies on development and climate adaptation can benefit from an improved understanding of these relationships between human populations and the distance to fresh water.

  16. Visualization of high-speed interaction of bodies in water (United States)

    Ishchenko, Aleksandr; Burkin, Viktor; Diachkovskii, Alexei; Korolkov, Leonid; Chupashev, Andrei; Zykova, Angelica


    The work presents opportunities of hydroballistic complex for studying the characteristics of movement super-cavitation model (SCM) on the length of waterway to 10 m. Gunfire of SCM implemented by this complex allows to study movement and collision of the different masses of SCM with underwater obstacles at subsonic, transonic and supersonic velocities in water. During the movement of SCM different masses the behavior supercavity was investigated.

  17. Predictions for water clusters from a first-principles two- and three-body force field. (United States)

    Góra, Urszula; Cencek, Wojciech; Podeszwa, Rafał; van der Avoird, Ad; Szalewicz, Krzysztof


    A new rigid-monomer three-body potential has been developed for water by fitting it to more than 70 thousand trimer interaction energies computed ab initio using coupled-cluster methods and augmented triple-zeta-quality basis sets. This potential was used together with a modified form of a previously developed two-body potential and with a polarization model of four- and higher-body interactions to predict the energetics of the water trimer, hexamer, and 24-mer. Despite using the rigid-monomer approximation, these predictions agree better with flexible-monomer benchmarks than published results obtained with flexible-monomer force fields. An unexpected finding of our work is that simple polarization models predict four-body interactions to within a few percent, whereas for three-body interactions these models are known to have errors on the order of 50%.

  18. Bioindicators of pollution in lentic water bodies of Nagpur city. (United States)

    Kumari, Pramila; Dhadse, Sharda; Chaudhari, P R; Wate, S R


    The present study deals with assessment of water quality of four selected lakes in the Nagpur city using physicochemical and biological parameters especially phytoplankton and zooplankton community. Tropic level and pollution status of lakes were assessed on the basis of the Palmer's Pollution Index, Shannon Wiener Index and physico-chemical parameters. 57 genera belonging to 7 groups of phytoplankton and 10 genera belonging to 3 groups of zooplankton were identified from the lakes. Different patterns of dominance and sub-dominance of indicator plankton community and species along with physico-chemical quality observed confirm the pollution status of the lakes.

  19. Formation of Iron Sulfide in Water-Body Sediment and Its Influence on Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Lei; SUMI Katsuhiro


    Iron sulfide is an important reductive pollutant in aquatic sediment, so that increasing attentions have been paid to it in recent years. In this paper, the formation of iron sulfide in water-body sediment was introduced. Moreover, its adverse influences upon environment were summarized, including direct contribution to deficiency of dissolved oxygen in water, association with eutrophication in water-bodies and impact on geochemical sulfur cycle. Since conventional chemical analysis for iron sulfide has several disadvantages, new technique for rapid determination of iron sulfide on-line was prospected.

  20. Combination of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor empagliflozin with orlistat or sibutramine further improves the body-weight reduction and glucose homeostasis of obese rats fed a cafeteria diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickers SP


    Full Text Available Steven P Vickers,1 Sharon C Cheetham,1 Katie R Headland,1 Keith Dickinson,1 Rolf Grempler,2 Eric Mayoux,2 Michael Mark,2 Thomas Klein2 1RenaSci, BioCity Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; 2Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma, Biberach an der Riss, Germany Abstract: The present study assessed the potential of the sodium glucose-linked transporter (SGLT-2 inhibitor empagliflozin to decrease body weight when administered alone or in combination with the clinically effective weight-loss agents orlistat and sibutramine in obese rats fed a cafeteria diet. Female Wistar rats were exposed to a cafeteria diet to induce obesity. Empagliflozin was dosed once daily (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg for 28 days. Combination studies were subsequently performed using a submaximal empagliflozin dose (10 mg/kg with either sibutramine or orlistat. Body weight, food, and water intake were recorded daily. The effect of drug treatment on glucose tolerance, relevant plasma parameters, and carcass composition was determined. Empagliflozin dose-dependently reduced body weight, plasma leptin, and body fat though increased urinary glucose excretion. The combination of empagliflozin and orlistat significantly reduced body weight compared to animals treated with either drug alone, and significantly improved glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, and leptin compared to vehicle-treated controls. The effect of sibutramine to improve glycemic control in an oral glucose-tolerance test was also significantly increased, with empagliflozin and combination treatment leading to a reduction in carcass fat greater than that observed with either drug alone. These data demonstrate that empagliflozin reduces body weight in cafeteria-fed obese rats. In combination studies, empagliflozin further improved the body-weight or body-fat loss of animals in comparison to orlistat or sibutramine alone. Such studies may indicate improved strategies for the treatment of obese patients with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. Keywords

  1. Benthic soft-bodied algae as bioindicators of stream water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stancheva R.


    Full Text Available This review presents the state-of-the-art of benthic soft-bodied algae as biondicators of stream and river water quality, with emphasis on bioassessments set by the legislation (e.g., European Water Framework Directive, USA Clean Water Act to promote the restoration and ensure ecological sustainability of water resources. The advantages and shortcomings of a variety of bioassessment field and laboratory methods for algae are discussed. The increasing use of soft-bodied algae in biotic indices to assess individual anthropogenic stressors, and in multimetric indices of biotic integrity to evaluate ecological condition in streams is summarized. Rapid microscopic and molecular approaches for inferring nutrient supply with heterocystous cyanobacteria and other sensitive algae are proposed. The need of better understanding of soft-bodied algae as bioindicators is discussed and suggestions are made for obtaining meaningful bioassessment information with cost-efficient efforts.

  2. The Impact Analysis of Water Body Landscape Pattern on Urban Heat Island: A Case Study of Wuhan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohan Yang


    Full Text Available Based on the LST and the landscape metrics of water body with remote sensing technique and spatial analysis, the relationship between the mean LST and the attributes of water body was revealed via Pearson’s correlation analysis and multiple stepwise regression analysis. Result showed that, in 32 class-based metrics we selected, the proportion of water body, average water body size, the isolation and fragmentation of water body, and other eight metrics have high correlation with the LST. As a resultant force, the quantity, shape, and spatial distribution of water body affect the forming of temperature. We found that the quantity and spatial pattern of city water body could be allocated reasonably to maximize its cooling effect.

  3. Providing Longitudinal Connection In Case Of Cross Sluicing On Water Bodies In Banat Hydrographic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoancă Diana


    Full Text Available On Banat Hydrographic Area level, there are a series of works which put hydrological pressures on bodies of water: accumulations, damming, water diversions, regulations, shore protection, etc. These works were created in order to ensure water demand, defend against floods, regulate discharges, and combat humidity excess. Speaking justly, they have an important socioeconomic role. Among the negative effects of longitudinal connection interruption of water bodies we can mention, the risk of not achieving the positive ecological potential of water bodies in accordance with the Water Framework Directive, the reduction of the aquatic biodiversity, the reduction or even extinction of certain aquatic species and the alteration of the flow process. Because the negative effects of the hydromorphological alterations, especially those due to the interruption of the longitudinal connection, have a significant impact on the aquatic biodiversity. At Banat Hydrographic Area level, a series of measures, have been identified for the rehabilitation of the affected water courses: the removal of the hydrotechnical constructions from the water body if they have lost their functional features, building of passages for the migration of the ichthyofauna, reconnecting of the affluents and the disconnected arms as well as other measures intended to bring things back to their natural state. The implementation of these measures is made according to the importance and the extent of their positive impact as opposed to the negative effect that might occur as a consequence of their application. Analyzing the measures aforementioned and taking into consideration the characteristics of the hydromorphological pressures on water bodies in Banat Hydrographic Area, a number of measures regarding control are supplied in this paper.

  4. Potential of mixed microalgae to harness biodiesel from ecological water-bodies with simultaneous treatment. (United States)

    Mohan, S Venkata; Devi, M Prathima; Mohanakrishna, G; Amarnath, N; Babu, M Lenin; Sarma, P N


    Biodiesel as an eco-friendly fuel is gaining much acceptance in recent years. This communication provides an overview on the possibility of using mixed microalgae existing in ecological water-bodies for harnessing biodiesel. Microalgal cultures from five water-bodies are cultivated in domestic wastewater in open-ponds and the harvested algal-biomass was processed through acid-catalyzed transesterification. Experiments evidenced the potential of using mixed microalgae for harnessing biodiesel. Presence of palmitic acid (C16:0) in higher fraction and physical properties of algal oil correlated well with the biodiesel properties. Functional characteristics of water-bodies showed to influence both species diversity and lipid accumulation. Microalgae from stagnant water-bodies receiving domestic discharges documented higher lipid accumulation. Algal-oil showed to consist 33 types of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids having wide food and fuel characteristics. Simultaneous wastewater treatment was also noticed due to the syntrophic association in the water-body microenvironment. Diversity studies visualized the composition of algae species known to accumulate higher lipids.

  5. How Trace Element Levels of Public Drinking Water Affect Body Composition in Turkey. (United States)

    Cetin, Ihsan; Nalbantcilar, Mahmut Tahir; Tosun, Kezban; Nazik, Aydan


    Since waterborne minerals appear in ionic form and are readily absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, drinking water could be a crucial source of mineral intake. However, no comprehensive research has yet determined how trace elements in drinking water relate to body composition. We aimed to assess the relationship between clinically important trace elements in public drinking water and body composition in average, overweight and obese individuals in Turkey. The study's population consisted of 423 participants: 143 overweight, 138 obese and 142 healthy control individuals, grouped according to clinical cutoff points of body mass index (BMI). We measured levels of lithium (Li), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), silicon (Si), tin (Sn), strontium (Sr), boron (B), aluminium (Al), barium (Ba) and rubidium (Rb) in samples from wells of municipal water by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We gauged all the participants' body composition measurements with a BC-418 body composition analyser. In all the participants, body weight values showed significant positive correlations with Ni levels in drinking water, as did BMI values with Al levels and percentage of obesity with Ni, Si and B levels. In particular, Ni levels showed significant positive correlations with the basal metabolic rate, activity calories, and total activity of participants. Giving findings showing correlations between obesity-related parameters and Al, Si, B and Ni content in drinking water, we hope that these associations will be clarified with further studies including cellular, experimental and clinical studies. Hence, medical practitioners must be aware of trace element levels in drinking water for overweight and obese patients.

  6. Pavement Sealcoat, PAHs, and Water Quality of Urban Water Bodies: An Overview (United States)

    Mahler, B. J.; Van Metre, P. C.; Ingersoll, C.; Kunz, J. L.; Kienzler, A.; Devaux, A.; Bony, S.


    Coal-tar-based (CT) sealcoat is used to protect and beautify the asphalt pavement of driveways and parking lots primarily in the central, southern, and northeastern U.S. and in Canada. CT sealcoat typically is 20 to 35 percent crude coal tar or coal-tar pitch and contains from 50,000 to 100,000 mg/kg PAHs, about 1,000 times more than asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat or asphalt itself. Tires and snowplows abrade the friable sealcoat surface into fine particles—PAH concentrations in fine particles (dust) from CT-sealcoated pavement are about 1,000 times higher than in dust from AS-sealcoated pavement (median total PAH concentrations 2,200 and 2.1 mg/kg, respectively). Use of CT sealcoat has several implications for urban streams and lakes. Source apportionment modeling has indicated that, in regions where CT sealcoat is prevalent, particles from sealcoated pavement are contributing the majority of the PAHs to recently deposited lake sediment, with implications for ecological health. Acute 2-d toxicity of runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement to stream biota, demonstrated for a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), continues for samples collected as long as weeks or months following sealcoat application. Using the fish-liver cell line RGL-W1, runoff collected as much as 36 days following CT-sealcoat application has been demonstrated to cause DNA damage and impair DNA repair capacity. These results demonstrate that CT runoff is a potential hazard to aquatic ecosystems for at least several weeks after sealant application, and that exposure to sunlight can enhance toxicity and genetic damage. Recent research has provided direct evidence that restricting use of CT sealcoat in a watershed can lead to a substantial reduction in PAH concentrations in receiving water bodies.

  7. Thermal insulation and body temperature wearing a thermal swimsuit during water immersion. (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Hanai, Atsuko; Yokoyama, Shintaro; Nomura, Takeo


    This study evaluated the effects of a thermal swimsuit on body temperatures, thermoregulatory responses and thermal insulation during 60 min water immersion at rest. Ten healthy male subjects wearing either thermal swimsuits or normal swimsuits were immersed in water (26 degrees C or 29 degrees C). Esophageal temperature, skin temperatures and oxygen consumption were measured during the experiments. Metabolic heat production was calculated from oxygen consumption. Heat loss from skin to the water was calculated from the metabolic heat production and the change in mean body temperature during water immersion. Total insulation and tissue insulation were estimated by dividing the temperature difference between the esophagus and the water or the esophagus and the skin with heat loss from the skin. Esophageal temperature with a thermal swimsuit was higher than that with a normal swimsuit at the end of immersion in both water temperature conditions (pinsulation with the thermal swimsuit was higher than that with a normal swimsuit due to insulation of the suit at both water temperatures (pinsulation was similar in all four conditions, but significantly higher with the thermal swimsuit in both water temperature conditions (pinsulation and reduce heat loss from the skin. Therefore, subjects with thermal swimsuits can maintain higher body temperatures than with a normal swimsuit and reduce shivering thermo-genesis.

  8. The effect of water temperature on the human body and the swimming effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Although many research papers have dealt with the influence of environmental temperature on the various Human body functions during exercise in land, a few only informations exist for the equivalent alterations in water temperatures during immersion and swimming. The present preview research paper is referred on this subject. During swimming in the normal water temperature 26° ± 1° C (63, the functions of the human body respond regularly and the performance of swimmers tends to be improved. However, during swimming in cold water critical differences appear in human functions, such as bradycardia, angiospasm, hyperventilation and adaptations of thermoregulatory mechanism which influence the swimming performance and the life itself. Especially in very cold water temperature the disturbances of the cardiovascular system may lead in critical arrhythmia or sudden death. The cold water temperature, however, influences the kinetic and energy behavior related to the reduction of swimmers performance because of its possible influence on the neuromuscular function. In the increased water temperature up to 28° C appears tachycardia, vasodilation and other alternations which aim to better thermoregulation. The swimmers records are possibly equivalent with a tendency to be improved, to the records in normal temperature of championships 26° C and the increased temperature mainly in the speed events (3. Therefore, there is a differentiation on swimmers performances due to water temperature declination from normal. Also, body functions change during water immersion.

  9. Identification of Water Bodies in a Landsat 8 OLI Image Using a J48 Decision Tree. (United States)

    Acharya, Tri Dev; Lee, Dong Ha; Yang, In Tae; Lee, Jae Kang


    Water bodies are essential to humans and other forms of life. Identification of water bodies can be useful in various ways, including estimation of water availability, demarcation of flooded regions, change detection, and so on. In past decades, Landsat satellite sensors have been used for land use classification and water body identification. Due to the introduction of a New Operational Land Imager (OLI) sensor on Landsat 8 with a high spectral resolution and improved signal-to-noise ratio, the quality of imagery sensed by Landsat 8 has improved, enabling better characterization of land cover and increased data size. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the most appropriate and practical water identification methods that take advantage of the improved image quality and use the fewest inputs based on the original OLI bands. The objective of the study is to explore the potential of a J48 decision tree (JDT) in identifying water bodies using reflectance bands from Landsat 8 OLI imagery. J48 is an open-source decision tree. The test site for the study is in the Northern Han River Basin, which is located in Gangwon province, Korea. Training data with individual bands were used to develop the JDT model and later applied to the whole study area. The performance of the model was statistically analysed using the kappa statistic and area under the curve (AUC). The results were compared with five other known water identification methods using a confusion matrix and related statistics. Almost all the methods showed high accuracy, and the JDT was successfully applied to the OLI image using only four bands, where the new additional deep blue band of OLI was found to have the third highest information gain. Thus, the JDT can be a good method for water body identification based on images with improved resolution and increased size.

  10. An artificial water body provides habitat for an endangered estuarine seahorse species (United States)

    Claassens, Louw


    Anthropogenic development, especially the transformation of natural habitats to artificial, is a growing concern within estuaries and coastal areas worldwide. Thesen Islands marina, an artificial water body, added 25 ha of new estuarine habitat to the Knysna Estuary in South Africa, home to the Knysna seahorse. This study aimed to answer: (I) Can an artificial water body provide suitable habitat for an endangered seahorse species? And if so (II) what characteristics of this new habitat are important in terms of seahorse utilization? Four major habitat types were identified within the marina canals: (I) artificial reno mattress (wire baskets filled with rocks); (II) Codium tenue beds; (III) mixed vegetation on sediment; and (IV) barren canal floor. Seahorses were found throughout the marina system with significantly higher densities within the reno mattress habitat. The artificial water body, therefore, has provided suitable habitat for Hippocampus capensis, a noteworthy finding in the current environment of coastal development and the increasing shift from natural to artificial.

  11. Water used to visualize and remove hidden foreign bodies from the external ear canal. (United States)

    Peltola, T J; Saarento, R


    Small foreign bodies lodged anteriorly in the tympanic sulcus are usually not visible, due to the curve of the external ear canal. Such objects can be seen with the aid of an otomicroscope and micromirror or with an endoscope, and removed by irrigation. If irrigation fails, epithelial migration on the tympanic membrane may remove lodged foreign bodies, although this may take months. Our new method, which uses water to locate small objects lodged in the tympanic sulcus, includes irrigation of the ear, adjustment of the water level to the middle curve of the external ear canal, and use of the water surface as a concave lens, making the tympanic sulcus visible. With otomicroscopy a curved ear probe can then be used to remove lodged foreign bodies from behind the curve.

  12. Simulation model of pollution spreading in the water bodies affected by mining mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinkina Natalia Mikhailovna


    Full Text Available Water bodies of the northern Karelia are polluted by liquid wastes of Kostomukshsky iron ore-dressing mill. The main components of these wastes are potassium ions. The processes of the potassium spreading in lake-river system of the River Kenty were studied using simulation modeling. For water bodies, where chemical observations were not carried out, the reconstruction of data was realized. The parameters of the model (constants of potassium transfer for seven lakes were calculated. These constants reflect the hydrological regime of water bodies and characterize high-speed transfer of potassium in the upstream and downstream, and low transfer rate - in the middle stream. It is shown that the vast majority of potassium (70% is carried out of the system Kenty and enters the lake Srednee Kuito

  13. Effects of Body Weight and Water Temperature on Maximum Food Consumption of Juvenile Sebastodes fuscescens (Houttuyn)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢松光; 杨红生; 周毅; 张福绥


    Maximum rate of food consumption (Cmax) was determined for juvenile Sebastodes fuscescens (Houttuyn) at water temperature of 10, 15, 20 and 25℃. The relationships of Cmax to the body weight (W) at each temperature were described by a power equation: lnCmax = a + b lnW. Covariance analysis revealed significant interaction of the temperature and body weight. The relationship of adjusted Cmax to water temperature (T) was described by a quadratic equation: Cmax =-0.369 + 0.456T - 0.0117T2. The optimal feeding temperature calculated from this equation was 19.5℃. The coefficients of the multiple regression estimation relating Cmax to body weight (W) and water temperature (T) were given in the Table 2.

  14. A methodology for defining homogeneous water bodies in estuaries - Application to the transitional systems of the EU Water Framework Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, JG; Nobre, AM; Sirnas, TC; Silva, MC; Newton, A; Bricker, SB; Wolff, WJ; Stacey, PE; Sequeira, A; Simas, T.C.; Sequiera, A.


    A methodology is developed and tested for division of estuarine and coastal systems into water bodies for monitoring and management purposes. This division is often implicit in the choice of sampling stations and in pollution abatement measures applied to different locations - it is now an explicit

  15. Comparison of absorption properties of colored dissolved organic matter in six different case 2 water bodies (United States)

    Nima, Ciren; Frette, Øyvind; Hamre, Børge; Erga, Svein Rune; Chen, Yi-Chun; Zhao, Lu; Muyimbwa, Dennis; Ssenyonga, Taddeo; Ssebiyonga, Nicolausi; Okullo, Willy; Stamnes, Knut; Stamnes, Jakob J.


    Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) is one of the main factors controlling the penetration of solar radiation in Case 2 water and affecting satellite-based estimation of ocean color. We present absorption properties of CDOM sampled in 6 water bodies including three in Norway (Røst coastal water, Samnangerfjord, Lysefjord), two in China (Bohai Sea, Lake Namtso), and one in Africa (Lake Victoria). These locations, which range from near the equator to subarctic regions, include water types from oligotrophic to eutrophic, and altitudes from sea level to 4,700 m above sea level.

  16. Water bodies extraction from high resolution satellite images using water indices and optimal threshold (United States)

    AlMaazmi, Alya


    Over the past years, remote sensing imagery made the earth monitoring more effective and valuable through developing different algorithms for feature extraction. One of the significant features are water surfaces. Water features extraction such as pools, lakes and gulfs gained a considerable attention over the past years, as water plays critical role for surviving, planning and protecting water resources. Past worth efforts in water extraction from remote sensed images mainly faced the challenge of misclassification, especially with shadows. Shadows are typical noise objects for water, extraction, as they have almost identical spectrum characteristics, which result difficulty to discriminate between water and shadows in a remote sensing image, especially in the urban region such as Dubai. Therefore, water extraction algorithm is developed in order to extract water surfaces accurately with shadows elimination. The detection is based on spectral information such as water indices (WIs), and morphological operations. Water indices are used to discriminate water surfaces from lands based on combining two or more water indices such as Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI), and Normalized Saturation-value Difference Index (NSVDI), used at an optimum threshold. The morphological operators will be performed using opening by reconstruction to discriminate between water and shadows at an optimum threshold. Both Water Indices and morphological operation results will be infused together in one image that result a binary image of water objects. The algorithm and final results are compared with ground truth image for accuracy assessment, the results were satisfactory with an accuracy of 95% and higher and very minimum negligible shadows appeared. Moreover the resultant image transformed into vector features in order to create a shape file that can be used and viewed in google earth and Geo software.

  17. Phytocenotic structure and physico-chemical properties of a small water body in agricultural landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sender


    Full Text Available Small water bodies, until recently considered as wasteland, are an essential element of the so-called small water retention. Their main use can vary significantly, but they always play a positive role by increasing water resources and enhancing the natural values of the landscape. Moreover, by increasing bio- diversity thanks to plants forming habitats for many species of flora and fauna, small water bodies act as a biofilter, improving water quality. But these small reservoirs belong to the groups of waters that are most exposed to damage, especially within the catchment area. Because of the invaluable role of small farmland water bodies, a study was undertaken to investigate their phytocenotic structure. In addition, an attempt was made to assess the level of threats and to indicate their role in the development of habitat conditions. The investigated reservoir was created in 2007. Before that time, it functioned as a part of the Zemborzycki reservoir, as they were close to each other. Almost the entire surrounding of this small reservoir consisted of farmland. In 2011 a revitalization project was carried out in the reservoir. Plants typical for wetland habitats were mainly introduced, while synanthropic vegetation was removed. Based on chemical and physical analyses, it can be concluded that the investigated reservoir serves as a natural biofilter thanks to the qualitative and quantitative changes in the structure of macrophytes. After the revitalization project, the investigated pond gained new aesthetic and ecological qualities.

  18. Water level influences on body condition of Geophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae in a Brazilian oligotrophic reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Filippo Gonzalez Neves dos Santos

    Full Text Available Effects of water level fluctuations on body condition of Geophagus brasiliensis were studied in a 30 km² Brazilian oligotrophic reservoir. Physiological condition (K and gonadosomatic index (GSI were compared according to water level (low and high. Females' best conditions were associated to higher resources availability during high water, since gonad development did not change between low and high water. Males' condition did not change between water levels, while the highest gonad development occurred in low water. Females presented higher reproductive investment than males, which allocated most of energy for somatic development. This strategy could be a mechanism to undergo the stress caused by oligotrophic characteristics of the reservoir enhanced during low water level.

  19. Water Bodies and Vegetation in the California-Baja California Border Region a Remote Sensors Perspective. (United States)

    Hinojosa, A.; Mexicano-Vargas, M. L.; Serrato, B. A.


    The California-Baja California border region although they share watersheds, similar climate and landscape, there is a big contrast in the vegetation cover and water bodies between the two countries as seen from remote sensors. There is a stronger signature of vegetation and larger number of water bodies in the California side. To do a quantitative estimate of these differences, a comparative analysis of vegetation and water bodies was perfomerd along a strip of 100 km from both sides of the border with remote sensing techniques using Landsat TM images from 1984 to 2006. The strong absorption of water to short wave infrared radiation captured by band 5 of TM Landsat sensor (1.55- 1.75 micrometers) is use to detect water bodies. The histogram segmentation technique was used with TM 5/1 band ratios reinforced with a shades prediction technique using the sun position and a digital elevation model. The aerial extent of detected water bodies is estimated. Also an analysis from 1972 trough 2002 of the Mexican portion of Colorado river delta will be presented, with emphasis on flood events induced by abnormal snowmelts and higher precipitations in the high basin; 250 Landsat image previews were collected , from which 157 were selected to integrate 63 scenes that provide a dynamic picture of the Colorado delta river over 30 years. A regression with the annual averages of inundated areas and annual water flow data from E.U. to Mexico was made with a correlation coefficient of 0.912. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was used to estimate the vegetation greenness in the agricultural valleys and in natural vegetated areas along the mountains on both sides of the border. The spatial distribution of the NDVI and the differences between zones with the same land use regime on both sides of the border is presented.

  20. Analysis of body water compartments after a short sauna bath using bioelectric impedance analysis. (United States)

    Servidio, M-F; Mohamed, E I; Maiolo, C; Hereba, A T; Perrone, F; Garofano, P; Iacopino, L


    Studies have suggested that long-term sauna bathing may lower blood pressure in persons with hypertension by causing a direct loss of extracellular water and plasma minerals. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of short-term sauna bathing on body water compartments as estimated by bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA). We recruited 15 men [mean age (+/-SD) of 23.93+/-5.12 years and mean body mass index (BMI) of 23.25+/-2.84 kg/m(2)] and 10 women matched for age and BMI. Total body resistance, reactance, and impedance were measured for all participants using BIA, at baseline, after a short sauna bath, and after a rest period. Total, extracellular, and intracellular water compartments were calculated using BIA formulae. There were no significant differences for any of the body water compartments when comparing the measurements taken before and after the sauna bath and after the rest period. However, it remains to be determined whether or not BIA is sensitive to rapid changes in water volume.

  1. The risk of river pollution due to washout from contaminated floodplain water bodies during high floods (United States)

    Lyubimova, Tatyana; Lepikhin, Anatoly; Parshakova, Yanina; Tiunov, Alexey


    Today, the potential impact of extremely high floods, which in the last years have become a rather frequent weather-related disaster, is the problem of primary concern. In studies of the potential impact of floods the emphasis is placed first of all on the estimation of possible flood zones and the analysis of the flow regimes in these zones. However, in some cases the hydrochemical parameters related to changes in the chemical composition of water are more important than the hydraulic parameters. It is generally believed that the higher is the flow rate, the more intensive is the process of dissolution, i.e. the lower is the concentration of limiting contaminants in water. However, this statement is valid provided that flooding does not activate new sources of water pollution such as contaminated floodplain water bodies located in the vicinity of water supply systems. Being quite reliable and safe at small and moderate discharges, in the case of extremely high level of river waters they become intensive sources of water pollution, essentially limiting the water consumption schedule for downstream water consumers. It should be noted that compared to the well-studied mechanisms of waste discharge due to failure of hydraulic engineering structures by flood waves, the mechanisms of pollutant washout from the contaminated floodplain water bodies by the flood waves is still poorly understood. We analyze the impacts of such weather-related events on the quality of water in the water intake system, taking as an example, the section of the Vyatka River located in the Prikamskaya lowland of the Russian Federation. The risk of river pollution due to washout from the contaminated floodplain water bodies during high floods is studied by hydrodynamical modeling in the framework of combined approach using one-, two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamic models are implemented and by in situ measurements. It is shown that during high floods the removal of pollutants from the

  2. Environmental Evolution of the Water Body of Qinghai Lake since the Postglacial Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彭熹; 张保珍; 等


    Based on the data developed from various s natural waters in the Qinghai Lake area and ostracode shells present in drill core QH-16A of recent lake-floor sediments ,this paper discusses the distribution of stable isotopes in the modern water body of Qinghai Lake,and the initial isotopic composition of the lake water has been deduced ,Studies of δ18O,δ13C,Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca in ostracode shells provide the basis for the establishment of the model of climatic fluctuation in the Qinghai Lake area since the postaglacial age,as well as for the elucidation of the environmental evolution of the water body of Qinghai Lake since the postglacial age.

  3. Flow and transport within a coastal aquifer adjacent to a stratified water body (United States)

    Oz, Imri; Yechieli, Yoseph; Eyal, Shalev; Gavrieli, Ittai; Gvirtzman, Haim


    The existence of a freshwater-saltwater interface and the circulation flow of saltwater beneath the interface is a well-known phenomenon found at coastal aquifers. This flow is a natural phenomenon that occurs due to density differences between fresh groundwater and the saltwater body. The goals of this research are to use analytical, numerical, and physical models in order to examine the configuration of the freshwater-saltwater interface and the density-driven flow patterns within a coastal aquifer adjacent to long-term stratified saltwater bodies (e.g. meromictic lake). Such hydrological systems are unique, as they consist of three different water types: the regional fresh groundwater, and low and high salinity brines forming the upper and lower water layers of the stratified water body, respectively. This research also aims to examine the influence of such stratification on hydrogeological processes within the coastal aquifer. The coastal aquifer adjacent to the Dead Sea, under its possible future meromictic conditions, serves as an ideal example to examine these processes. The results show that adjacent to a stratified saltwater body three interfaces between three different water bodies are formed, and that a complex flow system, controlled by the density differences, is created, where three circulation cells are developed. These results are significantly different from the classic circulation cell that is found adjacent to non-stratified water bodies (lakes or oceans). In order to obtain a more generalized insight into the groundwater behavior adjacent to a stratified water body, we used the numerical model to perform sensitivity analysis. The hydrological system was found be sensitive to three dimensionless parameters: dimensionless density (i.e. the relative density of the three water bodies'); dimensionless thickness (i.e. the ratio between the relative thickness of the upper layer and the whole thickness of the lake); and dimensionless flux. The results

  4. The Effect of Water Compressibility on a Rigid Body Movement in Two Phase Flow (United States)

    Park, Chan Wook; Kim, Hak Sun; Lee, Sungsu


    The motion of a rigid body in a tube full of water-filled, initiated by a sudden release of highly pressurized air is simulated presuming the flow field as a two dimensional one. The effects of water compressibility on the body movement are investigated, comparing results based on the Fluent VOF model where water is treated as an incompressible medium with those from the presently developed VOF scheme. The present model considers compressibility of both air and water. The Fluent results show that the body moves farther and at higher speeds than the present ones. As time proceeds, the relative difference of speed and displacement between the two results drops substantially, after acoustic waves in water traverse and return the full length of the tube several times. To estimate instantaneous accelerations, however, requires implementation of the water compressibility effect as discrepancies between them do not decrease even after several pressure wave cycles. This work was supported by a research fund granted from Agency for Defense Development, South Korea.

  5. Hydrographic Surveys for Six Water Bodies in Eastern Nebraska, 2005-07 (United States)

    Johnson, Michaela R.; Andersen, Michael J.; Sebree, Sonja K.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality, completed hydrographic surveys for six water bodies in eastern Nebraska: Maskenthine Wetland, Olive Creek Lake, Standing Bear Lake, Wagon Train Lake and Wetland, Wildwood Lake, and Yankee Hill Lake and sediment basin. The bathymetric data were collected using a boat-mounted survey-grade fathometer that operated at 200 kHz, and a differentially corrected Global Positioning System with antenna mounted directly above the echo-sounder transducer. Shallow-water and terrestrial areas were surveyed using a Real-Time Kinematic Global Positioning System. The bathymetric, shallow-water, and terrestrial data were processed in a geographic information system to generate a triangulated irregular network representation of the bottom of the water body. Bathymetric contours were interpolated from the triangulated irregular network data using a 2-foot contour interval. Bathymetric contours at the conservation pool elevation for Maskenthine Wetland, Yankee Hill Lake, and Yankee Hill sediment pond also were interpolated in addition to the 2-foot contours. The surface area and storage capacity of each lake or wetland were calculated for 1-foot intervals of water surface elevation and are tabulated in the Appendix for all water bodies.

  6. Pythium species in 13 various types of water bodies of N-E Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga


    Full Text Available Pythium species and environmental factors in various types of water bodies (2 springs, 2 rivers, 3 ponds and 6 different trophic lakes were studied. Samples of water were collected every two months (springs, rivers, ponds and every three months (lakes in the years 1996-1999 for hydrochemical analysis and in order to determine the Pythium species content. From springs rivers and ponds collected were also ice blocks for determinations of presence of Pythium species. Buckwheatand hemp-seeds, cellophane and snake exuviae were used as bait. Forty-five species of Pythium were found in various types of water bodies. Pythium acanthicum, P. complectens, P. complens, P. diameson, P. dissimile, P. elongatum, P. lucens, P. megalacanthum, P. nagae, P. oedochilum, P. oryzae, P. palingenes, P. periilum and P. polysporum were recorded for the first time in Poland. The largest mean number of species was observed in spring Cypisek, a bit fewer in spring Jaroszówka and lake Białe (oligotrophic-like waters. The lowest mean number of Pythium species was noted in pond Akcent and Pałacowy (polytrophic waters. In all types of water bodies the higest mean number of species was found in winter, and the lowest in summer.

  7. Explaining the presence of perennial liquid water bodies in the firn of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers Munneke, P.; Ligtenberg, S.R.M.; van den Broeke, M.R.; van Angelen, J.H.; Forster, R.R.


    Recent observations have shown that the firn layer on the Greenland Ice Sheet features subsurface bodies of liquid water at the end of the winter season. Using a model with basic firn hydrology, thermodynamics, and compaction in one dimension, we find that a combination of moderate to strong surface

  8. Water-waves modes trapped in a canal by a body with the rough surface

    CERN Document Server

    Cardone, G; Nazarov, S A


    The problem about a body in a three dimensional infinite channel is considered in the framework of the theory of linear water-waves. The body has a rough surface characterized by a small parameter $\\epsilon>0$ while the distance of the body to the water surface is also of order $\\epsilon$. Under a certain symmetry assumption, the accumulation effect for trapped mode frequencies is established, namely, it is proved that, for any given $d>0$ and integer $N>0$, there exists $\\epsilon(d,N)>0$ such that the problem has at least $N$ eigenvalues in the interval $(0,d)$ of the continuous spectrum in the case $\\epsilon\\in(0,\\epsilon(d,N)) $. The corresponding eigenfunctions decay exponentially at infinity, have finite energy, and imply trapped modes.

  9. Sprectroradiometric characteristics of inland water bodies infestated by Oscillatoria rubescens algae (United States)

    Ciraolo, Giuseppe; La Loggia, Goffredo; Maltese, Antonino


    In December 2006 blooms of Oscillatoria rubescens were found in the reservoir Prizzi in Sicily. Oscillatoria is a genus of filamentous alga comprising approximately 6 species, between these the O. rubescens is sadly famous since this organism produces microcystins which are powerful hepatotoxins. Firstly found in Europe in 1825 on Geneva lake, recently (2006) those algae has been find out in Pozzillo, Nicoletti e Ancipa reservoirs (Enna Province), as well as in Prizzi (Palermo Province) and Garcia reservoirs (Trapani Province). Toxins produced by those bacteria (usually called microcystine LR-1 and LR-2) are highly toxic since they can activate oncogenes cells causing cancer pathologies on liver and gastrointestinal tract. Even if water treatment plants should ensure the provision of safe drinking water from surface waters contaminated with those toxic algae blooms, the contamination of reservoirs used for civil and agricultural supply highlights human health risks. International literature suggests a threshold value of 0.01 μgl-1 to avoid liver cancer using water coming from contaminated water bodies for a long period. Since O. rubescens activities is strongly related to phosphate and nitrogen compounds as well as to temperature and light transmission within water, the paper presents the comparison between optical properties of the water of an infested reservoir and those of a reservoir characterized by clear water. Field campaigns were carried out in February-March 2008 in order to quantify the spectral transparencies of two water bodies through the calculation of the diffuse attenuation coefficient, measuring underwater downwelling irradiance at different depths as well as water spectral reflectance. Results show that diffuse attenuation coefficient is reduced by approximately 15% reducing light penetration in the water column; coherently reflectance spectral signature generally decreases, exhibiting a characteristic peak around 703 nm not present in

  10. A many-body dissipative particle dynamics study of forced water-oil displacement in capillary. (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Zhuang, Lin; Li, Xuefeng; Dong, Jinfeng; Lu, Juntao


    The forced water-oil displacement in capillary is a model that has important applications such as the groundwater remediation and the oil recovery. Whereas it is difficult for experimental studies to observe the displacement process in a capillary at nanoscale, the computational simulation is a unique approach in this regard. In the present work, the many-body dissipative particle dynamics (MDPD) method is employed to simulate the process of water-oil displacement in capillary with external force applied by a piston. As the property of all interfaces involved in this system can be manipulated independently, the dynamic displacement process is studied systematically under various conditions of distinct wettability of water in capillary and miscibility between water and oil as well as of different external forces. By analyzing the dependence of the starting force on the properties of water/capillary and water/oil interfaces, we find that there exist two different modes of the water-oil displacement. In the case of stronger water-oil interaction, the water particles cannot displace those oil particles sticking to the capillary wall, leaving a low oil recovery efficiency. To minimize the residual oil content in capillary, enhancing the wettability of water and reducing the external force will be beneficial. This simulation study provides microscopic insights into the water-oil displacement process in capillary and guiding information for relevant applications.

  11. Study of physico-chemical characteristics of water bodies around Jaipur. (United States)

    Srivastava, Neera; Agrawal, Meena; Tyagi, Anupama


    The present study has been undertaken to evaluate physico-chemical parameters (pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, free carbon dioxide, alkalinity and hardness) and zinc concentration in water bodies in and around Jaipur. Water samples from Jalmachal Lake, Nevta Lake, Amer Lake and Ramgarh Lake were analysed. Results reveal that the water of Jalmahal Lake is most polluted due to high pH, hardness, alkalinity, free carbon dioxide, zinc content, and a low level of dissolved oxygen. Contrarily Ramgarh Lake is least polluted, as it has high dissolved oxygen and low pH, alkalinity, free carbon dioxide, hardness and zinc content.

  12. The historical distribution of main malaria foci in Spain as related to water bodies. (United States)

    Sousa, Arturo; García-Barrón, Leoncio; Vetter, Mark; Morales, Julia


    The possible connectivity between the spatial distribution of water bodies suitable for vectors of malaria and endemic malaria foci in Southern Europe is still not well known. Spain was one of the last countries in Western Europe to be declared free of malaria by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1964. This study combines, by means of a spatial-temporal analysis, the historical data of patients and deceased with the distribution of water bodies where the disease-transmitting mosquitos proliferate. Therefore, data from historical archives with a Geographic Information System (GIS), using the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation method, was analyzed with the aim of identifying regional differences in the distribution of malaria in Spain. The reasons, why the risk of transmission is concentrated in specific regions, are related to worse socioeconomic conditions (Extremadura), the presence of another vector (Anopheles labranchiae) besides A. atroparvus (Levante) or large areas of water bodies in conditions to reproduce theses vectors (La Mancha and Western Andalusia). In the particular case of Western Andalusia, in 1913, the relatively high percentage of 4.73% of the surface, equal to 202362 ha, corresponds to wetlands and other unhealthy water bodies. These wetlands have been reduced as a result of desiccation policies and climate change such as the Little Ice Age and Global Climate Change. The comprehension of the main factors of these wetland changes in the past can help us interpret accurately the future risk of malaria re-emergence in temperate latitudes, since it reveals the crucial role of unhealthy water bodies on the distribution, endemicity and eradication of malaria in southern Europe.

  13. The Historical Distribution of Main Malaria Foci in Spain as Related to Water Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Sousa


    Full Text Available The possible connectivity between the spatial distribution of water bodies suitable for vectors of malaria and endemic malaria foci in Southern Europe is still not well known. Spain was one of the last countries in Western Europe to be declared free of malaria by the World Health Organization (WHO in 1964. This study combines, by means of a spatial-temporal analysis, the historical data of patients and deceased with the distribution of water bodies where the disease-transmitting mosquitos proliferate. Therefore, data from historical archives with a Geographic Information System (GIS, using the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW interpolation method, was analyzed with the aim of identifying regional differences in the distribution of malaria in Spain. The reasons, why the risk of transmission is concentrated in specific regions, are related to worse socioeconomic conditions (Extremadura, the presence of another vector (Anopheles labranchiae besides A. atroparvus (Levante or large areas of water bodies in conditions to reproduce theses vectors (La Mancha and Western Andalusia. In the particular case of Western Andalusia, in 1913, the relatively high percentage of 4.73% of the surface, equal to 202362 ha, corresponds to wetlands and other unhealthy water bodies. These wetlands have been reduced as a result of desiccation policies and climate change such as the Little Ice Age and Global Climate Change. The comprehension of the main factors of these wetland changes in the past can help us interpret accurately the future risk of malaria re-emergence in temperate latitudes, since it reveals the crucial role of unhealthy water bodies on the distribution, endemicity and eradication of malaria in southern Europe.

  14. TSLP and Immune Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shino Hanabuchi


    Full Text Available In an immune system, dendritic cells (DCs are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs as well as powerful sensors of danger signals. When DCs receive signals from infection and tissue stress, they immediately activate and instruct the initiation of appropriate immune responses to T cells. However, it has remained unclear how the tissue microenvironment in a steady state shapes the function of DCs. Recent many works on thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP, an epithelial cell-derived cytokine that has the strong ability to activate DCs, provide evidence that TSLP mediates crosstalk between epithelial cells and DCs, involving in DC-mediated immune homeostasis. Here, we review recent progress made on how TSLP expressed within the thymus and peripheral lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues regulates DC-mediated T-cell development in the thymus and T-cell homeostasis in the periphery.

  15. Development and clinical application of a length-adjustable water phantom for total body irradiation. (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Wei; Yao, Sheng-Yu; Zhang, Tie-Ning; Zhu, Zhen-Hua; Hu, Zhe-Kai; Lu, Xun


    A new type of water phantom which would be specialised for the absorbed dose measurement in total body irradiation (TBI) treatment is developed. Ten millimetres of thick Plexiglas plates were arranged to form a square cube with 300 mm of edge length. An appropriate sleeve-type piston was installed on the side wall, and a tabular Plexiglas piston was positioned inside the sleeve. By pushing and pulling the piston, the length of the self-made water phantom could be varied to meet the required patients' physical sizes. To compare the international standard water phantom with the length-adjustable and the Plexiglas phantoms, absorbed dose for 6-MV X ray was measured by an ionisation chamber at different depths in three kinds of phantoms. In 70 cases with TBI, midplane doses were metered using the length-adjustable and the Plexiglas phantoms for simulating human dimensions, and dose validation was synchronously carried out. There were no significant statistical differences, p > 0.05, through statistical processing of data from the international standard water phantom and the self-designed one. There were significant statistical differences, p body width. Obviously, the difference had a positive correlation with the body width. The results proved that the new length-adjustable water phantom is more accurate for simulating human dimensions than Plexiglas phantom.

  16. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis. (United States)

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep


    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  17. Changes in body water distribution during treatment with inhaled steroid in pre-school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, B L; Anhøj, Jacob; Bisgaard, A M;


    .i.d. delivered via Babyhaler, budesonide pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI) 200 microg b.i.d. delivered via Nebuchamber and placebo. Spacers were primed before use. In total, 40 children aged 1-3 years, with mild intermittent asthma were included. Twenty-five of the children completed all three treatments....... At the end of each treatment period body impedance and skin ultrasonography were measured. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: We measured changes in water content of the soft tissues by two methods. Skin ultrasonography was used to detect small changes in dermal water content, and bioelectrical impedance was used...... to assess body water content and distribution. MAIN OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: We found an increase in skin density of the shin from fluticasone as measured by ultrasonography (p = 0.01). There was a tendency for a consistent elevation of impedance parameters from active treatments compared to placebo although...

  18. Assessment of molecular methods as a tool for detecting pathogenic protozoa isolated from water bodies. (United States)

    Adamska, M; Sawczuk, M; Kolodziejczyk, L; Skotarczak, B


    Several species belong to the Cryptosporidium and Giardia genus, the main parasitic protozoa occurring in water, but only some of them are infectious to humans. We investigated the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia and identified their species in the water samples collected from natural water bodies in north-western Poland. A total of 600 samples from water bodies used for bathing, sewage discharge, as drinking water sources and watering places for animals were screened. The samples were collected during a 3-year period in each of the four seasons and filtered using Filta-Max (IDEXX Laboratories, USA). Genomic DNA was extracted from all samples and used as a target sequence for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and TaqMan real-time PCR, as well as for reverse line blotting (RLB) methods. PCR methods seem to be more sensitive to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium DNA in water samples than RLB methods. All PCR products were sequenced and three were identified as C. parvum and four as G. intestinalis. The overall prevalence of C. parvum (0.5%) and G. intestinalis (0.6%) in the samples suggests that the risk of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in north-western Poland is minimal.

  19. Integrated Evaluation of Urban Water Bodies for Pollution Abatement Based on Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Approach. (United States)

    Hashim, Sarfraz; Yuebo, Xie; Saifullah, Muhammad; Nabi Jan, Ramila; Muhetaer, Adila


    Today's ecology is erected with miscellaneous framework. However, numerous sources deteriorate it, such as urban rivers that directly cause the environmental pollution. For chemical pollution abatement from urban water bodies, many techniques were introduced to rehabilitate the water quality of these water bodies. In this research, Bacterial Technology (BT) was applied to urban rivers escalating the necessity to control the water pollution in different places (Xuxi River (XXU); Gankeng River (GKS); Xia Zhang River (XZY); Fenghu and Song Yang Rivers (FSR); Jiu Haogang River (JHH)) in China. For data analysis, the physiochemical parameters such as temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3N) were determined before and after the treatment. Multicriteria Decision Making (MCDM) method was used for relative significance of different water quality on each station, based on fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP). The overall results revealed that the pollution is exceeding at "JHH" due to the limit of "COD" as critical water quality parameter and after treatment, an abrupt recovery of the rivers compared with the average improved efficiency of nutrients was 79%, 74%, 68%, and 70% of COD, DO, TP, and NH3N, respectively. The color of the river's water changed to its original form and aquatic living organism appeared with clear effluents from them.

  20. Using Landsat image time series to study a small water body in Northern Spain. (United States)

    Chao Rodríguez, Y; el Anjoumi, A; Domínguez Gómez, J A; Rodríguez Pérez, D; Rico, E


    Ramsar Convention and EU Water Framework Directive are two international agreements focused on the conservation and achievement of good ecological and chemical status of wetlands. Wetlands are important ecosystems holding many plant and animal communities. Their environmental status can be characterised by the quality of their water bodies. Water quality can be assessed from biophysical parameters (such as Chlorophyll-a concentration ([Chla]), water surface temperature and transparency) in the deeper or lacustrine zone, or from bioindicators (as submerged aquatic vegetation) in the shallow or palustrine zone. This paper proves the use of Landsat time series to measure the evolution of water quality parameters and the environmental dynamics of a small water body (6.57 ha) in a Ramsar wetland (Arreo Lake in the North of Spain). Our results show that Landsat TM images can be used to describe periodic behaviours such as the water surface temperature or the phenologic state of the submerged vegetation (through normalized difference vegetation index, NDVI) and thus detect anomalous events. We also show how [Chla] and transparency can be measured in the lacustrine zone using Landsat TM images and an algorithm adjusted for mesotrophic Spanish lakes, and the resulting values vary in time in accordance with field measurements (although these were not synchronous with the images). The availability of this algorithm also highlights anomalies in the field data series that are found to be related with the concentration of suspended matter. All this potential of Landsat imagery to monitor small water bodies in wetlands can be used for hindcasting of past evolution of these wetlands (dating back to 1970s) and will be also useful in the future thanks to the Landsat continuity mission and the Operational Land Imager.

  1. Biotic variation in coastal water bodies in Sussex, England: Implications for saline lagoons (United States)

    Joyce, Chris B.; Vina-Herbon, Cristina; Metcalfe, Daniel J.


    Coastal water bodies are a heterogeneous resource typified by high spatial and temporal variability and threatened by anthropogenic impacts. This includes saline lagoons, which support a specialist biota and are a priority habitat for nature conservation. This paper describes the biotic variation in coastal water bodies in Sussex, England, in order to characterise the distinctiveness of the saline lagoon community and elucidate environmental factors that determine its distribution. Twenty-eight coastal water bodies were surveyed for their aquatic flora and invertebrate fauna and a suite of exploratory environmental variables compiled. Ordination and cluster analyses were used to examine patterns in community composition and relate these to environmental parameters. Biotic variation in the coastal water body resource was high. Salinity was the main environmental parameter explaining the regional distribution of taxa; freshwater and saline assemblages were evident and related to sea water ingress. Freshwater sites were indicated by the plant Myriophyllum spicatum and gastropod mollusc Lymnaea peregra, while more saline communities supported marine and brackish water taxa, notably a range of chlorophytic algae and the bivalve mollusc Cerastoderma glaucum. Site community differences were also related to bank slope and parameters describing habitat heterogeneity. A saline lagoon community was discerned within the matrix of biotic variation consisting of specialist lagoonal species with associated typically euryhaline taxa. For fauna, the latter were the molluscs Abra tenuis and Hydrobia ulvae, and the crustaceans Corophium volutator and Palaemonetes varians, and for flora they were the algae Ulva lactuca, Chaetomorpha mediterranea, Cladophora spp. and Enteromorpha intestinalis. One non-native polychaete species, Ficopomatus enigmaticus, also strongly influenced community structure within the lagoonal resource. The community was not well defined as specialist and

  2. Aster Global dem Version 3, and New Aster Water Body Dataset (United States)

    Abrams, M.


    In 2016, the US/Japan ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) project released Version 3 of the Global DEM (GDEM). This 30 m DEM covers the earth's surface from 82N to 82S, and improves on two earlier versions by correcting some artefacts and filling in areas of missing DEMs by the acquisition of additional data. The GDEM was produced by stereocorrelation of 2 million ASTER scenes and operation on a pixel-by-pixel basis: cloud screening; stacking data from overlapping scenes; removing outlier values, and averaging elevation values. As previously, the GDEM is packaged in ~ 23,000 1 x 1 degree tiles. Each tile has a DEM file, and a NUM file reporting the number of scenes used for each pixel, and identifying the source for fill-in data (where persistent clouds prevented computation of an elevation value). An additional data set was concurrently produced and released: the ASTER Water Body Dataset (AWBD). This is a 30 m raster product, which encodes every pixel as either lake, river, or ocean; thus providing a global inland and shore-line water body mask. Water was identified through spectral analysis algorithms and manual editing. This product was evaluated against the Shuttle Water Body Dataset (SWBD), and the Landsat-based Global Inland Water (GIW) product. The SWBD only covers the earth between about 60 degrees north and south, so it is not a global product. The GIW only delineates inland water bodies, and does not deal with ocean coastlines. All products are at 30 m postings.

  3. Fluctuating water depths affect American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) body condition in the Everglades, Florida, USA (United States)

    Brandt, Laura A.; Beauchamp, Jeffrey S.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Mazzotti, Frank J.


    Successful restoration of wetland ecosystems requires knowledge of wetland hydrologic patterns and an understanding of how those patterns affect wetland plant and animal populations.Within the Everglades, Florida, USA restoration, an applied science strategy including conceptual ecological models linking drivers to indicators is being used to organize current scientific understanding to support restoration efforts. A key driver of the ecosystem affecting the distribution and abundance of organisms is the timing, distribution, and volume of water flows that result in water depth patterns across the landscape. American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) are one of the ecological indicators being used to assess Everglades restoration because they are a keystone species and integrate biological impacts of hydrological operations through all life stages. Alligator body condition (the relative fatness of an animal) is one of the metrics being used and targets have been set to allow us to track progress. We examined trends in alligator body condition using Fulton’s K over a 15 year period (2000–2014) at seven different wetland areas within the Everglades ecosystem, assessed patterns and trends relative to restoration targets, and related those trends to hydrologic variables. We developed a series of 17 a priori hypotheses that we tested with an information theoretic approach to identify which hydrologic factors affect alligator body condition. Alligator body condition was highest throughout the Everglades during the early 2000s and is approximately 5–10% lower now (2014). Values have varied by year, area, and hydrology. Body condition was positively correlated with range in water depth and fall water depth. Our top model was the “Current” model and included variables that describe current year hydrology (spring depth, fall depth, hydroperiod, range, interaction of range and fall depth, interaction of range and hydroperiod). Across all models, interaction

  4. Detection of Water Bodies from AVHRR Data—A TIMELINE Thematic Processor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas J. Dietz


    Full Text Available The assessment of water body dynamics is not only in itself a topic of strong demand, but the presence of water bodies is important information when it comes to the derivation of products such as land surface temperature, leaf area index, or snow/ice cover mapping from satellite data. For the TIMELINE project, which aims to derive such products for a long time series of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR data for Europe, precise water masks are therefore not only an important stand-alone product themselves, they are also an essential interstage information layer, which has to be produced automatically after preprocessing of the raw satellite data. The respective orbit segments from AVHRR are usually more than 2000 km wide and several thousand km long, thus leading to fundamentally different observation geometries, including varying sea surface temperatures, wave patterns, and sediment and algae loads. The water detection algorithm has to be able to manage these conditions based on a limited amount of spectral channels and bandwidths. After reviewing and testing already available methods for water body detection, we concluded that they cannot fully overcome the existing challenges and limitations. Therefore an extended approach was implemented, which takes into account the variations of the reflectance properties of water surfaces on a local to regional scale; the dynamic local threshold determination will train itself automatically by extracting a coarse-scale classification threshold, which is refined successively while analyzing subsets of the orbit segment. The threshold is then interpolated by fitting a minimum curvature surface before additional steps also relying on the brightness temperature are included to reduce possible misclassifications. The classification results have been validated using Landsat and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data and proven an overall accuracy of 93.4%, with the majority of


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliningaya Kweka


    Full Text Available Background: Water-borne diseases are the most common cause of illness and death among the poor population from developing countries. The majority of the people are inadequately aware that aquatic environment is a major source of salmonellosis. Dar es Salaam city is among the cities with most of its population live in squatter. Typhoid fever ranks second with 14.3% of all notifiable disease cases in the city. The city experience water scarcity which forces water wells and rivers to become the main sources of water for domestic use and livestock. This study therefore, characterized Salmonella strains from different water bodies of city as possible sources for enteric diseases endemicity. Methods: The Salmonella Chromogenic Agar (SC Agar and Kligler Iron Agar (KIA media were used for isolation and enumeration of the strains. The inoculated cultures were incubated at 370C for 24 hours. Salmonella colonies were confirmed by magenta colorations and hydrogen sulfide production on SC Agar and KIA Agar, respectively. The Analytical Profile Index 20 Enterobacteriaceae kit (API 20E kit was used to identify Salmonella species. Results: Based on the API 20E kit, the identified Salmonella species from different water bodies were Salmonella ser. paratyphi A (96.9%, Salmonella cholelaesuis spp choleraesuis (99.5% and Salmonella typhi (99.9%. Conclusion: This study shows that shallow wells and rivers which are mainly used by the city dwellers were highly contaminated with Salmonella and were more contaminated than deep wells and marine water bodies. This warrants further investigation on the disease mapping in the urban and peri-urban areas.

  6. Finite water depth effect on wave-body problems solved by Rankine source method (United States)

    Feng, Aichun; Tang, Peng; You, Yunxiang; Liu, Kaizhou


    Finite water depth effect for wave-body problems are studied by continuous Rankine source method and non- desingularized technique. Free surface and seabed surface profiles are represented by continuous panels rather than a discretization by isolated points. These panels are positioned exactly on the fluid boundary surfaces and therefore no desingularization technique is required. Space increment method is applied for both free surface source and seabed source arrangements to reduce computational cost and improve numerical efficiency. Fourth order Runge-Kutta iteration scheme is adopted on the free surface updating at every time step. The finite water depth effect is studied quantitatively for a series of cylinders with different B/T ratios. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed model are validated by comparison with published numerical results and experimental data. Numerical results show that hydrodynamic coefficients vary for cylinder bodies with different ratios of B/T. For certain set of B/T ratios the effect of finite water depth increases quickly with the increase of motion frequency and becomes stable when frequency is relatively large. It also shows that water depths have larger hydrodynamic effects on cylinder with larger breadth to draft ratios. Both the heave added mass and damping coefficients increase across the frequency range with the water depths decrease for forced heave motion. The water depths have smaller effects on sway motion response than on heave motion response.

  7. Assessing the vulnerability of Dutch water bodies to exotic species: A new methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Invasive exotic (alien species have not been taken into enough consideration concerning the European Water Framework Directive (WFD and other European directives until recently. The Dutch ministry responsible for water management is looking for ways to establish the impacts that invasive alien species may have on specified water types. This paper concentrates on the vulnerability of such water types to the introduction of exotic species. This new approach focusses on the system where the alien species are introduced into rather than only on the alien species themselves. We propose an equation that combines threats to and in water types with effects of particular species (observed or prognosticated. Numerical values used in the formula have been found by scoring a number of properties in different water types and species, which are specified in questionnaires. The results of the calculations are given as relative vulnerability scores (scale 1–10. By testing as many as 8 water types and 13 species, we demonstrate that this method is flexible and easy to use for water managers. Our results can be translated into classes of vulnerability, which are represented on geographical maps with colour codes to indicate different degrees of vulnerability in the different water bodies. This readily corresponds to the way countries are required to report to the European Union in the context of the WFD. The method can also be generalized using functional groups of (exotic species instead of particular species [Current Zoology 57 (6: 863–873, 2011].

  8. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight (United States)

    Wade, C. E.; Miller, M. M.; Baer, L. A.; Moran, M. M.; Steele, M. K.; Stein, T. P.


    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment.

  9. Antioxidant activity of water extracts from fruit body of Lentinus edodes enriched with selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Milena D.


    Full Text Available Shiitake (Lentinus edodes belongs to medically important and delicious fungi. It is recognizable for its healing properties, excellent taste and rich aroma. According to the traditional Japanese and Chinese medicine, shiitake mushroom significantly increases the strength and vitality of the body. Shiitake contains immunostimulants, compounds that lower cholesterol, prevents clogging of blood vessels, regulates the pressure, balances blood sugar levels, regulates digestion, and improves the performance of respiratory organs by its antirheumatic and antiallergic activities. Shiitake is recommended to use as food, prevention and cure, usually in a form of a spice (dried and ground or tea. It can be consumed fresh, too. The objective of this study was to test the effect of enrichment in selenium on antioxidant, reducing and free radical scavenging activity of water extracts from fruit body of Lentinus edodes. The fungus was enhanced by adding organic selenium, zinc (II complex with the ligand 2.6-bis diacetylpyridine (selenosemicarbazon and inorganic compounds (Na2SeO3 of selenium in nutritional substrate where the fungus was grown. The total selenium content in fruit body was around 50 ppm for the sample enriched with selenium originating from organic sources, and 80 ppm for the sample enriched with selenium from inorganic sources. Samples were prepared by extraction of fruiting bodies in heated water. The results indicated that water extracts of whole fruit bodies, from both control and mushrooms supplemented with selenium, had quite good antioxidant activity. However, there was no significant difference between the samples supplemented with selenium content and those that were not.

  10. Towards Deriving Renewable Energy from Aquatic Macrophytes Polluting Water Bodies in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badmus Abdurrahman Adeleye


    Full Text Available This study was performed to derive methane rich biogas from biomass of harvested water hyacinth polluting water bodies in selected rivers of the Niger delta region of Nigeria. Field visits were undertaken on selected rivers in the Niger Delta region in which aquatic macrophytes were collected and inventorized. Also different types of aquatic macrophytes were surveyed. Control by harvesting macrophytes and deriving energy (methane-rich biogas from biomass of one (water hyacinth was successfully carried out in this study. An initial test was conducted to evaluate methane rich biogas production from water hyacinth collected from the wild. After a successful production of combustible biogas, laboratory experiments aimed at generating biogas from harvested biomass of aquatic mycrophyte (water hyacinth cultivated under eutrophic and oligotrophic conditions were undertaken in the laboratory. The result of the study showed highest biogas yield of 22 L over a 40 day retention time for water hyacinth raised under eutrophic conditions. Biogas yield for water hyacinth raised under oligotrophic conditions recorded the highest yield of 53L over an 11 day retention time. The conversion of the biomass of harvested aquatic macrophyte (water hyacinth from the Niger Delta into renewable energy, that is combustible biogas, demonstrated an inevitable option for the control and management of environmental pollution associated with aquatic macrophytes and their usability for poverty alleviation in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

  11. Model for the movement and distribution of fish in a body of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeAngelis, D.L.


    A Monte Carlo mathematical model tracks the movement of fish in a body of water (e.g., a pond or reservoir) which is represented by a two-dimensional grid. For the case of a long, narrow reservoir, depth and length along the reservoir are the logical choices for coordinate axes. In the model, it is assumed that the movement of fish is influenced by gradients of temperature and dissolved oxygen, as well as food availability and habitat preference. The fish takes one spatial ''step'' at a time, the direction being randomly selected, but also biased by the above factors. In trial simulations, a large number of simulated fish were allowed to distribute themselves in a hypothetical body of water. Assuming only temperature was influencing the movements of the fish, the resultant distributions are compared with experimental data on temperature preferences.

  12. Spatial variation in water quality within the water bodies of a Peak District catchment and the contribution of moorland condition (United States)

    Crouch, Tia; Walker, Jonathan


    Spatial variation in water quality within the water bodies of a Peak District catchment and the contribution of moorland condition Tia Crouch and Jonathan Walker (Moors for the Future Partnership) Upland locations are significant water supply sources providing over 70% of fresh water in Great Britain. However, the peatlands of the Peak District, Southern Pennines are highly contaminated with anthropogenically derived, atmospherically deposited pollutants, such as heavy metals. This is due to their location between the cities of Manchester and Sheffield, the centre of the 19th century English Industrial Revolution. These peatlands are also severely eroded; therefore erosion could be releasing these pollutants into the fluvial system, representing a threat to both aquatic ecosystems and drinking water supplies. These threats are regulated under the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Water Supply Regulations respectively. There are two aims of this project. The first aim is to identify spatial and temporal variability of water quality within the Bamford water treatment works (WTW) catchment. This was achieved by fortnightly spot sampling at eight of the tributaries into the reservoir system. The second aim is to assess the contribution of moorland condition to water quality within the Bamford WTW catchment. Similarly, this was achieved by fortnightly spot sampling at eight moorland streams, draining from a variety of peatland conditions (bare peat, restoration, intact and heather burn). Water samples were analysed for carbon (DOC, POC & TOC), pH, hardness and a suite of heavy metals, including copper, iron and zinc. In addition, stream temperature and stage height was recorded. Preliminary results highlight a number of issues within the Bamford WTW catchment: under the WFD streams are not achieving 'good' status for pH, copper and zinc, and under the Drinking Water Standards (DWS) streams are not achieving targets for aluminium, iron and colour. For example, the

  13. The seasonal abundance and size distributions of water bodies on the Yamal Peninsula (United States)

    Trofaier, Anna Maria; Bartsch, Annett; Rees, William Gareth


    The significant role Arctic freshwater ecosystems play in the carbon cycle leads to a necessity to quantify these remote inland waters on the landscape-scale. A new approach to analysing size-frequency distributions of open surface water bodies is presented in this study. Geospatial data of water bodies over the Yamal peninsula (NW Siberia) in the form of binary (two classes: water and land) temporal composite classifications are analysed over the two summer months July and August in 2007, 2008 and 2009. The source of the temporal composite dataset is the European Space Agency's Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) operating in Wide Swath Mode (WSM). These data are medium/low spatial resolution data with a pixel spacing of 75 m. However, their high temporal frequencies enable a seasonal analysis of water body abundance and size distributions. The emphasis is not only on quantifying Arctic lakes, but also on evaluating the distribution of spring floods throughout the active season. Size-frequency distributions are fit to a power-law model, conforming to be linear on a base 10 log-log scale. However, extrapolation of the myriad of smaller water bodies has in the past proven to be more complex than the current model would suggest. The apparent scale issues are investigated by additionally analysing active microwave data from the high spatial resolution TerraSAR-X satellite, and comparing the results to co-temporal ASAR WS data. With a total surface water area of around 606±50 km2 over the first two weeks of July in 2007, 2008 and 2009, a continuous decrease in water surface extent is determined over the course of the following six weeks. In 2009, high fragmentation of the early season classification is determined (1.6 and 1.4 times more polygons are found compared to the same period in 2007 and 2008). This is an artefact from weather affected data, resulting from high wind speeds over larger lakes and therefore showing a distinct wind bias in the

  14. The languages spoken in the water body (or the biological role of cyanobacterial toxins). (United States)

    Kaplan, Aaron; Harel, Moshe; Kaplan-Levy, Ruth N; Hadas, Ora; Sukenik, Assaf; Dittmann, Elke


    Although intensification of toxic cyanobacterial blooms over the last decade is a matter of growing concern due to bloom impact on water quality, the biological role of most of the toxins produced is not known. In this critical review we focus primarily on the biological role of two toxins, microcystins and cylindrospermopsin, in inter- and intra-species communication and in nutrient acquisition. We examine the experimental evidence supporting some of the dogmas in the field and raise several open questions to be dealt with in future research. We do not discuss the health and environmental implications of toxin presence in the water body.

  15. Low species richness of non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) in Neotropical artificial urban water bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamerlik, Ladislav; Jacobsen, Dean; Brodersen, Klaus Peter


    Chironomid assemblages of 22 artificial water bodies, mainly fountains, in two South American cities were surveyed. We found surprisingly low diversities, with a total of 11 taxa, averaging two taxa per site. The typical fountain assemblages mainly consisted of common species that have a wide...... distribution pattern and are tolerant to organic pollution. Also taxa independent of the natural aquatic sources, such as tap-water and semi-terrestrial species were represented. There was no significant difference between the taxa richness of the two S. American regions, however, the assemblage structures...

  16. Quantification of surface energy fluxes from a small water body using scintillometry and eddy covariance (United States)

    McGloin, Ryan; McGowan, Hamish; McJannet, David; Cook, Freeman; Sogachev, Andrey; Burn, Stewart


    Accurate quantification of evaporation from small water storages is essential for water management and planning, particularly in water-scarce regions. In order to ascertain suitable methods for direct measurement of evaporation from small water bodies, this study presents a comparison of eddy covariance and scintillometry measurements from a reservoir in southeast Queensland, Australia. The work presented expands on a short study presented by McJannet et al. (2011) to include comparisons of eddy covariance measurements and scintillometer-derived predictions of surface energy fluxes under a wide range of seasonal weather conditions. In this study, analysis was undertaken to ascertain whether important theoretical assumptions required for both techniques are valid in the complex environment of a small reservoir. Statistical comparison, energy balance closure, and the relationship between evaporation measurements and key environmental controls were used to compare the results of the two techniques. Reasonable agreement was shown between the sensible heat flux measurements from eddy covariance and scintillometry, while scintillometer-derived estimates of latent heat flux were approximately 21% greater than eddy covariance measurements. We suggest possible reasons for this difference and provide recommendations for further research for improving measurements of surface energy fluxes over small water bodies using eddy covariance and scintillometry.

  17. Satellite monitoring at high spatial resolution of water bodies used for irrigation purposes (United States)

    Baup, F.; Flanquart, S.; Marais-Sicre, C.; Fieuzal, R.


    In a changing climate context, with an increase of the need for food, it becomes increasingly important to improve our knowledge for monitoring agricultural surfaces by satellite for a better food management and to reduce the waste of natural resources (water storages and shortages, irrigation management, increase of soil and water salinity, soil erosion, threats on biodiversity). The main objective of this study is to evaluate the potentialities of multi-spectral and multi-resolution satellites for monitoring the temporal evolution of water bodies surfaces (mainly used for irrigation purposes). This analysis is based on the use of a series of images acquired between the years 2003 and 2011. The year 2010 is considered as a reference, with 110 acquisitions performed during the MCM'10 campaign (Multispectral Crop Monitoring 2010, Those images are provided by 8 satellites (optical, thermal and RADAR) such as ALOS, TERRASAR-X, RADARSAT-2, FORMOSAT-2, SPOT-2, SPOT-4, SPOT-5, LANDSAT-5. The studied area is situated in the South-West of Toulouse in France; in a region governed by a temperate climate. The irrigated cultures represent almost 12% of the cultivated surface in 2009. The method consists in estimating the water bodies surfaces by using a generic approach suitable for all images, whatever the wavelength (optical, infrared, RADAR). The supervised parallelepiped classification allows discriminating four types of surfaces coverage: forests, water expanses, crops and bare soils. All RADAR images are filtered (Gamma) to reduce speckle effects and false detections of water bodies. In the context if the "South-West" project of the CESBIO laboratory, two spatial coverages are analyzed: SPOT 4 (4800km2) and FORMOSAT 2 (576km2). At these scales, 154 and 38 water bodies are identify. They respectively represent 4.85 km2 (0.10% of the image cover) and 2.06 km2 (0.36% of the image cover). Statistical analyses show that 8% of lakes

  18. A Hydraulic Nexus between Geographically Isolated Wetlands and Downstream Water Bodies (United States)

    Mclaughlin, D. L.; Kaplan, D. A.; Cohen, M. J.


    Geographic isolation does not imply hydrological isolation; indeed, local groundwater exchange between geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs) and surrounding uplands may yield important controls on regional hydrology. Differences in specific yield (Sy) between aquifers and inundated GIWs drive differences in water level responses to atmospheric fluxes, leading to frequent reversals in hydraulic gradients that cause GIWs to act as both groundwater sinks and sources. When distributed across the landscape, these reversals in local groundwater fluxes are predicted to collectively buffer the surficial aquifer and its regulation of baseflow delivery, a process we refer to as landscape hydrologic capacitance. To test this hypothesis, we integrated models of daily soil moisture, upland water table, and wetland stage dynamics to simulate hydrology of a low-relief landscape with GIWs. Simulations explored the influences of cumulative wetland area, individual wetland size, climate, and soil texture on water table and baseflow variation. Increasing cumulative wetland area and decreasing individual wetland size reduced water table variation and the frequency of extremely shallow and deep water tables. This buffering effect extended to baseflow deliveries, decreasing the standard deviation of daily baseflow by as much as 50%. For the same total wetland area, landscapes with fewer (i.e., larger) wetlands exhibited markedly lower hydrologic capacitance than those with more (i.e., smaller) wetlands, highlighting the important role of small GIWs in regulating regional hydrology. Recent U.S. Supreme Court rulings have limited federal protections for GIWs except where a "significant nexus" to a navigable water body is demonstrated. Our results suggest that GIWs regulate downstream baseflow, even where water in GIWs may never physically reach downstream systems, providing a significant "hydraulic" nexus to distant water bodies.

  19. Flume experiments on wind induced flow in static water bodies in the presence of protruding vegetation (United States)

    Banerjee, Tirtha; Muste, Marian; Katul, Gabriel


    The problem of wind-induced flow in inland waters is drawing significant research attention given its relevance to a plethora of applications in wetlands including treatment designs, pollution reduction, and biogeochemical cycling. The present work addresses the role of wind induced turbulence and waves within an otherwise static water body in the presence of rigid and flexible emergent vegetation through flume experimentation and time series analysis. Because no prior example of Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) experiments involving air-water and flexible oscillating components have been found in the literature, a spectral analysis framework is needed and proposed here to guide the analysis involving noise, wave and turbulence separation. The experiments reveal that wave and turbulence effects are simultaneously produced at the air-water interface and the nature of their coexistence is found to vary with different flow parameters including water level, mean wind speed, vegetation density and its flexibility. For deep water levels, signature of fine-scaled inertial turbulence is found at deeper layers of the water system. The wave action appears stronger close to the air-water interface and damped by the turbulence deeper inside the water system. As expected, wave action is found to be dominated in a certain frequency range driven by the wind forcing, while it is also diffused to lower frequencies by means of (wind-induced) oscillations in vegetation. Regarding the mean water velocity, existence of a counter-current flow and its switching to fully forward flow in the direction of the wind under certain combinations of flow parameters were studied. The relative importance of wave and turbulence to the overall energy, degree of anisotropy in the turbulent energy components, and turbulent momentum transport at different depths from the air-water interface and flow combinations were then quantified. The flume experiments reported here differ from previous laboratory

  20. Potential of a novel airborne hydrographic laser scanner for capturing shallow water bodies (United States)

    Mandlburger, G.; Pfennigbauer, M.; Steinbacher, F.; Pfeifer, N.


    In this paper, we present the general design of a hydrographic laser scanner (prototype instrument) manufactured by the company Riegl Laser Measurement Systems in cooperation with the University of Innsbruck, Unit of Hydraulic Engineering. The instrument utilizes very short laser pulses (1 ns) in the green wavelength domain (λ=532 nm) capable of penetrating the water column. The backscattered signal is digitized in a waveform recorder at high frequency enabling sophisticated waveform processing, both, online during the flight and in post processing. In combination with a traditional topographic airborne laser scanner (λ=1500 nm) mounted on the same platform a complete hydrographic and topographic survey of the riparian foreland, the water surface and river bed can be carried out in a single campaign. In contrast to existing bathymetric LiDAR systems, the presented system uses only medium pulse energy but a high pulse repetition rate of up to 250 kHz and, thus, focuses on a detailed description of shallow water bodies under clear water conditions. Different potential fields of applications of the instrument (hydraulic modelling, hydro-morphology, hydro-biology, ecology, river restoration and monitoring) are discussed and the results of first real-world test flights in Austria and Germany are presented. It is shown that: (i) the high pulse repetition rate enables a point density on the ground of the water body of 10-20 pts/m2, (ii) the short laser pulses together with waveform processing enable a discrimination between water and ground reflections at a water depth of less than 25 cm, (iii) the combination of a topographic and hydrographic laser scanner enable the acquisition of the geometry data for hydraulic modeling in a single survey, thus, providing a much more homogeneous data basis compared to traditional techniques, and (iv) the high point density and the ranging accuracy of less than 10 cm enable a detailed and precise description of the river bed

  1. European perspectives on regional estimates of standing water bodies and the relevance of man-made ponds (United States)

    Terasmaa, Jaanus; Bartout, Pascal; Marzecova, Agata; Touchart, Laurent; Koff, Tiiu; Choffel, Quentin; Kapanen, Galina; Maleval, Véronique; Millot, Camille; Qsair, Zoubida; Vandel, Egert


    Until recently, the small water bodies have been disregarded in the environmental management and protection policies. For example, the European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC proposes the threshold surface area of water bodies for typology and reporting as 50 ha. The inventories on state level or scientific studies took into account smaller water bodies (e.g. environmental deterioration. References: Verpoorter et al. (2014) Geophysical Research Letters, 41. Bartout & Touchart,(2013) Annales de Géographie, 691. Downing et al., (2006) Limnology and Oceanography, 51(5). Kuusisto & Raatikainen, (1988) Terra, 102. Meybeck, (1995) in Lerman et al., Physics and chemistry of lakes. Rjanžin, (2005) Priroda, 4.

  2. Acid-Base Homeostasis. (United States)

    Hamm, L Lee; Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S


    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3(-) and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3(-) is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys.

  3. Evaluation of significantly modified water bodies in Vojvodina by using multivariate statistical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Svetlana R.


    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the utility of multivariate statistical techniques for analysis and interpretation of water quality data sets and identification of pollution sources/factors with a view to get better information about the water quality and design of monitoring network for effective management of water resources. Multivariate statistical techniques, such as factor analysis (FA/principal component analysis (PCA and cluster analysis (CA, were applied for the evaluation of variations and for the interpretation of a water quality data set of the natural water bodies obtained during 2010 year of monitoring of 13 parameters at 33 different sites. FA/PCA attempts to explain the correlations between the observations in terms of the underlying factors, which are not directly observable. Factor analysis is applied to physico-chemical parameters of natural water bodies with the aim classification and data summation as well as segmentation of heterogeneous data sets into smaller homogeneous subsets. Factor loadings were categorized as strong and moderate corresponding to the absolute loading values of >0.75, 0.75-0.50, respectively. Four principal factors were obtained with Eigenvalues >1 summing more than 78 % of the total variance in the water data sets, which is adequate to give good prior information regarding data structure. Each factor that is significantly related to specific variables represents a different dimension of water quality. The first factor F1 accounting for 28 % of the total variance and represents the hydrochemical dimension of water quality. The second factor F2 accounting for 18% of the total variance and may be taken factor of water eutrophication. The third factor F3 accounting 17 % of the total variance and represents the influence of point sources of pollution on water quality. The fourth factor F4 accounting 13 % of the total variance and may be taken as an ecological dimension of water quality. Cluster analysis (CA is an

  4. An Investigation of Summertime Inland Water Body Temperatures in California and Nevada (USA): Recent Trends and Future Projections (United States)

    Healey, Nathan; Hook, Simon; Piccolroaz, Sebastiano; Toffolon, Marco; Radocinski, Robert


    Inland water body temperature has been identified as an ideal indicator of potential climate change. Understanding inland water body temperature trends is important for forecasting impacts to limnological, biological, and hydrological resources. Many inland water bodies are situated in remote locations with incomplete data records of in-situ monitoring or lack in-situ observations altogether. Thus, the utilization of satellite data is essential for understanding the behavior of global inland water body temperatures. Part of this research provides an analysis of summertime (July-September) temperature trends in the largest California/Nevada (USA) inland water bodies between 1991 and 2015. We examine satellite temperature retrievals from ATSR (ATSR-1, ATSR-2, AATSR), MODIS (Terra and Aqua), and VIIRS sensors. Our findings indicate that inland water body temperatures in the western United States were rapidly warming between 1991 and 2009, but since then trends have been decreasing. This research also includes implementation of a model called air2water to predict future inland water body surface temperature through the sole input of air temperature. Using projections from CMIP5-CCSM4 output, our model indicates that Lake Tahoe (USA) is expected to experience an increase of roughly 3 °C by 2100.

  5. Sorbent biomaterials for cleaning up hydrocarbon spills on soil and bodies of water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Paola Ortíz González


    Full Text Available This study was aimed at identifying and evaluating natural organic materials which could be used as sorbents in clean-up operations following hydrocarbons spills on both soils and bodies of water. The sorption capacity of three materials (sugarcane fibre, coco fibre and water Eichornia crassipies was evaluated with three hydrocarbons (35°, 30° and 25°API and two types of water (distilled and artificial marine water adopting the ASTM F-726 standard and following the methodology suggested in the “Oil spill sorbents: testing protocol and certification listing programme” Canadian protocol. It was found that the three materials being evaluated had a sorption capacity equal to or greater than that of the commercial material to which they were compared. It was observed that sorption capacity results depended on some variables such as hydrocarbon viscosity, granulometry (particle size in Tyler sieve and the structure of the material. Sugarcane fibre sorption in water showed the greatest hydrophobicity, different to Eichornia crassipies which is extremely hydrophilic. The materials’ sorption kinetics were determined and modelled with the three hydrocarbons (35°, 30° and 25°API. It was found that the materials became saturated in less than a minute, leading to a rapid alternative for cleaning-up and controlling hydrocarbon spills. Materials were also thermally treated for improving their hydrophobicity and behaviour during spills on bodies of water. Sugarcane fibre was the material which presented the best results with the thermal treatment, followed by water Eichornia crassipies. Coco fibre did not present any significant change in its hydrophobicity.

  6. Succession and biodiversity indices in eutrophication process of static landscaping water body in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CONG Ke-ming; LIU Shu-yu; MA Fang; Chein-chi Chang; REN Nan-qi


    Many biodiversity indices were used to indicate the biological contamination degree in studies of lake water or seawater.Some were studied on biodiversity comparison for different areas at the same time,or initial structure succession of some aerial lake water systems.The phytoplankton changed with the development of various dominant species.In this study,the dominant species at these stages were Chlorophyta in the beginning stage,Cyanophyta in the second stage,and Xanthophyta in the last stage.Seven of nine biodiversity indices (Margalef's,IE,Shannon-Wiener,Simpson's,McNaughton's,Species and Odds Measure of Diversity)showed their failure to represent the eutrophication trend,and the other two indices(Menhinick's and Monk)exhibited good efficiency to indicate the eutrophication trend for the static landscaping water body.

  7. Assessing the vulnerability of Dutch water bodies to exotic species: A new methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Invasive exotic (alien) species have not been taken into enough consideration concerning the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and other European directives until recently.The Dutch ministry responsible for water management is looking for ways to establish the impacts that invasive alien species may have on specified water types.This paper concentrates on the vulnerability of such water types to the introduction of exotic species.This new approach focusses on the system where the alien species are introduced into rather than only on the alien species themselves.We propose an equation that combines threats to and in water types with effects of particular species (observed or prognosticated).Numerical values used in the formula have been found by scoring a number of properties in different water types and species,which are specified in questionnaires.The results of the calculations are given as relative vulnerability scores (scale 1-10).By testing as many as 8 water types and 13 species,we demonstrate that this method is flexible and easy to use for water managers.Our results can be translated into classes of vulnerability,which are represented on geographical maps with colour codes to indicate different degrees of vulnerability in the different water bodies.This readily corresponds to the way countries are required to report to the European Union in the context of the WFD.The method can also be generalized using functional groups of (exotic) species instead of particular species [Current Zoology 57 (6):863-873,2011].

  8. Analysis of land use changes near large water bodies in Ukraine using GIS. (United States)

    Bogdanets, Vyacheslav; Vlaev, Anatoliy


    Analysis of land use and land cover changes in Ukraine were evaluated with special attention given to the interaction of land and water resources. The rational fresh water management in agriculture under future climate change conditions is of great importance. The hydrological regime of a river has huge impact on the environment of the surrounding area. Creating reservoirs, changes the landscape of river valleys and lake basins. Changes in the hydrological regime of the river and the process taking place in the coastal zone are reflected in land cover, wildlife and micro-climatic conditions. In the area closer to the shore line of the reservoir, there is greater amplitude of fluctuations in the level of ground water due to low rate of filtration behind fluctuations in the level of the reservoir. The interaction of water reservoirs with the environment, especially with the nature of the catchment area is substantially different from the natural water bodies. Analysis was done using GIS and remotely sensed data of land use near large water reservoirs and processed statistically. The ratio of arable lands and forested territories and future analysis of land use has been discussed.

  9. Ecotoxicological endpoints, are they useful tools to support ecological status assessment in strongly modified water bodies? (United States)

    Palma, P; Ledo, L; Alvarenga, P


    Although man-made reservoirs represent an important water supply source in countries where water scarcity has become a problem, little work has been done on the evaluation of their ecological status. Taking this in account, the general aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of ecotoxicological endpoints in the potential ecological status characterization of water reservoirs, with the purpose of their possible integration in evaluation programs developed under the Water Framework Directive (WFD). To achieve this purpose, a group of bioassays were selected to evaluate both water and sediment compartments at the Alqueva reservoir (the biggest from the Iberian Peninsula), with representative species from different taxonomic and functional groups: Vibrio fischeri, Thamnocephalus platyurus, Daphnia magna and Heterocypris incongruens. The ecotoxicological assessment showed that sublethal endpoints (e.g., luminescence, growth or reproduction), would be more useful and sensitive to identify toxicity patterns in this type of water body. In general, the results from this ecotoxicological toolbox agreed with the potential ecological status established according to the WFD, which indicates that the bioassays complement the ecological assessment. Furthermore, the use of an ecotoxicological approach can be extremely useful, especially in cases where the biotic indices are difficult to establish, such as in man-made reservoirs. However, when pollutant concentrations are very low, and/or when nutrients and organic matter concentrations are high, the two approaches do not fit, requiring further research to determine which organisms are more sensitive and the best biotic indices to use under those conditions.

  10. Assessing disproportionate costs to achieve good ecological status of water bodies in a Mediterranean river basin. (United States)

    Molinos-Senante, María; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Sala-Garrido, Ramón


    Water management is becoming increasingly important as the demand for water grows, diversifies, and includes more complex environmental concerns. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) seeks to achieve a good ecological status for all European Community water bodies by 2015. To achieve this objective, economic consideration of water management must be given to all decision-making processes. Exemption (time or level of stringency) from the objectives of the EU Directive can be justified by proving that the cost of implementing measures is disproportionate to the benefits. This paper addresses the issue of disproportionate costs through a cost-benefit analysis (CBA). To predict the costs, the function costs method is used. The quantification of environmental benefits is more complex, because they are not determined by the market. As an alternative to stated preference methods, we use the distance function approach to estimate the environmental benefits of improving water quality. We then apply this methodological approach to a Mediterranean River Basin in Spain. The results show that the achievement of good status could not be rejected based on the criterion of disproportionate costs in this river basin. This paper illustrates that CBA is a useful tool to inform policy and decision making. Furthermore, it is shown that economics, particularly the valuation of environmental benefits, plays a crucial role in fulfilling the environmental objectives of the WFD.

  11. Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis. (United States)

    van der Wulp, Mariëtte Y M; Verkade, Henkjan J; Groen, Albert K


    Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is caused by a disturbed balance between cholesterol secretion into the blood versus uptake. The pathways involved are regulated via a complex interplay of enzymes, transport proteins, transcription factors and non-coding RNA's. The last two decades insight into underlying mechanisms has increased vastly but there are still a lot of unknowns, particularly regarding intracellular cholesterol transport. After decades of concentration on the liver, in recent years the intestine has come into focus as an important control point in cholesterol homeostasis. This review will discuss current knowledge of cholesterol physiology, with emphasis on cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis and fecal excretion, and new (possible) therapeutic options for hypercholesterolemia.

  12. Pain emotion and homeostasis. (United States)

    Panerai, Alberto E


    Pain has always been considered as part of a defensive strategy, whose specific role is to signal an immediate, active danger. This definition partially fits acute pain, but certainly not chronic pain, that is maintained also in the absence of an active noxa or danger and that nowadays is considered a disease by itself. Moreover, acute pain is not only an automatic alerting system, but its severity and characteristics can change depending on the surrounding environment. The affective, emotional components of pain have been and are the object of extensive attention and research by psychologists, philosophers, physiologists and also pharmacologists. Pain itself can be considered to share the same genesis as emotions and as a specific emotion in contributing to the maintenance of the homeostasis of each unique subject. Interestingly, this role of pain reaches its maximal development in the human; some even argue that it is specific for the human primate.

  13. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies' Functions. (United States)

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo


    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies' functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident's origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people's life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water's recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole.

  14. Possible Signs of Water and Differentiation in a Rocky Exoplanetary Body

    CERN Document Server

    Farihi, J; Gaensicke, B T; Marsh, T R; Girven, J; Hoard, D W; Klein, B; Koester, D


    Spitzer observations reveal the presence of warm debris from a tidally destroyed rocky and possibly icy planetary body orbiting the white dwarf GD61. Ultraviolet and optical spectroscopy of the metal-contaminated stellar photosphere reveal traces of hydrogen, oxygen, magnesium, silicon, iron, and calcium. The nominal ratios of these elements indicate an excess of oxygen relative to that expected from rock-forming metal oxides, and thus it is possible that water was accreted together with the terrestrial-like debris. Iron is found to be deficient relative to magnesium and silicon, suggesting the material may have originated as the outer layers of a differentiated parent body, as is widely accepted for the Moon. Subject

  15. Rare and threatened pondweed communities in anthropogenic water bodies of Opole Silesia (SW Poland

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    Arkadiusz Nowak


    Full Text Available The paper presents results of geobotanic studies conducted in anthropogenic water bodies like excavation ponds, fish culture ponds, other ponds, dam reservoirs, ditches, channels and recreational pools incl. watering places in Opole Silesia and surroundings in the years 2002-2005. The research focused on occurrence of threatened and rare pondweed communities. As the result of the investigations of several dozen of water bodies, 28 localities of rare pondweed communities were documented by 75 phytosociological relevés. Associations of Potametum trichoidis J. et R Tx. in R. Tx. 1965, Potametum praelongi Sauer 1937, P. alpini Br.-Bl. 1949, P. acutifolii Segal 1961, P. obtusifolii (Carst. 1954 Segal 1965 and P. perfoliati W. Koch 1926 em. Pass. 1964 were found as well as communities formed by Potamogeton berchtoldii, P. nodosus and P. pusillus. The study confirms that anthropogenic reservoirs could serve as last refugees for many threatened pondweed communities, which decline or even extinct in their natural habitats. The results indicate that man-made habitats could shift the range limits of threatened species and support their dispersal. The authors conclude that habitats strongly transformed by man are important factors in the natural syntaxonomical diversity protection and should not be omitted in strategies of nature conservation.

  16. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia occurring in natural water bodies in Poland. (United States)

    Adamska, Małgorzata


    Cryptosporidium and Giardia protozoa are zoonotic parasites that cause human gastroenteritis and can be transmitted to human through the fecal-oral route and water or food. Several species belong to these genera and their resistant forms occur in water, but only some of them are infectious to human. Health risk depends on the occurrence of infectious Cryptosporidium and Giardia species and genotypes in water, and only molecular techniques allow detecting them, as well as enable to identify the contamination source. In this work, genotyping and phylogenetic analysis have been performed on the basis of 18S rDNA and ß-giardin genes sequences of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively, in order to provide the molecular characterization of these parasites detected earlier in five natural water bodies in Poland and to track possible sources of their (oo)cysts in water. Genotyping revealed a high similarity (over 99 up to 100 %) of analyzed sequences to cattle genotype of C. parvum isolated from cattle and human and to G. intestinalis assemblage B isolated from human. The sequences obtained by others originated from patients with clinical symptoms of cryptosporidiosis or giardiasis and/or with the infection confirmed by different methods. The contamination of three examined lakes is probably human-originated, while the sources of contamination of two remaining lakes are wild and domestic animals. Obtained phylogenetic trees support suggestions of other authors that the bovine genotype of C. parvum should be a separate species, as well as A and B assemblages of G. intestinalis.

  17. Manoeuvre test simulation of a teleoperated robot designed for flow measurement in natural water bodies

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    Carlos Eduardo Díaz Gutiérrez


    Full Text Available This article describes the simulation results of manoeuvring operations used in ships, but applied to an SA-1 teleoperated aquatic robot. The SA-1 is a type of robot designed for flow measurement in natural water bodies (rivers, lakes. A robot’s dynamic stability and course stability must be guaranteed due to the different tasks assigned to it. These features can be demonstrated through the pull-out manoeuvre, the Dieudonné spiral manoeuvre, modified Kempf manoeuvre and turning circle manoeuvre. System behaviour when using such manoeuvres can be used to propose a better control system for improving robot performance or modify system design.

  18. Composite modelling of the effect of the water body geometry on landslide-tsunamis



    Subaerial landslide-tsunamis (impulse waves) are generated by mass movements such as landslides, rock falls or glacier calving interacting with a water body. Preliminary landslide-tsunami hazard assessment is commonly based on empirical equations derived from wave channel (2D) or wave basin (3D) experiments. It is crucial to select the most appropriate set of empirical equations for a particular case as the difference in the far-field wave height between 2D and 3D may exceed an order of magni...

  19. Computer program to plot isotherms in bodies of water. Environmental Sciences Division publication No. 1199

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeAngelis, D.L.


    For purposes of graphic display it is convenient to represent temperature versus depth data in bodies of water in the form of isotherms (lines of equal temperature). Because it can be tedious to draw such lines by hand from raw data, a computer code has been devised to plot these lines automatically. The procedure assumes that the temperature can be linearly interpolated between the points at which measurements are taken. Details of the code are explained by means of examples. With minor changes, the program can be used to plot isoclines of other environmental parameters.

  20. Effects of a water aerobics program on the body composition of active middle-aged women


    Manzano, Juan José; Clemente, Christian; Grager, Asunción; Olcina, Guillermo


    Objective: Describe and analyze changes in body composition of middle-aged women after participating in a water aerobics physical activity program and a subsequent detraining period. Materials and Methods: The group analyzed consisted of 17 women from Arroyo de San Serván (Badajoz), who were physically active (had participated in fitness gymnastics programs one to three sessions per week for the past three months), with an average age of 53.6 ± 9.1 years. The program was comprised of sixty mi...

  1. Water level influences on body condition of Geophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae in a Brazilian oligotrophic reservoir

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    Alejandra Filippo Gonzalez Neves dos Santos


    Full Text Available Effects of water level fluctuations on body condition of Geophagus brasiliensis were studied in a 30 km² Brazilian oligotrophic reservoir. Physiological condition (K and gonadosomatic index (GSI were compared according to water level (low and high. Females' best conditions were associated to higher resources availability during high water, since gonad development did not change between low and high water. Males' condition did not change between water levels, while the highest gonad development occurred in low water. Females presented higher reproductive investment than males, which allocated most of energy for somatic development. This strategy could be a mechanism to undergo the stress caused by oligotrophic characteristics of the reservoir enhanced during low water level.Efeitos do nível da água na condição de Geophagus brasiliensis foram analisados em um reservatório oligotrófico. A condição fisiológica (K e o índice gonadossomático (IGS foram comparados entre os níveis da água (baixo e alto. Melhores condições de fêmeas foram associadas a maiores disponibilidades de recursos no nível alto, já que o desenvolvimento gonadal não variou. Não foram registradas diferenças na condição de machos, contudo maiores valores de IGS ocorreram no nível baixo. Fêmeas apresentaram elevado investimento reprodutivo, enquanto machos investiram mais no desenvolvimento somático. Tal estratégia pode ser um mecanismo para suportar o estresse causado pelas características oligotróficas do reservatório, intensificadas durante o período de níveis baixos da água.

  2. Abundance and diversity of Odonata in temporary water bodies of Coimbatore and Salem districts in Tamil Nadu

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    R. Arulprakash


    Full Text Available Odonata diversity was assessed in 13 temporary water bodies of Coimbatore and Salem districts in Tamil Nadu. Assessment revealed the presence of 21 species of Odonata (14 species of Anisoptera and seven species of Zygoptera belonging to 17 genera under four families. Libellulidae (Anisoptera was represented by the maximum number of species and individuals. Pantala flavescens (Libellulidae was the most abundant among 21 species. Among the temporary water bodies, the maximum number of individuals as well as species was recorded from Utkulam tank (Coimbatore district. Odonata diversity was higher in Kamalapuram tanks 1 and 2 (Salem district and lower in Ukkadam tank (Coimbatore District. Diplacodes trivialis (Rambur, Orthetrum sabina (Drury and Pantala flavescens (Fabricius were identified as temporary water body specialists because of their presence in all the 13 temporary water bodies sampled.

  3. Commented list of rare and protected vascular plants of inland water bodies of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Mäemets


    Full Text Available This presented overview of rare and protected hydrophytes, emergent plants and hygrophytes of inland water bodies of Estonia includes 60 species. In the commented list are indicated their position in the state protection categories I–III (last version in 2014, and under the Red List of Estonia (last version in 2008; marked are Natura 2000 species of the European Union. Most typical habitats for these rare species are: I. soft-water oligotrophic and semidystrophic lakes; II. mesotrophic lakes with Najas (Caulinia flexilis and Potamogeton rutilus; III. alkaline fens and wet meadows; IV. brackish or freshwater coastal lagoons; V. undamaged river stretches; VI. open shallow littoral of the largest lakes of Peipsi (Pskovsko-Chudskoe and of Võrtsjärv. Main threats of these habitats are briefly concerned, as well as the problem of conservation value of hybrids, based on the example of Sparganium species.

  4. Coliform and metal contamination in Lago de Colina, a recreational water body in Chihuahua State, Mexico. (United States)

    Rubio-Arias, Hector; Rey, Nora I; Quintana, Rey M; Nevarez, G Virginia; Palacios, Oskar


    Lago de Colina (Colina Lake) is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico), and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week) vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m) and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico.

  5. Coliform and Metal Contamination in Lago de Colina, a Recreational Water Body in Chihuahua State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Rubio-Arias


    Full Text Available Lago de Colina (Colina Lake is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico, and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico.

  6. of Energy Homeostasis

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    Xian Liu


    Full Text Available Sex differences exist in the complex regulation of energy homeostasis that utilizes central and peripheral systems. It is widely accepted that sex steroids, especially estrogens, are important physiological and pathological components in this sex-specific regulation. Estrogens exert their biological functions via estrogen receptors (ERs. ERα, a classic nuclear receptor, contributes to metabolic regulation and sexual behavior more than other ER subtypes. Physiological and molecular studies have identified multiple ERα-rich nuclei in the hypothalamus of the central nervous system (CNS as sites of actions that mediate effects of estrogens. Much of our understanding of ERα regulation has been obtained using transgenic models such as ERα global or nuclei-specific knockout mice. A fundamental question concerning how ERα is regulated in wild-type animals, including humans, in response to alterations in steroid hormone levels, due to experimental manipulation (i.e., castration and hormone replacement or physiological stages (i.e., puberty, pregnancy, and menopause, lacks consistent answers. This review discusses how different sex hormones affect ERα expression in the hypothalamus. This information will contribute to the knowledge of estrogen action in the CNS, further our understanding of discrepancies in correlation of altered sex hormone levels with metabolic disturbances when comparing both sexes, and improve health issues in postmenopausal women.

  7. Creatine Supplementation Increases Total Body Water in Soccer Players: a Deuterium Oxide Dilution Study. (United States)

    Deminice, R; Rosa, F T; Pfrimer, K; Ferrioli, E; Jordao, A A; Freitas, E


    This study aimed to evaluate changes in total body water (TBW) in soccer athletes using a deuterium oxide dilution method and bioelectrical impedance (BIA) formulas after 7 days of creatine supplementation. In a double-blind controlled manner, 13 healthy (under-20) soccer players were divided randomly in 2 supplementation groups: Placebo (Pla, n=6) and creatine supplementation (CR, n=7). Before and after the supplementation period (0.3 g/kg/d during 7 days), TBW was determined by deuterium oxide dilution and BIA methods. 7 days of creatine supplementation lead to a large increase in TBW (2.3±1.0 L) determined by deuterium oxide dilution, and a small but significant increase in total body weight (1.0±0.4 kg) in Cr group compared to Pla. The Pla group did not experience any significant changes in TBW or body weight. Although 5 of 6 BIA equations were sensitive to determine TBW changes induced by creatine supplementation, the Kushner et al. 16 method presented the best concordance levels when compared to deuterium dilution method. In conclusion, 7-days of creatine supplementation increased TBW determined by deuterium oxide dilution or BIA formulas. BIA can be useful to determine TBW changes promoted by creatine supplementation in soccer athletes, with special concern for formula choice.

  8. Origin and evolution of antibiotic resistance: the common mechanisms of emergence and spread in water bodies

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    Agnese eLupo


    Full Text Available The environment, and especially fresh water, constitutes a reactor where the evolution and the rise of new resistances occur. In rivers or streams, bacteria from different sources such as urban, industrial and agricultural waste, probably selected by intensive antibiotic usage, are collected and mixed with environmental species. This may cause two effects on the development of antibiotic resistances: First, the contamination of water by antibiotics or other pollutants lead to the rise of resistance due to selection processes. For instance, of strains over-expressing broad range defensive mechanisms, such as efflux pumps. Second, since environmental species are provided with intrinsic antibiotic resistance mechanisms, the mixture with allochthonous species is likely to cause genetic exchange. In this context, the role of phages and integrons for the spread of resistance mechanisms appears significant. Allochthonous species could acquire new resistances from environmental donors and introduce the newly acquired resistance mechanisms into the clinics. This is illustrated by clinically relevant resistance mechanisms, such as the fluoroquinolones resistance genes qnr. Freshwater appears to play an important role in the emergence and in the spread of antibiotic resistances, highlighting the necessity for strategies of water quality improvement. Moreover, further knowledge is needed to better understand the role of the environment as reservoir of antibiotic resistances and to assess the risk of spread of antibiotic resistances via water bodies.

  9. Impact of industrial wastewater disposal on surface water bodies in Mostord area north Greater Cairo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The studied area (Shoubra El-Khima, Bahteem and Mostorod) lies in the industrial area north of Greater Cairo. The area suffers from several environmental problems such as sewage and disposal of pollutants from the surrounding factories into the surface water pathways in the area. Water samples were collected seasonally from different waterways found in the area, domestic and or industrial liquid wastes from 12 discharge tubes of different factories (as a point source of pollution). Chemical characteristics of different water samples and its heavy metals content were determined using ion coupled plasma technique (ICP). Results indicate that industrial and domestic wastewater samples contain several toxic levels of tested heavy metals (Cd, Co, Pb and Ni) which have a serious impact on surface waterways in the area.Shebin El-Qanater collector drain samples exhibited the highest levels of Cd, Co, Pb and Ni compared to other tested water bodies Mostorod collector drain samples showed the highest levels of Zn and Cu. Industrial effluent samples collected from Cairo Company for Fabric industry had the highest amounts of total Zn Cu, Cd, Co and Pb, while Delta steel company discharges the highest amounts of total Fe and Mn. Al-Ahleya Plastic Company discharges the highest amounts of total-Ni. Generally, it is necessary to impose the environmental laws and its regulation regarding the industrial wastewater treatments and disposals to minimize the risk of the adverse effects of these pollutants.

  10. The role of water intake on cardiac vagal reactivation after upper-body resistance exercise. (United States)

    Teixeira, A L; Ramos, P S; Marins, J B; Ricardo, D R


    The aim of this study was to assess the hypothesis that water intake will accelerate cardiac vagal reactivation after a single session of upper-body resistance exercise. 13 healthy men (26.5±5.9 years) with previous experience in resistance training were enrolled. In visits 1 and 2, participants performed the one-repetition maximum (1RM) test and retest with the bench press exercise. The sessions 3 and 4 were performed randomly, while participants consumed 500 ml (experimental visit) or 50 ml (control visit) of water immediately after 3 sets of maximum repetitions at 80% of 1RM. Cardiac vagal activity was represented by cardiac vagal index (CVI) measured before, immediately after and 30 min post-exercise. Additionally, heart rate and blood pressure were measured. The results show that CVI was higher 30 min post-exercise when 500 ml of water was ingested compared to 50 ml (1.39±0.07 vs. 1.23±0.07; p=0.02) (mean±SEM). Heart rate and blood pressure values were similar in both trials. We conclude that water intake accelerates post-resistance exercise cardiac vagal reactivation. These findings suggest that hydration after resistance exercise might be beneficial for cardiovascular safety in healthy subjects.

  11. Endocannabinoids and energy homeostasis: an update. (United States)

    Cristino, Luigia; Becker, Thorsten; Di Marzo, Vincenzo


    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a widespread intercellular signaling system that plays a critical role in energy homeostasis, meant as the precise matching of caloric intake with energy expenditure which normally keeps body weight stable over time. Complex interactions between environmental and neurohormonal systems directly contribute to the balance of energy homeostasis. This review highlights established and more recent data on the brain circuits in which the ECS plays an important regulatory role, with focus on the hypothalamus, a region where numerous interacting systems regulating feeding, satiety, stress, and other motivational states coexist. Although not meant as an exhaustive review of the field, this article will discuss how endocannabinoid tone, in addition to reinforcing reward circuitries and modulating food intake and the salience of food, controls lipid and glucose metabolism in several peripheral organs, particularly the liver and adipose tissue. Direct actions in the skeletal muscle and pancreas are also emerging and are briefly discussed. This review provides new perspectives into endocannabinoid control of the neurochemical causes and consequences of energy homeostasis imbalance, a knowledge that might lead to new potential treatments for obesity and related morbidities.

  12. Regulation of energy homeostasis via GPR120

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    Atsuhiko eIchimura


    Full Text Available Free fatty acids (FFAs are fundamental units of key nutrients. FFAs exert various biological functions, depending on the chain length and degree of desaturation. Recent studies have shown that several FFAs act as ligands of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, activate intracellular signaling and exert physiological functions via these GPCRs. GPR120 (also known as free fatty acid receptor 4, FFAR4 is activated by unsaturated medium- to long-chain FFAs and has a critical role in various physiological homeostasis mechanisms such as incretin hormone secretion, food preference, anti-inflammation and adipogenesis. Recent studies showed that a lipid sensor GPR120 has a key role in sensing dietary fat in white adipose tissue and regulates the whole body energy homeostasis in both humans and rodents. Genetic study in human identified the loss-of-functional mutation of GPR120 associated with obesity and insulin resistance. In addition, dysfunction of GPR120 has been linked as a novel risk factor for diet-induced obesity. This review aims to provide evidence from the recent development in physiological function of GPR120 and discusses its functional roles in regulation of energy homeostasis and its potential as drug targets.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Didenko


    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze scientific and statistical sources on commercial fishery in inland water bodies of Germany. To summarize German experience and identify specific features of this sector. Findings. Commercial fishery in Germany is carried out on 30% (≈250 000 hectares of inland water bodies of Germany. The main fishing regions are prealpine lakes in Bavaria, Lake Constance, lakes in Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania federal states as well as lakes and rivers of Brandenburg and Berlin. Commercial fishing on rivers usually has a local importance and is practiced in regions with poorly developed industry. There were 670 commercial fishing organizations in 2014, where 932 people were employed. Each fishing license owner is allowed deploying simultaneously a clearly defined number of fishing gears depending on season. In addition, fishing nets are regulated not only based on their mesh size and length, but also height and the minimum thread diameter. The cardinal difference of German inland fishing is the absence of the periods of total ban on commercial fishing. There are only ban periods for fishing on certain fish species during their spawning seasons. These periods differ for federal states and are listed in the relevant regional fishing rules. The total fish catch in inland waters of Germany by commercial fishermen in 2014 was 3132 tons, much lower than the catches of anglers who caught 18 450 tons at the same year. Most of fish were caught by fishing organizations in the Brandenburg Federal State. Average fish productivity in 2014 was approx. 13 kg/ha (ranging from 10 to 20 kg/ha. Whitefish was the dominant species in catches in the Lake Constance and prealpine lakes of Bavaria, while cyprinids (roach, bream, silver bream, blue bream, etc. dominated in Northern Germany. The profit of commercial fish catch in 2014 was about 12.5 million euros. Among numerous activities aimed at preserving commercial fish populations, Germans

  14. Hydraulic resistance of a plant root to water-uptake: A slender-body theory. (United States)

    Chen, Kang Ping


    A slender-body theory for calculating the hydraulic resistance of a single plant root is developed. The work provides an in-depth discussion on the procedure and the assumptions involved in calculating a root׳s internal hydraulic resistance as well as the physical and the mathematical aspects of the external three-dimensional flow around the tip of a root in a saturated soil and how this flow pattern enhances uptake and reduces hydraulic resistance. Analytical solutions for the flux density distribution on the stele-cortex interface, local water-uptake profile inside the stele core, the overall water-uptake at the base of the stele, and the total hydraulic resistance of a root are obtained in the slender-body limit. It is shown that a key parameter controlling a root's hydraulic resistance is the dimensionless axial conductivity in the stele, which depends on the permeabilities of the stele and the cortex as well as the root's radial and axial dimensions. Three-dimensional tip effect reduces a root's hydraulic resistance by as much as 36% when compared to the radial flow theory of Landsberg and Fowkes. In addition, the total hydraulic resistance cannot be generally decomposed into the direct sum of a radial resistance and an axial resistance.

  15. Molecular screening of selected long QT syndrome (LQTS) mutations in 165 consecutive bodies found in water. (United States)

    Lunetta, Philippe; Levo, Antti; Laitinen, Päivi J; Fodstad, Heidi; Kontula, Kimmo; Sajantila, Antti


    The association of the long QT-syndrome (LQTS) with single accidental drowning or near-drowning cases has been recently emphasised, but no data on the prevalence of LQTS among drowning victims are currently available. In this study, we have retrospectively screened specific founder mutations in KCNQ1 (KVLQT1) and KCNH2 (HERG) genes in 165 consecutive bodies found in water in Finland. We found a KCNH2-Fin mutation in a 44-year-old woman whose death was classified as suicidal drowning, whereas no other carriers of the two LQTS founder mutations were identified among the remaining 164 victims. This study provides the first estimate of the minimum prevalence of LQTS (0.61%, CI(95): 0.02-3.33) in such a setting and demonstrates the value of genetic analysis of LQTS in putative drownings. The detection of a LQTS founder mutation in a body found in water is a relatively rare event based on our study sample. This finding is, however, of utmost medico-legal importance, since it broadens the spectrum of potential causes and manners of death.

  16. On freely floating bodies trapping time-harmonic waves in water covered by brash ice

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsov, Nikolay


    A mechanical system consisting of water covered by brash ice and a body freely floating near equilibrium is considered. The water occupies a half-space into which an infinitely long surface-piercing cylinder is immersed, thus allowing us to study two-dimensional modes of the coupled motion which is assumed to be of small amplitude. The corresponding linear setting for time-harmonic oscillations reduces to a spectral problem whose parameter is the frequency. A constant that characterises the brash ice divides the set of frequencies into two subsets and the results obtained for each of these subsets are essentially different. For frequencies belonging to a finite interval adjacent to zero, the total energy of motion is finite and the equipartition of energy holds for the whole system. For every frequency from this interval, a family of motionless bodies trapping waves is constructed by virtue of the semi-inverse procedure. For sufficiently large frequencies outside of this interval, all solutions of finite ener...

  17. CFTR genotype-related body water and electrolyte balance during a marathon. (United States)

    Del Coso, J; Lara, B; Salinero, J J; Areces, F; Ruiz-Vicente, D; Gallo-Salazar, C; Abián-Vicén, J; Cacabelos, R


    The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of CFTR genotype on body water and electrolyte balance during a marathon. Fifty-one experienced runners completed a marathon race. Before and after the race, body mass and a sample of venous blood were obtained. During the race, sweat samples were collected using sweat patches, and fluid and electrolyte intake were obtained using self-reported questionnaires. Thirty-eight participants (74.5% of the total) were 7T/7T homozygotes, 11 (21.6%) were 7T/9T heterozygotes, and one participant presented the rare genotype 5T/7T. Another participant with 9T/9T presented the mutation p.L206W. Participants with 7T/7T showed higher sweat sodium concentrations (42.2 ± 21.6 mmol/L) than 7T/9T (29.0 ± 24.7 mmol/L; P = 0.04). The runner with the 5T/7T genotype (10.2 mmol/L) and the participant with the p.L206W mutation (20.5 mmol/L) exhibited low-range sweat sodium concentrations. However, post-race serum sodium concentration was similar in 7T/7T and 7T/9T (142.1 ± 1.3 and 142.4 ± 1.6 mmol/L, respectively; P = 0.27) and did not show abnormalities in participants with the 5T/7T genotype (140.0 mmol/L) and the p.L206W mutation (143.0 mmol/L). Runners with the CFTR-7T/7T genotype exhibited increased sweat sodium concentrations during a marathon. However, this phenotype was not related with increased likelihood of suffering body water and electrolyte imbalances during real competitions.

  18. Exposure of small water bodies to pesticides and their transformation products in a lowland catchment (United States)

    Ulrich, Uta; Fohrer, Nicola


    INTRODUCTION Based on the European Directive 2009/128/EC (2009), all member states were obliged to set up National Action Plans for the sustainable use of pesticides. In the German National Action Plan (GNAP), the status of small water bodies (swb) defined as water bodies with a catchment pesticide contamination of swbs is insufficient, a monitoring of 10 swbs in the catchment of the lowland river Kielstau was carried out in summer and autumn 2015 for selected herbicides and their transformation products (TP). METHODS Grab samples of the water phase were collected once at the end of the spring/summer application period and a screening was carried out for 102 pesticides and 6 TPs. During autumn application, the rape herbicide metazachlor and the winter grain herbicide flufenacet as well as their TPs oxalic acid (OA) and sulfonic acid (ESA) were in the focus of the study. The sampling was carried out event based after the first and second relevant rainfall events after application. The third sample was collected four weeks after the second sampling to observe the occurrence of the TPs. The target compounds were quantified by LC-MSMSMS. RESULTS For all swbs, the pesticide screening after the spring application showed pesticide/TP concentrations below the quantification limits (0.01-0.05 μg L-1) except of the corn herbicdes metolachlor, terbuthylazine and its TP desethylterbuthylazine. These findings were independent from the time elapsed since the last application of these compounds took place which was partly 4 years ago. After autumn application, the samples were analyzed for the herbicides metazachlor, flufenacet and their TPs which were sprayed on the fields where the swb are located in. These results showed that TPs of both herbicides remained from the year before and reached concentrations up to 1.9 μg L-1 for metazachlor ESA, 0.55 μg L-1 for metazachlor OA, 0.16 μg L-1 for flufenacet OA and 0.04 μg L-1 for flufenacet ESA. After autumn application, maximum

  19. Water bodies typology system: a Chilean case of scientific stakeholders and policy makers dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fuster


    Full Text Available The aim of this project was to obtain a scientists-validated Typology System, which would allow to classify the surface waters bodies in Chile and, therefore, to facilitate the environmental institutional water management in the country. For this, during the years 2009 and 2011, a Typology System for the surface freshwater bodies was developed for Chile based on the methodology described by the Water Framework Directive of the European Union, which was adapted to local features through the knowledge of limnologist experts in the country, as well as policy makers' experience and their management requirements . In a first stage, national ecoregions were developed and abiotic variables were defined to compose the Typology System. The resulted Typology System for lakes and rivers was generated following an a priori and top down approach to difference biocenosis, based on geomorphologic, hydrologic and physic criteria. In a second stage, the proposed Typology System was validated by experts and policy makers, in which process new arrangements were included in the system. The working methodology used for both stages was bibliographic review, interviews to local experts in biocenosis and workshops. It is specially highlighted the participative processes and discussions in which all the agents involved were present, all of which resulted in the creation of a valid system from a scientific point of view and a product that is applicable to the necessities of the environmental institutions of the country. This work represents a successful experience in the improvement of the communication between scientists and politicians in Chile, which is a relevant factor for the elaboration of more efficient and effective environmental policies, integrating not only management and economic issues, but also more technical aspects that can influence in the final success of any long term strategy. For this reason, the replication of this kind of experiences, as well as

  20. Groundwater recharge in suburban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam: effect of decreasing surface-water bodies and land-use change (United States)

    Kuroda, Keisuke; Hayashi, Takeshi; Do, An Thuan; Canh, Vu Duc; Nga, Tran Thi Viet; Funabiki, Ayako; Takizawa, Satoshi


    Over-exploited groundwater is expected to remain the predominant source of domestic water in suburban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam. In order to evaluate the effect on groundwater recharge, of decreasing surface-water bodies and land-use change caused by urbanization, the relevant groundwater systems and recharge pathways must be characterized in detail. To this end, water levels and water quality were monitored for 3 years regarding groundwater and adjacent surface-water bodies, at two typical suburban sites in Hanoi. Stable isotope (δ18O, δD of water) analysis and hydrochemical analysis showed that the water from both aquifers and aquitards, including the groundwater obtained from both the monitoring wells and the neighboring household tubewells, was largely derived from evaporation-affected surface-water bodies (e.g., ponds, irrigated farmlands) rather than from rivers. The water-level monitoring results suggested distinct local-scale flow systems for both a Holocene unconfined aquifer (HUA) and Pleistocene confined aquifer (PCA). That is, in the case of the HUA, lateral recharge through the aquifer from neighboring ponds and/or irrigated farmlands appeared to be dominant, rather than recharge by vertical rainwater infiltration. In the case of the PCA, recharge by the above-lying HUA, through areas where the aquitard separating the two aquifers was relatively thin or nonexistent, was suggested. As the decrease in the local surface-water bodies will likely reduce the groundwater recharge, maintaining and enhancing this recharge (through preservation of the surface-water bodies) is considered as essential for the sustainable use of groundwater in the area.

  1. A cheaper, faster, better way to detect water of hydration on Solar System bodies (United States)

    Vilas, Faith


    The 3.0-micrometers water of hydration absorption feature observed in the IR photometry of many low-albedo and some medium-albedo asteroids strongly correlates with the 0.7-micrometers Fe(+2) to Fe(+3) oxidized iron absorption feature observed in narrowband spectrophotometry of these asteroids. Using this relationship, an empirical algorithm for predicting the presence of water of hydration in the surface material of a Solar System body using photometry obtained through the Eight-Color Asteroid Survey nu (0.550 micrometers), w (0.701 micrometers), and x (0.853 micrometers) filters was developed and applied to the ECAS photometry of asteroids and outer planet satellites. The percentage of objects in low-albedo, outer main-belt asteroid classes that test positively for water of hydration increases from P to B to C to G class and correlates linearly with the increasing mean albedos of those objects testing positively. The medium-albedo M-class asteroids do not test positively in large number using this algorithm. Aqueously altered asteroids dominate the Solar System population between heliocentric distances of 2.6 to 3.5 AU, bracketing the Solar System region where the aqueous alteration mechanism operated most strongly. One jovian satellite, J VI Himalia, and one saturnian satellite. Phoebe, tested positively for water of hydration, supporting the hypothesis that these may be captured C-class asteroids from a postaccretional dispersion. The proposed testing technique could be applied to an Earth-based survey of asteroids or a space-probe study of an asteroid's surface characteristic in order to identify a potential water source.

  2. Electrostatically Embedded Many-Body Expansion for Large Systems, with Applications to Water Clusters. (United States)

    Dahlke, Erin E; Truhlar, Donald G


    The use of background molecular charge to incorporate environmental effects on a molecule or active site is widely employed in quantum chemistry. In the present article we employ this practice in conjunction with many-body expansions. In particular, we present electrostatically embedded two-body and three-body expansions for calculating the energies of molecular clusters. The system is divided into fragments, and dimers or trimers of fragments are calculated in a field of point charges representing the electrostatic potential of the other fragments. We find that including environmental point charges can lower the errors in the electrostatically embedded pairwise additive (EE-PA) energies for a series of water clusters by as much as a factor of 10 when compared to the traditional pairwise additive approximation and that for the electrostatically embedded three-body (EE-3B) method the average mean unsigned error over nine different levels of theory for a set of six tetramers and one pentamer is only 0.05 kcal/mol, which is only 0.4% of the mean unsigned net interaction energy. We also test the accuracy of the EE-PA and EE-3B methods for a cluster of 21 water molecules and find that the errors relative to a full MP2/aug'-cc-pVTZ calculation to be only 2.97 and 0.38 kcal/mol, respectively, which are only 1.5% and 0.2%, respectively, of the net interaction energy. This method offers the advantage over some other fragment-based methods in that it does not use an iterative method to determine the charges and thus provides substantial savings for large clusters. The method is convenient to adapt to a variety of electronic structure methods and program packages, it has N(2) or N(3) computational scaling for large systems (where N is the number of fragments), it is easily converted to an O(N) method, and its linearity allows for convenient analytic gradients.

  3. Body water handling in response to hypertonic-saline induced diuresis in fasting northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris) (United States)

    Ortiz, Rudy M.; Wade, Charles E.; Ortiz, C. Leo


    During natural fasting conditions in postweaned northern elephant seal (NES) (Mirounga angustirostris) pups, urinary water loss is minimized and percent total body water (TBW) is maintained constant. However, following infusion of hypertonic saline, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine output increased in fasting pups. Therefore, we quantified the magnitude of the hypernatremia-induced diuresis relative to the animal's total body water (TBW) pool and the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed. Following a 24 h control period, naturally fasting NES pups (n=7) were infused (4 ml min(-1)) with hypertonic saline (16.7%) at a dose of 3 mmol NaCl kg(-1) body mass. Total body water was estimated prior to infusion by tritium dilution, GFR was estimated by standard creatinine clearance, and urine output (V) was measured for 24 h during the control and post infusion periods. Percentage of filtered water reabsorbed was calculated as (1-(V/GFR))x100. Twenty-four hours following the infusion, GFR (control: 69+/-12 ml min(-1) and post-infusion: 118+/-19 ml min(-1); mean+/-S.E.) increased 77+/-28% above control and the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed was decreased 0.4+/-0.1%. The increase in urine output (control: 218+/-47 ml d(-1) and post-infusion: 883+/-92 ml d(-1)) accounted for 1.7+/-0.2% of the pups' TBW. The hypernatremia-induced diuresis was accompanied by the loss of body water indicating the lack of water retention. Although the 77% increase in GFR was only associated with a 0.4% decrease in the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed, this decrease was significant enough to result in a 4-fold increase in urine output. Despite the observed diuresis, fasting NES pups appear to possess an efficient water recycling mechanism requiring only a small percentage of body water to excrete an excess salt load. This water recycling mechanism may allow pups to avoid negative perturbations in body water as they initiate feeding in a marine environment following the

  4. The underestimated compression effect of neoprene wetsuit on divers hydromineral homeostasis. (United States)

    Castagna, O; Blatteau, J-E; Vallee, N; Schmid, B; Regnard, J


    This study aimed at demonstrating that the neoprene wetsuit provides not only thermal protection. Compression it exerts on the diver's shell significantly impacts hydromineral homeostasis by restraining the systemic vascular capacity and secondarily increasing urine output on dry land and during scuba diving. 8 healthy divers underwent five 2-h sessions: sitting out of water in trunks (control situation), sitting out of water wearing a wetsuit, and 3 wetsuit scuba-immersed sessions at 1, 6 and 12 msw depth, respectively. Urine volumes and blood samples were collected. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht) and plasma sodium concentration were measured. Interface pressure between the garment and the skin was measured at 17 sites of the body shell, with a pressure transducer. Mean interface pressures between wetsuit and skin amounted to: 25.8±2.8 mm Hg. Whatever the depth, elastic recoil tension of wetsuit material was unchanged by immersion. Weight loss was respectively 2 and 3 times greater when wetsuit was worn out of water (430 g) and during immersion (710 g) than when divers did not wear any wetsuit out of water (235 g; p<0.05). Urine volume accounted for 85% of weight loss in either session. Weight loss and urine volume were similar whatever immersion depth. The decrease in plasma volume amounted to 8% of urine volume when divers did not wear any wetsuit out of water, and to 30% when wetsuit was worn out of water or during immersion. Diving wetsuit develops a pressure effect that alters diver's hydromineral homeostasis. During immersion, the wetsuit pressure merges into the larger main effect of hydrostatic pressure to reduce water content of body fluids, unrelated to immersion depth.

  5. Impulse waves generated by snow avalanches: Momentum and energy transfer to a water body (United States)

    Zitti, Gianluca; Ancey, Christophe; Postacchini, Matteo; Brocchini, Maurizio


    When a snow avalanche enters a body of water, it creates an impulse wave whose effects may be catastrophic. Assessing the risk posed by such events requires estimates of the wave's features. Empirical equations have been developed for this purpose in the context of landslides and rock avalanches. Despite the density difference between snow and rock, these equations are also used in avalanche protection engineering. We developed a theoretical model which describes the momentum transfers between the particle and water phases of such events. Scaling analysis showed that these momentum transfers were controlled by a number of dimensionless parameters. Approximate solutions could be worked out by aggregating the dimensionless numbers into a single dimensionless group, which then made it possible to reduce the system's degree of freedom. We carried out experiments that mimicked a snow avalanche striking a reservoir. A lightweight granular material was used as a substitute for snow. The setup was devised so as to satisfy the Froude similarity criterion between the real-world and laboratory scenarios. Our experiments in a water channel showed that the numerical solutions underestimated wave amplitude by a factor of 2 on average. We also compared our experimental data with those obtained by Heller and Hager (2010), who used the same relative particle density as in our runs, but at higher slide Froude numbers.

  6. Effect of a School-Based Water Intervention on Child Body Mass Index and Obesity (United States)

    Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Leardo, Michele; Aneja, Siddhartha; Elbel, Brian


    IMPORTANCE Decreasing the amount of caloric beverages consumed and simultaneously increasing water consumption is important to promoting child health and decreasing the prevalence of childhood obesity. OBJECTIVE To estimate the impact of water jets (electrically cooled, large clear jugs with a push lever for fast dispensing) on standardized body mass index, overweight, and obesity in elementary school and middle school students. Milk purchases were explored as a potential mechanism for weight outcomes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This quasi-experimental study used a school-level database of cafeteria equipment deliveries between the 2008-2009 and 2012-2013 and included a sample of 1227 New York, New York, public elementary schools and middle schools and the 1 065 562 students within those schools. INTERVENTION Installation of water jets in schools. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Individual body mass index (BMI) was calculated for all students in the sample using annual student-level height and weight measurements collected as part of New York’s FITNESSGRAM initiative. Age- and sex-specific growth charts produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used to categorize students as overweight and obese. The hypothesis that water jets would be associated with decreased standardized BMI, overweight, and obesity was tested using a difference-in-difference strategy, comparing outcomes for treated and nontreated students before and after the introduction of a water jet. RESULTS This study included 1 065 562 students within New York City public elementary schools and middle schools. There was a significant effect of water jets on standardized BMI, such that the adoption of water jets was associated with a 0.025 (95% CI, −0.038 to −0.011) reduction of standardized BMI for boys and a 0.022 (95% CI, −0.035 to −0.008) reduction of standardized BMI for girls (P < .01). There was also a significant effect on being overweight. Water jets were

  7. Parameter Identification for a New Circuit Model Aimed to Predict Body Water Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Intracellular and extracellular water volumes in the human body have been computed using a sequence of models starting with a linear first order RC circuit (Cole model and finishing with the De Lorenzo model. This last model employs a fractional order impedance whose parameters are identified using the frequency characteristics of the impedance module and phase, the latter being not unique. While the Cole model has a two octaves frequency validity range, the De Lorenzo model can be used for three decades. A new linear RC model, valid for a three decades frequency range, is proposed. This circuit can be viewed as an extension of the Cole model for a larger frequency interval, unlike similar models proposed by the same authors.

  8. Effects of 17β-estradiol on emissions of greenhouse gases in simulative natural water body. (United States)

    Ruan, Aidong; Zhao, Ying; Liu, Chenxiao; Zong, Fengjiao; Yu, Zhongbo


    Environmental estrogens are widely spread across the world and are increasingly thought of as serious contaminators. The present study looks at the influence of different concentrations of 17β-estradiol on greenhouse gas emissions (CO2 , CH4 , and N2 O) in simulated systems to explore the relationship between environmental estrogen-pollution and greenhouse gas emissions in natural water bodies. The present study finds that 17β-estradiol pollution in simulated systems has significant promoting effects on the emissions of CH4 and CO2 , although no significant effects on N2 O emissions. The present study indicates that 17β-estradiol has different effects on the different elements cycles; the mechanism of microbial ecology is under review.

  9. Effects of injection of serotonin into nucleus caudatus on food and water intake and body weight in albino rats. (United States)

    Pal, G K; Kannan, N; Pal, Pravati


    Serotonin is known to inhibit food and water intake. However, the effect of its injection into nucleus caudatus on food and water intake is not known. In the present study, serotonin hydrochloride, buspirone (the serotonin 5-HT1A agonist) and ondensetron (the 5HT3 antagonist) were injected into nucleus caudatus through stereotaxically implanted cannulae in three different dosages (1, 2 and 5 microg) and their effects on 24 h food and water intake, and body weight were recorded. The injection of serotonin hydrochloride resulted in a dose- dependent decrease in food intake attaining maximum of 27.3% at 5 microg dose, whereas water intake and body weight were decreased 12% and 4.3% respectively only at the highest does. Buspirone elicited a dose dependent inhibition of food and water intake and body weight (22.3%, 19.8% and 5.1% respectively), whereas ondensetron elicited an increase in food and water intake (37.8% and 36.3% respectively) without significantly altering bodyweight. It was concluded that serotonin hydrochloride injected into nucleus caudatus inhibits food and water intake significantly. These effects are mediated via 5-HT1A and 5HT3 receptors. The effect of injections of 5-HT1A receptor agonist is more pronounced on water intake. The effect of injections of 5HT3 receptor antagonist is also more pronounced on water intake.

  10. Water- versus land-based exercise in elderly subjects: effects on physical performance and body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergamin M


    Full Text Available Marco Bergamin,1 Andrea Ermolao,1 Silvia Tolomio,1 Linda Berton,2 Giuseppe Sergi,2 Marco Zaccaria1 1Sports Medicine Division, 2Geriatrics Division, University of Padova, Padua, Italy Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 24-week exercise protocol carried out in geothermal spring water to improve overall physical function and muscle mass in a group of healthy elderly subjects. A further aim was to compare this water-based protocol with a land-based protocol and a control group. For this purpose, 59 subjects were recruited and randomly allocated to three groups: aquatic group (AG, land group (LG, and control group (CG. AG and LG followed a 6-month, twice-weekly, multimodality exercise intervention. AG underwent the protocol in hot-spring water (36°C while LG did it in a land-based environment. After the intervention, knee-extension strength was maintained in AG and LG. The 8-foot up-and-go test showed a reduction in both exercise groups (AG −19.3%, P < 0.05; LG −12.6%, P < 0.05, with a significantly greater decrease in AG. The back-scratch test revealed an improvement only in AG (25.8%; P < 0.05, while the sit-and-reach test improved in all groups. Finally, AG reduced fat mass by 4% (P < 0.05, and dominant forearm fat decreased by 9.2% (P < 0.05. In addition, calf muscle density increased by 1.8% (P < 0.05. In summary, both water- and land-based activities were beneficial in maintaining strength and in improving lower-body flexibility. Aquatic exercise appeared a better activity to improve dynamic balance. Thermal swimming pools and the use of rating of perceived exertion as a method of exercise monitoring should be considered potentially useful tools to enhance physical performance and body composition in healthy elderly. Keywords: aging, multimodality exercise, performance, muscle mass

  11. Controlling the release of wood extractives into water bodies by selecting suitable eucalyptus species (United States)

    Kilulya, K. F.; Msagati, T. A. M.; Mamba, B. B.; Ngila, J. C.; Bush, T.

    Pulping industries are increasing worldwide as a result of the increase in the demand for pulp for cellulose derivatives and paper manufacturing. Due to the activities involved in pulping processes, different chemicals from raw materials (wood) and bleaching agents are released in pulp-mill effluent streams discharged into the environment and find their way into water bodies. Large quantities of water and chemicals used in pulping result in large amounts of wastewater with high concentrations of extractives such as unsaturated fatty acids, which are known to be toxic, and plant sterols which affect the development, growth and reproduction of aquatic organisms. This study was aimed at assessing the composition of extractives in two eucalyptus species used for pulp production in South Africa, in order to identify the suitable species with regard to extractive content. Samples from two eucalyptus plant species (Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii) were collected from three sites and analysed for extractives by first extracting with water, followed by Soxhlet extraction using acetone. Compounds were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Major classes of extractives identified were fatty acids (mainly hexadecanoic acid, 9,12-octadecadienoic, 9-octadecenoic and octadecanoic acids) and sterols (mainly β-sitosterol and stigmastanol). E. dunnii was found to contain higher amounts of the compounds compared to those found in E. grandis in all sampled sites. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed and explained 92.9% of the total variation using three principal components. It was revealed that the percentage of fatty acids, which has a negative influence on both principal components 2 and 3, was responsible for the difference between the species. E. grandis, which was found to contain low amounts of extractives, was therefore found suitable for pulping with regard to minimal water usage and environment pollution.

  12. Identifying factors linked to the occurrence of alien gastropods in isolated woodland water bodies. (United States)

    Spyra, Aneta; Strzelec, Małgorzata


    Biological invasions are a significant component of human-caused global change and is widely regarded as one of the main threats to natural biodiversity. Isolated anthropogenic water bodies created in the areas that are deprived of natural freshwater habitats allow the survival and reproduction of alien species on newly settled sites. They are often small with water level fluctuations causing frequent environmental disturbances. The colonisation success may be the result of the rate of their degradation. The aims of the study were to determine the environmental conditions that affect the existence of alien species of gastropods in this type of aquatic environment and to examine whether the occurrence of non-native species affects the community structure of the native species. This study made it possible to group woodland ponds according to the occurrence of the three invasive species in snail communities and discuss the environmental conditions present in these pond types. Analysis of water properties emphasised the distinctiveness of the selected pond types. In ponds of the Potamopyrgus antipodarum type, we found the highest values of some parameters mainly hardness, conductivity, and content of calcium and chlorides, in contrast with the Physella acuta type, which were characterised by the lowest values except for phosphates and nitrites. In the Ferrissia fragilis type, we found the highest nitrate content. Data on the occurrence of alien species in different water environments play an important role in actions which are taken to prevent new invasions and spread of non-native species as well as to reduce future impacts of invaders.

  13. Kinetics of uranium uptake in soft water and the effect of body size, bioaccumulation and toxicity to Hyalella azteca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, L.C. [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Aquatic Ecosystems Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, P.O. Box 5050, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Borgmann, U. [Aquatic Ecosystems Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, P.O. Box 5050, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Dixon, D.G., E-mail: dgdixon@uwaterloo.c [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)


    The kinetics of uptake and the effect of body size on uranium (U) bioaccumulation and toxicity to Hyalella azteca exposed to water-only U concentrations in soft water were evaluated. The effect of body size on U bioaccumulation was significant with a slope of -0.35 between log body concentration and log body mass. A saturation kinetic model was satisfactory to describe the uptake rate, elimination rate and the effect of gut-clearance on size-corrected U bioaccumulation in H. azteca. The one-week lethal water concentrations causing 50% mortality for juvenile and adult H. azteca were 1100 and 4000 nmol U/L, respectively. The one-week lethal body concentration causing 50% mortality was 140 nmol U/g for juvenile H. azteca and 220 nmol U/g for adult H. azteca. One-week bioaccumulation studies that properly account for body-size and gut-clearance times can provide valuable data on U bioavailability and toxicity in the environment. - Uranium accumulation by Hyalella azteca approaches steady state after one week but is strongly dependent on body size.

  14. TRPV5, the gateway to Ca2+ homeostasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensenkamp, A.R.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Bindels, R.J.M.


    Ca2+ homeostasis in the body is tightly controlled, and is a balance between absorption in the intestine, excretion via the urine, and exchange from bone. Recently, the epithelial Ca2+ channel (TRPV5) has been identified as the gene responsible for the Ca2+ influx in epithelial cells of the renal di

  15. Spatial correlation between malaria cases and water-bodies in Anopheles sinensis dominated areas of Huang-Huai plain, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Shui-sen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria re-emerged in the Huang-Huai Plain of central China during 2006–2008, dominated with Anopheles sinensis as a vector. However, there is no information on strategies based on multi-factor analysis to effectively control the re-emergence of malaria in these areas. Previous experience indicates some relationship between the distribution of water bodies and malaria cases, but more detailed data are not available and in-depth studies have not been conducted up to now. The objective of this study was to identify the relationship between the distribution of water bodies and presentation of malaria cases using spatial analysis tools in order to provide guidance to help formulate effective strategies for use in controlling the sources of malaria infection, based on the identification of risk areas and population. Methods The geographic information of malaria cases and their surrounding water bodies were collected from Suixi, Guoyang, Guzhen, Yingshang, Fengyang and Yongqiao County in Anhui province, Yongcheng and Tongbai County in Henan province. All malaria cases distributed in 113 villages in these 8 counties were collected from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention and confirmed by household investigation. Data on GIS and malaria cases were mapped and analyzed with the software of ArcGIS 9.2 to identify the spatial correlation between malaria cases and water bodies. The distance from households with malaria cases to the nearest water bodies was used to calculate the OR value by Chi-square test. The risk area was identified through the comparison of OR values in different distances. Results 357 malaria cases and their GPS data as well as surrounding water bodies were collected and analyzed. 74% of malaria cases were located within the extent of 60 m proximity to the water bodies. The risk rate of people living there and presenting with malaria was significantly higher than others (OR = 1

  16. Africa-Wide Monitoring of Small Surface Water Bodies Using Multisource Satellite Data: A Monitoring System for FEWS NET (United States)

    Velpuri, N. M.; Senay, G. B.; Rowland, J.; Budde, M. E.; Verdin, J. P.


    Continental Africa has the largest volume of water stored in wetlands, large lakes, reservoirs and rivers, yet it suffers with problems such as water availability and access. Furthermore, African countries are amongst the most vulnerable to the impact of natural hazards such as droughts and floods. With climate change intensifying the hydrologic cycle and altering the distribution and frequency of rainfall, the problem of water availability and access is bound to increase. The U.S Geological Survey Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development, has initiated a large-scale project to monitor small to medium surface water bodies in Africa. Under this project, multi-source satellite data and hydrologic modeling techniques are integrated to monitor these water bodies in Africa. First, small water bodies are mapped using satellite data such as Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Landsat, and high resolution Google Earth imagery. Stream networks and watersheds for each water body are identified using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation data. Finally, a hydrologic modeling approach that uses satellite-derived precipitation estimates and evapotranspiration data calculated from global data assimilation system climate parameters is applied to model water levels. This approach has been implemented to monitor nearly 300 small water bodies located in 10 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Validation of modeled scaled depths with field-installed gauge data in East Africa demonstrated the ability of the model to capture both the spatial patterns and seasonal variations. Modeled scaled estimates captured up to 60% of the observed gauge variability with an average RMSE of 22%. Current and historic data (since 2001) on relative water level, precipitation, and evapotranspiration for each water body is made available in near real time. The water point monitoring network

  17. Collagen Homeostasis and Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson, S Peter; Heinemeier, Katja M; Kjaer, Michael


    The musculoskeletal system and its collagen rich tissue is important for ensuring architecture of skeletal muscle, energy storage in tendon and ligaments, joint surface protection, and for ensuring the transfer of muscular forces into resulting limb movement. Structure of tendon is stable...... inactivity or immobilization of the human body will conversely result in a dramatic loss in tendon stiffness and collagen synthesis. This illustrates the importance of regular mechanical load in order to preserve the stabilizing role of the connective tissue for the overall function of the musculoskeletal...

  18. Modeling the time-varying interaction between surface water and groundwater bodies (United States)

    Gliege, Steffen; Steidl, Jörg; Lischeid, Gunnar; Merz, Christoph


    The countless kettle holes (small lakes) in the Late Pleistocene landscapes of Northern Europe have important ecological and hydrological functions. On the one hand they act as depressions in which water and solutes of mainly agriculturally used catchments accumulate. On the other hand they operate as biochemical reactors with respect to greenhouse gas emissions, carbon sequestration, and as major sinks for nutrients and contaminants. Even small kettle holes often are hydraulically connected to the uppermost groundwater system: Groundwater discharges into the kettle hole on one side, and the aquifer is recharged from the kettle hole water body on the other side. Thus kettle hole biogeochemical processes are both affected by groundwater and vice versa. Groundwater flow direction and velocity into and out of the kettle hole often is not stable over time. Groundwater flow direction might reverse at the downstream part, resulting in repeated recycling of groundwater and corresponding solute turnover within the kettle holes. A sound understanding of this intricate interplay is a necessary prerequisite for better understanding of the biogeochemistry of this terrestrial-aquatic interface. A numerical experiment was used to quantify the lateral solute exchange between a kettle hole and the surrounding groundwater. A vertical cross section through the real existing catchment of a kettle hole was chosen. Glacial till represents the lower boundary. The heterogeneity of the subsurface was reproduced by various parameterizations of the soil hydraulic properties as well as varying the thickness of the unconfined aquifer or the lateral boundary conditions. In total 24 different parameterizations were implemented in the modeling software HydroGeoSphere (HGS). HGS is suitable to calculate the fluid exchange between surface and subsurface simultaneously and in a physically based way. The simulation runs were done for the period from November 1994 to October 2014. All results were

  19. Effects of water vapor density on cutaneous resistance to evaporative water loss and body temperature in green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea). (United States)

    Wygoda, Mark L; Kersten, Constance A


    Increased cutaneous resistance to evaporative water loss (Rc) in tree frogs results in decreased water loss rate and increased body temperature. We examined sensitivity of Rc to water vapor density (WVD) in Hyla cinerea by exposing individual frogs and agar models to four different WVD environments and measuring cutaneous evaporative water loss rate and body temperature simultaneously using a gravimetric wind tunnel measuring system. We found that water loss rate varied inversely and body temperature directly with WVD but that models were affected to a greater extent than were animals. Mean Rc was significantly different between the highest WVD environment and each of the three drier environments but did not differ among the drier environments, indicating that Rc initially increases and then reaches a plateau in response to decreasing WVD. Rc was equivalent when calculated using either WVD difference or WVD deficit as the driving force for evaporation. We also directly observed secretions from cutaneous glands while measuring body temperature and tested secretions and skin samples for the presence of lipids. We found that irregular transient body temperature depressions observed during wind tunnel trials occur due to evaporative cooling from intermittent skin secretions containing lipids, although we were unable to identify lipid-secreting glands.

  20. Total body water estimations in healthy men and women using bioimpedance spectroscopy: a deuterium oxide comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bemben Michael G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Total body water (TBW estimations have been used to estimate body composition, particularly fat-free mass, to aid in nutritional interventions, and to monitor hydration status. In the past, bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS devices have been used to estimate TBW. Previous investigations have examined the validity of the XiTRON 4000B (XiTRON Technologies BIS device for estimating TBW. Recently, a new BIS device (Imp™ SFB7 has become available, claiming greater precision when estimating TBW. The Imp™ SFB7 (SFB7 is based on similar BIS principles, while offering increased portability and a greater range of frequencies when compared to older devices, such as the XiTRON 4000B (4000B. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the SFB7 for estimating total body water in healthy college-age men and women compared to the 4000B and deuterium oxide (D2O. Methods Twenty-eight Caucasian men and women (14 men, 14 women; 24 ± 4 yrs; 174.6 ± 8.7 cm; 72.80 ± 17.58 kg had their TBW estimated by the SFB7, the 4000B, and D2O. Results Both BIS devices produced similar standard error of estimate (SEE and r values (SFB7, SEE = 2.12L, r = 0.98; 4000B, SEE = 2.99L, r = 0.96 when compared to D2O, though a significant constant error (CE was detected for the 4000B (2.26L, p ≤ 0.025. The 4000B produced a larger total error (TE and CE (TE = 3.81L, CE = 2.26L when compared to the SFB7 (TE = 2.21L, CE = -0.09L. Additionally, the limits of agreement were larger for the 4000B (-3.88 to 8.39L than the SFB7 (-4.50 to 4.31L. These results were consistent when sex was analyzed separately, though women produced lower SEE and TE values for both devices. Conclusion The 4000B and SFB7 are valid BIS devices when compared to D2O to estimate TBW in college-age Caucasian men and women. Furthermore, the new SFB7 device displayed greater precision in comparison to the 4000B, which may decrease the error when estimating TBW on an individual basis.

  1. Brain iron homeostasis. (United States)

    Moos, Torben


    Iron is essential for virtually all types of cells and organisms. The significance of the iron for brain function is reflected by the presence of receptors for transferrin on brain capillary endothelial cells. The transport of iron into the brain from the circulation is regulated so that the extraction of iron by brain capillary endothelial cells is low in iron-replete conditions and the reverse when the iron need of the brain is high as in conditions with iron deficiency and during development of the brain. Whereas there is good agreement that iron is taken up by means of receptor-mediated uptake of iron-transferrin at the brain barriers, there are contradictory views on how iron is transported further on from the brain barriers and into the brain extracellular space. The prevailing hypothesis for transport of iron across the BBB suggests a mechanism that involves detachment of iron from transferrin within barrier cells followed by recycling of apo-transferrin to blood plasma and release of iron as non-transferrin-bound iron into the brain interstitium from where the iron is taken up by neurons and glial cells. Another hypothesis claims that iron-transferrin is transported into the brain by means of transcytosis through the BBB. This thesis deals with the topic "brain iron homeostasis" defined as the attempts to maintain constant concentrations of iron in the brain internal environment via regulation of iron transport through brain barriers, cellular iron uptake by neurons and glia, and export of iron from brain to blood. The first part deals with transport of iron-transferrin complexes from blood to brain either by transport across the brain barriers or by uptake and retrograde axonal transport in motor neurons projecting beyond the blood-brain barrier. The transport of iron and transport into the brain was examined using radiolabeled iron-transferrin. Intravenous injection of [59Fe-125]transferrin led to an almost two-fold higher accumulation of 59Fe than of

  2. Operator decision support system for integrated wastewater management including wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies. (United States)

    Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Yejin; Kim, Hyosoo; Piao, Wenhua; Kim, Changwon


    An operator decision support system (ODSS) is proposed to support operators of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in making appropriate decisions. This system accounts for water quality (WQ) variations in WWTP influent and effluent and in the receiving water body (RWB). The proposed system is comprised of two diagnosis modules, three prediction modules, and a scenario-based supporting module (SSM). In the diagnosis modules, the WQs of the influent and effluent WWTP and of the RWB are assessed via multivariate analysis. Three prediction modules based on the k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) method, activated sludge model no. 2d (ASM2d) model, and QUAL2E model are used to forecast WQs for 3 days in advance. To compare various operating alternatives, SSM is applied to test various predetermined operating conditions in terms of overall oxygen transfer coefficient (Kla), waste sludge flow rate (Qw), return sludge flow rate (Qr), and internal recycle flow rate (Qir). In the case of unacceptable total phosphorus (TP), SSM provides appropriate information for the chemical treatment. The constructed ODSS was tested using data collected from Geumho River, which was the RWB, and S WWTP in Daegu City, South Korea. The results demonstrate the capability of the proposed ODSS to provide WWTP operators with more objective qualitative and quantitative assessments of WWTP and RWB WQs. Moreover, the current study shows that ODSS, using data collected from the study area, can be used to identify operational alternatives through SSM at an integrated urban wastewater management level.

  3. Prevalence and distribution of different diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli virulotypes in major water bodies in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Akter, S; Islam, M; Afreen, K S; Azmuda, N; Khan, S I; Birkeland, N K


    Escherichia coli, a prominent waterborne pathogen, causes a variety of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal infections that depend on virulence determinants. To monitor natural aquatic systems for virulence-associated genes of E. coli, multiplex PCR was used in a survey covering 46 major natural water bodies in Bangladesh. DNA was extracted directly from water samples as well as from pre-enriched and enriched cultures during three successive seasons and assessed for E. coli virulotype distribution. From the five virulotypes, genes from the enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), and enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) virulotypes were detected consistently, but genes from the enteroinvasive (EIEC) and enteroaggregative (EAEC) virulotypes were traced only occasionally. ETEC was the most prevalent virulotype, followed by EPEC. However, EIEC and EAEC virulotypes could not be detected in winter or the rainy season, respectively. Specific regional distribution patterns of different E. coli virulotypes and their temporal fluctuations were identified. These observations may assist with assessing seasonal risk and identifying vulnerable areas of the country prone to E. coli-associated outbreaks.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The work is part of a wider range of interdisciplinary studies undertaken in Măgura catchment, a right-side tributary of Bahlui River. The Măgura River flows from the massif Great Hill-Hârlău. Before the year 2000 there were 11 lakes, and today are only 4. The purpose of this project is to determine the accuracy of the simple techniques in digital image processing for mapping and monitoring lakes and wetlands. Landsat 7 ETM + and Landsat 8 OLI TIRS data sets are used. The paper highlights the bands’ thematic classification accuracy using minimum technical and digital (software resources. The water bodies’ delineated boundaries of each digital classification procedure were compared with the limits obtained by digitizing the topographical plans (1973 and aerial images (2008. The comparisons show that the Landsat data can be used to map accurately the water bodies. It is a simple method of determining the silting degree, especially for lakes with an area of at least 1 ha. Măgura basin has a high archaeological potential (prehistory up to the modern period, part of the national and international cultural heritage. Creating a GIS database, in order to analyze the human-environment relationship, began by studying the hydrological variables. This factor has an important role in the society’s development, both prehistoric and current.

  5. Effect of increased intake of skimmed milk, casein, whey or water on body composition and leptin in overweight adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larnkjær, Anni; Arnberg, Karina; Michaelsen, Kim F.


    and leptin in overweight adolescents. METHODS: Subjects (n = 193) aged 12-15 years were randomized to drink 1 L d(-1) of skimmed milk, whey, casein (all milk-based drinks 35 g protein L(-1) ) or water for 12 weeks. Twenty participants dropped out. A pre-test control group of 32 adolescents was examined 12......BACKGROUNDS: Dairy proteins may support muscle protein synthesis and improve satiety in adults. However, there are limited studies using exact measures of body composition, especially in adolescents. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the effect of milk proteins and water on body composition...... weeks before start of intervention. Outcomes included leptin and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. The effects of the milk-based drinks on body composition and leptin were compared with baseline, pre-test control and water. RESULTS: Lean mass index (LMI) increased compared to baseline (all 95...

  6. Calcium Homeostasis in ageing neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassiliki eNikoletopoulou


    Full Text Available The nervous system becomes increasingly vulnerable to insults and prone to dysfunction during ageing. Age-related decline of neuronal function is manifested by the late onset of many neurodegenerative disorders, as well as by reduced signalling and processing capacity of individual neuron populations. Recent findings indicate that impairment of Ca2+ homeostasis underlies the increased susceptibility of neurons to damage, associated with the ageing process. However, the impact of ageing on Ca2+ homeostasis in neurons remains largely unknown. Here, we survey the molecular mechanisms that mediate neuronal Ca2+ homeostasis and discuss the impact of ageing on their efficacy. To address the question of how ageing impinges on Ca2+ homeostasis, we consider potential nodes through which mechanisms regulating Ca2+ levels interface with molecular pathways known to influence the process of ageing and senescent decline. Delineation of this crosstalk would facilitate the development of interventions aiming to fortify neurons against age-associated functional deterioration and death by augmenting Ca2+ homeostasis.

  7. Homeostasis and religious behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjødt, Uffe


    of human behaviour. During the last two decades, cognitivist theories have made their entrance into humanistic studies, including the study of religion. Thus, in discarding one of the basic premises of the cognitive paradigm, as I argue in this article, could lead to a radical rethinking of the science...... of religion. I will argue that the body and its sensory-motor modalities are not only the mind's representational base, but also encompass the intentionality behind human behaviour in general and religious behaviour in particular. I will call this intentionality homeostatic intentionality, as it has to do...... with the self-regulation and optimization of the organism. Ignoring physiological activities, including homeostatic ones, in the mind's complex cognitive processes is unfortunately a characteristic of classic cognitivist theories, and this negligence, it seems to me, rules out a satisfying and realistic account...

  8. Differential expression of inwardly rectifying K+ channels and aquaporins 4 and 5 in autoimmune uveitis indicates misbalance in Müller glial cell-dependent ion and water homeostasis. (United States)

    Eberhardt, Christina; Amann, Barbara; Feuchtinger, Annette; Hauck, Stefanie M; Deeg, Cornelia A


    Reactive gliosis is a well-established response to virtually every retinal disease. Autoimmune uveitis, a sight threatening disease, is characterized by recurrent relapses through autoaggressive T-cells. The purpose of this study was to assess retinal Müller glial cell function in equine recurrent uveitis (ERU), a spontaneous disease model resembling the human disease, by investigating membrane proteins implicated in ion and water homeostasis. We found that Kir2.1 was highly expressed in diseased retinas, whereas Kir4.1 was downregulated in comparison to controls. Distribution of Kir2.1 appeared Müller cell associated in controls, whereas staining of cell somata in the inner nuclear layer was observed in uveitis. In contrast to other subunits, Kir4.1 was evenly expressed along equine Müller cells, whereas in ERU, Kir4.1 almost disappeared from Müller cells. Hence, we suggest a different mechanism for potassium buffering in the avascular equine retina and, moreover, an impairment in uveitis. Uveitic retinas showed significantly increased expression of AQP4 as well as a displaced expression from Müller cells in healthy specimens to an intense circular expression pattern in the outer nuclear layer in ERU cases. Most interestingly, we detected the aquaporin family member protein AQP5 to be expressed in Müller cells with strong enrichments in Müller cell secondary processes. This finding indicates that fluid regulation within the equine retina may be achieved by an additional aquaporin. Furthermore, AQP5 was significantly decreased in uveitis. We conclude that the Müller cell response in autoimmune uveitis implies considerable changes in its potassium and water physiology.

  9. Body water distribution and risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in a healthy population: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoline Nygård Knudsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early alterations in the cardiovascular structure and function may change normal body water distribution. The resulting fluid shifts may thus serve as an early marker for cardiovascular disease. However, studies examining this in healthy populations are absent. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the association between the proportion of total body water that is extracellular water and subsequent development of non-fatal or fatal cardiovascular disease in a healthy population. METHOD: Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy is an easy-to-use, non-invasive and relatively inexpensive technique to evaluate changes in body water distribution. A random subset (n = 2120 of Danes aged 41-71 years, examined in 1993-1994 for body water distribution by bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy was included. Cox-proportional hazard models and linear splines were performed. The ratio between resistance estimates from an infinite-frequency and from no-frequency (R∞/R0 was used as a surrogate measure of ratio between extracellular water and total body water. The outcome was 13.5 years of follow-up for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: A high proportion of total body water that is extracellular water was associated with increased risk of incident cardiovascular disease. A threshold effect was evident, with greatly increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality above R∞/R0 = 0.68. Below the threshold there seemed to be no additional benefit of having a low ratio. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that non-clinically evident oedema, measured as an increased proportion of total body water that is extracellular, above a threshold of 0.68, may be an early marker of pre-clinical cardiovascular disease. This simple, safe, cheap and easily obtainable measure of R∞/R0 from bioelectrical impedance may help the early identification of these otherwise clinically healthy individuals who are at an increased risk of future cardiovascular disease

  10. Kinetics of uranium uptake in soft water and the effect of body size, bioaccumulation and toxicity to Hyalella azteca. (United States)

    Alves, L C; Borgmann, U; Dixon, D G


    The kinetics of uptake and the effect of body size on uranium (U) bioaccumulation and toxicity to Hyalella azteca exposed to water-only U concentrations in soft water were evaluated. The effect of body size on U bioaccumulation was significant with a slope of -0.35 between log body concentration and log body mass. A saturation kinetic model was satisfactory to describe the uptake rate, elimination rate and the effect of gut-clearance on size-corrected U bioaccumulation in H. azteca. The one-week lethal water concentrations causing 50% mortality for juvenile and adult H. azteca were 1100 and 4000 nmol U/L, respectively. The one-week lethal body concentration causing 50% mortality was 140 nmol U/g for juvenile H. azteca and 220 nmol U/g for adult H. azteca. One-week bioaccumulation studies that properly account for body-size and gut-clearance times can provide valuable data on U bioavailability and toxicity in the environment.

  11. Applicability and limits of simple hydrodynamic scaling for collisions of water-rich bodies in different mass regimes (United States)

    Burger, C.; Schäfer, C. M.


    We investigate the outcome of collisions in very different mass regimes, but an otherwise identical parameter setup, comprising the impact velocity (v/vesc), impact angle, mass ratio, and initial composition, w.r.t. simple hydrodynamic scaling. The colliding bodies' masses range from ≈ 10^{16} to 10^{24} kg, which includes km-sized planetesimals up to planetary-sized objects. Our analysis of the results comprises the time evolution of fragment masses, the fragments' water contents and fragment dynamics, where we start with bodies consisting of basalt and water ice. The usual assumption of hydrodynamic scaling over a wider range of masses is based on material behavior similar to a fluid, or a rubble pile, respectively. All our simulations are carried out once including full solid-body physics, and once for strengthless ? but otherwise identical ? bodies, to test for the influence of material strength. We find that scale-invariance over a wider range of masses is mostly only a very crude approximation at best, but can be applied to constrained mass ranges if tested carefully. For the chosen scenarios the outcomes of solid-body objects compared to strengthless fluid bodies differ most for our intermediate masses, but are similar for the lowest and highest masses. The most energetic, planet-sized collisions produce considerably faster and more fragments, which is also reflected in high water losses ? above 50% in a single collision.

  12. The Importance of Three-Body Interactions in Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Water with the Fragment Molecular Orbital Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruitt, Spencer R.; Nakata, Hiroya; Nagata, Takeshi; Mayes, Maricris; Alexeev, Yuri; Fletcher, Graham D.; Fedorov, Dmitri G; Kitaura, Kazuo; Gordon, M


    The analytic first derivative with respect to nuclear coordinates is formulated and implemented in the framework of the three-body fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method. The gradient has been derived and implemented for restricted Hartree-Fock, second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation, and density functional theories. The importance of the three-body fully analytic gradient is illustrated through the failure of the two-body FMO method during molecular dynamics simulations of a small water cluster. The parallel implementation of the fragment molecular orbital method, its parallel efficiency, and its scalability on the Blue Gene/Q architecture up to 262,144 CPU cores, are also discussed.

  13. Numerical Modeling of Thermal Pollution of Large Water Bodies from Thermal and Nuclear Power Plants (United States)

    Lyubimova, Tatyana; Lepikhin, Anatoly; Lyakhin, Yury; Parshakova, Yanina; Tiunov, Alexey


    Currently, the major manufacturers of electrical energy are the thermal and nuclear power plants including the cooling ponds in the processing chains. For a wide range of both environmental and technological problems, the evaluation of the temperature fields in the cooling ponds at certain critical values of hydrological and meteorological parameters is important. The present paper deals with the evaluation of the thermal effect of one of the largest thermal power plant in Europe - Perm GRES - to its cooling pond which is the Kama Reservoir. Since the area of the possible impact is rather large and the reservoir itself is characterized by a very complex morphometry, numerical modeling of thermal spot propagation in the Kama River due to the discharge of warm water by Perm GRES for the entire area in the 3D-formulation with the desired detail setting morphometric characteristics of the water body meets very serious difficulties. Because of that, to solve the problem, a combined scheme of calculations based on the combination of hydrodynamic models in 2D and 3D formulations was used. At the first stage of the combined scheme implementation, 2D hydrodynamical model was developed for all possible area, using software SMS v.11.1. The boundary and initial conditions for this model were formulated on the basis of calculations made using 1D hydrodynamical model developed and applied for the entire Kama Reservoir. Application of 2D hydrodynamical model for solving the problem under consideration was needed to obtain the necessary information for setting the boundary conditions for the 3D model. Software package ANSYS Fluent v.6.3 was used for the realization of 3D model. 3D modeling was performed for different wind speeds and directions and quantitative characteristics of the discharge of warm water. To verify the models, the data of the detailed field measurements in the zones of thermal pollution of the Kama reservoir due to impact of the Perm GRES were used. A

  14. The risk of river pollution due to washout from contaminated floodplain water bodies during periods of high magnitude floods (United States)

    Lyubimova, T.; Lepikhin, A.; Parshakova, Ya.; Tiunov, A.


    The risk of river pollution due to washout (removal of pollutants) from contaminated floodplain water bodies (floodplain lakes and quarries whose origin is related to the large-scale mining of nonmetallic building materials in the floodplain zone) during high magnitude flood periods is analyzed using a combination of one-, two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling and in situ measurements. The modeling performed for the floodplain water bodies contaminated by N compounds shows that during large magnitude floods washout occurs. The washout process consists of two stages: an initial rapid stage lasting about two hours during which the upper (3-4 m thick) layer is washed out, followed by a second stage when the concentration of NH4-N in the floodplain water body remains nearly constant. The maximum contaminant concentration in the river in the vicinity of a water intake for drinking water located 21 km downstream is attained about 9 h from the beginning of the flood; concentration of NH4-N can reach values several times larger than acceptable concentration guidelines. The initial primary peak in contaminant concentration at the water intake is followed by a slight decrease in contaminant concentration; a second peak related to the contaminant transport through the inundated floodplain subsequently occurs, after which the concentration slowly decreases, reaching acceptable values after 30-40 h. Contaminated floodplain water bodies located near drinking water supply systems are not significant sources of contamination during small and moderate floods, but during high magnitude floods, they can become sources of water pollution. Operational measures that can decrease potential health risks are discussed.

  15. Homeostasis of T Cell Diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VinayS.Mahajan; IlyaB.Leskov; JianzhuChen


    T cell homeostasis commonly refers to the maintenance of relatively stable T cell numbers in the peripheral lymphoid organs. Among the large numbers of T cells in the periphery, T cells exhibit structural diversity, i.e., the expression of a diverse repertoire of T cell receptors (TCRs), and functional diversity, i.e., the presence of T cells at naive, effector, and memory developmental stages. Although the homeostasis of T cell numbers has been extensively studied, investigation of the mechanisms underlying the maintenance of structural and functional diversity of T cells is still at an early stage. The fundamental feature throughout T cell development is the interaction between the TCR and either self or foreign peptides in association with MHC molecules. In this review, we present evidence showing that homeostasis of T cell number and diversity is mediated through competition for limiting resources. The number of T cells is maintained through competition for limiting cytokines, whereas the diversity of T cells is maintained by competition for self-peptide-MHC complexes. In other words, diversity of the self-peptide repertoire limits the structural (TCR) diversity of a T cell population. We speculate that cognate low affinity self-peptides, acting as weak agonists and antagonists, regulate the homeostasis of T cell diversity whereas non-cognate or null peptides which are extremely abundant for any given TCR, may contribute to the homeostasis of T cell number by providing survival signals. Moreover, self-peptides and cytokines may form specialized niches for the regulation of T cell homeostasis. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2005;2(1): 1-10.

  16. Homeostasis of T Cell Diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vinay S. Mahajan; Ilya B. Leskov; Jianzhu Chen


    T cell homeostasis commonly refers to the maintenance of relatively stable T cell numbers in the peripheral lymphoid organs. Among the large numbers of T cells in the periphery, T cells exhibit structural diversity, I.e., the expression of a diverse repertoire of T cell receptors (TCRs), and functional diversity, I.e., the presence of T cells at na(I)ve, effector, and memory developmental stages. Although the homeostasis of T cell numbers has been extensively studied, investigation of the mechanisms underlying the maintenance of structural and functional diversity of T cells is still at an early stage. The fundamental feature throughout T cell development is the interaction between the TCR and either self or foreign peptides in association with MHC molecules. In this review, we present evidence showing that homeostasis of T cell number and diversity is mediated through competition for limiting resources.The number of T cells is maintained through competition for limiting cytokines, whereas the diversity of T cells is maintained by competition for self-peptide-MHC complexes. In other words, diversity of the self-peptide repertoire limits the structural (TCR) diversity of a T cell population. We speculate that cognate low affinity self-peptides,acting as weak agonists and antagonists, regulate the homeostasis of T cell diversity whereas non-cognate or null peptides which are extremely abundant for any given TCR, may contribute to the homeostasis of T cell number by providing survival signals. Moreover, self-peptides and cytokines may form specialized niches for the regulation of T cell homeostasis.

  17. Renal aquaporins and water balance disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortenoeven, Marleen; Fenton, Robert A.


    associated with disturbed water homeostasis. Hyponatremia with increased AQP levels can be caused by diseases with low effective circulating blood volume, such as congestive heart failure, or osmoregulation disorders such as the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. Treatment consists......BACKGROUND: Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of proteins that can act as water channels. Regulation of AQPs is critical to osmoregulation and the maintenance of body water homeostasis. Eight AQPs are expressed in the kidney of which five have been shown to play a role in body water balance; AQP1, AQP......2, AQP3, AQP4 and AQP7. AQP2 in particular is regulated by vasopressin. SCOPE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes our current knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of various water balance disorders and their treatment strategies. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: Dysfunctions of AQPs are involved in disorders...

  18. Water quality monitoring in a slightly-polluted inland water body through remote sensing - Case study of the Guanting Reservoir in Beijing,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This study focused on the water quality of the Guanting Reservoir,a possible auxiliary drinking water source for Beijing.Through a remote sensing (RS)approach and using Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM)data,water quality retrieval models were established and analyzed for eight common water quality variables,including algae content,turbidity,and concentrations of chemical oxygen demand,total nitrogen,ammonia nitrogen,nitrate nitrogen,total phosphorus,and dissolved phosphorus.The results show that there exists a statistically significant correlation between each water quality variable and remote sensing data in a slightly-polluted inland water body with fairly weak spectral radiation.With an appropriate method of sampling pixel digital numbers and multiple regression algorithms,retrieval of the algae content,turbidity,and nitrate nitrogen concentration was achieved within 10% mean relative error,concentrations of total nitrogen and dissolved phosphorus within 20%,and concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and total phosphorus within 30%.On the other hand,no effective retrieval method for chemical oxygen demand was found.These accuracies were acceptable for the practical application of routine monitoring and early warning on water quality safety with the support of precise traditional monitoring.The results show that performing the most traditional routine monitoring of water quality by RS in relatively clean inland water bodies is possible and effective.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Thermal conductance of carcasses of 14 aquatic bird species was determined by the warming constant technique. The effect on thermal conductance of body mass, age sex, fat deposits, and the degree of contact with water were studied. Only body mass and the degree of submergence in water had an effect.

  20. The Regulation of Iron Absorption and Homeostasis (United States)

    Wallace, Daniel F


    Iron is an essential element in biology, required for numerous cellular processes. Either too much or too little iron can be detrimental, and organisms have developed mechanisms for balancing iron within safe limits. In mammals there are no controlled mechanisms for the excretion of excess iron, hence body iron homeostasis is regulated at the sites of absorption, utilisation and recycling. This review will discuss the discoveries that have been made in the past 20 years into advancing our understanding of iron homeostasis and its regulation. The study of iron-associated disorders, such as the iron overload condition hereditary haemochromatosis and various forms of anaemia have been instrumental in increasing our knowledge in this area, as have cellular and animal model studies. The liver has emerged as the major site of systemic iron regulation, being the location where the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin is produced. Hepcidin is a negative regulator of iron absorption and recycling, achieving this by binding to the only known cellular iron exporter ferroportin and causing its internalisation and degradation, thereby reducing iron efflux from target cells and reducing serum iron levels. Much of the research in the iron metabolism field has focussed on the regulation of hepcidin and its interaction with ferroportin. The advances in this area have greatly increased our knowledge of iron metabolism and its regulation and have led to the development of novel diagnostics and therapeutics for iron-associated disorders.

  1. Maternal dietary restriction alters offspring's sleep homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Shimizu

    Full Text Available Nutritional state in the gestation period influences fetal growth and development. We hypothesized that undernutrition during gestation would affect offspring sleep architecture and/or homeostasis. Pregnant female mice were assigned to either control (fed ad libitum; AD or 50% dietary restriction (DR groups from gestation day 12 to parturition. After parturition, dams were fed AD chow. After weaning, the pups were also fed AD into adulthood. At adulthood (aged 8-9 weeks, we carried out sleep recordings. Although offspring mice displayed a significantly reduced body weight at birth, their weights recovered three days after birth. Enhancement of electroencephalogram (EEG slow wave activity (SWA during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep was observed in the DR mice over a 24-hour period without changing the diurnal pattern or amounts of wake, NREM, or rapid eye movement (REM sleep. In addition, DR mice also displayed an enhancement of EEG-SWA rebound after a 6-hour sleep deprivation and a higher threshold for waking in the face of external stimuli. DR adult offspring mice exhibited small but significant increases in the expression of hypothalamic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (Pparα and brain-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (Cpt1c mRNA, two genes involved in lipid metabolism. Undernutrition during pregnancy may influence sleep homeostasis, with offspring exhibiting greater sleep pressure.

  2. Effect of dissolved organic matter on mercury release from water body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yutao Zhang; Xi Chen; Yongkui Yang; Dingyong Wang; Xiao Liu


    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in the process of mercury release from water body. In this study, the influence of DOM from different sources (DOMR, DOMs and DOMH, extracted from rice straw, compost and humic soil respectively)on mercury reduction was investigated. The molecular weight distribution and chemical composition of DOM from each source were determined using ultrafiltration membrane technique and elemental analysis respectively. The result showed that mercury release from DOM-added samples was much lower than the control; the lowest mercury release flux was observed in the treatment of DOMH,25.02% of the control, followed by DOMs and DOMR, 62.46% and 64.95% of the control, respectively. The higher saturation degree and lower molecular weight of DOMH was responsible for the highest inhibition degree on the mercury release. The link between DOMH, concentration and mercury flux was also estimated and the result showed that mercury flux was increased with DOMH at lower concentration, while decreased with DOMH at higher concentration. Different mechanism dominated the influence of DOM on mercury release with variation of DOM concentration.

  3. Enslavement in the water body by toxic Aphanizomenon ovalisporum, inducing alkaline phosphatase in phytoplanktons. (United States)

    Bar-Yosef, Yehonathan; Sukenik, Assaf; Hadas, Ora; Viner-Mozzini, Yehudit; Kaplan, Aaron


    The hepatotoxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) produced by certain cyanobacteria, including Aphanizomenon ovalisporum (hereafter Aphanizomenon) [1], seriously affects lake water quality [2], but its biological role is not known. Strong correlation between Aphanizomenon abundance in Lake Kinneret, Israel, and alkaline phosphatase (APase) activity suggests that inorganic phosphate (Pi) limitation induces the PHO regulon and APase secretion [3]. Staining lake samples with DAPI [4] revealed a high level of polyphosphate bodies (PPB) in Aphanizomenon. Application of enzyme-labeled fluorescence (ELF-APase) [5] showed APase in various organisms, but not in Aphanizomenon. ELF-APase signals and extracellular APase activity in Aphanizomenon were detected only after exploiting PPB under prolonged Pi deprivation in cultures or toward the end of its autumn bloom. Pi deprivation of Aphanizomenon induces CYN production, high-affinity Pi uptake, and an internal, not external, APase. Addition of Aphanizomenon spent media or CYN to various phytoplanktons, including Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, induced genes typically upregulated under Pi limitation and a rise in extracellular APase activity, despite ample surrounding Pi. Coculturing Aphanizomenon with Chlamydomonas or with Debarya sp. showed positive ELF-APase signals, but not in Aphanizomenon. CYN producers promote Pi supply by inducing APase secretion by other phytoplanktons, possibly explaining their increased abundance despite reduced Pi supply from watersheds.

  4. Heavy metals toxicity and bioaccumulation patterns in the body organs of four fresh water fish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safina Kousar and Muhammad Javed


    Full Text Available Various environmental pollutants, including metals can cause toxicological effects on aquatic animals especially fish species. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine acute toxicity and bioaccumulation patterns of arsenic (As, nickel (Ni and zinc (Zn in 150-day old fish species (Labeo rohita, Cirrhina mrigala, Catla catla and Ctenopharyngodon idella, separately, in glass aquaria under constant water temperature (30oC, total hardness (300 mg L-1 and pH (7.5. Catla catla showed significantly (PNi>As. Among exposed fish species, Cirrhina mrigala exhibited significantly higher ability to amass Ni (146.8±149.1 μg g-1 and Zn (243.0±190.5 μg g-1, followed by Ctenopharyngodon idella, Labeo rohita and Catla catla at 96-h LC50. Liver showed higher tendency to accumulate Ni, followed by gills and kidney with significant differences while kidney showed higher tendency to accumulate As, followed by liver. Fins and scales exhibited significantly (P<0.05 least tendency to accumulate all the three metals. Accumulation of metals in different fish species is the function of their membrane permeability, which is highly species specific. Due to this reason different fish species showed different amount of metal accumulated in their bodies. This study also reveals that the metals, being conservative in nature have higher ability of biomagnifications.

  5. Determination of total body water by a simple and rapid mass spectrometric method. (United States)

    Van Kreel, B K; Van der Vegt, F; Meers, M; Wagenmakers, T; Westerterp, K; Coward, A


    A rapid and inexpensive method was developed to determine deuterium enrichment in body fluids. This is achieved by converting water into acetylene. To vacutainer tubes a small amount of calcium carbide is added. The tubes are evacuated and 25 microliters of sample are injected through the stopper. The reaction takes place spontaneously at room temperature in a few seconds. Enrichment at mass 27 compared with mass 26 can be determined by continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry without any interference from the carrier gas helium. A series of D2O samples diluted with increasing amounts of H2O is prepared at the time of measurement of the biological samples and the measured ratios are used to calculate the isotope dilution of the unknown. The relative error of the method is 1.6% when a dose of 25 ml kg-1 is administered to the patient. The method was compared with two different methods in use in other laboratories, by a published method The means of the differences were -0.1 and 0.08 1, respectively, with standard deviations of 0.63 and 3.0.

  6. Water aerobics II: maternal body composition and perinatal outcomes after a program for low risk pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Ana L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of water aerobics during pregnancy. Methods A randomized controlled trial carried out in 71 low-risk sedentary pregnant women, randomly allocated to water aerobics or no physical exercise. Maternal body composition and perinatal outcomes were evaluated. For statistical analysis Chi-square, Fisher's or Student's t-tests were applied. Risk ratios and their 95% CI were estimated for main outcomes. Body composition was evaluated across time using MANOVA or Friedman multiple analysis. Results There were no significant differences between the groups regarding maternal weight gain, BMI or percentage of body fat during pregnancy. Incidence of preterm births (RR = 0.84; 95%CI:0.28–2.53, vaginal births (RR = 1.24; 95%CI:0.73–2.09, low birthweight (RR = 1.30; 95%CI:0.61–2.79 and adequate weight for gestational age (RR = 1.50; 95%CI:0.65–3.48 were also not significantly different between groups. There were no significant differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate between before and immediately after the water aerobics session. Conclusion Water aerobics for sedentary pregnant women proved to be safe and was not associated with any alteration in maternal body composition, type of delivery, preterm birth rate, neonatal well-being or weight.

  7. [Body size, ecological tolerance and potential for water quality bioindication in the genus Anacroneuria (Plecoptera: Perlidae) from South America]. (United States)

    Tomanova, Sylvie; Tedesco, Pablo A


    Knowledge about the biology and ecology of neotropical aquatic taxa is crucial to establish general ecological rules and water protection systems. Based mainly on published data, the present work shows the following biological and ecological characteristics of Anacroneuria species (Klapálek 1909): (a) the wide range of environmental conditions of rivers where Anacroneuria species occur, (b) species number decreases along an increasing elevation gradient, (c) body size increases in relation to the maximum altitude of occurrence, (d) altitudinal range increases with body size, (e) there is a constant relationship between male and female body size, and finally, (f) larger females lay larger eggs. In temperate countries, the family Perlidae in general, and the genus Anacroneuria in particular, are viewed as excellent water quality indicators. We suggest that, considering the complexity of the group's ecology in South America, it should not be automatically considered an excellent bioindicator in the Neotropical region.

  8. Substituting sugar-sweetened beverages with water or milk is inversely associated with body fatness development from childhood to adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Rangan, Anna; Olsen, Nanna Julie


    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association between different types of beverage intake and substitution of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) by water, milk, or 100% fruit juice in relation to 6-y change in body fatness. METHODS: A cohort of 9-y-old children (N = 358) who...... with changes in BMIz (β = -0.05; P = 0.02), WC (β = -0.33; P = 0.046), and Σ4SF (β = -0.79; P = 0.06). No effect was observed for substitution of SSB by 100% fruit juice. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that SSB intake is associated with long-term changes in body fatness in children, and replacing SSBs...... with water or milk, but not 100% fruit juice, is inversely associated with body fatness development....

  9. Revisiting a many-body model for water based on a single polarizable site: from gas phase clusters to liquid and air/liquid water systems. (United States)

    Réal, Florent; Vallet, Valérie; Flament, Jean-Pierre; Masella, Michel


    We present a revised version of the water many-body model TCPE [M. Masella and J.-P. Flament, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 9105 (1997)], which is based on a static three charge sites and a single polarizable site to model the molecular electrostatic properties of water, and on an anisotropic short range many-body energy term specially designed to accurately model hydrogen bonding in water. The parameters of the revised model, denoted TCPE/2013, are here developed to reproduce the ab initio energetic and geometrical properties of small water clusters (up to hexamers) and the repulsive water interactions occurring in cation first hydration shells. The model parameters have also been refined to reproduce two liquid water properties at ambient conditions, the density and the vaporization enthalpy. Thanks to its computational efficiency, the new model range of applicability was validated by performing simulations of liquid water over a wide range of temperatures and pressures, as well as by investigating water liquid/vapor interfaces over a large range of temperatures. It is shown to reproduce several important water properties at an accurate enough level of precision, such as the existence liquid water density maxima up to a pressure of 1000 atm, the water boiling temperature, the properties of the water critical point (temperature, pressure, and density), and the existence of a "singularity" temperature at about 225 K in the supercooled regime. This model appears thus to be particularly well-suited for characterizing ion hydration properties under different temperature and pressure conditions, as well as in different phases and interfaces.

  10. Distributive Characteristics of Metallic Nano-particlcs in China's Urban Water Bodies and their Ecological Risks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yang; LUO Zhuanxi; XIA Jun


    Engineering nano-materials & their impact on human health or environmental security constitute a newly emerging R&D hot spot and a key problem now urgently waiting for its solution in supporting the sustainability of China's nano-science and related technology development. At present, water bodies in Chinese cities have been seriously polluted by metallic nano-particles (MNPs) while related monitoring data are found woefully lacking throughout the country. Based on the above understanding, this article gives a round-up explanation on distributive characteristics of MNPs in the river mouths or water bodies of Chinese cities, their ecological hazards as well as our research in this regard, providing some inspiring ideas and data for control over this scourge. In addition, our exploration probes the discharge traits of MNPs themselves and the mechanism underlying its impact on water pollution.

  11. Elucidating the Role of Many-Body Forces in Liquid Water. I. Simulations of Water Clusters on the VRT (ASP-W) Potential Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, N; Saykally, R J


    We test the new VRT(ASP-W)II and VRT(ASP-W)III potentials by employing Diffusion Quantum Monte Carlo simulations to calculate the vibrational ground-state properties of water clusters. These potentials are fits of the highly detailed ASP-W ab initio potential to (D{sub 2}O){sub 2} microwave and far-IR data, and along with the SAPT5s potentials, are the most accurate water dimer potential surfaces in the literature. The results from VRT(ASP-W)II and III are compare to those from the original ASP-W potential, the SAPT5s family of potentials, and several bulk water potentials. Only VRT(ASP-W)II and the spectroscopically ''tuned'' SAPT5st (with N-body induction included) accurately reproduce the vibrational ground-state structures of water clusters up to the hexamer. Finally, the importance of many-body induction and three-body dispension are examined, and it is shown that the latter can have significant effects on water cluster properties despite its small magnitude.

  12. Oxygen isotope fractionation between bird eggshell calcite and body water: application to fossil eggs from Lanzarote (Canary Islands). (United States)

    Lazzerini, Nicolas; Lécuyer, Christophe; Amiot, Romain; Angst, Delphine; Buffetaut, Eric; Fourel, François; Daux, Valérie; Betancort, Juan Francisco; Flandrois, Jean-Pierre; Marco, Antonio Sánchez; Lomoschitz, Alejandro


    Oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of fossil bird eggshell calcite (δ(18)Ocalc and δ(13)Ccalc) are regularly used to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions. However, the interpretation of δ(18)Ocalc values of fossil eggshells has been limited to qualitative variations in local climatic conditions as oxygen isotope fractionations between calcite, body fluids, and drinking water have not been determined yet. For this purpose, eggshell, albumen water, and drinking water of extant birds have been analyzed for their oxygen and carbon isotope compositions. Relative enrichments in (18)O relative to (16)O between body fluids and drinking water of +1.6 ± 0.9 ‰ for semi-aquatic birds and of +4.4 ± 1.9 ‰ for terrestrial birds are observed. Surprisingly, no significant dependence to body temperature on the oxygen isotope fractionation between eggshell calcite and body fluids is observed, suggesting that bird eggshells precipitate out of equilibrium. Two empirical equations relating the δ(18)Ocalc value of eggshell calcite to the δ(18)Ow value of ingested water have been established for terrestrial and semi-aquatic birds. These equations have been applied to fossil eggshells from Lanzarote in order to infer the ecologies of the Pleistocene marine bird Puffinus sp. and of the enigmatic giant birds from the Pliocene. Both δ(13)Ccalc and δ(18)Ocalc values of Puffinus eggshells point to a semi-aquatic marine bird ingesting mostly seawater, whereas low δ(13)Ccalc and high δ(18)Ocalc values of eggshells from the Pliocene giant bird suggest a terrestrial lifestyle. This set of equations can help to quantitatively estimate the origin of waters ingested by extinct birds as well as to infer either local environmental or climatic conditions.

  13. Oxygen isotope fractionation between bird eggshell calcite and body water: application to fossil eggs from Lanzarote (Canary Islands) (United States)

    Lazzerini, Nicolas; Lécuyer, Christophe; Amiot, Romain; Angst, Delphine; Buffetaut, Eric; Fourel, François; Daux, Valérie; Betancort, Juan Francisco; Flandrois, Jean-Pierre; Marco, Antonio Sánchez; Lomoschitz, Alejandro


    Oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of fossil bird eggshell calcite (δ18Ocalc and δ13Ccalc) are regularly used to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions. However, the interpretation of δ18Ocalc values of fossil eggshells has been limited to qualitative variations in local climatic conditions as oxygen isotope fractionations between calcite, body fluids, and drinking water have not been determined yet. For this purpose, eggshell, albumen water, and drinking water of extant birds have been analyzed for their oxygen and carbon isotope compositions. Relative enrichments in 18O relative to 16O between body fluids and drinking water of +1.6 ± 0.9 ‰ for semi-aquatic birds and of +4.4 ± 1.9 ‰ for terrestrial birds are observed. Surprisingly, no significant dependence to body temperature on the oxygen isotope fractionation between eggshell calcite and body fluids is observed, suggesting that bird eggshells precipitate out of equilibrium. Two empirical equations relating the δ18Ocalc value of eggshell calcite to the δ18Ow value of ingested water have been established for terrestrial and semi-aquatic birds. These equations have been applied to fossil eggshells from Lanzarote in order to infer the ecologies of the Pleistocene marine bird Puffinus sp. and of the enigmatic giant birds from the Pliocene. Both δ13Ccalc and δ18Ocalc values of Puffinus eggshells point to a semi-aquatic marine bird ingesting mostly seawater, whereas low δ13Ccalc and high δ18Ocalc values of eggshells from the Pliocene giant bird suggest a terrestrial lifestyle. This set of equations can help to quantitatively estimate the origin of waters ingested by extinct birds as well as to infer either local environmental or climatic conditions.

  14. Wind-driven Water Bodies : a new paradigm for lake geology (United States)

    Nutz, A.; Schuster, M.; Ghienne, J. F.; Roquin, C.; Bouchette, F. A.


    In this contribution we emphasize the importance in some lakes of wind-related hydrodynamic processes (fair weather waves, storm waves, and longshore, cross-shore and bottom currents) as a first order forcing for clastics remobilization and basin infill. This alternative view contrasts with more classical depositional models for lakes where fluvial-driven sedimentation and settling dominates. Here we consider three large lakes/paleo-lakes that are located in different climatic and geodynamic settings: Megalake Chad (north-central Africa), Lake Saint-Jean (Québec, Canada), and Lake Turkana (Kenya, East African Rift System). All of these three lake systems exhibit well developed modern and ancient high-energy littoral morphosedimentary structures which directly derive from wind-related hydrodynamics. The extensive paleo-shorelines of Megalake Chad are composed of beach-foredune ridges, spits, wave-dominated deltas, barriers, and wave-ravinment surface. For Lake Saint-Jean the influence of wind is also identified below the wave-base at lake bottom from erosional surfaces, and sediment drifts. In the Lake Turkana Basin, littoral landforms and deposits are identified for three different time intervals (today, Holocene, Plio-Pleistocene) evidencing that wind-driven hydrodynamics can be preserved in the geological record. Moreover, a preliminary global survey suggests that numerous modern lakes (remote sensing) and paleo-lakes (bibliographic review) behave as such. We thus coin the term "Wind-driven Water Bodies" (WWB) to refer to those lake systems where sedimentation (erosion, transport, deposition) is dominated by wind-induced hydrodynamics at any depth, as it is the case in the marine realm for shallow seas. Integrating wind forcing in lake models has strong implications for basin analysis (paleoenvironments and paleoclimates restitutions, resources exploration), but also for coastal engineering, wildlife and reservoirs management, or leisure activities.

  15. Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate tolerance in bacteria isolated from sediment of tropical water bodies polluted with detergents. (United States)

    Eniola, Kehinde I T; Olayemi, Albert B


    The discharge of untreated detergent-bearing waste introduces linear alklcylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) to the aquatic environment. The surfactant persists in some streams and rivers in Nigeria, some is adsorbed to suspended materials and end in the sediment of the receiving water bodies. In this study, bacteria isolated from sediments of some tropical detergent-effluent-polluted streams were tested for tolerance to LAS using the media dilution technique. LAS-tolerance was indicated by growth of the bacteria in the presence of the surfactant. The pH, concentrations of surfactant, population of heterotrophic bacteria and population of LAS-tolerant bacteria in the sediments were determined. A direct relationship (r = 0.9124) was found between the alkaline conditions (pH= 8.2-12.0) and high surfactant concentrations (45-132 mg/g) in the sediment. The sediments harboured a high population and a wide variety of bacteria; the populations of viable heterotrophic bacteria (VHB: 2.9 x 10(5) to 1.2 x 10(7) cfu/g) and LAS tolerant bacteria (LTB: 1.5 x 10(4) to 1.2 x 10(6) cfu/g) had a direct relationship (r = 0.9500). An inverse relationship resulted between each of them and the concentration of surfactant in the sediment, r(VHB/LAS) = -0.9303 and r(LTB/LAS) = -0.9143, respectively. Twelve bacteria species were isolated from the sediment: Alcaligenes odorans, Bacillus subtilis, Burkholderia cepacia, Citrobacter freundii, Citrobacter diversus, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus albus, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcusfaecalis. Most of them were adapted to the surfactant with their maximum acceptable concentrations ranging between 0.03 and >1.0% (w/v). The sediments could serve as source of adapted organisms which can be used in bio-treatment of LAS-bearing waste.

  16. Disorders of Erythrocyte Volume Homeostasis


    Glogowska, Edyta; Gallagher, Patrick G.


    Inherited disorders of erythrocyte volume homeostasis are a heterogeneous group of rare disorders with phenotypes ranging from dehydrated to overhydrated erythrocytes. Clinical, laboratory, physiologic, and genetic heterogeneity characterize this group of disorders. A series of recent reports have provided novel insights into our understanding of the genetic bases underlying some of these disorders of red cell volume regulation. This report reviews this progress in understanding determinants ...

  17. The 3-Attractor Water Model: Monte-Carlo Simulations with a New, Effective 2-Body Potential (BMW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Muguet


    Full Text Available According to the precepts of the 3-attractor (3-A water model, effective 2-body water potentials should feature as local minima the bifurcated and inverted water dimers in addition to the well-known linear water dimer global minimum. In order to test the 3-A model, a new pair wise effective intermolecular rigid water potential has been designed. The new potential is part of new class of potentials called BMW (Bushuev-Muguet-Water which is built by modifying existing empirical potentials. This version (BMW v. 0.1 has been designed by modifying the SPC/E empirical water potential. It is a preliminary version well suited for exploratory Monte-Carlo simulations. The shape of the potential energy surface (PES around each local minima has been approximated with the help of Gaussian functions. Classical Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out for liquid water in the NPT ensemble for a very wide range of state parameters up to the supercritical water regime. Thermodynamic properties are reported. The radial distributions functions (RDFs have been computed and are compared with the RDFs obtained from Neutron Scattering experimental data. Our preliminary Monte-Carlo simulations show that the seemingly unconventional hypotheses of the 3-A model are most plausible. The simulation has also uncovered a totally new role for 2-fold H-bonds.

  18. Seasonal variation of nutrient loads in treated wastewater effluents and receiving water bodies in Sedibeng and Soshanguve, South Africa. (United States)

    Teklehaimanot, G Z; Kamika, I; Coetzee, M A A; Momba, M N B


    The discharge of inadequately treated wastewater effluent presents a major threat to the aquatic environment and public health worldwide. As a water-scarce country, South Africa is facing an alarming situation since most of its wastewater discharges are not meeting the permissible limit. The aim of this study was to assess the physicochemical quality of treated wastewater effluents and their impact on receiving water bodies. During the study period, pH, temperature, free chlorine residue (Cl(-)), dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate (NO3 (-1)), orthophosphate (PO4 (-3)) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were measured in order to ascertain whether the selected wastewater systems in Sedibeng and Soshanguve complied with the South African and World Health Organization standards during wet and dry seasons. These parameters were analysed for samples collected from raw wastewater influent, treated wastewater effluent and receiving water bodies. The study was carried out between August 2011 and May 2012, and samples were collected on a weekly basis during both seasons. The physicochemical quality of effluents did not comply with the regulatory limits set by South Africa in terms of pH in Meyerton, Rietgat and Sandspruit (pH 7.6 to 8.1); free chlorine in Sandspruit (0.27 ± 0.05 mg/L); nitrate in Leeuwkuil and Rietgat (2.1 and 3.8 mg/L, respectively) during the wet season; orthophosphate in Meyerton during the wet season and in Sandspruit during the dry season (1.3 mg PO4 (-3) as P/L and 1.1 mg PO4 (-3) as P/L, respectively); and chemical oxygen demand in Rietgat during the dry season and in Sandspruit during the wet season (75.5 and 35 mg/L, respectively). Furthermore, the quality of the receiving water bodies did not comply with the South African standards recommended for pH, chemical oxygen demand and orthophosphate and DO (5 mg/L) in Rietgat during the wet season. The geometric mean of the water quality index values ranged between 32.4 and 36.9 for the effluent samples

  19. Regulation of the synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol in water bodies in Europe, the United States, and Brazil. (United States)

    da Cunha, Danieli Lima; da Silva, Samuel Muylaert Camargo; Bila, Daniele Maia; Oliveira, Jaime Lopes da Mota; Sarcinelli, Paula de Novaes; Larentis, Ariane Leites


    The synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol, the principal component of oral contraceptives, has been identified as one of the main compounds accounting for adverse effects on the endocrine system in various species. This study aimed to analyze the state-of-the-art in legislation and guidelines for the control of this synthetic estrogen in water bodies in Europe and the United States and to draw a parallel with the Brazilian reality. Countries have generally attempted to expand the regulation and monitoring of certain emerging micropollutants not previously covered by legislation. Europe is more advanced in terms of water quality, while in the United States this estrogen is only regulated in water for human consumption. Brazil still lacks legal provisions or standards for this estrogen, which can be explained by the relatively limited maturity of the country's system for controlling water pollutants.

  20. The water hexamer: three-body interactions, structures, energetics, and OH-stretch spectroscopy at finite temperature. (United States)

    Tainter, C J; Skinner, J L


    Using a newly developed and recently parameterized classical empirical simulation model for water that involves explicit three-body interactions, we determine the eleven most stable isomers of the water hexamer. We find that the lowest energy isomer is one of the cage structures, in agreement with far-IR and microwave experiments. The energy ordering for the binding energies is cage > glove > book > bag > chair > boat > chaise, and energies relative to the cage are in good agreement with CCSD(T) calculations. The three-body contributions to the cage, book, and chair are also in reasonable agreement with CCSD(T) results. The energy of each isomer results from a delicate balance involving the number of hydrogen bonds, the strain of these hydrogen bonds, and cooperative and anti-cooperative three-body interactions, whose contribution we can understand simply from the form of the three-body interactions in the simulation model. Oxygen-oxygen distances in the cage and book isomers are in good agreement with microwave experiments. Hydrogen-bond distances depend on both donor and acceptor, which can again be understood from the three-body model. Fully anharmonic OH-stretch spectra are calculated for these low-energy structures, and compared with shifted harmonic results from ab initio and density functional theory calculations. Replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations were performed from 40 to 194 K, which show that the cage isomer has the lowest free energy from 0 to 70 K, and the book isomer has the lowest free energy from 70 to 194 K. OH-stretch spectra were calculated between 40 and 194 K, and results at 40, 63, and 79 K were compared to recent experiments, leading to re-assignment of the peaks in the experimental spectra. We calculate local OH-stretch cumulative spectral densities for different donor-acceptor types and compare to analogous results for liquid water.

  1. Application of Multifractal Analysis to Segmentation of Water Bodies in Optical and Synthetic Aperture Radar Satellite Images

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Victor Manuel San


    A method for segmenting water bodies in optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite images is proposed. It makes use of the textural features of the different regions in the image for segmentation. The method consists in a multiscale analysis of the images, which allows us to study the images regularity both, locally and globally. As results of the analysis, coarse multifractal spectra of studied images and a group of images that associates each position (pixel) with its corresponding value of local regularity (or singularity) spectrum are obtained. Thresholds are then applied to the multifractal spectra of the images for the classification. These thresholds are selected after studying the characteristics of the spectra under the assumption that water bodies have larger local regularity than other soil types. Classifications obtained by the multifractal method are compared quantitatively with those obtained by neural networks trained to classify the pixels of the images in covered against uncovered b...

  2. Geological Factors Affecting Flow Spatial Continuity in Water Injection of Units Operating in the LGITJ–0102 Ore Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilver M. Soto-Loaiza


    Full Text Available The objective of the investigation was to identify the geological factors affecting the spatial continuity of the flow during the process of flank water injection in the units operating in the Lower Lagunilla Hydrocarbon Ore Body. This included the evaluation of the recovery factor, the petro-physic properties such as porosity, permeability, water saturation and rock type and quality in each flow unit. it was observed that the rock type of the geologic structure in the ore body is variable. The lowest values for the petro-physic properties were found in the southern area while a high variability of these parameters was observed in the northern and central areas. It was concluded that the northern area has a great potential for the development of new injection projects for petroleum recovery.

  3. Stable Water Isotopes of Different Water Bodies in the Dongting Lake Basin%洞庭湖流域不同水体中同位素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄一民; 宋献方; 章新平; 何清华; 韩青; 凡非得; 贺伟


    在洞庭湖流域内的长沙、汨罗、怀化对大气降水、地表水(河水)、地下水(泉水、井水)进行了取样,分析了流域内不同水体中稳定水同位素的变化特征以及它们之间的转化关系。研究发现地处亚热带季风区的洞庭湖流域,地表水、地下水中同位素继承了降水同位素冬半年富集、夏半年贫化的特征,但存在不同程度的滞后。同时,降水同位素的变化幅度及波动性明显大于地表水及地下水,而地表水、地下水中同位素较降水中要富集。流域内河水中同位素大致表现出随纬度升高而贫化的趋势,这主要受降水同位素场的影响。流域内长沙河水、井水、泉水中同位素组成均位于大气水线附近且分别大致位于一直线上,这说明大气降水是这3种水体的主要补给源。不同季节河水、井水、泉水中同位素组成与大气水线的比较则进一步反映出了不同水体在不同季节的转化关系。%In this study, stable water isotope compositions of different water bodies (such as precipitation, river waterfor surface water, spring and well water for ground water) were collected to reveal the characteristics of stable isotopes of different water bodies and conversion among them in Dongting Lake Basin, which located in the south of China. The results show that isotopes of surface and ground water inherit isotopes of precipitation’ s rich in winter half year and depleted in the summer half year, and the variation trend of isotopes having been delayed in time. Referring to variation range and fluctuation of different water bodies’isotope, precipitation’ sisotope is more significant than surface and ground water’s. Generally, isotopes of river water is depleted with increasing latitude, which decided by the distribution of precipitation’s isotopes in space. Stable water isotope compositions of river, well and spring water distribute near the local

  4. Wave excited motion of a body floating on water confined between two semi-infinite ice sheets (United States)

    Ren, K.; Wu, G. X.; Thomas, G. A.


    The wave excited motion of a body floating on water confined between two semi-infinite ice sheets is investigated. The ice sheet is treated as an elastic thin plate and water is treated as an ideal and incompressible fluid. The linearized velocity potential theory is adopted in the frequency domain and problems are solved by the method of matched eigenfunctions expansion. The fluid domain is divided into sub-regions and in each sub-region the velocity potential is expanded into a series of eigenfunctions satisfying the governing equation and the boundary conditions on horizontal planes including the free surface and ice sheets. Matching is conducted at the interfaces of two neighbouring regions to ensure the continuity of the pressure and velocity, and the unknown coefficients in the expressions are obtained as a result. The behaviour of the added mass and damping coefficients of the floating body with the effect of the ice sheets and the excitation force are analysed. They are found to vary oscillatorily with the wave number, which is different from that for a floating body in the open sea. The motion of the body confined between ice sheets is investigated, in particular its resonant behaviour with extremely large motion found to be possible under certain conditions. Standing waves within the polynya are also observed.

  5. Bioimpedance index for measurement of total body water in severely malnourished children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girma, Tsinuel; Kæstel, Pernille; Workeneh, Netsanet


    . SUBJECTS/METHODS: Children with SAM (mid-arm circumference nutritional oedema) admitted to Jimma University Hospital were included. Tetrapolar-whole-body impedance (Z), resistance (R) and reactance (Xc) were measured at 50 and 200 k...

  6. Malheur NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Water Chemistry/Quality Collection of Water Bodies in Malheur National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This survey provides the baseline understanding of aquatic health in our rivers, lakes, and marshes. The Refuge staff lacks consistent water chemistry measurements,...

  7. Late Permian marine ecosystem collapse began in deeper waters: evidence from brachiopod diversity and body size changes. (United States)

    He, W-H; Shi, G R; Twitchett, R J; Zhang, Y; Zhang, K-X; Song, H-J; Yue, M-L; Wu, S-B; Wu, H-T; Yang, T-L; Xiao, Y-F


    Analysis of Permian-Triassic brachiopod diversity and body size changes from different water depths spanning the continental shelf to basinal facies in South China provides insights into the process of environmental deterioration. Comparison of the temporal changes of brachiopod diversity between deepwater and shallow-water facies demonstrates that deepwater brachiopods disappeared earlier than shallow-water brachiopods. This indicates that high environmental stress commenced first in deepwater settings and later extended to shallow waters. This environmental stress is attributed to major volcanic eruptions, which first led to formation of a stratified ocean and a chemocline in the outer shelf and deeper water environments, causing the disappearance of deep marine benthos including brachiopods. The chemocline then rapidly migrated upward and extended to shallow waters, causing widespread mass extinction of shallow marine benthos. We predict that the spatial and temporal patterns of earlier onset of disappearance/extinction and ecological crisis in deeper water ecosystems will be recorded during other episodes of rapid global warming.

  8. Isotopic and geochemical characterization of invader tilapia fishes from water bodies of West Bengal and Karnataka, India. (United States)

    Chatterjee, Mousumi; Ghosh, Prosenjit; Ramdas, Leena; Chakrabarti, Ramananda


    The otoliths (N = 12) of freshwater invasive species tilapia (Tilapia mossambicus) collected from two water bodies located at Kolkata and Bangalore, India, were analyzed for stable isotopes (δ18O, δ14C) and major and trace elements in order to assess the suitability of using otoliths as a tracer of aquatic environmental changes. The stable isotope analysis was done using the dual inlet system of a Finnigan-MAT 253 isotope ratio mass spectrometer (Thermo-Fisher, Bremen, Germany). Concentrations of major and trace elements were determined using a Thermo X-Series II quadrupole mass spectrometer. The stable isotope composition in tilapia otolith samples from Bangalore and Kolkata water bodies are quite good agreeing with that of the respective lake/pond and rain water. Elemental composition revealed in a pattern of Ca>Fe>Na>Sr>K>Ba>Cr>Mg>As>Mn>Zn>Co>Cu>Cd>Pb. The otoliths from Kolkata pond water are more enriched in Ba, Zn, Pb, Mn, Se, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Ni whereas Cr and As were found to be higher in otolith samples from Bangalore lake. The enrichment factor (EF) values of Cr were higher for both the sampling location in comparison with other metals, although all the studied metals exhibited EF values>1. The PCA shows clustering of metals in the otolith which are related either with the metabolic and physiological attributes or waterborne source. The study demonstrated the potential of stable isotope techniques to distinguish otolith specimens from varied climatic zone, while elemental composition recorded the quality of water at both the locations. The role of climate driving the quality of water can be understood by detailed and continuous monitoring of otolith specimens in the future. Future method allows reconstruction of climate and water quality from old specimens from field exposures or museum collection.

  9. [The statement of Polish Gynaecologic Society experts concerning drinking water consumption in women in reproductive age, pregnancy and breast feeding]. (United States)

    Tomasz, Niemiec


    Water is a substance essential for life. It creates the environment of our body, keeps it's homeostasis, enables every biochemical reaction and metabolic processes in human organism. Maternal hydratation is essential for homeostasis of two organisms and drinking water influences the amniotic fluid volume, fetal well-being and removes toxic metabolic products. The chemical contaminants of drinking water and products of it's chlorination and ozonization could be responsible for spontaneous abortion, birth defects and perinatal complications. Therefore it is recommended to drink natural mineral water for women in reproductive age.

  10. The power spectrum and correlation of flow noise for an axisymmetric body in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xue-Gang; Yang Kun-De; Wang Yong


    Understanding the physical features of the flow noise for an axisymmetric body is important for improving the performance of a sonar mounted on an underwater platform. Analytical calculation and numerical analysis of the physical features of the flow noise for an axisymmetric body are presented and a simulation scheme for the noise correlation on the hydrophones is given. It is shown that the numerical values of the flow noise coincide well with the analytical values. The main physical features of flow noise are obtained. The flow noises of two different models are compared and a model with a rather optimal fore-body shape is given. The flow noise in horizontal symmetry profile of the axisymmetric body is non-uniform, but it is omni-directional and has little difference in the cross section of the body. The loss of noise diffraction has a great effect on the flow noise from boundary layer transition. Meanwhile, based on the simulation, the noise power level increases with velocity to approximately the fifth power at high frequencies,which is consistent with the experiment data reported in the literature. Furthermore, the flow noise received by the acoustic array has lower correlation at a designed central frequency, which is important for sonar system design.

  11. Effect of effluent generated from coffee processing plant on the water bodies and human health in its vicinity. (United States)

    Haddis, Alemayehu; Devi, Rani


    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of wastewater produced from coffee processing plant on nearby water bodies and human health. A study was conducted around the coffee processing plant in Zimma zone (Ethiopia) to assess the physico-chemical characteristics of effluent generated from this plant. Analysis of the water samples taken from the surrounding water bodies had also been done. It was found, from the present investigation, that the wastewater from coffee processing plant was heavily polluted with organic matter as it showed high concentration of COD (upstream 25,600mg/l and downstream 15,780mg/l), BOD (upstream 14,200mg/l and downstream 10,800mg/l), phosphate (upstream 7.3mg/l and downstream 4.6mg/l), nitrate (upstream 23mg/l and downstream 10.5mg/l) and suspended solids (upstream 5870mg/l and downstream 2080mg/l) and these concentrations were much higher than the permissible limits prescribed by WHO. It was also found, from this study, that the people residing in the vicinity of this plant were consuming this polluted water and as a result suffered from many diseases like skin irritation, stomach problem, nausea and breathing problem.

  12. Classification of Potential Water Bodies Using Landsat 8 OLI and a Combination of Two Boosted Random Forest Classifiers. (United States)

    Ko, Byoung Chul; Kim, Hyeong Hun; Nam, Jae Yeal


    This study proposes a new water body classification method using top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance and water indices (WIs) of the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) sensor and its corresponding random forest classifiers. In this study, multispectral images from the OLI sensor are represented as TOA reflectance and WI values because a classification result using two measures is better than raw spectral images. Two types of boosted random forest (BRF) classifiers are learned using TOA reflectance and WI values, respectively, instead of the heuristic threshold or unsupervised methods. The final probability is summed linearly using the probabilities of two different BRFs to classify image pixels to water class. This study first demonstrates that the Landsat 8 OLI sensor has higher classification rate because it provides improved signal-to-ratio radiometric by using 12-bit quantization of the data instead of 8-bit as available from other sensors. In addition, we prove that the performance of the proposed combination of two BRF classifiers shows robust water body classification results, regardless of topology, river properties, and background environment.

  13. Two-compartment model as a teaching tool for cholesterol homeostasis. (United States)

    Wrona, Artur; Balbus, Joanna; Hrydziuszko, Olga; Kubica, Krystian


    Cholesterol is a vital structural and functional molecule in the human body that is only slightly soluble in water and therefore does not easily travels by itself in the bloodstream. To enable cholesterol's targeted delivery to cells and tissues, it is encapsulated by different fractions of lipoproteins, complex particles containing both proteins and lipids. Maintaining cholesterol homeostasis is a highly regulated process with multiple factors acting at both molecular and tissue levels. Furthermore, to regulate the circulatory transport of cholesterol in lipoproteins, the amount of cholesterol present depends on and is controlled by cholesterol dietary intake, de novo synthesis, usage, and excretion; abnormal and/or unbalanced cholesterol levels have been shown to lead to severe outcomes, e.g., cardiovascular diseases. To investigate cholesterol transport in the circulatory system, we have previously developed a two-compartment mathematical model. Here, we show how this model can be used as a teaching tool for cholesterol homeostasis. Using the model and a hands-on approach, students can familiarize themselves with the basic components and mechanisms behind balanced cholesterol circulatory transport as well as investigate the consequences of and countermeasures to abnormal cholesterol levels. Among others, various treatments of high blood cholesterol levels can be simulated, e.g., with commonly prescribed de novo cholesterol synthesis inhibitors.

  14. Use Of Poachers’ Catches For Studying Fish Fauna In The Water Bodies Of The Transcarpathian Region (Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didenko Alexander


    Full Text Available We compared techniques used by poachers to capture fishes in the streams and stagnant water bodies of the Tisa River basin in Ukraine, which included: gill nets, lift nets, screen nets, electrofishing devices, spears, concussion, and beach seine. In total, 38 species were observed in poachers’ catches, among which the most abundant were nase (Chondrostoma nasus, Carpathian barbel (Barbus carpathicus, chub (Squalius cephalus, crucian carp (Carassius gibelio, and minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus. The highest diversity of species was observed in gill nets (25 species in rivers and 10 in stagnant waters, lift nets (20 species in rivers and eight in stagnant waters, and electrofishing (19 species. Poachers’ catches can provide information on fish species’ compositions and relative abundance in montane rivers; but there are biases associated with each technique.

  15. A physiologist's view of homeostasis. (United States)

    Modell, Harold; Cliff, William; Michael, Joel; McFarland, Jenny; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Wright, Ann


    Homeostasis is a core concept necessary for understanding the many regulatory mechanisms in physiology. Claude Bernard originally proposed the concept of the constancy of the "milieu interieur," but his discussion was rather abstract. Walter Cannon introduced the term "homeostasis" and expanded Bernard's notion of "constancy" of the internal environment in an explicit and concrete way. In the 1960s, homeostatic regulatory mechanisms in physiology began to be described as discrete processes following the application of engineering control system analysis to physiological systems. Unfortunately, many undergraduate texts continue to highlight abstract aspects of the concept rather than emphasizing a general model that can be specifically and comprehensively applied to all homeostatic mechanisms. As a result, students and instructors alike often fail to develop a clear, concise model with which to think about such systems. In this article, we present a standard model for homeostatic mechanisms to be used at the undergraduate level. We discuss common sources of confusion ("sticky points") that arise from inconsistencies in vocabulary and illustrations found in popular undergraduate texts. Finally, we propose a simplified model and vocabulary set for helping undergraduate students build effective mental models of homeostatic regulation in physiological systems.

  16. Is It Hot in Here? Thermoregulation and Homeostasis through an Exercise Activity (United States)

    Dean, Lewis G.; Breslin, Angela; Ross, Emma Z.


    Homeostasis, the control of an internal environment to maintain stable, relatively constant conditions, is a key concept in physiology. In endothermic species, including humans ("Homo sapiens"), the control of body temperature is fundamental to the control of a suitable internal environment. To help regulate core body temperature, the…

  17. Spatial and seasonal variations of the contamination within water body of the Grand Canal, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.L.; Han, Jingyi; Xu, L.G.; Zhang, Q.


    To delineate the character of contaminations in the Grand Canal, China, a three-year study (2004-2006) was conducted to investigate variations the water quality in the canal. Results showed that the variation of water quality within the Grand Canal was of there is remarkable spatial and seasonal het

  18. Emission standards versus immission standards for assessing the impact of urban drainage on ephemeral receiving water bodies. (United States)

    Freni, Gabriele; Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare


    In the past, emission standard indicators have been adopted by environmental regulation authorities in order to preserve the quality of a receiving water body. Such indicators are based on the frequency or magnitude of a polluted discharge that may be continuous or intermittent. In order to properly maintain the quality of receiving waters, the Water Framework Directive, following the basic ideas of British Urban Pollution Manual, has been established. The Directive has overtaken the emission-standard concept, substituting it with the stream-standard concept that fixes discharge limits for each polluting substance depending on the self-depurative characteristics of receiving waters. Stream-standard assessment requires the deployment of measurement campaigns that can be very expensive; furthermore, the measurement campaigns are usually not able to provide a link between the receiving water quality and the polluting sources. Therefore, it would be very useful to find a correlation between the quality status of the natural waters and the emission-based indicators. Thus, this study is aimed to finding a possible connection between the receiving water quality indicators drawn by environmental regulation authorities and emission-based indicators while considering both continuous (i.e. from the wastewater treatment plants) and intermittent pollution discharges (mainly from combined sewer overflows). Such research has been carried out by means of long-term analysis adopting a holistic modelling approach. The different parts of the integrated urban drainage system were modelled by a parsimonious integrated model. The analysis was applied to an ephemeral river bounding Bologna (Italy). The study concluded that the correlation between receiving water quality and polluting emissions cannot be generally stated. Nevertheless, specific analyses on polluting emissions were pointed out in the study highlighting cause-effect link between polluting sources and receiving water quality.

  19. Unstructured finite volume method for water impact on a rigid body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yan; MING Ping-jian; DUAN Wen-yang


    A new method is presented for the water impact simulation, in which the air-water two phase flow is solved using the pressure-based computational fluid dynamics method. Theoretically, the air effects can be taken into account in the water structure interaction. The key point of this method is the air-water interface capture, which is treated as a physical discontinuity and can be captured by a well-designed high order scheme. According to a normalized variable diagram, a high order discrete scheme on unstructured grids is realised, so a numerical method for the free surface flow on a fixed grid can be established. This method is implemented using an in-house code, the General Transport Equation Analyzer, which is an unstructured grid finite volume solver. The method is verified with the wedge water and structure interaction problem.

  20. Characterization of water bodies for mosquito habitat using a multi-sensor approach (United States)

    Midekisa, A.; Wimberly, M. C.; Senay, G. B.


    Malaria is a major health problem in Ethiopia. Anopheles arabiensis, which inhabits and breeds in a variety of aquatic habitats, is the major mosquito vector for malaria transmission in the region. In the Amhara region of Ethiopia, mosquito breeding sites are heterogeneously distributed. Therefore, accurate characterization of aquatic habitats and potential breeding sites can be used as a proxy to measure the spatial distribution of malaria risk. Satellite remote sensing provides the ability to map the spatial distribution and monitor the temporal dynamics of surface water. The objective of this study is to map the probability of surface water accumulation to identify potential vector breeding sites for Anopheles arabiensis using remote sensing data from sensors at multiple spatial and temporal resolutions. The normalized difference water index (NDWI), which is based on reflectance in the green and the near infrared (NIR) bands were used to estimate fractional cover of surface water. Temporal changes in surface water were mapped using NDWI indices derived from MODIS surface reflectance product (MOD09A1) for the period 2001-2012. Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery were used to train and calibrate model results from MODIS. Results highlighted interannual variation and seasonal changes in surface water that were observed from the MODIS time series. Static topographic indices that estimate the potential for water accumulation were generated from 30 meter Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data. Integrated fractional surface water cover was developed by combining the static topographic indices and dynamic NDWI indices using Geographic Information System (GIS) overlay methods. Accuracy of the results was evaluated based on ground truth data that was collected on presence and absence of surface water immediately after the rainy season. The study provided a multi-sensor approach for mapping areas with a high potential for surface water accumulation that are

  1. Boxfish swimming paradox resolved : forces by the flow of water around the body promote manoeuvrability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wassenbergh, S.; van Manen, K.; Marcroft, T. A.; Alfaro, M. E.; Stamhuis, E. J.


    The shape of the carapace protecting the body of boxfishes has been attributed an important hydrodynamic role in drag reduction and in providing automatic, flow-direction realignment and is therefore used in bioinspired design of cars. However, tight swimming-course stabilization is paradoxical give

  2. Intracerebral implantation of carbachol in the rat: Its effect on water intake and body temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, S.G.Th.


    Intracerebral carbachol produces a fall in body temperature as well as drinking in the rat when implanted in various subcortical structures, related to the emotion-motivation limbic circuit. These effects are due to a central cholinergic stimulation since they can be prevented by the systemic admini

  3. [Mercury dynamics of several plants collected from the water-level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir area during flooding and its impact on water body]. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Cheng; Sun, Rong-guo; Wang, Ding-yong


    Submerged plants are a major source for the abnormal elevation of methylmercury in reservoir. Several specific plants (Echinochloa crusgalli, Cynodondactylon and Corn stover) were collected and inundated in a simulated aquatic environment in the laboratory for investigating the mercury (Hg) dynamics in plants and the release process into water, aiming to find out the properties of Hg dynamics of plants under inundation conditions and its impact on water body in the Water-Level Fluctuation Zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The results showed that the contents of total mercury in several plants were in the range of 9. 21-12.07 ng x g(-1), and the percentage content of methylmercury (MeHg) was about 1%-2%. The content of total mercury (THg) in plants gradually decreased, by 35.81%-55.96%, whereas that of the dissolved mercury (DHg) increased sharply, by 103.23% -232.15%, which indicated an emission of Hg from plants to water in the process of decomposition. Furthermore, the state of inundation provided sufficient conditions for the methylation process in plants and therefore caused an increase of the content of methylmercury in the plant residues, which was 3.04-6.63 times as much as the initial content. The concentration of dissolved methylmercury (DMeHg) in the overlying water also increased significantly by 14.84- 16.05 times compared with the initial concentration. Meanwhile, the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the overlying water was significantly and negatively correlated with DMeHg. On the other hand, the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the overlying water was significantly and positively correlated with DMeHg. During the whole inundation period, the increase of DHg in the overlying water accounted for 41.74% -47.01% of the total amount of THg emission, and there was a negative correlation between the content of THg in plant residues and that of DHg in the overlying water.

  4. Flushing time as a descriptor for heavily modified water bodies classification and management: application to the Huelva Harbour. (United States)

    Sámano, María Luisa; Bárcena, Javier F; García, Andrés; Gómez, Aina G; Álvarez, César; Revilla, José Antonio


    Since the flushing time is a physical descriptor used to distinguish between different types of heavily modified water bodies (HMWB), the establishment of a methodology for its calculation becomes important. In order to achieve this task, a methodological procedure involving the tide mean value and variable river flow values is proposed. The hydrodynamics were assessed using a two-dimensional model which integrates the depth-averaged mass and momentum equations in the time and space domains and includes a wet-dry point treatment method. The hydrodynamic model calibration and validation were performed on the basis of tidal gauge and velocity current measurements. A reasonable agreement with the field measurements of water elevation and velocity were achieved. On the other hand, a two-dimensional mathematical model, which solves the depth-averaged advection-diffusion equation, was properly calibrated and used to evaluate the behaviour of a conservative tracer within a water body. The transport model calibration was developed according to the field survey data carried out during late spring when the rivers flows are low. This study allowed the flushing time estimation under four scenarios showing that only the estuarine mouth presents a high renewal rate because the current velocities are higher. For heavy rain periods, a flushing time decrease was observed as river flows modify the circulation in the main channel. Neglecting the river forcing was found to be valid for the dry period.

  5. Distribution of NORM in the Threatened Wadi Maryut Lake: A Comparative Case for South Mediterranean Coastal Water Bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badran, H. [Taif University (Saudi Arabia); Hassan, M. [Tanta University (Egypt)


    Wadi Maryut Lake is one of the remaining two parts of the ancient Lake Mareotis and is hardly mentioned in the scientific literature. It has a very long history and a doubtful and uncertain future. The lake is in its way to disappearances because of salt refining, agricultural and land reclamation projects. Compared with other North African water bodies, it is stable because it is relatively far from any possible effect of Nile sediments for few centuries and it has not been subject to discharge of industrial wastewater and very little urban activities. Therefore, this lake represents a good reference site that could be used in the evaluation of the pollution of other water bodies. This study includes sediment, water, wild vegetation and soil samples. Generally, locations in the southwestern part of the lake have the highest activity concentrations in sediment and soil. The concentrations of {sup 232}Th in different plant species are higher than that of {sup 226}Ra. The mean soil-to-plant transfer factor for {sup 40}K is higher than that of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th, which are in principle the same. Gamma-radiation hazard indices of soil and sediment in some locations are larger than unity which suggests possible health concerns when used as construction materials. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  6. Harnessing Water and Resources from Clay Minerals on Mars and Planetary Bodies (United States)

    Bishop, J. L.


    Clay minerals provide a source of water, metals, and cations that can be harvested to provide resources for human exploration on Mars, asteroids, etc. Planning how to access these resources from clays could be a vital component of human exploration.

  7. Modelling and technologies for restoration of oil polluted soils and water bodies


    Pankratova, N. D.; Khokhlova, L. I.


    Development and creation a tool set of modeling (forecast and foresight) and highly environmentally friendly technologies to prevent and eliminate pollution of soil and water areas by xenobiotics (oil, petroleum products, pesticides) are presented.

  8. Satellite Monitoring of Chlorophyll-a Concentration in the Water Bodies of the Dnieper and Don River Basins (United States)

    Moses, W. J.; Berdnikov, S.; Gitelson, A. A.


    We present and discuss here the results of our work using satellite data to estimate chlorophyll-a concentration in reservoirs of the Dnieper River and the Sea of Azov, which are typical Case II waters, i.e., turbid and productive. Our objective was two-folded - (i) to test the potential of remote sensing as a tool for near-real-time monitoring of these water bodies, and (ii) to feed the results of our work into a larger project that involved the use of satellite technology to investigate and understand the effects on the bio-optical characteristics of these water bodies due to changes in the land use and land cover in the surrounding regions. MODIS and MERIS images were used. We tested the performance of a three-band model and a two- band model that use the reflectance at the red and NIR spectral bands for the retrieval of chlorophyll-a concentration. The higher spatial resolution and the availability of a spectral band at around 708 nm with the MERIS data offered great promise for the three-band model. We tested the applicability of two standard MODIS and MERIS algorithms for Case II waters. We compared results from several different atmospheric correction procedures available for MODIS and MERIS data. No one particular procedure was consistently and systematically better than the rest. Nevertheless, even in the absence of a perfect atmospheric correction procedure, both the three-band and the two-band models showed promising results when compared to in-situ chlorophyll-a measurements. The challenges and limitations involved in satellite remote monitoring of turbid productive waters are discussed.

  9. Thermodynamic, diffusional, and structural anomalies in rigid-body water models. (United States)

    Agarwal, Manish; Alam, Mohammad Parvez; Chakravarty, Charusita


    Structural, density, entropy, and diffusivity anomalies of the TIP4P/2005 model of water are mapped out over a wide range of densities and temperatures. The locus of temperatures of maximum density (TMD) for this model is very close to the experimental TMD locus for temperatures between 250 and 275 K. Four different water models (mTIP3P, TIP4P, TIP5P, and SPC/E) are compared with the TIP4P/2005 model in terms of their anomalous behavior. For all the water models, the density regimes for anomalous behavior are bounded by a low-density limit at around 0.85-0.90 g cm(-3) and a high-density limit at about 1.10-1.15 g cm(-3). The onset temperatures of the density anomaly in the various models show a much greater variation, ranging from 202 K for mTIP3P to 289 K for TIP5P. The order maps for the various water models are qualitatively very similar with the structurally anomalous regions almost superimposable in the q(tet)-τ plane. Comparison of the phase diagrams of water models with the region of liquid-state anomalies shows that the crystalline phases are much more sensitive to the choice of water models than the liquid state anomalies; for example, SPC/E and TIP4P/2005 show qualitatively similar liquid state anomalies but very different phase diagrams. The anomalies in the liquid in all the models occur at much lower pressures than those at which the melting line changes from negative to positive slope. The results in this study demonstrate several aspects of structure-entropy-diffusivity relationships of water models that can be compared with experiment and used to develop better atomistic and coarse-grained models for water.

  10. Phytoplankton succession in an isolated upwelled Benguela water body in relation to different initial nutrient conditions (United States)

    Wasmund, Norbert; Nausch, Günther; Hansen, Anja


    Freshly upwelled water is poor in phytoplankton biomass but rich in nutrients. With its ageing, phytoplankton biomass increases whereas the nutrients are consumed. The overall aim of our investigation was to check the succession in the phytoplankton composition as a consequence of changing nutrient conditions. The experiments were carried out in mesocosms filled with surface water in the northern Benguela region and installed on board of R/V "Maria S. Merian". In the freshly upwelled water, phytoplankton took up nitrogen at a higher rate than phosphorus if compared with the Redfield ratio. Therefore, nitrogen was exhausted already by day 6. Nitrogen limitation after day 6 was indicated by decreasing chlorophyll a (chla) concentrations, primary production rates and productivity indices and increasing C/N ratios in particulate matter. Despite nitrogen limitation, phosphorus addition stimulated further growth, mainly of diatoms, pointing to luxury uptake. Cyanobacteria did not develop and nitrogen fixation was zero even with phosphorus and iron addition. Diatoms stay the most important group in the freshly upwelled water, but autotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates increase strongly in the matured upwelled water. Mesocosms excluded disturbances by advective water transports, which influence the study of succssions under field conditions.

  11. The estimation of future surface water bodies at Olkiluoto area based on statistical terrain and land uplift models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohjola, J.; Turunen, J.; Lipping, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland); Ikonen, A.


    In this working report the modelling effort of future landscape development and surface water body formation at the modelling area in the vicinity of the Olkiluoto Island is presented. Estimation of the features of future surface water bodies is based on probabilistic terrain and land uplift models presented in previous working reports. The estimation is done using a GIS-based toolbox called UNTAMO. The future surface water bodies are estimated in 10 000 years' time span with 1000 years' intervals for the safety assessment of disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the Olkiluoto site. In the report a brief overview on the techniques used for probabilistic terrain modelling, land uplift modelling and hydrological modelling are presented first. The latter part of the report describes the results of the modelling effort. The main features of the future landscape - the four lakes forming in the vicinity of the Olkiluoto Island - are identified and the probabilistic model of the shoreline displacement is presented. The area and volume of the four lakes is modelled in a probabilistic manner. All the simulations have been performed for three scenarios two of which are based on 10 realizations of the probabilistic digital terrain model (DTM) and 10 realizations of the probabilistic land uplift model. These two scenarios differ from each other by the eustatic curve used in the land uplift model. The third scenario employs 50 realizations of the probabilistic DTM while a deterministic land uplift model, derived solely from the current land uplift rate, is used. The results indicate that the two scenarios based on the probabilistic land uplift model behave in a similar manner while the third model overestimates past and future land uplift rates. The main features of the landscape are nevertheless similar also for the third scenario. Prediction results for the volumes of the future lakes indicate that a couple of highly probably lake formation scenarios can be identified

  12. Copper Homeostasis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (United States)

    Shi, Xiaoshan; Darwin, K. Heran


    Copper (Cu) is a trace element essential for the growth and development of almost all organisms, including bacteria. However, Cu overload in most systems is toxic. Studies show Cu accumulates in macrophage phagosomes infected with bacteria, suggesting Cu provides an innate immune mechanism to combat invading pathogens. To counteract the host-supplied Cu, increasing evidence suggests that bacteria have evolved Cu resistance mechanisms to facilitate their pathogenesis. In particular, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis, has evolved multiple pathways to respond to Cu. Here, we summarize what is currently known about Cu homeostasis in Mtb and discuss potential sources of Cu encountered by this and other pathogens in a mammalian host. PMID:25614981


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fedonenko


    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate, analyze and summarize the biological indices of commercial fish species in the main fishery water bodies of Dnіpropetrovsk region for the last 10 years. Methodology. Field data were collected in the Zaporizhzhia reservoir during 2003 – 2013 using a standard set of monitoring fishing gears (gill nets with mesh size a=30–120 mm. Juvenile fish were caught in third decade of June - first decade of August using the juvenile fish beach seine with a length of 10 m. Processing of ichthyological materials was conducted according to generally accepted methods. Findings. When comparing the biological indices of fish in the Zaporіzhzhia reservoir with the data for the past decade reflected in the normative documents, we found significant changes in the population of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca and gibel carp (Carassius gibelio, which concern the average fish weight, fertility and the relative proportion of females in the spawning stock. Roach (Rutilus rutilus, perch (Perca fluviatilis, and gibel carp are characterized a reduced number of spawning events. The biological indices of bream (Abramis brama, common carp (Cyprinus, pike (Esox lucius and catfish (Silurus glanis populations remain virtually unchanged during the study period. As for biological indices of Black and Caspian Sea sprat, rudd, gobies and crayfish, the information on these species in the relevant regulatory documents is missing, so it is not possible to assess the dynamics of their changes. Due to an inventory of small fishery water bodies we received the information on the biological indicators of major species, which can also be used for updating the normative database. Originality. For the first time we summarized the characteristic of fish fauna in major fishery water bodies of Dnepropetrovsk region and analyzed main indices, which define the conditions of fish stock development and exploitation of aquatic living aquatic resources in fishery water bodies

  14. The interference characteristics of platform and towed body noise in shallow water for active/passive towed array sonar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qihu; LI Shuqiu; SUN Changyu; YU Huabing


    The interference characteristics of towed platform noise resulted from propeller and towed body for active/passive towed array is analyzed. It is shown that, in shallow water environment, the direct wave and bottom/sea surface reflected wave will seriously affect the performance of sonar system. The formula for calculating the direction of arrival (DOA) of interference in terms of various parameters, such as array depth, length of tow cable, is derived.The effect of interference noise for the detection performance of sonar system is described.The results of system simulation provide the method for reducing the effect of these kind of interferences.

  15. A proposed limnological classification of small water bodies based on the climate, in a tropical region: Mexico



    Small aquatic systems (100 ha) in Mexico are commonly regulated by the climate. The climate generates a temporal unit of variation throughout the year along a latitudinal gradient, that is strongly modified by the altitude. The proposed grouping of small water bodies into limnological regions in Mexico is associated with six ecological areas that are defined by the climate: a) a humid tropical area that covers 4.7% of the country’s surface, b) a sub-humid tropical area with 23%, c) a humid te...

  16. Evaporation and Infiltration from Water Bodies in the Lerma-Chapala Basin, Mexico (United States)

    Scott, C. A.; Flores-Lopez, F. F.


    Reservoirs and ponds significantly influence the hydrology of the Lerma-Chapala river basin in Mexico and affect inflows to the receiving waters of Lake Chapala. This paper reports on remote sensing and GIS assessment of the 55,511 km2 basin, in which 81 lakes and reservoirs, and 28,895 ponds were identified from post-rainy season 1998 Thematic Mapper imagery. Digital terrain analysis coupled with sedimentation estimates from soil and land cover data were used to estimate impounded volumes in ponds, and in reservoirs for which storage data were unreported. Open water surface evaporation (3.2 - 7.4 mm/day) was determined using a surface energy balance model, Penman-Monteith, and corrected pan evaporation methods. Sediment samples were analyzed, and a pedo-transfer function was used to estimate saturated hydraulic conductivity (0.2 - 6.6 mm/day) of the bed sediments, which are assumed to be the layer that limits percolation recharge to groundwater. The ponds' shallow depths and sediments with high clay and low organic matter contents result in evaporation to infiltration ratios of approximately 2:1 over the dry season. Increasing irrigation from ponds or permitting this water to flow downstream to deeper reservoirs may result in less water loss than allowing impounded water to recharge and subsequently withdrawing groundwater.

  17. Vitamin A homeostasis endangered by environmental pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zile, M.H. (Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing (United States))


    Normal vitamin A function depends on adequate stores of the vitamin, a finely regulated supply of the vitamin to target tissues, and an ability of cells to generate functionally active forms of the vitamin. Both endogenous and exogenous factors can adversely affect vitamin A homeostasis. Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons are ubiquitous environmental pollutants and cause severe disturbances in vitamin A metabolism, manifested by an accelerated metabolism and breakdown of vitamin A and its metabolites and a depletion of vitamin A from the body; this sequence of events accounts for the vitamin A deficiency-like symptoms associated with PHAH intoxication. The mechanism(s) responsible for these events most likely includes altered activities of enzymes that are either directly or indirectly involved in critical vitamin A metabolic pathways. Human populations that continue to be exposed to environmental pollutants, may accumulate critical levels of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and will be at risk for inadequate vitamin A function as well as for other health impairments that have been difficult to link to any specific causes. Therefore, it is important to seriously evaluate the similarities in physiological disturbances across species that have become apparent in studies with wildlife inhabiting polluted environments similar to ours; the relevance to human health is evident.197 references.

  18. Regulation of energy homeostasis by GPR41

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke eInoue


    Full Text Available Imbalances in energy regulation lead to metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. Diet plays an essential role in the maintenance of body energy homeostasis by acting not only as energy source but also as a signaling modality. Excess energy increases energy expenditure, leading to a consumption of them. In addition to glucose, mammals utilize short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, which are produced by colonic bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber, as a metabolic fuel. The roles of SCFAs in energy regulation have remained unclear, although the roles of glucose are well studied. Recently, a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR deorphanizing strategy successfully identified GPR41 (also called free fatty acid receptor 3 or FFAR3 as a receptor for SCFAs. GPR41 is expressed in adipose tissue, gut, and the peripheral nervous system, and it is involved in SCFA-dependent energy regulation. In this mini-review, we focus on the role of GPR41 in host energy regulation.

  19. Lake levels and water quality in comparison to fish mercury body burdens, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, 2013–15 (United States)

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Larson, James H.; Maki, Ryan P.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Brigham, Mark E.; Kissane, Claire; LeDuc, Jamie F.


    Within Voyageurs National Park in Minnesota, lake levels are controlled by a series of dams to support a variety of uses. Previous research indicates a link between these artificially maintained water levels, referred to as rule curves, and mercury concentrations in fish owing to the drying and rewetting of wetlands and other nearshore areas, which may release methylmercury into the water when inundated. The U.S. Geological Survey, National Park Service, and University of Wisconsin-La Crosse cooperated in a study to assess the importance of lake-level fluctuation and other factors affecting mercury concentrations in Perca flavescens (yellow perch) in the lakes of Voyageurs National Park. For this study, mercury body burdens were determined for young-of-the-year yellow perch collected from the large lakes within Voyageurs National Park during 2013–15. These mercury body burdens were compared to lake levels and water-quality constituents from the same period.Field properties and profiles of lake water quality indicated that Sand Point, Little Vermilion, and Crane Lakes were anoxic at times near the lake bottom sediments, where sulfate-reducing bacteria may convert mercury to methylmercury. The median dissolved sulfate concentration was highest in Crane Lake, the median total organic carbon concentration was highest in Sand Point Lake, and the median total phosphorus concentration was highest in Kabetogama Lake, all of which is consistent with previous research. All lakes had median chlorophyll a concentrations of 3.6 micrograms per liter or less with the exception of Kabetogama Lake, where the median concentrations were 4.3 micrograms per liter for the midlake sites and 7.1 micrograms per liter and 9.0 micrograms per liter for the nearshore sites.Mercury concentrations in sampled fish varied widely between years and among lakes, from 14.7 nanograms per gram in fish samples from Kabetogama Lake in 2015 to 178 nanograms per gram in fish samples from Crane Lake in

  20. 20世纪开封水域景观变化%Landscape pattern dynamics of water body in Kaifeng city in the 20th century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹新向; 丁圣彦


    Landscape spatial pattern mainly refers to the distribution of patches, which are different in size and shape in space owing to the interaction of various ecological activities. In landscape ecology study, landscape pattern has been one of the key study areas. Water body landscape plays an important role in the development history of a city, but at present city water body landscape in many cities has been destroyed, hence protecting water body in the city is becoming more and more important. In order to protect city water body landscape reasonably, the precondition is to probe the dynamics of water body landscape. Based on historical data and remote sensing data, six indexes including patch number, patch area, landscape dominance index, fractal dimension, patch density and connectivity index etc. were used to analyze landscape pattem dynamics of water body in Kaifeng city since the end of the Qing Dynasty (in the 20th century). The results showed: (1) Since the end of the Qing Dynasty, landscape area of water body in Kaifeng city increased first and then decreased from 1898 to 2002AD; the landscape dominant degree had the same changing tendency with the area. (2) Patch number of water body landscape in Kaifeng city had an increase from 1898 to 2002, but maximum area of patch, minimum area of patch and average area of patch decreased, which resulted in an increase in landscape fragment degree. (3) Connectivity index decreased and fractal dimension increased from 1898 to 2002. The reasons for these changes were the repeated overflows and flooding of the Yellow River and the influence of human activities.

  1. Letter to the editor: Generation of self organized critical connectivity network map (SOCCNM) of randomly situated water bodies during flooding process


    B. S. Daya Sagar


    This letter presents a brief framework based on nonlinear morphological transformations to generate a self organized critical connectivity network map (SOCCNM) in 2-dimensional space. This simple and elegant framework is implemented on a section that contains a few simulated water bodies to generate SOCCNM. This is based on a postulate that the randomly situated surface water bodies of various sizes and shapes self organize during flooding process.

  2. Letter to the editor: Generation of self organized critical connectivity network map (SOCCNM of randomly situated water bodies during flooding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Daya Sagar


    Full Text Available This letter presents a brief framework based on nonlinear morphological transformations to generate a self organized critical connectivity network map (SOCCNM in 2-dimensional space. This simple and elegant framework is implemented on a section that contains a few simulated water bodies to generate SOCCNM. This is based on a postulate that the randomly situated surface water bodies of various sizes and shapes self organize during flooding process.

  3. Structure and functioning of Mediterranean lagoon fish assemblages: A key for the identification of water body types (United States)

    Franco, Anita; Franzoi, Piero; Torricelli, Patrizia


    Knowledge on the structure and functioning variability of transitional water fish assemblages may help in finding out the main descriptors for identifying different water body types for which specific biological reference conditions can be reliably derived. Fish assemblages from 19 Mediterranean lagoons were therefore investigated by evaluating the variability of their structure and functioning, and by relating it to the lagoons' environmental features. Fish assemblage structure was measured by its species richness. Functioning was measured by categorizing fish species into functional categories (or guilds) according to their use of lagoon habitat, feeding and reproduction, and by defining the functional structure of fish assemblages as the relative number of species per guild in each lagoon. Mediterranean lagoons' fish assemblages were found to be more similar to each other in their functional structure than in the taxonomical composition, thus confirming a shared functional role of these environments for biological communities. Lagoon local features, such as the lagoon area, its habitat heterogeneity and average salinity, significantly affected the total species richness and the different use that fish make of the lagoon environment, hence playing a primary role in the assessment of these water body types. Latitude also influenced the variability of fish assemblages in the Mediterranean lagoons investigated, with particular regard to their functioning as feeding and reproductive grounds for fish. These results are compared with previous studies and, although this limited the investigation to structural aspects only, were found to confirm in part the previous results and also added new insights about the key factors affecting the functioning of transitional water systems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Sarwade


    Full Text Available Physicochemical features of freshwater bodies were regulated by number of factors. It includes temperature, turbidity, pH, total alkalinity, carbondioxide, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, phosphate, chloride and hardness. Present study focused on the determination of hydrobiological parameters during different seasons in January, 2011 – December, 2013 in three lakes of Miraj tahsil. The study indicated marked variation in some of the factors as turbidity, CO₂, DO, COD, Alkalinity etc. Obtained data showed, variations in pollution status of three lakes. As per observations and analysis contamination of lakes was Bharatnagar > Mhaishal > Brahmanath lake.

  5. Classification and assessment of water bodies as adaptive structural measures for flood risk management planning. (United States)

    McMinn, William R; Yang, Qinli; Scholz, Miklas


    Severe rainfall events have become increasingly common in Europe. Flood defence engineering works are highly capital intensive and can be limited by land availability, leaving land and communities exposed to repeated flooding. Any adaptive drainage structure must have engineered inlets and outlets that control the water level and the rate of release. In Scotland, there are a relatively high number of drinking water reservoirs (operated by Scottish Water), which fall within this defined category and could contribute to flood management control. Reducing the rate of runoff from the upper reaches of a catchment will reduce the volume and peak flows of flood events downstream, thus allowing flood defences to be reduced in size, decreasing the corresponding capital costs. A database of retention basins with flood control potential has been developed for Scotland. The research shows that the majority of small and former drinking water reservoirs are kept full and their spillways are continuously in operation. Utilising some of the available capacity to contribute to flood control could reduce the costs of complying with the EU Flood Directive. Furthermore, the application of a previously developed classification model for Baden in Germany for the Scottish data set showed a lower diversity for basins in Scotland due to less developed infrastructure. The principle value of this approach is a clear and unambiguous categorisation, based on standard variables, which can help to promote communication and understanding between stakeholders.

  6. Effect on Groundwater Quality from Proximal Surface Water Bodies and Effect on Arsenic Distribution in Bangladesh: Geochemical Controls (United States)

    Barua, S.; Kulkarni, H.; Mladenov, N.; Khan, M. A.; Mahfuz, M.; Ahmed, K. M.; Datta, S.


    Matlab is one of the areas in SE Bangladesh highly affected with elevated concentrations of dissolved As in drinking waters. Matlab is stratigraphically composed of thick floodplain deposits of Holocene age overlying Plio-Pleistocene grey fine to coarse sands with considerable clay (Dupi Tila). The dissolved As concentrations in the studied area ranged from detection in shallow well waters (MPN= 3.6-74.1) was high as well as in ponds and canals (MPN= 8.5-433.4). Microbial activity in groundwater was lower than in unprotected surface waters. Freshness index (β:α), humification index (HIX), fluorescence source index (FI) values showed that DOM in shallow and surface water bodies was distinct from deep groundwater. Concurrent with the lower DOC in deeper wells, the overall fluorescence intensities decreased with depth. The results thus far point to more humic DOM in shallow groundwaters, which is not expected to be a labile carbon source for microorganisms, but which may be involved in complexation or other biogeochemical reactions that mobilize arsenic.

  7. A Numerical Study on Water Waves Generated by A Submerged Moving Body in A Two-Layer Fluid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jia-Zhen; NG Chiu-On; ZHANG Dao-Hua


    This is a numerical study on the time development of surface waves generated by a submerged body moving steadily in a two-layer fluid system, in which a layer of water is underlain by a layer of viscous mud. The fully nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations are solved on FLUENT with the Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) multiphase scheme in order to simulate the free surface waves as well as the water-mud interface waves as functions of time. The numerical model is validated by mimick-ing a reported experiment in a one-layer system before it is applied to a two-layer system, it is found that the presence of bottom mud in a water layer can lead to large viscous damping of the surface waves. For the investigation of the problem systematically, the effects of the Froude number and the mud layer thickness, density and viscosity relative to those of water are evaluated and discussed in detail.

  8. Prominent pancreatic endocrinopathy and altered control of food intake disrupt energy homeostasis in prion diseases (United States)

    Bailey, J.D.; Berardinelli, J.G.; Rocke, T.E.; Bessen, R.A.


    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that can induce endocrinopathies. The basis of altered endocrine function in prion diseases is not well understood, and the purpose of this study was to investigate the spatiotemporal relationship between energy homeostasis and prion infection in hamsters inoculated with either the 139H strain of scrapie agent, which induces preclinical weight gain, or the HY strain of transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME), which induces clinical weight loss. Temporal changes in body weight, feed, and water intake were measured as well as both non-fasted and fasted concentrations of serum glucose, insulin, glucagon, ??-ketones, and leptin. In 139H scrapie-infected hamsters, polydipsia, hyperphagia, non-fasted hyperinsulinemia with hyperglycemia, and fasted hyperleptinemia were found at preclinical stages and are consistent with an anabolic syndrome that has similarities to type II diabetes mellitus and/or metabolic syndrome X. In HY TME-infected hamsters, hypodipsia, hypersecretion of glucagon (in both non-fasted and fasted states), increased fasted ??-ketones, fasted hypoglycemia, and suppressed non-fasted leptin concentrations were found while feed intake was normal. These findings suggest a severe catabolic syndrome in HY TME infection mediated by chronic increases in glucagon secretion. In both models, alterations of pancreatic endocrine function were not associated with PrPSc deposition in the pancreas. The results indicate that prominent endocrinopathy underlies alterations in body weight, pancreatic endocrine function, and intake of food. The prion-induced alterations of energy homeostasis in 139H scrapie- or HY TME-infected hamsters could occur within areas of the hypothalamus that control food satiety and/or within autonomic centers that provide neural outflow to the pancreas. ?? 2008 Society for Endocrinology.

  9. The Effectiveness of Whole Body Cryotherapy Compared to Cold Water Immersion: Implications for Sport and Exercise Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Holmes


    Full Text Available Background: Cryotherapy is the process of cooling the body, is typically used therapeutically, and is often used as a method of recovery relative to sport and exercise performance.  The purpose of this review is to compare the current literature on WBC to that of CWI and determine whether WBC provides any additional enhancements for sport and exercise recovery. These include tissue temperature reduction, markers of muscle damage, markers of inflammation, and parasympathetic reactivation. Method: Common methods of cryotherapy include cold water immersion (CWI, ice packs, ice massages, and gel or cooling creams. CWI is the most common method among athletes; however, a new form of cryotherapy, known as whole-body cryotherapy (WBC, has recently emerged.  Since its introduction, WBC has grown in popularity among practitioners and athletes. WBC involves short exposures (generally between 2-4 minutes to very cold air (-100o C to -140o C in a controlled room and setting. Furthermore, many of the studies on WBC were observational and did not contain a control group. Conclusion: Despite its growing popularity, the alleged benefits of WBC are largely based on anecdotal evidence as randomized, clinically-controlled studies regarding its efficacy are limited.  Keywords: cryotherapy, cold water immersion, exercise, recovery, muscle damage, inflammation

  10. An iterative Rankine BEM for wave-making analysis of submerged and surface- piercing bodies in finite water depth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Guanghua


    A 3-D iterative Rankine Boundary Element Method (BEM) for seakeeping problem in time domain is developed in the framework of linear potential theory. Waves generated by both submerged and surface-piercing bodies moving at a constant forward speed in otherwise calm water, and the resultant steady wave pattern, wave profile and resistance are computed to validate this newly-developed code. A rectangular computational domain moving with the same forward speed as the body is introduced, in which an artificial damping beach is installed at an outer portion of the free surface except the downstream side for satisfying the radiation condition. The velocity potential on the ship hull and the normal velocity on the free surface are obtained directly by solving the boundary integral equation, with the Rankine source used as the kernel function. An iterative time-marching scheme is employed for updating both kinematic and dynamic free surface boundary conditions to stabilize the calculation. Extensive results including the wave patterns, wave profiles and wave resistances for a submerged spheroid and a Wigley hull with forward speed are presented to validate the efficiency of the proposed 3-D time-domain higher-order approach. Finally, the sensitivity of ship-generated waves to the water depth is investigated. Computed results show satisfactory agreement with the corresponding experimental data and other numerical solutions.

  11. Effects of voluntarily-ingested buprenorphine on plasma corticosterone levels, body weight, water intake, and behaviour in permanently catheterised rats. (United States)

    Goldkuhl, Renée; Hau, Jann; Abelson, Klas S P


    This study investigated the peri- and postoperative effect of pre-emptive analgesia through voluntary ingestion of buprenorphine in Nutella, in male Sprague-Dawley rats. An arterial catheter was inserted and the rats were connected to an automated blood sampling device (AccuSampler). Blood samples were drawn up to 18 h after surgery and the plasma concentrations of corticosterone were quantified. Postoperative changes in water intake and body weight were recorded, and the behaviour of the rats was analysed during two 30-min periods. Pre-emptive oral buprenorphine treatment reduced the plasma corticosterone levels in the postoperative period, compared to controls treated with local anaesthetics. Buprenorphine-treated rats consumed more water and maintained body weight better. Behavioural observations indicated that buprenorphine changed the behaviour in non-operated rats but there was no difference in the operated rats. The present study strengthens the hypothesis that pre-emptive oral buprenorphine in Nutella is suitable for treatment of postoperative pain in rats.

  12. Morphology of gastrointestinal tract of bearded stone loaches (Cypriniformes: Balitoridae in water bodies of the Republic of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazym Sapargalykyzy Sapargaliyeva


    Full Text Available Loaches of the family Balitoridae (order Cypriniformes are one of the most various taxons of the fishes in water bodies of Asia. The loaches are not important commercial fishes but they often are numerous in water bodies of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Central Asia. They can play a significant role in supporting of normal function of environment therefore. Investigations of morphology of digestive system are important for understanding evolution and ecosystem services of the loaches. Morphology of gastrointestinal tract of indigenous species like spotted thicklip loach Triplophysa strauchii (Kessler, 1874, Tibetan stone loach T.stoliczkai (Steindachner, 1866, gray loach T.dorsalis (Kessler, 1872, Severtsov’s loach T.sewerzowii (G.Nikolsky, 1938, and Kuschakewitsch loach Iskandaria kuschakewitschii (Herzenstein, 1890 were investigated. Fishes for the investigation were totally fixed in 10% formaldehyde, and then studied in our laboratory with conventional method. All investigated species have well developed and functionally active stomachs. Intestinal tract of Severtsov’s loach has no any loop, but has one well-marked bend in the middle part of intestine. Usually, the intestinal tracts of spotted thicklip loach and Kushakewitz’s loach have 2 loops, Tibetan stone loach has 3 loops and more, gray stone loach forms one 8-like vortex and loops. Disposition of loops of intestinal tract of Kuschakewitsch loach is similar to spotted thicklip loach, but forms O-shaped space in the body. Results of that investigation revealed that morphology of gastrointestinal tract depends on species and populations and has different length and disposition of loops.

  13. 1D and 3D inversion of VES data to outline a fresh water zone floating over saline water body at the northwestern coast of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Massoud


    Full Text Available Seawater intrusion is a widespread environmental problem in the Egyptian coastal aquifers. It affects the groundwater used in domestic and agricultural activities along these coasts. In this study, resistivity survey in the form of Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES was conducted at ZAWYET EL HAWALA cultivated site, northwest coast of Egypt to outline a freshwater zone overlies the main saltwater body, and to determine the most suitable location for drilling water well for irrigation purposes. The VES data were measured at 11 stations in the studied site. After processing, the data were inverted in 1-D and 3-D schemes and the final model was presented as resistivity slices with depth. The results indicate that the effect of saltwater intrusion was observed, as low resistivity values, at 7.5 m below ground surface (bgs at the northern part of the study area (toward the Mediterranean Sea, and extends southward with increasing depth covering the whole area at about 30 m bgs. The fresh water zone shows a minimum thickness of less than 7.5 m at the northern side and a maximum thickness of about 20 m at the southern side of the area. The proper site for drilling water well tap and the freshwater zone is the location of VES6 or VES9 with a maximum well depth of about 20 m bgs. The water withdrawal from the proposed well should be controlled not to raise the main saline water table in the well site. The main sources of the freshwater zone are the rainfall and surface runoff descending from the southern tableland. Excess rainfall and surface runoff can be avoided from direct discharge to the sea by collecting them in man-made outlined trenches and re-using the stored water in irrigation during the dry seasons.

  14. Stable isotope systematics of surface water bodies in the Himalayan and trans-Himalayan (Kashmir) region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kanchan Pandey; J T Padia; R Ramesh; K K Sharma


    Stable hydrogen (D) and oxygen (18O) isotope ratios of the headwaters of the Indus and its tributaries, surface ice in glaciers, saline and fresh water lakes and thermal springs in the Himalayan and Trans- Himalayan (Kashmir) region are reported. The D-18O relationship for the river samples shows a slope of 9.12 ± 0.29 which agrees well with the estimate of 8.99 ± 0.33 based on a simple Rayleigh fractionation model. The unique signature of a higher deuterium excess (d) of the `Western Disturbance' is preserved in these samples. An altitude effect of -0.9 per mil/km is observed in the 18O of Indus waters. At a lower altitude (Beas) the altitude effect is almost double, indicating that the altitude effect decreases with elevation in this region.

  15. Screening and identification of early warning algal species for metal contamination in fresh water bodies polluted from point and non-point sources. (United States)

    Rai, U N; Dubey, Smita; Shukla, O P; Dwivedi, S; Tripathi, R D


    The water bodies of Lucknow, Unnao and Kanpur (U.P.), India polluted through various point and non point sources were found to be either eutrophic or oligotrophic in nature. These water bodies supported a great number of algal diversity, which varied seasonally depending upon the physico-chemical properties of water. Further, the water bodies polluted through non point sources supports diverse algal species, while the water bodies polluted through point sources supports growth of tolerant blue green algae. High biomass producing algal species growing in these water bodies have accumulated significant amount of metals in their tissues. Maximum amount of Fe was found accumulated by species of Oedogonium sp. II (20,523.00 microg g(-1) dw) and Spirogyra sp. I (4,520.00 microg g(-1) dw), while maximum Chromium (Cr) was found accumulated in Phormedium bohneri (2,109.00 microg g(-1) dw) followed by Oscillatoria nigra (1,957.88 microg g(-1) dw) and Oedogonium sp. I (156.00 microg g(-1) dw) and Ni in Ulothrix sp. (495.00 microg g(-1) dw). Results showed that some of these forms growing in polluted environment and accumulating high amounts of toxic metals may be used as bioindicator species, however, their performance in metal contaminated water under different ecological niche is to be ascertained.

  16. Body shaping under water stress: osmosensing and osmoregulation of solute transport in bacteria. (United States)

    Morbach, Susanne; Krämer, Reinhard


    Fluctuation of external osmolarity is one of the most common types of environmental stress factors for all kind of cells, both of prokaryotic and of eukaryotic origin. Cells try to keep their volume and/or turgor pressure constant; consequently, both a decrease (hypoosmotic stress) and an increase (hyperosmotic stress) of the solute concentration (correctly: increase or decrease in water activity) in the surrounding area, respectively, are challenges for cellular metabolism and survival. A common example from the prokaryotic world is the fate of a soil bacterium that, after a sunny day has dried out the soil (hyperosmotic stress), is suddenly exposed to a drop of distilled water from a rain cloud (hypoosmotic stress). The immediate and inevitable passive response to the sudden osmotic shift in the surroundings is fast water efflux out of the cell in the former situation and water influx in the latter. In the worst case, these responses may lead to either loss of cell turgor and plasmolysis or to cell burst. In order to overcome such drastic consequences cells have developed effective mechanisms, namely osmoadaptation, to cope with the two different types of osmotic stress. For a graded reaction to osmotic shifts, cells must be able (1) to sense stimuli related to osmotic stress, (2) to transduce corresponding signals to those systems that properly respond (3) by activating transport or enzymatic functions or (4) by changing gene expression profiles. In this review, membrane proteins involved in the cell's active response to osmotic stress are described. Molecular details of structure, function, and regulation of mechanosensitive efflux channels from various organisms, as well as of osmoregulated uptake systems are discussed.

  17. Research on characteristics of water motion and influencing factors for the flexible air chamber jig body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yinghua; Kuang Yali; Li Haisheng


    The air bag deformation data were obtained by high-speed dynamic videos experiments. Based on gas–liquid flow VOF model, dynamic mesh technique and deformation data, numerical simulations for differ-ent structure models were achieved, and the law of water motion and influencing factors were analyzed. The results show that the flow in the length direction of the jig is smooth, and second pulsation appears in the separation time and forms the secondary separation. The installation position of screen and the num-ber of air bags have a great influence on the uniformity of flow and velocity. The screen height cannot be too low to avoid forming the unstable flow. At the same time, the screen height cannot be too high, other-wise water velocity will be too small and was unable to provide enough power. At the height of 1.4 m, velocity unevenness is minimum and the best uniform flow can be obtained. Compared with double air bags, there are the following features of single air bag:water flow is not smooth, the time achieving the maximum velocity is too long, maximum velocity is smaller, and overall effect is worse than double air bags.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Abstract18 people including staff working at different sites in an education foundation in İstanbul participated voluntarily in this research which was carried out to compare HRV values obtained through various methods applied on land and in water and to determine the most effective relaxation method. Participants’ HRV values were measured at vertical and horizontal positions on land and in watsu in water. All measurements of group were taken in different days and repeated 4 times for each position. RMSSD was analyzed as time domain parameter and HF% and rate of LF/HF were analyzed as frequency domain in HRV analysis. RR signal was recorded with 1 millisecond sensitivity. Comparison of these parameters was performed by means of Variance Analysis of Repeated Measurements. The analysis of values of watsu position indicated significant increases in RMSSD and HF% parameters. LF/HF rate, which is regarded as reflection of sympathetic modulation, was significantly lower than values of vertical and horizontal land measurements. In conclusion, the most effective relaxation was provided by watsu practiced in water.

  19. Wastewater infiltration percolation for water reuse and receiving body protection: thirteen years' experience in Spain. (United States)

    Brissaud, F; Salgot, M; Folch, M; Auset, M; Huertas, E; Torrens, A


    Infiltration percolation (IP) is an extensive technology to treat primary or secondary effluents of small and middle size communities before reuse or disposal to sensitive receiving bodies. Thirteen years of implementation of IP in Spain has highlighted the necessity to abide by defined design and construction rules and operation conditions in order to achieve consistently the treatment objectives and guarantee a long lasting treatment capacity. From this experience, high care should be taken of (i) the characteristics of the sand constituting the filter, (ii) the drainage conditions, (iii) the influent spreading over the infiltration surface and (iv) the risks related to recurrent overloading. Simple monitoring measures are suggested in order to improve the reliability of IP plants.

  20. A stochastic dynamic model to assess land use change scenarios on the ecological status of fluvial water bodies under the Water Framework Directive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Samantha Jane, E-mail: [Fluvial Ecology Laboratory, CITAB – Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real (Portugal); Cabral, João Alexandre, E-mail: [Laboratory of Applied Ecology, CITAB – Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real (Portugal); Bastos, Rita, E-mail: [Laboratory of Applied Ecology, CITAB – Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real (Portugal); Cortes, Rui, E-mail: [Fluvial Ecology Laboratory, CITAB – Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real (Portugal); Vicente, Joana, E-mail: [Centro de Investigacão em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos (CIBIO), Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); Eitelberg, David, E-mail: [Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Yu, Huirong, E-mail: [Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, 2 Yuanmingyuan W. Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100193 (China); and others


    This method development paper outlines an integrative stochastic dynamic methodology (StDM) framework to anticipate land use (LU) change effects on the ecological status of monitored and non-monitored lotic surface waters under the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Tested in the Alto Minho River Basin District in North West Portugal, the model is an innovative step towards developing a decision-making and planning tool to assess the influence impacts such as LU change and climate change on these complex systems. Comprising a series of sequential steps, a Generalized Linear Model based, competing model Multi Model Inference (MMI) approach was used for parameter estimation to identify principal land use types (distal factors) driving change in biological and physicochemical support elements (proximal factors) in monitored water bodies. The framework integrated MMI constants and coefficients of selected LU categories in the StDM simulations and spatial projections to simulate the ecological status of monitored and non-monitored lotic waterbodies in the test area under 2 scenarios of (1) LU intensification and (2) LU extensification. A total of 100 simulations were run for a 50 year period for each scenario. Spatially dynamic projections of WFD metrics were obtained, taking into account the occurrence of stochastic wildfire events which typically occur in the study region and are exacerbated by LU change. A marked projected decline to “Moderate” ecological status for most waterbodies was detected under intensification but little change under extensification; only a few waterbodies fell to “moderate” status. The latter scenario describes the actual regional socio-economic situation of agricultural abandonment due to rural poverty, partly explaining the projected lack of change in ecological status. Based on the WFD “one out all out” criterion, projected downward shifts in ecological status were due to physicochemical support elements, namely increased

  1. Novel Algorithms for Retrieval of Hydrology and Ice Regimes of Middle-sized Inland Water Bodies from Satellite Altimetry (United States)

    Troitskaya, Y. I.; Rybushkina, G. V.; Kuznetsova, A. M.; Baidakov, G. A.; Soustova, I.


    A novel method of regional adaptive re-tracking based on constructing a theoretical model describing the formation of telemetric waveforms by reflection from the piecewise constant model surface corresponding to the geography of the region is considered. The algorithm includes four consecutive steps: a) constructing a local piecewise model of a reflecting surface in the neighbourhood of the reservoir; b) solving a direct problem by calculating the reflected waveforms within the framework of the model; c) imposing restrictions and validity criteria for the algorithm based on waveform modelling; d) solving the inverse problem by retrieving a tracking point by the improved threshold algorithm. The results obtained on the basis of standard algorithm and method for adaptive re-tracking at Rybinsk , Gorky, Kuibyshev, Saratov and Volgograd reservoirs and middle-sized lakes of Russia: Chany, Segozero, Hanko, Onego, Beloye are compared to each other and to the field data of hydrological stations in reservoirs and lakes. The possibility of determination of significant wave height (SWH) in the lakes through a two-step adaptive retracking is investigated. Comparing results of retracting of SGDR data and ground measurements shows, that retrieving wave parameters in medium sized water bodies still meets difficulties. The direction of improvement of the existing algorithm is associated with comprehensive use of altimetry data, field studies and numerical modeling of high resolution. A simple method for timing of water freezing and ice break-up in lakes based on analysis of along-track dependencies of brightness temperatures at 18.7 and 34 GHz registered by microwave radiometer of altimetry satellite Jason-2. Comparison with in situ data of Russian Register of hydraulic structures on the example of reservoirs of the Volga River and the Don River confirms ability of the proposed method to determine quantitatively the freezing and break-up times for middle-sized inland water bodies.

  2. Adaptive re-tracking algorithm for retrieval of water level variations and wave heights from satellite altimetry data for middle-sized inland water bodies (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Lebedev, Sergey; Soustova, Irina; Rybushkina, Galina; Papko, Vladislav; Baidakov, Georgy; Panyutin, Andrey

    One of the recent applications of satellite altimetry originally designed for measurements of the sea level [1] is associated with remote investigation of the water level of inland waters: lakes, rivers, reservoirs [2-7]. The altimetry data re-tracking algorithms developed for open ocean conditions (e.g. Ocean-1,2) [1] often cannot be used in these cases, since the radar return is significantly contaminated by reflection from the land. The problem of minimization of errors in the water level retrieval for inland waters from altimetry measurements can be resolved by re-tracking satellite altimetry data. Recently, special re-tracking algorithms have been actively developed for re-processing altimetry data in the coastal zone when reflection from land strongly affects echo shapes: threshold re-tracking, The other methods of re-tracking (threshold re-tracking, beta-re-tracking, improved threshold re-tracking) were developed in [9-11]. The latest development in this field is PISTACH product [12], in which retracking bases on the classification of typical forms of telemetric waveforms in the coastal zones and inland water bodies. In this paper a novel method of regional adaptive re-tracking based on constructing a theoretical model describing the formation of telemetric waveforms by reflection from the piecewise constant model surface corresponding to the geography of the region is considered. It was proposed in [13, 14], where the algorithm for assessing water level in inland water bodies and in the coastal zone of the ocean with an error of about 10-15 cm was constructed. The algorithm includes four consecutive steps: - constructing a local piecewise model of a reflecting surface in the neighbourhood of the reservoir; - solving a direct problem by calculating the reflected waveforms within the framework of the model; - imposing restrictions and validity criteria for the algorithm based on waveform modelling; - solving the inverse problem by retrieving a tracking point

  3. Redox Homeostasis in Pancreatic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Ježek


    Full Text Available We reviewed mechanisms that determine reactive oxygen species (redox homeostasis, redox information signaling and metabolic/regulatory function of autocrine insulin signaling in pancreatic β cells, and consequences of oxidative stress and dysregulation of redox/information signaling for their dysfunction. We emphasize the role of mitochondrion in β cell molecular physiology and pathology, including the antioxidant role of mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP2. Since in pancreatic β cells pyruvate cannot be easily diverted towards lactate dehydrogenase for lactate formation, the respiration and oxidative phosphorylation intensity are governed by the availability of glucose, leading to a certain ATP/ADP ratio, whereas in other cell types, cell demand dictates respiration/metabolism rates. Moreover, we examine the possibility that type 2 diabetes mellitus might be considered as an inevitable result of progressive self-accelerating oxidative stress and concomitantly dysregulated information signaling in peripheral tissues as well as in pancreatic β cells. It is because the redox signaling is inherent to the insulin receptor signaling mechanism and its impairment leads to the oxidative and nitrosative stress. Also emerging concepts, admiting participation of redox signaling even in glucose sensing and insulin release in pancreatic β cells, fit in this view. For example, NADPH has been firmly established to be a modulator of glucose-stimulated insulin release.

  4. Water (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Baldwin, Helene L.


    What do you use water for?If someone asked you this question you would probably think right away of water for drinking. Then you would think of water for bathing, brushing teeth, flushing the toilet. Your list would get longer as you thought of water for cooking, washing the dishes, running the garbage grinder. Water for lawn watering, for play pools, for swimming pools, for washing the car and the dog. Water for washing machines and for air conditioning. You can hardly do without water for fun and pleasure—water for swimming, boating, fishing, water-skiing, and skin diving. In school or the public library, you need water to wash your hands, or to have a drink. If your home or school bursts into flames, quantities of water are needed to put it out.In fact, life to Americans is unthinkable without large supplies of fresh, clean water. If you give the matter a little thought, you will realize that people in many countries, even in our own, may suffer from disease and dirt simply because their homes are not equipped with running water. Imagine your own town if for some reason - an explosion, perhaps - water service were cut off for a week or several weeks. You would have to drive or walk to a neighboring town and bring water back in pails. Certainly if people had to carry water themselves they might not be inclined to bathe very often; washing clothes would be a real chore.Nothing can live without water. The earth is covered by water over three-fourths of its surface - water as a liquid in rivers, lakes and oceans, and water as ice and snow on the tops of high mountains and in the polar regions. Only one-quarter of our bodies is bone and muscle; the other three-fourths is made of water. We need water to live, and so do plants and animals. People and animals can live a long time without food, but without water they die in a few days. Without water, everything would die, and the world would turn into a huge desert.

  5. Chronobiology, endocrinology, and energy- and food-reward homeostasis. (United States)

    Gonnissen, H K J; Hulshof, T; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S


    Energy- and food-reward homeostasis is the essential component for maintaining energy balance and its disruption may lead to metabolic disorders, including obesity and diabetes. Circadian alignment, quality sleep and sleep architecture in relation to energy- and food-reward homeostasis are crucial. A reduced sleep duration, quality sleep and rapid-eye movement sleep affect substrate oxidation, leptin and ghrelin concentrations, sleeping metabolic rate, appetite, food reward, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity, and gut-peptide concentrations, enhancing a positive energy balance. Circadian misalignment affects sleep architecture and the glucose-insulin metabolism, substrate oxidation, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, leptin concentrations and HPA-axis activity. Mood disorders such as depression occur; reduced dopaminergic neuronal signaling shows decreased food reward. A good sleep hygiene, together with circadian alignment of food intake, a regular meal frequency, and attention for protein intake or diets, contributes in curing sleep abnormalities and overweight/obesity features by preventing overeating; normalizing substrate oxidation, stress, insulin and glucose metabolism including HOMA-IR index, and leptin, GLP-1 concentrations, lipid metabolism, appetite, energy expenditure and substrate oxidation; and normalizing food reward. Synchrony between circadian and metabolic processes including meal patterns plays an important role in the regulation of energy balance and body-weight control. Additive effects of circadian alignment including meal patterns, sleep restoration, and protein diets in the treatment of overweight and obesity are suggested.

  6. Heavy metals in water bodies purified by suspended substrate of rivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The equations, which are used to describe the relationships of adsorption quantity(s), adsorption percent(Pa),aqueous equilibrium concentration(c) of heavy metal on river suspended substrates and the ratio of adsorbent to water(j), are developed when heavy metal adsorption on river suspended substrate satisfies with linear adsorption equation. The results, according to the simulation from heavy metal adsorption on suspended substrates of several main Chinese rivers from a previous research report, indicated that these developed equations could describe the linear adsorption processes in practice very well, meanwhile, the adsorption equilibrium constant of adsorbent for heavy metal was an intensity factor regardless of ratio of suspended substrates to water but strongly depended on media's pH. Furthermore, the suspended substrates of Yellow River gave stronger purification ability for Pb than for Cd and Cu. When Cd was purified by different river suspended substrates, it exhibited that the order of their purification ability for Cd was that of Songhuajiang> Zhujiang>Yellow River, which was consistent with their contents of cation exchange capacity(CEC). In addition, we estimated and compared the purification ability of river suspended substrates for cadmium, and the resulting purification percent was 37.64%, 64.58% and 50.98% for Songhuajiang River, Yangtze River and Zhujiang River, respectively.

  7. Mechnism of combination membrane and electro-winning process on treatment and remediation of Cu2+ polluted water body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Linnan; WU Yanjun; QU Xiaoyan; LI Zhenshan; NI Jinren


    Mechnism of treatment and remediation of synthetic Cu2+ polluted water body by membrane and electro-winning combination process was investigated.The influnce of electrolysis voltage,pH,and electrolysis time on the metal recovery efficiencies were studied.Relationship between trans-membrane pressure drop (ΔP),additions ratio,initial Cu2+ concentration on operating efficency,stability of membrane and the possibility of water reuse were also investigated.The morphology of membrane and electrodes were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM),the composition of suface deposits was ascertained using combined energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and atomic absorption spectrophotometer.The results showed that using low presure reverse osmosis (LPRO),the Cu2+ concentration could increase from 20 mg/L to 100 mg/L or even higher in the concentrate solutions and permeate water conductivity could be less than 20 μS/cm.The addition of SDS can improve the Cu2+ removal efficiency,while EDTA had little side influence.In electro-reduction process,using plante electrode cell,Cu2+ concentration can be further reduced to 5 mg/L,and the average current efficiency ranged from 9% to 40%.Using 3D electrolysis treatment,Cu2+ concentration could be reduced to 0.5 mg/L with a current efficiency range 60%-70%.

  8. Clustering of water bodies in unpolluted and polluted environments based on Escherichia coli phylogroup abundance using a simple interaction database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy de Castro Stoppe


    Full Text Available Different types of water bodies, including lakes, streams, and coastal marine waters, are often susceptible to fecal contamination from a range of point and nonpoint sources, and have been evaluated using fecal indicator microorganisms. The most commonly used fecal indicator is Escherichia coli, but traditional cultivation methods do not allow discrimination of the source of pollution. The use of triplex PCR offers an approach that is fast and inexpensive, and here enabled the identification of phylogroups. The phylogenetic distribution of E. coli subgroups isolated from water samples revealed higher frequencies of subgroups A1 and B2(3 in rivers impacted by human pollution sources, while subgroups D1 and D2 were associated with pristine sites, and subgroup B1 with domesticated animal sources, suggesting their use as a first screening for pollution source identification. A simple classification is also proposed based on phylogenetic subgroup distribution using the w-clique metric, enabling differentiation of polluted and unpolluted sites.

  9. Mechanism of combination membrane and electro-winning process on treatment and remediation of Cu2+ polluted water body. (United States)

    Zhang, Linnan; Wu, Yanjun; Qu, Xiaoyan; Li, Zhenshan; Ni, Jinren


    Mechanism of treatment and remediation of synthetic Cu2+ polluted water body by membrane and electro-winning combination process was investigated. The influences of electrolysis voltage, pH, and electrolysis time on the metal recovery efficiencies were studied. Relationship between trans-membrane pressure drop (DeltaP), additions ratio, initial Cu2+ concentration on operating efficiency, stability of membrane and the possibility of water reuse were also investigated. The morphology of membrane and electrodes were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the composition of surface deposits was ascertained using combined energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that using low pressure reverse osmosis (LPRO), Cu2+ concentration could increase from 20 to 100 mg/L or even higher in concentrated solutions and permeate water conductivity could be less than 20 microS/cm. The addition of sodium dodecy/sulfate sodium dodecyl sulfate improved Cu2+ removal efficiency, while EDTA had little side influence. In electro-reduction process, using plante electrode cell, Cu2+ concentration could be further reduced to 5 mg/L, and the average current efficiency ranged from 9% to 40%. Using 3D electrolysis treatment, Cu2+ concentration could be reduced to 0.5 mg/L with a current efficiency range 60%-70%.

  10. Precision cosmology in muddy waters: Cosmological constraints and N-body codes

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Robert E; Potter, Doug; Marian, Laura; Crocce, Martin; Moore, Ben


    Future large-scale structure surveys of the Universe will aim to constrain the cosmological model and the true nature of dark energy with unprecedented accuracy. In order for these surveys to achieve their designed goals, they will require predictions for the nonlinear matter power spectrum to sub-percent accuracy. Through the use of a large ensemble of cosmological N-body simulations, we demonstrate that if we do not understand the uncertainties associated with simulating structure formation, i.e. knowledge of the `true' simulation parameters, and simply seek to marginalize over them, then the constraining power of such future surveys can be significantly reduced. However, for the parameters {n_s, h, Om_b, Om_m}, this effect can be largely mitigated by adding the information from a CMB experiment, like Planck. In contrast, for the amplitude of fluctuations sigma8 and the time-evolving equation of state of dark energy {w_0, w_a}, the mitigation is mild. On marginalizing over the simulation parameters, we find...

  11. Structural Characterization of a Water-Soluble Polysaccharide from the Fruiting Bodies of Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhe He


    Full Text Available An edible fungal polysaccharide termed as ABP was obtained by extraction with hot water, and followed successive chromatographic purification using DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow column and Sephacryl S-300 High-Resolution column. A symmetrical peak was obtained on high-performance size-exclusion chromatography with an average molecular weight of 5.17 × 104 Da, which was named ABP, and its main components were D-glucose and D-mannose. Based on the study of methylation analysis, along with FT-IR, GC, GC-MS, 1D 1H and 13C NMR and 2D NMR (H-HCOSY, TOCSY, HMQC, and NOESY, its chemical structure was featured with a repeating unit (1→6 linking β-D-Glcp as the main backbone with (1→4-linked α-D-Manp units. The structure of the mainly repeating units of ABP was established as: [PLEASE CHECK FORMULA IN THE PDF

  12. Calcium homeostasis in barley aleurone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.L.


    Under the auspices of the Department of Energy we investigated calcium homeostasis in aleurone cells of barley. This investigation was initiated to explore the role played by extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in gibberellic acid (GA)-induced synthesis and secretion of hydrolases in the aleurone layer. We have focused our attention on four topics that relate to the role of Ca{sup 2+} in regulating the synthesis of {alpha}-amylase. First, we determined the stoichiometry of Ca{sup 2+} binding to the two principal classes of barley {alpha}-amylase and examined some of the biochemical and physical properties of the native and Ca{sup 2+}-depleted forms of the enzyme. Second, since {alpha}-amylase is a Ca{sup 2+} containing metalloenzyme that binds one atom of Ca{sup 2+} per molecule, we developed methods to determine the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} in the cytosol of the aleurone cell. We developed a technique for introducing Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive dyes into aleurone protoplasts that allows the measurement of Ca{sup 2+} in both cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Third, because the results of our Ca{sup 2+} measurements showed higher levels of Ca{sup 2+} in the ER than in the cytosol, we examined Ca{sup 2+} transport into the ER of control and GA-treated aleurone tissue. And fourth, we applied the technique of patch-clamping to the barley aleurone protoplast to examine ion transport at the plasma membrane. Our results with the patch-clamp technique established the presence of K{sup +} channels in the plasma membrane of the aleurone protoplast, and they showed that this cell is ideally suited for the application of this methodology for studying ion transport. 34 refs.

  13. From gut homeostasis to cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radtke, F.; Clevers, J.C.; Riccio, O.


    The mammalian intestine has one of the highest turnover rates in the body. The intestinal epithelium is completely renewed in less than a week. It is divided into spatially distinct compartments in the form of finger-like projections and invaginations that are dedicated to specific functions. Intest

  14. Survival and behavior of Chinese mystery snails (Bellamya chinensis) in response to simulated water body drawdowns and extended air exposure (United States)

    Unstad, Kody M.; Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Haak, Danielle M.; Kill, Robert A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Wong, Alec


    Nonnative invasive mollusks degrade aquatic ecosystems and induce economic losses worldwide. Extended air exposure through water body drawdown is one management action used for control. In North America, the Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an invasive aquatic snail with an expanding range, but eradication methods for this species are not well documented. We assessed the ability of B. chinensis to survive different durations of air exposure, and observed behavioral responses prior to, during, and following desiccation events. Individual B. chinensis specimens survived air exposure in a laboratory setting for > 9 weeks, and survivorship was greater among adults than juveniles. Several B. chinensis specimens responded to desiccation by sealing their opercula and/or burrowing in mud substrate. Our results indicate that drawdowns alone may not be an effective means of eliminating B. chinensis. This study lays the groundwork for future management research that may determine the effectiveness of drawdowns when combined with factors such as extreme temperatures, predation, or molluscicides.

  15. Simulated body fluid and water absorption effects on poly(methyl methacrylate/hydroxyapatite denture base composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA/hydroxyapatite (HA composite has potential application in denture base materials. The denture base materials should exhibit good mechanical properties and dimensional stability in moist environment. Silane coupling agent [3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxy silane (γ-MPS] was used to treat the HA fillers in order to enhance the interfacial interaction between the PMMA and HA. In this research, the kinetics and effects of Simulated Body Fluid (SBF and water absorption on the flexural properties of PMMA/HA composites were studied for an immersion duration of 2 months. The mathematical treatment used in analyzing the data was the single free phase model of diffusion, which assumed Fickian diffusion and utilized Fick’s second law of diffusion. The kinetics of water absorption of the PMMA/HA composites conformed to Fickian law behavior, whereby the initial moisture absorption follows a linear relationship between the percentage gain at any time t and t1/2, followed by saturation. It was found that the equilibrium moisture content and the diffusion coefficient are depending on the concentration of γ-MPS in PMMA/5HA composites. The reduction of equilibrium moisture content of PMMA/5HA is due to the hydrophobic behavior of γ-MPS and compatibility of PMMA with HA. The retention ability in flexural modulus and strength of PMMA/HA composites upon subjected towater absorption are considerably good. The reduction of flexural strength of the PMMA/HA composites after water absorption and SBF absorption could be attributed to the plasticizing effect of water molecules.

  16. Entrapment of a volatile lipophilic aroma compound (d-limonene) in spray dried water-washed oil bodies naturally derived from sunflower seeds (Helianthus annus). (United States)

    Fisk, Ian D; Linforth, Robert; Trophardy, Gil; Gray, David


    Oil bodies are natural emulsions that can be extracted from oil seeds and have previously been shown to be stable after spray drying. The aim of the study was to evaluate for the first time if spray dried water-washed oil bodies are an effective carrier for volatile lipophilic actives (the flavour compound d-limonene was used as an example aroma compound). Water-washed oil bodies were blended with maltodextrin and d-limonene and spray dried using a Buchi B-191 laboratory spray dryer. Lipid and d-limonene retention was 89-93% and 24-27%. Samples were compared to processed emulsions containing sunflower oil and d-limonene and stabilised by either lecithin or Capsul. Lecithin and Capsul processed emulsions had a lipid and d-limonene retention of 82-89%, 7.7-9.1% and 48-50%, 55-59% respectively indicating that water-washed oil bodies could retain the most lipids and Capsul could retain the most d-limonene. This indicates that whilst additional emulsifiers may be required for future applications of water-washed oil bodies as carriers of lipophilic actives, oil bodies are excellent agents for lipid encapsulation.

  17. Effect of Nordic Walking and Water Aerobics Training on Body Composition and the Blood Flow in Lower Extremities in Elderly Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasiński Ryszard


    Full Text Available Nordic walking and water aerobics are very popular forms of physical activity in the elderly population. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of regular health training on the venous blood flow in lower extremities and body composition in women over 50 years old. Twenty-four women of mean age 57.9 (± 3.43 years, randomly divided into three groups (Nordic walking, water aerobics, and non-training, participated in the study. The training lasted 8 weeks, with one-hour sessions twice a week. Dietary habits were not changed. Before and after training vein refilling time and the function of the venous pump of the lower extremities were measured by photoplethysmography. Body composition was determined by bioelectrical impedance. Eight weeks of Nordic walking training improved the venous blood flow in lower extremities and normalized body composition in the direction of reducing chronic venous disorder risk factors. The average values of the refilling time variable (p = 0.04, p = 0.02, respectively decreased in both the right and the left leg. After training a statistically significant increase in the venous pump function index was found only in the right leg (p = 0.04. A significant increase in fat-free mass, body cell mass and total body water was observed (p = 0.01, whereas body mass, the body mass index, and body fat decreased (p < 0.03. With regard to water aerobic training, no similar changes in the functions of the venous system or body composition were observed.

  18. Critical body residues linked to octanol-water partitioning, organism composition, and LC50 QSARs: meta-analysis and model. (United States)

    Hendriks, A Jan; Traas, Theo P; Huijbregts, Mark A J


    To protect thousands of species from thousands of chemicals released in the environment, various risk assessment tools have been developed. Here, we link quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for response concentrations in water (LC50) to critical concentrations in organisms (C50) by a model for accumulation in lipid or non-lipid phases versus water Kpw. The model indicates that affinity for neutral body components such as storage fat yields steep Kpw-Kow relationships, whereas slopes for accumulation in polar phases such as proteins are gentle. This pattern is confirmed by LC50 QSARs for different modes of action, such as neutral versus polar narcotics and organochlorine versus organophosphor insecticides. LC50 QSARs were all between 0.00002 and 0.2Kow(-1). After calibrating the model with the intercepts and, for the first time also, with the slopes of the LC50 QSARs, critical concentrations in organisms C50 are calculated and compared to an independent validation data set. About 60% of the variability in lethal body burdens C50 is explained by the model. Explanations for differences between estimated and measured levels for 11 modes of action are discussed. In particular, relationships between the critical concentrations in organisms C50 and chemical (Kow) or species (lipid content) characteristics are specified and tested. The analysis combines different models proposed before and provides a substantial extension of the data set in comparison to previous work. Moreover, the concept is applied to species (e.g., plants, lean animals) and substances (e.g., specific modes of action) that were scarcely studied quantitatively so far.

  19. [Culture of Poecilia reticulata (Pisces: Poecilidae) in tropical water bodies, Veracruz, México]. (United States)

    Murillo, Patricia Devezé; Mendiola, Juan Lorenzo Reta; Sánchez Luna, Basilio


    Poecilia reticulata, also known as guppy, is the most popular fish in the aquarium environment. Guppys are viviparous fish with high tolerance to extreme temperatures. The development of the offspring takes between 25 and 30 days. We developed a technology for raising guppys, which outlines infrastructure and devices for reproduction, nursery, feeding, and commercialization, evaluating the financial and technical feasibility of this technology in a case study. The complete reproductive cycle occured in floating cages with 1 mm mesh and the method was tested in a tropical lagoon in Mexico. Water quality was monitored throughout the study period (temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH levels). A marketing survey was carried out at all existing aquarium shops in Veracruz City. Data collected depict quantities demanded and offered for each species by season, place of origin, and resistance to handling. The hydrobiological characteristics were: average temperature 31.4 degrees C, dissolved oxygen 4.5 mgl(-1), and pH level 6.8. With these values we built a production function, and used it to evaluate profitability. We estimate a benefit/cost ratio of 1.16, with a net annual income of US$257.67. The system may provide two permanent jobs.

  20. Determinação dos valores de glicemia, insulinemia e índice (HOMA em escolares e adolescentes eutróficos Determination of glycemia and insulinemia and the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA in schoolchildren and adolescents with normal body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. N. de Almeida


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar, entre um grupo de crianças e adolescentes eutróficos, os valores de glicemia e insulinemia de jejum e de índice homeostasis model assessment (HOMA. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal realizado em duas escolas públicas de Ribeirão Preto (SP. Foram obtidas medidas antropométricas, dados pessoais e colhida amostra de sangue venoso de 447 crianças e adolescentes eutróficos, de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 7 e 17,9 anos, maturadores médios. Mediram-se glicemia de jejum e insulinemia de jejum e calculou-se o HOMA. Utilizando o teste de Mann-Whitney, foram realizadas comparações entre os valores obtidos para meninos e meninas em cada faixa etária. Posteriormente, utilizando o teste de Kruskal-Wallis, foram comparados os valores em cada faixa etária para meninos e meninas. RESULTADOS: Entre as meninas, os valores de glicemia apresentaram variação entre 7 a 8,9 anos (p = 0,0005. Para ambos os sexos, em relação à insulinemia, ocorreu variação de acordo com a idade (p OBJECTIVE: To determine fasting glycemia and insulinemia levels and the HOMA index in a group of children and adolescents with normal body mass index (BMI. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at two public schools in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. A total of 447 children and adolescents of both sexes, with normal BMI, aged 7 to 17.9 years and of average maturity for their age, underwent anthropometric measurements and provided personal data and a sample of venous blood so that glycemia, insulinemia and HOMA index could be determined. The results obtained for boys and girls were compared for each age range using the Mann-Whitney test. The results within each age band were then compared for boys and girls using the Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: Glycemia results varied from 7 to 8.9 years (p = 0.0005. Fasting insulinemia varied significantly with age in both sexes (p < 0.001, with the highest values observed among children aged 13 to

  1. Air pollution particles and iron homeostasis (United States)

    Background: The mechanism underlying biological effects of particles deposited in the lung has not been defined. Major Conclusions: A disruption in iron homeostasis follows exposure of cells to all particulate matter including air pollution particles. Following endocytosis, fun...

  2. Does microbiota composition affect thyroid homeostasis? (United States)

    Virili, Camilla; Centanni, Marco


    The intestinal microbiota is essential for the host to ensure digestive and immunologic homeostasis. When microbiota homeostasis is impaired and dysbiosis occurs, the malfunction of epithelial barrier leads to intestinal and systemic disorders, chiefly immunologic and metabolic. The role of the intestinal tract is crucial in the metabolism of nutrients, drugs, and hormones, including exogenous and endogenous iodothyronines as well as micronutrients involved in thyroid homeostasis. However, the link between thyroid homeostasis and microbiota composition is not yet completely ascertained. A pathogenetic link with dysbiosis has been described in different autoimmune disorders but not yet fully elucidated in autoimmune thyroid disease which represents the most frequent of them. Anyway, it has been suggested that intestinal dysbiosis may trigger autoimmune thyroiditis. Furthermore, hypo- and hyper-thyroidism, often of autoimmune origin, were respectively associated to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and to changes in microbiota composition. Whether some steps of this thyroid network may be affected by intestinal microbiota composition is briefly discussed below.

  3. Molecular Characterization of Acanthamoeba spp. Occurring in Water Bodies and Patients in Poland and Redefinition of Polish T16 Genotype. (United States)

    Adamska, Małgorzata


    Acanthamoeba genus is divided into 20 genotypes (T1-T20) on the basis of the gene encoding 18S rRNA sequence. Using of at least 2 kbp gene fragments is strongly recommended to identify new genotypes and 5% difference is commonly used as a criterion of new genotypes, however, this value is questionable. In this paper, Polish Acanthamoeba strains described earlier on the basis of ~850 bp Ami fragment of 18S rRNA gene as T4, T11 and a new T16 genotype, have been analyzed using near-complete sequence of the gene. This analysis was needed because the Ami fragment does not reveal full variability within 18S rRNA gene. Phylogenetic analysis based on Ami fragment is biased by artifacts in the construction of the tree, so the fragment should not be used for identification of new putative Acanthamoeba genotypes. The analysis confirmed that the Polish sequences represent T4 and T11 genotypes and that the strains described earlier as T16 genotype are in fact a new subgroup of the T20 genotype and that this genotype should be divided into two subgroups: T20a (two strains described by [J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 62 (2015) 69]) and T20b (11 Polish strains described in this study). The T20b subgroup was isolated from both clinical samples and water bodies used by people as bathing places and there is a risk of infection for humans during contact with water.

  4. Modeling of Regionalized Emissions (MoRE into Water Bodies: An Open-Source River Basin Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Fuchs


    Full Text Available An accurate budget of substance emissions is fundamental for protecting freshwater resources. In this context, the European Union asks all member states to report an emission inventory of substances for river basins. The river basin management system MoRE (Modeling of Regionalized Emissions was developed as a flexible open-source instrument which is able to model pathway-specific emissions and river loads on a catchment scale. As the reporting tool for the Federal Republic of Germany, MoRE is used to model annual emissions of nutrients, heavy metals, micropollutants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, Bis(2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP, and certain pharmaceuticals. Observed loads at gauging stations are used to validate the calculated emissions. In addition to its balancing capabilities, MoRE can consider different variants of input data and quantification approaches, in order to improve the robustness of different modeling approaches and to evaluate the quality of different input data. No programming skills are required to set up and run the model. Due to its flexible modeling base, the effect of reduction measures can be assessed. Within strategic planning processes, this is relevant for the allocation of investments or the implementation of specific measures to reduce the overall pollutant emissions into surface water bodies and therefore to meet the requirements of water policy.

  5. Correlation of drinking water nutritional element levels with body composition of women aged 55-70 years living in Batman province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Çetin


    Full Text Available Objective: A growing interest in cellular targets of nutritional minerals and biochemical mechanisms has attracted the attentions of researchers towards their role in formation of obesity. However, there is no study investigating the effects of nutritional element levels of drinking water on body composition of the elderly. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effects of nutritional element levels in drinking water on body composition of women aged 55-70. Methods: The study population consisted of 80 participants in total, and was divided into three groups as overweight, obese and control women aged between 55-70. The bioelectric impedance device was used for measurements of body composition of the participants. Iron (Fe, copper (Cu, cobalt (Co, zinc (Zn, manganese (Mn and selenium (Se levels of drinking water were measured via plasma mass spectrometry coupled inductively. Results: It was found that Se mineral content in drinking water correlated with the body mass index of the individuals living in Batman, Turkey. Moreover, it was found that Fe, Cu, Co, Zn, Mn and Se levels of drinking water significantly correlated with the abdominal adiposity of women of 55-70. Conclusion: It may be suggested that the obesity risk may be higher in women who are between 55-70 and consume drinking water with high levels of Fe, Cu, Co, Zn, Mn and especially Se.

  6. Melatonin improves glucose homeostasis in young Zucker diabetic fatty rats. (United States)

    Agil, Ahmad; Rosado, Isaac; Ruiz, Rosario; Figueroa, Adriana; Zen, Nourahouda; Fernández-Vázquez, Gumersindo


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin on glucose homeostasis in young male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, an experimental model of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). ZDF rats (n=30) and lean littermates (ZL) (n=30) were used. At 6wk of age, both lean and fatty animals were subdivided into three groups, each composed of ten rats: naive (N), vehicle treated (V), and melatonin treated (M) (10mg/kg/day) for 6wk. Vehicle and melatonin were added to the drinking water. ZDF rats developed DM (fasting hyperglycemia, 460±39.8mg/dL; HbA(1) c 8.3±0.5%) with both insulin resistance (HOMA-IR 9.28±0.9 versus 1.2±0.1 in ZL) and decreased β-cell function (HOMA1-%B) by 75%, compared with ZL rats. Melatonin reduced fasting hyperglycemia by 18.6% (Pmelatonin lowered insulinemia by 15.9% (Pmelatonin decreased hyperleptinemia by 34% (Pmelatonin reduced serum free fatty acid levels by 13.5% (Pmelatonin administration ameliorates glucose homeostasis in young ZDF rats by improving both insulin action and β-cell function. These observations have implications on melatonin's possible use as a new pharmacologic therapy for improving glucose homeostasis and of obesity-related T2DM, in young subjects.

  7. Energy homeostasis regulatory peptides in hibernating grizzly bears. (United States)

    Gardi, János; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Szentirmai, Eva; Kapás, Levente; Krueger, James M


    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) are inactive for up to 6 months during hibernation. They undergo profound seasonal changes in food intake, body mass, and energy expenditure. The circa-annual regulation of metabolism is poorly understood. In this study, we measured plasma ghrelin, leptin, obestatin, and neuropeptide-Y (NPY) levels, hormones known to be involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, in ten grizzly bears. Blood samples were collected during the active summer period, early hibernation and late hibernation. Plasma levels of leptin, obestatin, and NPY did not change between the active and the hibernation periods. Plasma total ghrelin and desacyl-ghrelin concentrations significantly decreased during the inactive winter period compared to summer levels. The elevated ghrelin levels may help enhance body mass during pre-hibernation, while the low plasma ghrelin concentrations during hibernation season may contribute to the maintenance of hypophagia, low energy utilization and behavioral inactivity. Our results suggest that ghrelin plays a potential role in the regulation of metabolic changes and energy homeostasis during hibernation in grizzly bears.

  8. [The disturbances of the thyroid hormone homeostasis caused by chemical substances occurring in natural environment]. (United States)

    Kiałka, Marta; Doroszewska, Katarzyna; Mrozińska, Sandra; Milewicz, Tomasz; Stochmal, Ewa; Krzysiek, Józef


    The thyroid is an endocrine gland synthesizing, storaging and secreting thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Currently, there are more and more reports and evidences that various chemical contaminants present in the environment, mainly polychlorinated biphenyls, interfere with stages of regulation, synthesis, secretion, transport of thyroid hormones. That can have a significant negative impact on the human body's endocrine homeostasis.

  9. Hormones and the Autonomic Nervous System are Involved in Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Modulation of Glucose Homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, M.; Buijs, R.M.; Kalsbeek, A.


    Glucose is one of the most important energy sources for the body in general, and the brain in particular. It is essential for survival to keep glucose levels within strict boundaries. Acute disturbances of glucose homeostasis are rapidly corrected by hormonal and neuronal mechanisms. Furthermore, ch

  10. Renal control of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium homeostasis. (United States)

    Blaine, Judith; Chonchol, Michel; Levi, Moshe


    Calcium, phosphate, and magnesium are multivalent cations that are important for many biologic and cellular functions. The kidneys play a central role in the homeostasis of these ions. Gastrointestinal absorption is balanced by renal excretion. When body stores of these ions decline significantly, gastrointestinal absorption, bone resorption, and renal tubular reabsorption increase to normalize their levels. Renal regulation of these ions occurs through glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption and/or secretion and is therefore an important determinant of plasma ion concentration. Under physiologic conditions, the whole body balance of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium is maintained by fine adjustments of urinary excretion to equal the net intake. This review discusses how calcium, phosphate, and magnesium are handled by the kidneys.

  11. Ghrelin O-Acyl Transferase: Bridging Ghrelin and Energy Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Shlimun


    Full Text Available Ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT is a recently identified enzyme responsible for the unique n-acyl modification of ghrelin, a multifunctional metabolic hormone. GOAT structure and activity appears to be conserved from fish to man. Since the acyl modification is critical for most of the biological actions of ghrelin, especially metabolic functions, GOAT emerged as a very important molecule of interest. The research on GOAT is on the rise, and several important results reiterating its significance have been reported. Notable among these discoveries are the identification of GOAT tissue expression patterns, effects on insulin secretion, blood glucose levels, feeding, body weight, and metabolism. Several attempts have been made to design and test synthetic compounds that can modulate endogenous GOAT, which could turn beneficial in favorably regulating whole body energy homeostasis. This paper will focus to provide an update on recent advances in GOAT research and its broader implications in the regulation of energy balance.

  12. Chronic Sleep Disturbance Impairs Glucose Homeostasis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Paulien Barf


    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown an association between short or disrupted sleep and an increased risk for metabolic disorders. To assess a possible causal relationship, we examined the effects of experimental sleep disturbance on glucose regulation in Wistar rats under controlled laboratory conditions. Three groups of animals were used: a sleep restriction group (RS, a group subjected to moderate sleep disturbance without restriction of sleep time (DS, and a home cage control group. To establish changes in glucose regulation, animals were subjected to intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs before and after 1 or 8 days of sleep restriction or disturbance. Data show that both RS and DS reduce body weight without affecting food intake and also lead to hyperglycemia and decreased insulin levels during an IVGTT. Acute sleep disturbance also caused hyperglycemia during an IVGTT, yet, without affecting the insulin response. In conclusion, both moderate and severe disturbances of sleep markedly affect glucose homeostasis and body weight control.

  13. Fate and transport of perfluoro- and polyfluoroalkyl substances including perfluorooctane sulfonamides in a managed urban water body. (United States)

    Nguyen, Tung V; Reinhard, Martin; Chen, Huiting; Gin, Karina Y-H


    Transport and fate of perfluoro- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in an urban water body that receives mainly urban runoff was investigated. Water, suspended solids, and sediment samples were collected during the monsoon (wet) and inter-monsoon (dry) season at different sites and depths. Samples were analyzed for C7 to C12 perfluoroalkyl carboxylate homologues (PFCAs) (PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA), perfluorohexane, perfluorooctane, and 6:2-fluorotelomer sulfonate (PFHxS, PFOS, and 6:2FtS, respectively), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), N-ethyl FOSA (sulfluramid), N-ethyl sulfonamidoethanol (N-EtFOSE), and N-methyl and N-ethyl sulfonamidoacetic acid (N-EtFOSAA and N-MeFOSAA, respectively). Concentrations in wet samples were only slightly higher. The sum total PFAS (ΣPFAS) concentrations dissolved in the aqueous phase and sorbed to suspended solids (SS) ranged from 107 to 253 ng/L and 11 to 158 ng/L, respectively. PFOA, PFOS, PFNA, PFHxS, and PFDA contributed most (approximately 90 %) to the dissolved ΣPFASs. N-EtFOSA dominated the particulate PFAS burden in wet samples. K D values of PFOA and PFOS calculated from paired SS and water concentrations varied widely (1.4 to 13.7 and 1.9 to 98.9 for PFOA and PFOS, respectively). Field derived K D was significantly higher than laboratory K D suggesting hydrophobic PFASs sorbed to SS resist desorption. The ΣPFAS concentrations in the top sedimentary layer ranged from 8 to 42 μg/kg and indicated preferential accumulation of the strongly sorbing long-chain PFASs. The occurrence of the metabolites N-MeFOSAA, N-EtFOSAA and FOSA in the water column and sediments may have resulted from biological or photochemical transformations of perfluorooctane sulfonamide precursors while the absence of FOSA, N-EtFOSA and 6:2FtS in sediments was consistent with biotransformation.

  14. Coordinated FA-MS and SIFT-MS analyses of breath following ingestion of D2O and ethanol: total body water, dispersal kinetics and ethanol metabolism. (United States)

    Spanel, Patrik; Wang, Tianshu; Smith, David


    A coordinated study of the dispersal of water between the various body compartments (stomach and gut, blood stream and tissue) and the similar dispersal kinetics of ethanol and its metabolism has been carried out involving two healthy volunteers using flowing afterglow mass spectrometry, FA-MS, and selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS. Thus, using these techniques, the variations of HDO and ethanol in breath, measured in successive single exhalations, were followed in real time after the ingestion of measured quantities of D2O and ethanol in proportion to the body weights of the subjects at the dose rates D2O approximately 0.283 g kg-1, ethanol approximately 0.067 g kg-1. During the FA-MS experimental periods (about 2 h), the dispersion of HDO into the body water and finally its equilibration in the total body water is observed from which total body water for each subject was determined. In the SIFT-MS measurements, the dispersion of ethanol into the body water and its loss via metabolism was observed until the physiological (pre-dose) breath level of ethanol for each individual was restored. A simple linear transformation is used to derive the time variations of the blood levels of HDO and ethanol. This has allowed a comparison of the fractions of the ingested ethanol that are metabolized during first-pass metabolism for the two subjects. Thus, in one subject 30% and in the other subject 40% of the ingested alcohol is metabolized in the first 20 min following ingestion. The good time resolution allowed by non-invasive breath analysis ensures that the rates of processes such as ethanol metabolism can be accurately measured. Simultaneous measurements of breath acetaldehyde (largely formed via the ethanol metabolism) and acetone were also performed during the SIFT-MS single breath exhalations.

  15. Three new species of cercariae from Melanopsis praemorsa (L. 1758, Buccinum) snails in Al-Bathan fresh water body, Palestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sami Bdir; Ghaleb Adwan


    Objective: To investigate other new species of cercariae encountered in Melanopsis praemorsa (M. praemorsa) snails collected from Palestine. Methods: A total of 1 100 M. praemorsa were collected from Al-Bathan water body, Palestine, from November, 2010 to November, 2011. Cercariae in M. praemorsa were obtained by emerging and crushing methods. Results: Other three new different species of cercariae have been identified from this snail. These species were Xiphidiocercaria (Cercaria melanopsi palestinia IV), Microcercous (Cercaria melanopsi palestinia V) and Longifurcate cercaria (Cercaria melanopsi palestinia VI). The infection rate ofM. praemorsa with these three different cercariae was (42.2%). Coinfection with Xiphidiocercariae and Longifurcate cercariae or Xiphidiocercariae and Microcercous cercariae has been noted and coinfection rate was 1.23% among the infected snails. The highest cercarial infection rate was in June (64.3%). No infected snails were found in September. It was also noted that infected snails attained a larger size than uninfected ones and all infected snails had a size between 17-22 mm (average 20 mm). Conclusions: Our studies imply that there are potentially more new species of trematodes in this area than were found until now. Due to the presence of infected M. praemorsa and may be species of other snails, water resources could be contaminated by the emerging new cercariae, consequently attack the local people directly via the skin or are transferred to them by metacercariae ingestion. More surveys are needed to identify the real prevalence of the trematodes both in human and animal hosts, and also to determine the range of snail hosts of the parasite in enzootic areas of the disease, as well as the life cycle and biology of trematodes and its effects on man should be elucidated.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Ghosh


    Full Text Available Roadside transitory water bodies being manmade depressions have a great ecological and socio-economic importance from years. The effects of agricultural runoffs, jute retting, macro-phytes infestations and inadequate rainfall in changed climate often degrade transitory water bodies’ environment while the biodiversity have impacted severely because of population pressure, over exploitation and indiscriminate use of fine meshed fishing gears as a whole. Physico-chemical and biological analysis with fish species composition, relative abundance, diversity indices like species richness, evenness and Shannon-Wiener index were carried out for pre-, during and post-jute retting season and for year mean as a whole to assess impact of jute retting on the roadside transitory water body’s environmental health and indigenous fish diversity at Sahebnagar village in Nadia District, India. All the physico-chemical parameters barring biochemical oxygen demand and water transparency remained more or less same or marginally got little changed during those three seasons. As much as 19 native fish species with varied relative abundances and dominances were identified. Jute retting impacted lower native fish diversity indices like Shannon-Wiener index values (1.94 to 2.68 clearly indicated poor to moderate pollution status of the transitory water body in that area during monsoon in particular and throughout the year in general. So we opined there should be some control over the intense jute retting in the road side transitory water bodies for sustainable management of these manmade resources.

  17. Field study and numerical modeling of wind and surface waves at the middle-sized water body (United States)

    Baydakov, Georgy; Kuznetsova, Alexandra; Sergeev, Daniil; Papko, Vladislav; Kandaurov, Alexander; Vdovin, Maxim; Troitskaya, Yuliya


    different parameterizations of flux both provided in WAVEWATCH III and in the inserted suggested experimental parameterization. For the cases with default WAVEWATCH III flux parameterizations, wave amplitude characteristics were overestimated, and spectral maxima showed the downshifting comparing with the measured data. Insertion of the suggested parameterization of flux input improved the coincidence. The difference in the use of WAM3 and Tolman & Chalikov source packages is discussed. To conclude, we discuss the applicability of suggested flux parameterization: it increases the accuracy of the simulations and makes possible the application of this technique for getting the surface wind waves forecasts on the water bodies. The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research under Grant No. 15-45-02580,RFBR grant 14-05-31343, President Grant for young scientists MK-3550.2014.5, RSF 14-17-00667. References 1. Babanin and Makin Effects of wind trend and gustiness on the sea drag: Lake George study // Journal of Geophysical Research, 2008, 113, C02015, doi:10.1029/2007JC004233 2. Atakturk and Katsaros Wind Stress and Surface Waves Observed on Lake Washington // Journal of Physical Oceanography, 1999, 29, pp. 633-650

  18. Iron homeostasis: new players, newer insights. (United States)

    Edison, Eunice S; Bajel, Ashish; Chandy, Mammen


    Although iron is a relatively abundant element in the universe, it is estimated that more than 2 billion people worldwide suffer from iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency results in impaired production of iron-containing proteins, the most prominent of which is hemoglobin. Cellular iron deficiency inhibits cell growth and subsequently leads to cell death. Hemochromatosis, an inherited disorder results in disproportionate absorption of iron and the extra iron builds up in tissues resulting in organ damage. As both iron deficiency and iron overload have adverse effects, cellular and systemic iron homeostasis is critically important. Recent advances in the field of iron metabolism have led to newer understanding of the pathways involved in iron homeostasis and the diseases which arise from alteration in the regulators. Although insight into this complex regulation of the proteins involved in iron homeostasis has been obtained mainly through animal studies, it is most likely that this knowledge can be directly extrapolated to humans.

  19. Hydrogen-Rich Water Ameliorates Total Body Irradiation-Induced Hematopoietic Stem Cell Injury by Reducing Hydroxyl Radical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junling Zhang


    Full Text Available We examined whether consumption of hydrogen-rich water (HW could ameliorate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC injury in mice with total body irradiation (TBI. The results indicated that HW alleviated TBI-induced HSC injury with respect to cell number alteration and to the self-renewal and differentiation of HSCs. HW specifically decreased hydroxyl radical (OH∙ levels in the c-kit+ cells of 4 Gy irradiated mice. Proliferative bone marrow cells (BMCs increased and apoptotic c-kit+ cells decreased in irradiated mice uptaken with HW. In addition, the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI of γ-H2AX and percentage of 8-oxoguanine positive cells significantly decreased in HW-treated c-kit+ cells, indicating that HW can alleviate TBI-induced DNA damage and oxidative DNA damage in c-kit+ cells. Finally, the cell cycle (P21, cell apoptosis (BCL-XL and BAK, and oxidative stress (NRF2, HO-1, NQO1, SOD, and GPX1 proteins were significantly altered by HW in irradiated mouse c-kit+ cells. Collectively, the present results suggest that HW protects against TBI-induced HSC injury.

  20. Seasonal variations of rotifers from a high altitude urban shallow water body, La Cantera Oriente (Mexico City, Mexico) (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Sergio González; Sarma, S. S. S.; Nandini, S.


    La Cantera Oriente is a shallow freshwater volcanic water body located at an altitude of 2 270 m above sea level in the Ecological Reserve of San Angel Pedregal of Mexico City (Mexico). In order to ensure the conservation of its biological heritage including zooplankton, the present work was undertaken to quantify the seasonal changes in the diversity and density of rotifers and the selected physico-chemical variables during 2013-2014. Qualitative analysis of the zooplankton samples yielded 68 rotifer species which represented 24 genera in 15 families. B rachionus calyciflorus Pallas, 1766, B. quadridentatus Hermann, 1783, Polyarthra vulgaris Carlin, 1943, Lecane closterocerca (Schmarda, 1859) and Keratella cochlearis (Gosse, 1851) were the most common species. Preston plots of species frequency-density revealed that as many as 30% of the rotifer taxa were dominant throughout the year. The species with high population densities were Brachionus quadridentatus, Lecane closterocerca, Keratella cochlearis, and Lepadella patella; their peak densities were 2 000, 1 000, 180 and 90 ind./L, all occurring in summer. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that Platyias quadricornis was related to the concentration of phosphates available in the environment and the conductivity, while B. quadridentatus was positively correlated with chlorophyll-a. The trophic status of the lake was eutrophic based on Chl-a content but oligotrophic with relation to the Brachionus:Trichocerca ratio.

  1. Inhibition of anaphylaxis-like reaction and mast cell activation by water extract from the fruiting body of Phellinus linteus. (United States)

    Choi, Yun Ho; Yan, Guang Hai; Chai, Ok Hee; Lim, Jung Min; Sung, So Young; Zhang, Xin; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Choi, Su Hwan; Lee, Moo Sam; Han, Eui-Hyeog; Kim, Hyoung Tae; Song, Chang Ho


    Mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reaction is involved in many allergic diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. Phellinus linteus has been used as a traditional herb medicine in oriental countries and is known to have anti-tumor, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and anti-allergic activities. However, roles of Phellinus linteus in the mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reactions have not fully been examined. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of water extract from the fruiting body of Phellinus linteus (WEPL) on mast cell-mediated anaphylaxis-like reactions. Oral administration of WEPL inhibited the compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis-like reaction and ear swelling response. WEPL also inhibited the anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE-mediated passive systemic and cutaneous anaphylaxis. WEPL had no cytotoxicity on rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC). WEPL dose-dependently reduced histamine release from RPMC activated by compound 48/80 or anti-DNP IgE. Moreover, WEPL decreased the compound 48/80-induced calcium uptake into RPMC. Furthermore, WEPL increased the level of intracellular cAMP and significantly inhibited the compound 48/80-induced cAMP reduction in RPMC. These results suggest that WEPL may serve as an effective therapeutic agent for allergic diseases.

  2. Bog bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels


    the bog bodies have been studied using medical and natural scientific methods, and recently many bog bodies have been re-examined using especially modern, medical imaging techniques. Because of the preservation of soft tissue, especially the skin, it has been possible to determine lesions and trauma....... Conversely, the preservation of bones is less good, as the mineral component has been leached out by the acidic bog. Together with water-logging of collagenous tissue, this means that if the bog body is simply left to dry out when found, as was the case pre-19th century, the bones may literally warp...... presents an overview of our knowledge about the taphomic processes as well as the methods used in bog body research....

  3. A stochastic dynamic model to assess land use change scenarios on the ecological status of fluvial water bodies under the Water Framework Directive. (United States)

    Hughes, Samantha Jane; Cabral, João Alexandre; Bastos, Rita; Cortes, Rui; Vicente, Joana; Eitelberg, David; Yu, Huirong; Honrado, João; Santos, Mário


    This method development paper outlines an integrative stochastic dynamic methodology (StDM) framework to anticipate land use (LU) change effects on the ecological status of monitored and non-monitored lotic surface waters under the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Tested in the Alto Minho River Basin District in North West Portugal, the model is an innovative step towards developing a decision-making and planning tool to assess the influence impacts such as LU change and climate change on these complex systems. Comprising a series of sequential steps, a Generalized Linear Model based, competing model Multi Model Inference (MMI) approach was used for parameter estimation to identify principal land use types (distal factors) driving change in biological and physicochemical support elements (proximal factors) in monitored water bodies. The framework integrated MMI constants and coefficients of selected LU categories in the StDM simulations and spatial projections to simulate the ecological status of monitored and non-monitored lotic waterbodies in the test area under 2 scenarios of (1) LU intensification and (2) LU extensification. A total of 100 simulations were run for a 50year period for each scenario. Spatially dynamic projections of WFD metrics were obtained, taking into account the occurrence of stochastic wildfire events which typically occur in the study region and are exacerbated by LU change. A marked projected decline to "Moderate" ecological status for most waterbodies was detected under intensification but little change under extensification; only a few waterbodies fell to "moderate" status. The latter scenario describes the actual regional socio-economic situation of agricultural abandonment due to rural poverty, partly explaining the projected lack of change in ecological status. Based on the WFD "one out all out" criterion, projected downward shifts in ecological status were due to physicochemical support elements, namely increased phosphorus levels

  4. Bioaccumulation of metals in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) from water bodies of Anatolia (Turkey): a review with implications for fisheries and human food consumption. (United States)

    Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Tarkan, Ali Serhan


    Although fish is widely consumed by humans for its nutritional properties, accumulation of heavy metals can pose serious health hazards. Widespread common carp Cyprinus carpio is cultured worldwide and represents an economically important species for fisheries in several countries. These include Turkey, where C. carpio often makes for a large part of the sales of the locally marketed fish and also for a traditional dish. This study provides a review of bioaccumulation of metals in tissues of C. carpio from water bodies of Anatolia and also includes reference to worldwide studies. From 42 water bodies across the region, 27 metals in total were studied, of which Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were the most widely analysed, mainly in the muscle, liver and gill tissues. Amongst the potentially toxic metals, Cd, Cr and Pb occurred in several water bodies at concentrations not only above maximum allowed limits but also higher relative to other water bodies worldwide, even though As, Hg and Ni were also sometimes present at potentially hazardous concentrations. The essential metals Cu, Fe, Mn, Se and Zn were detected at various concentrations, with the latter two occasionally above limit. All water bodies flagged as having especially critical (i.e. above limit) concentrations of toxic metals supported C. carpio fisheries from highly populated regions, raising concern about food safety and calling for preventative measures. Given the significantly lower bioaccumulation levels in the muscle relative to the liver and gill tissues, it is suggested that consumption of C. carpio as fillets may be safer than after processing into e.g. meat balls and sausages. The limits of 1.0 μg/g for Cr and 1.15 μg/g for Se, currently lacking from the Turkish food safety legislation, are proposed, and it is suggested that a similar meta-analytical approach as adopted in this study may benefit other countries where C. carpio represents an important fisheries resource.

  5. A satellite-based climatology (1989-2012) of lake surface water temperature from AVHRR 1-km for Central European water bodies (United States)

    Riffler, Michael; Wunderle, Stefan


    The temperature of lakes is an important parameter for lake ecosystems influencing the speed of physio-chemical reactions, the concentration of dissolved gazes (e.g. oxygen), and vertical mixing. Even small temperature changes might have irreversible effects on the lacustrine system due to the high specific heat capacity of water. These effects could alter the quality of lake water depending on parameters like lake size and volume. Numerous studies mention lake water temperature as an indicator of climate change and in the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) requirements it is listed as an essential climate variable. In contrast to in situ observations, satellite imagery offers the possibility to derive spatial patterns of lake surface water temperature (LSWT) and their variability. Moreover, although for some European lakes long in situ time series are available, the temperatures of many lakes are not measured or only on a non-regular basis making these observations insufficient for climate monitoring. However, only few satellite sensors offer the possibility to analyze time series which cover more than 20 years. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is among these and has been flown on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and on the Meteorological Operational Satellites (MetOp) from the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) as a heritage instrument for almost 35 years. It will be carried on for at least ten more years finally offering a unique opportunity for satellite-based climate studies. Herein we present the results from a study initiated by the Swiss GCOS office to generate a satellite-based LSWT climatology for the pre-alpine water bodies in Switzerland. It relies on the extensive AVHRR 1-km data record (1985-2012) of the Remote Sensing Research Group at the University of Bern (RSGB) and has been derived from the AVHRR/2

  6. Negative elongation factor controls energy homeostasis in cardiomyocytes. (United States)

    Pan, Haihui; Qin, Kunhua; Guo, Zhanyong; Ma, Yonggang; April, Craig; Gao, Xiaoli; Andrews, Thomas G; Bokov, Alex; Zhang, Jianhua; Chen, Yidong; Weintraub, Susan T; Fan, Jian-Bing; Wang, Degeng; Hu, Yanfen; Aune, Gregory J; Lindsey, Merry L; Li, Rong


    Negative elongation factor (NELF) is known to enforce promoter-proximal pausing of RNA polymerase II (Pol II), a pervasive phenomenon observed across multicellular genomes. However, the physiological impact of NELF on tissue homeostasis remains unclear. Here, we show that whole-body conditional deletion of the B subunit of NELF (NELF-B) in adult mice results in cardiomyopathy and impaired response to cardiac stress. Tissue-specific knockout of NELF-B confirms its cell-autonomous function in cardiomyocytes. NELF directly supports transcription of those genes encoding rate-limiting enzymes in fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. NELF also shares extensively transcriptional target genes with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a master regulator of energy metabolism in the myocardium. Mechanistically, NELF helps stabilize the transcription initiation complex at the metabolism-related genes. Our findings strongly indicate that NELF is part of the PPARα-mediated transcription regulatory network that maintains metabolic homeostasis in cardiomyocytes.

  7. The effect of intake of water on the final values of body composition parameters in active athletes using two different bioimpedance analyzers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kutáč


    Full Text Available Background:The method of bioelectrical impedance (BIA is frequently used to estimate body composition in sports. The total body water (TBW is the basic variable that BIA measures. That implies the degree of sensitivity of BIA to the hydration of the organism, which is also demonstrated by the principles of measurement that primarily relate to the hydration of the organism. It is difficult to provide standard hydration of the organism of subjects prior to measurements when taking the measurements in the field. Objective:The objective of the study is to assess the changes in the final values of the selected body composition parameters in soccer players caused by intake of water, using two devices commonly used in the field. Methods:The research was performed in a group of 33 soccer players (mean age 20.30 ± 1.18 years. The measurements were taken using Tanita BC 418 MA (frequency 50 kHz and Nutriguard-M (frequency 100 kHz. To evaluate the effect of water intake, we took two measurements before and after the intake of 500 ml of water. The parameters measured by Tanita BC 418 MA were body weight (BW, total body water (TBW, body fat (BF, fat free mass (FFM. Nutriguard-M was used to measure total body water (TBW, intra and extracellular water (ICW and ECW, body fat (BF, fat free mass (FFM, intra and extracellular mass (BCM and ECM. The differences in the means (M1 and M2 of the monitored parameters were evaluated using the Paired Samples t-test. In statistically significant differences in the mean, the practical significance was also verified using the effect of size (Cohen's d. Results:The Tanita device showed statistically significant differences after the intake of 500 ml in parameters BW (+0.42 kg, BF (+0.39 kg, +0.53% and TBW (-0.38%. As for the Nutriguard device, statistically significant differences were found in parameters TBW (+0.77 kg, ICW (+0.83 kg, FFM (+1.05 kg, BCM (+0.79 kg and ECM/BCM (-0.01. Conclusion

  8. Assessing plasma lipid levels, body weight, and hepatic and renal toxicity following chronic oral administration of a water soluble phytostanol compound, FM-VP4, to gerbils. (United States)

    Wasan, K M; Najafi, S; Wong, J; Kwong, M; Pritchard, P H


    The purpose of this project was to determine the effect of a FM-VP4 when incorporated into the diet or drinking water on plasma lipids, body weight, and hepatic and renal function following chronic oral administration to gerbils. Gerbils were administered water and food daily containing either no FM-VP4 (controls; n=6), 2% or 4% FM-VP4 incorporated into the gerbil diet (n=6 each treatment group) or 2% or 4% FM-VP4 dissolved in the drinking water (n=6 each treatment group). Body weight and food and water intake were monitored weekly. Following 8 weeks of this regiment blood was obtained via a cardiac puncture and all animals were sacrificed humanely. Plasma obtained from this blood was analyzed for total cholesterol, total triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels by standard enzymatic and precipitation techniques. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels were determined by the Friedewald equation. The plasma was also analyzed for changes in hepatic enzyme (aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT]) and plasma creatinine (renal function) concentrations. 2% and 4% FM-VP4 administration incorporated both into the diet and in the drinking water resulted in a significant decrease in total plasma cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentration compared to controls. Animals administered 4% FM-VP4 in either their diet or drinking water had significantly lower body weight following the 8 weeks of treatment compared to the other groups. Significant differences in daily water intake was observed in all treatment groups with the exception of the 2% FM-VP4 in diet group compared to controls. Significant differences in daily food intake were observed in gerbils administered 2% FM-VP4 in the drinking water and 4% FM-VP4 in the diet and drinking water groups compared to controls. A significant decrease in total plasma triglyceride concentration was observed in gerbils administered 4% FM-VP4 in their drinking water compared

  9. Calcium homeostasis in fly photoreceptor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberwinkler, J


    In fly photoreceptor cells, two processes dominate the Ca2+ homeostasis: light-induced Ca2+ influx through members of the TRP family of ion channels, and Ca2+ extrusion by Na+/Ca2+ exchange.Ca2+ release from intracellular stores is quantitatively insignificant. Both, the light-activated channels and

  10. Molecular monitoring of equine joint homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Grauw, J.C.


    Chronic joint disorders are a major cause of impaired mobility and loss of quality of life in both humans and horses. Regardless of the primary insult, any joint disorder is characterized by an upset in normal joint homeostasis, the balance between tissue anabolism and catabolism that is normally ma

  11. Studies on Structure and Properties of Water Soluble Polysaccharide from Fruiting Body of Cordyceps Militarvs(L.) Link

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A water soluble crude polysaccharide has been isolated from the fruiting body of cultivated Cordyceps militarvs(L.) Link. The GC analysis indicated that it contained the monosaccharides of Gal, Man, Glc and GlcA. Their molar ratio is 1.00∶1.58∶7.89∶0.19. The crude polysaccharide was fractionated with ethanol to get three fractions, which were CM-Ⅰ, CM-Ⅱ and CM-Ⅲ. CM-Ⅱ was further purified to get one homogeneous fraction named CMB. The molecular weight was estimated to be 60000 by means of gel filtration. CMB is a greyish white powder. The GC analysis indicated that it was composed of Gal, Man, Glc and the molar ratio is 1.00∶1.38∶5.10. Partial hydrolysis with an acid, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, IR, GC and methylation analyses, GC/MS analyses were used for the structure analyses of CMB. The results reveal that CMB is of a lower branched structure. The main chain is composed of (1→6)-linked-Man, (1→6)-linked-Glc, (1→4)-linked-Glc and (1→4)-linked-Gal. Some of (1→4)-linked-Glc and all (1→4)-linked-Gal residues are substituted at 3-O and 6-O respectively. (1→4)-Linked-Glc residues without branch probably exist with other monosaccharides alternately. On an average, there is one branch every ten hexose residues. The side chain is composed of major (1→4)-linked-Glc and minor (1→6)-linked-Glc. The nonreduced end is composed of Gal and Glc. The main glycosidic link of CMB is α configuration.

  12. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of the impact of climate change on a combined sewer overflow and its receiving water body. (United States)

    Bi, Eustache Gooré; Monette, Frédéric; Gachon, Philippe; Gaspéri, Johnny; Perrodin, Yves


    Projections from the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM) for the southern part of the province of Québec, Canada, suggest an increase in extreme precipitation events for the 2050 horizon (2041-2070). The main goal of this study consisted in a quantitative and qualitative assessment of the impact of the 20 % increase in rainfall intensity that led, in the summer of 2013, to overflows in the "Rolland-Therrien" combined sewer system in the city of Longueuil, Canada. The PCSWMM 2013 model was used to assess the sensitivity of this overflow under current (2013) and future (2050) climate conditions. The simulated quantitative variables (peak flow, Q(CSO), and volume discharged, VD) served as the basis for deriving ecotoxicological risk indices and event fluxes (EFs) transported to the St. Lawrence (SL) River. Results highlighted 15 to 500% increases in VD and 13 to 148% increases in Q(CSO) by 2050 (compared to 2013), based on eight rainfall events measured from May to October. These results show that (i) the relationships between precipitation and combined sewer overflow variables are not linear and (ii) the design criteria for current hydraulic infrastructure must be revised to account for the impact of climate change (CC) arising from changes in precipitation regimes. EFs discharged into the SL River will be 2.24 times larger in the future than they are now (2013) due to large VDs resulting from CC. This will, in turn, lead to excessive inputs of total suspended solids (TSSs) and tracers for numerous urban pollutants (organic matter and nutrients, metals) into the receiving water body. Ecotoxicological risk indices will increase by more than 100% by 2050 compared to 2013. Given that substantial VDs are at play, and although CC scenarios have many sources of uncertainty, strategies to adapt this drainage network to the effects of CC will have to be developed.

  13. Sensitivity analysis of a data assimilation technique for hindcasting and forecasting hydrodynamics of a complex coastal water body (United States)

    Ren, Lei; Hartnett, Michael


    Accurate forecasting of coastal surface currents is of great economic importance due to marine activities such as marine renewable energy and fish farms in coastal regions in recent twenty years. Advanced oceanographic observation systems such as satellites and radars can provide many parameters of interest, such as surface currents and waves, with fine spatial resolution in near real time. To enhance modelling capability, data assimilation (DA) techniques which combine the available measurements with the hydrodynamic models have been used since the 1990s in oceanography. Assimilating measurements into hydrodynamic models makes the original model background states follow the observation trajectory, then uses it to provide more accurate forecasting information. Galway Bay is an open, wind dominated water body on which two coastal radars are deployed. An efficient and easy to implement sequential DA algorithm named Optimal Interpolation (OI) was used to blend radar surface current data into a three-dimensional Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model. Two empirical parameters, horizontal correlation length and DA cycle length (CL), are inherent within OI. No guidance has previously been published regarding selection of appropriate values of these parameters or how sensitive OI DA is to variations in their values. Detailed sensitivity analysis has been performed on both of these parameters and results presented. Appropriate value of DA CL was examined and determined on producing the minimum Root-Mean-Square-Error (RMSE) between radar data and model background states. Analysis was performed to evaluate assimilation index (AI) of using an OI DA algorithm in the model. AI of the half-day forecasting mean vectors' directions was over 50% in the best assimilation model. The ability of using OI to improve model forecasts was also assessed and is reported upon.

  14. CART in the Regulation of Appetite and Energy Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie eLau


    Full Text Available The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART has been the subject of significant interest for over a decade. Work to decipher the detailed mechanism of CART function has been hampered by the lack of specific pharmacological tools like antagonists and the absence of a specific CART receptor(s. However, extensive research has been devoted to elucidate the role of the CART peptide and it is now evident that CART is a key neurotransmitter and hormone involved in the regulation of diverse biological processes, including food intake, maintenance of body weight, reward and addiction, stress response, psychostimulant effects and endocrine functions1,2. In this review, we focus on knowledge gained on CART’s role in controlling appetite and energy homeostasis, and also address certain species differences between rodents and humans.

  15. CART in the regulation of appetite and energy homeostasis. (United States)

    Lau, Jackie; Herzog, Herbert


    The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has been the subject of significant interest for over a decade. Work to decipher the detailed mechanism of CART function has been hampered by the lack of specific pharmacological tools like antagonists and the absence of a specific CART receptor(s). However, extensive research has been devoted to elucidate the role of the CART peptide and it is now evident that CART is a key neurotransmitter and hormone involved in the regulation of diverse biological processes, including food intake, maintenance of body weight, reward and addiction, stress response, psychostimulant effects and endocrine functions (Rogge et al., 2008; Subhedar et al., 2014). In this review, we focus on knowledge gained on CART's role in controlling appetite and energy homeostasis, and also address certain species differences between rodents and humans.

  16. CART in the regulation of appetite and energy homeostasis (United States)

    Lau, Jackie; Herzog, Herbert


    The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has been the subject of significant interest for over a decade. Work to decipher the detailed mechanism of CART function has been hampered by the lack of specific pharmacological tools like antagonists and the absence of a specific CART receptor(s). However, extensive research has been devoted to elucidate the role of the CART peptide and it is now evident that CART is a key neurotransmitter and hormone involved in the regulation of diverse biological processes, including food intake, maintenance of body weight, reward and addiction, stress response, psychostimulant effects and endocrine functions (Rogge et al., 2008; Subhedar et al., 2014). In this review, we focus on knowledge gained on CART's role in controlling appetite and energy homeostasis, and also address certain species differences between rodents and humans. PMID:25352770

  17. Macrophages in cardiac homeostasis, injury responses and progenitor cell mobilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander R. Pinto


    Full Text Available Macrophages are an immune cell type found in every organ of the body. Classically, macrophages are recognised as housekeeping cells involved in the detection of foreign antigens and danger signatures, and the clearance of tissue debris. However, macrophages are increasingly recognised as a highly versatile cell type with a diverse range of functions that are important for tissue homeostasis and injury responses. Recent research findings suggest that macrophages contribute to tissue regeneration and may play a role in the activation and mobilisation of stem cells. This review describes recent advances in our understanding of the role played by macrophages in cardiac tissue maintenance and repair following injury. We examine the involvement of exogenous and resident tissue macrophages in cardiac inflammatory responses and their potential activity in regulating cardiac regeneration.

  18. The use of O, H and Sr isotopes and carbamazepine to identify the origin of water bodies supplying a shallow alluvial aquifer (United States)

    Sassine, Lara; Le Gal La Salle, Corinne; Lancelot, Joël; Verdoux, Patrick


    Alluvial aquifers are of great socio-economic importance in France since they supply 82% of drinking water production, though they reveal to be very vulnerable to pesticides and emerging organic contaminants. The aim of this work is to identify the origin of water bodies which contribute to the recharge of an alluvial aquifer for a better understanding of its hydrochemistry and transfer of contaminants therein. The study is based on an isotopic and geochemical tracers approach, including major elements, trace elements (Br, Sr),and isotopes (δ18O, δ2H, 87Sr/86Sr), as well as organic molecules. Indeed, organic molecules such as pharmaceutical compounds, more precisely carbamazepine and caffeine, have shown their use as indicators of surface water in groundwater. The study area is a partially-confined shallow alluvial aquifer, the so-called Vistrenque aquifer, located at 15 km from the Mediterranean Sea, in the Quaternary alluviums deposited by an ancient arm of the Rhône River, in Southern France. This aquifer constitutes a shallow alluvial layer in a NE-SW graben structure. It is situated between a karst aquifer in lower Cretaceous limestones, on the NW border, and the Costières Plateau, on the SE border, having a similar geology as the Vistrenque. The alluvial plain is crossed by a surface water network with the Vistre as the main stream, and a canal used for irrigation essentially, the BRL canal, which is fed by the Rhône River. δ18O and δ2H allowed to differentiate the BRL canal water, depleted in heavy isotopes (δ2H = -71.5o vs V-SMOW), and the more enriched local rainwater (δ2H = -35.5o vs V-SMOW). In the Vistre surface water a binary mixing were evidenced with the BRL canal water and the rainwater, as end members. Then, in the Vistrenque groundwater both the BRL and the Vistre contributions could be identified, as they still show contrasting signature with local recharge. This allows to highlight the surface water contribution to a heavily exploited

  19. Fishes of water bodies within the Ukrainian part of the Chernobyl exclusion zone: current levels of radioactive contamination and absorbed dose rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaglyan, Alexander Ye.; Gudkov, Dmitri I. [Institute of Hydrobiology of the NAS of Ukraine, Geroyiv Stalingrada Ave. 12, UA- 04210, Kyiv (Ukraine)


    The results of studies of radioactive contamination of ichthyofauna of water bodies of the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ) during 2012-2013 are presented. The fish sampled from water bodies with different hydrological mode was used: (1) stagnant lakes (Vershyna, Glyboke, Azbuchyn, Daleke); (2) reservoir with slow water exchange (cooling pond of the Chernobyl NPP); (3) conditionally stagnant water bodies (separated from the main riverbed of the Pripyat River - Yanovsky and Novoshepelichesky Crawls and part of the Krasnensky former river bed); (4) semi-flowing water body (Krasnensky former river bed located outside of the dammed territory); (5) open crawls of the Pripyat river ('Schepochka' and Chernobylsky) and (6) waterway (riverbed sites of the Pripyat River). The highest levels of radionuclide concentrations were determined in fish of the stagnant water objects - 937-25907 Bq/kg (w.w.) of {sup 137}Cs and 1845-101220 Bq/kg of {sup 90}Sr. In fish of cooling pond the concentration of {sup 137}Cs registered in range 750-4200 and {sup 90}Sr - 41-512 Bq/kg. In ichthyofauna of water bodies which concern to the third group, specific activity of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr fluctuated accordingly within range of 520-3385 and 722-6210, and in a semi-flowing reservoir - 573-2948 and 97-4484 Bq/kg. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in fish of the fifth and sixth groups were accordingly 25-159 and 11-224 as well as {sup 90}Sr - 36-174 and 3-14 Bq/kg. The ratio of specific activity of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 137}Cs for pray fish from all studied groups of water bodies, except the second and the sixth ones, was in range 1.5-39.7. Thus intensity of water exchange is one of the defining factors, influencing on level of radionuclide specific activity in fish, especially {sup 90}Sr - the higher the flow age, the lower the level of radioactive contamination of fish inhabiting it. Calculation of the absorbed dose rate has shown that highest radiation dose was in fish inhabiting lake

  20. Change Detection Processing Chain Dedicated to Sentinel Data Time Series. Application to Forest and Water Bodies Monitoring (United States)

    Perez Saavedra, L.-M.; Mercier, G.; Yesou, H.; Liege, F.; Pasero, G.


    The Copernicus program of ESA and European commission (6 Sentinels Missions, among them Sentinel-1 with Synthetic Aperture Radar sensor and Sentinel-2 with 13-band 10 to 60 meter resolution optical sensors), offers a new opportunity to Earth Observation with high temporal acquisition capability ( 12 days repetitiveness and 5 days in some geographic areas of the world) with high spatial resolution.Due to these high temporal and spatial resolutions, it opens new challenges in several fields such as image processing, new algorithms for Time Series and big data analysis. In addition, these missions will be able to analyze several topics of earth temporal evolution such as crop vegetation, water bodies, Land use and Land Cover (LULC), sea and ice information, etc. This is particularly useful for end users and policy makers to detect early signs of damages, vegetation illness, flooding areas, etc.From the state of the art, one can find algorithms and methods that use a bi-date comparison for change detection [1-3] or time series analysis. Actually, these methods are essentially used for target detection or for abrupt change detection that requires 2 observations only.A Hölder means-based change detection technique has been proposed in [2,3] for high resolution radar images. This so-called MIMOSA technique has been mainly dedicated to man-made change detection in urban areas and CARABAS - II project by using a couple of SAR images. An extension to multitemporal change detection technique has been investigated but its application to land use and cover changes still has to be validated.The Hölder Hp is a Time Series pixel by pixel feature extraction and is defined by:H𝑝[X]=[1/n∑ⁿᵢ₌1 Xᴾᵢ]1/p p∈R Hp[X] : N images * S Bandes * t datesn is the number of images in the time series. N > 2Hp (X) is continuous and monotonic increasing in p for - ∞ < p < ∞

  1. Molecular regulators of phosphate homeostasis in plants. (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Yi; Lin, Shu-I; Chiou, Tzyy-Jen


    An appropriate cellular phosphate (Pi) concentration is indispensable for essential physiological and biochemical processes. To maintain cellular Pi homeostasis, plants have developed a series of adaptive responses to facilitate external Pi acquisition and to limit Pi consumption and to adjust Pi recycling internally when the Pi supply is inadequate. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made toward understanding such regulation at the molecular level. In this review, the focus is on the molecular regulators that mediate cellular Pi concentrations. The regulators are introduced and organized according to their original identification procedures, by the forward genetic approach of mutant screening or by reverse genetic analysis. These genes are involved in Pi uptake, allocation or remobilization or are upstream regulators, such as transcriptional factors or signalling molecules. In the future, integration of current knowledge and exploration of new technology is expected to offer new insights into molecular mechanisms that maintain Pi homeostasis.

  2. Transcranial electrical stimulation accelerates human sleep homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Reato

    Full Text Available The sleeping brain exhibits characteristic slow-wave activity which decays over the course of the night. This decay is thought to result from homeostatic synaptic downscaling. Transcranial electrical stimulation can entrain slow-wave oscillations (SWO in the human electro-encephalogram (EEG. A computational model of the underlying mechanism predicts that firing rates are predominantly increased during stimulation. Assuming that synaptic homeostasis is driven by average firing rates, we expected an acceleration of synaptic downscaling during stimulation, which is compensated by a reduced drive after stimulation. We show that 25 minutes of transcranial electrical stimulation, as predicted, reduced the decay of SWO in the remainder of the night. Anatomically accurate simulations of the field intensities on human cortex precisely matched the effect size in different EEG electrodes. Together these results suggest a mechanistic link between electrical stimulation and accelerated synaptic homeostasis in human sleep.

  3. The Impact of Melatonin on Glucose Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Arzu Yeğin


    Full Text Available Objective: Melatonin is a pineal product mainly charged with the maintenance of antioxidant conditions in human. This study is performed to identify the short-term effect of melatonin on glucose homeostasis in diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: Melatonin and placebo were given perorally to sixty patients. Blood glucose and insulin levels were measured with constant intervals. Results: No significant correlation was found among the levels of glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR index at any time after melatonin/placebo administration.Conclusions: Prospective studies with long-term use of melatonin are needed to define the exact role of melatonin in glucose homeostasis. Turk Jem 2009; 13: 52-5

  4. Homeostasis as the Mechanism of Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Torday


    Full Text Available Homeostasis is conventionally thought of merely as a synchronic (same time servo-mechanism that maintains the status quo for organismal physiology. However, when seen from the perspective of developmental physiology, homeostasis is a robust, dynamic, intergenerational, diachronic (across-time mechanism for the maintenance, perpetuation and modification of physiologic structure and function. The integral relationships generated by cell-cell signaling for the mechanisms of embryogenesis, physiology and repair provide the needed insight to the scale-free universality of the homeostatic principle, offering a novel opportunity for a Systems approach to Biology. Starting with the inception of life itself, with the advent of reproduction during meiosis and mitosis, moving forward both ontogenetically and phylogenetically through the evolutionary steps involved in adaptation to an ever-changing environment, Biology and Evolution Theory need no longer default to teleology.

  5. Thiol/disulfide homeostasis in asphalt workers. (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ömer Hınç; Bal, Ceylan; Neşelioglu, Salim; Büyükşekerci, Murat; Gündüzöz, Meşide; Eren, Funda; Tutkun, Lutfiye; Yilmaz, Fatma Meric


    The aim of this study was to investigate thiol/disulfide homeostasis in asphalt workers who are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons occupationally. The study was carried out in 34 nonsmoker asphalt workers. Additionally, 35 healthy nonsmoker volunteers were recruited as control group. Thiol and disulfide concentrations were determined using the novel automated measurement method. Levels of urinary 1-OH-pyrene were analyzed by liquid chromatography. Disulfide/thiol ratio was significantly higher in exposed group (p = .034). Also, a positive correlation was detected between disulfide/thiol ratio and 1-OH-pyrene values (r = .249, p = .036). Thiol/disulfide homeostasis was found to be disturbed in asphalt workers. The novel test used in this study may be useful for evaluating the oxidative status in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure.

  6. Iron Homeostasis in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Gozzelino


    Full Text Available Iron is required for the survival of most organisms, including bacteria, plants, and humans. Its homeostasis in mammals must be fine-tuned to avoid iron deficiency with a reduced oxygen transport and diminished activity of Fe-dependent enzymes, and also iron excess that may catalyze the formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals, oxidative stress, and programmed cell death. The advance in understanding the main players and mechanisms involved in iron regulation significantly improved since the discovery of genes responsible for hemochromatosis, the IRE/IRPs machinery, and the hepcidin-ferroportin axis. This review provides an update on the molecular mechanisms regulating cellular and systemic Fe homeostasis and their roles in pathophysiologic conditions that involve alterations of iron metabolism, and provides novel therapeutic strategies to prevent the deleterious effect of its deficiency/overload.

  7. Efficient and Accurate Methods for the Geometry Optimization of Water Clusters: Application of Analytic Gradients for the Two-Body:Many-Body QM:QM Fragmentation Method to (H2O)n, n = 3-10. (United States)

    Bates, Desiree M; Smith, Joshua R; Tschumper, Gregory S


    The structures of more than 70 low-lying water clusters ranging in size from (H2O)3 to (H2O)10 have been fully optimized with several different quantum mechanical electronic structure methods, including second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) in conjunction with correlation consistent triple-ζ basis sets (aug-cc-pVTZ for O and cc-pVTZ for H, abbreviated haTZ). Optimized structures obtained with less demanding computational procedures were compared to the MP2/haTZ ones using both MP2/haTZ single point energies and the root-mean-square (RMS) deviations of unweighted Cartesian coordinates. Based on these criteria, B3LYP/6-31+G(d,2p) substantially outperforms both HF/haTZ and MP2/6-31G*. B3LYP/6-31+G(d,2p) structures never deviate from the MP2/haTZ geometries by more than 0.44 kcal mol(-1) on the MP2/haTZ potential energy surface, whereas the errors associated with the HF/haTZ and MP2/6-31G* structures grow as large as 12.20 and 2.98 kcal mol(-1), respectively. The most accurate results, however, were obtained with the two-body:many-body QM:QM fragmentation method for weakly bound clusters, in which all one- and two-body interactions are calculated at the high-level, while a low-level calculation is performed on the entire cluster to capture the cooperative effects (nonadditivity). With the haTZ basis set, the MP2:HF two-body:many-body fragmentation method generates structures that deviate from the MP2/haTZ ones by 0.01 kcal mol(-1) on average and not by more than 0.03 kcal mol(-1).

  8. On the accuracy of the MB-pol many-body potential for water: Interaction energies, vibrational frequencies, and classical thermodynamic and dynamical properties from clusters to liquid water and ice

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, Sandeep K; Bajaj, Pushp; Pham, C Huy; Riera, Marc; Moberg, Daniel R; Morales, Miguel A; Knight, Chris; Gotz, Andreas W; Paesani, Francesco


    The MB-pol many-body potential has recently emerged as an accurate molecular model for water simulations from the gas to the condensed phase. In this study, the accuracy of MB-pol is systematically assessed across the three phases of water through extensive comparisons with experimental data and high-level ab initio calculations. Individual many-body contributions to the interaction energies as well as vibrational spectra of water clusters calculated with MB-pol are in excellent agreement with reference data obtained at the coupled cluster level. Several structural, thermodynamic, and dynamical properties of the liquid phase at atmospheric pressure are investigated through classical molecular dynamics simulations as a function of temperature. The structural properties of the liquid phase are in nearly quantitative agreement with X-ray diffraction data available over the temperature range from 268 to 368 K. The analysis of other thermodynamic and dynamical quantities emphasizes the importance of explicitly inc...

  9. The impact of acid sulphate soils on water bodies and fish deaths in Finland; Happamien sulfaattimaiden aiheuttamat vesistoevaikutukset ja kalakuolemat Suomessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutela, T.; Vuori, K.-M.; Louhi, P. [and others


    We have compiled in this review a comprehensive presentation of the impacts of acid sulphate soils (ASS) on water quality, biota, and fish kills in Finnish water bodies. This review is a result of extensive collaboration among research scientists in connection with the CATERMASS project co-ordinated by the Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE). Acid sulphate soils were formed in the eutrophic coastal waters of the Baltic Sea 4,000-8,000 years ago as microbes reduced the sulphate contained in saline seawater into sulphide. Sulphide clay soils emerging through land uplift have since been reclaimed and drained for cultivation use. Sulphur released in the resultant oxidation process reacted with soil water to form sulphuric acid, which draws toxic metals such as aluminium, cadmium, and copper from the soil. Heavy rains and the waters of springtime thawing transported acids and metals to the water bodies. In recent decades, the drainage depth of fields has increased because of the growing popularity of subterranean drainage methods, thus exacerbating the adverse ASS impacts on water bodies. Acidity and the attendant proliferation of toxic forms of metals induce changes in all organism groups of water biota, among them fish, macroinvertebrates, macrophytes, and bottom algae. On the specimen level, malformations have been discovered, such as structural pupae impairment in aquatic insects. The defence mechanism employed by fish against harmful substances in the surrounding water is to increase mucus exudation in the gills, which results in reduced respiration function. Exposure to acidity and metals harms the reproduction cycle of fish by delaying the development of follicles into mature eggs and by hindering eggs' fertilisation and embryo development. On the biota level, the manifestation of ASS impact is often the absence of the species or species groups most vulnerable to acidity. The species of river fish that are vulnerable to acidity include, for example

  10. Precipitation-induced runoff and leaching from milled peat mining mires by peat types : a comparative method for estimating the loading of water bodies during peat pruduction


    SvahnbÀck, Lasse


    Precipitation-induced runoff and leaching from milled peat mining mires by peat types: a comparative method for estimating the loading of water bodies during peat production. This research project in environmental geology has arisen out of an observed need to be able to predict more accurately the loading of watercourses with detrimental organic substances and nutrients from already existing and planned peat production areas, since the authorities capacity for insisting on such predicti...

  11. Abnormal calcium homeostasis in peripheral neuropathies



    Abnormal neuronal calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis has been implicated in numerous diseases of the nervous system. The pathogenesis of two increasingly common disorders of the peripheral nervous system, namely neuropathic pain and diabetic polyneuropathy, has been associated with aberrant Ca2+ channel expression and function. Here we review the current state of knowledge regarding the role of Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and associated mitochondrial dysfunction in painful and diabetic neuropathies. The cent...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Yur’evna Neronova


    Full Text Available The paper presents the relationship between the phenomenon of world view and sociocultural identity both individuals and the community as a whole. The research is being carried out in the context of current crisis of world view accepted in so-called art Nouveau era. This paper also presents the identity crisis typical for modern civilized societies. A new notion of sociocultural homeostasis is introduced in connection with analyzable phenomena and their mutual relations.Purpose. Study of the relationship between the phenomenon of the world view and sociocultural identity as a structural and functional mechanism.Methodology. Phenomenological and systematic methods with the elements of historical method were employed. Cultural analysis is based on using both axiological and phenomenological approach, and also the elements of semiotic approach.Results. The dependence of identity on the world view is revealed (or is being revealed?, the phenomenon of sociocultural homeostasis is singled out (or is being singled out in the capacity of the mechanism setting up the correspondence in the contradictory unity between the world view as a subjective image and concrete reality as an objective part of this contradictory. The analysis of sociocultural homeostasis is carried out (or is being carried out and the conclusion is being drown that instability of the latter leads to serious problems in the identification of both individuals and communities as a whole. Besides, (moreover the relationship between the legitimacy level of the world view and stability of sociocultural homeostasis is established. (is being established.Practical implications: the system of education.

  13. Bitter taste receptors influence glucose homeostasis. (United States)

    Dotson, Cedrick D; Zhang, Lan; Xu, Hong; Shin, Yu-Kyong; Vigues, Stephan; Ott, Sandra H; Elson, Amanda E T; Choi, Hyun Jin; Shaw, Hillary; Egan, Josephine M; Mitchell, Braxton D; Li, Xiaodong; Steinle, Nanette I; Munger, Steven D


    TAS1R- and TAS2R-type taste receptors are expressed in the gustatory system, where they detect sweet- and bitter-tasting stimuli, respectively. These receptors are also expressed in subsets of cells within the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, where they mediate nutrient assimilation and endocrine responses. For example, sweeteners stimulate taste receptors on the surface of gut enteroendocrine L cells to elicit an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) and secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an important modulator of insulin biosynthesis and secretion. Because of the importance of taste receptors in the regulation of food intake and the alimentary responses to chemostimuli, we hypothesized that differences in taste receptor efficacy may impact glucose homeostasis. To address this issue, we initiated a candidate gene study within the Amish Family Diabetes Study and assessed the association of taste receptor variants with indicators of glucose dysregulation, including a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and high levels of blood glucose and insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test. We report that a TAS2R haplotype is associated with altered glucose and insulin homeostasis. We also found that one SNP within this haplotype disrupts normal responses of a single receptor, TAS2R9, to its cognate ligands ofloxacin, procainamide and pirenzapine. Together, these findings suggest that a functionally compromised TAS2R receptor negatively impacts glucose homeostasis, providing an important link between alimentary chemosensation and metabolic disease.

  14. Bitter taste receptors influence glucose homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedrick D Dotson

    Full Text Available TAS1R- and TAS2R-type taste receptors are expressed in the gustatory system, where they detect sweet- and bitter-tasting stimuli, respectively. These receptors are also expressed in subsets of cells within the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, where they mediate nutrient assimilation and endocrine responses. For example, sweeteners stimulate taste receptors on the surface of gut enteroendocrine L cells to elicit an increase in intracellular Ca(2+ and secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, an important modulator of insulin biosynthesis and secretion. Because of the importance of taste receptors in the regulation of food intake and the alimentary responses to chemostimuli, we hypothesized that differences in taste receptor efficacy may impact glucose homeostasis. To address this issue, we initiated a candidate gene study within the Amish Family Diabetes Study and assessed the association of taste receptor variants with indicators of glucose dysregulation, including a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and high levels of blood glucose and insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test. We report that a TAS2R haplotype is associated with altered glucose and insulin homeostasis. We also found that one SNP within this haplotype disrupts normal responses of a single receptor, TAS2R9, to its cognate ligands ofloxacin, procainamide and pirenzapine. Together, these findings suggest that a functionally compromised TAS2R receptor negatively impacts glucose homeostasis, providing an important link between alimentary chemosensation and metabolic disease.

  15. Fractionation mechanism of stable isotope in evaporating water body%水体蒸发过程中稳定同位素的分形机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章新平; 田立德; 刘晶淼


    Under Rayleigh equilibrium condition, stable isotopic ratio in residual water increases with the decrease of the residual water proportion f exponentially, and the fractionation rate of stable isotopes is inversely proportional to temperature. However, under kinetic evaporation condition, the fractionation of stable isotopes is not only related to the phase temperature but also influenced by the atmospheric humidity and the mass exchange between liquid and vapor phases. The ratio δ in residual water will not change with f after undergoing evaporation of a long time for great relative humidity.The rate that the evaporating water body reaches isotopic steady state is mainly dependent on the relative humidity in atmosphere. The analysis shows that the actual mean linear variety rates, about -30.0, of the δ18O in residual water versus the residual water proportion at Nagqu and Amdo stations are consistent with the simulated process under temperature of 20 ℃ and relative humidity of 50%.The distillation line simulated under Rayleigh equilibrium condition is analogous to the global meteoric water line (MWL) as the temperature is about 20 ℃. Under non-equilibrium condition, the slope and constant values of distillation line are directly proportional to temperature and relative humidity.According to the basic data, the simulated distillation line is very consistent with the actual distillation line of Qinghai Lake.

  16. A functional screen for copper homeostasis genes identifies a pharmacologically tractable cellular system


    Schlecht, Ulrich; Suresh, Sundari; Xu, Weihong; Aparicio, Ana Maria; Chu, Angela; Proctor, Michael J; Davis, Ronald W.; Scharfe, Curt; St.Onge, Robert P.


    Background Copper is essential for the survival of aerobic organisms. If copper is not properly regulated in the body however, it can be extremely cytotoxic and genetic mutations that compromise copper homeostasis result in severe clinical phenotypes. Understanding how cells maintain optimal copper levels is therefore highly relevant to human health. Results We found that addition of copper (Cu) to culture medium leads to increased respiratory growth of yeast, a phenotype which we then system...

  17. The recognition of various types of water bodies on satellite image%卫星图像中不同水体类型识别研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦其明; 袁吟欢; 陆荣建


    The data of satellite remote sensing can provide real-time information of the earth's surface accurately. Now the commercial satellites can provide the satellite images with the resolution between 10 meter and 1 meter. With those high spatial resolution images, shape features and texture features of the ground objects including large buildings of city, roads, rivers, lakes and other man-made objects are very clear. With the characters of the high resolution satellite image, we will use the recognition of the type of water bodies as an example, begin with the extraction of the spectrum features of the ground objects from the satellite digital images, separate water bodies from background and recognize it through the classification of the image, implement the recombination of the pixels, then extract and describe the shape features of water bodies and implement the recognition of various water bodies on the partition of areas and the tracing of boundary. The experiments of the recognition of various types of water bodies on the satellite image prove this recognizing method is feasible with high spatial resolution satellite images.%在具有高空间分辨率特性的图像上,城市中大型建筑物、道路、河流、湖泊和其他人工地物形状特征和纹理特征清晰可辨。针对高分辨率卫星图像的特点,文章以水体类型识别为例,从卫星数字图像目标地物波谱特征抽取入手,通过图像分类,将水体从背景中分离并予以识别,同时实现像素重组。在区域分割与边界跟踪基础上,对卫星图像进行水体形状特征的抽取与描述,实现不同水体类型的识别。

  18. The Relation of Standard Metabolic Rate to Water Temperature and Body Weight of Schlegels Black Rockfish (Sebastodes Fuscescens)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马志敏; 孙耀; 张波; 唐启升


    Standard metabolic rates of Schlegels black rockfish with different body weights are determined in laboratory by using the flow-through respirometer at 11.2 ℃, 14.7 ℃, 18.0℃ and 23.6 ℃. The results indicate that the standard metabolic rates increase with the increase of body weight at different temperatures. Relationship between them could be described as Rs = a InW b. The mean of standard metabolic rate is significantly different among groups, but the b values are not. The standard metabolic rates of amended standard body weights decrease with the increase of temperature, and the mean of standard metabolic rate is also significantly different among groups when the standard body weights are 48.6 g, 147.9 g, and 243.1 g.Relationship between them could be described as Rsw = me-bT . The relations of standard metabolic rate ( Rs ) or relative metabolic rate ( Rs ) to body weight and temperature yield the following equations: Rs = 1.160 W0.752 e-9.494/7 and Rs1= 1.160 W0.254e-9.494/7.

  19. An Investigation of the Effects of Body Design on Measurement Accuracy and Optimal Deployment Duration of a Passive Surface Water Flux Meter (United States)

    Padowski, J. C.; Jawitz, J. W.; Klammler, H.; Hatfield, K.; Annable, M. D.


    Water quality monitoring is essential for evaluating and complying with Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL). Conventional methods for gathering water and solute flux data from surface waters involves collecting, compiling and analyzing discrete point measurements to obtain cumulative flux data. The Passive Surface Water Flux Meter (PSFM) is designed to measure water and solute fluxes by automatically integrating instantaneous data in situ; therefore replacing the need for individual sample collections and data processing. A small cartridge within the device contains two types of porous media which simultaneously sorb solutes and release a resident tracer so that solute and water flux may be quantified. The PSFM utilizes the natural pressure gradient created by water flowing around the device. This gradient is used to induce flow through a small cartridge containing sorptive porous media pre-equilibrated with a resident tracer. In general, higher velocities correlate to larger pressure gradients across the cartridge and therefore reduce the amount of time a device can be deployed. However, the magnitude of the pressure gradient depends not only on the velocity of the water but the body design of the device. Body design can be modified to adjust the range of pressure gradients produced. Devices that are more blunt (cylindrical) in nature create higher gradients than more streamlined devices. Therefore, optimal shape and water velocity play an important role in the length of time a PSFM can be deployed and the accuracy of the measurements. Two designs, a blunt (cylindrical) and a streamlined (Joukowsky profile) device, were tested in this study. Laboratory experiments were performed in a large tilting flume to determine maximum deployment times for both devices across velocities ranging from 25-65 cm/s. Optimal deployment time was determined from the amount of resident tracers remaining within the cartridge and accuracy was determined by comparing measurement performance

  20. Rock glacier outflows may adversely affect lakes: lessons from the past and present of two neighboring water bodies in a crystalline-rock watershed. (United States)

    Ilyashuk, Boris P; Ilyashuk, Elena A; Psenner, Roland; Tessadri, Richard; Koinig, Karin A


    Despite the fact that rock glaciers are one of the most common geomorphological expressions of mountain permafrost, the impacts of their solute fluxes on lakes still remain largely obscure. We examined water and sediment chemistry, and biota of two neighboring water bodies with and without a rock glacier in their catchments in the European Alps. Paleolimnological techniques were applied to track long-term temporal trends in the ecotoxicological state of the water bodies and to establish their baseline conditions. We show that the active rock glacier in the mineralized catchment of Lake Rasass (RAS) represents a potent source of acid rock drainage that results in enormous concentrations of metals in water, sediment, and biota of RAS. The incidence of morphological abnormalities in the RAS population of Pseudodiamesa nivosa, a chironomid midge, is as high as that recorded in chironomid populations inhabiting sites heavily contaminated by trace metals of anthropogenic origin. The incidence of morphological deformities in P. nivosa of ∼70% persisted in RAS during the last 2.5 millennia and was ∼40% in the early Holocene. The formation of RAS at the toe of the rock glacier most probably began at the onset of acidic drainage in the freshly deglaciated area. The present adverse conditions are not unprecedented in the lake's history and cannot be associated exclusively with enhanced thawing of the rock glacier in recent years.

  1. Local structuring factors of invertebrate communities in ephemeral freshwater rock pools and the influence of more permanent water bodies in the region (United States)

    Jocque, M.; Graham, T.; Brendonck, L.


    We used three isolated clusters of small ephemeral rock pools on a sandstone flat in Utah to test the importance of local structuring processes on aquatic invertebrate communities. In the three clusters we characterized all ephemeral rock pools (total: 27) for their morphometry, and monitored their water quality, hydrology and community assemblage during a full hydrocycle. In each cluster we also sampled a set of more permanent interconnected freshwater systems positioned in a wash, draining the water from each cluster of rock pools. This design allowed additional testing for the potential role of more permanent water bodies in the region as source populations for the active dispersers and the effect on the community structure in the rock pools. Species richness and community composition in the rock pools correlated with level of permanence and the ammonia concentration. The length of the rock pool inundation cycle shaped community structure, most probably by inhibiting colonization by some taxa (e.g. tadpoles and insect larvae) through developmental constraints. The gradient in ammonia concentrations probably reflects differences in primary production. The more permanent water bodies in each wash differed both environmentally and in community composition from the connected set of rock pools. A limited set of active dispersers was observed in the rock pools. Our findings indicate that aquatic invertebrate communities in the ephemeral rock pools are mainly structured through habitat permanence, possibly linked with biotic interactions and primary production. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  2. Effect of intermittent cold exposure on brown fat activation, obesity, and energy homeostasis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Ravussin

    Full Text Available Homeotherms have specific mechanisms to maintain a constant core body temperature despite changes in thermal environment, food supply, and metabolic demand. Brown adipose tissue, the principal thermogenic organ, quickly and efficiently increases heat production by dissipating the mitochondrial proton motive force. It has been suggested that activation of brown fat, via either environmental (i.e. cold exposure or pharmacologic means, could be used to increase metabolic rate and thus reduce body weight. Here we assess the effects of intermittent cold exposure (4°C for one to eight hours three times a week on C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat diet. Cold exposure increased metabolic rate approximately two-fold during the challenge and activated brown fat. In response, food intake increased to compensate fully for the increased energy expenditure; thus, the mice showed no reduction in body weight or adiposity. Despite the unchanged adiposity, the cold-treated mice showed transient improvements in glucose homeostasis. Administration of the cannabinoid receptor-1 inverse agonist AM251 caused weight loss and improvements in glucose homeostasis, but showed no further improvements when combined with cold exposure. These data suggest that intermittent cold exposure causes transient, meaningful improvements in glucose homeostasis, but without synergy when combined with AM251. Since energy expenditure is significantly increased during cold exposure, a drug that dissociates food intake from metabolic demand during cold exposure may achieve weight loss and further metabolic improvements.

  3. O imaginário das águas e o aprendizado erótico do corpo The imaginary of the waters and the body's erotic learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Maria Ribeiro


    Full Text Available No decorrer da história da humanidade as águas imaginárias transbordaram de significações e simbologias no universo cultural do ser humano e brotam como símbolo de contradições. Para além das oposições, problematizar o aprendizado erótico do corpo traz perguntas sobre o processo de civilizador no ocidente. Isto é, de que forma a água perpassou as transformações da relação dos indivíduos com o seu corpo? A relação entre água e Eros é percebida como elemento importante do aprendizado erótico do corpo, tendo em vista o conjunto de regras sobre a utilização desta nos banhos. Sendo assim, o contato com esse elemento é uma das possibilidades de se desfrutar a intensidade dos sentidos? A proximidade com a água possibilita a transgressão? O artigo navega pelas discussões do imaginário das águas, assim como também pela água como suporte da imaginação e dos (desprazeres dos banhos na história.Throughout human history, imaginary waters have carried out an overflow of meanings and symbolisms in the cultural universe of human beings, springing as symbols of contradictions. Beyond all oppositions, investigating the erotic learning of the body brings forward questions about the Occident's civilizing process, such as: in which ways has water pervaded the transformations concerning the individual's relationships with hisher bodies? The relation between water and Eros is perceived as an important element for the erotic learning of the body, observed as a set of rules concerning the use of water in bath. Therefore, is contact with water one of the possibilities to enjoying intensity of the senses? Is proximity with water a possibility of transgression? The article navigates through discussions about the imaginary of the waters as well as through water as a support for the imagination and for bath's (unpleasures in history.

  4. Short-chain fructooligosaccharides do not alter glucose homeostasis but improve the lipid profile in obese rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Soares da Silva-Morita


    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS feeding on body weight, fat accumulation, glucose homeostasis and lipid profile in cafeteria (CAF obese rats. Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into two groups: control group (CTL, n = 10, which received a chow diet and water and CAF (n = 20, which received the cafeteria diet, standard chow and soda. After 30 weeks of diet, 10 animals of CAF group received scFOS in the diet (50 g kg-1 of diet over a period of 50 days, forming the CAF FOS group. Were evaluated the body weight, fat pad as well as, quantity of feces, glucose tolerance, insulin resistance (IR and serum lipids levels. Animals submitted to the CAF diet displayed obesity, hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia and IR. The scFOS feeding   not altered obesity, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia and IR. CAF rats also presented hypertriglyceridemia and lower levels of HDL-cholesterol. The CAF FOS animals had reduced serum triglycerides (TG and increased HDL-cholesterol. Thus, the use of scFOS in the diet can be considered as a hypolipidemic agent in the obese state.

  5. Water (United States)

    ... Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  6. Daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable intake, and water consumption: a feasible and effective long-term weight loss maintenance approach. (United States)

    Akers, Jeremy D; Cornett, Rachel A; Savla, Jyoti S; Davy, Kevin P; Davy, Brenda M


    Maintenance of weight loss remains a challenge for most individuals. Thus, practical and effective weight-loss maintenance (WTLM) strategies are needed. A two-group 12-month WTLM intervention trial was conducted from June 2007 to February 2010 to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of a WTLM intervention for older adults using daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable (F/V) intake, and water consumption. Forty weight-reduced individuals (mean weight lost=6.7±0.6 kg; body mass index [calculated as kg/m²] 29.2±1.1), age 63±1 years, who had previously participated in a 12-week randomized controlled weight-loss intervention trial, were instructed to record daily body weight, step count, and F/V intake (WEV [defined as weight, exercise, and F/V]). Experimental group (WEV+) participants were also instructed to consume 16 fl oz of water before each main meal (ie, three times daily), and to record daily water intake. Outcome measures included weight change, diet/physical activity behaviors, theoretical constructs related to health behaviors, and other clinical measures. Statistical analyses included growth curve analyses and repeated measures analysis of variance. Over 12 months, there was a linear decrease in weight (β=-0.32, Pweight for each participant determined that weight loss was greater over the study period in the WEV+ group than in the WEV group, corresponding to weight changes of -0.67 kg and 1.00 kg, respectively, and an 87% greater weight loss (β=-0.01, Pweight, physical activity, and F/V consumption is a feasible and effective approach for maintaining weight loss for 12 months, and daily self-monitoring of increased water consumption may provide additional WTLM benefits.

  7. Effects of grapefruit, grapefruit juice and water preloads on energy balance, weight loss, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk in free-living obese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niswender Kevin D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing dietary energy density has proven to be an effective strategy to reduce energy intakes and promote weight control. This effect appears most robust when a low energy dense preload is consumed before meals. Yet, much discussion continues regarding the optimal form of a preload. The purpose of the present study was to compare effects of a solid (grapefruit, liquid (grapefruit juice and water preload consumed prior to breakfast, lunch and dinner in the context of caloric restriction. Methods Eighty-five obese adults (BMI 30-39.9 were randomly assigned to (127 g grapefruit (GF, grapefruit juice (GFJ or water preload for 12 weeks after completing a 2-week caloric restriction phase. Preloads were matched for weight, calories, water content, and energy density. Weekly measures included blood pressure, weight, anthropometry and 24-hour dietary intakes. Resting energy expenditure, body composition, physical performance and cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were assessed. Results The total amount (grams of food consumed did not change over time. Yet, after preloads were combined with caloric restriction, average dietary energy density and total energy intakes decreased by 20-29% from baseline values. Subjects experienced 7.1% weight loss overall, with significant decreases in percentage body, trunk, android and gynoid fat, as well as waist circumferences (-4.5 cm. However, differences were not statistically significant among groups. Nevertheless, the amount and direction of change in serum HDL-cholesterol levels in GF (+6.2% and GFJ (+8.2% preload groups was significantly greater than water preload group (-3.7%. Conclusions These data indicate that incorporating consumption of a low energy dense dietary preload in a caloric restricted diet is a highly effective weight loss strategy. But, the form of the preload did not have differential effects on energy balance, weight loss or body composition. It is notable that subjects in GF

  8. Characterizing Open Water Bodies and Their Color Properties Through Optical Remote Sensing to Identify Areas of Vector-Borne Disease Risk (United States)

    Podest, E.; De La Torre Juarez, M.; McDonald, K. C.; Jensen, K.; Ceccato, P.


    Predicting the risk of vector-borne disease outbreaks is a required step towards their control and eradication. Satellite observations can provide needed data to support agency decisions with respect to deployment of preventative measures and control resources. The coverage and persistence of open water is one of the primary indicators of conditions suitable for mosquito breeding habitats. This is currently a poorly measured variable due to its spatial and temporal variability across landscapes, especially in remote areas. Here we develop a methodology for monitoring these conditions through optical remote sensing images from Landsat. We pansharpen the images and apply a decision tree classification approach using Random Forests to generate 15 meter resolution maps of open water. In addition, since some mosquitos breed in clear water while others in turbid water, we classify water bodies according to their water color properties and we validate the results using field knowledge. We focus in East Africa where we assses the usefulness of these products to improve prediction of malaria outbreaks. Portions of this work were carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  9. Essential roles of protein-solvent many-body correlation in solvent-entropy effect on protein folding and denaturation: comparison between hard-sphere solvent and water. (United States)

    Oshima, Hiraku; Kinoshita, Masahiro


    In earlier works, we showed that the entropic effect originating from the translational displacement of water molecules plays the pivotal role in protein folding and denaturation. The two different solvent models, hard-sphere solvent and model water, were employed in theoretical methods wherein the entropic effect was treated as an essential factor. However, there were similarities and differences in the results obtained from the two solvent models. In the present work, to unveil the physical origins of the similarities and differences, we simultaneously consider structural transition, cold denaturation, and pressure denaturation for the same protein by employing the two solvent models and considering three different thermodynamic states for each solvent model. The solvent-entropy change upon protein folding/unfolding is decomposed into the protein-solvent pair (PA) and many-body (MB) correlation components using the integral equation theories. Each component is further decomposed into the excluded-volume (EV) and solvent-accessible surface (SAS) terms by applying the morphometric approach. The four physically insightful constituents, (PA, EV), (PA, SAS), (MB, EV), and (MB, SAS), are thus obtained. Moreover, (MB, SAS) is discussed by dividing it into two factors. This all-inclusive investigation leads to the following results: (1) the protein-water many-body correlation always plays critical roles in a variety of folding/unfolding processes; (2) the hard-sphere solvent model fails when it does not correctly reproduce the protein-water many-body correlation; (3) the hard-sphere solvent model becomes problematic when the dependence of the many-body correlation on the solvent number density and temperature is essential: it is not quite suited to studies on cold and pressure denaturating of a protein; (4) when the temperature and solvent number density are limited to the ambient values, the hard-sphere solvent model is usually successful; and (5) even at the ambient

  10. Hypothalamic roles of mTOR complex I: Integration of nutrient and hormone signals to regulate energy homeostasis (United States)

    Mammalian or mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) senses nutrient, energy, and hormone signals to regulate metabolism and energy homeostasis. mTOR activity in the hypothalamus, which is associated with changes in energy status, plays a critical role in the regulation of food intake and body weight...

  11. Epididymis cholesterol homeostasis and sperm fertilizing ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabrice Saez; Aurélia Ouvrier; Jo(e)l R Drevet


    Cholesterol, being the starting point of steroid hormone synthesis, is a long known modulator of both female and male reproductive physiology especially at the level of the gonads and the impact cholesterol has on gametogenesis. Less is known about the effects cholesterol homeostasis may have on postgonadic reproductive functions. Lately, several data have been reported showing how imbalanced cholesterol levels may particularly affect the post-testicular events of sperm maturation that lead to fully fertile male gametes. This review will focus on that aspect and essentially centers on how cholesterol is important for the physiology of the mammalian epididymis and spermatozoa.

  12. Potassium homeostasis in chronic kidney disease. (United States)

    Palmer, Biff F


    Adaptive increases in renal and gastrointestinal excretion of K+ help to prevent hyperkalemia in patients with CKD as long as the GFR remains > 15-20 mL/min. Once the GFR falls below these values, the impact of factors known to adversely affect K+ homeostasis is significantly magnified. Impaired renal K+ excretion can be the result of conditions that severely limit distal Na+ delivery, decreased mineralocorticoid levels or activity, or a distal tubular defect (Table 2). In clinical practice, hyperkalemia is usually the result of a combination of factors superimposed on renal dysfunction.

  13. The commensal microbiota drives immune homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claire eArrieta


    Full Text Available For millions of years, microbes have coexisted with eukaryotic cells at the mucosal surfaces of vertebrates in a complex, yet usually harmonious symbiosis. An ever-expanding number of reports describe how eliminating or shifting the intestinal microbiota has profound effects on the development and functionality of the mucosal and systemic immune systems. Here, we examine some of the mechanisms by which bacterial signals affect immune homeostasis. Focusing on the strategies that microbes use to keep our immune system healthy, as opposed to trying to correct the immune imbalances caused by dysbiosis, may prove to be a more astute and efficient way of treating immune-mediated disease.

  14. Nickel metallomics: general themes guiding nickel homeostasis. (United States)

    Sydor, Andrew M; Zamble, Deborah B


    The nickel metallome describes the distribution and speciation of nickel within the cells of organisms that utilize this element. This distribution is a consequence of nickel homeostasis, which includes import, storage, and export of nickel, incorporation into metalloenzymes, and the modulation of these and associated cellular systems through nickel-regulated transcription. In this chapter, we review the current knowledge of the most common nickel proteins in prokaryotic organisms with a focus on their coordination environments. Several underlying themes emerge upon review of these nickel systems, which illustrate the common principles applied by nature to shape the nickel metallome of the cell.

  15. Nitric oxide and plant iron homeostasis. (United States)

    Buet, Agustina; Simontacchi, Marcela


    Like all living organisms, plants demand iron (Fe) for important biochemical and metabolic processes. Internal imbalances, as a consequence of insufficient or excess Fe in the environment, lead to growth restriction and affect crop yield. Knowledge of signals and factors affecting each step in Fe uptake from the soil and distribution (long-distance transport, remobilization from old to young leaves, and storage in seeds) is necessary to improve our understanding of plant mineral nutrition. In this context, the role of nitric oxide (NO) is discussed as a key player in maintaining Fe homeostasis through its cross talk with hormones, ferritin, and frataxin and the ability to form nitrosyl-iron complexes.

  16. Melatonin modulates glucose homeostasis during winter dormancy in a vespertilionid bat, Scotophilus heathi. (United States)

    Srivastava, Raj Kamal; Krishna, Amitabh


    The role for melatonin in glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance is not very clear and has recently been an active area of investigation. The present study investigated the role of melatonin in seasonal accumulation of adipose tissue in Scotophilus heathi, with particular reference to its role in glucose homeostasis and development of insulin resistance. The circulating melatonin levels correlated positively (pinsulin resistance condition which improves after winter when most of the fat has been utilized as a metabolic fuel. The high circulating melatonin levels during the period of maximum body fat at the beginning of winter prepare the bats for winter dormancy by modulating the glucose homeostasis through affecting blood glucose levels, muscle and liver glycogen stores, insulin receptor and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT 4) expression. This is also confirmed by in vivo study in which melatonin injection improves the glucose tolerance, increases muscle insulin receptor and GLUT 4 expression, and enhances glucose clearance from the blood. The results of present study further showed that the effect of melatonin injection on the blood glucose levels is determined by the metabolic state of the bats and may protect from decrease in blood glucose level during extreme starvation, however, melatonin when injected during fed state increases glucose clearance from the blood. In summary, the present study suggested that melatonin interferes with the glucose homeostasis through modulating intracellular glucose transport and may protect bats from hypoglycemia during winter dormancy.

  17. Loss of endoplasmic reticulum Ca homeostasis:contribution to neuronal cell death during cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ankur BODALIA; Hongbin LI; Michael F JACKSON


    The loss of Ca2+ homeostasis during cerebral ischemia is a hallmark of impending neuronal demise.Accordingly,considerable cellular resources are expended in maintaining low resting cytosolic levels of Ca2+.These include contributions by a host of proteins involved in the sequestration and transport of Ca2+,many of which are expressed within intracellular organelles,including lysosomes,mitochondria as well as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER).Ca2+ sequestration by the ER contributes to cytosolic Ca2+ dynamics and homeostasis.Furthermore,within the ER Ca2+ plays a central role in regulating a host of physiological processes.Conversely,impaired ER Ca2+ homeostasis is an important trigger of pathological processes.Here we review a growing body of evidence suggesting that ER dysfunction is an important factor contributing to neuronal injury and loss post-ischemia.Specifically,the contribution of the ER to cytosolic Ca2+ elevations during ischemia will be considered,as will the signalling cascades recruited as a consequence of disrupting ER homeostasis and function.

  18. Fisetin improves glucose homeostasis through the inhibition of gluconeogenic enzymes in hepatic tissues of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. (United States)

    Prasath, Gopalan Sriram; Pillai, Subramanian Iyyam; Subramanian, Sorimuthu Pillai


    Liver plays a vital role in blood glucose homeostasis. Recent studies have provided considerable evidence that hepatic glucose production (HGP) plays an important role in the development of fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes. From this perspective, diminution of HGP has certainly been considered for the treatment of diabetes. In the present study, we have analyzed the modulatory effects of fisetin, a flavonoid of strawberries, on the expression of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in STZ induced experimental diabetic rats. The physiological criterions such as food and fluid intake were regularly monitored. The levels of blood glucose, plasma insulin, hemoglobin and glycosylated hemoglobin were analyzed. The mRNA and protein expression levels of gluconeogenic genes such as phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) were determined by immunoblot as well as PCR analysis. Diabetic group of rats showed significant increase in food and water intake when compared with control group of rats. Upon oral administration of fisetin as well as gliclazide to diabetic group of rats, the levels were found to be decreased. Oral administration of fisetin (10 mg/kg body weight) to diabetic rats for 30 days established a significant decline in blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels and a significant increase in plasma insulin level. The mRNA and protein expression levels of gluconeogenic genes, such as phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), were decreased in liver tissues upon treatment with fisetin. The results of the present study suggest that fisetin improves glucose homeostasis by direct inhibition of gluconeogenesis in liver.

  19. Seasonal variability in physicochemical characteristics of small water bodies across a High Arctic wetland, Polar Bear Pass, Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canada (United States)

    Abnizova, A.; Miller, E.; Shakil, S.; Young, K. L.


    Small water bodies (lakes, ponds) in permafrost environments make up roughly half of the total area of surface water, but their relevance to nutrient and carbon fluxes on a landscape scale still remains largely unknown. Small variations in pond water balance as a result of seasonal changes in precipitation, evaporation, or drainage processes have the potential to produce considerable changes in the carbon and nutrient budgets as small changes in the water level can have a major effect on volumes and surface areas of ponds. The aims of this study were (1) to identify the main characteristics in pond hydrology both seasonally and between years; (2) to identify factors controlling variation in measured physicochemical variables; and (3) to detect seasonal trends in the hydrological and chemical characteristics of ponds located in an extensive low-gradient High Arctic wetland. We conducted detailed limnological surveys of 50 wetland ponds located at Polar Bear Pass (PBP), Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canada during 2007-2010. The results indicate large seasonal variability in physicochemical parameters that is associated with pond water budget changes, especially for ponds with steady water levels vs. dynamic ponds (fluctuating water levels). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the datasets indicated that major ion content, specifically calcium (Ca2+), was responsible for much of the variability among the ponds in both 2008 and 2009. Additionally in 2009 most of the variability was also due to specific conductivity in the summer and magnesium (Mg2+) in the fall. These trends are typically identified as a result of dilution or evapo-concentration processes in small water bodies. In 2007, a warm and dry year, pH and potassium (K+) were responsible for much of variation between ponds. This is attributed to high vegetation growth in ponds and a longer growing season. While no trend was identified in 2010 (PCA analysis), calculations of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 50

  20. From skin to bulk: An adjustment technique for assimilation of satellite-derived temperature observations in numerical models of small inland water bodies (United States)

    Javaheri, Amir; Babbar-Sebens, Meghna; Miller, Robert N.


    Data Assimilation (DA) has been proposed for multiple water resources studies that require rapid employment of incoming observations to update and improve accuracy of operational prediction models. The usefulness of DA approaches in assimilating water temperature observations from different types of monitoring technologies (e.g., remote sensing and in-situ sensors) into numerical models of in-land water bodies (e.g., lakes and reservoirs) has, however, received limited attention. In contrast to in-situ temperature sensors, remote sensing technologies (e.g., satellites) provide the benefit of collecting measurements with better X-Y spatial coverage. However, assimilating water temperature measurements from satellites can introduce biases in the updated numerical model of water bodies because the physical region represented by these measurements do not directly correspond with the numerical model's representation of the water column. This study proposes a novel approach to address this representation challenge by coupling a skin temperature adjustment technique based on available air and in-situ water temperature observations, with an ensemble Kalman filter based data assimilation technique. Additionally, the proposed approach used in this study for four-dimensional analysis of a reservoir provides reasonably accurate surface layer and water column temperature forecasts, in spite of the use of a fairly small ensemble. Application of the methodology on a test site - Eagle Creek Reservoir - in Central Indiana demonstrated that assimilation of remotely sensed skin temperature data using the proposed approach improved the overall root mean square difference between modeled surface layer temperatures and the adjusted remotely sensed skin temperature observations from 5.6°C to 0.51°C (i.e., 91% improvement). In addition, the overall error in the water column temperature predictions when compared with in-situ observations also decreased from 1.95°C (before assimilation

  1. Delineation of areas contributing groundwater to selected receiving surface water bodies for long-term average hydrologic conditions from 1968 to 1983 for Long Island, New York (United States)

    Misut, Paul E.; Monti,, Jack


    To assist resource managers and planners in developing informed strategies to address nitrogen loading to coastal water bodies of Long Island, New York, the U.S. Geological Survey and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation initiated a program to delineate a comprehensive dataset of groundwater recharge areas (or areas contributing groundwater), travel times, and outflows to streams and saline embayments on Long Island. A four-layer regional three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater-flow model of hydrologic conditions from 1968 to 1983 was used to provide delineations of 48 groundwater watersheds on Long Island. Sixteen particle starting points were evenly spaced within each of the 4,000- by 4,000-foot model cells that receive water-table recharge and tracked using forward particle-tracking analysis modeling software to outflow zones. For each particle, simulated travel times were grouped by age as follows: less than or equal to 10 years, greater than 10 years and less than or equal to 100 years, greater than 100 years and less than or equal to 1,000 years, and greater than 1,000 years; and simulated ending zones were grouped into 48 receiving water bodies, based on the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Waterbody Inventory/Priority Waterbodies List. Areal delineation of travel time zones and groundwater contributing areas were generated and a table was prepared presenting the sum of groundwater outflow for each area.

  2. Amniotic fluid water dynamics. (United States)

    Beall, M H; van den Wijngaard, J P H M; van Gemert, M J C; Ross, M G


    Water arrives in the mammalian gestation from the maternal circulation across the placenta. It then circulates between the fetal water compartments, including the fetal body compartments, the placenta and the amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid is created by the flow of fluid from the fetal lung and bladder. A major pathway for amniotic fluid resorption is fetal swallowing; however in many cases the amounts of fluid produced and absorbed do not balance. A second resorption pathway, the intramembranous pathway (across the amnion to the fetal circulation), has been proposed to explain the maintenance of normal amniotic fluid volume. Amniotic fluid volume is thus a function both of the amount of water transferred to the gestation across the placental membrane, and the flux of water across the amnion. Membrane water flux is a function of the water permeability of the membrane; available data suggests that the amnion is the structure limiting intramembranous water flow. In the placenta, the syncytiotrophoblast is likely to be responsible for limiting water flow across the placenta. In human tissues, placental trophoblast membrane permeability increases with gestational age, suggesting a mechanism for the increased water flow necessary in late gestation. Membrane water flow can be driven by both hydrostatic and osmotic forces. Changes in both osmotic/oncotic and hydrostatic forces in the placenta my alter maternal-fetal water flow. A normal amniotic fluid volume is critical for normal fetal growth and development. The study of amniotic fluid volume regulation may yield important insights into the mechanisms used by the fetus to maintain water homeostasis. Knowledge of these mechanisms may allow novel treatments for amniotic fluid volume abnormalities with resultant improvement in clinical outcome.

  3. Circadian dysregulation disrupts bile acid homeostasis.

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    Ke Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bile acids are potentially toxic compounds and their levels of hepatic production, uptake and export are tightly regulated by many inputs, including circadian rhythm. We tested the impact of disrupting the peripheral circadian clock on integral steps of bile acid homeostasis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Both restricted feeding, which phase shifts peripheral clocks, and genetic ablation in Per1(-/-/Per2(-/- (PERDKO mice disrupted normal bile acid control and resulted in hepatic cholestasis. Restricted feeding caused a dramatic, transient elevation in hepatic bile acid levels that was associated with activation of the xenobiotic receptors CAR and PXR and elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, indicative of liver damage. In the PERDKO mice, serum bile acid levels were elevated and the circadian expression of key bile acid synthesis and transport genes, including Cyp7A1 and NTCP, was lost. This was associated with blunted expression of a primary clock output, the transcription factor DBP, which transactivates the promoters of both genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that disruption of the circadian clock results in dysregulation of bile acid homeostasis that mimics cholestatic disease.

  4. Acute calcium homeostasis in MHS swine. (United States)

    Harrison, G G; Morrell, D F; Brain, V; Jaros, G G


    To elucidate a pathogenesis for the reduction in bone calcium content observed in MHS individuals, we studied the acute calcium homeostasis of MHS swine. This was achieved by the serial measurement, with a calcium selective electrode, of calcium transients in Landrace MHS (five) and control Landrace/large white cross MH negative (five) swine following IV bolus injection of calcium gluconate 0.1 mmol X kg-1--a dose which induced an acute 45 per cent increase in plasma ionised calcium. Experimental animals were anaesthetised with ketamine 10 mg X kg-1 IM, thiopentone (intermittent divided doses) 15-25 mg X kg-1 (total) IV and N2O/O2 (FIO2 0.3) by IPPV to maintain a normal blood gas, acid/base state. The plasma ionised calcium decay curve observed in MHS swine did not differ from that of control normal swine. Further it was noted that the induced acute rise in plasma ionised calcium failed to trigger the MH syndrome in any MHS swine. It is concluded that the mechanisms of acute calcium homeostasis in MHS swine are normal. An explanation for the reduction in bone calcium content observed in MHS individuals must be sought, therefore, through study of the slow long-term component of the calcium regulatory process. In addition, the conventional strictures placed on the use, in MHS patients, of calcium gluconate are called in question.

  5. MAVS maintains mitochondrial homeostasis via autophagy (United States)

    Sun, Xiaofeng; Sun, Liwei; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Li, Ying; Lin, Wei; Chen, Dahua; Sun, Qinmiao


    Mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein (MAVS) acts as a critical adaptor protein to transduce antiviral signalling by physically interacting with activated RIG-I and MDA5 receptors. MAVS executes its functions at the outer membrane of mitochondria to regulate downstream antiviral signalling, indicating that the mitochondria provides a functional platform for innate antiviral signalling transduction. However, little is known about whether and how MAVS-mediated antiviral signalling contributes to mitochondrial homeostasis. Here we show that the activation of MAVS is sufficient to induce autophagic signalling, which may mediate the turnover of the damaged mitochondria. Importantly, we find MAVS directly interacts with LC3 through its LC3-binding motif ‘YxxI’, suggesting that MAVS might act as an autophagy receptor to mediate mitochondrial turnover upon excessive activation of RLR signalling. Furthermore, we provide evidence that both MAVS self-aggregation and its interaction with TRAF2/6 proteins are important for MAVS-mediated mitochondrial turnover. Collectively, our findings suggest that MAVS acts as a potential receptor for mitochondria-associated autophagic signalling to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis. PMID:27551434

  6. Intestinal barrier homeostasis in inflammatory bowel disease. (United States)

    Goll, Rasmus; van Beelen Granlund, Atle


    The single-cell thick intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) lining with its protective layer of mucus is the primary barrier protecting the organism from the harsh environment of the intestinal lumen. Today it is clear that the balancing act necessary to maintain intestinal homeostasis is dependent on the coordinated action of all cell types of the IEC, and that there are no passive bystanders to gut immunity solely acting as absorptive or regenerative cells: Mucin and antimicrobial peptides on the epithelial surface are continually being replenished by goblet and Paneth's cells. Luminal antigens are being sensed by pattern recognition receptors on the enterocytes. The enteroendocrine cells sense the environment and coordinate the intestinal function by releasing neuropeptides acting both on IEC and inflammatory cells. All this while cells are continuously and rapidly being regenerated from a limited number of stem cells close to the intestinal crypt base. This review seeks to describe the cell types and structures of the intestinal epithelial barrier supporting intestinal homeostasis, and how disturbance in these systems might relate to inflammatory bowel disease.

  7. Lipoproteins, cholesterol homeostasis and cardiac health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler F. Daniels, Karen M. Killinger, Jennifer J. Michal, Raymond W. Wright Jr., Zhihua Jiang


    Full Text Available Cholesterol is an essential substance involved in many functions, such as maintaining cell membranes, manufacturing vitamin D on surface of the skin, producing hormones, and possibly helping cell connections in the brain. When cholesterol levels rise in the blood, they can, however, have dangerous consequences. In particular, cholesterol has generated considerable notoriety for its causative role in atherosclerosis, the leading cause of death in developed countries around the world. Homeostasis of cholesterol is centered on the metabolism of lipoproteins, which mediate transport of the lipid to and from tissues. As a synopsis of the major events and proteins that manage lipoprotein homeostasis, this review contributes to the substantial attention that has recently been directed to this area. Despite intense scrutiny, the majority of phenotypic variation in total cholesterol and related traits eludes explanation by current genetic knowledge. This is somewhat disappointing considering heritability estimates have established these traits as highly genetic. Thus, the continued search for candidate genes, mutations, and mechanisms is vital to our understanding of heart disease at the molecular level. Furthermore, as marker development continues to predict risk of vascular illness, this knowledge has the potential to revolutionize treatment of this leading human disease.

  8. Iron homeostasis related genes in rice

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    Gross Jeferson


    Full Text Available Iron is essential for plants. However, excess iron is toxic, leading to oxidative stress and decreased productivity. Therefore, plants must use finely tuned mechanisms to keep iron homeostasis in each of their organs, tissues, cells and organelles. A few of the genes involved in iron homeostasis in plants have been identified recently, and we used some of their protein sequences as queries to look for corresponding genes in the rice (Oryza sativa genome. We have assigned possible functions to thirty-nine new rice genes. Together with four previously reported sequences, we analyzed a total of forty-three genes belonging to five known protein families: eighteen YS (Yellow Stripe, two FRO (Fe3+-chelate reductase oxidase, thirteen ZIP (Zinc regulated transporter / Iron regulated transporter Protein, eight NRAMP (Natural Resistance - Associated Macrophage Protein, and two Ferritin proteins. The possible cellular localization and number of potential transmembrane domains were evaluated, and phylogenetic analysis performed for each gene family. Annotation of genomic sequences was performed. The presence and number of homologues in each gene family in rice and Arabidopsis is discussed in light of the established iron acquisition strategies used by each one of these two plants.

  9. Vitamin D, calcium homeostasis and aging (United States)

    Veldurthy, Vaishali; Wei, Ran; Oz, Leyla; Dhawan, Puneet; Jeon, Yong Heui; Christakos, Sylvia


    Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitecture deterioration of bone tissue, leading to enhanced bone fragility and consequent increase in fracture risk. Evidence is accumulating for an important role of calcium deficiency as the process of aging is associated with disturbed calcium balance. Vitamin D is the principal factor that maintains calcium homeostasis. Increasing evidence indicates that the reason for disturbed calcium balance with age is inadequate vitamin D levels in the elderly. In this article, an overview of our current understanding of vitamin D, its metabolism, and mechanisms involved in vitamin D-mediated maintenance of calcium homeostasis is presented. In addition, mechanisms involved in age-related dysregulation of 1,25(OH)2D3 action, recommended daily doses of vitamin D and calcium, and the use of vitamin D analogs for the treatment of osteoporosis (which remains controversial) are reviewed. Elucidation of the molecular pathways of vitamin D action and modifications that occur with aging will be an active area of future research that has the potential to reveal new therapeutic strategies to maintain calcium balance. PMID:27790378

  10. Plant transporters involved in heavy metal homeostasis

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    Dorina Podar


    Full Text Available Transition metal ions (predominately manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper and zinc havean array of catalytic and regulatory roles in the growth and development of all living organisms.However, an excess of these metal ions can also be toxic to any life form and therefore every cell andwhole organism needs to maintain the concentration of these essential nutrient metals within a narrowrange: a process known as metal homeostasis. Heavy metal ions are taken up into cells by selectivetransporters and as they cannot be degraded, the “desired” levels of metal ions are achieved by anumber of strategies that involve: chelation, sequestration and export out of the cell. Cation DiffusionFacilitators (CDF is a large family of transporters involved in maintaining the cytosolic metalconcentration. They transport different heavy metal divalent ions, but exhibit main affinity for zinc, ironand manganese. Metal Tolerance Proteins (MTPs are a subfamily of the Cation Diffusion Facilitator (CDFfamily found in plants. There has been much interest in these heavy metal transporters in order toprovide an insight into plant metal homeostasis, which has significant implications in human health andphytoremediation. Although data regarding the CDFs/MTPs mechanism is gathering there is still littleinformation with respect to metal selectivity determinants.

  11. Investigation of lipid homeostasis in living Drosophila by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy (United States)

    Chien, Cheng-Hao; Chen, Wei-Wen; Wu, June-Tai; Chang, Ta-Chau


    To improve our understanding of lipid metabolism, Drosophila is used as a model animal, and its lipid homeostasis is monitored by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy. We are able to achieve in vivo imaging of larval fat body (analogous to adipose tissue in mammals) and oenocytes (analogous to hepatocytes) in Drosophila larvae at subcellular level without any labeling. By overexpressing two lipid regulatory proteins-Brummer lipase (Bmm) and lipid storage droplet-2 (Lsd-2)-we found different phenotypes and responses under fed and starved conditions. Comparing with the control larva, we observed more lipid droplet accumulation by ˜twofold in oenocytes of fat-body-Bmm-overexpressing (FB-Bmm-overexpressing) mutant under fed condition, and less lipid by ˜fourfold in oenocytes of fat-body-Lsd-2-overexpressing (FB-Lsd-2-overexpressing) mutant under starved condition. Moreover, together with reduced size of lipid droplets, the lipid content in the fat body of FB-Bmm-overexpressing mutant decreases much faster than that of the control and FB-Lsd-2-overexpressing mutant during starvation. From long-term starvation assay, we found FB-Bmm-overexpressing mutant has a shorter lifespan, which can be attributed to faster consumption of lipid in its fat body. Our results demonstrate in vivo observations of direct influences of Bmm and Lsd-2 on lipid homeostasis in Drosophila larvae.

  12. [Effects of plant species combination and water body nutrient level on the biomass accumulation and allocation of three kinds functional plants]. (United States)

    Sun, Li-Fang; Sun, Yi-Xiang; Zhou, Chang-Fang; An, Shu-Qing


    Four nutrient levels, i.e., 0.5 mg N x L(-1) and 0.1 mg P x L(-1) (I), 1.5 mg N x L(-1) and 0.3 mg P x L(-1) (II), 4.5 mg N x L(-1) and 0.9 mg P x L(-1) (III), and 13.5 mg N x L(-1) and 2.7 mg P x L(-1) (IV), were installed to study the effects of water body's nutrient level, plant species combination, and their interactions on the biomass accumulation and allocation of invasive floating species Eichhornia crassipes, native rooted leaf-floating species Jussiaea stipulacea, and submerged plant Vallisneria spiralis. The total, root, stem, and leaf biomass of E. crassipes and J. stipulacea, either in monoculture or in mixed-culture, increased with increasing water body's nutrient level, their total biomass in treatments III and IV being averagely 54.47% and 102.63% higher than that in treatments I and II, respectively. Under different plant species combination, the total, root, stem, and leaf biomass of V. spiralis showed a declining trend with the increase of nutrient level, and the total biomass of V. spiralis in treatments III and IV was averagely 45.88% lower than that in treatments I and II. The results of two-way ANOVA showed that water body's nutrient level had significant positive effects on the biomass of E. crassipes and J. stipulacea but negative effects on that of V. spiralis, and the effects of plant species combination varied with target plant species.

  13. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Water Waves and Floating Bodies (16th) Held in Hiroshima, Japan on April 22-25, 2001 (United States)


    objets flottants support6is par des coussins d’air.", 8eme Journdes de l’Hydrodynamique, Nantes, France. [3] NAKOS D.E., NESTEGARD A., ULSTEIN T...order terms in 0,; see Nakos and Sclavounos, 1991 [2], for details. However, Raven, 1996 [3], pointed out that the A( terms can be quite irregular and...Havelock Singularities," 14th International Workshop on Water Waves and Floating Bodies, Port Huron, Michigan, 1999, pp 133-37. [2] Nakos ,D. and

  14. Body Image (United States)

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Body Image Developing a positive body image and a healthy mental attitude is crucial to ... on for tips to have a healthy body image. Topics About body image When you look in ...

  15. EnviroAtlas - Percentage of stream and water body shoreline lengths within 30 meters of >= 5% or >= 15% impervious cover by 12-Digit HUC for the Conterminous United States (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the percentages of stream and water body shoreline lengths within 30 meters of impervious cover by 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC)...

  16. Comparison of Barium and Arsenic Concentrations in Well Drinking Water and in Human Body Samples and a Novel Remediation System for These Elements in Well Drinking Water.

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    Masashi Kato

    Full Text Available Health risk for well drinking water is a worldwide problem. Our recent studies showed increased toxicity by exposure to barium alone (≤700 µg/L and coexposure to barium (137 µg/L and arsenic (225 µg/L. The present edition of WHO health-based guidelines for drinking water revised in 2011 has maintained the values of arsenic (10 µg/L and barium (700 µg/L, but not elements such as manganese, iron and zinc. Nevertheless, there have been very few studies on barium in drinking water and human samples. This study showed significant correlations between levels of arsenic and barium, but not its homologous elements (magnesium, calcium and strontium, in urine, toenail and hair samples obtained from residents of Jessore, Bangladesh. Significant correlation between levels of arsenic and barium in well drinking water and levels in human urine, toenail and hair samples were also observed. Based on these results, a high-performance and low-cost adsorbent composed of a hydrotalcite-like compound for barium and arsenic was developed. The adsorbent reduced levels of barium and arsenic from well water in Bangladesh and Vietnam to <7 µg/L within 1 min. Thus, we have showed levels of arsenic and barium in humans and propose a novel remediation system.

  17. Arctic Water Body Dynamics: A Pan-Siberian Study Of Seasonal Changes In Inundation-Stage 1: Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District (United States)

    Trofaier, Anna Maria; Rees, William Gareth; Bartsch, Annett; Leibman, Marina; Ressl, Camillo


    A pan-Siberian water body classification dataset provided under the ESA STSE-ALANIS Methane project is used to examine intra-annual changes in spring surface waters over permafrost terrain in 2007. A post-processing algorithm that determines surface runoff and drainage is established; the test site being the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District. The source of the ALANIS dataset is Envisat ASAR WS. The ability of these satellite data to detect lakes is tested using optical imagery from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's ALOS Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM) instrument. This comparison shows that ASAR WS images are a good source despite their coarse spatial resolution (overall map accuracy of 89%), and that the ALANIS dataset is a useful tool for monitoring Arctic thaw lakes due to its frequent temporal coverage.

  18. Glucose homeostasis can be differentially modulated by varying individual components of a western diet. (United States)

    Forbes, Josephine M; Cowan, Samantha P; Andrikopoulos, Sofianos; Morley, Amy L; Ward, Leigh C; Walker, Karen Z; Cooper, Mark E; Coughlan, Melinda T


    Chronic overconsumption of a Western diet has been identified as a major risk factor for diabetes, yet precisely how each individual component contributes to defects in glucose homeostasis independent of consumption of other macronutrients remains unclear. Eight-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats were randomized to feeding with one of six semi-pure diets: control, processed (high advanced glycation end products/AGE), high protein, high dextrose (glucose polymer), high in saturated fat (plant origin), or high in saturated fat (animal origin). After chronic feeding for 24 weeks, body composition was determined by bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy and glucose homeostasis was assessed. When compared to the control and high AGE diets, excess consumption of the diet high in saturated fat (animal source) increased body weight and adiposity, and decreased insulin sensitivity, as defined by HOMA IR, impaired skeletal muscle insulin signaling and insulin hypersecretion in the context of increased circulating glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1). Compared to the control diet, chronic consumption of the high AGE, protein or dextrose diet increased fasting plasma glucose, decreased fasting plasma insulin and insulin secretion. These diets also reduced circulating GLP-1 concentrations. These data suggest that individual components of a western diet have differential effects in modulating glucose homeostasis and adiposity. These data provide clear evidence of a link between over-consumption of a western diet and the development of diabetes.

  19. A mouse model of harlequin ichthyosis delineates a key role for Abca12 in lipid homeostasis.

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    Ian Smyth

    Full Text Available Harlequin Ichthyosis (HI is a severe and often lethal hyperkeratotic skin disease caused by mutations in the ABCA12 transport protein. In keratinocytes, ABCA12 is thought to regulate the transfer of lipids into small intracellular trafficking vesicles known as lamellar bodies. However, the nature and scope of this regulation remains unclear. As part of an original recessive mouse ENU mutagenesis screen, we have identified and characterised an animal model of HI and showed that it displays many of the hallmarks of the disease including hyperkeratosis, loss of barrier function, and defects in lipid homeostasis. We have used this model to follow disease progression in utero and present evidence that loss of Abca12 function leads to premature differentiation of basal keratinocytes. A comprehensive analysis of lipid levels in mutant epidermis demonstrated profound defects in lipid homeostasis, illustrating for the first time the extent to which Abca12 plays a pivotal role in maintaining lipid balance in the skin. To further investigate the scope of Abca12's activity, we have utilised cells from the mutant mouse to ascribe direct transport functions to the protein and, in doing so, we demonstrate activities independent of its role in lamellar body function. These cells have severely impaired lipid efflux leading to intracellular accumulation of neutral lipids. Furthermore, we identify Abca12 as a mediator of Abca1-regulated cellular cholesterol efflux, a finding that may have significant implications for other diseases of lipid metabolism and homeostasis, including atherosclerosis.

  20. Peripheral signals of energy homeostasis as possible markers of training stress in athletes: a review. (United States)

    Jürimäe, Jaak; Mäestu, Jarek; Jürimäe, Toivo; Mangus, Brent; von Duvillard, Serge P


    The importance of physical exercise in regulating energy balance and ultimately body mass is widely recognized. There have been several investigative efforts in describing the regulation of the energy homeostasis. Important in this regulatory system is the existence of several peripheral signals that communicate the status of body energy stores to the hypothalamus including leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin, interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α--different cytokines and other peptides that affect energy homeostasis. In certain circumstances, all these peripheral signals may be used to reveal the condition of the athlete as the result of several months of prolonged exercise training. These hormone and cytokine concentrations characterize a physical stress condition in which different hormone and cytokine responses are apparently linked to changes in physical performance. The possibility to use these peripheral signals as markers of training stress (and possible overreaching/overtraining) in elite athletes should be considered. These measured hormone and cytokine levels could also be used to characterize the physical stress of single exercise session, as the hormone and cytokine response to exercise may actually be a response to the concurrent energy deficit. In summary, different peripheral signals of energy homeostasis may be sensitive to changes in specific training stress and may be useful for predicting the onset of possible overreaching/overtraining in athletes.

  1. Atmospheric exchange of carbon dioxide and methane of a small water body and a floating mat in the Luther Marsh peatland, Ontario, Canada (United States)

    Burger, Magdalena; Berger, Sina; Blodau, Christian


    Recent investigations have suggested that small water bodies cover larger areas in northern peatlands than previously assumed. Their role in the carbon cycle and gas exchange rates are poorly constrained so far. To address this issue we measured CO2 and CH4 fluxes on a small water body (ca. 700 m2) and the surrounding floating mat in the Luther Marsh peatland in Ontario, Canada from July to September 2014. To this end we used closed chambers combined with a portable Los Gatos high-resolution trace gas analyzer at different water depths and distances from the shore on the pond and with different dominating plant types on the floating mat surrounding the pond. In addition, CO2 concentrations were recorded in high temporal resolution using an infrared sensor system during selected periods. Air and water temperature, humidity and temperature of the floating mat, wind speed and direction, photosynthetically active radiation, air pressure and relative humidity were also recorded as auxiliary data at the study site. The results show that pond and floating mat were sources of methane throughout the whole measuring period. Methane emissions via the ebullition pathway occurred predominantly near the shore and on the floating mat. During the daytime measurements the floating mat acted as a net sink and the pond as a net source of CO2. The dynamics of CO2 exchange was also strongly time dependent, as CO2 emissions from the pond strongly increased after mid-August. This suggests that photosynthesis was more affected by seasonal decline than respiration process in the pond and that the allochthonous component of the CO2 flux increased in relative importance towards fall.

  2. Post-dispersal probability of germination and establishment on the shorelines of slow-flowing or stagnant water bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarneel, J.M.; Soons, M.B.


    Question: In Dutch fens, species that colonize open water and induce the formation of floating peat mats have become rare. Many such riparian pioneer species occur predominantly on shorelines sheltered from the wind, whereas the majority of seeds tend to be deposited on exposed shorelines, as seeds

  3. Quantitative evaluation of water bodies dynamic by means of thermal infrared and multispectral surveys on the Venetian lagoon (United States)

    Alberotanza, L.; Lechi, G. M.


    Surveys employing a two channel Daedalus infrared scanner and multispectral photography were performed. The spring waning tide, the velocity of the water mass, and the types of suspended matter were among the topics studied. Temperature, salinity, sediment transport, and ebb stream velocity were recorded. The bottom topography was correlated with the dynamic characteristics of the sea surface.

  4. Critical body residues linked to octanol-water partitioning, organism composition, and LC50 QSARs: Meta-analysis and model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.J.; Traas, T.P.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.


    To protect thousands of species from thousands of chemicals released in the environment, various risk assessment tools have been developed. Here, we link quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for response concentrations in water (LC50) to critical concentrations in organisms (C-50) b

  5. Influence of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA on reduction of local fat and body weight by physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz, Gerd


    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Investigation, whether water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA irradiation during moderate bicycle ergometer endurance exercise has effects especially on local fat reduction and on weight reduction beyond the effects of ergometer exercise alone. Methods: Randomised controlled study with 40 obese females (BMI 30-40 (median: 34.5, body weight 76-125 (median: 94.9 kg, age 20-40 (median: 35.5 years, isocaloric nutrition, 20 in the wIRA group and 20 in the control group. In both groups each participant performed 3 times per week over 4 weeks for 45 minutes bicycle ergometer endurance exercise with a constant load according to a lactate level of 2 mmol/l (aerobic endurance load, as determined before the intervention period. In the wIRA group in addition large parts of the body (including waist, hip, and thighs were irradiated during all ergometries of the intervention period with visible light and a predominant part of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA, using the irradiation unit “Hydrosun® 6000” with 10 wIRA radiators (Hydrosun® Medizintechnik, Müllheim, Germany, radiator type 500, 4 mm water cuvette, yellow filter, water-filtered spectrum 500-1400 nm around a speed independent bicycle ergometer. Main variable of interest: change of “the sum of circumferences of waist, hip, and both thighs of each patient” over the intervention period (4 weeks. Additional variables of interest: body weight, body mass index BMI, body fat percentage, fat mass, fat-free mass, water mass (analysis of body composition by tetrapolar bioimpedance analysis, assessment of an arteriosclerotic risk profile by blood investigation of variables of lipid metabolism (cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins HDL, low density lipoproteins LDL, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, clinical chemistry (fasting glucose, alanin-aminotransferase ALT (= glutamyl pyruvic transaminase GPT, gamma-glutamyl-transferase GGT, creatinine, albumin, endocrinology

  6. Creep and water loss characteristics in hardening bodies of water-rich filling materials%富水充填材料蠕变及其硬化体内水分损失特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟红; 周茜; 赵向辉


    In order to investigate the characteristics of deformation and water loss of hardened paste of water-rich filling material under aging effect, the creep property of water-rich filling materials with a certain mass ratio of water to solid was studied in different stress conditions. The deformation characteristics, water loss and its relationship with external load on the filling body in the process of creep were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy and differential thermal analysis- thermal gravimetry ( DTA- TG ) . It is found that the instability and failure critical stress of water-rich filling materials with a 2. 0 water-to-solid mass ratio is 1. 96 MPa, which is 90% of their compressive strength. Creep cannot affect the content of combined water in water-rich filling materials. But un-bound water in water-rich filling materials can run off when instability and failure happen. The relative loss value of unbound water content is of linear positive correlation with the external load level. The loss of unbound water can induce more interspaces in water-rich filling materials. These cracks are quickly pressed and the hardening body produces large deformation under the external load, which leads to the local instability of the filling body and thus affects the overall stability of the goaf.%为探讨富水充填材料在时效作用下的变形及其硬化体内水分损失特征,本文研究一定水固质量比的富水充填材料在不同应力水平下的蠕变性能,并通过扫描电镜观察、差热-热重分析等实验探讨充填体在蠕变过程前后的形变特征、水分损失及其与外界荷载的关系.结果表明:水固质量比为2.0的富水充填材料失稳破坏的临界应力为1.96 MPa,为其单轴抗压强度的90%;蠕变不会对富水充填材料中结合水含量造成影响;富水充填材料失稳破坏时内部结构发生非结合水的流失,非结合水含量损失相对值与所受荷载水

  7. Changes in body weight and eye size in female European eel kept in fresh and salt water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Nowosad


    Full Text Available The eel is a catadromous fish which spends most of its life in freshwater and adults swim to the Sargasso Sea region to spawn. While preparing for the reproductive process, eels undergo a metamorphosis to become what is called silver eel; a process involving changes in the colour and weight of the body and an increase in the eye size. These are indicators of fish maturity and they facilitate the selection of fish for reproduction under controlled conditions. During this study, changes in the body weight (BW and eye size in female European eel were observed while being given weekly hormonal injections of 20 mg kg–1 carp pituitary homogenate and kept in 15°C freshwater and in 15°C saltwater with a salinity of 32-33‰. Fish kept in saltwater but not subjected to hormonal stimulation were used as a control group. Furthermore, after the experiment was finished, females in the control group were kept for next 5 months, with the same environmental parameters maintained. Differences between the treated groups were observed as early as week 4 of the experiment. An increase in fish BW was observed in fish kept both in salt and freshwater which were subjected to hormonal stimulation. On the other hand, changes in eye size were observed in the fish kept in saltwater, both in those hormonally stimulated and otherwise. The eye diameter in the fish kept in fresh after hormonal stimulation did not change significantly.

  8. Mean Expected Error in Prediction of Total Body Water: A True Accuracy Comparison between Bioimpedance Spectroscopy and Single Frequency Regression Equations. (United States)

    Seoane, Fernando; Abtahi, Shirin; Abtahi, Farhad; Ellegård, Lars; Johannsson, Gudmundur; Bosaeus, Ingvar; Ward, Leigh C


    For several decades electrical bioimpedance (EBI) has been used to assess body fluid distribution and body composition. Despite the development of several different approaches for assessing total body water (TBW), it remains uncertain whether bioimpedance spectroscopic (BIS) approaches are more accurate than single frequency regression equations. The main objective of this study was to answer this question by calculating the expected accuracy of a single measurement for different EBI methods. The results of this study showed that all methods produced similarly high correlation and concordance coefficients, indicating good accuracy as a method. Even the limits of agreement produced from the Bland-Altman analysis indicated that the performance of single frequency, Sun's prediction equations, at population level was close to the performance of both BIS methods; however, when comparing the Mean Absolute Percentage Error value between the single frequency prediction equations and the BIS methods, a significant difference was obtained, indicating slightly better accuracy for the BIS methods. Despite the higher accuracy of BIS methods over 50 kHz prediction equations at both population and individual level, the magnitude of the improvement was small. Such slight improvement in accuracy of BIS methods is suggested insufficient to warrant their clinical use where the most accurate predictions of TBW are required, for example, when assessing over-fluidic status on dialysis. To reach expected errors below 4-5%, novel and individualized approaches must be developed to improve the accuracy of bioimpedance-based methods for the advent of innovative personalized health monitoring applications.

  9. Tuning of redox regulatory mechanisms, reactive oxygen species and redox homeostasis under salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain eSazzad


    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a crucial environmental constraint which limits biomass production at many sites on a global scale. Saline growth conditions cause osmotic and ionic imbalances, oxidative stress and perturb metabolism, e.g. the photosynthetic electron flow. The plant ability to tolerate salinity is determined by multiple biochemical and physiological mechanisms protecting cell functions, in particular by regulating proper water relations and maintaining ion homeostasis. Redox homeostasis is a fundamental cell property. Its regulation includes control of reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, sensing deviation from and readjustment of the cellular redox state. All these redox related functions have been recognized as decisive factors in salinity acclimation and adaptation. This review focuses on the core response of plants to overcome the challenges of salinity stress through regulation of ROS generation and detoxification systems and to maintain redox homeostasis. Emphasis is given to the role of NADH oxidase (RBOH, alternative oxidase (AOX, the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX and the malate valve with the malate dehydrogenase isoforms under salt stress. Overwhelming evidence assigns an essential auxiliary function of ROS and redox homeostasis to salinity acclimation of plants.

  10. Cellular adaptation to biomechanical stress across length scales in tissue homeostasis and disease. (United States)

    Gilbert, Penney M; Weaver, Valerie M


    Human tissues are remarkably adaptable and robust, harboring the collective ability to detect and respond to external stresses while maintaining tissue integrity. Following injury, many tissues have the capacity to repair the damage - and restore form and function - by deploying cellular and molecular mechanisms reminiscent of developmental programs. Indeed, it is increasingly clear that cancer and chronic conditions that develop with age arise as a result of cells and tissues re-implementing and deregulating a selection of developmental programs. Therefore, understanding the fundamental molecular mechanisms that drive cell and tissue responses is a necessity when designing therapies to treat human conditions. Extracellular matrix stiffness synergizes with chemical cues to drive single cell and collective cell behavior in culture and acts to establish and maintain tissue homeostasis in the body. This review will highlight recent advances that elucidate the impact of matrix mechanics on cell behavior and fate across these length scales during times of homeostasis and in disease states.

  11. Environmental stresses disrupt telomere length homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Hagit Romano

    Full Text Available Telomeres protect the chromosome ends from degradation and play crucial roles in cellular aging and disease. Recent studies have additionally found a correlation between psychological stress, telomere length, and health outcome in humans. However, studies have not yet explored the causal relationship between stress and telomere length, or the molecular mechanisms underlying that relationship. Using yeast as a model organism, we show that stresses may have very different outcomes: alcohol and acetic acid elongate telomeres, whereas caffeine and high temperatures shorten telomeres. Additional treatments, such as oxidative stress, show no effect. By combining genome-wide expression measurements with a systematic genetic screen, we identify the Rap1/Rif1 pathway as the central mediator of the telomeric response to environmental signals. These results demonstrate that telomere length can be manipulated, and that a carefully regulated homeostasis may become markedly deregulated in opposing directio